Personal Body And Composition Chart Report Online Essay Help

Cardiovascular is a term that is used in reference to the circulatory system in general. This includes the vessels carrying the blood around the body, the heart and of course the lungs. Effects to the human body include heart related diseases like heart attack, ischemic stroke and many others.

Over the years, a direct correlation has been in existence between the rate of inactivity of a person and the probability of getting a disease of the coronary artery. Many of these diseases can be prevented through what is commonly known as cardiovascular exercises. These exercises help to burn calories and additionally help one reduce weight.

A proper diet and exercise program can help strengthen the immune system and provide protection from chronic and infectious diseases. This is because a proper diet will definitely enable one to be free from deficiency diseases like anemia and others. A proper exercise on the other hand will help one be free from such chronic diseases as heart disease and being overweight.

This is because through exercise, one remains fit and the extra calories are lost. As a result, ones immune system is effectively raised. In other words, the balance diet will give you all the nutrients you need while proper exercise keeps you physically fit.

Description Unit of measurement Strategic goal objective strategy Outcome measurement time line Body Weight 160 LBS 156LBS Lose 4 LBS Weekly three day exercise routine 154.5 LBS 1-3 months Height 5 ft 11 in 5 ft 11 in 5 ft 11 in Weekly three day exercise routine 5 ft 11 in 1-3 months BMR 1787.7 1762.7 Attain 1762.7 Weekly three day exercise routine 1753.4 1-3 months Blood Pressure 150 120 Optimum BP-120 Weekly three day exercise routine 110 1-3 months Resting Heart Rate 75 62 62 Weekly three day exercise routine 60 1-3 months Heart Rate after 5 Minutes of Exercise 143 112 112 Weekly three day exercise routine 128 1-3 months Heart Rate after 3 Minutes of Exercise 136 120 120 Weekly three day exercise routine 128 1-3 months Rank the following 1 to 5 with 5 being “excellent” and 1 being “poor” in the Unit of Measurement Column Nutritional Status 4 4 5 5 4 1-3 months Flexibility 2 3 3 4 4 1-3 months Coordination 3 4 4 4 3 1-3 months Endurance 2 4 4 4 4 1-3 months Strength 3 4 4 4 3 1-3 months Speed 2 4 4 4 3 1-3 months


Women in Engineering Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Women Engineering in the U.S

Engineering Academics

Retention Challenges

Professional Practice

Societal Norms and Legal system



Works Cited

The experience of women in engineering varies with those of men. This could be attributed to their physiology, biology, among other aspects.

Engineering industry has experienced a dramatic growth while its future is still bright since women graduates in the field, continues to increase. The profession is attractive since it pays well as compared to others that women engage in. Besides, the nature of work in the field has modified to attract more women in the recent past in areas such as physical, social as well as environmental sciences since it has long been dominated by men.

However, it is not an easy task to work in such a profession since women are constantly faced with issues of skepticism, scrutiny as well as sexism. This paper shall investigate women in engineering in the U.S. It will analyze their progress and the effects of legal system, societal norms, as well as professional practice.

Besides, the paper shall discuss the issues, challenges and opportunities they encounter in the course of their career and elaborate on different recommendations, aimed to improve their prospects in the working environment to pave way for better opportunities in the future.

Women Engineering in the U.S The males are still dominating engineering professions in the U.S as well as other parts of the world. However, the academic institutions as well as corporations have invested efforts in recruiting women in the profession.

For instance, in the U.S this has helped the nation to remain globally competitive by not just by having many engineering students but also by enhancing diversity in their organizations (Stewart et al. 3). For many years, women have been underrepresented in the profession. Their recruitment is therefore, necessary to manage future shortages of engineers in the country.

Engineering Academics Women in engineering profession in in the U.S face various Impediments that includes inadequate feminine facilities essential in technical subjects as physics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social pressure and lack of career guidance in education institutions are also other limitations. Some females admit that they are not exposed to the profession until they are unable to choose it as part of their career hence guidance on the same is essential (Burke


Hybrid car vs. fossil fuel car Descriptive Essay online essay help: online essay help

A hybrid car is better than a conventional car due to fuel efficiency and limited environmental pollution. Most of the environmental problems that many modernized societies have to contend with today emanate from overreliance on fossil fuel as the primary source of energy. This includes the transport sector where fossil fuel cars are the main mode of transport.

One of the consistent debates is the economic as well as the environmental consequences of running a fossil fuel car. Gasoline is derived from crude oil and increased consumption means increased depletion of natural resources and an increase in the release of carbon based gases which in effect increase global warming (Union of Concerned Scientists paras 1 to 9).

Hybrid cars have come to replace gasoline cars. Hybrid cars have a lesser gas consumption thus a higher mile per gallon. It also means that the cars have a reduced emission of carbon based gas and thus less pollution (Dunn paras 4, 5). To supply suffice information that answers the thesis statement, I will search through the internet for credible sources on the advantages of hybrid cars.

I will contrast gasoline only powered cars and hybrid cars by focusing on the effects on both the environment as well as the economy. To support my claims I will also source for statistical data from credible sources. These statistics will mainly focus fuel efficiency and environmental pollution. Within this essay I will I will introduce my argument.

I will explain the positive aspect of the hybrid over the fossil fuel car. In the body of the paper I will explain each coordinating points. I will give an example for each coordinating to support my stand. In my conclusion, I will sum up my argument by defending the assumption that if everyone drove hybrid cars, it could save our future in term of Ozone layer and reduce our use of natural resources.

Hybrid cars are more fuel efficient than gasoline only powered car. According to a survey done by the New York Times four years after the first hybrid car came into the market, reveal that the first two hybrid car released into the mass market were more fuel efficient than gasoline only cars (Lake 1).

While a survey by Federal Highway Administration reveal that a normal car returns between 25 to 35 miles per gallon depending the speed car types and resistance, a normal hybrid engine consumes less (Federal Highway Administration 79). A survey by Edmunds reveals that seven of the top ten most efficient cars were hybrid.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within this group of cars, hybrids were found to be the most fuel efficient. Toyota Prius Hybrid was found to return about 50 miles per gallon while the Honda Insight Hybrid registered about 45 mile per gallon. The Honda Civic Hybrid consumed one gallon for every 40 mile on a city drive while and about 45 while on highway drive.

Edmunds further reveal that gasoline only powered cars can at best return between 20 and 30 miles per gallon. This means that a hybrid car returns between 10 and 20 of extra miles as compared to a gasoline only powered car (Living Strong para 4, 5). So optimistic are hybrid makers that that the future even look bright.

Newer fuel efficient technologies are being developed. Volkswagen leads this front with a new diesel engine that only consumes about 3 litres of for every 100 kilometers travelled. This means that Volkswagen engine can return 69 miles per gallon (Kaho para 2).

Other than the miles per gallon perspective, fuel efficiency can also evaluated by analyzing the cost per mile. With the ever increasing cost of gasoline, users of motor vehicle are relieved to find out that hybrid cars cost less to run per mile as compared to gasoline only powered cars.

While gasoline powered cars are less expensive as compared to hybrid cars, the cost of running them per mile is very low. Assuming that the cost of gasoline is about US $ 4.30 per gallon, running a gasoline powered car per mile cost the user in excess of 13 cents per mile.

This is a stack contrast to the below 10 cents per mile that a hybrid consumes. These two costs per mile have been taken for Honda Fit, a non hybrid car verses Toyota Prius Hybrid. Suffice to say that even though Toyota Prius is much more expensive the Honda fit, it also has a bigger capacity.

This men that by buying Toyota Prius hybrid instead of Honda Fit the user will get the best value in terms of consumption Cost of running per mile as well as carrying capacity and power (Darby 2). This is fuel efficiency and it also means that the lesser the fuel consumed the lesser the emission of carbon based gases into the environment.

We will write a custom Essay on Hybrid car vs. fossil fuel car specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of their fuel efficiency, hybrid cars consume far less fuel than gasoline only powered cars. This is due to the fact that hybrid cars have one engine that combine the two types of energy sources; gasoline and electricity.

