The history of the Unites States of America is full of different points of view and still rests on racial issues, which always divide people on black and white.
The author of Navigating Distant Shores: A Historical Overview, Ronald Dorris, makes a wonderful attempt to evaluate this racial division that is so inherent to all Americans and prove that “a people who embraced being politically defined as white, as opposed to embracing that which is humane, enslaved themselves equally as much they sought to enslave a people politically defined as black” (Dorris, 2005).
He presents a captivating historical overview of black-and-white relations, considers the roots of slavery, and evaluates how the cooperation between black Americans and white Americans has changed during several centuries, taking into account the eras of Abraham Lincoln, Jim Crow, Kennedy, and Johnson. The ideas, discussed in Dorris’ piece of writing, have proper background and represent personal attitude to the problem not judged by numerous racial inequalities.
The author of the paper defines race and slavery as two major social constructs, which played a significant role in the American history and considerably influenced the American future. Robert Dorris underlines that slavery did not actually exist. Even if a person was kidnapped, and some kind of chain was put on his/her body, this person could not be called a slave. The point is that a person has both, mind and body, and if a person could not accept the idea of being enslaved, he/she was not a slave.
Due to such reasoning, slavery was a social construct, and who believed in this construct was enslaved as well. However, this idea contradicts many other ideas, offered by other authors. For example, Richard Ross Watkins (2001) admits that there are several ways to become a slave, and one of such ways is to be born a slave. And when a person is born to be a slave, he just cannot accept slavery as a social construct.
Almost the whole article is based on a kind of chronology that presents the development of slavery and contradictions, which happen between white people and black people. To underline that slavery is not all about black and white, Dorris uses several examples from Egyptian history and addresses the Book of the Dead.
He talks about power, power of body and power of mind; he uses the connection between heaven and earth in order to explain African transportation over the Atlantic Ocean. Further, he indicates dates and describes the brightest events, which had an impact on modern perception of slavery and race inequality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the end of the chapter, the author uses the words by Martin Luther King about the necessity to create cooperation between Negroes and whites by “the fact of contract” (Dorris, 2005).
The use the ideas of a person, who underlined that “freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed” (King, 2000) is not that appropriate for the person, who early admits that slavery did not exist. This is why the work under consideration may be regarded as really educative and reliable but a bit difficult for understanding the main idea of the author.
In general, the approach, chosen by Robert Dorris in this work, is clear enough. He was eager to present a new idea that may help to understand the nature of slavery, the reasons of why people were so prejudged with the questions of race, and the outcomes, which people can observe nowadays, and achieved this purpose by means of a historical overview of the events.
Reference List Dorris, R., Heglar, C. J.
The Right to Live or Die Research Paper argumentative essay help
The questions concerning the matter of euthanasia are considered to be burning and significant during a long period of time. It is very hard to decide whether to support or be completely against euthanasia, both voluntary and non-voluntary. Advances, which are inherent to modern medical technologies, innovations, which make treatment safer, and painless, and choices, which patients get during their treatments – all this raises people chances to continue living, get proper treatment, and not suffer too much.
However, when we talk about the right to live or die, numerous doubts, uncertainty, and even fear take place. Lots of diseases cannot be treated, and patients often ask to end their lives by means of some drugs or medicines and deprive them from terrible suffering. Doctors can agree to help patients end their lives and use such practice as euthanasia, but still, lots of ethical, religious, and personal disagreements may become another problem for doctors, patients, and patients’ families.
Jack Kevorkian and Karen Ann Quinlan are the names, which influence the development of euthanasia in the United States. The investigations around these names, evaluation of ethical and religious perspectives can help to clear us whether people still have the right to live or die, whether euthanasia is just another type of homicide, and who should be responsible for this very practice.
Methodology The study under consideration originates from a burning need to decide whether modern medical services provide patients with the right to live or die and whether patients themselves make the decision to continue living or die. In 1976, the first Natural Death Act was approved and became one of the most controversial laws (Miller, 2003).
Of course, not each state was eager to adopt the same law, however, within two decades, all other states proclaimed the similar laws, which could protect the patient’s right to die. At the end of the 1970s, the case of Karen Ann Quinlan also became a significant factor for numerous ethical debates; however, it served as another important point that promoted legal protection of euthanasia (Naden, 2007).
Finally, the questions of euthanasia were raised once again at the beginning of 1990, when Dr. Jack Kevorkian assisted more than 100 suicides and taped all the procedures. His actions, discontent of numerous religious people, and disparity of many ethical issues promoted the creation of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act with a number of safeguard issues (Ars
Wigand’s Biography Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Dr. Jeffrey S. Wigand is known as a good and fair scientist, who cares about people, promotes healthy style of life, does not afraid to argue about harm of smoking, being a part of a tobacco industry, and this is why he is respected in different spheres of life in the United States of America.
He was born on December 17, 1942 in New York City. He spent some time of his childhood in Bronx, however, came back to Pleasant Valley, New York very soon. Jeffrey Wigand was in the military, and even participated in actions in Vietnam. His education is connected to the State University of New York at Buffalo: he got his Master and PhD there.
He was fond of Japanese, Biology, Chemistry, and other Sciences. His service at Brown
Chicago and the Ring of Steel Essay essay help site:edu
The issues of security always bother people during a long period of time. Each nation wants to live in a safe city and be sure that some kind of control will always be present to improve their lives. A ring of steel is one of the most popular terms, which mean the security or surveillance system in order to find out threats and be able to prevent them. New York and London have already established this security system, and now, it is Chicago’s turn to follow their steps.
Chicago is one of the largest cities in the United States of America with more that 2.5 million of people living there, one of the brightest Global Financial Centers, and a huge metropolitan area, known to the whole world, this is why the improvement of the security system of this city is considered to be a really burning issue nowadays, and Chicago should certainly consider London and New York’s rings of steel in order to create the same surveillance cordon and provide its citizens with safer present and future.
The City of London offered the creation of the ring of steel at the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of Irish terroristic attacks on London (Forest, 82). The second city, who agreed for such kind of security systems, was New York.
Such a fast spreading of this security system promotes many other cities to make use of the ring of steel and protect the nations against possible terroristic attacks. The main goal of this study is to prove that Chicago has to have the ring of steel and has to consider immediately other two cities’ rings of steel.
The benefits of the surveillance system under consideration are rather obvious:
(1) with the help of this system, the worker can prove that he/she gets injuries not because of his/her fault and deserves to use his insurance, and the government can take certain measure to eliminate the danger for the next time;
(2) theft is inherent to any country, and the ring of steel provides people with a chance to follow possible thieves and prevent their activities;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More (3) this system allows to follow the work of employees and create the measure to improve the productivity.
Chicago is a city of business, this is why any of the above-mentioned issues will positively influence the growth of the city.
Project management structure of Chicago’ ring of steel is significant for its success: project board should be responsible for making any kind of consensus; government cooperating agency should care for governmental participation in the project; implementing partner should create the conditions to evaluate interventions and possible outputs; project assurance, management, and support will be responsible for each member of the project and provide the necessary help to develop the project on a proper level.
The implementation program should be started with evaluation of surrounding environment: whether the roads should be reconstructed to provide proper transportation; which districts require a thorough observation; whether the places for establishing the cameras are safe enough and cannot be damaged from the outside (rain, birds, wind, etc).
Then, financial costs should be analyzed, and the ability to pay for the services should be approved. Only in this case, the success of the program is possible. Chicago is rather a rich city, and the sphere of business is developing with unbelievable speed there, this is why the more security systems will be able to protect people’s actions and their business, the more chances the Americans, the citizens of Chicago, get to take leading positions in business and live safe and sound life.
Works Cited Forest, James, J. F. Homeland Security: Public Spaces and Social Institutions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., 2006
Book Review: Genghis Khan by R.P. Lister Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Author’s Biographic Note
Summary of the Book
Personal Evaluation of the Story
Genghis Khan is the book by an English writer Richard Percival Lister. In spite of the fact that not much information may be found about this author, his works and his contribution to the world of literature and even to history remain to be quite important.
Author’s Biographic Note Richard Percival Lister was born23 November 1914 in Nottingham, England (McIntire, 318). From the very beginning, this person demonstrated his abilities in different spheres of art: he perfectly performed the role of a brilliant author, he was a sophisticated poet, and even more, he proved himself as a professional painter. R. P. Lister educated at Manchester University and got his BSc there (Lister, 1979, 1).
This writer wanted to achieve one goal – to present something that could be really important and even helpful for people. His works had to be kept in mind and used by people of different age and nations. The point is that Lister’s English was really great and clear, this is why his pieces of work could be easily published in the United States of America and in England. Being a true Englishman, Richard Percival Lister makes use of British English while writing his Genghis Khan.
It is also necessary to admit that R. P. Lister contributes considerably such organizations like Punch, Atlantic Monthly, and New Yorker (Watt, 422).
Thesis Statement Richard Percival Lister has created one of the most captivating pieces of writing, which described the life of one of the most respectable warriors of all the times, Genghis Khan; the author also paid special attention to Khan’s childhood, his relations to parents, and the qualities, which made his a worthwhile figure in the history, and the grounds of this were closely connected to The Secret History of the Mongols, one of a few primary sources about Genghis Khan.
Summary of the Book In Genghis Khan, Richard Percival Lister makes a wonderful attempt to use the already known information about the life and achievements of Genghis Khan and represent it in more comprehensible for the reader way. Without any doubts, The Secret History of the Mongols is a reliable and captivating primary source, where facts from Genghis Khan’s life were presented.
However, the information of this source is very hard to comprehend for each reader; this is why the book under consideration may turn out to be a good variant for reading for those, who wanted to know more about Genghis Khan’s history.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This book provides the reader with an opportunity to learn deeper the facts about such a ruthless warrior of all the times like Genghis Khan, also known as Temujin. This person created such heritage and left rather a significant legacy that made his name closely connected to such words like destruction, power, and fear. R. P. Lister describes Genghis Khan like a professional ruler, who made use of his past, the past of his parents, and the tribes, he lived in.
R. P. Lister gave a wonderful chance to any reader of his book to take a kind of tour through the life of the terrible and cruel Genghis Khan and comprehend what made Genghis Khan so heartless. The more a person reads, the clearer the picture turns out to be. There were certain reasons in Khan’s life, which made him take cruel and even inhuman actions.
Temujin was the person, who was afraid and, at the same time, respected his mother too much: “When my mother is angered against me, I am terrified. I am ashamed of myself” (Lister, 2000, 192). The point is that this weakness is the only one that may describe Genghis Khan as an ordinary person, who usually has some fear or respect to own parents.
It may seem like the author is afraid himself to writer something weak about Genghis Khan; but, at the same time, the author does not use too many words to describe Genghis Khan’s power. The only words, he likes to use is that Genghis Khan had some unbelievable power that made other people follow and listen to him.
The book is divided into several chapters, which represent the chronology of Genghis Khan’s life and achievements. At the very beginning, brief information about The Country of Mongols is presented. This information helps the reader to get a clear picture of the situation and the conditions under which Genghis Khan was born.
Several chapters are devoted to the significant events in Genghis Khan’s life: his betrothal, captivity, first companions, and allies. In other chapters, the author pays his attention to expeditions and wars headed by Genghis Khan and the steps, which helped a new ruler to conquer people and make them be afraid of him.
At the end of the book, the sections like Chronological Table and Genealogical Tables are given. They help the reader briefly revise the significant dates from Genghis Khan’s life and the facts about his family.
We will write a custom Essay on Book Review: Genghis Khan by R.P. Lister specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, the structure of the book and the style are properly chosen by Richard Lister. He presents not only some historical facts and its outcomes; he creates a story about a person, about fears, about power, and about the desire to conquer the world and made it respect one person, Genghis Khan.
Personal Evaluation of the Story To my mind, the book by Richard Lister is a perfect chance to everyone to learn deeper the history and the life of Genghis Khan in particular. There were lots of warriors, who were eager to win and conquer, however, only this person made so many people be afraid of him and, at the same time, respect him. By means of references to one of the most famous primary sources about Genghis Khan and the Mongols, The Secret History of the Mongols, Mr. Lister provides reliable historical facts and their impact on our future.
However, if the reader wants to find out a historical manuscript that represents in details the life and influence of Genghis Khan’s actions, he/she may be a bit disappointed, because this piece of writing is a kind of collection of a novel and a historical book. Much attention is paid to description of horses and pastures.
My opinion is that the Mongols focused a lot on the role of women in society and their impact on their present and future, but the author instead of describing women, their appearance, and qualities, which were more significant to the Mongols, stops on horses more than on women. This is why this book is possible to read every day in order just to enjoy author’s skills to describe ordinary life and battles, inherent to the times of Genghis Khan.
It will be interesting for people of different age: for students, to learn deeper the history, and for adults, to enjoy one more perfectly written book. I do recommend this book to other people just in order to get a clear picture of our past and comprehend what it means to live without fears and be respectable by everyone. This book helps to comprehend the essence of power and the outcomes, when this power is difficult to control.
Works Cited Lister, Richard, P. Genghis Khan. Rowman
Religion and America founding Essay essay help online: essay help online
The first constitution amendment stipulated that the congress could not exercise any form of authority in establishing any form of religion or prohibit the exercise of religion. However, is religion considered as an independent entity? Has religion been segregated from the civic and public spheres? This essay seeks to examine these issues.
Moreover, this essay seeks to highlight the current perception of the church’s separation from the state and the odds at which this perception is perceived especially in a democratic nation such as the United States. Religion played an important role in the founding of America. It is worth noting that religious principles that are constituted in the founding of America originated from Christianity and Judaism creeds.
Historic scholars claim that the solid political prosperity exercised in America can be attributed to the indispensable supports of religion, reason, faith and morality. In reference to President Jefferson’s sentiments, no nation can exist or be governed without the influence of religion (Washington, 1796).
The American leadership can be termed as the kind that highly regards religion. For instance, the American congress of September 1774 introduced an Act that ensured that a prayer and a religious reading from the book of Psalms were pronounced prior to the normal proceedings.
Moreover, December 11, 1776 was declared a day of prayer and fasting in order to solicit God’s providence and forgiveness. It is therefore evident that since time immemorial religion has been in the heart of America (Novak, 2006).
In this study, it is crucial for us examine religious liberty in America in order for us to gain an incisive understanding of the role of religion in the founding of America. Religious liberty can be perceived as the separation of the state from the church. Founding leaders of America greatly discouraged the establishment of a national or state church.
They did this in order to separate the two entities. On the other hand, they encouraged the state’s involvement in supporting religious projects such as the building of schools, hospitals and other public utilities. Undeniably, the separation of the church from state affairs encourages religious freedom. (Patton, 1991).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also provides an autonomous source of authority and moral reasoning. Some analysts accentuate that Americas standing is not determined by shared theology but rather it is build on shared morality. Nonetheless, in the present society the connection between religion and the state is formidably deficient. In fact religion is in conflict with a number of constitutional endorsements (Spadling, 2007).
In recent times, the American judiciary has gradually embraced the separation between the church and the state as a virtual rule though this indictment is not stipulated in the American stipulation. Nonetheless, the American Supreme Court is faced with the challenge of interpreting the initial amendments of law prohibition that respect the establishment of religion. In reference to Jefferson’s sentiments, the initial constitution amendments were legislated so as to erect a wall that separates the church form the state.
Additionally, in present times the erected wall is regarded as an emblem of separating dogmatic religious influences that are intolerant especially in the public sphere from governance. On the other hand, state courts have used the concept of wall separation to validate their censorship of religious expression such as stripping and Christmas crèches among many other practices (Dreiscach, 2007).
Arguments for and against the issue of separating the church from the state have provoked different responses. For instance, James Madison, one of the founders of the American constitution claims that that the intention of separating the church and the state is basically geared towards keeping away from the continuous strife buried with blood in the European soil.
Madison implies that the implications of holy wars are indeed devastating. On the contrary, Antonin Scalia, a justice in the American Supreme Court, argues that the Ten Commandments symbolize the notion that the government gets its authority from God and thus leadership should be in line with religion.
In some areas, religious books have been used to justify discrimination against women, black people and atheists. George Bush’s administration was seen as one that was trying to create close ranks with certain religious groups that tend to transform secular democracy into a creeping theocracy. Many have termed this as a method of perverting the American value system. It is preferred that America should be committed towards applying reason, science and historic experience rather than using religion (Silverman, 1942).
A key advantage of religion lies in the fact that religion has the ability to inspire principles that are considered diametrically contrary. Nations that are governed on the basis of religion are naturally strong. Democratic nations on the other hand are considerably weak.
We will write a custom Essay on Religion and America founding specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is however undeniable that the manifestation of religious influence is present in civic and public spheres (Tocqueville, 1835).For instance, the 1990’s witnessed the supreme courts allowing the introduction of bible and prayer clubs in public institutions.
There exist propositions that religious values concur and support American values. In reference to Madison’s sentiments, the future of Americas expected civilization is not determined by the governments’ power but rather depends on the capacity of every person to sustain themselves in accordance to the commandments of God (Loconte, 2000).
Reference List Dreiscach, L. (2007). The mythical wall of separation: How a misused metaphor changed church .state law, policy and discourse. New York: Heritage Publishers.
Loconte, J. (2000). Why religious values support American Values. New York: Word Press
Novak, M. (2006). Faith and American founding: Illustrating Religion Influence. New York: Heritage Publishers.
Patton, J. (1991). The wall of separation between the church and state. New York: Heritage Publishers.
Spadling, M. (2007). The meaning of religious liberty. New York: Word Press.
Silverman, H. (1942). American Religion undermines American values. New York: Heritage Publishers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion and America founding by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tocqueville, A. (1835). From Democracy in America. New York: Word Press.
Washington, G. (1796).From farewell address. New York: The independent chronicle.
Safe Food Supply System Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Food safety issues
Food supply and issues in America
Steps to be taken for ensuring food safety
Food is essential for the survival of any living creature. At the same time food can cause problems to health if it is not properly preserved or processed or consumed. The importance of food safety goes on increasing day by day. Governments are taking hard efforts to ensure food safety.
Unlike other households items consumers are much concerned about the quality and safety of the food items they buy. The reason is that if they consume non-secure food that may cause problems to their health. The bacteria and other harmful invisible insects contained in the food items create health problems and it may even lead to hazards to life. These necessitate the need for a safe food supply system for ensuring a food safety. The food supply in America is not enough safe.
Food safety issues Many factors can lead to food related disease outbreaks. Among this the severity of some diseases are less and it affect lesser number of people, but some others, are too severe and affects large number of people, such as cholera(Hui, 2001 p.172)
Sometimes the food items like non-processes meat might have infected with bacteria like E.Coil, Salmonella…etc. The consumption of food bacteria affected food item causes illness like cholera, hepatitis…etc. If a person is affected by food infection there may be symptoms of such infection, like vomiting, fever…etc.
Food supply and issues in America It is the duty of every government to ensure food safety to its citizens. Through efficient and sophisticated supply food safety could be ensured. In United States of America the food supply system is not proper and enough care is not taken for ensuring the food safety. This is evident from the fact that there is a higher rate of death due to disease from contaminated food consumption (Food safety and food borne illness, 2007).
Fast food culture has swallowed the American food system. There are plenty of fast food stores and restaurants in the United States of America. “Over the last three decades, fast food has infiltrated every nook and cranny of American society” (Schlosser, 2001p.3).
Fast food always creates health problems, but even then people are interested in fast food. Though people can prepare food in traditional method of food preparation and can follow traditional food culture, majority are not opting for that.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though there is a system namely Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) in the country for ensuring supply of safe and healthier supply of food, it need to more active and efforts must be taken to reduce the death out of lack of food safety (Food Safety and Food Security: What Consumers Need to Know, p 2).
Majority of the people in the United States believe that, they have got a safe food supply system (Stinson et al. 2007). However, the fact is not like that, it is not that much safe as now the food items are imported from countries like India and safety of such food items is matter of concern.
Steps to be taken for ensuring food safety The food poisons and other problems caused by lack of food security are increasing day by day. Efforts should be made to limit or eliminate these problems and ensure food safety in the country and thereby becoming a model country for all over the world. Following are some recommendations for ensuring food safety.
a. Implementing clean food preparation techniques
One of the chief causes for becoming the food items contaminated is lack of cleanliness in the food preparation place. Also the carelessness by those who make food items cause to become the food items infected by bacteria and other harmful creatures.
b. Ensure immediate consumption of the fast perishable items:
The perishable food items are to be immediately consumed; otherwise it may cause to become the food item filled with insects and bacteria. By way of ensuring immediate consumption of this kinds of food items food safety can be guaranteed.
We will write a custom Essay on Safe Food Supply System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More c. Conduct awareness programs:
It is one of the better ways to ensure food safety. Majority of the people are not aware of the after effects of the consuming bacteria involved and expired food items. Awareness programs need to conduct for bringing the attention of consumers as well as workers in the food industry.
d. Efforts from the part of the government:
Without the support of the government, it is difficult to make a food safety programs successful. The government has to contribute economically as well as non-economically for safety ensuring efforts. The policies need to be designed by the government in such a way that it does not allow any kind of violation of the rules of food safety.
e. Proper preservation of food:
Once the food items are prepared they are to be preserved well. Otherwise it may cause to become the food contaminated. If the food item requires refrigeration it should be refrigerated.
f. Proper handling:
Hands should be washed before touching the food item as there are chances that our hands may contain poisonous things or bacteria (Prevention of Food Poisoning).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Safe Food Supply System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Health is a matter of concern for everybody. Nobody would like to sacrifice health for wealth or any other purpose as health is considered the most rewarding wealth. However, improper food habits and food preservation and processing can cause many hazards to human life. The effective management of food and its utmost care in handling and processing can reduce the perils to a great extent.
Work Cited “Food safety and food borne illness”. Media Center-World Health Organization. 2007. Web.
“Food Safety and Food Security: What Consumers Need to Know?” United States Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service. Web.
Hui, Yiu H. and Wai-Kit Nip, Meat science and applications. CRC Press, 2007.
Prevention of Food Poisoning, Food Poisoning. Mamashealth.com. Web.
Schlosser, Eric. Fast food nation: the dark side of the all-American meal, Part 10 Edition 001 Series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001.
Stinson, F. Thomas, Jean Kinsey, Dennis Degeneffe, and Koel Ghosh. Defending America’s Food Supply against Terrorism: Who is Responsible? Who Should Pay? Choices, 2007. Web.
Impact of Culture on Communication Reflective Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Impact of culture on communication
Key points of Intercultural Communication
Lessons learned from the experience
Communication is an essential part of daily life of every individual. Without proper communication our ideas and views cannot be informed to others.
Usually communication process starts when a need arise to convey the message to another. Communication refers to the process of exchanging ideas and facts from one person to another. “Communication may be defined as the process by which an individual (or group of individuals) transmits information about ideas, feelings and intentions to another person (or group of persons)” (Pennington, 2002, p.12).
Different factors influence the communication process. Some of them are culture, language…etc. Cultural differences of the people in a group/team affect effective communication among them both positively and negatively. This paper dwells on this aspect using a descriptive approach.
Impact of culture on communication The culture has a significant influence on the communication process. The cultural differences can create conflicts and misunderstanding between parties involved in the communication process (Monippally, 2001, p.45). Culture’ has often been defined in simplistic terms as life-style of people of a community.
But culture means much more; it encompasses various attitudinal and behavioral dimensions such as values, beliefs, expectations, norms, etc. All these make culture a complex thing to understand and has drawn the attention of researchers to study the various dimensions of culture and its impact on the people living within that culture.
Within a culture there may be various sub-cultures on the basis of ethnic groups, religious groups, professions, etc., and differences exist among them. Many studies by behavioral scientists prove that all the people who belong to a particular culture have similarity in their thinking and behavior.
Culture differs from one group to another and these differences can affect the level of trust and openness in communication that one can achieve with people of other cultures. Therefore the cultural difference should be properly understood in order to ensure an effective communication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Key points of Intercultural Communication We can communicate effectively in a cross-cultural context if we understand how one culture differs from another and on what basis. The commonly known cultural differences are;
a. Contextual: Cultural contexts have a major influence on the way people interpret messages. High-context cultures like Taiwan or South Korea rely more on non-verbal communication than verbal communication; wheras low-context culture like the US or Germany, rely more on verbal communication than non-verbal communication.
b. Social Differences: Social behavior is another distinguishing factor among cultures.
c. Non-Verbal Differences: It is very important to understand the differences in the meanings which non-verbal communication conveys in the context of diversified cultures. The simplest hand gesture may signify different meaning from one culture to another.
Personal experience My personal experience in a cricket match, in which I got the chance to lead the state team, helped me to understand the role of proper communication in the achievement of objectives.
As I understood the concepts like culture, communication it would be easy for me to analyze how these concepts are relevant in personal experiences. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension will be useful for studying the impact of culture on communication. According to him, the culture of the people who are only cautious of themselves (I-conscious) would be different from the culture of people who care for others too (We -conscious).
And also the differential consideration by the society to men and women, the approach of people in the lower strata of the society towards the social difference and the attitude of people to avoid uncertainty depict the culture of the people. Here in my personal experience the cultural difference related to the individualism-collectivism is present.
We will write a custom Essay on Impact of Culture on Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was a Sunday when the final match of the tournament was going to be played. My team was one of the finalists. I was the captain of the team and the team members consist of players from the different localities of the state. For both the team, the match was crucial as it was the problem of image and status.
More over it was a national level tournament. Our team batted first and scored a defendable total. But when the opposite team started batting, unfortunately our fielders started loosing the catches sand missing the fields. I knew that the communication is not becoming effective as there are players of different culture. Some players are not taking into consideration my words as a captain of the team.
A good captain means a good leader. To be a good leader one must of some essential qualities including proper communication skill. Especially when leading a team of different culture the captain should be well versed in cross-cultural communication; otherwise success would be a question mark. That was happened in my case.
I treated this captaincy also as just like the captaincy of my local team in which I know everyone and there are no much cultural differences. However, things were not like that and really paid value for negligence from my part and we lost the match. The reasons were lack of proper communication between team members, lack of coordination…etc.
One problem that I noticed during the match was that when a team member achieves any good performance, the way of appreciation was different by different team members as they are from different parts of the state. Everyone tried to implement their own culture resulting in total problem in the team.
If these all possible difficulties had been discussed before the match no problems might have arisen. The communication between the members of the team is essential for the success of the team. If I would have understood this before the commencement of mach I could have designed strategies accordingly and the cultural barriers could have been overcome, thereby increasing the chance of victory.
Lessons learned from the experience Now I have deep understanding of the concepts like communication, culture, cross cultural communication, team work…etc. Also the lessons learned from my previous experience would I think help me in future. In case if I am getting chance to lead the same team again, I will design the strategy by considering the cultural differences.
If team members feel that their personal interests are protected by the captain and co-members they perform their level best to bring the success. For creating such feeling a proper communication has a significant role to play.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Culture on Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In future I will not be repeating the mistake I explained earlier in my personal experience and I would be giving enough consideration for the difference culture of the individuals I deal with. In order to be a good communicator one must be a good listener. If a person does not have the mind to listen what others say, he is not going to succeed. In my future I will consider all these things in mind.
Conclusion Communication without considering the cultural difference may not give expected result in majority of the cases. To communicate effectively with people of other culture, understanding their culture is very important. Understanding their culture removes the attitudinal and behavioral barriers in communication. Without understanding the culture, communication can lead to misunderstanding.
Work Cited Monippally, m. Matthukutty. Business Communication Strategies. Tata McGraw-Hill, 2001
Pennington, C. Donald. The social psychology of behavior in small groups. Psychology Press, 2002
Skepticism and Relativism Research Paper college essay help
In general terms, skepticism is considered to be an approach or outlook of uncertainty or distrust towards a specific object. Based on the concept of classical philosophy, skepticism is considered to be the ideas, principles, beliefs and attributes of Skeptikoi. Skeptikoi is considered to be the group of philosophers who concentrated on speaking out on particular subject but stated nothing.
On the grounds of faith and religion, skepticism is described as the uncertainty or disbelieve regarding fundamental values and ethics of religion. Relativism is considered to be the property of a particular object which can be segregated and distributed to several, distinct views.
This paper seeks to investigate and analyze Socrates and Protagoras position on skepticism and relativism respectively in the lights of diverse and broad academic resources. The paper will define these two concepts and then critically analyze the viewpoints of the two philosophers.
Concept of Skepticism
Skepticism is considered to be the uncertainty or doubt in a specific area of a doctrine. It is distinguishes itself from dogmatism by opposing dogmatic principles and values. It is considered to be the combination of two Greek movements in the field of Greek philosophy. Academic skepticism has been developed by Socrates and Plato and Pyrrhonism was brought by Pyrrho of Ellis (Rachels, 56).
On the basis of philosophy, skepticism is considered to be composed of several propositions which include an investigation, examination, a way of seeking knowledge with the help of methodical and organized doubt and recurrent investigation, randomness, unpredictability or partisanship of ethical principles and values, restrictions on intelligence or wisdom, a way of logical caution and balanced decision or opinion, etc.
Concept of Relativism
The concept of relativism is related to the idea that certain features, characteristics or aspects of experience, incidents, customs or culture are relative to one another. It is not a distinct or separate set of beliefs but incorporates several values which have common theme. For instance, criteria for justification, ethical values and reality are relative to one other. Even though relativism leads to improbable or doubtful conclusions, they have captivated several philosophers from different traditions.
Analysis of Dialogue
According to Socrates, virtue cannot be thought. He clearly asserts that technical way of thinking can be taught and conveyed to students but understanding and knowledge are innate quality of human beings. He quotes the example of Pericles who was unsuccessful in implanting knowledge and intelligence to one of his sons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He then quotes the example of Clinias who was the younger brother of Alcibiades. He was isolated from his family because there was fear that he might get corrupted by Alcibiades. However, he was returned to his family when it was realized he was a hopeless case.
According to Protagoras, virtue is the characteristic of a human being which can be taught and implanted inside a person by teaching him with a story rather than giving him arguments. He proves his point by giving quoting the origin of human beings. He asserts that Epimetheus was responsible for distributing assets which were for survival.
However, he forgets and his twin brother Prometheus was responsible for stealing the fire. According to Prometheus, this is the example of practical wisdom. He also gives the example of Hermes who had distributed shame and justice uniformly. According to Protagoras, Hermes distribution of shame and justice is the response the limitation of wisdom. He further asserts that people have sympathy and compassion for feeble, weak and ugly because they cannot help the way they look (Plato, pp3).