While there are two types of hybrid engines, the parallel and the series hybrid, both of these engines combines electricity and gasoline for fuel efficiency. This results in less fuel consumed as compare to the amount of fuel consumed by a gasoline only powered car.

The lesser the gasoline consumed, the lesser the amount of carbon based gases released by these automobiles into the environment. This is the new face of energy efficiency; Consumption against the amount of green house gas emitted (Heinzmann and Taylor 2). This means that fuel efficiency has a direct implication on the amount of carbon dioxide emitted.

A study conducted for the university of California suggest that gasoline only powered cars have a very high emission of carbon dioxide equivalent as compared to hybrid cars. This study reveals that the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in California would greatly reduce if a bigger number of hybrid cars were in operations.

Over its entire lifestyle, the Honda Civic LX produces about 62 tones of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. This is a very large figure as compared to 47 tones that the Honda Civic Hybrid produces. This means that the Honda Civic hybrid produces 24 % of greenhouse gas emission as compared to its sister.

These figures have not been derived by only considering fuel combustion but also consider the material used in the production, transportation of the product to the market as well as the assembly of the product. Furthermore, while it is cheaper to buy Honda Civic LX there is no differences cost of maintenance as compared to its hybrid sister, the Honda civic hybrid.

Considering all factors, both vehicles cost the user about US $ 2700 in purchases and maintenance, despite Civic LX costing US $ 4000 less (Estudillo, Koehn, Levy, Olsen and Taylor 28 to 37). This proves that in terms of environmental friendliness, hybrid cars are more efficient as compared to gasoline only powered cars.

There is need to get more hybrid cars on the road. This is due to the benefit that will be accrued from doing this. Hybrid cars are far much better and advantageous as compared to gasoline only powered cars. While gasoline only powered cars have simpler engine configurations, hybrids are economically as well as environmentally friendly. Hybrid cars combine gasoline and electricity to power them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hybrid car vs. fossil fuel car by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that there is less fuel consumed by hybrid cars. The lesser fuel that is consumed by hybrids has direct impact economically as well as environmentally. On the economic front it is cheaper to run a hybrid car per mile than a fully powered gasoline car. While his effect may not be felt is much more felt by the individual user, it is much useful to the entire economy.

Moreover the less the gasoline that is consumed by hybrids, the lesser the amount of carbon based gases as well as greenhouse gases emitted into the environment. As such the rate of global climate change as well as stratospheric ozone depletion will significantly reduce.

This also means that there will be a significant reduction in demand for gasoline and thus the demand for crude oil will significantly go down. This is one of avoid the excessive depletions of natural resources. As such our future will be safer and sustainable.

Works Cited Darby, Ray. “The Best Fuel Economy for the Dollar.” 2008. Web.

Dunn, Philip. “Hybrid Cars — Pros and Cons.” 2006. Web.

Estudillo et al. “Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: An Environmental and Economic Analysis.” 2005. Web.

Federal Highway Administration. “Steady Speed Fuel Economy “The two earlier studies by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) indicate maximum fuel efficiency was achieved at speeds of 35 to 40 mph.” Web.

Heinzmann, John and Taylor, Michael. “The Role of the Segway Personal Transporter (PT) in Emissions Reduction and Energy Efficiency.” 2007. Web.

Kaho, Todd. “VW’s Breakthrough 69 MPG Diesel Hybrid,” 2008. Web.

Lake, Matt. “How It Works; A Tale of 2 Engines: How Hybrid Cars Tame Emissions.” New York Times. 2001. Web.

Living Strong. “Hybrid Car Mileage Compared to Regular Cars.” 2011. Web.

Union of Concerned Scientists. The Hidden Cost of Fossil Fuels. 2010. Web.


Deep Economy by Bill McKibben Expository Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Importance of Community



Works Cited

Introduction Deep Economy offers an insightful platform to any reader as it prompts him to analyze his current living condition. The author, Bill McKibben captures the reader’s mind through his well thought out and articulated ideas that expose his prowess in the field of ecological economics.

The book delivers a specific message to the reader and even critics have agreed that the book plays its role in communication. Bill challenges the reader to think of another life beyond ‘growth’ to achieve prosperity.

He argues that this is possible if people concentrate more in their local production. He seems to have an answer to all the budding problems affecting the community with an aim of bringing changes in their daily lifestyle and economy.

One of the strongest points brought out in his argument is his stand on the community and individualism (McKibben 108). Many people have no idea what this means but a clear understanding of Deep Economy brings to light the issue of community that triggers our thinking. And how does it achieve this goal? First of all, we have shunned communism and turned to individualism.

We have lost the idea of thinking as a community and turned to other westernized sources outside our own society to revive our economy. A wrong move I must say. Secondly, globalization seems to be conquering the entire world leading to the loss of all types of primeval community values.

McKibben argues that we need to re-awaken the lost communities, a concept which though possible, has been met with a lot of criticism. Lastly, it is apparent that the community has adequate resources to sustain the economy but we, as individuals, tend to ignore them.

The Importance of Community Based on the above three reasons that help us to understand our community, it is worth discussing its role. McKibben holds the community in high esteem as portrayed in chapter three and four of his book. These two chapters give a conclusive argument on why the community is vital for economic growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The community is inhabited by individuals who are hyper (McKibben 115). More emphasis should therefore be placed on the community rather than the sole individual. McKibben advocates for the embracing of community values to attain a more sustainable lifestyle. Does this make any sense? Well, society has currently become more individualized with everybody crying about their ‘rights.’

This has been attributed to globalization and change of culture that has led people to be selfish in their way of living. The new culture of ‘everyone for himself and God for us all’ has become entrenched in individuals, hence shunning the society and its needs. Many people would be lost in the idea of thinking that the community does not play any role in our daily lives hence shunning it.

The economy depends on right relationships within the community. Successful people such as Schumacher or Michael Ruppert are evidence that success comes from within the community and that it is challenging for individuals to try making it on their own (Hoogstraten 45).

Modernization is taking over communities leaving individuals to be more and more independent. What happens to family-community? Where does the church and state-community stand? What McKibben is trying to argue is that we seem not to care about the welfare of each other. In the Middle Ages for example, a family problem was solved by the community but today the situation has changed.

We are turning to institutions such as the court to give us a solution. The idea of worshipping together as a community was lost long ago with the individuals deeply engaged in shopping and their careers. McKibben offers a solution of revival but many critics argue that this is not possible.

The most applicable solution offered by McKibben, and one that I wholly agree with is the idea of using the community to create our own local wealth (McKibben 120). The example he gives on how the community is capable of creating its own wealth is proof enough that the society has the required resources to improve the economy.

Two examples from his book that clearly stand out are the idea of the bus transportation model that he observes in Brazil and the concept of owning a currency that can only be exchanged locally.

We will write a custom Essay on Deep Economy by Bill McKibben specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These ideas are brilliant and applicable and one wonders why we have never thought of these before. It is true that people have forgotten to invest in their own communities and are fascinated by other successful business investments outside their territory.

Criticism The idea of communism has not been received without criticism. The idea has been criticized on the notion that it will be difficult to revert to communism (Rheannon 23).

This is because people have already adjusted to a new livelihood of individualism and independence. Most people will not be willing to let go of the idea of private ownership which will have to undergo a transformation to attain a sustainable balance with community ownership.

Though this arguments make sense, it can however be argued that it is possible to utilize the resources in the community to regain the lost glory. This is possible through special initiatives such as volunteer and welfare groups (Korten 67).

Conclusion The community has the potential. That said and done, it is for us as community members to turn that potential into reality. Deep Economy got us thinking about the ‘after growth’ to a better economic future. The book is worth reading and recommending to everybody wishing to make a change in their lifestyle by involving the community.

Works Cited Hoogstraten, Hans-Dirk. Deep Economy: Caring for Ecology, Humanity and Religion.

England: James Clarke


Downsizing 10 per cent of the staff Problem Solution Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

It may seem that the most complicated task an HR manager faces is finding and hiring a new employee who will meet the requirements of the workplace and the expectations of the company. However, making a decision about dismissing staff members turns out to be extremely challenging as well, especially when this necessity is caused not by an employee’s bad performance but rather by reduction of the company’s size, budget shortfalls etc.

The situation is aggravated by the fact that there is no single correct approach to decision making connected with downsizing. It may seem to be the optimal decision to be guided by centuries-old principles of classical economic theory that implies comparison of expenses and effect.

From this perspective, it is reasonable to dismiss a 45-year old manager with average performance who has a high salary due to the substantial work experience rather than a 26-year old high-flyer performing higher than average (Segalla, Jacobs-Belschak


The Hawthorne Studies Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of the Hawthorne Studies

Are Hawthorne studies surprising?

Significance of the Hawthorne studies




Introduction Theories of management can be tracked back to 1800s when there was industrial revolution and growth in the factory. The Hawthorne studies contributed a lot to understanding and interpretation of the human behavioral norms in a workplace. The studies also determined what relation was there between environment of work and the production capacity.

Summary of the Hawthorne Studies Researchers from Western Electric and Harvard University led the Hawthorne studies. The first study they carried out was the illumination study. The main objective of these studies was to determine the effects of environmental elements on a group of production workers. There were two categories of the group of worker.

The first group was a test group, which went through environmental changes. The second group was the control group whose members would operate under normal, constant environments. The researchers started by studying the test group and varied results analyzed. An increase in the lightening for the test group resulted in an increase in productivity and the control group productivity.

Each test period had continual supervision. Increase in production capacity gave the test group and control groups competition amongst them. Several conclusions came out from this experiment. First, illumination did not have a positive effect on the motivation of production workers. Other factors not put into consideration in control negatively influenced the test results.

The second study was the relay-assembly test that took off before winding of the illumination study. The study test objective was to determine the effect rest duration and work hours would have on efficiency. George Pennock who was a chief researcher in the study led this research study. The study also included six volunteered women who went through physical examination prior to the study. Re-examination every six weeks thereafter is to investigate the effects of varying working conditions on their health.

The researchers had to be put on different rooms to ensure outputs of the experiments are accurate, since temperature, humidity are regulated and other factors inclusive. The test subjects were peace-work groups with efforts made to keep a record on the study work pattern. The researchers tried to build a sense of confidence and pride to women by introducing a male observer in the test rooms to keep track of records and ensure friendly working conditions.

The process had high labor requirement, and the productivity was affected by slow assembly speed. The researchers concluded that initial life experience had a significant impact on workers attitudes, while the change of lighting, pay, supervision and working conditions does not play a role in the targeted change[1].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The final research study was the bank-wiring test, which kicked off in the year 1931. The banks were one of the key elements of the automatic telephone exchange. Several terminals had to connect with a set of banks.

The work, which was done was very tiresome and required the workers to extend their working hours for long. Dropping of factors such as pay incentives and productivity standards was necessary, but a researcher had to go to a test room as an observer to other workers.

The research team here included W. Lloyd Warner who trained as an anthropologist with interests in the social stimulus of a group. The second member was William J. Dickson Warner who had a deep interest on tests than the entire Harvard team. The bank wiring study went down in the year 1932 in reaction to layoffs generated because of depressions.

The test objective was to study a group of an active unit and make observations on its behavior. The results that were analyzed were that a group’s relations are complex and emphasized that the group expectations are more than an individual’s interest. The conclusions from these findings were to evaluate the significance of workers feelings against one another and their motivation[2].

Are Hawthorne studies surprising? Yes, the findings are surprising. This is mainly because as much as it has errors, Hawthorne studies are still important in promoting management.

Significance of the Hawthorne studies Hawthorne studies were a key turning point in the history of management. The studies helped in the rise and inventions of many management theories today, which would not have survived through without these study tests. Elton Mayo’s test findings are a preserve to most researchers today in defending their thesis.

Conclusion Although Hawthorne studies analysis has a number of criticisms, the rise of many management theories today may not have been successful without these studies. The studies are the foundation and pillar of human relations group covering the various fundamentals of management[3].

We will write a custom Report on The Hawthorne Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Childress, Boyd. “Hawthorne Experiments.” 2011. Web.

Childress, Boyd. “Hawthorne Experiments.” Reference for 2011. Web.

Gillespie, Richard. Manufacturing Knowledge: A History of the Hawthorne Experiments. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Footnotes Boyd Childress, “Hawthorne Experiments,”, 2011.

Richard Gillespie, Manufacturing Knowledge: A History of the Hawthorne Experiments (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Boyd Childress, “Hawthorne Experiments,” Reference for, 2011.


The 2012 London Olympic Games Human Resource Management Report college essay help online

Introduction The 2012 London Olympic games is an international event, which not only brings the world together, but it also reflects a nation’s coeffective synchronization throughout its planning and successful realization of its objectives and the courage to sustain and harmonize all groups associated with the event.

It is also an event that has rapidly developed a considerable contribution to businesses and other leisure related activities that integrates all forms of tourism at an extensive level.

The magnitude of the event comes with the increased growth of both government and corporate involvement, which further complicates the environment that now calls for a high level of resonance from the Olympic committee and event managers who should identify and tune-up with a wider range of stakeholders in order to bring a sense of balance to their needs and main objectives (Iryna 2009, p.10).

For this reason, Human Resource Management (HRM) in any goal oriented organization should be deeply concerned with how to secure and coordinate the various kinds of resources that takes account of facilities, materials, finances, and people, who are the most critical yet the most problematic group since they represent the human resource.

The environment that surrounds the preparation for the Olympic event is such a challenging task since it deals with a handful of both logistical concerns and a diverse team of individuals, and for this reason, the HRM process is an effective way of designing and staging the event successfully by giving a critical look on the overall Olympic context and learning from past mistakes witnessed in other past events of the same magnitude.

Since the Olympic games is a long-awaited event and a highly rated event, it’s always advisable to carefully note the importance of personnel management through the administrative functions it encompasses in both customary and traditional means that work towards bringing employee motivation and satisfaction with things such as rewards, bonuses, compensation, and the overview of work responsibilities.

For this reason, HRM practices are profusely merged with personnel administration to form work groups and effective strategies that will address any challenges that may arise in the course of event planning and job creation which are just some of the primary motivators leading up to the event (Chelladurai


US History of US health care Definition Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Health insurance in US

History of Laser Eye Surgery

Michael DeBakey: Father of cardiovascular surgery

Health care reforms in the U.S

Vaccination: A preventive measure for all ages


Health insurance in US Health care is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of governments all over the world. All developed countries are characterized by having elaborate healthcare systems which are in place to ensure that majority of the population has access to medical care when they need it.

Arguably, health care insurance is a relatively new trend in the US. Before 1920, doctors and medical practitioners did not have many insights on diseases and curative techniques.

As such, the cost of receiving medical care was relatively low and affordable to many Americans. However, as ore discoveries were made and new techniques of delivering healthcare services emerged, the cost of receiving the same began to increase. As a result, many people could not afford quality care due to financial constraints.

To this effect, private companies started offering health plans to their employees. However, the healthcare plans only covered against accidents related to travel by rail or water. However, these plans paved way to more comprehensive covers that catered for other illnesses and injuries.

In 1847, Massachusetts Health Insurance of Boston became the first company to offer group policies that gave comprehensive cover to its clients. Consequently, in 1890, insurance companies started offering individual disability and illness policies to their clients (Northern California Neurosurgery Medical Group, 2007).

By 1929, group insurance covers had gained prominence in the US. Baylor Hospital was the first organization to enter into a contract with a group of teachers from Dallas. This agreement aimed at ensuring that these teachers receive room, board and medical services from the hospital. The teachers on the other hand agreed to pay a monthly fee in exchange for these services. Soon after, several life insurance companies joined this seemingly lucrative field.