Secondly, he asserts that people command tyrants to perform righteous deeds. They are asked to perform acts of kindness so that they become pious. He gives the example of parent’s upbringing and how they raise their children. The task of upbringing is further carried out by teachers (Stumpf
Alice in Wonderland: Theory and Post-Structuralism Examples Essay college essay help online
Numerous literary works capture readers’ attention due to the unusual structure, captivating plot and its unfolding, development of interesting philosophical issues, which have unbelievable impact in our modern life, and the discussion of problems, which considered to be burning for the vast majority of people.
The peculiar feature of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland is that all above-mentioned themes were present there, and the author made a wonderful attempt to create such a masterpiece that helps people find out the necessary way out of the rabbit’s hole, clear up the intentions of the grins, which bothers them during the adventures, and learn the necessary lessons of the tea party that may take place suddenly.
Unbelievable writing and philosophical skills of Lewis Carroll allowed him to unite numerous philosophical theories in this work and, in far 1865, create a story, the themes of which would be actual and significant even at the beginning of the 21st century.
Post-structuralism theory is one of those that is perfectly applied to the Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland by means of pure relation between language and social organization, between different kinds of feminism and power, and the desire to destroy any labels in our every day life and to live not according to the traditional standards but according to own principles and self-perception.
In 1862, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, who better known under his pseudonym Lewis Carroll, told the story about Alice to three sisters during the boat trip for the first time. That story was actually based on the events, which happened to Carroll and the sisters in Oxford; of course, the characters and the descriptions were imaginary, but still, the main ideas were inherent to real people, their troubles, and desires.
With the help of Carroll and his huge imagination, it is possible to realize that the life of each person in this world is a kind of rabbit’s hole with its own surprises and challenges. In order to live properly, it is necessary to find powers and pass it through, taking into consideration own ideas, interests, and desires.
Our life is full of numerous philosophical theories, which have certain impact on making decisions, comprehension of this world, and self-evaluation. In this paper, we are going to analyze the ideas of post-structuralism, their application to Alice in Wonderland, and the achieved impact on the reader. Post-structuralism is the theory, the representatives of which “reject the idea of an underlying structure upon which meaning can rest secure and guaranteed” (Storey, 2006, 98).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The peculiarity of this theory was that meaning is in process any time, this is why it is impossible to present clear and constant interpretation of the text under consideration. When tracing the ideas of post-structuralism in the literary work, it is obligatory to pay attention to such issues like language and its relation to social organizations of the community under consideration, the power that is inherent to the chosen community, and the biases, which are developed in the organization.
In Alice in Wonderland, the ideas of post-structuralism can be observed in many things like the main character’s behavior in different situations and her attention to personal standpoints but not herd instinct that is inherent to the other characters, Alice’s abilities to prove her own position in spite of numerous challenges, she faces with, and her skills to find out the contradictions in the things, which remain to be crucial for the rest of the social organization.
The language, chosen by the author of Alice in Wonderland, plays a very important place for those, who want to comprehend his intentions and his hints to improve readers’ lives. This unbelievable removal from our reality to the world, full of fantasy, adventures, and challenges makes each reader feel worry about a young girl Alice.
In spite of the fact that all the story seems to be a kind of fantasy from the very beginning, the rules, which are inherent to the temporal world, the difficulties and puzzles, Alice faces with, and the solutions, she makes, – all this keep the reader in a certain tension and makes each chapter more interesting than the previous one. A little girl finds herself in the Wonderland, the rules of which are still unknown to her. She has not much time to grasp all those rules, to pass the troubles and become a crucial part of that world.
Alice does not want to break the rules, but, at the same time, she has a perfect skill to use the already established rules and deceive the citizens of the Wonderland. She makes successful attempts to play with the words and achieve good results at the end. To my mind, one of the strongest examples of how language is used in the paper is Alice conversation with the members of the Mad Tea Party:
“Take some more tea,” the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
“I’ve had nothing yet,” Alice replied in an offended tone, “so I can’t take more.”
We will write a custom Essay on Alice in Wonderland: Theory and Post-Structuralism Examples specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “You mean you can’t take less,” said the Hatter: “it’s very easy to take more than nothing.”
“Nobody asked your opinion,” said Alice (Carroll, 2007, 106).
The point is that each member of the party tried to teach Alice to give quick responses and be witty; at the same time, they prove that be educated and have respect for the others is not the major point, this is why Alice took that lesson quickly and was able to respond to anything. This example of post-structuralism demonstrate that proper language and abilities to evaluate the situation quickly is a good means to control the atmosphere within the social organization, play with words, and not to stop on one possible meaning.
One more peculiar feature of post-structuralism is relations between men and women. According to generally accepted rules for that period of time, male positions were stronger than female’s ones. Male power should be considered as great, and female role was still dependent on male’s desires.
However, Carroll changed everything even in this sphere: the Queen and the King are the best representatives of how female power exceeded the male possibilities. “Off with their heads!” (Carroll, 2007) – that was the most frequent phrase of the Queen. The author made the Queen powerful and provided her with a chance to control everyone’s lives and deaths. Even her husband, the King did not have the same power, and asked her to decide who should be removed.
The situation, when the King did not like the Cheshire Cat, may serve as a good example of post-structuralism in the story: “Well, it must be removed,” said the King very decidedly, and he called to the Queen, who was passing at the moment. “My dear! I wish you would have this cat removed!” (Carroll, 2007, 125). In spite of the fact that men had to take the final decisions in any situation, the desire of the King in Alice in Wonderland should be approved or disproved by the woman, the Queen.
Of course, nowadays, lots of men follow their women and try to consult them in order to make any decision, however, for the end of the 19th century, such female privilege was not inherent to the society at all. Such desire not to follow the established rules that Lewis Carroll demonstrated in his novel should be regarded as one of the most successful attempts to break the labels and provide females with more power.
Finally, the idea of labels and self-perception of the reality and fantasy should be touched in this analysis. As a rule, people get used to the ideas that when it is winter, people should wear warmer clothes; an ordinary person cannot get into mouse hole; a short person cannot reach a table that is higher without some extra help.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alice in Wonderland: Theory and Post-Structuralism Examples by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All these labels cannot be broken, and people follow them all the time. However, even here, Lewis Carroll used his imagination to break all these labels and represent his own ideas. Everything begins with the event, when Alice gets into the small rabbit’s hole. In spite of the fact that Alice is a human and her height considerably exceeds the rabbit’s size, she successfully gets to that hole and finds herself in the world, previously not familiar to her.
One of the major questions of this book is to clear up what is real here and what is not real. However, before any person should start searching the answer to this question, it is necessary to comprehend what reality can mean. So, we should find out the meaning of the word “reality”.
As it was mentioned above, post-structuralism believed that meaning was in process, so, some concrete meaning was hard to find. As a result, meaning of reality is unclear, and the ideas of reality and fantasy are mixed as well. Carroll’s intentions to break all the labels, to unite reality and fantasy, to confuse the reader and even the characters – this is what makes the story one of the brightest examples of post-structuralism works.
In general, Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland is one of those books, which provide the reader with a chance to enjoy the amazing plot and evaluate own place in this world. Frequent use of metaphors, variety of rules for a concrete social organization, and deconstructions make the comprehension of the story very hard but still captivating.
Children get a chance to read one more story about the adventures of a little girl to the world of own dreams; and adults get an opportunity to analyze the world, they live in, and the duties, they have to complete day by day. By means of such great use of post-structuralism ideas, Carroll makes his story interesting to both grown ups and children.
In any case, the reader should learn from Alice how to unlock and solve illogical challenges and present proper reasoning, taking into consideration all weird customs and rules, inherent to the social organization, and, at the end of the story, find the right way and reach the home, where everything is safe and sound.
Reference List Carroll, L. (2007). Alice in Wonderland. MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Storey, J. (2006). Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction. London: Pearson Education.
Information and Knowledge Management: Impacts and Recommendations argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Any organization, whether profit-oriented or charitable, must proactively define its own strategies for current and future needs and make credible decisions on apportioning its resources to pursue the set strategies. The organization must engage in a formal consideration process of its present and future course of action, otherwise known as strategic planning (Blazey, 2008 p. 8).
Indeed, strategic planning is a requirement for organizations to survive in the turbulent economic times. Organizational leaders must always look ahead of what is happening at present, anticipate changes, and develop essential strategies aimed at successfully navigating the organization through periods of upheavals and change (Lawlor, n.d. para. 4).
Using the Baldridge Criteria for Performance Excellence, this paper aims at addressing the gaps existing in the management of information, knowledge and information technology in Community Outreach, an organization charged with the responsibility of helping the needy in society.
According to the conjectures of the Baldwin scale, organization must put in place strategies that will ensure all stakeholders receive quality and reliable information with ease.
The availability of accurate and timely information is critical as it assists the employees, partners, collaborators, sponsors and customers of the organization to make well-informed decisions. In the same vein, the organization must enhance strategies that make it possible for critical knowledge to be collected, assembled and transferred to relevant stakeholders (Kaufman et al, 2003 p. 17).
From the case study, there exist a gap in the way critical information and knowledge are transferred and made available to interested parties. First the organization does not have a central data and information management unit as demonstrated by the fact that the new volunteer treasurer have to mine crucial information from a number of different sources (Lenk
Comparing Knauft’s Study on Violence and Sociality with Darwin’s Evolutionary Perspectives Essay essay help free
The concept of human violence has interested many scholars in the recent past as they try to understand the interplay of factors – biological or environmental – that qualifies man as a violent species. In early 1990’s, a researcher undertook to study the patterns of violence and sociality exhibited by primitive human societies.
These patterns were then compared and contrasted with already documented work of the great-ape species and other multifaceted pre-state human societies. The variables used by the researcher to access the level of violence in this sample included food and resource sharing, male competition for sexual favours from females, inter-group competition, and sociality characteristics.
The study found out that simple human societies differ with both great-ape and pre-state human societies in displaying a comparative “absence of competitive male dominance hierarchies and of systematic violence between closed social groups, while being more egalitarian among adult males politically, sexually and in terms of resource sharing” (Knauft, 1991 p. 391).
This particular study also revealed that the cultural norms of sociality in simple human societies are actually strong and fundamentally prone to any lethal contravention within the grouping. Indeed, the violence that was noted to occur within these human societies was triggered by differentiated cases of territorial and property rights, ritual status and male leadership concerns (Knauft, 1991, p. 391).
An important point to note is that the male leadership wrangles were triggered more by consensually accepted status levelling than the male status elevation.
These societies were found to share food and other resources in a more structured manner. Indeed, food and resource sharing in these simple societies is viewed as a manifestation of cooperation and a fundamental symbol of the human nature. An ethic of communalism and equivalent access to resources were highly developed in these societies.
In the dominance structure, the study revealed that simple human societies do not strive to be assertive, belligerent, or powerful to their counterparts. Indeed, it was revealed that such characteristics and behaviour are abhorred, disparaged and considered extremely improper within these simple human societies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although this particular study has many other important insights and findings that cannot be summarized in a few paragraphs, it draws fundamental parallels and similarities with the works of Charles Darwin. The renowned scholar is known for the term ‘survival for the fittest’ though this term originated from Herbert Spencer (“Charles Darwin,” n.d. para. 3).
According to Darwin, species are continually engaged in an aggressive struggle for existence. Darwin presupposes that species are in constant and spirited competition for food to support and maintain their own growth and that of their offspring, a situation called natural selection (Stanford, Allen,
Wal-mart Company’ Strategies and Corporate Responsibility Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help
The main issues in the Wal-mart case include the corporate social responsibility that the firm has adopted. In addition, the effect of Wal-marts expansion on local merchants who cannot compete favorably with Wal-mart due to their pricing strategy is discussed. Wal-mart has been rejected in many countries because of the adverse effects on local businesses.
The problems brought about by Wal-mart include loss of jobs and closure of business. The strategies used by Wal-mart such as the adoption of the ‘Wal-mart way’ is also discussed a major issue in this case.
Wal-mart is a multi-billion chain of stores and the employer of more than 2.1 million associates worldwide, serving customers at the rate of 200 million times per week. In addition, its 2009 fiscal year sales came to $401 billion. This of course comes with responsibilities to the community like corporate philanthropy and providing sustainable development programs.
Corporate social responsibility requires that as a company benefits in terms of profits, it should give back positively to the society that has enabled it to thrive. It requires that as a firm carries on its business operations, the ethical and legal components of the business be considered (Curt, 2009).
According to the four part corporate social responsibility model, the components of corporate social responsibility are economic, social, legal and philanthropic. Wal-mart has contributed economically to the community by supporting children’s hospitals, educational programs and charities. Legal responsibility refers to an organization operating according to the laws and regulations of the local, state and federal governments. Wal-mart has consistently operated within the boundaries of the law (Carroll, 1991).
Ethical responsibilities are mainly about fairness and justice and what consumers, shareholders, employees and the community see as passable (Carroll, 1991). Wal-mart has had many ethical issues especially because the company has caused the closure of many businesses. Although the company has caused many problems for local businesses, they are not responsible for the failure of those businesses.
Wal-mart seems to have capitalized on the economic and philanthropic sections of the model. Its environmental awareness campaign for instance was driven by the fact that environmental issues were increasingly becoming common in the United States. The idea was used to woo more customers to the company stores and increase profits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Better still, wasn’t Wal-mart preaching water and sipping wine? Being the environmental awareness campaign champions, the establishments had devastating impacts on the environment in terms of heavy traffic snarl ups and sprawl.
The organization has the responsibility of ensuring that the environment does not suffer due to their business operations. Therefore, Wal-Mart must come up with ways of eliminating the inconveniences faced by the public. For example, the traffic problem can be reduced if Wal-mart employs people to direct traffic. In addition, the firm can increase the size of the parking lot which is specifically used by the customers.
Wal-mart has no responsibility to the local merchants as far as their continuity is concerned. The main concern for the company is to reach the targeted profits and sales volumes. Wal-mart has a responsibility to customers who come to purchase products from their stores and therefore they ensure the customer gets value. The small merchants are competitors and the aim is winning the customer over competitors.
Because of its low-cost goods and services coupled with the numerous corporate social responsibility initiatives, the company has succeeded in forcing small scale businesses out of the market. It has managed to build a strong brand and culture that makes it stand out. Consumers in most target markets flock the Wal-mart stores, at the expense of small merchants.
The company has managed to convince consumers that they provide the best commodities at a relatively low cost. But the question is whether this is a healthy trend or that Wal-mart is simply a monopoly that drives out competition. One of the important aspects that one considers before setting up a business is analyzing competitors in terms of what they offer, how they offer them i.e. general market research and analysis.
But their approach has been different and unhealthy to some extent as their strategy is to enter, conquer, win and manipulate. Because of the massive power of their brand in any market they establish their businesses; they have succeeded in getting a very large market share. Although this could be a good move, there is nothing as healthy as competition in business. It is a very important because it ensures that customers get value and quality.
By Wal-mart literally killing small businesses in all areas of their establishment, it is destroying competition and monopolizing the industry. This is what has driven out small merchants, who cannot keep up with the competition. Although Wal-mart is not in the business of assisting its competitors, it can help local vital businesses survive by ensuring that they participate in fair competition. Unfair price wars should be stopped since this destroys the small merchants.
We will write a custom Assessment on Wal-mart Company’ Strategies and Corporate Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wal-mart has its own unique way of doing business which the founder, Sam Wal-mart, labeled as ‘Wal-mart ways’ and culture. This included aspects like ‘exceeding customer expectations’, ‘helping people make a difference’ and the ‘Ten-foot rule’ of always asking customers if they needed help. (Carroll, 2006).
He believed in stringent control of store operations, product quality and the monitoring of the company’s expenditure. Since he wanted to do business differently, he motivated his employees through promotions and making them feel like they also owned shares in the company. Because of this, he was termed a motivational genius.
His secrets to success were in quality services, low prices, and allowing employees to own part of the business. Some label his ways as Total Quality Management (Curt, 2009). Allowing employees own part of the business enables them to invest more of their positive energy in to the business.
The result of this method of managing people is that it creates employees who are highly motivated. The commitment and job satisfaction of employees is enhanced and this shows in the way they treat customers. They are dedicated and willing to an extra mile to ensure that the company goals are met.
The employees are enthusiastic about the success of the company because they are highly motivated. Sam Walton was very successful in motivating his staff by the giving them autonomy and a stake in the firm. He developed a specific way of doing things and this is what put Wal-Mart at the head of the pack.
Even though he is no longer present to motivate the staff, the culture that the founder of the organization established will continue in future even as new employees join the firm. Managers will ensure that a consistent culture is maintained by using the same methods used by Walton to motivate employees (Carroll, 2006).
The ‘buy America’ and ‘Environmental awareness’ initiatives were very effective as corporate social responsibility. The ‘buy America’ initiative was aimed at improving the state of the local businesses.
Wal-Mart started stocking their shelves with products that are made locally. The ‘buy America’ program was a good move to promote locally manufactured goods in America and also enable local manufacturers stay in business.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wal-mart Company’ Strategies and Corporate Responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The environmental awareness campaign was done so as to sensitize people concerning the preservation of the environment. However, as the ‘buy America’ program took its roots and Wal-mart was satisfied that they had made their point to the public, they begun purchasing the products from China, abandoning their initial stand. (Curt, 2009).
So both the environmental awareness and the buy American programs were merely a publicity gimmick and far from genuine corporate social responsibility. This strategy cannot off-set the difficulties the local merchants have suffered because of Wal-mart.
As responsible corporate citizens and to avoid conflicts and resistance from communities they serve, Wal-Mart should be just and fair in their ways of operation to save small merchants. They should first of all carry out a feasibility study to understand the ways of life of community members in terms of culture, comparing prices and determining the level of competition (Carroll, 2006). Otherwise, killing other businesses in the market and imposing ‘Wal-mart ways’ to every community might not work best.
They should ensure that their employees are fully compensated for in case of a closure of any of their stores, because the ‘Wal-mart way’ allows employees to own some shares in the business. If for instance a store closes in a certain place, they should assure their loyal customers that they were committed to their welfare by not abandoning some of their initiated projects in the area. This will ensure that Wal-mart legacy lives on.
The opponents of Wal-mart were mainly interested in keeping Wal-mart out of the location so as to ensure their own continuity. They knew that if Wal-Mart was given a chance their businesses will close down. They wanted to maintain the status quo because these conditions are most favorable for local merchants and other competitors to succeed in business.
Engaging in the cause to keep Wal-Mart out is beneficial for the stakeholders as it will ensure that they continue in business. The individuals fighting the expansion of Wal-Mart are not fighting for an ideology but for their companies’ sake.
As the company looks into future expansion, several considerations should be laid down to reduce resistance and negativity from the markets they want to venture in. The company should consider all the four major components of the corporate social responsibility so that they do not reap at the expense of other businesses.
The company should strive not to disrupt the social order of the members of the society, but should balance between profitability and social responsibility. Resistance in German for instance was as a result of culture clash and Wal-mart’s non-conformity to rules governing businesses in the country. Therefore the best way to integrate is to conform to the culture so as to avoid censure (Carroll, 2006).
Reference List Carroll, A. B. (2006). Business
Mintz’s Motivation in Sweetness and Power Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Facts from Mintz’s Biography Play a Very Important Role
Main Ideas of the Chapters
Personal Evaluation of the Book
Role of Sugar in History Is not about Sweets only
Sweetness and Power is one of the most popular works by Sydney Mintz, where the author makes a wonderful attempt to evaluate the role of sugar in our world, in human past, and future.
In fact, his approach to evaluate human history by means of analyzing sugar industry may seem not that clear to every reader; however, if several facts from Sydney Mintz’s life and career are taken into consideration, many unclear things become more understandable for people. First of all, it is necessary to admit that Sydney Mintz was an anthropologist. His profession implied a thorough analysis of people, their history, and its impact on their future.
It was not that interesting just to evaluate conditions, under which people lived and developed; however, if social and economic aspects are evaluated through a certain industry and with the help of particular examples, such approach should attract many readers. Mintz’s major purpose in this work was to clear up the changes, which took place on social and economic arenas. He compared social and economic aspects with people’s consumption, and underlined the necessity of sugar use for each Englishmen’s diets.
So, in Sweetness and Power, the main intention of Sydney Mintz was to pay readers’ attention on how capitalism may control human lives even in their eating process and impose the use of sugar as something really important and even crucial.
A topical question arises from the very beginning: if common people consume sugar without a slightest idea of its importance for society, what could motivate the author of the book to start his unique research and to produce this book as a result of it? The answer is in the question: Mintz has managed to prove that he is not only efficient scientist, but a skillful writer and psychologist, who is able to conduct a unique research, prove its importance and create a new attitude towards conventional matter.
In the book he is trying to persuade the reader that the role of sugar in the world system can scarcely be overestimated, and he tries to explain this role. The author’s main ambition was to reveal “the complex way in which sugar production was connected to the development and organization of slavery and capitalist expansion” (Kuever par. 8).
Facts from Mintz’s Biography Play a Very Important Role While writing Sweetness and Power, much was depended on the author’s personal live and his connections. It would be really difficult to find a person, who could cope with the task to analyze human history from the pure anthropological perspective better than it was done by Sydney Mintz. To prove this, it is necessary to say that due to his work he is considered to be “foremost scholar on sweetness” (Kuever par.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His professional experience of fifty years of work as an anthropologist is also a convincing argument. One more fact that is worth mentioning is that the scientist belongs to left-leaning anthropologists and he works “within Marxist framework” (Barnard and Spencer 33). He presented a view of peasant community as integrated in national economic and political relations on the basis of unequal terms: that peasants were both dependent and exploited (Barnard and Spencer 33).
Thus, the scientist’s susceptibility towards those who lived in colonies, and suffer from poverty and from being oppressed and exploited was the factor that helped to find the ground for his research. What is more, Sydney Mintz cannot be regarded as mere theorist, because had practical basis for his research, as he went to Puerto Rico in 1948 to live among people who worked on sugar plantations.
He lived in one dwelling with a young sugar cane worker, and he got an opportunity to get all information he needed from the primary source: peasant Puerto Rican community. This fact of his biography accounts for his fascination with sugar. The fact that the writer was on friendly terms with the inhabitants of colonies has dubious meaning.
On the one hand, it means that the scientist had realistic basis for his analysis, but, on the other hand, it means that he was almost sure to have a bias in favor of the inhabitants of the colonies. However, a cultured reader should consider both assumptions and interpret the book accordingly.
Main Ideas of the Chapters In the book under consideration, there are several major points, which have to be considered. First of all, Mintz admits that “human make food out of just about everything” (1). For a modern person, it is hard to comprehend why people pay so much attention to what they eat, and divide their preferences not according to their interests and preferences, but according to their ethnicity and nationality. People should eat only the food that is available for their environment.
As the subject analyzed in the book is presented in historical perspective, all chapters present certain importance for the complex understanding of the work. Still, because of the length limits of the work, the most important parts of the book will be analyzed right now.
In the introduction, Mintz prepares a favorable ground for perception of the arguments, saying that
We will write a custom Essay on Mintz’s Motivation in Sweetness and Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A single source of satisfaction –sucrose extracted from sugar cane– for what appears to be widespread, perhaps even universal, human liking for sweetness became established in European taste preferences at a time when European power, military might, and economic initiative were transforming the world (xxv).
At the beginning of the first chapter, he stresses the importance of nutrition for human beings: “Nutrition … is more fundamental than sex” (3). Thus, the author justifies the importance of food for anthropology. In the same chapter the anthologist dwells on the variety of attitudes to sweetness and establishes the border between “human likeness of sweetness and the supposed English ‘sweet tooth’” (Mintz 16).
The second chapter, “Production”, suggests the idea that Jamaica and other British colonies were precursors of factory system of modern capitalism, despite the fact that they were based on slavery and not on wage labor. He gives the description of strict discipline and the division of labor on the plantations:
The specialization by skill and jobs, and the division of labor by age, gender, and condition into crews, shifts and ‘gangs,’ together with the stress upon punctuality and discipline, are features associated more with industry than agriculture – at least in the sixteenth century (Mintz 45).
Mintz gives detailed “evolution” of sugar and its changing reputation. Though its roots come from the East, in Europe the sugar market was established only about 1800. However, earlier well-to-do people were main consumers of sugar.
There were times, when to own sugar meant to own gold, it was considered a sign of luxury and wealth. It is evident that the working class had no access to this treasure, and sugar became a “monopoly of a privileged minority” (Mills 43). M. Gadsby says that for enslaved people sugar meant “exploitation, abuse, theft of bodies, and of course death” (42).
Overall, in the course of time the attitude towards sugar passed through several stages: at first it was treated as medicine, later turned into a spice and condiment; there was time when people treated it as decorative material and a preservative. Finally, it gained a reputation of sweetener and the status of food (Mintz 112).
Personal Evaluation of the Book On reading the book, it can be stated that the author has managed to fulfill his task successfully. Now, it is known for sure that he has a right to be called “foremost scholar on sweetness”, as it was mentioned above (Kuever par.1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mintz’s Motivation in Sweetness and Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His picture of the history of sugar is so multidimensional and full, that it turns out to be a bit difficult to find out any shortcoming in his work. It can be proved by the fact that the scientist has even managed to analyze the meaning of sugar in literature and speech (Mintz 158). The choice of historical perspective was, probably the most successful choice the author could make.
He has managed to shed light on all spheres of society connected with sugar. Perhaps, the only weak point of the book is a bit complicated language, but as this book deals with anthropology, so the author has made it as accessible to non-specialists as he could. In general, the author’s intentions to represent the role of capitalists in ordinary people’s lives were rather successful, and his idea to concentrate on the sugar industry may be justified, because sweets will be always interesting to people.
Role of Sugar in History Is not about Sweets only Overall, the anthropologist Sydney Mintz has managed to show that sugar can make life not sweet, but very bitter, as it happened to the slaves, who worked on sugar plantations. It was because of sugar and its popularity that “capitalists needed to find sources of cheap labor for the cane fields, leading to the enslavement of Africans in the Caribbean” (Kuever par.8).
The book about sugar has made the reader think about slavery and unfairness of the leading classes towards the exploited ones. This book should be read by everyone, as it is may teach the readers many lessons, starting with history of humanity and finishing with moral and ethical conclusions.
Almost each reader may learn one important lesson from this book: even those things, which may seem trivial and of minor importance, in fact, may rule the history. Sugar has proved to be as fatal as gold. For a long period of time, it was impossible to imagine that sugar was the main cause of people’s exploitation and slavery.
What is more, it is evident now that sugar bears certain responsibility for underdevelopment of the Caribbean. The work by Barnard and Spencer proves this with the help of the example of Henry Wolf (Barnard and Spencer 33). Meredith Gadsby said: “We (Caribbean women) have made a lasting contribution to the British economy and we have paid for it with our blood, our sweat and out tears” (73).
This citation may be used, when speaking about sugar that is a very unique substance in all senses, as it turned out to be. In general, people should not be very careful when they evaluate this or that thing, because time has such unbelievable powers, which allow to change the essence of any thing and to make it crucially important for people.
Works Cited Barnard, Alan and Spencer, Jonathan. Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. London: Taylor
Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes: being prejudiced because of inequalities is not always correct Analytical Essay college essay help online
The ideas of sexism and homophobia are still considered to be one of the most burning ones and the most difficult to analyze. Lots of people cannot comprehend how people of the same sex may create couple, bring up children, and be a separate family institution. Female oppression and gay humiliation touch upon race and ethnic lines (Sex, Lies and Stereotypes), and this problem cannot but bother so many people.
The exhibition under consideration, Sex, Lies and Stereotypes, is aimed to prove how unfair but still constant discrimination of people is; and several illustrative posters like Women Are Not Chicks or Oh, So That Explains the Differences in Our Salaries demonstrate how burning the topic can be and underline that so many people of different age and gender are already in these discussions.
People try to use their sexuality to its full extent in order to achieve the desirable goals and meet their demands: diets, comparisons, lies, and suggestions create certain limits for human achievements, and people are eager to find different approaches to overcome them, but still, they cannot comprehend that they themselves create these limitations and suffer.
Lots of sophisticated scholars determine “homophobia as a cause of sexism, heterosexism, and racism” (Murphy 191). As we know, phobia means fear, and sometimes, this fear may be conscious, but sometimes, this fear is regarded as unconscious.
Nowadays, lots of men are still afraid of their own tastes and preferences just because the traditions of masculinity are considerably exaggerated. The point is that “society is less threatened by lesbian sexuality than by gay sexuality” (Carroll 302), but still the fear to be a member of such minority exists in any person. This prejudice to of wrong sexuality is so deeply rooted that even time does not have such powers to destroy these problems and solve the problems once for all.
By means of pictures, it is possible to observe that relations between men are still regarded as something strange (Stand by Your Man), and the power of lesbians does not lead to development of society but attention to the affairs, which are inherent to women only (Lesbians Are Coming out in Full Force).
The exhibition helps to comprehend that even art plays a very important role in all these discussions and can help to make solutions by means of illustrative examples.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observing the life of ordinary people and talking to relatives, friends, and friends’ relatives, it becomes clear that women want to become as slim as possible, this is why they try to keep diets and ruin their health; gender discrimination at work influences people’s attitude to their duties and benefits; and gay marriages are still not comprehended by some part of society and cause numerous misunderstandings.
The main message of this exhibition lies in its title and several subtitles: sex, lies, and stereotypes are so closely connected to each other, that, very often, these three issues have unbelievable mutual impact. The strong side of the exhibition under consideration is its diversity: its creators mention everything from children participation in these discussions to both gay and lesbian marriages.
It is necessary to underline that gays’ and lesbians’ presence in military is still under a question, lots of parents may simply deny their children with non-standard orientation, the vast majority of gays are bashed very frequently, and same-sex marriages are not allowed in many countries.
These problems have to be mentioned, it is necessary to solve them in order to make this life safer and to improve our generation’s future. With the help of pictures, offered at the exhibitions like Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes, people get a chance to realize how many problems exist in this world and have to be solved.
A picture, where two men take each other’s hands and cut the cake, shows that people around supports their decision; they do not want to hide their relations, and even the figures of little men on the case symbolize the idea that people of different spheres of life accept this choice and are ready to help them. It is not necessary to see their eyes, because they identify men as a part of society, who is ready to make decisions and takes own tastes and interests into account.
In my opinion, it is wrong to think that sex and stereotypes are based on lies, but this is the only idea that comes to my mind when I look at the title of this exhibition. However, some subheadings, offered within this exhibition, help me comprehend the essence of the problem of sexism and homophobia and realize how one of the issues influences the development of the other.