A precursor to future health care insurance schemes in America was Blue Cross which was the first innovation that changed the shape of the health care system in America. This plan developed in 1930 advocated the payment of small premiums that would be cover the medical costs should one be hospitalized.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rationale behind this scheme was that while huge medical bills were unaffordable to most people, little deductions over a long period of time were affordable to majority of the population (Kooijman, 1999). This form of prepaid service was beneficial to both the hospital and the consumer especially in times of economic difficulties since neither party had to worry about the hospital bill being cleared.

During the Second World War, employers started offering insurance cover to their employees mostly as a way of attracting and retaining the employees.

However, this created a trend and became almost mandatory as strong trade unions started to negotiate for insurance packages for their employees. Northern California Neurosurgery Medical Group, (2007) notes that as of 1960, private health insurance was deeply entrenched into the American health care system and over 70% of the citizens had some form of cover.

In 1965, the U.S government created the Medicare and Medicaid programs with the aim of subsidizing the escalating cost of medical services. This was mainly due to the fact that private sources catered for 75% of their medical costs. At this rate, many citizens could not cover their medical costs.

However, these programs proved to be effective because as at 1995, individuals and companies enjoyed reduced costs since they only paid about half of their medical bills while the government covered the rest through these programs (U.S. Department of Health


Break up of a Relationship Essay college application essay help

Marriage A marriage is defined as a legal contract or a social union between persons who gives rise to families or relationships. It is also an association where sexual and intimate affairs are accepted in various ways; depending on the cultures, it is found. People marry for a number of reasons, which may include social and emotional.

They might also include arranged marriages, libidinal or a forced into the marriage through forced marriages. Marriage usually creates legal commitments between the people involved. In some cultures, marriages can be broken or ended through divorce.

To the state and to an extent the religious group a marriage is a contract. In different societies, the governing authorities hold civil marriage as the official or legal concept of marriages. This is regardless of what the religious authorities or personal prejudices may be.

What are the particular issues related to marriage and the dynamics associated with it? Marriages like any other type of relationship be it friendship or work faces many problems. Some of these problems might be minor but at times, the problems become a major source of stress, which may lead to dire consequences such as divorce. Problems that face many marriages include but are not limited to money, children, daily stress, poor communication, bad habits, blended family issues, affairs and many more.

Fighting and stress brought about by money has been cited as the most common source of conflict in marriage. A fight over money is symbolic and represents power struggles in the family or difference in values that each couple holds.

In hard economic times, issues about money become a source of stress and may sometimes manifest itself in general stress. For example if one of the couple is stressed about money, the person becomes easily agitated and generally more stressed. The person may start picking fights with their partner about trivial things and may at times not even realize it.

The lack or presence of children in marriage has been attributed to some extent causing marital problems. In some cultures, having children is the primary driving force in marriage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this situations lack of children becomes a major source of stress in the relationship and this mostly affects the person seen or is suspected as the reason. Children bring joy and are a gift to married couples. They, however, can be a source and ground for many disagreements between married couples.

Caring for children asks for more responsibility and at the same time brings about changes in roles, which may place couples at opposing sides creating disagreements. Caring for the children also demands a lot of time and this consequently reduces amount of time spent by couples. This reduction in intimate time between couples strains the relationship and can cause resentment between them.

Stress from everyday chores or work may also wear down relationships. This in marriages may just like financial stress leads to arguments between couples testing their patience and optimism.

This usually leaves the couple with little to give to one another emotionally leading to resentment building up. Careers that demand lot of time from persons also leaves individuals worn out and trickles down to their marriage leading to conflicts. If couples do not work together and agree on each other responsibilities may find this straining their marriage.

Every relationship with time disintegrates if there is no good communication. Poor communication is a major cause of failing marriages and this finds its way to any other form of arguments that occur in marriage.

Poor communication leads to misunderstandings within the marriage causing both spouses to resent each other. Individuals in the marriage start to feel unappreciated unloved and get provoked easily by the other party.

Another cause of marriage failure is extramarital affairs by one or both of the couples. When one spouse is found or admits to having an affair, it strains the marriage. One or both the couple feel betrayed, hurt, and at time are filled with hatred. In most of these cases the person who feels betrayed opts out of the marriage though at times the couple can seek professional help from a counselor.

We will write a custom Essay on Break up of a Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discuss how the breakup of a relationship or a divorce affects the people involved. Sometimes marriages fail to work and the best option left to the individuals is divorce. However, some of the reasons that may lead to divorce can be sorted out through counseling others are dire and divorce is the only answer.

Divorce adversely affects the people involved especially the couple and their children. Divorce is a life-changing event for the persons involved. It becomes a major source of stress and a life transition for both the children and parents.

Divorce marks a new beginning to the people involved. Many societies today have accepted and at times embrace divorce as a solution to bad marriage yet divorce, though amicable tends to tear apart the basic unit of a society. Those in strained marriages, unfulfilling marriages, mostly will not stay for the sake of the children; rather will abandon the marriage instead of working on the marriage.

The emotional stress associated with divorce takes many years to overcome. New adjustments to the new status have to be made and this may causes a crisis in one’s life. Some people adjust quickly to the new life while others simply do not. During this time a lot of changes occurs and change at this time become a way of life. Mostly, roles, economic classes, residence, sexual habits, personal behavior, and at times careers change.

Divorce leaves the lives of everyone involved affected either socially, psychologically or economically and these changes interrupt development and growth of both parent and children. While most will come out of divorce surviving major problems, every person’s life experiences setbacks. A study concluded that though this type of life change in a person may be used to foster further development and growth it should be viewed also as a life change that has the potential of leading a person’s life to regression and disorganization.

As seen divorce affects every person in the family, but it does this differently to adults and children. Effects of divorce on adults differ from each person to the next. Stress caused by divorce causes the immune system of a person to weaken. Newly divorced persons suffer from both psychological and physical problems.

The newly divorced have to deal with feelings as failures as this sometimes might lead to depression and committing suicide. In relation to married people, divorced people show higher rates of stress and depression related illnesses. Depression, which may lead to suicide, is the most serious problem facing divorced adults.

After a divorce, the individual feels lost through the changes happening in their lives. Some feel a loss of identity having had their former marriage define who they are. When people divorce, they do so to end conflicts in their marriage, but usually it does not end here. This is seen in the many post divorce litigation, which takes place at times for years. One of the divorcees who feels raged usually seeks revenge does this.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Break up of a Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Divorce is usually costly and brings about a financial crisis to both or one of the adults. The high divorce legal fees demanded by lawyers and having the assets split bring this financial crisis. The variance in finances results in increase of stress, which can make the divorcees irritable. Due to the stress caused by divorce, a person’s job performance reduces.

Time taken to attend court proceedings, personal counseling, and illnesses related to stress can have a negative impact on a person’s job performance. This inability to work or reduced performance may lead to a person being dismissed or demoted. Divorce thus does not only affect the divorce but can be seen to affect the employer when he loses money in lost productivity.

Divorce affects also the larger families who have created longtime relations. It affects parents, aunties, uncles, grandparents, and other extended family members. These people find themselves in awkward situations not knowing who to support. Also relations forged with in-laws are severed badly even despite having been close to each other.

Adult’s relationships with their offspring suffer as their (children) is divided between the two parents. Special occasions such as birthdays and holidays become reason for fight between the parents rather than celebrations.

Divorce also not only lead to changes in the relationships within the larger family, their social networks also changes dramatically and the divorcing couples become alienated from mutual friends. Often both the wife and husband will lose the support systems of their friends they need to cope with the new challenges.

As much as the society accepts divorce in the society, many people are mostly find themselves at cross roads when their friends divorce and do not know how to handle it.

When parents divorce, the children are also affected. The children are profoundly affected and for long. Although these children might grow up to be better than children from intact families the divorce affects them for the rest of their lives. Once the divorce process is done, children must become accustomed to new surroundings and relationships.

This have to do mostly on their own as the parents are often busy trying to rebuild their own lives. This period presents a major challenge to their growth and development as they lack nurturing and guidance of their parents.