If women prefer to create couples with women, men in their turn can do the same. And if the power of women raises day by day, the approaches, women use should be changed as well. Success requires considerable and radical steps, and people are ready to take them just in order to correspond to current conditions.
We will write a custom Essay on Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes: being prejudiced because of inequalities is not always correct specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Carroll, Janell, L. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2009.
Murphy, Peter, F. Feminism and Masculinities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Sex, Lies, and Stereotypes. Center for the Study of Political Graphics. 2004. Web.
Jane Elliot’s Experiment: Compare and Contrast Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
A Class Divided is one of the most popular documentaries, which discuss the ideas of discrimination among people. It is an experiment, conducted by Jane Elliot, an American 3rd Grade students’ teacher, is about the division of the group into two subgroups according to the color of their eyes: blue eye group and brown eye group.
Mrs. Elliot’s experiments with 3rd grade students and with adults have lots in common and certain differences, which may be classified according to such concepts like social groups, their sizes, leadership styles, and formal organization.
Elliot’s control over the members of the groups plays a very important role and proves that those, who have certain power, can easily impose different ideas on people and make these people change their minds within short periods of time.
The main idea of Jane Elliot’s experiment is to teach people about racism and prejudice, and demonstrate how stereotyping may change people’s lives once and forever. The members of the group, who are called superior, have to behave and feel like they are superior in everything. Those members, who are defined as inferior, have to behave in the inferior ways. The results of this experiment demonstrate how simple words without proper grounds, but told by powerful people, may influence people’s behavior and attitudes to other people.
In both experiments, secondary social groups were chosen. These groups were later divided into two out-groups, where one social group felt opposition to another. However, the difference that lies between these two social groups of young students and adults is their relations to each other.
When young students got to know that some of them were superior above the others, they could use power to prove their ideas and convict the “inferiors”. And the adult group of people used mostly words and superior tone to demonstrate their higher positions. Jane Elliot used formal organization according to which she created groups, which had to achieve certain goals and prove their positions and the rights, the members of the groups had.
They were normative formal organizations because each member of those groups joined voluntary in order to achieve a worthwhile aim and comprehend that racism was the problem to solve immediately. When the sizes of the groups are huge enough, it is necessary to clear up the type of leadership.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In both cases, the teacher performed the functions of an instrumental leader: she created a goal, and, by means of the orders and rewards, controlled the situation. When the 3rd grade students were under the experiment, the teacher gave an order that blue eye students had priorities, and brown eye students did not have the right to command or express personal discontent.
In general, there were not leaders within the groups, this is why the teacher was the only one leader and performed her instrumental leadership functions in a proper way.
To my mind, during students’ experiment, the teacher used authoritarian leadership style, because she gave orders and students had to obey, because of her high position. In the case with adults, the teacher took laissez-faire style and provided the members with a chance to run the situation and communicate.
In general, the experiment, conducted by Mrs. Elliot, helped to comprehend how unfair and prejudiced people of any age could be. These experiments proved that words have unbelievable power over people; and if these words are told by a person with certain authority, people may obey them in different ways and even use power over the others.
In any case, the control mechanisms did not actually vary in experiments for adults and for young students. Mrs. Elliot made a right decision to use words as the main controlling means over people and was successful with her experiments.
Works Cited A Class Divided. Pt.1 4 Aug. 2008. Web.
A Class Divided. Pt.2 4 Aug. 2008. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Jane Elliot’s Experiment: Compare and Contrast specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Class Divided. Pt.3 4 Aug. 2008. Web.
A Class Divided. Pt.4 4 Aug. 2008. Web.
(1) One example of virtual reality that most of us often use without thinking about is our GPS navigation. Every time I hop into the car to go someplace, I pull out my phone and type in the destinatio cheap essay help
Every time I hop into the car to go someplace, I pull out my phone and type in the destination. I quickly know which route will be the fastest, traffic conditions, road closures, or even if any cops are waiting to write a ticket ahead. This small virtual “world” created by someone is a massive help in our day-to-day lives. Everyone using the GPS app participates whether they know it or not, and all that data updates the virtual world in real-time. Different GPS applications have other overlays and interfaces. It never occurred to me that a designer had to imagine and portray pretty much the entire world for us to use and interact with their apps in a user-friendly and aesthetically pleasing way. I use Waze, but google and android have their versions of GPS that are each a little different in their way.
Virtual Reality surrounds us in our daily lives as we are confronted by games, live action role play, hypertext novels, movies, art, and through digital doctor visits and medical devices. Technology has created a bridge which allows us more participation so that we can interface with parts of our lives that were not possible before. One such example, that millions of us use on a daily basis, is the smart phone.
With my iPhone I can immerse myself into social media, carry on digital conversations with others while using a filter and modified photos to look how I want. I can transcend the boundaries of my everyday life by interfacing with my phone: checking the weather, ordering online meals, transferring money from one bank account to another, counting my calories, logging my daily steps, check the best route to avoid traffic, listen to recommendations for my play list, stalk my coworkers along with strangers and box-office super stars, all while making a phone call. This technology gives us a new narrative. It gives us a sense of control over all aspects of our lives, including things that are not within our control. In the end, although it can be a useful tool, smart phones allow us to play serious make-believe. Rather than control most of these aspects, smartphones give us a sense of participation that we didn’t feel before. It makes us feel more engaged therefore enhancing each of these experiences.
A less extreme, less technological example would be my favorite form of virtual reality: photographs. Photos capture a memorable time and place. Looking at these can build a bridge between the present and the past, allowing memories to flood forward. These metaphysical realities transcend the image you see. They create feelings, sounds, smells, and thoughts. I can look at a picture of my husband and I from a couple of years ago, and suddenly remember the way his warn hand felt on my arm, the bristle of his beard on my cheek as he nestled in for the picture, the smell of his soap, and I can remember how loud it was, how we struggled to hear one another over the loud music. I even remember how full my heart felt, being there with him. And best of all, different photographs can allow for different feelings, some good, some bad, but each has its own felt meaning.
IN 3-4 LINES, RESPOND TO THIS TWO DISCUSSION BOARD
How LG Electronics Manages Technology and Innovation Report essay help online
Executive Summary Innovation is the development or acceptance of processes and ideas that are considered new by the company generating them and the customer that is being targeted. Organizational Innovation is a company trait that is consistent in firms which are truly innovative. Innovative firms exhibit innovativeness over a long period of time. One such firm is LG which has consistently come up with unique innovations.
The backbone of the firms operations is in innovation of new technology with the aim of coming up with new products and services which can meet the customers’ needs. The firm spends its resources on ensuring that new products are regularly released to the market. Commitment to innovation is the culture of LG as it endeavors to satisfy and exceed the customer’s expectations. LG has been a force to reckon with as it is more innovative than most of its competitors (LG Electronics 2009).
This report aims to analyze LG Electronics innovativeness, the management of its innovation processes and the effect of this on its competitiveness in the market. The report will also highlight the strategies used by LG Electronics in maintaining its position as the market leader in innovation and product development.
Introduction Innovation is one of the most important influencers of organizational success. It is useful for gaining competitive advantage over competitors and enhancing strategic management of an organization. Innovation is the adoption and implementation of fresh approaches and technologies.
Innovativeness is the capacity of an organization to undertake and support innovative ideas. Such an organization encourages experimentation, creativity and other activities which will result in a new service, product or technology. Research and development is also an integral part of innovation. (Salvou 2004)
LG electronics is ahead of its competitors in terms of technologies, digital product growth and market dominance. The company’s products are designed to make the customers life more convenient and pleasant. In order to achieve this, LG has come up with state of the art innovations (LG Electronics 2009).
The development of technology is very important in the electronics industry and therefore LG electronics ensures that innovation and technology of the organization are managed effectively. With increased competition in technologies such as plasma and projection, LG Electronics has to sharpen its innovative capacities if it is to remain competitive in the market. To achieve its objectives in the market, LG electronics recruits high talented and intelligent individuals. (LG Electronics 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper aims to review how LG manages innovation and technology. This includes how it uses technology to gain competitive advantage and how it maintains its innovativeness. In addition, an evaluation of the issues and risks faced by the organization will also be carried out.
Background of the organization LG Electronics is a global leader in the production of electronics, telecommunications products and chemicals. The organization was started in Korea with the name ‘Lucky Chemical Industries’ in the year 1947. The focus at the time was on the manufacture of chemicals. However, the organization ventured into the electronics industry and by the year 1958, it was the largest producer of radios, color televisions and fans. In 1959, it changed its name to Goldstar as it began producing plastic items.
Goldstar was the first company to produce a radio in Korea and it went on to produce other household electronic products. In addition, the company produced soaps, detergents and other hygiene products under the Lucky brand. (Pecht 1997)
In the year 1995, the company was named ‘LG’, which was the abbreviation of ‘Lucky Goldstar’. The company also uses the tagline, ‘Life’s Good’ in marketing the products. Today, LG Electronics is a global organization operating businesses in many countries all over the world. The company has a target market of more than 171 countries. LG electronics is one of the biggest contributors to Koreas GNP. It contributes more than 10% of the country’s Gross National Product. It also has exports sales of over 15% (Mathur 2005).
LG has been involved in both the incremental and disruptive levels of innovation. Incremental innovation is a change in the technology or a product while disruptive innovation is a change in the consumer patterns. However, LG electronics has been more focused on advancing and developing technology and products. LG Electronics thrives on innovation and has released a number of new technologies and products in the market. (LG Electronics 2009)
Recent Appliance innovations
The new stem washing machine from LG is a very unique product and has received the world’s first NeT i.e. New Technology Certificate. This is because of its dual steam injection system that can remove some harmful substances with the high temperature steam. It provides a sterilization capacity of up to 99.9%. In addition, the machine rinses clothes very effectively. LG has also produced the first cartridge-type steam dryer which can remove creases, static and odors using the Real Steam Module.
The air conditioner unveiled by LG made with special technology which makes users feel cooler faster. It has twin wide-wings on both sides which provides a dynamic three-dimensional cooling effect. It is also beautifully decorated with Swarovski crystals and atmospheric lights. (LG Electronics 2009).
We will write a custom Report on How LG Electronics Manages Technology and Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mobile Phones Innovations
LG has been able to meet the current demand for more advanced and user-friendly mobile phone devices. The firm has developed phones that are unique yet functional for the customer. The PRADA phone is a revolutionary innovation by LG that has a touch-operated handset interface. The phone has a big WQVGA screen which is a unique feature that has attracted many customers.
In addition, this mobile device has no buttons and can easily be operated by the fingertip or a stylus pen. The PRADA phone received the 2007 Reddot and iF design awards. The Viewty phone is an exclusive combination of a phone and a camera. It is 5-megapixel and has both automatic and manual focus settings. It is suitable for use at night and has the ability to record high-speed moving objects. (LG Electronics 2009)
Digital Media Innovations
The Design Art Home Theater is a state of the art product that combines beauty and quality sound. The perfect harmony between the DVD player and speakers produces a superb sound coupled with an impeccable image quality. The Blu-ray drive from LG is the world’s fastest at a speed that is six times as fast as others. This device supports playback, recording of DVD/CD and recording. (LG Electronics 2009)
How LG uses innovation for competitiveness LG has employed innovation as one of the main drives of competitiveness. According to Hitt, Hoskisson and Ireland (2008), LG has been able to enjoy continuous success due to persistent product innovation. For instance, it is believed that Motorola was unable to compete with LG in the fast changing phone industry because LG has been continuously innovative.
Instead of focusing on creating new products, Motorola simply developed sequels to its initial products such as the RAZR phone. Conversely, LG was focused on developing new and distinctive models to offer to the market. To support this, the firm doubled the number of designers and engineers in the mobile phone section so as to ensure maximum and unmatched innovation. (Hitt, Hoskisson and Ireland 2008)
To ensure competitiveness in the market, LG is using its resources, core competencies and capabilities on innovation and technology development. To enhance this, the firm relies on its core competencies which are product leadership, market leadership and people leadership.
Product leadership is the capacity to come up with innovative superior products by developing enhanced technologies. LG is committed to fast innovations and has developed primary and support activities which sustain creativity and innovation. LG is intent on developing 30% more innovations than its competitors. (Hitt, Hoskisson and Ireland 2008)
How LG Electronics maintains its innovation/competitiveness
Development of new ideas
Research and development
LG electronics maintains its innovation by aggressively engaging in research and development. The firm has come up with a network of research and development laboratories in various parts of the world including Sunnyvale, California, Chicago and Tokyo. These laboratories monitor the alterations in technology and develop high-tech products using advanced research and development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How LG Electronics Manages Technology and Innovation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, this centers look for opportunities to get into strategic agreements with other companies in other companies. The research and development center in Sunnyvale is responsible for designing modern personal computers, high-resolution monitors and display terminals. The laboratory in Chicago deals with telecommunications equipment, HDTV and digital VCR. (Keller
The Democratic Party vs the Republican Party as Important Organizing Political Structures in the United States Compare and Contrast Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
At the beginning of the 19th century, two significant parties appeared on the American political field. They were the Democratic Party (1824) and the Republican Party (1854). The development of these two parties made the United States of America one of those nations, where two different ideologies were supported on a national level and had equal access to executive power that they used alternately.
The Democratic Party and the Republican Party have many differences in their colours, stands, philosophies, and symbols, but they are united by one strong goal that is to make the United States of America the most powerful nation and provide its citizens with the opportunities to live wealthy and happily.
First of all, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party have different symbols and colours that make them memorable for the population. The democratic donkey is considered to be a symbol that signifies something “humble, homely, smart, courageous and loveable” (Anderson 44).
However, the Republicans think that the democratic donkey is nothing more than a stubborn and silly animal. On their turn, Democrats regard the republican elephant as a stupid and conservative symbol that does not underline American supremacy and uniqueness, and the Republicans admit that their elephant how “dignified, strong and intelligent” (Anderson 44) this animal is and how precisely it underlines the Americans’ nature.
In spite of the fact that the division of colours is informal and unofficial, media and public can easily recognize the party according to its colour. Till the year 2000, not much attention has been paid to the colours of the parties. However, the elections of the 43rd President of the United State were under so hot discussions, that the whole political field was divided in accordance with their colours: red states were for George W. Bush and blue states provided Al Gore with the necessary support.
The positions of the parties also differ considerably in various spheres of life. For example, on the economical field, Democrats stand for the empowerment of individual workers in order to strengthen the economy.
Americans have to be provided with the necessary compensation and treatment, and corporate fraud has to be abolished or, at least, controlled by the government. Republicans try to maintain the policies of large companies. In order to develop American corporations, it is crucially important to lower taxes and stimulate corporations but not workers (Long 238).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social positions of the Democratic and Republican Parties are undergone changes within a short period of time, but still, their different nature is quite noticeable and worthy of attention.
Democrats prove that the idea of personal choice and liberty has to be the most important one in the United States. Only under such conditions, people turn out to be responsible for their thoughts, actions, and outcomes. According to the democratic point of view, the government has to provide people with a chance to choose and make decision independently.
In comparison to such free and undependable position, the ideas of Republicans seem to be rather restrictive, because they propose a strong control over people by the government. Morals and values have to be the same for each citizen, and only the government has enough power and authority to impose people follow certain rules and instructions. Only under such governmental control, the country may achieve great results and success in all spheres of life.
All these differences may create one simple question concerning how these two absolutely different parties may exist within one country, communicate peacefully, and provide the development of their country on different levels and in different spheres of life.
However, when we talk about the similarities of the Democratic and Republican Parties, we have to take into consideration the fact that these parties aim at developing the prosperity and success of the United States. The representatives of these two parties try to offer more and more effective ways in order to create really powerful nation and gain recognition around the whole world.
One more similarity of Democrats and Republicans is not that positive, but still influential: these parties care their business first of all, and only then they start carrying about their people. On my opinion, it is one of those features that are inherent to any political party of any country. However, maybe this very point makes these parties really powerful and reliable for the nation.
In general, “political parties are thus intrinsic to political life and a source of continual internal conflict in all states” (Schramm and Wilson 17). The Democratic and Republican political parties are the two major parties in the United States of America, which, in spite of their numerous differences, aim at promoting America as the most powerful states in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on The Democratic Party vs the Republican Party as Important Organizing Political Structures in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their philosophies and ideas are so different and even absolutely controversial, but such diversity is the one that provide USA with a chance to choose an appropriate way for success, taking into consideration current events and conditions. The parties supplement each other, and I think that the absence or collapse of one of the parties under consideration may certainly lead to the failure of another.
Works Cited Anderson, Dale. The Democratic Party: America’s Oldest Party. Minneapolis, MN: White-Thomson Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Long, John, D. The Republican Party: Its History, Principles, and Policies. BiblioBazaar, 2008.
Schramm, Peter, W and Wilson, Bradford. American Political Parties and Constitutional Politics. Maryland: Rowman
Adolescent Spirituality: Lectio Divina, Meditatio, Oratio, and Contemplatio Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Practicing Sacred Reading
Self-Awareness and My Place in the World
What did I learn about God?
What did I learn about ministry?
A spiritual discipline is something that should take a considerable part of human life and change it in the way that makes a person closer to God.
On my opinion, a spiritual discipline is the one that has to be taken seriously, from the bottom of a human heart. It is crucially important to take it regularly in order to keep proper relations with God and make use of them during this life. Personally I, a 28-year old non-denominational Christian, believe that spiritual disciplines are the activities, which can make people more valuable and create a kind of space, where God will play a leading role.
This time, I have to concentrate on such concepts like lectio divina, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio. After practicing sacred reading, as one of possible spiritual disciplines, I get a chance to comprehend deeper the essence of my life, the role of God, and ministry, improve my self-awareness, and become closer to God and universe.
Practicing Sacred Reading My spiritual practice consists of several steps. One of the most responsible steps is to pick out a book that can be easily readable. It should not take too much space, the paper has to be white (it is my personal desire), and the author should prefer not too complicated style of writing.
I make a decision to read Holy Bible in an easy-to-read version. The next step in my practice is to find a quiet place with enough light in order not only to learn lection divina but also enjoy the comfort and burn a desire to read more. It is also very important to choose time for reading the book. For me, not too late evening is just fine. Proper chosen book and the place for reading make it possible to concentrate on meditation.
With the help of accurate suggestions of the prayer, the way to contemplation may be open to me. This plan for my spiritual practice is almost perfect. The only issue that is obligatory is my desire to complete this task. It is a new activity in my life, this is why the more time I spend on preparations for this practice, the more desire I get to start this affair.
Self-Awareness and My Place in the World Tony Jones (2003) admits that “reading without meditation is dry. Meditation without reading is subject to error. Prayer without meditation is lukewarm. Meditation without prayer is fruitless. Prayer without devotion leads to contemplation whereas contemplation without prayer happens rarely or by a miracle” (p. 43). This information has a considerable impact on my perception of this practice and the desire to achieve the best results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When I read the book, first, I try to imagine how other people can react to the same information. The idea become rather different; my imagination starts working. It is necessary to stop and concentrates more on my personal perception of the world, my role in this world, and my place. I realize that nothing and no one can improve my life except God and me. God can hear my prayers if they sound sincere and honest. It is useless to ask God to provide people with money or sex, with respect and recognition.
All these issues may be achieved by a person independently. However, it is possible to ask for health or patience, support or luck. This practice helps me comprehend that there are lots of things I can reach independently, just make certain efforts and believe in myself. People are all equal before God, and it is impossible that one person is worthy of God’s support and care, and another person is not.
What did I learn about God? I want to admit that I am too happy and proud that I get a chance to pass through this spiritual practice and learn more about God and his power. Many people still cannot believe that it is possible to communicate with God. Of course, He does not come to your house, knock at the door, and ask for a cup of tea.
However, if a person takes seriously lectio divina and believes in the possibility to ask God for help and get the answer, a kind of illumination will certainly come. God opens his heart to any person: it does not matter whether you have sins, do not believe in God, or spend all your life on praying. Very often, people complain of inability to communicate and get a piece of advice.
However, they ask God for help subconsciously, and usually, get answers or at least some hints while they are sleeping. In the morning, people wake up and have several ideas of how to solve their problems, find more inspiration, or even start this new day properly. God knows what each person wants, and He will certainly find time to satisfy human needs and promote their actions, their beliefs, and their hopes.
What did I learn about ministry? My background knowledge about ministry and its roles in religion and in a church is not too rich. I know for sure that it is a kind of religious organization that aims at providing various religious services, which are crucial for people. These services may involve weddings, funerals, or some sermons. These six weeks of practicing help me to comprehend how important and indispensible ministry’s duties are.
These organizations give other people a chance to be closer to the Bible, to its content, and the messages, which are left for people and are intended to help them believe, enjoy this life, and respect any human being in this world. Ministry is a kind of stairs or even handrails, which help not to fall or stumble over. Ministry may have numerous faces, but one goal – to be available for people, who need or search for help.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Adolescent Spirituality: Lectio Divina, Meditatio, Oratio, and Contemplatio specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many tragedies and challenges are waiting for people during their lives, and the ministry should care about humanity and give people a chance to communicate to God. Sometimes, it is enough to look at a minister in order to realize what should be done next. And I think that only ministry is capable to complete these functions on a proper level.
This spiritual discipline and the practice I have to pass through is a wonderful chance to learn more about God and ministry, about myself and my place in this world, about human abilities and people’s usual complaints. Each of us has good and bad mornings and days, and it may happen that no one can support or give a hand.
The help of God is invisible for many people, but still it exists and is available for any person. The point is that not every person is able to use it properly, to believe that everything is possible, and to improve own life. I want my family trust in God in order to be sure that one day, when I am far away, God will care about my family and show them the necessary safe way.
Reference List Jones, T. (2003). Sacred Reading. In Soul Shaper: Exploring Spirituality and Contemplative Practices in Youth Ministry. El Cajon, California: Youth Specialties.
Rain Man and Psychological Concepts Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The vast majority of people are fond of movies and find many of them rather education and helpful to their every day life. One of the most powerful sides of any movie is raising and discussing numerous psychological problems and concepts, which help to solve vital problems and challenges and be satisfied with the results.
One of such movies, which may touch human soul and mind, is Rain Main starring Tom Cruise and Dustin Hoffman. This movie describes a story of a young man, Charlie Babbit, who is eager to take his father’s business and money after the latter’s death; however, the dreams of Mr. Babbit are failed, when he gets to know that all father’s money go to his brother, he has not known before. Now, Charlie has to meet his brother, gain his confidence, and make him give money.
But the events become more interesting, when Charlie meets Raymond and comprehends that their lives are so connected. Raymond’s autism is one of the first problems, Charlie has to cope with; but everything is not that easy as Charlie expects. Rain Man teaches people trust, care, and support each other, helps to comprehend and assist those people with autism spectrum, and explains that people are not always all-powerful, and certain whims of destiny cannot be outwitted.
Psychology is regarded as a science about behavior and all mental processes, which are inherent to people and other living beings (Nevid, 2008).
The major point of this science is its grounds to observations and theories, because all facts about beings have to be collected first of all, and their organized into theories in order to explain human behavior and their reactions to certain situations, predict possible consequences, and influence or even improve future behavior.
Lots of psychological concepts exist and considerably influence human attitude to current events, problems, and challenges. These concepts make people differ from each other and represent absolutely different reaction to the same situations. Some psychological concepts are perfectly described and analyzed in movies, songs, and works of arts.
However, movies are the best examples of how certain psychological concepts have to be accepted by people. Rain Man is a wonderful film about complicated relations between two brothers, where one of them is suffering from autism and another is suffering from his desire to have as much money as possible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concepts of autism, conformity, and trust are described in the movie; and the peculiarity of this story is that one concept is closely connected to another concept, and the consequences of one concept influence considerably the development of another one.
Autism is a psychological concept that is described by unbelievable work of human mind that is not inherent to ordinary people and specific social interaction and communication with other people (Rodriguez, 2008).
Raymond, the main character in Rain Man perfectly describes the concept of autism: his reactions to slight changes in his life, his attitude to people and their mistakes, his desire to follow one and the same order of events. The theme of autism is implied in the plot and even creates a wonderful and strong ground for the development of the events and other psychological concepts.
The concept of trust may be examined in both main characters on the movie. Charlie, as an ordinary man, who is eager to become rich and does not take many efforts, trusts only to himself.
He believes that trust to other people will make him weaker; this is why he tries to use his charm in order to make other people trust him. In comparison to Charlie, Raymond does not actually care about this concept, because he is not aware of the consequences of trust; he even does not actually comprehend what trust should mean. This is why he listens to his brother and believes each his word.
As a psychological concept, trust is used to predict human acceptance of mood and behavior by other people. In this movie, a person gets a wonderful opportunity to evaluate how the concept of trust may be used in two different ways: to trust people and be a person, whom other people trust.
From this very concept, another not less important concept of conformity may be observed. Raymond trusts Charlie, this is why he obeys to each Charlie’s order. The concept of conformity, displayed by Raymond, involves acting in certain ways in order to achieve certain goals and ask Charlie to meet own demands.
We will write a custom Report on Rain Man and Psychological Concepts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the fact that Charlie is the person, who trusts nobody, his conformity is displayed when he cannot resist Raymond demands to turn on TV and watch the program People’s Court (Rain Man). Raymond reaction to impossibility to watch his favorite program is so terrible and loud, that Charlie has nothing to do but find the way and find the TV-set for his brother.
In this way, the concept of conformity demonstrates how a person can sacrifice own demands and interests in order to please another person and predict brother’s agony.
The significance of these concepts is really amazing: two brothers, who should spend some time together, try to unite the above-mentioned psychological concepts, displayed within them in different ways, and understand own demands, desires, and needs. Rain Man helps to realize how one and the same concepts may have absolutely different consequences for two brothers in the same situations.
The ideas, raised in the movie, help many people comprehend this world and its challenges better. Within a short period of time, an egoistic person turns into a caring brother, who is going to sacrifice many things and people in order to be closer. People always learn on their own mistakes, however, those people, who watch this movie attentively should evaluate the situation and make use of the story. We have to trust to each other, or each of us will become an egoist and cheapskate.
Our life is too short to reduce to money and personal satisfaction. People around also deserve love and care, and if someone has a chance to share this support and love, it is necessary to use such chance soon.
The analysis of three psychological concepts in the movie Rain Man provide me with a chance to comprehend that the essence of our lives is not about money, food, and satisfaction. Nowadays, it turns out to be so weird to help other people and care about own relatives, who suffer from incurable disease or inborn defects.
Tom Cruise’s character serves as a good example of how egoistic people may chance because of the circumstances and teaches us to open our eyes on human problems much earlier. Raymond starring Dustin Hoffman is the character, who perfectly displays the concept of autism and the challenges, people with such disorder may face with. Each character and the director of the movie Rain Man did a good job to explain the concepts of autism, trust, and conformity and advise people how to live this life properly.
Reference List Johnson, M (Producer)
New Tobacco Fight Argumentative Essay best essay help: best essay help
There are several ethical issues raised in the issue of curbing and restricting the advertisement of tobacco. According to the World Conference on Tobacco and Health, tobacco is the only consumer product that has killed more than half of its regular users and is responsible for about 5 million deaths worldwide annually.
Although the health risks associated with smoking are known and well documented, the consumption of tobacco products increases daily. The main tobacco related death is due to lung cancer (Chapman, 1996).
However, tobacco producers have been operating for a long time despite the continuous conflicts with the public health sector. The main ethical issue in this case is the situation where profitability is more important to companies than the lives of its customers.
The initiate proposed aims to protect young people from indulging in cigarette smoking at an early age. On the other hand, the firms should be free to market and sell legal products with out interference from other bodies. Should the bill be passed, the firms’ marketing activities and profitability will be affected (Chapman, 1996).
In the 1950s, tobacco companies signed an agreement that they will consider public, safety and health of their consumers as their main goal. These same companies have now used their political and economic influence to prevent the enactment of meaningful and fair laws by that would see a proper structure govern how tobacco is produced, sold, labeled and even advertised. In the event that a restrictive law that does not favor the tobacco industry, it is faced with heavy of opposition especially from those parties that have a stake in the companies (Eissenberg, 2006).
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) seems to be at the back of the protagonists minds. CSR involves accounting for and redressing the influences of a company on the society. It would be erroneous to state that tobacco producing firms that are fighting this bill are good corporate citizens. There stand is unethical as it is bound to affect the society negatively (Elders, 1994).
Tobacco provides high revenues to the government, in form of tax and other tariffs. In addition, this industry is one of the biggest employers and supporter of the tobacco farmers while contributing to the firms GDP. Consequently, the government is caught in between protecting its citizens from the effects of tobacco consumption and the revenue it collects from the tobacco-manufacturing firms.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That may explain why there had been a general laxity in the government to deal with this menace once and for all. Reforms have been slow to implement all the while, people are dying of an otherwise preventable cause (Chapman, 1996).
It’s also evident that the tobacco industry is very large and some of the market players are willing to spend millions of dollars on legal cases. The production, development and marketing of tobacco and tobacco products remain a multibillion-dollar industry.
Tens of thousands of people are dependent on the production, processing, manufacture, sale, distribution and marketing of tobacco and tobacco products. This has caused companies like Brown and Williams to seek legal action anytime there is a restrictive policy for the advertisement of tobacco products.
Most of these corporations have a tendency of misinforming the consumers on the dangers associated with tobacco consumption. They normally present their product to the consumer as either classy or stylish so as to attract the young people and the middle class. However, the negative health effects that are associated with smoking are omitted thus creating a misinformed public (Chapman, 1996).
The tobacco manufacturers are probably the main stakeholders who are affected by the tobacco legislation. According to Tobacco Atlas, tobacco production has nearly doubled since the 1960’s, totaling almost 6.5 million metric tons in 2004. For example, it is noted that in developing countries, increasing demand and favorable policies have resulted in a high increase in production, while production has declined by more than 50% in developed countries (Moore, 2004).
If this trend persists as projected in 2010, more than 85 percent of the world’s tobacco will be planted in the developing countries. With an increased number of cigarette smokers among the youth and the middle class, they present a ready market for the tobacco industry.
Most consumers start using tobacco due to the attractive adverts that portray smoking to be cool and classy. Once the consumption begins, the effect of nicotine becomes a reality making it difficult for the consumer to quit due to its addictive effect (Moore, 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on New Tobacco Fight specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stakeholder in this issue is the policy makers and government. There are the main beneficiaries from tobacco manufacturing companies. There are major benefits from tax and other forms of income they get from the tobacco companies. For years, tobacco policy in the United States has been aligned to the interests of the tobacco industry and its allies (Elders, 1994).
In recent years, few, if any, real substantive hearings have been held on tobacco in spite of the overwhelming impact that tobacco has on the health of the nation including expenditures for health care costs. With this bold move by congress to restrict tobacco advertisement, it’s a win loose situation with the policy makers having to take less than they normally do due to the decrease of consumption (Marlin, 2002).
I fully agree to all the restrictions that have been proposed. All measures to reduce tobacco consumption should be embraced. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to tobacco advertising as they strive for autonomy and social acceptance, and work toward an identity of their own.
Young people evaluate advertising messages indirectly with their emotions as opposed to making a logical analysis of its content. The billions of dollars spent on advertising by the tobacco industry have bore fruit with the teenagers (Bradburn, 2001).
Advertisements by smoking companies include billboards, posters and television. However, the firms seem to prefer outdoor advertisement since this medium can reach the young people. According to research, tobacco advertising contributes largely to non-smokers trying out the product for the first time.
They usually do not know the health problems they risk getting. It is imperative that this legislation against smoking be upheld particularly for the sake of the youth and non-smokers who not knowing the implication involved might be tempted to try the product. Increasing availability of information concerning the health effects of smoking is beneficial (Bradburn, 2001).
For alcohol and fatty foods, a workable mechanism ought to be institute by the policy makers to ensure that the consumers of these products understand the risks involved in their consumption. Alcohol has and will remain a product that has an untapped market niche. Most consumers of alcohol do so for enjoyment or after work just to relax.
This should be a personal choice on whether to indulge in liquor consumption but under aged drinking and over consumption should be discouraged. People who have seen all the health risk involved should now make rational decisions on whether to take them or not. Otherwise, even without advertising, there will always be a ready market for alcohol and fatty foods (Moore, 2004).
Not sure if you can write a paper on New Tobacco Fight by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, there should be restrictions on whom some of the advertisements target as well as discouraging over consumption or underage drinking. The concern state officials such as the ministry of health should stress the need for health eating. Unfortunately, restricting the advertisement for these products will not be useful the in the long run. People who are aware of the need for proper eating of balanced diets from massive awareness programs will not consume fatty foods (Moore, 2004).
It is unethical for the advertising industry to lobby against the proposed restrictions. The firms are well aware of the consequences of their actions but they are not concerned with the health effects of their products.
It is clear that the advertising firms felt short changed by not getting enough funds from the restrictive tobacco advertisement. With all the risk implications that are involved with cigarettes smoking, the advertising firms and the tobacco manufacturers have only their economic interest at heart not bothering about what happens to the consumers (Chapman, 1996).
The state on the other hand should push forward with this strict advertisement restriction for tobacco products. Financial gains should not count when consumers are faced with the risk of getting fatal health problems by consuming certain products. If relevant information on health matters is available, a well informed customer will make a good choice. They will not merely rely on advertisements (Elders, 1994).
Reference Bradburn, R. (2001). Understanding business ethics. London: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Chapman, S. (1996). The ethics of tobacco advertising and advertising bans. British Medical Bulletin, 52, 121-131.
Eissenberg, T. (2006). The time for tobacco industry sponsored PREP evaluation has arrived, Tobacco Control, 15, 1-2.
Elders, J. (1994). Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Marlin, R. (2002). Propaganda and the ethics of persuasion. Ontario: Broadview Press.
Moore, C. (2004). Ethics in Advertising. Retrieved from https://aef.com/classroom-resources/
Short run versus long run production Report (Assessment) essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Difference between shot and long run production
Phenomena of production and cost in short and long-term
Ways of determining the cost of production
Abstract Mistakably people would wonder how long the long run production is and how long the short run is, but in economic terms, it is the flexibility of the decision makers over production rather than the time span.
Arguably, one would state that short run is a period that involves fixing a certain quality so that quantities of other inputs vary while long run is time span that allows all input quantities to vary. This does not entail fixed time but it rather varies from one manufacture to another. For instance, if a company’s products are in high demand then it requires quick requests for more raw materials and more labour to satisfy the high demand.
The raw materials and labour in this case are the variable inputs since the employees can vary their input time to cover the high demands. The equipment used in the company may probably not vary but it would depend on time required to implement use of additional equipments in which case this is not a short-term project. (Thomas, Christopher and Maurice, 2008)
Difference between shot and long run production In line with Thomas, Christopher and Maurice, (2008), it is possible to increase the production unit but it would require more time therefore given enough time, all inputs are variable. The short run production involves one or more important conditions, which do not vary while long run entails the situation where all inputs are variable.
Production is management of resources and the general environment. The next process after producing is distributing the goods for consumption. This process of producing, distributing and consuming goods and services defines Economics.
In production of economic goods and services, the natural resources are the source of raw materials and energy while the skills and labour comes from the human resources. Today production depends on the pure market economy where the government controls all the procedures involved unlike traditionally where resources for production were people who were self sufficient to manage them independently.
Phenomena of production and cost in short and long-term The phenomenon of production and cost in short or long-term come about through the principal of supply and demand where the market equilibrium is the focal point. The aim of most producers is to increase production as a positive sign of development or for economical growth through which the simulation is growth of the population. Population growth causes increase in consumption of natural resources and per capita consumption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The measures of economical growth such as Gross National Production (GNP), expectancy, per capita GNP, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and literacy rate represent the total market value of the goods and services, which equally influence the short and long –term production phenomenon.
Ways of determining the cost of production Producers should know their costs because this is important information for determining the contribution of the enterprise towards profitability and any future projection towards profitability and cash flows. This information is also important for comparison of efficiency. It helps them determine the level of profits and assists in long range planning and analyzing of the business future expansion plans. (Thomas, Christopher and Maurice, 2008)
Most producers will state that knowing the business cost of production is a good practice but it is not possible for most business people to know their production and cost in the long-term because the enterprises have diverse business units. Production involving different business units may call for allocation of certain costs in the units.
Some common misunderstanding that may arise during calculation of cost of production include determining the costs that should be included for instance, should one include a charge for personal labour, the interest charged on capital or depreciation allowance for the purchases of capital.
There are various ways of calculating cost of production for the various purposes of analyzing the entire enterprise. “The financial concept determines the viability of the enterprise in the short term” (Thomas, Christopher and Maurice, 2008) Financial profits are important for the feasibility and continuity of the enterprise.
The financial concept does not favour long-term viability because it does not include the opportunity cost of labour and equity capital or miscellaneous expenses. It translates that a number of expenses would fail to stand for main importance for an asset.
The economical concept applies in determining the long-term practicability of the business and in the analysis of the competition among enterprises due to limited resources. According to Thomas, Christopher and Maurice, (2008) the economical cost of production is usually higher than the financial cost of production because of interest charges over the invested capital and labour.
We will write a custom Assessment on Short run versus long run production specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis of short-term liquidity of a company uses a cash flow concept, which entails checking the generation and usage of cash. This approach does not analyze the profitability of a company but deals with the company’s short-term debts, principal payments, miscellaneous expenses such as income tax or social security funds and un-financed purchases of capital.
The determining point of some pricing mechanisms is the production cost. Some companies will use the cost and pricing method, which entails addition of an amount to the production cost as a way of determining an appropriate cost at the subsequent distribution level. Others will use the general cost method, which does not account for the competitive environment for the sales.
On the other hand, the “average cost pricing” entails identification of costs varying with the production level as well as the fixed production costs. Fixed costs may be for instance rent, assets such as equipments costs and basic overhead costs while varying costs may include labour or raw materials.
The cost structure therefore determines the average variable and fixed costs, which eventually give the total cost to base the prices in accordance with the expected levels of production. The cost-based pricing is short-term and has several distinct drawbacks such as lack of flexibility and having temporal objectives of the enterprise. It is therefore not often included in the company’s long-term strategic plan due to lack of good benefits provisions for future expenses. (Ajami, Cool and Goddard, 2006)
A unique distinction between the short-term and long-term incremental costs is that, long-term provides ample information for future development of the company and cost remains unchanged while with short-term incremental cost, the cost opportunities may be lost. (Drury, 2007)
Economists make standard assumptions because it is possible to vary inputs in the end while in the short run some inputs are presumably fixed.
According to Cooke, (1994), “Entrepreneurs view their workforce as the only variable input in the short-term.” In the long-term, there is grater opportunity of attaining or achieving multidimensional changes over the comparative quantities of aspects of producing goods and services.
This is an overview that functions of production are different in the short run as well as long run. Times play a significant influential role in the relationship of capital and labour thus the inference to the various levels of output.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Short run versus long run production by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Traders check to ensure the charge price remains fair and reasonable. The professional method of evaluating the supplier has cost in relation to buyer’s price remains a challenge in various industries.
The control of the cost is on the logic that the buyer focuses the cost associated with production before agreeing on a final selling price. The ultimate reason over cost/price analysis process is on the determination over fairness of the prices charged for both buyer and seller. The purchaser must understand the difference between cost and price, where price come about because of the cost and profit.
One arrives at the procurement functions on the basis that analysis of the price involves comparison between supplier and other external prices. According to Swamidass, (2000) cost analysis involves single elements that are not confidential such as labour, time, rates, overhead, raw materials, profits, administration and other general costs.
Conclusion Understanding the difference between the types of costs helps in the discussion of production and cost analysis techniques both in the long-term and short-term.
The study of resource allocation probably fits perfectly over short-run situations as opposed to long run but companies’ decision over classification and allocation of resources especially in the competitive environments determines the allocation. On the other hand, allocation of resources is not the important aspect for long-run analysis because trying to analyze all situations through the allocation economics; it distorts and prevents understanding of the situation.
Arguably, the technological production is very important in provision of raw materials but the argument highly obscures the history and process of creating resource. It equally “constrains the study of production of technology in general” thus providing a barrier over future assessments of resources by the economists. (Blanchard, 2009)
References Ajami, R.A., Cool, K. and Goddard, G.J. (2006) International business: theory and Practice. M.E. Sharpe.
Blanchard, Oliver (2009), Macroeconomics, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall.
Cooke, A. (1994). The economics of leisure and sport. Routledge publishers
Drury, C. (2007) Management and Cost Accounting Cengage Learning EMEA,
Swamidass, P.M., (2000), Encyclopaedia of production and manufacturing management
Springer LINK e-book collection: Springer Publishers
Thomas, Christopher R. and Maurice, S.C. (2008), Managerial Economics (9th edition), International Edition, McGraw Hill
Hobbes and Descartes: the Existence of Soul Debate Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Various philosophers have held diverse opinions about the existence of the human soul. Rene Descartes and Thomas Hobbes are among the philosophers who have contributed to this debate. In Principles, part 1, Descartes was of the opinion that there exists a human soul that is actually different from the body. To the philosopher, the soul and the body are two distinct substances, and one substance can be clearly and characteristically understood without considering the input of the other.
The philosopher argued that God had the capacity to create a mental matter to exist all by itself without associating it to any other created matter (Skirry para. 42). In other words, the philosopher was arguing for the likelihood of human souls existing without physical bodies. This philosophical thought can be used to explain frightening experiences reported in some communities of souls of dead people returning to haunt the living (Fowler 117).
According to Descartes, the soul, also called the mind, is the thinking, non-extended matter while the body is the extended, physical and non-thinking substance. The philosopher clearly underlined the existence of the human soul in his arguments on diverse primitive notions.
Descartes argued that the notion of the soul consist of all the perceptions of intelligence and the leanings of the human will, and is totally different from the notion of the body which concerns itself with issues of shape and motion (Skirry para 48; Fowler 169). Ultimately, the two are interrelated by the fact that the soul’s power moves the body while the body’s clout is known to cause sensations and obsessions in the soul. In this perspective, the body is made truly human only by the existence of the soul.
To Descartes, the soul is the principle of life and is united to the whole body. Accordingly, the body can only be called a corpse without the existence of the soul. The body must act in unison with the soul for it to be referred as a living human body. His arguments are mostly used by contemporary Christians and Muslims to explain death as a process where the body and soul part ways.
Thomas Hobbes categorically refuted the claim of an immaterial soul existing without considering the body. He was also opposed to the notion of free will. According to Hobbes, the key mistake “lies in moving from the observations that we can talk about ‘A’ and ‘B’, and can think about A without thinking about B, to the conclusion that A can exist without B existing” (Duncan para. 34).
He was harshly critical of Aristotelians who argued that the human soul can exist by itself when separated from the human body. Hobbes argued that the human soul as described in the scripture signifies a living creature or a physical body and soul jointly (Hobbes
Free Will and Determinism According to William James and Jean-Paul Sartre Analytical Essay best college essay help
The debate of free will and determinism has perplexed philosophers for many years now. The term ‘free will’ is used in Philosophy to denote a particular sort of capacity given to rational agents to select a course of action from various available alternatives (O’Connor para. 1).
Determinism is the philosophical principle claiming that all actions results from foregoing events or natural causes. Advocates of determinism suggest that the concept of free will is an illusion since agents are no more capable of controlling situations with their rational minds than any other irrational matter.
On their part, advocates of free will argue that a universe in which rational agents do not actually make their own rational choices as suggested by determinism has no morality (“Determinism” para. 2). This paper compares the philosophical thoughts of William James and Jean-Paul Sartre on the concept of free will.
Although James believed in free will purely on ethical grounds, he vehemently argued that neither science nor his own introspections supported the tenets of free will. In Pragmatism, James argued that in situations where one action appears as coherent as the other, there would be no standard whatsoever to judge one action as necessary than the other (Dubin 1).
For example, if an individual is given an alternative of looking to the left or right, there exists no scientific ground to argue that turning to the left is necessary or turning to the right is just a matter of chance.
An advocate of atheistic existentialism, Sartre argued that individuals must rely on their own imperfect will and moral insight since there is no God (O’Connor para 23). Although both philosophers believed in free will, Sartre’s argument seems more atheistically designed to back the existence of free will above anything else.
According to Sartre, man cannot escape from making choices, and must act within his will to make the necessary choices or risk being perceived in bad faith. His strong arguments in favor of free will leave no room whatsoever for determinism. In his argument against determinism, the philosopher argued that individuals had the capacity to ignore any action as real and pretend that another action is real.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, one can imagine a piece of bread to be a cake. Although imagination is a powerful thing, the problem arises since advocates of determinism will try to justify the imagination as “one more neurological mechanism, explainable by deterministic principles” (Boeree para. 19). To him, determinism curtails the exercise of free will.
While Sartre completely refuted the notion of determinism, James argued along the lines of hard and soft determinism. According to the philosopher, soft determinists believe that although all actions are determined by preceding events, there exists some form of freedom and moral responsibility for humans to make rational decisions. Hard determinists believe that all human behaviors and actions require them to rebuff the concept of moral responsibility in total since they are prearranged by forces outside their control (Frame para. 2).
James rejects the above positions using the argument of regret. The philosopher questions the rationale behind regretting some actions that happen if it is true that we live in a deterministic world. For instance, determinists must not regret that they failed exams since that action had been prearranged.
In this perspective, James rubbishes the statements and takes a more rational approach of indeterminism, which believes in multiple possible realities. All in all, the above arguments can go on and on without an end in sight. What is important to note at this point is that both philosophers rejected the notions of free will and determinism albeit in varying levels and for different reasons.
Works Cited Boeree, C. G. Free Will. 2005. Web.
Dubin, M. Free Will or Determinism – A Conundrum. 1994. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Free Will and Determinism According to William James and Jean-Paul Sartre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Frame, J. M. Determinism, Chance and Freedom. Web.
Haselhurst, G. Introduction: The Problem of Free Will and Determinism. 2001. Web.
O’Connor, T. Free Will. In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.
The Panini Company: Business Plan Term Paper essay help online free
Business Plan “The Panini King” will provide freshly made Panini’s in a short time with several choices in the type of bread, cheese and meat for the customers. There will also be side–dishes such as chips, dips, and salads.
It is being planned and built by an educated and vastly experienced entrepreneur, Mr. Peter McConkey. Since market conditions in an area can have a significant impact on the profitability of the restaurant (Goodpasture et al), “The Panini King” located in a busy business area will satisfy an unmet demand for fast food do-it yourself (DIY).
The Panini King is not “just another” fast food company rather it will be a unique combination of excellent customized food at value pricing in an entertaining atmosphere. Our studies and experience show that customers (1) want value for everything that it purchases, (2) a clean restaurant (3) want choices (4) want useful suggestions, and (3) want quick service – a necessity for any fast food company (restaurantowner.com).
Panini King will do this by providing customized, fresh and tasty sandwiches within a short frame of time. It will also provide customers options in bread, cheeses, and meat in their Panini’s along with a healthy salads, chips, and drinks.
“In 2010, the United States fast food market is forecast to have a value of $57.6 billion, an increase of 12.1% since 2005” (McCarty).This plan is prepared to establish the financial viability of the restaurant and to raise $40,000 in a 7-year term loan to finance the equipment and leasehold improvements. Additional financing required will be provided by the owner.
In the first three years of operation the objectives are to make the joint a popular destination for customers, keeping the cost of food under 30% of revenue, keeping labor cost between 25 to 30% of revenue, reaching annual sales volume of 1 million dollars, controlling costs, and hiring professionals such as CPA’s, to keep the business under control.
The mission of “The Panini King” is to be a premier fast food company. Our guests will not just enjoy their Panini’s but also enjoy the ambience when visiting The Panini King, hoping to give an experience that is as pleasing to the senses as it is to the palate. With its comfortable, conversational surroundings, and quality ingredients, it is easy to see why Panini King would succeed in its mission (Panera Bread, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Keys to Success
There are key external factors that are outside the control of the owner but can have but are likely to have an impact on business (IBISworld). However, the keys to our success lies in : (1) Creating a friendly and comfortable atmosphere that will set us apart from our competitors. (2) Serving healthy menu selections at unbeatable prices in a clean environment, consistently. (3) Controlling costs and (4) Hiring and retaining the most suitable people for the job.
The identifying characteristics of the Panini King will be Entertaining surroundings, Quality food, Variety, Longer hours, Self-service, and Friendly employees.
Peter McConkey, the sole proprietor of the Panini King with Bachelors in Science degree from University California with Major in Economy and Minor in Management. Mr. McConkey had his initial experience from family owned business based on which he has launched his own business initiative. He also has experience in distribution and customer relationship and has demonstrated his skills in marketing and advertising.
Panini Joint’s start-up expenses include Restaurant Layout – employees, and professionals to plan leasehold improvements and interior design. Travel – Travel expenses for Mr. Peter to travel to his location of business. Lease Hold Improvement/Equipment – would be installed after the initial planning.
A mix of TV advertisements and distribution of flyers to local businesses will be used to announce the opening of the restaurant. Local radio and print media will also be used to announce the opening of the best and only Panini fast food company in California.
Free Panini’s will offered to the first 100 customers and a novel concept of having Panini’s named after customers who visit the joint the most and place it in a prominent place. The ultimate form of advertising is the word of mouth and this is what we will encourage our loyal customers to do on an ongoing basis.
The sales strategy is to provide best customer service to increase repeat customers. Once the sales reaches over $ 400,000 per year we plan to open additional joints in other cities across USA. We intend to franchise the name and the business system across the country and maintain a standardized approach to all centers. This in turn will result in more jobs creation which will be available to young, dynamic and hard-working individuals.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Panini Company: Business Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Goodpasture, John et al, Restaurant Market Analysis. University of Wisconsin-Extension, 1994. Web.
IBISworld “Takeaway Food Retailing in Australia”. 2009. Web.
Mccarty, Michael “Fast Food Market Forecast – The Subway Example of Strategic Product Positioning.” Fast Food Market Forecast – The Subway Example of Strategic Product Positioning. 2007. Web.
Panera Bread. The Proof is in the Success (2009). Web.
What Do Customers Want? (2009). Web.
As for Me and My House: Honesty and Reliability of the Narrator about the Relations with the Others Analytical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Canadian literary culture is considered to be rich and famous around the world; and in spite of the fact that some works were sold in a few copies only, their significance and their necessity is quite noticeable nowadays. As for Me and My House is “certainly one of the most distinctive ever to come out of Canada” (Stouck 27).
Its author, Sinclair Ross, made a wonderful attempt to describe social, natural, and even spiritual forces, which were able to destroy marriage. The work is based on the notes, which were made by Mrs. Bentley in her diary, so, Mrs. Bentley performs two functions in the story: as one of the major characters and as the narrator of the story.
The peculiarity of this story is ambiguous approach of Mrs. Bentley to her life, her relations with her husband, and to her role in the small town.
While telling the story, its narrator, Mrs. Bentley, cannot be regarded as a reliable and honest source of information because of three reasons: first, she is unfair and dishonest to herself, second, she tries to hide the lack of love in her life by means of needs for some material issues, and finally, the majority of her actions are aimed at clearing up or proving something but not at achieving certain satisfaction and enjoyment.
Each literary work has its own significance for many people: for the author, critics, readers, and even for some other writers. As for Me and My House is the story that combines several rather important for this life issues: the desire to be a hero for the others and for yourself, the ability to maintain family relations safe and sound, passion to new people of the opposite sex, fleetingness of personal desires, and failure of own dreams because of personal laziness. Ross’s novel under consideration is a unique collection of everyday life of the family with its own demands, needs, and opportunities.
The problems of the relations between the main characters, the Bentleys, are grounded on their own inner conflicts with each other. During their lives, they have to make certain decision, have to sacrifice own dreams, and have to think over their dreams, taking into consideration current conditions and abilities. All these numerous sacrifices have a considerable impact on Mr. and Mrs. Bentley’s relations with other people and with each other. “…just two people in the house.
They become sensitive to each other a sullen or irritable mood always communicates itself” (Ross 19). The beginning of the story provides the reader with an opportunity to guess that Mrs. Bentley is not satisfied with her role of the minister’s wife. In spite of the fact that she has already left too many things and people in her life, she still regrets about them and always has something to blame on or just take offence at her husband.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a rule, in order to present a sensitive and captivating story, the narrator has to correspond to certain standards. This correspondence should help the narrator to attract reader’s attention, to convince the reader about his/her personal opportunities and thoughts, and to make the reader believe in everything that is told by the narrator.
In the book As for Me and My House, Mrs. Bentley performs the role of the narrator, however, her own uncertainty and discontent of the world she lives in make the reader and me personally doubt in her sincerity and honesty. Yes, her living conditions and earnings are good enough in order to eat, drink, and wear everything she wants.
But still, I cannot believe that she really enjoys such opportunities. “The town seems huddle together, cowering on a high, tiny perch, afraid to move less it topple into the wind… It’s the disordered house and the bare walls that depress me” (Ross 4). She tries to persuade everyone around that her position and her life are really great.
Can it be possible that all her thoughts and words in the diary are really true? She is so upset with everything that around her, but still she does not have enough powers and enough desire to leave everything up or at least change something. If she is so unfair and so dishonest to people around, whether she can be truly honest to herself and to us, her readers. Such variety of questions makes me doubt about her honesty, her reliability, and even her intentions.
One of the cherished dreams of each woman is to be loved and love in return. In the story, the main character is deprived of the opportunity to enjoy her emotions and the feelings of her husband to herself. Mrs. Bentley admits that it is better “for a while to walk my spirits back” (Ross 36).
She makes numerous attempts to run far away from her own house in order to find some support and some care, but the town she lives in cannot provide her with such a chance, this is why she has nothing to do but come back home and continue her daily routines.
This woman has so many thoughts, doubts, and tears inside, and, at the same time, she lives so close to her chosen man, and he does notice nothing. Maybe, the major point still lies in Mrs. Bentley’s attitude to people around her, in Mrs. Bentley’s dishonesty to these people, and in Mrs. Bentley inability to represent her discontent in a proper way.
We will write a custom Essay on As for Me and My House: Honesty and Reliability of the Narrator about the Relations with the Others specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These inabilities of a woman to represent her wishes and demands may negatively reflect on her disabilities to introduce the material to other people as a narrator. This very point may serve as one more reason to doubt in narrator’s honesty while telling this story.
Of course, everybody lies; but these lies should be perfectly covered, so that a person can hardly guess about false information. In the story, the reader comprehends from the very beginning how crucial the role of the narrator is; and almost from the very beginning, unreliability of this narrator is observed.
The last point that tells a lot about the nature of the narrator and her abilities to describe the events is all about irony that is so perfectly used in the story. Friendship that happens between Mrs. Bentley and Judith is a good example of how irony influences the perception of the story. “I think I’m going to like Judith” (Ross 16) – the narrator cannot even guess how captivating the development of the events could be.
First of all, Mr. Bentley was attracted by Judith, and Mrs. Bentley was able to catch this honey couple, and secondly, Judith was the woman, who left her child to the Bentleys before her death, and this way, she helped to realize this family’s cherished dream. I cannot believe that Mrs. Bentley has positive attitude to Judith all the time: her desire to discover something wrong about this person makes her forget about personal life and concentrate more on Judith’s life and preferences.
However, Mrs. Bentley does not make a hint on such goals and continue to admire Judith style of life. On my opinion, the character of Mrs. Bentley may be regarded in two different ways. On the one realistic way, the actions and thought of Mrs. Bentley are rather negative and dishonest to other characters and to the reader.
On the other symbolic way, Mrs. Bentley looks differently and even a bit pity. She may seem stupid, corrupt, and confused. These qualities can easily make her judgments wrong and unfair. And if her judgments are wrong, she cannot be a reliable and honest narrator, because inner doubts and uncertainty confuse the narrator and make her weak in the eyes of the reader.
In general, As for Me and My House is the story about relations and the ability to trust people around. Mrs. Bentley serves as a good example of a person, who faces many challenges while judging people because of own uncertainty and fears. Telling the truth, it is a bit useless to criticize Mrs. Bentley style of writing and its content, because it is just a diary, the reader can read aloud.
There are no concrete rules, which prove that the writer has to present reliable facts. It is a god chance to analyze the condition of the main character, her emotions, and attitude to different situations and different people. This story helps to notice the weaknesses of the woman and learn on her mistakes in order to make own life better and more successful.
Not sure if you can write a paper on As for Me and My House: Honesty and Reliability of the Narrator about the Relations with the Others by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Ross, Sinclair and Kroetsch, Robert. As for Me and My House. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland
IT essay help online
The main characteristics of the net generation are, they communicate using voice or data while on the move, they are internet savvy and are always connected either through WAP on the cell phones or Wi-Fi through their laptops, they are comfortable browsing the internet and shopping online, they prefer to spend more time in the virtual world through social networking sites than in the real world and, they like to collaborate and participate on social networking sites, on issues that matter most to them.
To cater to the needs of the Net generation, today’s organizations need to adopt new technologies to succeed. This generation uses the internet to search for companies and every organization needs to have a website. Companies that sell products should consider having an online presence with e-commerce abilities, where consumers can securely purchase items using their credit cards.
The four main categories of network management are LAN, WAN, Internet, and Security. LAN management focuses managing components of the private network, such as desktops, servers, and printers. WAN management is managing physical connectivity of LAN to the outside world, using technologies such as DSL, T1, or Fibre.
Internet management is about managing internet traffic and securing the private network from malicious external attacks. Security management is all encompassing and includes protecting the private network not only from external attacks but also from internal attacks from disgruntled employees.
The advantages of private network are it helps save cost, saves time, increases productivity, and encourages collaboration. The disadvantages of private networks are initial cost of implementation is high, requirement management tools, loss of confidential data in case the network is compromised.
UK Taxation System Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
In 2008-2009 total UK government receipts have been 37.3% of UK GDP. This is as same as approximately £ 10,900 for every adult or £ 8,900 per person in the UK. The big sources of revenue for the government are Income Tax, National Insurance contributions and VAT (Stuart and James, 2009).
The Tax System Income Tax- The chief forms of taxable income are the earnings which come from employment, businesses, income from self employment, pensions, income from property, bank and building society interest and dividends on shares (Stuart and James, 2009).
Income tax performs on the basis of a system of allowances and bands of income. Everyone has a personal allowance that is subtracted from total income for showing taxable income. Taxable income depends upon different tax rates that are supported by the band in which it falls. The increment in bands and allowances starts in April which is tax year in statutory indexation provisions. This increment is declared at the time of the annual budget. Income tax is mostly deducted through the PAYE system. The UK Income tax system is cumulative where total tax which is payable for a particular financial year is calculated on the basis of the total income of that particular financial year. The cumulative system conveys that there is no end of year adjustment to the tax paid amount. Child tax credit (CTC) does not require any employment status. It is meant for both out of work families and lower paid working parents. Working tax credit (WTC) is advantageous for working adults with and without children (Stuart and James, 2009).
National Insurance Contributions: NICs works as tax on earnings. Practically contributions paid and benefits received do not have strong relation with each other for each contributor. For 2008-2009 some contributions are given to the National Health Service and the rest are paid into the National Insurance (NI) Fund (Stuart and James, 2009).
Case Law on the UK Taxation System The UK taxation system has a direct connection with the domicile status of an individual, which does have far reaching implications on the financial and regulatory system. The law of domicile and the UK taxation are two separate concepts, but when the law of domicile is applied onto UK taxation, then it brings about a social difference by exposing the the tax burdens of two different individuals with identical incomes from the same sources purely on the grounds of national origin- while one individual pays less tax it is considered a social advantage, while it is unavailable to the other individual (Richard, 2007). HM Revenue and Customs is an active body of law, and involves in an indirect and unintentional way thru the process by determining a person’s domicile status, which is an indication that discrimination has its origins from a public authority. Those suffering discrimination are those from within the United Kingdom who account for almost 88% of the 60 million resident UK population.
The case of illegal discrimination gives rise to two conflicting consequences viz (Richard, 2007).
Those who are UK domiciled must be taxed in the same manner as those who are not domiciled in the UK.
Non-domiciled individuals must be taxed in a similar manner as those who are domiciled in the UK.
In either of the above situations, it is considered unlawful to tax an individual irrespective of one’s national origin, since it opposes the Race Relations Act 1976 (Richard, 2007, Para 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Domicile is the most important determinant in the taxation system of United Kingdom, and hence it is important to understand the manner of an individual’s tax treatment on income tax (also known as PAYE), capital gains tax and inheritance tax in the United Kingdom. Taxing an individual depends on three kinds of residential status available with the individual e.g., residence in the UK, ordinary residence in the UK, and domicile (Richard, 2007, Para 9).