Children whose parents have divorced suffer from loss in different ways; physical separation from one parent, loss of a home they knew and at times separation from other siblings. Though it is proclaimed that one parent can raise the children as well as both, the reality is the children no one parent can replace the role of the other.

An example a mother can do many things a father, can but she can never replace the children’s father. Children are likely to experience increased levels of stress and often become anxious and depressed which may lead to antisocial behavior (Cherlin 124).

The children have trouble in relating with their parents, siblings, and teachers. Adolescent girls from divorced families are prone to engaging in sex while they are younger than those from intact families. They are also likely to engage with multiple sexual partners. In comparison to children from intact families, these children are more likely to drop out if school and exhibit delinquent behavior.

These new circumstances robs of the children off their childhood as at times they have to cater for themselves and their younger siblings as the parents try to meet financial challenges that face them. When left alone these children are at greater risks of connecting with predators and face the risk of abuse than those living with both their parents. These children may face abuse from their stepfathers, mothers, and siblings if their parents decide to remarry.

After divorce, the children are faced by many challenges, as they have to contend with confusion and change that continues all through their lives. The child now finds himself or herself pulled into two different worlds. They become both insiders and outsider of their parent’s worlds and are forced to adapt to these changes.

They are torn between their parents and are at times placed at awkward situations when they have to choose between their parents. Sometimes the children are merely used as pawns in the fight between their parents. This affects them as the fight involves two people they care and love.

Is it possible to have a “good” divorce? What would that good divorce look like? Divorce is frowned upon in many societies and is viewed as socially undesirable. When the word divorce is mentioned most people tend to think of the long litigation period marked by insults, hatred and resentments.

For these people divorce is a failure as none of them is free of the other and is actively involved in each other’s life but in a destructive way. This raises the question of whether there really exists a “good “divorce.

Just like there exist bad divorce that is characterized by bad things and mutual self defeat, there also exists “good” or successful divorce in which the couple has agreed on the most contentious issues leaving both parties and children in a position to adapt well in the new life.

Key to understanding good divorce is in understanding that most divorces are resolved amicably through a settlement agreement. The divorce agreement also known as the settlement agreement is taken as the marriage final task.

This agreement solves all economic issues between the parties by describing the rights and responsibilities of each parent. This agreement gives a guideline of how property will be shared, child support, and at times spousal support. If all parties agree upon the settlement agreement, it becomes the blueprint of the family’s future.

A good divorce offers emotional closure for both parties meaning that both have disengaged from the marriage and conflict. Each of the partners has the strength to move on and foster new relationships if they want. A good divorce also entails each partner feeling a sense of economic justice and none feels victimized by the other.

A good divorce should offer the family both parent and children a chance to develop and accept the new status. This shows that when informed and willing couples can work through their divorce in an amicable and fair way with neither of them resenting each other.

Works Cited Cherlin, Andrew J. Public and Private Families: An Introduction. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2010.


Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s and Paul Johnson works Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Space and the City



Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s Sorting out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875-1975 and A Shopkeeper’s Millennium by Paul Johnson

Introduction The history of every city is unique though we can easily trace certain patterns in development of settlements through time in different countries. For instance, the cities in the United States of America have similar history in terms of transformation and the role of industrialization in the formation of neighborhoods.

Class and race distinctions were obvious before industrialization came to the country whereas their interactions with the new way of life became apparent when the city emerged as a scope of neighborhoods each based on class and racial distinctions.

The concepts of transformation and industrialization can be seen in the books Sorting out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875-1975 (1998) by Thomas W. Hanchett and A Shopkeeper’s Millennium (1978) by Paul Johnson.

Space and the City Race and class. Every city has its functions as well as every district of it is inhabited by people that have something in common.

Though it is difficult to stay calm while talking about racial discrimination that took place a long before such a concept appeared, racial and class distinctions can be considered one of the primary reasons why neighborhoods were built in this way. As such, Hanchett (1998) labeled the chapters of his book in accordance with the racial belonging of the citizens that inhabited the neighborhoods in Charlotte, North Carolina.

As such, the distinction between different races was obvious even in the framework of the old country town where employees were farmers as well as their employers. At the same time, every person knew about those transparent borders that existed between the neighborhoods and chances of living in one of those.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationships between employees and employers can be considered one of the complicated issues in the world history. The roles may shift, the rights may widen while it is impossible to predict the changes in economical development of the society.

As such, people that lived in Rochester, New York and Charlotte, North Carolina could not guess that employees would obtain a kind of freedom with regard to independent living compared to the living on the territory of their employer before industrialization and further changes. As reported by Johnson (1978) about working men that performed different tasks in the farms, “these men moved too fast to be counted” (p. 37).

At the same time, “day laborers and journeyman craftsmen made up 71 percent of the adult male work force” (Johnson, 1978, p. 38). In this respect, there were enough men to work though not all of them were representatives of the upper classes.

Employment and urban structure. Transformation of so-called country towns was an integral part of the changing circumstances. In other words, the space of the city Charlotte and the one of Rochester was logically divided into the territory of white-collars and blacks, rich people and those who could not afford even commodities.

At the same time, the practical framework of such division was obvious as people obtained a chance to live on their own when the industrialization rose. However, as suggested by Johnson (1978), “Rochester retained the economic functions and much of the look and feel of a country town” (p. 37).

This means that basic economic functions were shaped before industrialization and the transformations were insignificant regarding the previous area planning of the city. Rochester, as well as many other cities of the time, was a country town with its functions and traditions and employees could easily live in the house of their employer due to the necessity of waking up early and perform various functions.

Every person had certain rights though the rules of living were not written but clear to everyone because they concerned the division of neighborhoods. It is obvious that the current neighborhoods are results of the policies and traditions that existed long before the industrialization shifted roles of employees and employers.

We will write a custom Essay on Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s and Paul Johnson works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The previous scheme introduced an employer and his helpers who were hired to fulfill the same job or other minor operations than the employer. As reported by Johnson (1978), the industrialization shifted roles of employers and employees and changed the way they were perceived: a new image of the trading field completed “the separation of men who made shoes from those who sold them” (p. 39).

As such, people treated those two categories of workers differently making distinctions between men that can sell things and those who are able only to make those. However, the main distinction lies in the manufacturing of commodities and the fields of specialization of other people that were not involved into metal and machinery issues.

Hanchett (1998) outlines the situation in the urban planning as an integral part of the process of industrialization which contributed greatly to urbanization making countrymen move to cities while seeking for a job.

However, tension in the cities such as Charlotte made everything even worse: “tensions that had arisen during the 1890s and goaded the development of a new feature on Charlotte’s urban landscape: sizable blue-collar residential districts” (Hanchett, 1998, p. 90). At the same time, it is necessary to emphasize that ‘black’ neighborhoods also emerged in the process of industrialization when representatives of two races tried to avoid each other at least in their residence while they had to work together.

Nevertheless, the problem of neighborhoods became apparent only for people that care about it and think that the historic differentiation based on race and class belonging became an unwritten rule for all citizens. The times change as well as traditions of urban planning; so, people are free to choose their neighborhoods.

Transformation and time. Transformations in urban planning can be treated as the result of changes that took place in society and in economic situation while the roots of those changes lie deep in the class distinctions between masters and slaves. Though manufacturers had to produce a lot of commodities, the blue-collars could be also divided into specific groups in accordance with the industry in which they were involved.

As such, Hanchett (1998) suggests that “a 1926 survey showed 141 Charlotte manufacturers producing a total of 81 different commodities” (p. 94) while “corps of carpenters, brick masons, and painters almost matched the number of textile mill employees. A third important blue-collar group were the metal workers and machinery men” (p. 95).

In other words, the blue-collars were workers that were involved into the manufacturing industries that produced commodities while lack of demand was an integral part of the industries where blacks were the majority of the work force.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrialization and transformation in Thomas W. Hanchett’s and Paul Johnson works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Transformations cannot be made within a year or two. At the same time, the changes in the neighborhoods of Rochester and Charlotte cannot be eliminated within a year or two because they have deep roots in the history of those cities based on class and race discrimination and consequences of industrialization.

In other words, the cities like Rochester and Charlotte that were country towns could remain those silent country towns with farmers and small workshops whereas the period of industrialization enabled people of those cities to take their chance and become manufacturers and salesmen.

When talking about the history of transformation in the neighborhoods, it is necessary to focus on the reasons and consequences while the urban planning cannot be changed because people built their neighborhoods consciously without being forced to do that. Besides, no person can force others to live in the neighborhood with someone he/she does not like regardless of the reasons for such dislike for those people.

Conclusion People may choose whether to live in Charlotte or in Rochester though every of the cities with long history lives in accordance with traditions that depend on the class and racial discrimination that emerged long before industrialization.

It is necessary to understand that industrialization cannot be treated as the main and only reason for such a division where black neighborhoods are clearly distinct from those of blue-collars. Every person should be able to differentiate between the consequences and stereotypes that can be overcome with regard to the changes that take place in modern cities.

References Hanchett, T. W. (1998). Sorting out the New South City: Race, Class, and Urban Development in Charlotte, 1875-1975. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Johnson, P. (1978). A Shopkeeper’s Millennium. New York: Hill and Wang.


Characteristics of Okwonko in Things Fall Apart Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

This essay aims to reveal the significance of Okwonko, the central character in Chinua Achebe’s, Things Fall Apart. It exposes the characteristics of Okwonko, the village hero by how he relates with his family, friends and community. In addition, it traces his love for his community, passion for war and violence. Finally, it displays his hopelessness when his community accepts the British.

In his most acclaimed book, Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe depicts Okwonko as a hero. The story is set in colonial Africa under the rule of British imperialists in Nigeria. Okwonko is man who believes in African values and customs, but he has a big ego. He treats his mates and family (Nwoye) arrogantly and shamefully.

Okwonko thinks he should be the leader of his community. He also feels Africans should not imitate white man’s traditions and customs. In addition, Okwonko thinks women are supposed to be slaves to men as revealed in the way he treats them violently. When finally his community embraces the ways of the white man, Okwonko commits suicide to show his hopelessness.

In behaving this way, Okwonko is proving his manhood in a society that does not respect women. He also calls his mates ‘women’. It reveals that he is a boastful man who does not value his friends. Okwonko is also obsessed with war and violence. This is revealed the way he picks quarrels with his friends and challenges them for a fight.

He also beats up his wives and children (Nwoye) whenever they have done wrong. On the other hand, Okwonko is a community defender. This is by sticking to the African customs and traditions. Finally, in killing himself, Okwonko reveals the despair that engulfed most communities when the colonialists succeeded in corrupting the minds of Africans.

Okwonko depicts many African characteristics in his behavior. First, his passionate defense of his community reveals Africans had their own ways of living. They had their methods of schooling and entertainments in the form of village duels where Okwonko became a hero by beating his rival. Second, the way he treats his wives without respect and decorum show Africans who looked down upon women. Their roles were only to cook and sire children.

Third, by treating his friends arrogantly, Okwonko displays a community that believed in manhood. A man had to stand up to be counted. Lastly, on taking his own life, he becomes the voice of hopeless Africans who detested the imperialists. Generally, Okwonko is a symbol of uncolonised Africa.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Okwonko does all these to make an African point. First, when he bullies his wives and sons in the homestead, he reveals to the white man that, in Africa, a man is the head of the family. Second, when he calls his mates ‘women’ and challenges them for war, Okwonko proves to his community heroism and strength is the epitome of a village warrior.

Okwonko is ready to defend his community at all costs. Third, his hatred for British colonizers and adoration for African values e.g. their own governance, education and entertainments, the village hero confirms to the white man the superiority of Africa. Finally, in committing suicide, Okwonko demonstrates to his community a terrible hopelessness of accepting the British values and customs.

In conclusion, Chinua Achebe aims at revealing Africa that had it forms of education, governance and entertainments before coming of the British. Through Okwonko, the writer reveals the village fights, the family traditions and the challenges of Africa. Heroism of Okwonko is the courage of Africa during the colonial period. In addition, his destruction is the hopelessness and despair Africa felt under British colonization.


Profession of Arms Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

The Profession of Arms



Introduction The US army has been performing magnificently on and off the field. At the same time, the army has developed up to date skills and technology that have enabled it to stand at an advantage over its enemies and other forces of danger.

Due to this fact, the US army has been regarded as one of the best armies in the world. Despite all this, the army that is operational at the present moment is somewhat different from the army that the country had before the year 2001 (Dempsey, 2011). For the last ten years, a lot of factors have changed in the army.

During this time, the army has lost some of its tradition and skills; factors that used to make the army to be effective and efficient in its operations (Dempsey, 2010). At the same time, the training that is offered to the soldiers is also different. There are some key elements that are not included during the recruitment process.

As a result, the army has always been in transition. It keeps on concentrating on developments that will enable it to cope with change. In the process, it has lost its original skills. Although the army has been performing well, several considerations need to be done to ensure that the army regains the skills that it has lost. This essay therefore discusses these issues into details and explains their importance in the army.

The Profession of Arms The US army serves to protect the nation against any form of danger. This includes natural disasters, attacks by foreign nations or terrorists and any other catastrophic events.

It works to protect the constitution of the United States of America together with its citizens within and outside the country (Dempsey, 2011). To achieve all this, the army has to act in a professional manner. However, the profession that the army displays is different from that of other careers.

The army unlike many other professions assumes limited liability. This means that they put their lives at risk to ensure that they achieve the goals and objectives of their mission. The army therefore is authorised to ethically apply land combat power while serving under the authority of civilians to secure the country from any danger.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The culture of the US army has developed for over two decades. It represents a historical development that has grown in times of peace and combat, ups and down. The culture of the US army has been based on discipline, value-based leadership and professional ethics (Dempsey, 2011).

However, for the last ten years, this culture has been changing drastically. The army is now putting a lot of emphasis on effectiveness and efficiency while neglecting its history and culture that has enabled it grow for the last two decades. Due to this fact therefore, the army is slowly deviating from its profession of arms.

To curb this predicament, several amendments need to be made. First, the army needs to stick to its values and ethics. It has to act in accordance to the rules and regulations that have been set by the armed forces. Secondly, the army needs to come up with a strategy that will utilize its traditional and current skills especially in training. This mix will make the army to be in accordance with the profession of arms and achieve its set goals and objectives.

Conclusion Despite the success that the US army is currently enjoying, it needs to incorporate some of its traditional knowledge and skills that have been slowly eroded for the last ten years. This will ensure that the army has a mix of traditional and up to date skills, a combination that will increase its effectiveness and efficiency. As a result, the army will continue to serve its purpose in a more professional manner.

References Dempsey, M. E. (2010). The Profession of Arms 2010. Web.

Dempsey, M. E. (2011). The Profession of Arms 2011: The Profession After Ten Years of Persistent Conflict. Web.


The Rise and Evolution of the World of Islam Descriptive Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents The Origin of Islam

Teachings and Worldview of Islam

History of the Caliphate

The spread of Islam

The Ottoman Empire

The Safavid Empire


The Origin of Islam The origin of Islam can be traced back to the 7th century in the Middle East. Islam, which means ‘surrender’ or ‘submission’ began with the teachings of Prophet Muhammad as a means of surrender to the will of Allah. Before Islam arose, people living in the Middle East worshipped idols. Arabs made pilgrimages to Mecca, at Mecca, they wrapped the Ka’bah with a cloth and had a holy month during which there were no wars. Pre-Muslim Arabs also fasted, gave alms to the poor, and prayed while facing Mecca.

Prophet Muhammad, who was was born and raised in Mecca, started spreading the teachings of Islam in Saudi Arabia and this marked the origin of Islam. He started giving sermons and won himself many followers, however, others were against him and he escaped to Medina. During his lifetime, Prophet Muhammad converted many Arabs to Islam.

Soon after Muhammad’s death, Islam split into two factions: the Shia and Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims wanted a person from Muhammad’s family line to succeed him while Sunni Muslims wanted the first Caliph to their leader as he was elected by the people.