The case law seeks to explain the concept and application of domicile to the relationship of HMRC with the Taxation system. The case law also seeks to explain the determination of a person’s domicile with respect to either of the two circumstances: on application or on submission of a tax return (Richard, 2007).
Extra-Statutory Concessions An Extra-statutory concession is a kind of relaxation for tax payers that decreases tax liability to which they would not be unrestricted according to the strict letter of the law. Most concessions are based on dealing with what are, on the whole, minor or transitory irregularities that is according to legislation. It meets with difficult cases at the margins of the code where it is hard to develop a statutory remedy (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 2).
The concessions come under a general application but in some specific cases, some special circumstances will be taken under consideration to work on the application of concession. Such kind of case will never be taken into consideration where tax avoidance is being done (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 2).
Concessions applicable to Individuals: Travelling expenses of Directors and Employees who are earning £ 8500 or more per year (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 20).
If an employee receives an Overseas Retirement Benefits Scheme or an Overseas Provident Fund, income tax will not be charged on those lump sum benefits (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 21).
Double Taxation Relief: Where maintenance payments are done under a United Kingdom court order, the income comes from a United Kingdom source. The credit relief is given where (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 23):
We will write a custom Essay on UK Taxation System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The person who was making the payment has left the United Kingdom and become the resident of another country.
The payments are made out of the person’s income in the country of his residence and is liable to pay tax there
The person is the resident of the United Kingdom and is the payee of the overseas tax (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 23).
Death of Tax Payer before due date for payment of tax- if a tax payer dies before his tax payment due date and his executors cannot pay the duty, the due date will be later of (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 25):
The normal due date
Thirty days from grant of administration
Statements of Practice It clarifies the Inland Revenues Interpretation of Legislation. It also explains the method with which the Department executes the law in practice. They do not influence a tax payer’s right in which he can argue for a different interpretation when it is required to appeal to the General or Special Commissioners. The following Statements of Practice (SPs) has a minor concessionary element (Extra-statutory concessions, 2009, p. 19):
SP A34: Relief for interest payments: loans for purchase or inherited properties
SPD1: Part disposals of land
SP4/79: Life Insurance premium relief on Children’s policies
SP10/84: Foreign bank accounts
Statute of the UK Taxation system Taxation is the most important and direct source of income for any government. It is the national duty of every citizen and institution to pay their taxes that ensure the development of infrastructure, help lay down welfare policies of the government, etc. Over the years, the system of taxation has undergone many changes in order to simplify and yet tackle the challenges of manipulation in order to maintain a sound fiscal system (HM Revenue
Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare Analytical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Julius Caesar is a great and intriguing play as it is a tale of betrayal and tragedies. Caesar was a great leader of Rome and an overtly ambitious general and what follows is a series of betrayals from some quarters that felt his power was becoming overbearing and so they needed they curb his excesses. Brutus led the successful assassination attempt and what follows the death of the great Caesar is now history.
The editors of the essay, Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine clearly stated that William Shakespeare demonstrated his artistic prowess and this is actually true as he showed his adept ability to effectively use his mastery of words and his great oratorical skill to persuade readers to view things from his own point of view.
The most compelling and interesting moment in the play comes when Marc Anthony, a loyal servant of Caesar gave a soul rendering and thought provoking speech at the funeral of Caesar. Taking a critical look at the event that followed Anthony’s speech, it would be seen that it was this great speech that made the crowd turn their backs against Brutus.
Though, the play is full of tragic details and serious political rivalries, it falls short of Shakespeare’s later tragic plays in terms of the intensity in style. Taking an analytical look at Barbara and Paul’s opinion on the murder of Julius Caesar, it could be deduced that Shakespeare was not really sure if Caesar’s murderers were right in killing him and this leaves readers to either be in the defense of Brutus or totally be against his dastardly act.
I would say that the tragic death of Julius Caesar came to me as a shock as the climax that beclouded his assassination is unexpected. Having to read that the mighty Caesar was brutally murdered by Brutus before the senate is unbelievable and this is what adds to the intriguing details in the play.
Though, the murder of Caesar by the conspirators was expected as they did not like the idea of Caesar being the supreme emperor, but the timing was not expected as one would have thought that Caesar would have won so many hearts and even those of his killers before he met his waterloo at the hands of his killers as this was not to be.
Caesar, being the supposedly protagonist should have lived up to the last pages of the book, but the details of his death somewhere in the middle pages of the book leaves readers to believe that he is not the major lead in the book as Marc Antony or probably the followers of Brutus played more active roles in the book.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The thought provoking tales in the book is something that arouses one’s consciousness and broadens one’s imaginations on the event that led to Caesar‘s death as it makes the ardent readers to have a kind of feeling that they were really there in the middle of the action and the events that took place during that period.
Sincerely, this book is a must read for every lover of history and every fan of the emperors of Rome. It just shows us that no man is too great to be slaughtered and that no matter the protection that we feel we have, somebody, somewhere could bring us down as we see how Marcus Brutus successfully brought the great Emperor Julius Caesar down.
Kudos must be given to the great William Shakespeare for relating this intriguing and interesting story to lovers of history. As he has once again shown that he is the greatest historian, and author of all time.
Managing and Leading Project Teams Expository Essay cheap essay help
Dictionary.com defines trust as “reliance on the integrity, strength, ability, surety, etc., of a person or thing” or “confident expectation of something”.
Thompson (2004) explains that trusting a person means that he or she will respect all commitments even though he or she is aware that no one is going to monitor or observe their behavior. By maintaining integrity, a person can ensure that he or she will be able to win the trust of others.
Karlsen et al (2008) explain that trust amongst team members makes them more cooperative. Also, trust encourages team members to share relevant information when required and allows them to be influenced by decisions and actions of others.
Trust cannot be developed within a day and usually it will take some time to develop. The reasons for not trusting could be various ranging from past bad experience, cultural differences, prejudice, office politics, and many other factors that influence the judgment. This means that the project team put together may not trust each other well enough and it is the duty of the project manager to build and sustain trust amongst team members to ensure that the project runs smoothly and ends up successfully.
Trust is essential not only amongst internal project team members but also external people that include the management, clients, vendors, etc. If the management and the client don’t trust that the project manager can handle the project well, then there are bound to be issues on the project. Hence, the project manager needs to build and sustain trust with the management, clients and all other stakeholders involved in the project.
One of the keys to building trust is open communication. This means project objectives need to be discussed openly and clearly. Also, any bad news needs to be communicated clearly. So if the project is behind schedule, all stakeholders need to know about it.
If more resources are required, the stakeholders need to be made aware of that. If there is little or no participation by stakeholders, then the project sponsor needs to be communicated. Clear and open communication keeping all stakeholders informed and involved appropriately helps people understand that bad news are not being hidden from them and that they can expect honest reports from the project manager.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important aspect to build trust is to define clear roles and responsibilities of all team members and communicate it to all stakeholders. This ensures that everyone knows what their activities and tasks would be and what their boundaries are. Clearly defined roles and responsibilities also mean that there will be less conflict amongst team members and that there will be no territorial bickering.
A project manager can also help build trust by encouraging fun and laughter in the team. If done appropriately and especially when under pressure, it would help bring the team together and build trust.
While it takes a long time to build trust, it can take hardly a second to break it. Therefore, it is essential that effort is put in by all concerned to sustain that trust. This means ensuring that confidential information is not disclosed even accidentally. All team members are involved in communications related to the project rather than informing just one or two people.
Micromanaging people should be avoided and each team member should be given liberty to complete his tasks within his boundaries. This would help sustain trust over a longer period of time. (Larson et al, 2006)
Reference List Karlsen, J. T., Græe, K.
Gambling in Ohio Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Purpose
Workable plan for writing a project
Counterarguments to the proposal
“I lost my money. I lost all my respect… I hurt my family, and I hurt my friends” (Rogers 11). These are the most frequent phrases of those people, who are fond of gambling and try to spend as much time as possible in order to win some money by means of gambling. The theme of gambling is one of the most arguable ones in America, and in Ohio in particular.
It may be regarded as entertainment, sport, or just fun; but at the same time, gambling may turn into the reason of unexpected financial ruin, loss of family or career, and even death. In Ohio, it is possible to find out such warnings on lottery tickets “Compulsive gambling can be treated” (Rogers 121). This type of entertainment is available for any person, and the Ohio government tries to control the situation in order to save human lives and not to deprive them of a chance to entertain.
Purpose The purpose of this project is to investigate the history of gambling in Ohio, its development in the 1990s, and its impact on ordinary human lives in order to underline the significance of this process and its unexpected and mostly negative influence on people.
Gambling in Ohio leads to the development of social and economic problems among the society. People have all opportunities to govern themselves and control their interests. If one person engages into gambling, his/her relatives and close friends become involved as well. This is why it is crucially important to prevent people from such disaster and addiction and tell how tragic this gambling addiction can be.
Literature review The history shows that “the Ohio gambling was available to the white man even though he might separated by hundreds of miles from the nearest of his fellows” (Banta 333). In 1990, racing industry as one of the possible forms of gambling became the most dangerous component of casino industry “amassing a war chest of $1 million” (McMillen 256).
Gambling in Ohio faces numerous contradictions, and almost each year, the voters cannot come to one common conclusion and to allow certain forms of casino (Grinols 35). In November, one more voting process has to take place, and the vast majority of people believe that this time, the results will not support gambling in this state.
Personal researches Many Americans love gambling and like to bet on everything that is possible to sell. Some people play lottery and cherish the dream to win money and improve their lives. Some people like gambling just to spend their time, meet new people, and find someone to share interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some people cannot imagine their lives without gambling: they become so involved into gambling that can easily forget about their families and jobs. Gambling in Ohio is a quickly developing industry, and the government has to control it thoroughly. Cincinnati hotels, Grove City hotels, and Lebanon hotels are the best representatives of the hotels with various casinos or gambling, and the government of Ohio has to pay special attention to these institutions and protect people against the possibility to become bankrupts because of own inability to cope with personal desires and passions.
Audience People have to know about the dangers of gambling and passion to casino. In this project, we touch upon such issues like the historical development of gambling in Ohio and the current state of affairs, this is why the audience of this project may be quite spread: professionals, who deal with the development of gambling institutions in Ohio, addicted people, who want to find a way out of their passion, ordinary people, who want to know more about this industry and be able to prevent the troubles connected to gambling, and students, who still believe that gambling is harmless fun only. This information should interest any person, who wants to change and improve this world.
Workable plan for writing a project This project will be workable and helpful only in case we will follow a certain plan and meet all the necessary deadlines. First, we should analyze current indicators of gambling in Ohio. Secondly, we should study the history of gambling and find out its roots and factors of growth. Finally, we have to refer to the reliable literature, use the ideas of sophisticated people, and prove the correctness of the chosen theme.
Counterarguments to the proposal The weak side of this project is inability to compare gambling in other states. Ohio is not the center of gambling industry in the United States, and the attention to gambling in Ohio does not help to prevent its spreading all over the world.
In order to present a powerful paper, we should better concentrate on the causes why people start gambling, what makes them drop their habits, and what may substitute the passion to gambling. To develop this proposal properly, we have to demonstrate own abilities to investigate the matter and approve them by means of the already established facts and ideas.
Works Cited Banta, R. E. The Ohio. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1998. Print.
Grinols, Earl, L. Gambling in America: Costs and Benefits. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Gambling in Ohio specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McMillen, Jan. Gambling Cultures: Studies in History and Interpretation. New York: Routledge,1996. Print.
Rogers, Rex, M. Gambling: Don’t Best on It. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2005. Print.
Peer evaluation of web-based instructional documents Report essay help site:edu
It is important to analyze the URL of each page before getting to the details of the pages. By reading the URL carefully, an analyst is in a position to find out if the page is a private or otherwise. Starting with Carl Wuensche’s Design of Posting to WordPress Instructions website who’s URL is https://carlwuensche.com/about-me/, there are some notable strengths and some areas, which require improvement.
The name of the site/author or the person responsible for the page in this case Carl Wuensche corresponds to the URL. This is a direct indication of responsibility and accountability.
The date is equally important especially the web site update information. This automatically indicates to the user, how current the information is. Evidently, the year at the bottom of Carl’s site is a good indication that the information is not stale or invalid. Web site visitors want current information. The date is a good indication of the author’s interest. Most users treat undated information just as they would, anonymous information.
The explanations are clear and precise and thus there is no one who would claim problems creating an account.
Today anyone can post information on the web within just some few minutes for instance over some low payments or for publicity purposes. The user must be in a position to differentiate the genuine and reliable sites from those that are questionable. The user should be in a position of immediately figure out the reason being creating even before going into much detail.
Does the site disclose facts or data; is it informative, does it provide explanation/sharing of information or persuasion over something? The page becomes public and entices all possible human intentions. From a personal perspective, my reaction to Carl’s site was that it lacked substantiating elements of marketing.
The first impression on a site is supposed to involve is a clear brand name or trademark. The viewers ought to know what the site is all about the moment they lay eyes on the site. Rather than the explanatory style of giving the information, the author could have made it more interactive by letting the users to discover how to go about it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taking that Carl Wuensche’s website or pages are opinion oriented, the users should know the offer immediately they log to the site, for instance I acknowledge the signing up part of the site. By placing this part at the initial level then it would have served the purpose of instantly informing users that the sight is a public forum. Something distinctive and self-explanatory ought to precede explanations. A good publisher uses explanations to clarify what people already known.
Although the page is a an instructional document, my perception would be that web pages are made of hypertext protocols and thus the need for a number of links to other diverse supportive or unsupportive views. The links involved in Carl’s work did not really work out for me. Anything that required mentioning or was rather obvious to the user could have been hyperlinked to make it optional as the contact option link was.
The hyperlinks make the pages to be simple, elegant, attractive and still informative. As experts would recommend, it is not wise to link a page to other parts of the same site only. The page becomes stronger when one links it to other biased pages or fun-linked pages.
According to my personal view, the page seems to be too soft for an informative page. Implementation of some tremendous graphics ought to have given it the outstanding tone. The indication of summary of the page was nice. It is important for any page to have a simple and clear conclusion less it leaves the users hanging indefinitely.
On the second web page https://www.webself.net/, the users connect the URL’s Domain name to the trademark for easy identification.
The graphics are attractive, distinctive and easily connect to the theme of newsletters. Organization of the content is well, starting from marketing of the site, explanations and procedures for the users. This is a good indication that the user can be able to identify the principle behind the page and reasons for it production.
There are distinctive features indicating presence of webmaster contents as opposed to unqualified authors. There seem to be enough tabs and hypertexts to link for more information as per the user requirements. The author’s contact details and other information are availed through the contact us hyperlink at the top and bottom of the page.
We will write a custom Report on Peer evaluation of web-based instructional documents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The links on a page ought to be active current and containing updated information. This is a good indication that the page meets its goals and objectives. The page is not an advertising mask since it provides information that is not biased the search criteria also comes in handy in finding information. Most importantly are the dates for publication. The year is a fine sign that the information is not outdated.
Some of the hitches evident on the newsletter website include the requirement for special programs such as the PDF allocation software. The clients night be missing information or might not be in a position of implement the tasks involved because they are limited by some special software as per the requirements. The client is also dined some clear identification information. They are not able to know the author and firms involved thus the site jeopardising the issue of transparency.
Conclusion A good webpage/site is accurate. It contains a list of authors and institutions, which publish it, and means of contacting the authors. It is preferred to have the author’s credentials outlined clearly to gain customer’s confidence and royalty. The domain name is equally preferred for identification. Accuracy of information is vital, even with limitation over advertising in such sites; the objective of presenting the information should be accurate.
The currency of information is equally important. People want to associate with recent and updated information or sites/links. The hyperlinks involved must be active and manipulative. Lastly, the issue of coverage calls for checking the limitations involved for the user. Is the user required to have any special programs, browser technology or software to access information? Are there any fees or charges involved? The webpage ought to be valuable for the research.
Philadelphia: Prejudice about Homosexuality Analytical Essay essay help
Philadelphia is one of those movies that can change human attitude to a certain situation, other people, and even the essence of this life. The problems, people with AIDS face in their every day life, prejudice against homosexuals and their style of life, and injustice that is so inherent to current political, economical, and social spheres are the major issues that are properly described in this movie and that open people’s eyes to all those minor problems, people may create to each other unwittingly.
Joe Miller is one of the main characters in the movie Philadelphia, who proves how prejudiced people can be, and how significant their points of view may be for gay people, for establishing justice, and for development of feelings and qualities, which have to be inherent to any person.
Joe Miller’s prejudice against homosexuals and people with AIDS is considered to be one of the major themes in the movie Philadelphia; the cooperation with Andrew Beckett, a HIV-diagnosed gay, makes Mr. Miller change his mind and believe that justice should not depend on the color of skin, sexual preferences, or health conditions, and the relations between people and different groups should not be prejudiced in order to achieve effective communication and collaboration.
Philadelphia is the movie that touches upon numerous themes, and one of them is the development of the relations between two men with absolutely different interests and principles: one of them is Andrew Beckett, who had to defend own position and interests at the court, and Joe Miller, a brilliant lawyer and a homophobic man, who knows not much about AIDS but is still afraid of this disease. In fact, the causes of Joe Miller’s homophobia are not clear enough.
From the very first meeting of Mr. Miller and Mr. Beckett, it becomes clear that Mr. Miller is a powerful lawyer, but his dislike and prejudice for gay people, who have HIV-positive, stands on his way in order to establish justice and help the person, who so loudly requires for help.
Joe Miller thinks that Andrew is even craze a bit because he wants to prove his position and argue each person, who stands on his way. I find the words by Elliot Aronson rather appropriate for the movie under consideration.
“People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy” (Aronson 9). Human position in the society usually defines by his/her communication with other member of the same groups, his/her following the established rules, and his/her abilities to prove the chosen way of life. Joe Miller cannot accept the idea that a gay person, who has HIV positive, is going to argue with people with normal orientation and no health problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, his prejudice confuses his for a while and makes him see how injustice and unfair other people’s attitude to an ill gay may be in every day life. This is why Joe decides to forget about his principles concerning gay people with HIV/AIDS and put the idea of justice and the idea of right attitude to each citizen on the first place.
Communication with Andrew Beckett, who is dying because of AIDS, changes Joe Miller’s attitude to numerous things. On my opinion, only some slight changes inside of Joe Miller concerning the issue of homosexuality take place. Andrew opens his eye to certain things and proves that gay people do not actually differ from the others and even have more captivating attitude to some things:
Can you hear the heartache in her voice? Can you feel it, Joe? In come the strings, and it changes everything. The music fills with a hope, and that’ll change again. Listen…listen…” I bring sorrow to those who love me.” Oh, that single cello! “It was during this sorrow that love came to me.” A voice filled with harmony.
It says, “Live still, I am life.” Heaven is in your eyes. Is everything around you just the blood and mud? I am divine. I am oblivion. I am the god… that comes down from the heavens, and makes of the Earth a heaven. I am love!… I am love. (Demme 1993)
Andrew comprehends that Joe is eager to protect everything that does not contradict the law, and being homosexual is not out of law, this is why everybody has to respect Andrew’s choice and not to prevent his professional growth, and Joe is going to prove this. Somewhere inside, Joe realizes that his prejudice against gay people and his fear about HIV are so miserable and stupid that he has to be changed.
For example, the experiments, conducted by Lauren Slater, prove that even gay people can be ashamed of personal desires and sexuality. “I felt in my body, the shame of being gay. Why couldn’t I like a girl?” (Slater 59). Lots of people have fear about personal desires, this is why it is quite comprehensible that people with non-traditional orientation may cause fear or doubts in people with normal orientation.
Human life is closely connected to stereotypes, which are created by these humans. Philadelphia demonstrates how a stereotype of homosexuality and the inability to accept gay people as important and equal parts of society deprives a person, who is dying, of a chance to enjoy his last days but spend these days at the court and prove that he and his work has to be appreciated by the others. This movie has to be considered as a really powerful means to show and analyze the relations between people of the same group.
We will write a custom Essay on Philadelphia: Prejudice about Homosexuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feelings of one person may be too influential for the other person, and if these feelings or ideas are wrong, it turns out to be very dangerous to share wrong thoughts and wrong feelings. According to Elliot Aronson, only public judgments make a person conform them (p.21). Joe’s life is full of such judgments, because he spends much time on public and tries to take into consideration both personal judgments and the judgments of other people.
When he starts communicating with Andrew, he comprehends that prejudice, that is so inherent to this society, cannot leave him even in the article of death. Gay people cannot be accepted as equal parts as well as black people always feel a kind of pressure from the whites. Mr. Elliot underlines that the pressure to conform plays an important role in human lives, and if it is public, people have less chances to resist it.
This movie represents one of the possible ways of how to eliminate prejudice and become closer to the problems, challenges, and misunderstandings of the minorities. Communication with the minorities turns out to be a good chance to learn deeper how it is difficult and offensive to take the side that is always argued by people and blamed for absolutely different things.
Elliot Aronson offers to decrease the conformity that has unbelievable power on publicity by means of creation allies, demonstration of self-esteem, use of previous success, support of friends and relatives, and respect among the group. In the movie, prejudice is eliminated due to self-esteem that is demonstrated by Joe, support of family, when Joe’s wife reminds him about their roots and the problems, their relatives faced in the past, and the desire to obtain the truth.
It is not enough for a person to know what is right and what is wrong. It becomes more important to prove the correctness of the chosen position and the chosen point of view. This is what Elliot Aronson tries to represent in his work, and this is what makes the movie under analysis more powerful and educative.
The theory of cognitive dissonance is another peculiar point that has to be mentioned while analyzing the movie Philadelphia and the character of Joe Miller in particular.
This theory implies the development of an uncomfortable feeling that is caused by presence of two absolutely different ideas within one person. Joe Miller always believes that gay people cannot bring something good to this world. “Call me old fashioned, call me conservative… I think maybe you have to be a man to get just how nauseating the whole basic idea really is” (Demme 1993).
He also has a fear of getting HIV by means of communicating with sick people. With time, Miller gets a chance to evaluate gays’ place in this world from the absolutely other perspective and regard them as one more minority just like his race belonging. Miller does not need too much time in order to comprehend that gays should have the same rights as people with normal orientation, because they are still people and deserve to achieve professional goals, earn money, and be an equal part of this world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Philadelphia: Prejudice about Homosexuality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Joe Miller from Philadelphia is a good example of how one person with certain authority can help a group of people to gain respect and recognition among society. Not every country appreciates homosexual movements, but still, it is wrong to deprive gay people of the opportunities, which are inherent to each person on this world.
To comprehend better social psychology means to comprehend better each of its components and the impact of these components to each other. Philadelphia helps to deepen my understanding of how ill or gay people are accepted by people, who do not have any problems with their health or who believe that their sexuality is ok.
Relations between people and the groups, they live in, are not easy, and it is obligatory to study, analyze, and compare the attitude and the reaction of each human. It is useless to divide the abilities of one group of people at the expenses of the other group of people, because sooner or later, justice will find everyone.
Works Cited Aronson, Elliot. The Social Animal. New York: Worth, 1999. Print.
Philadelphia. Dir. Jonathan Demme. Perf. Tom Hanks and Denzel Washington. TriStar Pictures, 1993. Film.
Slater, Lauren. Opening Skinner’s Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century. New York, NY: W. W. Norton
Feminist Perspective: My Last Duchess, To His Coy Mistress, and The Secretary Chant Compare and Contrast Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents “My Last Duchess” Feminist Analysis
“To His Сoy Mistress” Feminist Analysis
“The Secretary Chant” Analysis of Feminism Theme
A word is one of the most powerful means for a person to express his or her attitude, to share information, or to show admiration. A poem is a powerful combination of words that is devoted to numerous themes, which are so important in this life, and poetry about women serve as an excellent example of the evaluation of female place and roles in this world, their duties, and their significance.
This essay aims at performing “The Secretary Chant,” “To His Coy Mistress,” and “My Last Duchess” feminist analysis. “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning, “To His Coy Mistress” by Andrew Marvell, and “The Secretary Chant” by Merge Piercy are the three poems that depict the same topic in absolutely different ways. Browning considers women as objects, which call for admiration but still are not worth enough to mention their names, Marvell regards women as a male sexual desire, and Piercy mulls over women as machines, which are ready to perform any function.
“My Last Duchess” Feminist Analysis A dramatic monologue “My Last Duchess,” presented by Robert Browning, opens to the reader a world, where men are eager to take leading positions only, and women have nothing to do but obey them and listen to their orders and words. In “My Last Duchess,” the theme of woman discrimination are depicted clearly. From the poem’s summary it is clear how Browning tries to represent how admiration, jealousy, and self-esteem are united in one man and make him happy and disappointed, weak and strong, courageous, and cowardly at the same time.
In “My Last Duchess” poem, the author depicts women as objects, which may not have names and may serve as the means to demonstrate some precious goods or services. “That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall/Looking as if she were alive.
I call/That piece a wonder, now: Fra Pandolf’s hands/ Worked busily a day, and there she stands” (Meyer 721). This piece of the poem proves that a man does not care about his loss, his wife’s death, and his grief. From the psychological point of view, his attitude depicts him as an indifferent to women’s suffering person. The point is that he gets a chance to demonstrate one more object that he owns now and tell about its price and value. This can be the aspect worth studying while analyzing feminism in “My Last Duchess.”
However, this very object has many disadvantages, which do not suit the Duke: “she liked whate’ er/ She looked on, and her looks went everywhere” (Meyer 722). Such absent-mindedness of the woman and the desire to be friendly with many people cannot be comprehended by the Duke. He thinks such behavior is offensive to his position and his power, this is why this woman is in the past, and the other one is waiting for him downstairs to enlarge Duke’s collection of expensive things.
“To His Сoy Mistress” Feminist Analysis “To His Coy Mistress” is the attempt of Andrew Marvell to depict the role and the place of a woman in accordance with male standpoints and principles. The author does not present feminism in “To His Coy Mistress,” but the poem can be analyzed from a feminist approach. Though received many criticism from various critics, Marvell’s work is worth of studying its main arguments and themes. This poem is a kind of warning to all women against cajolery that is used by men to bed women. Andrew Marvell underlines women’s shyness and modesty that make all women so desirable by men.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In “To His Coy Mistress,” women are portrayed as playfully hesitant and pure human beings, who are waiting for males’ call to “sport us while we may” (Meyer 637). Marvell cries that people do not have much time to enjoy this life to its full extent, and women’s care about their virginities should not prevent both sexes against suffering from lack of love and satisfaction.
“Had we but world enough, and time/ This coyness, lady, were no crime/We would sit down, and think which way/ To walk, and pass our long love’s day” (Meyer 636). The male character does not provide a woman with time to think everything over, the only reasonable point he presents is that she has to have sex with him before she dies. He does not say anything about his possible grief about her death; the only thing that bothers him is the desire to have sex with this woman.
In my opinion, the poems by Marvell and Browning have many things in common, because both of them are about men’s attitude toward women. And this attitude is somewhat similar, because the Duke wants to have a woman to add to his collection of things, and the lover from “To His Coy Mistress” is eager to satisfy his desire and use a woman for this.
“The Secretary Chant” Analysis of Feminism Theme The last poem, where the role of women is correctly described, is The Secretary Chant by Margie Piercy that was published in 1970s. This metaphoric poem describes the woman’s body as the parts of office equipment. A woman spends so much time among all those equipment and secretary things that she merges with them and loses her own identity. The modern world makes any person strong and self-possessed to cope with all challenges.
However, women are the softer sex, and men forget about this truth and try to use women’s skills as well as their own. One more work of art does not depict a woman as the thing alive that deserves respect and recognition just because it is near. Her head is a “badly organized file,” her breasts are “wells of mimeograph ink,” her hips are “a desk,” and her navel is “a reject button” (Meyer 570). This poem is a woman’s cry, caused by unfair dehumanization of women in business.
The point is that the author starts the description of this creature from the body parts, which have to identify her as a woman. The character still believes that she was created to be beautiful and be reproductive, and now, the only thing she can do is “to be delivered/ of a baby/ Xerox machine” (Meyer 570).
In this case, the author depicts a woman as a working machine that cannot just stop doing all this stuff and start fighting against such unfair treatment at work. Sexual discrimination is an essential topic at working places, and Margie Piercy presents one of the most sever comparisons that can be used to women.
We will write a custom Essay on Feminist Perspective: My Last Duchess, To His Coy Mistress, and The Secretary Chant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The paper analyzed gender roles in “My Last Duchess”, “To His Coy Mistress,” and “The Secretary Chant.” Each of the above-mentioned authors represents a kind of fight that happens between a woman and this world. In My Last Duchess, the woman is struggling for respect in her own family; in “To His Coy Mistress,” the woman wants to defend her right to be a virgin, and in The Secretary Chant, the woman has to struggle to prove her equality in the working place.
The role of a woman in this world is excellent, indeed, and the point that only women have the reproduction function should cause respect from the male side. Nowadays, women are so unfair compared to the objects of men’s passion and desire, and the authors try to underline these problems in their poems.
Maybe, a fresh look on the old problems helps to realize injustice the vast majority of women face with and to create a world where rich Dukes would take lessons to be able to paint their wives, lovers would appreciate women’s desire to be a virgin, and businessmen would distinguish women and machines, and make the former happier even at working places.
Works Cited Meyer, Michael. The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. Boston, MA: Bedford, 2008. Print.
Antibiotics resistance among human beings Term Paper essay help online
Table of Contents Analysis of antibiotics resistance among human beings
Effects of the use of the antibiotics to animals
Strategies to reduce potential impacts
The issue of antibiotics resistance among human beings is growing at an alarming rate. According to the Federal Task Force (EFD, 2008) report, the common infections will increasingly continue being scarce and expensive to manage or treat and worse still may become impossible to treat.
This paper is an analysis on the use of antibiotics in the industrial and commercial processes and its effects on human health. The focus is on the meat processing industries and how these practices effects transmission rates and resistance of the antibiotics in human beings.
Analysis of antibiotics resistance among human beings The antibiotics resistance is a condition transferred from animals’ products to human beings. What threat does improperly managed antibiotic usage in the meat industry pose to human beings? What current industrial policies promote usage of antibiotics in meat processing industries? What ought to be done to reduce this issue of transferring bacterial resistance condition from animals to human beings?
For protection over the consequences incurred, the use of antibiotics on animal food and water ought to be highly reduced. Overuse of antibiotics in animals’ food production is the main contributor to the resistance condition. (EDF, 2007) The reason behind the overuse are claims that, antibiotics promote fast growth in animals and minimizes chances of contacting diseases that are related to movement, overcrowding, strains and unhygienic conditions in the modern industries.
Research indicates that majority of the animal waste contains bacteria that are drugs resistant. The EDF research results of 2007 indicate that over seventy percent of antibiotics and similar drugs in the United States are in use on various domestic animals.
Effects of the use of the antibiotics to animals The World Health Organization research results indicate that, the resistant bacteria pose a major risk to human population because transmitting occurs directly through food consumption or contaminated environment. The highest risk occurs when a person consumes half-cooked contaminated food or food that comes to contact with infected food. (EDF, 2001) Majority of the antibiotics and the resistant bacteria in animals passes the system without digestion.
The antibiotics are some of the most indispensable implements for most physicians. The EDF (2001) statistics indicates that at any given time, over forty percent of patient at any health facility receives the antibiotics dosage. The inefficiency of the same drugs is significantly evident today because of the common multi drug resistant bacteria or the body’s immunity due to over use.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Not all people suffer from effects of antibiotics condition. Most adults have strong immune systems that are able to fight the disease causing germs with less strain. Venerability depends on the strength of the immune system as well as the age. Children and infants are more venerable than adults are. According to Shea et al (2001), infants are ten times likely to suffer from the germs compared to adults. The old age group is also more venerable with over sixty-five percent being at risk of infection (Shea et al. 2001).
Research also indicates that, various bacterial species are capable of life threatening conditions and remain resistant to most available antibacterial drugs. Some infections are even resistant to newly discovered antibacterial drugs while some illnesses remain untreatable because of their continual diagnosis and prescription.
The continual resistant has affected other environmental components such as wildlife, soil and air thus a cause of alarm in the medical fraternity.
The over prescription and drug misuse are the main causes of the antibiotic resistance conditions. The effectiveness of a drug depreciates due to overuse in both agricultural and human health care settings. Evidently the human antibacterial drugs such as “tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin” (EDF 2001) are used in the animal health husbandly sectors thus making them less effective even to human beings because they constantly continue to take them unknowingly.
There exists many different and stronger drugs under constant manufacture procedures but the costs remain high thus having to do with the same dosages that are less efficient. According to Shea et al (2001), there are many unnecessary antibacterial prescriptions in the health sectors especially among the outpatients.
This is a global alarm sounding from many worlds’ organizations such as American Medical Association (AMA). World Health Organization (WHO) terms the situation of nourishing animals’ feeds with antibiotics as an unnecessary routine that hinders growth or advancement.
Strategies to reduce potential impacts The corporate and governmental institutes are having direct impact over decision-making procedures regarding the use of antibacterial drugs in both human beings and animals. There is need for increased pressure to marginalize usage through pressing for reform agendas in drugs selling and manufacturing companies as well as the health care centres.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Antibiotics resistance among human beings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Companies with close ties to the animal products manufacturing need to embrace strategies of fighting the impact caused by antibiotics resistance. The playing field need levelling for all companies concern with drugs production, distribution and administration.
The drug producing companies ought to be discouraged over manufacturing of antibiotics added to animal feeds as a way of discouraging the already excessive use of non-therapeutic usage of antibiotics, which would rather be medically important to human beings.
Tough campaigns should ensure that companies involved with selling animal products such as restaurants, fast-food outlets, supermarkets, voluntarily resist buying from producers who abuse the medically fit antibacterial with the aim of making high profits.
The government regulations ought to govern usage of drugs as a way of ensuring level playing grounds. None of the meat production industries should have competitive operational advantage over others. In the U.S., the Congress of the “U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)” should ensure removal of the antibacterial drugs from the animal husbandry sectors. Some of the bacterial drugs such as “fluoroquinolone” need prohibition as a way of combating the drug resistance condition. Evidently, some of the most crucial drugs for treating food related illnesses in human beings are on abuse especially among poultry farmers. (FDA, 2008)
On the campaign tactics, the collection of accurate data pertaining usage of antibiotics in both human and animal’s settings and its resistance effects on human beings need publicity and awareness so as to discourage the usage and enlighten the public.
There is no successful strategy, which lacks financial backup. FDA (2008) congress ought to finance the centres for Diseases Control and Prevention for better chances of fighting antibiotics resistance and encourage gathering of data for analysis (Shea et al. 2001).
Conclusion The main solution to these issues lies upon the companies that are involved in supply, manufacture and usage of drugs. They ought to work closely with the governmental organizations policies and procedure as well as assist other concern non-governmental agencies in gathering and analysis of related information and to come up with ample solutions.
References EDF. 2001. “Antibiotic Resistance: Playing Chicken with Essential Drugs.” Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Antibiotics resistance among human beings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More EDF 2007. “Hold the Antibiotics Please.” Updated July 20, 2007. Web.
EDF. 2008. “Innovative Partnerships First To Reduce Antibiotics Use in Mainstream Pork Production.” Updated March 14, 2008. Web.
Shea, Katherine, Florini and Barlam. 2001. “When Wonder Drugs Don’t Work.” EDF. Web.
Data Warehoisung: Composite Bicycle Frame Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Frame components of performance bicycles
Enhancement of the metal
Current design and usage problems
Frame components of performance bicycles Today the issue of composite materials have become the norm in the manufacturing industries. People prefer the combinations because of the less engineering problems involved as well as the efficiency on the outcome. The issue of reinforcement of two or more merged but differing materials catalyzes the formation of better products.
The production of the composite bicycle frame that combines a metal spine in the midst of a fibre reinforced plastics have been in the market for quite a while but the materials keep changing to allow better performance and cater for improvements. The combination involves metal lugs and plastics that reinforcements with fibre. The modern frames mainly comprise of steel and fibre but the most recent combination involves carbon fibre tubes. (Jeukendrup, 17)
The bicycles made of composite high strength and lightweight metal tubes such as titanium or tubes and carbon fibres have indicated better performance at lower rates. The main aim of the performance bicycles manufactures is to come up with a lightweight but relatively strongly framed bicycle for a good quality ride.
Today’s technology demands for a bicycle frame that is able to withstand the shocks of the rough roads. The combination of materials ought to give out lightweight as well as strength. The most preferred metals may arguably be titanium, aluminium, steel and some plastics reinforced with carbon fibre. Metals such as titanium provides the required low weight and improved steel structure, which supports transmission power even under the harsh and complex motions during the performance.
Comparison between the leg movement and wheel rotation during activity causes the sideways overload especially at the lower part of the frame. According to US Patent Storm (2006), “the carbon fibre provides light weight and strength with requisite stiffness and shock absorption for steering and power transmission under the load imposed in the top region of the bicycle”.
The main difference between the composite metals is their isotopic nature. They have a directional dependent behaviour such that they behave similarly in all the directions. The main differences between these materials and non-composite ones, is the product formed during production process.
The versatility of fibrous composites materials is higher as opposed to metals. Modification utilized meets performance requirements as well as complexity of the activities. The carbon fibre enforced alloy has four to five times more strength over steel or aluminium. The flexibility and shock absorbent ability enables them to endure fatigue more than other metals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Enhancement of the metal The carbon-reinforced epoxies provide support for very high strengths or heavy loads and at the some time has low weights and huge freedom for shape. Carbon is a flexible material that allows simple production of complex parts and ease in modification. It has elevated scale for integration where stiffeners and other core units need implementation to suit specific needs.
They have excellent fatigue survival ability compared to single metals. Investigations indicate that such allowances resist chemicals such as acids. The alloys are long lasting due to their ability to resist environmental harsh conditions such as water resistance to avoid corrosion. Their thermal seclusion ability, ability to retard fire and ability to perform under high temperatures enables it to be preferred over other general metals. (Mitchell, 2006)
Current design and usage problems The bicycles have unique parts produced differently on a daily basis, which requires one to contact the manufacturing industry even for the simplest spare parts such as treads. The user might not have a choice other than place an order. There is need for manufacturing standards that allow every new product to comply to facilitate interchanging of parts.
Today’s bicycles parts manufacturing involves different manufactures. The assembling to single units applies later on. The manufacturing standards ensure perfect fits and functionality. The bicycle components often fracture and this calls for standardizing the testing units and procedures.
Conclusion People ought to know that current bicycles undergo standardization for various weights and thus we should not bleach the usage. There are quite a number of benefits associated with the standards such as diversity of the equipments, establishment of performance criterion and enhancement of safety.
Works Cited Jeukendrup, Asker. E. High-performance cycling. Human Kinetics, 2002 113
Mitchell, David. A. ‘Bicycle Safety and Bicycle Standards’. ASTM InternationalWest Conshohocken, PA March 2006. Accessed from
We will write a custom Essay on Data Warehoisung: Composite Bicycle Frame specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More US Patent Storm. Metal and reinforced plastic composite bicycle frame. Issued on February 7, 2006. Web.
Computer fraud and contracting Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents The law pertaining fraud
Fraud through online
How to interpret the online computer contracting
Current trends of the computer frauds
The law pertaining fraud The law does not provide the consumers with measures to enforcing the online contracts because the argument is that, it is impossible to tell the intention and the consent of the consumer when they signed the contract. In most instances, it is easy for the consumer to identify these malicious programs such as viruses or Trojan horses. On the other extreme end, the computer fraud might be easy to detect if one is able to identify the good software especially among the popular freeware applications available from the net.
The issue may be due to lack of transparency and uncertainty about what the end-user thinks when engaging with such programs. The personal judgement and consent of the user is what determines whether they agree to contract a program especially when the label shows or indicates in an otherwise pernicious manner such as a “spyware.” Some consumers may perceive software labelled “WeatherBug” as a legitimate program while other would take it as destructive software. (PC Hell, 2005)
Fraud through online The scope of online fraud can be clear through definition of the term “Spyware”. As applied in a wide range of computer applications especially software development, the authoritative definition of the term may be difficult.
According to a notice by ABA concerning the Federal of Trade Commission in 2004, (2006)“Spyware is software that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge and that may send such information to another entity without the consumer’s consent, or that asserts control over a computer without the consumer’s knowledge.”
Evidence indicates accurate differences between the merchant and the consumer with regard to online contracts. In most cases, the malicious software programmers have little or no intention over the program broadcast as the consumers may point out after the destruction has occurred.
Most consumers would claim that the software was maliciously loaded on their systems without their authorization while considering the intention of the interface designer may as genuine due to various clicks from beginning to end on the contract interfaces may also apply.
Not all malicious software designers and distributors use these contracting interfaces. As much as such contracting interfaces help to manage the relationship between contractors and consumers, wicked programmers will use programs with interfaces, which do not require user identity to install. Such software developers do this intentionally because they are aware that their products contain viruses and other malicious software and in such situations, they commit “identity theft”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the end-user has not authority of assenting a download or upload then he/she would ascertain theft of individual’s rights. Such software is rare and this reason, this paper addresses the cases where computer fraud occurs through interactive contracting interfaces between the consumer and programmer or the distributor involved in the system.
The contract law can provide meaningful constraints over computer fraud such as software distribution if a mechanism was invented requiring explicit approval and hence notice by the consumer before ordering or agreeing with the loading mechanism. Such a mechanism would actually have an impact over the distribution volumes. According to DeVries, (2003) such a sensible strategy would probably work well in curbing online crime but it would also have a big impact over the distribution of software.
Probably such measures would have disastrous outcomes especially on the information privacy law but this may call for consideration of other measures for instance, the contract terms instructions where experts formulate means of blocking the use of misleading interfaces. This would probably enhance legitimacy of software distribution by providing significant scrutiny over mechanizations of destructive software.
Arguably, promotion of computer fraud occurs through existence of unambiguous software termed as “freeware” or “shareware”. They provide benefits to the end users and in most cases; they have to assent to the agreement by appending a check on the user interface form. In such situations, the user has consent over functionality of the program. Although uncertain, their level of interest determines if they would grant program access in their system.
The freeware may be termed as software whose distribution occurs at zero cost and mainly involves the small downloadable applications compatible with majority of the operating systems. On the other hand, the transfer of shareware from one workstation to another as free trial occurs with the aim that the user might purchase the full version later after testing.
Many end-users will comfortably welcome free information or software from the web for instance information concerning products that they intend to buy. They would hate the popular pot-up dialog boxes but will not be in a position to determine the intentions of a particular marketing company. Some advertisements would solicit the user to access free information but in return, they expose their information for possible attacks or future pop-up advertisements and worse still loading of destructive applications at the end-user system.
Today the basis of the problem can only centre on situations where the software merchant has plausible claim over consumer consent over submission of personal information in exchange of free products or services. Infringement of an existing and protective law occurs because these claims can occur from either side.
We will write a custom Essay on Computer fraud and contracting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consumer can also have a plausible claim that fraud occurred without the personal consent. Contract and application law is therefore ambiguous because of the uncertain outcomes. Liberalization of the contracts diminishes the chances for formulation of contract law because the law ought to provide a framework that provides chances for more and better explicit consent formation before collection of personal information occurs.
Today there is no basis to anticipate that judicial reverence over online fraud will extend to legitimacy of distribution of clearly malice programs.
How to interpret the online computer contracting From the consumer point of view, it might be very hard for them to pick out the malicious persons targeting marketing companies whose aim is to collect personal information from the genuine online merchants. People ought to understand that by agreeing to contracting processes through the online interfaces where one only need to click means licensing various application programs.
The process of downloading an application may involve several other applications without the consumer consent. Spyware programs appends onto genuine programs. It is often to find extra-unwanted programs attached to the main program and the process of download of the required one cannot occur without the full download.
Combination of different programs may also occur in which case people exacerbate the issues of inadvertent or eligible assent because of the fact that the extra programs are difficult to locate and eliminate them or it is inevitable to download them. (Serafin, Manners and Forbes. 2004)
Application of some principles as a guidance though the contract development and signing may be used. Using some standards requires proper analysis but it presents troubling and unsolvable issues regarding assent. Some of these principals include having a written or spoken manifestation of assent before signing of an online contract.
The contract must be intentional or reasonable such that any other parties can treat it as assent. If such manifestation of assent is not involved one should treat the contract as void or a fraud. Manifestation of mutual understanding takes the form of a proposal or an offer, which is acceptable or rejected, by the other involved party. The disadvantage in this case is that neither the offer nor the acceptance is identifiable. The moment of the formation is also not determinable.
Today the “browser wrap” terms that are usually behind the marked hyperlinks provides the terms and conditions for an agreement. The user clicks the option of either accepting of declining with the terms. There are however considerable disagreements regarding the interfaces with the query of whether they can be able to support contracts without prior determination of assent. An important development ought to support apparent manifestation beside the online validation through an interface.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Computer fraud and contracting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current trends of the computer frauds Today, the causes of skipped supervisory re-evaluations by personnel managers are the huge workloads caused by accumulation of information and data or collusion during entry into the databases. The supervisory data reviews may utilize the special codes to hinder computer edits. Bypassing of many important procedural instances is the main aspect that facilitates fraud intentionally or unintentionally.
Research by Miller, (2008) has established that today’s web crime statistics are difficult to obtain because of the various methods, periods and sources that are in use to determine them. Various Internet Fraud Complain Centres such as The “Internet Complaint Centre (IC3)” established in 2000 or the “National White Collar Crime Centre (NW3C),” are addressing the rapidly spreading arena of cyber fraud/crime. They receive, build up a case and then refer it to the “Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)” as a criminal complaint.
The issue of cyber crime/fraud and contracting issues are however taking a slow pace to deal with because they belong to various categories. The consumer can present a crime in an alarming manner while it is a minor problem thus misleading the investigation teams. The issue of unsolicited junk mails and “spoofed” websites that imitate the legitimate ones is the root cause of the complexity involving the fraud cases.
Computer fraud cases involve the “auction fraud, non-delivery fraud, credit or debit cards fraud, non fraudulent complaints such as child pornography or spam/Junk mails.” These are all situations that are accessible through federal laws meant to support the dynamic investigations, developmental analysis and aims to reach out for the public awareness efforts.
Conclusion From the business experts’ point of view, computer fraud and contracting is a crisis they people have to deal with because electronic commerce is has just begun. People are coming to terms with the online procurement process and this unlocks more chances for fraudsters. Fraud and contracting is a bigger problem than what most people would anticipate.
As technology advance, it forces the fraudsters to acquire better skills and thus today’s fraud involves experts rather than the imagined idlers. They have mechanisms of manipulating computers to access the intended information. The best mechanism of protecting oneself against fraudsters is by learning more about fraud and advancing technologically.
Most fraudsters will use spyware to find personal information. Some of this software is able to collect information without the consent of the owner. One basic way of avoiding the transfer of personal information to fraudsters is to get rid of temporally internet files and browser history. Users ought to avoid visiting of suspicious websites. (Wells, 2008)
The issue of identity theft is common today with many victims having to spend huge amounts to clear damaged identities. It is wise to spend on solid protection against fraud other than spend on clearing the mess.
Technology equips the users with software capable of utilizing multiple options of defence against information theft, attenuation, swindles, and other variety of frauds. Good antifraud software should provide advice against dangerous Web sites, rate safety probability, provide automatic safety tune-up, shield browsers and block malicious programs or pop-ups.
The consumer should be a few clicks away from security zone so that they can access them any time they need protection or privileges. By installing updated Virus scanning software, one is able to stay ahead of the hackers or fraudsters.
References ABA.2006. 2004 “Annual Review of Antitrust Law Developments: Annual Review Of Antitrust Law Developments”. New York NY. American Bar Association, 2006.
DeVries W.T, 2003. Protecting Privacy in the Digital Age, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J.
Miller, R. L, Gaines, L.K. 2008. Criminal Justice in Action Cengage Learning.
PC Hell. 2005. WeatherBug Removal Instructions and Help. Accessed from http://www.pchell.com/support/weatherbug.shtml
Serafin T, Manners and Forbes. 2004. “The Federal Trade Commission held Workshops on spyware” Web.
Wells, J.T. 2008. Computer Fraud Casebook: The Bytes that Bite. New York NY. John Wiley and Sons
Winn J.K. 2005. Law, Commerce and Technology. University of Washington
School of Law. Accessed from https://www.law.uw.edu/
Brief overview of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Biological perspective of OCD Patients
Emotional perspective of OCD Patients
Behavioural components of the disorder
Obsessive compulsiveness is neurotic disorders that tend to affect high-class social economics status and higher intelligentsia compared to other neurotics. (Zohar, Insel, and Rasmussen, 1991) The problem is associated with senseless and distressing repetitive thoughts or behaviours in a person.
The situation is difficult to overcome. For instance, a person may become troubled over the cleanliness of their hands, thus a feeling of toughed dirt and they keep washing them every now and then. The strange acts torment the mind and the distractions affect the social wellbeing of the patient.
The mental health professions took the condition as rare considering the number of patients affected. The condition faces various challenges because the affected or their guardians tend to avoid treatment due to the thought of it as a strange untreatable clause.
Resent surveys by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (2009), indicate great improvements over the response. People have understood that the condition faces more prevalence over other common mental illness such as the schizophrenia.
According to Zohar, Insel, and Rasmussen, (1991), the ODC patients faces among others, compulsions, insight, resistance, shame, secrecy, interference and other long lasting symptoms. The disease finally effects the external achievements of a person and societal productivity because of the effect on the meticulousness and persistence.
Biological perspective of OCD Patients Studies and medical indications such as the “PET brain scans”, indicate that the brain of people suffering from OCD, have interlocked structures whereby the parts functions hyperactively in unison. The brain has the “orbital frontal cortex” that is responsible of reporting and soliciting the rest of the brain for error correction. For a person suffering from the OCD disorder, the cortex is hyperactive thus the reaction of constantly correcting what seem to appear wrong. (Meyer, 2005)
In line with Meyers writing (2005) this part of the brain, that conveys sensory information and the thalamus act in unison and therefore presence of any metabolically reaction quadruples a reaction that is dissimilar to the healthy persons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This condition is observable when Bess adopts the mother’s instructions later in her life yet she appeared to resist them during her earlier life. The parental teaching evolves into a cleaning ritual where she suffers from a condition she feels contaminated and thus the urgent need for constant cleanliness.
Secondly, it is biologically proven that these patients suffer from a connection between the “caudate nucleus and the cingulated gyrus”, which are structures found deep into the core of the brain. (Meyer, 2005) They make the patient perceive their focused issue such as the need for cleanliness.
This seems very urgent due to the superficial impact over incorrectness. The perception makes them to suffer from anxiety to address the need, due to the adjusted pulse rates. Evidently, Bess felt the need to address cleanliness urgently regardless of the fatigue.
The treatment involved includes medication such as the often-preferred “Prozac” to reduce the brain activity rate particularly in the caudate nucleus. The treatment may also work out if the patient responding to psychotherapy as applied for Bess case. (Meyer, 2005)
Emotional perspective of OCD Patients Emotionally, obsessive-compulsive behaviours involve anxiety disorders. The condition comes from the related persons. Bess had no choice other that to emulate her mothers behaviours who was the only model in close connection to her. The emotional concept of people from the disorder involves repulsiveness especially from the right attributes.
The guiltiness make them to react differently as it is evident with Bess’s mother, who reacted defiantly in opposition of attempts of despise, conflicts and religious involvement. The behaviours that are common with most teenage patients of the disorder revolve round the sexually related matters. (Zohar, Insel, and Rasmussen, 1991)
Behavioural components of the disorder The Obsessive-compulsive individual tends to suffer from the effect of conflicts over the hygiene concerning the toilet. Evidently, Bess suffered from the conflicts concerning these sanitary issues. The experts link the hygiene issues to the theory of the patient tending to remain in one “anal-sadistic stage of development”. (Meyer, 2005)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Brief overview of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Argumentatively, these recurrences of the toilet sanitation concerns may come about because it is one of the sources of conflict between the mother and the child during development. It is also a stage when the child tries to integrate and model parental behaviours. The child has to consider the concerns and rulings thus their probability of being key aspects connected to OCD.
Most of the OCD patients’ behaviours emerge from the parents whereby one main concern would be intellectualization as a means of dealing with anxiety. This involves concern over key issues that led to conflicts in the aim of avoiding the impact they have.
It works perfectly in the school or work settings and unmistakably it did wonders for Bess when she took her mother’s advice during her school work as well as career tasks but created conflicts when it was done contradictory at home.
The patients have to struggle and maintain their obsessive –compulsive indicators under control by casting the compulsive throughout during the work or school time. The resistance however weakens overtime and the behaviours become severe. This is the reason why such a people engage in time-consuming rituals that overcome real life. Bess’ case has this evidential aspect.
In line with the case study, Bess’s social life is highly affected by her condition, manifested in the lack of activity in her life. She often works late and lives alone thus being forcing her to live a lonely lifestyle. Medically, a person suffers from the ODC when their compulsive and obsessive behaviour becomes extreme to the point of interfering with the normal lifestyle. (Meyer, 2005) According to Bess case, Sleep is a complicated phenomenon in her life to the extent that, she has to do with pills or alcohol to find some.
Conclusion The symptoms of OCD begin during childhood and the process of coping with the embarrassment-involved causes the victim to hide the compulsions and thus the stress evidenced later in life. The process of successfully concealing these problems from friend, relatives or co-workers other than seeking help requires remarkable ability.
The unfortunate consequence of the secrecy becomes evident later on in their lives when medical assistance is inevitable. At this later stage, the compulsive habits are subterranean or profoundly ingrained and often difficult to transform.
Children suffering from the disorder are more prone to other psychiatric conditions such as panic disorders, phobia of being social, learning disorders, hatred, and depression. (Meyer, 2005) This was evident on the case study where Bess remains enclosed in her own cocoon lifestyle.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Brief overview of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The biggest challenge to psychoanalysis regarding the problem is the fact that the individual is highly involved in intellectualization, which they use as a protection mechanism. The most recommended treatment therapy revolves round responsive prevention that involves relationship.
The modification of behaviour through cognition unlocks the brain’s caudate nucleus structure and enables the patient to rebel urges as opposed to giving in. It calls for engagement on extra curricular activities to divert the attention and urge. (Meyer, 2005) The patient has to be guided to enable them understand the problem and this facilitates the ability to come up with mechanisms of fight the problem. The main aim of the therapy is to distort the behaviour to a more enjoyable and productive activity and lifestyle.
References Meyer, R.G. (2005). Case Studies in Abnormal Behaviour. (Seventh Edition). Upper Saddle.
River, NJ: Pearson Education Publishers National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2009). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Accessed from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index.shtml
Zohar, J., Insel, T.R., and Rasmussen, S. (1991). Psychobiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
The Plan for a Dream Vacation to Las Vegas, Nevada Creative Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents The Description of the Target Group
Vacation to Las Vegas, Nevada
Travel agent vs. online travel site
Visiting to one of the most popular cities of Nevada, Las Vegas, may seem like an endless party, where each member is eager to continue entertaining, without sleeping all days and nights in order to enjoy the beauty of this city, if it is possible.
Huge buildings, touching the sky, multicolored lights, making the city brighter and even warmer, and people afoot – all this creates a picture of a lively city that is always ready to accept one more visitor and present the world, full of events and happiness, to him/her. “What matters is that, like an oasis mirage in a parched desert, Las Vegas is whatever you desire most, if only for a day, a night or a dirty weekend.
Here, everyone lives like the King” (Benson 2007). There are 5 evident reasons to visit Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) an ability to watch amazing shows any time you want; (2) a good chance to observe a Pyramid, Ancient Rome, and the Eiffel Tower; (3) a possibility to drink for free visiting different casinos; (4) a great opportunity to win much and be recognized by the world or loose everything; (5) a funny and unforgettable place to get married.
Las Vegas is worth visiting for many reasons, and I, as a sophisticated travel agent, am ready to introduce you this city and prove that you will never forget your vacations and your trip to Las Vegas, where an opportunity to relax, gamble, and meet new people are available all the time.
The Description of the Target Group The chosen target group for vacation to Las Vegas, Nevada has rather clear purposes to relax, to rejuvenate, and simply to have fun. The choice of this city is obvious: Las Vegas is created for fun, shopping, gambling, and various entertainments, and if people want to have the most amazing vacations ever, the city is waiting for them.
Las Vegas attracts the attention of more that 35 million people annually (Moehring
Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help
Education in Afghanistan is one of the most frequently discussed problems that require certain time and investigations. Many sources admit that the policies of the Taliban were so horrible and strict that any girl could not get a chance to study and enlarge own level of knowledge on the same level with boys. The point is that many female students just could not continue their education, because the chosen programs were too horrible and war-oriented that females did not find it helpful and necessary to visit schools.
The impact of the Taliban on boys and girls’ education in Afghanistan was really great: different educative strategies and concentration on war affairs deprived girls of the opportunity to get education on the same level as boys could do it; this is why the fall of that movement led to positive changes in the sphere of education and promoted girls’ desire to study just like it was described in Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul.
Contrary to popular belief, the Taliban never officially banned the education for females. Girls under the ages of nine were allowed to attend school and share a classroom with boys of the same age. However, once a girl reached the age of ten, she lost the right to attend the school.
The Taliban put a suspension on female education until a segregated education system could be completely organized and implemented. Abdul Hai Muthmahien, the Taliban chief spokesman, admitted that their movement was going to spend more then $ 1 million in order to build schools and provide students with the necessary equipment “Taliban are not against education” (Baker para.2), and even girls should have a chance to study.
The students, who were fortunate enough to attend the schools that remained open, were taught a curriculum, centered on violence and religion.
At the first grade, children, who were six years old, learned the alphabet not by animals, fruits, or joys, like it was inherent to the vast majority of schools all over the world, but by means of religious and war-like terminology: “’J’ was for Jihad, ‘M’ was for Muhjahed, and ‘T’ was for Talib” (Fassihi para.1).
First graders were also taught simple arithmetic like counting bullets. The fourth grade of education turned out to be crucial for many students, because they got a chance to teach more complex math word problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These tasks involve the following: “If a bullet travels 800 meters per second, and the distance between a Russian and a muhjahed is 3,200 meters, then how many seconds will it take for the bullet to hit the Russian between the eyes?” (Fassihi para. 5)
Each year, a student could advance to a new grade, texts, lessons, and homework became even more graphic; the seventh grade promotes students to study the “jihad manual”, the manual that was laden with instructions for bomb making, gun and weapon descriptions and diagrams, and even how-to’s for killing Islam’s enemies (Fassihi para. 6).
Students were subjected to this style of learning until the Taliban fell after a five year reign. “Belqisa could even continue her education if she wanted…Now it was allowed, but she forbade herself” (Seierstad 175-181). So, a child of any sex could get education, the question is whether the child wants to get such education.
In November 2001, since the fall of the Taliban, Afghanistan faced numerous troubles because of the period of reconstruction and its demands (UNESCO 137). The sphere of education underwent certain challenges and changes as well: schools all across the country held registrations for both males and females.
In Jalalabad, the new minister of education, Abdul Ghani Hidayat, hoped for the turnout at registration and believed that nearly eighty percent of the city’s eligible male and females would register. Despite the lack of text books, furniture, and writing utensils and supplies, Mr. Hidayat was eager to commence the planning and implementation of a new curriculum for the children in order to present them an opportunity to enlarge their level of knowledge and have the same rights as other people on the world have (Witter para. 8).
In spite of Mr. Hidayat’s enthusiasm and desire to support children and their families, it was not enough to make children return to the schools and continue education. The Taliban’s conditions were so strict and repressive that even their leaving did not help to return female students.
The development of innovative computing technologies, the status of English as an international level, and other changes in curriculums require considerable work in the sphere of education (Moreno 398). Wars, which take place in Afghanistan, have serious effect on education in this country: many teachers are killed in actions, many children prefer to go for a war but not to spend time at schools, and many schools have been already destroyed.
We will write a custom Essay on Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All this damage, created as a result of the war, influences education indicators considerably and increases brain drain. Teachers do not find it effective to stay in the country and train children under such terrible conditions. Those, who decide to stay and protect own native land, face such problems like lack of knowledge or experience.
Some teachers do not even have any pedagogic practice, and make use of every day problems to create new tasks and train students. Lack of education leads to wrong perception of information and interpretation of numerous psychological, social, and philosophical concepts. Even if the fall of the Taliban promotes the development of the educational sphere in Afghanistan, students still face numerous problems and do not have chances to cope with them.
Nowadays, education is available for any citizen of Afghanistan. It does not matter whether you are a boy or a girl. The point is that the attitude to education may be different in each family, and the head of one family cannot accept the idea that his women should spend much time alongside men (Seierstad 262), and the head of the other family is eager to help his women to study new material and be smart.