Teachings and Worldview of Islam There are six basic teachings and beliefs under Muslim teachings as mentioned below:

There is only one God and His name is Allah;

Belief in the angels of God;

Belief in the Quran and the holy books;

Belief in Allah’s special messengers (prophets) such as Musa, Isa, and Muhammad (the last prophet);

Belief in the day of judgment when every person will be judged according to earthly acts;

Belief that God’s will binds us all, and He has already decided what will happen to all.

Muslim also teaches followers to handle aspects of this world according the Muslim worldview. Sufism teaches that Muslims should seek a personal conversation with God to find divine love and gain knowledge.

History of the Caliphate Traditionally, the Caliph is a title given to the person who succeeded Prophet Muhammad as the leader of Islam. The decision on who should succeed Muhammad split Muslims up to this day, but in the end, it was agreed that Abu Bakr, Prophet Muhammad’s ally and father-in-law be made the first caliph. He served from 632 until his death in 634. Among his major achievements were to expand Islam beyond Saudi Arabia.

Umar became the second caliph and was also Muhammad’s father-in-law. Abu Bakr had named him as his successor. He ruled from 634 to 644 and one of his major achievements was winning many jihad and hence expanding Islam rapidly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Umar was replaced by Uthman, who was from the powerful Umayyad family. This move did not go down well with Ali’s supporters. He ruled from 644 to 656, likewise his predecessors, he considerably expanded the Muslim. His assassination brought civil war among Muslims over who would succeed him.

After numerous civil wars between Ali and Mu’awiya’s supporters, Mu’awiya declared himself caliph in Jerusalem in 660, and his position was finally cemented when Ali was killed by the Kharijites. The war ended, and the Umayyad Dynasty was established. The caliphate became hereditary and was passed on within Mu’awiya’s family, the Umayyad Dynasty ruled from 661 to 750 AD. From 750 AD, resistance and revolt in Persia led to the Abbasid caliphate, and the first caliph was Abul Abbas.

The position of caliphate became less and less influential from 9th century AD. The best known Abbasid caliph was Harun al-Rashid. In the 16th century, the Abbasid dynasty came to an end, and the caliphate rule was abolished.

The spread of Islam Muslim spread rapidly when Muhammad died. A few decades after his death, the Muslim Empire had extended to Asia, Africa and Europe. Among the reasons that caused this rapid widespread was the simplicity of its doctrine: faith in one God.

The first phase of this expansion was undertaken between 610 to 750 AD by the early caliphs and the Ummayad Dynasty. During this time, Islam was established in the Arab Peninsula, and later reached all areas conquered by Arabs. Conversion to Islam was voluntary and the creation of madrasas and the development of the religious doctrine of Islam greatly aided its expansion.

At the end of the Umayyad rule, Muslim has spread to sections of Africa, Middle East areas outside Saudi Arabia, and in Europe. Islam also arrived in the Indian sub-continent as Arab traders passed through the region on their way to Southeast Asia (Ikram, 1964).

The second wave of expansion was imitated by the Abbasids (750-1258). Considerable conversions occurred in the areas south of the Sahara, Turkey and Central Asia. Mass conversion occurred because Islam was now clearly defined and the distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims was plain. And Islam was more superior in most cases.

We will write a custom Essay on The Rise and Evolution of the World of Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A final wave of conversion occurred during the Ottoman Empire (13 the century to 1918). This occurred through Sufi missionaries, trade and migrations. During this era, Islam spread to Southeast Asia through trade and spread further by Sufi missionaries. The spread was finally cemented by the expansion of the territories of converted rulers and their subjects.

The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire began as one of the states in present day Turkey and expanded by acquiring other staes.. The first wave of expansion of the empire occurred during the reigns of Osman I, Orkhan, Murad I, and Beyazid I as the empire absorbed sections of the Byzantine Empire (Kinross, 2002). Ottoman victories in various wars expanded their control over sections of the Balkan Peninsula.

Expansion of the empire continued under Muhammad’s heirs, Mura II and Muhammad II. The empire captured Constantinople in 1453. They won several battles partly due to the weakness and disunity among their enemies. They continued to expand their territory and by the 17th century, The Ottoman Empire included Persia and Crete.

The decline of the Ottoman Empire began in the 18th century during the Russo-Turkish Wars when the empire lost Egypt and Greece to Napoleon’s army. Russia also took control of Moldavia and Walachia. Although the rulers tried to restore order in the kingdom, they were too late and the empire was on its deathbed (Kinross, 2002).

In 1908, the Young Turk Movement, whose members wee mainly drawn from the army, overthrew the sultan and replaced him with Muhammad V. In the successive wars, Turkey lost nearly its controls in Europe to Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and newly sovereign Albania (Shaw, 1997).

The Young Turks took over power through a coup in 1913 (Kinross, 2002). When the WWI broke out, Arabia defeated the Turkish forces while the British occupied Baghdad and Jerusalem, by 1918, Turkish resistance was defeated in Asia and Europe, and the Ottoman Empire collapsed, an was dissolved a few months later.

The Safavid Empire The Safavid Dynasty was one of the most important dynasties in Iran. They ruled one of the largest Persian empires after Muslims had conquered it, and ruled from 1501 until 1722.

The rulers of the Safavid Dynasty opened Muslim schools and adopted Shi’a faction of Islam. At its height, the Safavid empire covered all of the modern Iran, Republic of Azerbaijan and Republic of Armenia, most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and regions of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rise and Evolution of the World of Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Together with the Ottoman and Mughal empires, the Safavid empire was one of the most powerful empires of its time. Despite its collapse in 1736, the empire led to the restoration of Persia as an economic giant, led to the establishment of an efficiently run state, and advanced architecture and other forms of art.

References Ikram, S. M. (1964). Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press

Kinross, L. (2002). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. NY: Morrow

Shaw, S. J. (1997). History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Drama – the Relevance of the Oldest Plays Reflective Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents The Valdez play and US national leaders

Concept of marriage in ‘A Doll’s house’

Proposal for ‘The glass menagerie’

Prior to commencement of this course, I thought drama was disconnected from present day experiences, but I was surprised to find that even some of the oldest plays are still relevant today.

I expected to learn about particular components of the social and cultural backgrounds of the plays by simply looking through their scripts. After completion of this course, I found that those expectations were met. It is indeed possible to deduce the social and cultural values of a certain society simply from the plays written at that time.

Lastly, I did not expect to become more analytical about my own society as a result of studying drama. However, after doing this course, I have realized that ideologies are prevalent in almost all spheres of life; politics, education and entertainment are just some of the many examples.

Through this course, I have learnt how to distinguish between useful and harmful ideas. Since some plays can be rich and meaningful while others can be shallow and unbalanced, it is always best to assess them first. The same analysis can be applied in the above mentioned spheres of life.

The Valdez play and US national leaders The aspect I found most convincing about the play was the commoditization of Hispanics and other minority groups in the US. Miss Jimenez came to purchase a brown Mexican who would be used in Governor Reagan’s campaign to appeal to a larger crowd. In other words, ethnic minorities were seen as a platform for advancing Caucasian Americans’ political or social goals.

They were treated as nothing more than a means-towards-an-end rather than genuine individuals. In this regard, one can say that the stereotypes prevalent within the country are reducing ethnic minorities to commodities. US national leaders would find this component quite useful as they would refrain from using ethnic minorities for political aims.

Instead, they would focus on each and everyone’s strong points. People would get appointed or promoted on the basis of their merits rather than their ethnic identity. Another aspect of the play that would be useful to US administrators that are dealing with immigration is the aspect of seasonal immigrants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the play, the first model represents the typical farm worker that comes in once in a year, works the fields and goes back home. This kind of worker requires special policy provisions that can allow him to make such seasonal trips in and out of the country. He renders a great service to the nation, but still wants to maintain links with his native home.

Concept of marriage in ‘A Doll’s house’ I was quite surprised that the idea of terminating a marriage was unheard of in those times. Women had very few rights in that society if they were expected to stay in marriages irrespective of how fulfilling or unfulfilling they were.