In general, education for boys and girls in Afghanistan sees considerable changes before and after the reign of the Taliban. The sources prove that in fact the Taliban movement did not prevent education for girls; certain conditions may cause some restrictions, but as a whole, girls got the right to visit schools and enlarge their knowledge.
Of course, war conditions deprive a lot of boys and girls of the opportunity to study, this is why numerous school reforms and additional help should be provided day by day. Maybe, this lack of education and attention to social norms and attitude to this life serve as a serious reason of the war. It is high time to think about the ways of how to educate the Afghan people and explain them how wrong and horrible their comprehension of this life can be.
Works Cited Fassihi, Farnaz. “2 Bullets 2 Bullets =?: That Was Math in the Textbooks Used in Taliban-Era Schools.” Newhouse News Service.
Moreno, Juan, M. “Secondary Education in Afghanistan: A Portray of Post-Conflict Education Reconstruction.” Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada 11 (2005): 381-406.
Seierstad, Asne. The Bookseller of Kabul. London: Virago Press Ltd., 2004. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Education in Afghanistan Before the Taliban by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More UNESCO. Education for all by 2015: Will We Make It? New York: Oxford University Press US, 2008. Print.
Witter, Willis. “Afghan Girls Giddy over Return to School.” The Washington Times. (21 Nov. 2001).
Citizen participation in e-governance Essay cheap essay help
E-governance has emerged as a new important tool of reforms and influence over global change. Today pursuing of the government reforms occurs through the electronic governance strategies. Despite the wide embrace over technology advancements, the participation by the citizens is still lagging behind.
The assertion provided in this paper handles the transformation strategies to enhance participation of citizens through e-governance. The logical hypothesis illustrated in the paper show some of the eminent issues that need future considerations. Theoretically and experimentally, the assumptions are that e-governance is the key source to e-democracy.
On this basis, the paper eventually places some anonymous and theoretical considerations regarding today’s reality of e-governance for the support of important issues concerning resource and social advancement. It checks upon the gap between the reality and anticipation of citizen participation electronically and lastly it investigates ways of overcoming the gap.
Knowledge-based society The knowledge-based society is a basis providing power through prerequisite of information and knowledge. Citizens’ participation brings sufficient conversion of services to a more reliable and efficient level. The system reduces data or information transmission time and distance thus improving the diversity and productivity as the basis for change.
Although intolerable to many especially leaders, change is inevitable because it guarantees government, business and individual’s survival. Consistent with Brody et al (247), today change is not an option for consideration but a crucial dynamic characteristic for future advancement.
The government tries to solve its problems through optimal revolutions as well as smooth natural transformations. Worldwide most government are considering the e-governance style and are upgrading the management systems for better high quality customer based services.
The issue of e-governance has experienced a diverse progress since its initiative considering the high pace of the social, economic, technical and environmental capacities. The system centrally focuses on the customer as a transition to engage participatory governance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Management views over e-governance According to Lukensmeyer and Boyd (12), some governments consider citizen participation as an “unnecessary complexity cost factor “to implement in the e-governance system. They include the electronic techniques in their systems but fail to engage the electronic consultation and forums. This is an indication of low citizen participation in governance despite the incredible advancements.
In 2001, the U.S. government brought forward the initiative to modernize the government through “strategic management of human capital, expanded e-government and integration of budget and performance. Citizens ought to demand for the decentralization, digitization and automation of government undertakings.
Electronic innovations are government strategic efforts to find optimal results that restrain problems regarding the internal political, social, and economical factors. The e governance gets support through “transparency, efficiency and participation”. (Seasons, 432)
The electronic governance system utilizes the ICT tool whereby cost and speed of flow determines transfer of information regarding the customers’/citizens’ and services.
The policies not only support the sharing and communication of information but also provide the citizens with administration information to improve service delivery and enable transparency on government proceedings thus inducing the required organizational and administrational change. E-government provides efficiency, transparency and participation to the citizen, environment and the government itself. Automation is the key to innovations over operations through provision of good high quality services. (Seasons, 432)
Citizen participation Politically the citizen action ought to influence policy and decision making procedures. The citizens are involved in the voting exercises, which are political proceedings, and they demand for a close observation over administrative operations known as “administrative participation”. The citizens ought to seek proper administration through their own administrative participation. (Brody et al, 247)
Citizens can participate in governance issues actively through formation of consensus over monitoring particular administrative issues and requests and passively through request for information delivered in a one-way style after the decisions.
We will write a custom Essay on Citizen participation in e-governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regarding the theory that cost and benefits as determinants of electronic participation over governance, the citizens’ participation activity becomes low and relatively limited to nature because the cost is for gathering the information needed for active participation over ideas, subject matters, procedures, opportunity costs and operational costs.
The measure of participation comes about because of benefits analysis. Argumentatively, electronic participation benefits are higher, compared to the cost. (Seasons, 434)
Model of Electronic Governance Relating to the ICMA guidelines of 2004, the National Performance Review, (NPR) had a focus on enhancing the government’s cost effectiveness through the implementation of key conceptual changes such as by enhancing competitive and customers-oriented portals.
The conceptual structure involved in the e-government changes includes some stages such as emergence, interaction, enhancement, transaction and faultless stages. The e-government is a self-efficient system whereby the agencies perform computerized operations to provide simple civic services with the aim of an efficient or effective output.
The participatory governance encourages citizens to engage in interactive activities by linking the services of various agencies in a procedure known as the “public administration proceedings”. (Irvin and Stanbury, 59)
The electronic process takes the assumptions of strengthening governance, improving the service delivery and integrating services among the agencies. The e-governance infrastructure brakes down the wall between the public and government procedures. It allows citizens to take a pro-active role over the procedures.
Process of the e-governance In line with King and Stivers (24), the electronic involvement in decision-making has liberated citizens because of the integrated e-democracy elements and procedures whereby passive information as accessible through a more active participation system.
The relationship between the government and the citizens progresses from a single lane traffic process where the government disseminates the information at its own will and initiative or upon demand, to a more dynamic and involving style. The citizens require chance to form partnership with the authority for a better mutual understanding and interaction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Citizen participation in e-governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The process of information gathering and convey is lessen through the electronic transfers and the government has a cost marginal gain, while the citizens have the ability to voice their concerns over governance styles and procedures. This is usually the anticipation over implementation of an electronic system but that is never the case. E-governance comes with a lot of workload associated with high demand for expertise. According to Irvin (62), the citizens ought to be well equipping with the knowledge of how the systems work.
The technology is dynamic and this calls for the citizens to have a more vibrant approach over the complexities that are involved. The government may also be reluctant over giving some information especially when the requests touch on the private or confidential matters. The electronic transfer module is liable to data hackers and thus the provision for the private information is a real world impediment over electronic transfers.
The quality of e-governance depends on the “accessibility, usability and credibility”. (Myflorida) Quality determines the service fulfilment and contribution. The factors ought to be the key determinants over cost and benefits involved.
Accessibility is an attribute that connects the digital divides. The accessed information differs in the time of “access, location, universality as well as the quality of service usage.” Equality over participation determines the participation cost, enjoyment and availability of benefits. (Myflorida)
Analyst for a Florida city council e-governance infrastructure Establishment of e-government started in 80’s in Florida but were effective in 90’s in most of the council offices. (ICMA) The system entails a database management system where operational process are developed and stored. An information superhighway infrastructure provides easy and fast access to information. Ensuring the existence of a superhighway is the first initial setup but most authorities fail to implement its usage. The council forms a joint link between its agencies for an impressive and coherent growth.
Setbacks Some of the aspects that need urgent addressing include the low intensity of services due to poor usage and poor participation among the public that is mainly point out by satisfaction indicator.
There is urgent need to redesign operation procedures, to come up with proper orientation procedures and to enlighten the public over the mode of usage. The council face a major setback on lack of sharing information to strengthen cooperation among departments. The majority of the citizens are not familiar with any existing e-governance system and thus they keep visiting the offices literally to seek services or inquire required information, while it would have taken them less time and cost if transacted virtually.
Possible advancements There is need to build services products such as software that achieve real-time participation on the governance and other important matters to maximize the services satisfaction.
The issue of transparency efficiency and endorsed participation is achievable through ensured transparency in the administration. This calls for involving all interested parties in matters pertaining decision-making procedure, finances as well as change.
All the public administration processes ought to take place electronically so that they are in direct contact with the users to lower office visitations. Secondly is the need to have efficient administration that allows and facilitates real-time processing of all administrative operations with the aim of maximizing efficiency.
The government information and proceedings need digitizing to allow mutual sharing and consolidation of all the scattered information in the council’s departments. Lastly is the need for actively participating citizens. This entails the elimination of all the boundaries between the council and the public that prevent participation. The result to these would be free and active citizens willing to shear their thoughts, ideas and requirements for the general growth and advanced democracy.
Conclusion The city council of Florida aims at advancing its democracy through sensitizing the public through a boosted participating public. The public opinion survey level need to be appreciate and taken into consideration.
Good democratic governance call for majority votes and this is achievable on each sector of the council through the citizen led real-time participation in policymaking and disclosure of important information. Citizens can play an active role in development if they actively make decisions concerning governing procedures through a self-controlled system such as e-governance.
Works Cited Brody, S.D., Godschalk, D.R.,
The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
This fact sheet is aimed to inform the reader about the danger that is around groundwater resources and is caused by the impact of agriculture. It will summarize the activities that influence groundwater development, describe the risk, under which groundwater as well as health can be, and analyze the methods of control that can be used to improve the situation and prevent negative consequences.
People have to be aware about the impact of their activities on groundwater and be able to improve the conditions, they live under, and this piece of writing will inform each reader about each detail that will be crucial for groundwater and the activities, which will help to maintain it from pollution.
Groundwater resources and human activities “Groundwater constitutes 97 per cent of global freshwater and is an important source of drinking-water in many regions of the world” (Schmoll et al. 4). Such explanation of groundwater helps to underline the significance of this component in our everyday life and clear up that the problems, which happen within groundwater, may considerably influence our planet.
Groundwater pollution may lead to disruption of this life to its full extent. Numerous activities have been already taken in order to prevent groundwater pollution, but unfortunately the government of any country is not able to solve this problem and save this planet.
Groundwater is available for many users from different spheres of life, and it turns out to be impossible to forbid them using water and purify it of all undesirable chemicals. Population growth provides increasing of living standards and food demands, this is why the sphere of agriculture develops day by day and requires land for cultivation, irrigation, salinity, and, of course, waterlogging.
All these activities that are primary aimed at improving human lives and feeding populations have negative impact on groundwater and promote groundwater contamination within the shortest period of time. Agriculture is considered to be the main factor of environmental pressure that causes groundwater pollution because of intensive cultivation, inability to control water use, and lack of technologies to purify water.
As a rule, groundwater pollution is caused by three reasons:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Agriculture activities;
Urban living demands
Agriculture and its essence as the major influential factor in groundwater analysis Agriculture is a significant user of groundwater in the sense of abstractions and in the incidental sense that implies releasing nitrates and salts as the major pollutants of water (Dosi vii). More than 1,5 billions hectares are cultivated nowadays in order to meet the demands of people and provide them with a chance to feed and exchange goods in order to survive.
About 18 % of this number is irrigated land, and its water usually comes from surface water that is located in reservoirs. In order to support irrigated land, it is necessary to provide considerable amounts of groundwater. This is why abstraction for irrigation is considered to be one of the most important environmental pressure factors.
And the investigations by Llamas and his team prove that the use of groundwater has raised considerably in the last 50 years (Llamas and Custodio 93). Groundwater use is inherent to many ancient civilizations, and its boom was caused by supply-push factors like availability of cheap pumps and development of drilling technologies at the beginning of the 1920 (Molden 395).
Irrigation and waterlogging play a very important role in agriculture and influence groundwater pollution Unbelievable growth of irrigated agriculture and frequent demand for water requires the use and storing of surface water. Groundwater irrigation started its development at the beginning of the 1900s, but its breakthrough has been achieved in the 1930s, when numerous drilling equipment and technologies became available to people. Irrigation is obligatory “to serve an increasingly productive agriculture, and investments… to adapt yesterday’s systems to tomorrow’s needs” (Molden 353).
Waterlogging takes place in case agricultural land is somewhere over underground layers, where it is hard to reach the necessary amount of water. Such places are characterized by difficulties with percolation of water that may lead to groundwater levels’ rising one day. In order to solve the problems of waterlogging, certain practices have to be taken: source reduction, biological filtering, and reuse of water.
Nitrate and pesticides as one of the principal nutrients that is considerable for groundwater and for health hazards due to their chemical components
Usually, fertilizers are used in order to fasten the growth of plants and gather as much harvest as possible. However, people cannot even guess that the use of any kind of fertilizers lead to dangerous water pollution and the disaster that is waiting for use in future because of groundwater contamination.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Agricultural activities are regarded as the source of nitrate in groundwater. In fact, the leaching of nitrate is a natural process, however, this process usually depends on “the accelerated nitrogen cycle in soil” (Sapek 3) that is considered to be a result of agricultural activities. The risk of pollution by these very nitrates is really high and depends on the interaction that may happen between nitrogen loading and aquifer’s vulnerability.
Definition Vulnerability comprises the intrinsic properties of the strata separating a saturated aquifer from the land surface which determine the sensitivity of that aquifer to being adversely affected by pollution loads applied at the land surface (Schmoll et al. 202).
The process of groundwater pollution that depends on nitrate and vulnerability with loading interactions take place in several steps. Vulnerability of groundwater depends on soil properties, which influence the depth of the pathway on the Figure1. Within this pathway, water and pollutants move together from the surface (soil) to the receptor, gathering certain damage in groundwater, which have been left before.
Figure 1: Groundwater Pollution Governmental framework to prevent groundwater pollution In order to prevent the groundwater pollution and not affect the sphere of agriculture that is crucial for human lives, it is necessary to develop a program that will be able to control the use of water on different levels.
Government has to work out the legislation policy in order to protect and control groundwater resources. It is obligatory to evaluate the impact of agricultural operations, which are influential for water resources.
Groundwater mapping, ground- and surface-water monitoring, watershed models should be developed as well in different regions simultaneously. These activities allow not only to control the use of water but also to analyze what factor and where exactly influence pollution.
Each person is able to help his/her own country and land and prevent pollution of groundwater! It is enough to use pesticides or fertilizers on gardens carefully, deal with other chemicals safely, plant native plants in gardens, and finally control the use of chemicals and oil at streets.
Mass media has to participate in the activities to inform people about the negative impact of agriculture and possible steps, which may be taken to prevent planet’s pollution.
Certain quality standards for water uses have to be settled in order to clean up the most contaminated sites.
Encouragement of the agricultural activities that can minimize the negative impact of groundwater, for example waste disposal or hazardous chemicals within transports.
Conclusion Groundwater is of huge importance to many countries’ development. Its considerable distribution, low costs, and really good quality have already led to productive agricultural irrigation. Many groundwater resources, which aim at meeting human needs and demands for surviving, undergo certain changes day by day, because people create more and more technologies and goods and the use of these sources becomes irreversible.
One of the most frequent source of groundwater pollution is the use of chemicals. Pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides are considered to be agricultural sources of pollution, and the most terrible point is that this waste is usually washed down with the runoff and cannot be prevented. It is not enough for the government to develop a policy and follow it step be step.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to achieve good results and save our planet from a disaster because of groundwater pollution, it is necessary to ask each citizen to participate in the programs concerning prevention of groundwater contamination and be careful with the use of chemicals and other type of waste. If people do not care about the earth they live on, one day, the earth cannot stand human treatment and rebel against all human nation. And it will be a disaster.
Works Cited Dosi, Cesare. Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Print.
Llamas, Ramon and Custodio, Emilio. Intensive Use of Groundwater – Challenges and Opportunities. The Netherlands: A. A. Balkema Publishers, 2003. Print.
Molden David. Water for food, water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Sterling, VA: International Water Management Institute, 2007. Print.
Sapek, A. “Agricultural Activities as a Source of Nitrates in Groundwater.” In Nitrates in Groundwater: Selected Papers from the European Meeting of the International Association of Hydrodeologists, Wisla, Poland, 4-7 June 2002 by Lidia Razowska-Jaworek and Andrej Sadurski. London: Taylor
What Love Is and Why It Matters Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Thesis Statement
Relation of love and stress
Personal perspective of love
Validation of love in relation to Perk
Lack of love during the early childhood life causes poor emotional development during adult life. (Hurlock, 47)The way people respond to stress is not present at birth but is natured as people develop especially during the first few years when the brain is still fresh and young and thus the emotional development is crucial. High activity in the brain is an association to fear, irritability and a reaction of withdrawal from other people.
What is a legacy plan? It is associated with love because it is an arrangement of what one wishes to have but it should include the gift of good record, direction, family and personality. The plan stands to benefit the family, children, and grandchildren beside the personal gains.
It calls for one to keep in touch with the wonderful personality, which existed back when things give the impression of extreme credibility. It is more fun and meaningful to plan for, and wish others well more than it is to have a working financial plan. The family love is a priceless offer. Unlike Oedipus, love is not blind, tragic or compulsive. The true meaning of life is to create love in the human consciousness. Cognisant being must be involved in all aspects and movements involving love. (Vacek, 1996)
Thesis Statement This paper is a critical analysis over the characteristics associate with the definition of love. It firmly takes the notion, “Falling in love entails spiritually nurturing personal and populace growth”.
Relation of love and stress What is stress? Probably it is equitable to physical, mental, emotional or spiritual strain. The most common theory behind measures of controlling stress revolves around love, regular rest and exercise. (Lazarus, 254) Arguably, money cannot buy these quantifiers.
The love for something influences one to fight and attain it. As Peck would put it, our love to achieve anything forces us to willingly focus and change the attitude through pain. Everything that happens to human beings is designed so to conceal what one loves, thus the need to overcome the obstacle.
There is significance in giving a legacy plan to people with a close relation to their obsessions, beside the personal treats. If capturing and delivering love is not possible, as it ought to be, then it looses it eminent value. In line with Lazarus, (254) Lack of internal expression and thought over someone or something causes an under-attraction thus leading to forgetfulness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Naturally, People forget something as a soon as they stop thinking about it. When one loves something /someone, all the love virtues are intrinsically achievable after one goes through some enduring amount of constructive suffering.
Personal perspective of love The secret to happiness would probably be falling in love especially with oneself. Love creates the feeling of having enough energy thus the probably that it is an inborn feature that does not require nurturing but has a feeling that lives within as long as a person keeps taking care of it.
People luck the love because of spending too much time looking for it elsewhere while it is close to them. The external world is made of parents, friends or even strangers and their failure to express love disappoints and causes devastation to someone. The opinion of others especially when negative or against one’s anticipation shatters the personal sense of self-esteem and love.
Everyone wants to feel loved and affectionate. This is almost certainly the true meaning of the peace in the mind. It affects the inner fear and doubts and thus people are able to communicate freely concerning any subject matter. Bestowing wisdom requires an open and free dialogue and that is the reason why children are encouraged to create good rapport with others. Lack of practice over the issue of love early in a person’s life causes an awkward and clumsy feeling thus affecting how one handles some of these affectionate sentiments.
The child’s development with respect to personality and character revolves about love shown or given by the parents. Those children lacking the feel of love experiences negligence and fall short of proper foundation to build character. They undergo deficient in strength for a progressive growth. This is the explanation to existence of enough scientific evidence or correlation regarding the fact that lack of love for the baby diminishes its chances for survival. (Lerner and Damon, 2)
Validation of love in relation to Perk Peck went into deeper details over the definition of love by arguing whether falling in love translates to “romantic love, dependency, self-sacrifice, or even a feeling.” According to him, it probably has something to do with “nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth”. (81) “Love is the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth… Love is as love does.
Love is an act of will namely, both an intention and an action”. Personal motivation also entails ones option, meaning that it is not necessary for people to love but they choose to love.
We will write a custom Research Paper on What Love Is and Why It Matters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is impossible for a person to be a friend to others unless they are a friend to themselves. Originally, this concept applies for the analysis of love as well. The secrecy of attracting admiration depends on ability to attract and respect the personal attributes. Loving in a legitimate manner may be equitable to a desire as opposed to emotional.
The personal decision to love enables one to decide on venturing into a commitment to love regardless of the present feeling in the inner self at that particular period. Conversely, the possibility for a person to shun the personal acts catalyzed by the inner feelings of love is eminent.
One should love others than desire for the same offer of love from them. This calls for the ability to give love to others before they can reciprocate the same aspect. In line with Carter, (10) Loving others first requires one to stretch out of their personal limits, to do what they never longed to. When one stretches to do what they initially thought they would never be able to achieve, they feel victorious over great weakness that existed at the status quo.
Opening ones heart to embrace anyone who comes by or the situation that arises is the best life transformation experience. It is also one of the most important and courageous measure one would take since it entails personal will. When one is expressing love to strangers, then they are taking motivation to be acquainted with a new territory.
According to McGraw, (107) the development of the wisdom and love from the heart is therefore courage, which makes a person bold to taking the right, necessary and honourable action even when it is temporary and uncomfortable. In line with Perk, (80) “We must be willing to fail and to appreciate the truth that often “Life is not a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be lived.””
In his writing of, “The road less travelled”, Perk portrays love as the willingness to extend offer of self-service to others with the aim of nurturing personal and spiritual growth.
According to Perk (81), “A genuine loving individual will often take love as a constructive action towards a person he or she consciously dislikes or lacks actual feeling of love towards. One may perhaps even find the person repugnant in some way.” If a person stops, extending their will to give because of a feeling of poor encouragement, then the loving stops.
This is because love shows that people share their similarities while celebrating their differences. When such kind of relationship fails to exist, then the love is non-existantent.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What Love Is and Why It Matters by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People grow financially, socially, mentally and spiritually when they stretch their limits to help others. It is quite often to face challenges or coincidental situations when still attending other’s chores. The obvious test for love comes when one is tired. When it is the last thing one would wish to do, that is when someone emerges with dreadful need for assistance. The person then is arm-twisted to make a choice on what to undertake next among the possibilities in existence.
Helping others at their most eminent time of need calls, for one to emerge from the comfort zone past the point of pain, but the consents come in handy thereafter. (McGraw, 107) When working under this strain or stress, the ability to persevere to a point of agility is evident and thus the next time one faces similar situations, then the undertaking becomes easier. This is a good indication that loves for performance depends on the ability to undertake a task in a smooth manner.
It is human nature for one to become accustomed to a challenge if they faced similar position earlier and conquered. This causes the feeling for a need to face a more advanced or different challenge. The wish for growth depends on the ability to tackle the challenges involved. By allowing a move beyond the arbitrary accepted limitations, the capacity for love extends. (Perk, 82)
Relationships are the anxious and notorious opportunities to stretch the limits to a next level. This is because the soul is always ready to receive or exceed the limits whenever an opportunity arises.
Consistent with Fisher’s writing, (128) the initiation of love for a stranger or new task involves some deep soul concentration concerning the unrealistic expectations. This attention in most cases calls for some malleability to accommodate the involved persons. Most experienced people will definitely indicate that love would rarely cause them to remain at one point.
It provides a different chance, way of life or routine. The philosophy of love indicates that one should not seek love or affectionate from very far. In most cases, there is someone right behind the door waiting to help. The actions associated with the heart or those concerning love are very strong practically regardless of whether the language is poetic or not
In his writing (230), Perk considers love as a natural driving force that exists behind spiritual augmentation. The writer consideration over the existence of romantic love probably provides a view indicating some misconceptions in today’s or future understanding. He considers the issue of romantic love as mythical.
On the current understandings, love blossoms as a very tender, beautiful touch, a concern regarding care and provides the only moment one can stand out beyond personal feelings to embrace others and feel part of the whole. Most of the time people feel the need to compel their needs as opposed to revealing them. Exposure of personal wounds and weaknesses enable one to be accommodative of others needs too.
The most important feature is the love that arises through this kind of sharing. According to Pecks, (230) analysis, natural love is concern with dependency whereby the truth of love does not entail falling in love but the act of expanding boundaries of one’s ego to accommodate others. True love does not put up with the issue of “falling in love” but the spiritual nurturing of others’ feelings therefore that kind of love requires an effort.
In his perspective of love, Perk, (85) writing of “The Road Less Travelled” show that Love is not a feeling but an investment or probably an important activity. In line with his definition of love, “it is the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth” (85). It is a prime action of nurturing them than just the spiritual growth.
In the writing of “The road less travelled,” Perk, (231) also seeks to address the issue of Cathexis (explanation behind attraction of the opposite sex and love). The attraction is not love but an instinct controlling one to behave in a caring manner such as, cuddling something that they like for instance their pets or kids.
The issue of true love does not survive in isolation. Attraction has to exist in a sufficient and close manner for a consideration of straightforwardness. Love begins after one completes the attraction phase. Therefore it is an action proceeded by another.
It consists of what one does to another. As Perk (231) indicates in “The Road Less Travelled” writing, “Love is as love does”. It is an offer to others of what they need for growth. One must truly know and understand what the other person needs, to be in a position to provide. This indicates the need for initializing at ‘cathexis’ phase.
The issue of loving especially true loving might appear complicated from these perspective. When someone designates their love, then it is not from their want or because they cannot be in a position to own what they claim to love. The issue has nothing to do with the person. People love others from what they do and how they try to undertake tasks. This occurs through the analysis of personality, character, motivation, ability or strength.
Doubtlessly, one need to have sighted the best and the worst of the person they admire. What they see also need to be well and clearly understood. Through openness, people are in a position to express who they are. Living an open-ended lifestyle provides chance for others to consider their offers and it does not require one to dedicate the whole truth. This exercised courage assists one to step out and fight fear.
From a personal point of view, love is certainly a mystery that forms its basis from nature. It is probably comparable to gravitational pull, an unstoppable force or a vast, invisible anxiety that connects things that are alike. People always long for love and wish to love events without any strong basis for their actions. When they find the love, then they awaken to it because it presents care and well wishes without an expectation or demand for any kind of remuneration.
This is a good indication that the well-being of the loved person is not different from the person who expresses that love. True love calls for one to be trustworthy and therefore the love expressed to others is an indication that there exists trust. This is also an indication that the person expressing it is confident and despite the type of outcome, the aspect of love can still exist.
The importance of love for the community is to unite lives, expand people’s thoughts especially about others, connect different people regardless of their origin, race or ethnical group, enhance their personal views and dignify them by nurturing the inner feelings.
Conclusion Love is a universal feeling experienced by everyone or every living being on the earth. The living being in this case is an indication that conceivably, love is not an attribute that is limited to human beings. It is a strange but unique emotional feeling that most likely has no certain definition one could use to describe it.
The characteristic of love revolves about an attached feeling whereby someone feels affectionate towards another or something else. The feeling is very strong and most certainly the reason why it forms a basis for discussion. The reason why people consider love is for the reason that it is a very important aspect in human life that satisfies human emotional needs.
Humans have the innate responsibility to offer and feel loved. The biological structure indicates that the feeling of love is responsible for the formation and maintenance of the societal development especially morally and socially. The birth of a child causes the parents to forget their urgent needs and divert all their attention to the newborn due to the strong feeling of love.
Love is therefore a great thriller or catalyst that enables people to achieve exigent tasks, which probably would remain unaccomplished if love never existed. “Love is an enigmatic emotion that exceeds all the boundaries to change people’s lives”. (Wallerstein, Judith and Sandra, 19)
The magnificence experience of love allows humans to express each other’s feelings with kindness and concern such that love can take a number of emotions. It is an ambiguous ubiquitous relation binding people together in different formats.
Love can be expressed in various ways including the “a passionate lover’s kiss, a tender mother’s touch, a fatherly concern or a brotherly, sisterly affection”. (Wallerstein, Judith and Sandra, 19) The sages have found out that everything and everyone has the ability to expresses love if they nurture their feelings.
Works Cited Carter, Kasey. M. “Loving Others: Faithful Crushers”, Juvenile fiction journal Tate Publishing, 2009, Vol 1, p 10, pp24
Fisher, Helen .E. “Why we love: the nature and chemistry of romantic love” H. Holt Publishers, 2004
Hurlock, Elizabeth. B. “Developmental psychology: a life-span approach” Tata McGraw-Hill, 2001
Lazarus, Richard. S. “Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis”. New York, Springer. 1999, pp.254
Lerner, Richard. M. and Damon, William. “Handbook of Child Psychology: Social, Emotional, and personality development: Volume 3 of Handbook of Child Psychology”, John Wiley and Sons publishers, 2006, pp 2
McGraw, Patricia Romano. “Seeking the Wisdom of the Heart: Reflection on the Seven Stages of Spiritual Development”. Baha’i Publishing Trust, 2007
Perk, Scott. M. “The Road Less Travelled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth”. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, Touchstone, 1978, pp.81, 116-117
Vacek, Edward Collins. “Love, Human and Divine: The Heart of Christian Ethics Moral Traditions and Moral Arguments Series” Georgetown University Press, 1996, pp 248
Wallerstein, Judith and Sandra, Blakeslee (1995), “The good marriage: How and Why love lasts”. Boston: Houghton Mifflin publishers
Managing Bipolar Disorder Report essay help free: essay help free
Bipolar disorder is a prevalent psychiatric disease characterized by range of elevated mood disorders often referred as mania. Depression commonly accompanies these mood disorders depending on the severity of the disorder. Bipolar spectrum, that is, the range of this disorder lies within three broad categories: bipolar II, cyclothymia, and bipolar I. this spectrum depends mainly on nature and asperity of the mood episodes that one goes through.
This disorder becomes full blown in the late adolescence or in some few cases, in early adulthood. Diagnosis relies on one’s experiences together with observable behaviors. Some of the abnormal episodes include distress, disruption, and increased rate of suicide among others. Causes of bipolar disorder include genetic factors and environmental factors, even though in some cases it is associated with positive accomplishments, creativity, and goal nisus.
Problems associated with this disorder include stigma, stereotypes, and preconception against victims of this disorder. Unfortunately, bipolar disorder in most cases is misdiagnosed as schizophrenia and this delays its appropriate management. The prevalence of bipolar disorder stands at 5 million people in America alone.
This implies that, in every 45 adults, one of them has bipolar disorder. It is difficult to diagnose this disorder because there are no specimen tests with diagnosis relying mainly on observation, and this elevates the probability of misdiagnosis as aforementioned.
There are different ways of managing this disorder including mood stabilizers among other psychiatric medications. Practices like psychotherapy find wide application especially in cases where individuals show improved stability in recovery. This paper deals with the different ways of managing bipolar disorder from treatment to any other measure employed towards the management of this disorder.
Bipolar Disorder Management Therapeutic Interventions Antidepressants
This is one of the most efficacious antidepressants and it acts by suppressing neuronal reuptake of nor-epinephrine or noradrenalin and dopamine. 1 Research indicates that, bupropion significantly reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety within the first weeks of its administration.
Apart from the short-term positive results, bupropion has long-term effects and this explains in part why the US opinion leaders have rated this drug highly in terms of bipolar management. 2 Even though this drug may precipitate mania, it is one of the best drugs of treating bipolar disorder and depression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
As the name suggests, SSRIs promotes serotonin neurotransmission by suppressing neuronal 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) reuptake. 3 This inhibition leads to reduced depression and increases chances of sleep. SSRIs are widely used in developed countries albeit there is limited study on their efficacy. The shortcomings of these drugs include intolerance, development of mixed states and patient’s noncompliance.
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA)
These drugs have short-term efficacy with the combination of lithium. TCA functions to reduce depression even though research work indicates that these drugs increase the probability of mania precipitation. 1 Nevertheless, TCA offers the best option in treating patients with ‘drug resistance’ symptoms.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
These drugs act to inhibit the work of enzyme monoamine oxidase and this reduces levels of depression and bipolar disorder. Research indicates that, MAOIs are the best drugs in treating anergic depression, which is common among bipolar disorder patients. 3
However, these drugs have inauspicious effects and dietary restrictions and this provides challenge to the administration of the same. Nevertheless, in combination of lithium, MAOIs function well and the dietary interactions are significantly reduced hence its common application in fourth–line treatments. 1
Mood stabilizers are compounds that will work to reduce anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder without major side effects. These are prophylactic agents, which are effective in all phases of sickness even though some substances that are effective at particular phases of sickness may fall under this category.
Lithium is one of the most effective prophylactic agents whether used alone or in combination of antidepressants like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It functions well in the long term taking over six weeks to yield antidepressant results. 1 Studies have strongly linked lithium with reduced suicide incidences and this property adds to its efficacy in treating bipolar disorder. However, just like any other compound, lithium has shortcomings including increased regress to mania and depression.
Even though there are limited studies of carbamazepine, the few existing one shows that this compound has antidepressant effect. 4 Unlike lithium, carbamazepine does not lead to relapse to mania and depression. However, the efficacy of this drug is modest at best. In combination with lithium, however, it works to treat acute bipolar syndrome. 2
We will write a custom Report on Managing Bipolar Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Valproate Semisodium (Divalproex Sodium)
This is valproic acid and exists as a sodium salt, as an amide or as semi sodium made by mixture of sodium valproate and valproic acid. 5 It functions through regulating γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. Its mood stabilizing effects results from its association with excitatory membranes. This is one of the commonly used mood stabilizers given that it has fewer side effects compared to the other mood stabilizers.
This mood stabilizer came into scene after it was found out that it would stabilize mood in epileptic victims. This then extended to bipolar disorder where this drug offers antidepressant effects. 1 Lamotrigine works in the short-term and has high efficacy due to its prophylactic characteristics. However, in some cases, individuals may develop serious skin rash with continued use of this drug. 1
This is newly modeled anticonvulsant compound based on GABA. 1 Even though there is little research to determine its efficacy through placebo-controlled experiments, earlier studies indicates that, it can be used as adjuvant with other depressants like tricyclic antidepressants. 1
Antipsychotics are gaining popularity especially after research indicated that combination of amitriptyline, which is an antidepressant and perphanazine, which is antipsychotic, showed high efficacy in treating bipolar disorder. 6 This combination had higher efficacy than any other drug used alone.
However, these combined drugs expose bipolar patients to high chances of tardive dyskinesia and sedation among other effects like obesity. 1 Most other antipsychotics and antidepressants can be used as add ups to mood stabilizers to manage bipolar disorder. 6
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
There has been wide application of ECT in treating both bipolar and unipolar disorders but there is no enough research on the efficacy and the dosage of the same. 1 However, there is evidence that ECT reduces the effects of bipolar disorder.
Psychological Intervention Given the fact that, bipolar disorder may result from both life experiences and environmental factors, it is important to note that, these same factors contribute largely to the recovery of a patient. 7 For instance, an individual may have high expectations in say examination, which may interfere with sleep/wake cycle due to serotonin imbalance.
These experiences increase mania relapses and may lead to depression. Therefore, social support is necessary in managing bipolar disorder. Studies indicate that victims of bipolar disorder are likely to recover quickly under the care of family members or psychologists. 7 Home-based treatments establish coherent daily routines and caretaking that enhances the chances of quick recovery.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Bipolar Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Psycho Education
Psycho education offers information on bipolar disorder and arms patient with adequate information on how to cope with the illness and manage it successfully. 8 Family members also know how to handle a bipolar disorder patient and this process results to effective management of the same.
The information comes inform of video tapes, workbooks, or drafts that help to develop personal relapse prevention strategy. 7 Studies strongly link psycho education to improved recovery processes as it changes patient’s attitude and he or she complies with medication regiments, thus resulting to improved recovery.
The framework of cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on alleviating psychological problems that lead to mania and depression. 7 Its main purpose is to address cognitive, behavioral and changes that lead to depression or relapse to mania. This strategy helps an individual to halt any further progress of the disorder as medication takes effect.
Through cognitive-behavioral therapies, an individual becomes aware of bipolar disorder symptoms and it becomes easy to deal with the symptoms as they arise. It also arms individual with the necessary techniques to face and handle stress-causing situations like strained relationships and financial stresses among other issues that lead to stress and depression. 7
This form of therapy entails psycho education, problem-solving acquirements, and communication skills that help the family to handle bipolar disorder effectively. It helps families to come up with structures that checks mania relapses together with compliance to medical regiments. 8
This prepares family members to anticipate future relapses, creates awareness on how to reduce incidences that lead to relapses, and establishes a strong relationship between patient and the family, a factor that leads to reduced relapses. 7 Fundamentally, family-focused therapies act as adjuvant to medication. Moreover, home-based care offers a better recovery option compared to hospitalization.
Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy
Under the contexts of “unstable or disrupted daily routines lead to circadian instability and affective episodes in vulnerable individuals”, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy came to being. 9 This therapy seeks to rectify noncompliance to medication, stressful life occurrences, and social rhythm disruptions. 7
Through the combination of these three rectifying methods, an individual stands high chances of mania recovery together with reduced chances of relapse. To counter stressful incidences, patients are required to maintain veritable sleep/wake cycles to maintain serotonin levels hence reduced chances of relapse. 9
They are also advised to engage in practices that lead to social stimulation that would result to mood stabilization. This therapy is more of counseling starting with pinpointing the cardinal interpersonal problem; setting targets to counter the identified problem; laying down plans to accomplish the set targets, and finally developing management strategies that would effect the laid down plans. 7
Despite the fact that bipolar disorder management relies on medication and counseling, there is important role that an individual can play to ensure quick recovery and relapse prevention. A deep-set free will to overcome this disorder goes way beyond medication in the recovery process.
Individuals should have hope; that, all is going to be well. 7 This entails a strong conviction that one can cope and overcome his or her condition. Persistence and patience plays a major role towards recovery. Patients ought to understand that the way to recovery is long and there are no cutoffs. Patients need to develop self-discipline coupled with self-advocacy and this combination will enable someone to live a full life void of worry and anxiety; a factor that reduces relapses with a great margin. 7
Patients also ought to learn more about this disorder and this helps to acquire better management skills. It is important to note that self-efforts towards recovery will work in concert with all other strategies to ensure quick and effective recovery together with relapse prevention. 7
Conclusion Bipolar disorder may be a devastating condition to not only patients, but also family members. Given its complex nature and limited research on the subject, this disorder remains a big challenge to professionals that are involved in the management of the same. However, there have been tremendous efforts to manage this disorder through medication, psychotherapy, and personal developments among other strategies.
There is assortment of drugs used in managing bipolar disorder with some working as antidepressants, mood stabilizers, or antipsychotics to reduce the effects of this disorder. On the other hand, psychotherapy entails psycho education among other varieties of therapies, which act as adjuvant to medications. Psychotherapy mostly entails practices that would result to reduced relapses together with preventing progress of mania and depression alike.
It is unfortunate that people with this disorder stand high chances of divorce and social isolation among other factors that lead to disruption of normal life. Nevertheless, with proper medication and the right attitude, individuals can manage to live relatively normal lives. There is hope.
End Notes Gin, Malhi, Philip, Mitchell, and Shahzad, Salim. “Bipolar Depression Management Options.” 2003. 17 (3); 9-25
Haykal Roef, and Akiskal Harnt. “Bupropion as a Promising Approach to Rapid Cycling Bipolar 2 patients.” 1990. 51:450-5
Montgomery, Scott. “Efficacy in Long-Term Treatment of Depression,” 1996. J Clin Psychiatry; 57: 24-30
Ballenger, John, and Post, Roxanne. “Carbamazepine in Manic-Depressive Illness: A New Treatment.” 1980. Am J Psychiatry, 137: 782-90
Calabrese, Jael, Markovitz, Potz, and Kimmel, Susan. “Spectrum of Efficacy Of Valproate in 78 Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Patients.” 1992. J Clin Psychopharmacology, 12: 538-68
Parker, George, and Malhi, Ghal. “Are Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs Also Atypical Antidepressants?” 2001. Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 35 (5): 631-8
Steinkuller, Andrea, and Rheineck, Jane. “A Review of Evidence-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Bipolar Disorder. 2009. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 31 (4): 338-50
Morris, Col, Miklowitz, Dowtz, and Waxmonsky, Jared. “Family-Focused Treatment for Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Youth.” 2009. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 63, 433-45
Zaretsky, Aely, Rizvi, Suel, and Parikh, Shik. “How Well Do Psychosocial Interventions Work In Bipolar Disorder?” 2007. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 52, 14-21
Ways of Childcare and Protection Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Benefits of the care centres
Earlier it was evident that very little that could be done over childcare and protection especially against disasters. It is important for one to consider ways of placing measures of protecting children against adversity. Today the childcare centres have taken eminent measures to control some common injuries and damages especially those caused by catastrophes.
The current generation comprise of majority of people who are spending most part of the early childhood development in out-of-home care facilities where the caregivers seem to have or provide eminent meaningful love, stability, security and stimulated relationships.
This might be the reason why the day-care centres whose mission is to protect children and give them proper care are considered as more safe and preferable than majority of the homes. According to Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen people ought to question what they know with regard to childcare (172).
The care is valued as very important like many basic types of equipment in the home setting such as automobiles, but although not rateable in monitory terms, contradictory, the parental care is infinitely the hardest thing to find and purchase.
Benefits of the care centres The question many parents should be asking themselves should be an analysis of whether this trend of transition on childcare represents advancement or is a setback. It might be beneficial for today’s parents but quite a setback or tomorrow’s generation and thus the need for analysis.
There are a lot of opportunities as well as risks involved in early childhood care transition as provide by the care centres. In line with Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (87), the children from the care centres seem to do intellectually better than those who stay put accustomed to their home settings. The children centres provide better verbal, memory and comprehension guidance making the child to be in a position to identify people’s feelings or point of view.
Some research studies have also implicated the childcare centre. It indicate that this children have less respect over rules, demands or mother’s/caregiver’s requests compared to their counterparts in the home setting. (Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen, 90) These children are less polite, respectful, agreeable and compliant to regulations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Childcare entails converting these negative traits to respectable social behaviours. According to the argument placed regarding the childcare centres, the children probably gunner good social skills but become bossy. They may learn to be friendly and outgoing but aggressive and rude.
Facetiously, suggestions are that these children become successful in future but not the friendly bosses or chief executive officers. It is as if the care centres promotes the social advancements on some children and lead to social or behavioural problems in others.
Childcare transition The bringing up of children today is very different in various economically advanced countries. The care of very young children was predominantly a private activity but today to a significant degree, it involves government or private enterprises. Children are now spending most of their childhood life in childcare centres and this raises the concerns over the effects.
In line with Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen, (99) there is no enough proof over the effects of daycares on the behaviours of the child especially its future. Therefore, the claims of future detrimental effects remain tentative without compelling evidence until further research proves otherwise.
The researches carried out indicate that boys taken to the day care centres become more sociable than those at home do. The girls at day care centres do well in “anatomy, problem solving and belligerence” therefore; the care centres do not eliminate the dissimilarities between sexes.
Other differences are notable in early childcare centres such as venerability of boys to the environmental factors and events compared to the resilience of the girls. Many would pose the question of weather “Boys are worse off than girls when under childcare; the answer is a weak ‘maybe.’” Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (102)
The family background setting might be the only influence over the advantage children may have in their future lives. The sensitivity depends on the development of the brain. This influence may be limited to the relationship with the caretaker or the role love plays in development of intellect and emotion.
We will write a custom Report on Ways of Childcare and Protection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Debatably, the development of the child’s brain depends on the fostering provided at the centre as well as their ability to have a sense of agency. This architectural development of the brain is disreputable if the child faces stress and probably this calls for the family member care to dealing with the stress.
These aspects may form the foundation over the importance of the child having enough early interactions with the family members especially the parents. “Good-quality care may serve as a protective factor for children from disadvantaged backgrounds, but its effects are not inevitable, nor do they wipe out family disadvantage.” Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (161) The advancement of technology is now providing the researchers with eminent tools for gathering and analyzing details in a more conclusive conviction.
Conclusion Parents are however expressing concern over the tension created by effects of childcare. Although the effects are yet to get proper basis through excellent research, the worry is evident. The researchers have the important role of communicating positive aspects of the care centres other than speculative effects.
They should also encourage the parental home care for the even development of the child. The parents should feel that their children are doing well at the off-the-house care units, and thus it becomes a positive benefit for both of them.
The care centres should empower parents and encourage them to inspect the early childhood care centres to ensure they feel comfortable over the facilities’ safety, accurateness as well as the educational perspectives.
“Parents should appreciate that the quality of a child’s home life is still likely to be the most important factor in his or her development, even for the children who spend many hours in childcare each week.” Clarke-Stewart and Allhusen (165)
Works Cited Clarke-Stewart, Alison, and Allhusen, Virginia. D. “What We Know About Childcare”, (New Ed), Harvard University Press, 2005
Transracial and International Adoptions Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Anthropology and adoption
Adoptee challenges relative to birth parents
Terrorism and extremism
In many societies, children have the privilege of growing up with either both or one of their birth parents present. Therefore, the perception of adoption is that of a family with fragile ties, for the adopted child is not from the family’s bloodline.
Transracial and international adoptions are superlatively more precarious due to the fact that physical attributes, cultural and ethnical inclinations coincide to tell the difference between foster parents and their adopted children. That is why both the parties involved in the adoption process stand to loose during its progression.
The biological parents loose their child while the foster parents loose a chance to conceive and leave their own heritage. The adopted child looses even more in terms of lineage, culture and behavioral traits. This causes the adoptees to undergo painful psychological adjustments while they try to place themselves in their adoptive family.
On the other hand, Oceanic and Eskimo societies have a very casual approach to adoption unlike most western societies and to them adopting a child needs not be a legally frustrating process. In Hawaii for example, the preceding ruler, Queen Luliuokalani was an adopted child and the documented process of her adoption was very simple in that her biological mother just gave her to the administrating chief who adopted her.
This form of adoption was and is quite popular with the chiefs and it sends a message of unity and accordance to society. More civilized societies like America only apply for adoption in moments of crisis, contravening the Oceanic method of adoption that is a lucid selfless act of love and compassion.
These societies treat adoption as a social obligation, and it is deeply entrenched into their culture. These close-knit societies offer an advantage to the biological parents of the adoptee for they can still monitor their child’s progress and consequently maintain the bonds between the parent and the child. An Adoptee can be moved from parent to parent for a short or long periods depending on the prevailing circumstances of the biological parents.
Anthropology and adoption The management of adoption in anthropological prose brings about sagacity that the notion has already been resolved. Anthropologists err in obliging this notion on others rather than embrace examination thus amplify the criterion of study. The indenture of a child is considered as an aspect of affiliation due to demographic conditions rather than a major social and cultural event.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This disregard points out the conventional approach in analysis taken by anthropologists. This is reflected back into society especially in the western world, which views adoptees as predestined persons who fall between the kin and non-kin dimensions.
Such presumption are however not worldwide and other distinct societies view kinship as a special connection with a child either by feeding or spending time with it and a child is perceived to be born to and of society. Therefore, kinship is attributed to the fostering society and the environment a child grows up in, as a result kinship is considered designated rather than definite.
The study of adoption is hence crucial to anthropologists not only as a means to devise biological links, but also a way to discover the importance and inference of certain facets of culture that affect ethnicity, family and individual and hence influence human nature, human character and human behavior.
Adoptee challenges relative to birth parents Conversely, adoptees in both western and isolated societies need to be shielded from harm. The essential motive of adoption is to form a stable and safe environment for a child to grow in so as to achieve its potentials determined by the consenting parties involved. One factor that is keenly observed is the ability of a parent to properly raise a child and the influence the parent has on this child.
Western societies have witnessed an expanding generation of younger parents who are prone to irresponsibility and unsociable behavior. Such parents would obviously provide a degraded setting for their child to grow up in and consequently negatively affecting the child’s growth and development.
Civilized societies have mechanisms in place that extract the child from any harmful setting and it has also been discovered that indigenous societies also had social structures that were responsible for the welfare of any child born to that society. After being born, the child is placed in foster care and the biological parents might still be allowed to visit and engage with the adoptee, and this kind of adoption is referred to as open adoption.
However, there are particular instances that may forbid a child from accessing information regarding his or her biological parents and this kind of adoption is known as closed adoptions, even though they are quite seldom. Discussed below are some of the reasons why a child’s rights to find his or her biological parents may be revoked either by the government or the foster parents;
We will write a custom Research Paper on Transracial and International Adoptions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Addiction If a biological parent happen to be of a negative influence to the adoptee is the first factor. The circumstances surrounding the extraction of a child from his biological parents’ home may vary, but of interest is; are the parents responsible for negligence. Some biological parents might be drug addicts or alcoholics and such kinds of parents are basically suspected of having a poor moral compass.
An adoptee would be highly discouraged or forbidden from interacting or even finding out about them for their union would more often than not lead the young child into the realms of drugs or alcohol. Children tend to relate more with what their parents do and a connection with parents who have a destructive personality might lead that child down that same road.
Teenage pregnancy You may also encounter young parents who gave birth in their teens and were unable or unwilling to support the child and still hold onto that mentality. Teenage pregnancies have been on the rise since mid 20th century and young mothers who are courageous enough not to have an abortion often end up giving up the child for adoption for their own subjective reasons.
Others may find taking care of a child is a huge burden especially when coupled with school and other personal ambitions. By the time the child is grown up and ready to face his or her biological parents the then young biological parents would most likely have gone and started a more stable life and the adoptee being only a faint memory. This means that to allow a child to meet up with such biological parents would be setting them up for disappointment and emotional torment.
Crime Hardcore criminals like rapists, murderers and robbers are generally not good role models. If adoptive parents or the adopting agency is aware of their criminal record, it is unlikely that a child would be allowed to find them. Psychologists believe that biological parents, especially mothers have a tremendous influence on their children and they link this to the vibrations of the mother’s voice that reach a baby while still in the womb.
Studies have shown that the mother’s tone is firmly etched into the child’s brain during fetal development and as such, the mother’s voice continue to have command over a person even when they are separated for a long time. If for example a mother has criminal traits and conveys them to the child as they speak, chances are that gradually the child will imprint these words and begin to manifest criminal behavior.
Work risk Biological parents may also be forced to give up their children for adoption due to the nature of their work. Absentee parents that are travelling almost every day of the week or officers who go undercover for several months or years are less likely to provide stability or emotional comfort that a child needs. They may also lack the option of leaving a child with relatives and so eventually decide to give it up for adoption.
Foster parents can therefore revoke the right of that child to find his or her biological parents because introducing them to his or her life could only bring chaos and confusion to the child, destabilizing his or her emotional balance. This could be reflected in poor grades in school, sudden outbursts of violence or a child may even turn suicidal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Transracial and International Adoptions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the case of undercover police officers or high profile criminal lawyers, criminals may discover the person’s connection to the adopted child and may end up kidnapping him or her to use the child as leverage to avoid either arrest or prosecution. This inevitably brings grief to the foster family and so foresight is applied by barring the child from finding out his or her biological parents.
Terrorism and extremism Parents suspected of being terrorists or religious extremists may also be a cause for revocation of an adopted child’s rights in finding his or her birth parents. Terrorists are well known to have the inclination to use close family members to carry out acts of terror.
This can be one of the consequences if the adopted child is allowed to find his or her birth parents. Religious extremists on the other hand could be responsible of instilling propaganda and antisocial ideology into an innocent child. Children born of such parents may be forbidden from accessing them or any information about them for the sake of their psychological and emotional stability.
Abuse Another reason that would lead to barring of an adopted child from finding out about his or her birth parents is violent and abusive conduct of the biological parents. It is possible that the child was being abused from a very tender age by either of the parents before he or she was extracted and put up for adoption. If this is the case, it is highly unlikely that the child would be allowed to find his or her birth parents.
It has been scientifically proven that bad memories tend to linger in the subconscious, and a familiar sight like of the parent or smell of their perfume could act as a trigger allowing a wave of abusive memories to flood the child’s mind. This could gradually or immediately change a child’s behavior to one that is withdrawn and this can take time and a lot of expensive counseling to cure.
Poe’s life and how it influenced his work Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Born in 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts, Edgar Allen Poe was indeed one of the establishers of fictional mystery writing. He is considered the adherent founder of detective story writing, a leading designer of the science fiction genre and also the master in macabre anecdotes.
In his halcyon days, he was critically acclaimed as one of the top brass poets to hail his generation and though an American by birth, his reputation was colossal away from home in England and France. It is only after the legislative body of the Lovecraft school and French-influenced writers like Robert W. Chambers publicized his work, that America took interest of this prose intellect.
Early childhood Edgar Allan Poe together with two of his siblings, were born into a family headed by parents who were peripatetic actors. After their father’s desertion and their mother’s demise due to consumption- now known as tuberculosis in 1811, a Richmond businessman John Allan together with his wife Frances Allan took up the responsibility of caring for the then young Edgar.
Though they never formally adopted him, they gave him the name ‘Allen’ and had him baptized in 1812. In 1815, the family travelled to John Allen’s birthplace in, Irvine Scotland where Poe attended grammar school and while there, puzzled his teacher by reciting passages of English poetry and writing what was considered genuine poetry. He was later enrolled into the Reverend John Bransby’s Manor House School at Stoke Newington, which later became the setting for his story ‘William Wilson’. (Benton 56).
Youth The families moved back to Virginia in 1820 and in 1826, Poe become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster while attending one-year language classes in the University of Virginia in 1826-1827. During his time there, Poe’s engagement to Royster was broken off by her family and he also became estranged from his foster father after he refused to cater for Poe’s gambling debts (Benton 18).
While there he composed some tales, however his novice works were not recognized and little is known of them. Poe dropped out of the university after a year and traveled to Boston in April 1827, supporting himself with unusual jobs such as a clerk and newspaper writer under the pseudonym Henri Le Rennet (Krainik 6).
Writing career Poe went to live at his aunt Clemm’s Baltimore home in 1831after 3 years in the military, and shortly afterwards published Poems by Edgar Allan Poe and also started placing short stories in magazines, one of which titled “MS. Found in a Bottle,” won him a $50 prize in1833. In 1836 Poe married his 13-year-old cousin Virginia Clemm, daughter to his aunt Mrs. Maria Clemm (Weekes 124).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This became a turning point in his life for he begun a career as a writer in the Southern Literary Messenger (Krainik 12). In 1837, he lost his job due to excessive drinking and he moved to New York, where he published “The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym” in 1838. This led him to Philadelphia, where he worked as coeditor of the Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine, giving some of his best fiction like “The Fall of the House of Usher.”
In 1840, he published “Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque”, which turned out to be quite popular due to its gothic essence and with him in the limelight. Poe left for the fictional editorship job offered by “Graham’s Magazine” in 1841 but left a year later.
1843 saw him publish “The Murders in the Rue Morgue, The Man That Was Used Up and The Gold Bug”, for which he received a $100 prize for, from a Philadelphia newspaper (Ostrom 33). In 1844, Poe got a job in the “New York Mirror”, which he held onto until 1845 publishing the famous poem “The Raven”, until he switched to the editorship job offered by the Broadway Journal, where he published two volumes of “The Raven and Other Poems and Tales”.
The raven Edgar Allen Poe was among the first writers who attempted to make a living out of writing albeit all the hardships he experienced. The Raven was published in 1845 while Poe was still writing for the New York Mirror.
The narrator is tired and weak but still awake in the wee hours of morning reading an ancient book of knowledge. Just when he is about to fall asleep, he is startled by the sound of what he assumes is a visitor knocking. He opens the door to find no one there and starts having disturbing thoughts only for the word Lenore to pass through his mind. He goes back to bed only to hear a louder noise, this time from his room’s window.
He opens the shatters only for a raven to fly in. the raven is rather scruffy in appearance but its presence brings some comical relief to the narrator. He feels privileged to have such a creature in his room and the fact that the raven answers his question of what its name is with the word “Nevermore”, adds to his excitement. He concludes that the raven must have been owned by a disaster prone master, who used the words “nevermore” so often that the raven had them etched into its soul.
Now occupied with the raven, he senses the air has became denser and can smell perfume aroma that makes him think the raven could be Lenore. He suspects the bird is a prophet but accuses it of being evil, but nevertheless a prophet. He begs God to bequeath him with Lenore, but the raven replies “nevermore”. He gets irked by this and chases the bird away but the raven is unshaken and now assumes a kind of demonic demeanor as the narrators hopes are crushed by the raven.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Poe’s life and how it influenced his work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Raven was non-didactic poem that has numerous occurrences of alliteration, internal rhyme, repetition, imagery, refrain and hints of onomatopoeia. Written in narrative speech, it begins on a rather depressing note; with the narrator “weak” and “weary”. Alliteration is used here to stress the disposition of Edgar Allen Poe as he wrote this poem.
This was at a time when his wife was unsound from a ruptured blood vessel and had contacted tuberculosis. He is yearning for companionship and more so love and going to open the door in the dead of night to show his desperation. His fixation on Lenore is metaphorical thus Lenore is seemingly the ideal woman he has in mind. The poem is reflective of Poe himself who appears to have sought solace in the Bible during hard times as depicted in referring to it as an ancient book of knowledge.
The alleged knock on the door might have been used to identify with his first love Sarah Elmira Royster, to whom he was engaged to while in the University of Virginia in 1826. He reasons that his engagement was rushed and it is symbolized in the poem by the narrator gathering courage and going to open the door at night expecting a visitor at the sound that is obviously not a knock.
The sound itself could be the urgency in which he felt in finding love and the darkness depicting his “blindness” to love at the time. Opening the door and finding no one might mean the desolation he felt when he lost touch with his first love Royster, whom he later realized was married after he dropped out from the University of Virginia in 1827 and hence the whispered word, “Lenore?” meaning where is my ideal woman? (Weekes 22).
In my opinion, the raven is used here to depict his dying wife Virginia Clemm due to a few reasons. First is the loudness of the tapping of the window lattice, which might have been used to describe his exigency to find his ideal woman, Lenore.
The raven flying in through the window could have been used to represent their unconventional form of marriage, taking into account that Virginia was in fact his cousin. Secondly, he smells perfume in the dense air when engaging the raven, the perfume depicting impressions of love he might have been feeling for her.
He later vehement denies the thought that the raven could be Lenore, meaning his affection for his wife was superficial and their union only of convenience. Thirdly, Virginia was a lot younger than him and was still in her teens when he married her. His metaphorical use of a raven that spoke could have been used to mean how limited he thought her intelligence was and how he further thought she had a negative attitude portrayed in the word “nevermore”.
This attitude might have been instilled by her mother who he refers to as the raven’s master, because she most likely had a lot of predicaments through out her life. One is also inclined to think that Virginia mostly wore dark clothes and had shaved her head leading to the comparison with the raven, (Krainik 14).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Poe’s life and how it influenced his work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His expression when the raven first enters his chamber is one of comical delight. He is amused by raven’s facade and adjusts himself on his velvet seat in order to engage the bird. He then discloses that he won’t be surprised when the raven leaves in the morning as other friend have done that before and his hopes have previously flown away. This is quite a powerful choice of words because it shows the disenchantment Poe had regarding lovers and hopes.
Prior to writing this poem, Poe had on several accounts lost his jobs in among others, the Southern Literary Messenger, Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine and the military. He had also written several books, none of which was recognized. To add on to this, he had lost his first love and had been disowned by his foster father who could have left him a sizable inheritance, depicting a man who was accustomed to loosing.
None better support this than the questions he asks the raven, well knowing the answer will be “nevermore”; is there balm in Gilead? …, shall I clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore? (Benton 56).
His attempt to chase away the raven to no avail seems to suggest that Poe had tried to part ways with his wife to no avail. The crow strategically perching above the chamber door seems to imply the wife was dominant or her family had influence over him.
The final stanza is of a particular interest because it seems to imply his wife’s condition had deteriorated and she was either semi-lucid or in a comatose state hence the connotation that the raven’s eyes looked like a demon that is dreaming. Poe ends this poem with the felling of exasperation and despondency trying to imply that there is a connection between him and the raven’s shadow.
The shadow could have meant the looming death of his wife. He could therefore have come to the conclusion that he will never have any real chance of finding love thus …” And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor shall be lifted — nevermore!”
Work Cited Benton, Roberts. “Friends and Enemies: Women in the Life of Edgar Allan Poe”. Works of Poe. June 2 1999. Web.
Krainik, Cumins. “The Sir Moses Ezekiel Statue of Edgar Allan Poe”. Baltimore. April 2 2007.Web.
Ostrom, Johnson. “Poe’s Literary Labors and Rewards”. Poe’s Work. Feb 5 2001.Web.
Weekes, Krutz. “Poe’s Feminine Ideal”. Literature review. Nov 16 2003.Web.
Approaches to Human Illness from a Biomedical Anthropology Perspective Analytical Essay custom essay help
Interest in health issues has characterized human reflection and endeavor since early civilization. Thoughts of ill health likely characterized the life of prehistoric man as he went about his daily chores of hunting and gathering. The search for means to stop the functional losses allied to ill health continues today.
It is with this understanding that Nguyen