I think this play illustrates just how different societal values have become. In the 19th Century, women were not allowed to pursue freedom, independence and happiness (especially at the expense of marriage).

Nora is a woman who struggles to break free; her choice to leave her husband becomes a symbol of rebelliousness against her own society. This was the reason why the play caused a lot of unrest in western literature at the time. Fortunately, these challenges no longer exist in modern western societies. Women now have the ability to make choices in their marriages.

Proposal for ‘The glass menagerie’ The topic of the proposal will be “How the glass menagerie illustrates the breakup of family structures.” Through the main characters in the play, it will be explained that family structures in modern societies are quite fragile and can be easily broken. The work will focus on Tom and his struggles, Amanda’s maternal failures and Laura’s unfulfilled expectations.

In the article “Nightingale Benedict “This Menagerie is Much Too Cosy.” New York Times, 11 December 1983”, the author argues that at face value, Amanda seems like a well-meaning and concerned parent.

Many mothers have nudged their children to stop smoking and worried about them when life seemed too hard for them. However, Amanda crosses the line when she stretches these good intentions to the limit. She starts intruding into her children’s lives and uses words like to ‘we’ and ‘I’ to talk about their behavior.

We will write a custom Essay on Drama – the Relevance of the Oldest Plays specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, Amanda assumes that what was good for her is good for her daughter too. She manipulates and controls her children and thus ends up destroying the very same people she had hoped to fix. The proposal will look at more of these arguments concerning Amanda’s character so as to relate them to the breakdown of family structures.

In another book, “Bloom, Harold. The Glass Menagerie. NY: Infobase publishing. 2006. Print”, the author talks about the shattered faith of Amanda’s only daughter Laura. Upon learning about Jim’s engagement, Laura goes through an emotional storm. The event took away her innocence and destroyed the faith she had in love. All these unfulfilled expectations were brought on by her mother’s pressures and her brother’s lack of support. This line of argument will be explored further in the proposal.


Market Plan of Zeep Lawn Mower Term Paper college application essay help

Main objective This market plan focuses on a brief and straight forward plan of extending the already existing Zeep to a lawn mower in the market. This paper provides a straight forward plan of marketing that will be used in order to attain the zeep lawn mower brand extention marketing plan.

Brand extention is the process of making use of the benefits derived from an existing brand in the market to bring into the market a new product using the same brand (Taylor 14). After the successful launch and use of zeep in the market, the company wishes to extend it by introducing a lawn mower.

With this brand name, it is expected that the large customer bases of the zeep product will stand higher chances of benefiting from this product.

It is very important to market this new brand zeep lawn mower given that there is stiff competition in the lawn mower market owing to the fact that even Honda have introduced been able to make lawnmowers. The company therefore intends to use the brand name in order to take advantage of the existing customer base in the market.

This product will be available at all our retailing agents’ world wide in order to make it possible for the consumers to access it. Given that our current customers have always been satisfied with our products, we expect them to make use of the zeep lawnmower and even recommend it to others. The benefits from the customers will be a great benefit to both the new product and the existing brand and this can help the business plan for future marketing activities (Sengupta 268).

Our main objectives will be to increase our market gross sales and in the process increase our earned profits. As a result of this, we intend to increase our employee number by bringing on board more expertise to help in the manufacture and marketing of the new product. Another objective will be to grow our customer base by reaching to new consumers who will make use of the lawnmower product.

Goods or services

The creep lawnmower is an automotive machine that makes use of a rotating blade around a vertical or horizontal axis to cut a plot of grass at a length that is even. This machine is very important because several homesteads have lawns that need to trimmed and maintained well using a lawnmower

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competition

There are several other companies that manufacture lawn mowers in the market hence the competition is quite stiff. Our main competitor in this new product is Honda that currently commands a large share of the market. However, our brand name (Zeep lawnmower), comprises of a brand that is well known and widely used in the market. This in itself makes our zeep lawnmower product unique and better than the other lawnmowers in the market.

Projected outcomes

After a period of one year, this product is expected to pay back by realizing great profits. In the short term we expect to see a steady and reasonable increase in customer numbers, gross sells and profits levels. In the long run, the client base is expected to grow tremendously, gross sales doubling and earning great profits compared to the levels that are currently being realized.

Implementation plan

This section basically reflects how the plan of developing and introducing the new lawnmower in to the market is going to be carried out step by step. This will reflect how as an organization, we will turn the stated plan into expected results.

In achieving the above, there are a few challenges that are bound to come along the way. One, being a new line of business, we don’t have enough expected expertise to carry on the task.

We will therefore need to hire individuals who are already in the field of manufacturing lawnmowers to help us in this task. Hiring expertise is very expensive given that they have to be enumerated on terms that are above their current terms.

Being a new venture, the company will also be expected to acquire a set of new machinery that will be used that will be used to come up with the zeep lawnmower. This in itself makes it an expensive venture since it requires huge amounts of capital to setup.

In real sense, we need a new set of expertise hem implement and a support human resource group to help the new set up, setting up capital is needed to purchase the manufacturing equipments, financial recourses are also needed to purchase the parts that are needed for assembling in order to come up with the new machine, money is needed for salary and wage payment to the workers, distribution costs of the complete product have to be met among other implementation requirement that may come along the way.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Market Plan of Zeep Lawn Mower specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sequence of activities and events Creep lawnmower

Initial planning for the lawnmower project purchase of manufacturing machinery Installation of manufacturing equipment Human resources recruitment Purchase or parts to be assembled Commencement of manufacturing process Distribution of complete machine to sell agents J F M A M J J A S O N Evaluation, control and contingency plan Evaluation

As the implementation process continues, it is important to note the results and keenly take not of new happenings in the inside and outside surroundings. A close observation needs to be made in order to determine whether the stated programmes meet the desired objectives of customer growth, increase in gross sells and rise in profits. Any programmes that will not be in line with the above objectives will be changed. The performance will be compared with the budget requirements at every stage. (Schmitt 223) The variations noticed will give the information required to evaluate the impact of each program.

A keen study of the market will be analyzed so as to determine to what extend the creep lawnmower will change the market. If the market change will be insignificant, the plan will be reviewed to ensure that it is productive.


In this section we will be concerned with looking at how the given programmes support the tactics that are put in place. We will also ensure that the strategies being practiced are in line with this plan for a creep lawnmower development. Monitoring of how the project is fairing on will be done at given points in time and this will help in the modification of the necessary market plan. (Sherman 374)

Contingency plan

The main challenge to this plan is getting experienced expertise since they are scarce and absorbed in other firms. If this happens, the company will be farced to poach workers and give them rates that are above market rates in order to attract them. Better working conditions will also be provided in order to maintain the workforce. Competition may lead competitors lowering their market prices in order to bit the creep lawnmower, this will force us to revise our prices and improve our product further. In case such challenges among others occur, then we will be well prepared to handle them. (Dacko 491).

Works Cited Dacko, G. Scott. The advanced dictionary of marketing: Putting theory to use.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Schmitt, Berndt. Handbook on brand and experience management. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2008.

Sengupta, Subroto. Brand positioning: Strategies for competitive advantage. Delhi [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Market Plan of Zeep Lawn Mower by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sherman, J. Andrew. Franchising


Public Involvement and Community Development in Australia Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

The Aboriginal Issue

Direct Democracy and the Aboriginal

Deliberative Democracy Applied to the Aboriginal




Introduction Democracy is the system of government which is favored and held in high esteem by most countries in the 21st century. This system is characterized by fair and equal treatment for all members of the society and the right of every person to take part in decision making.

Despite these lofty standards which are synonymous with democracy, it does not always result in everyone’s voice being heard. Instead, democracy is concerned more with achieving the “common good” at the expense of promoting the private good of each citizen (Young, 1997). While this approach may work in a homogenous society, it is detrimental in societies which have minority groups.

This is because in direct democracy there are no political representatives who are used to make decision for their people. This paper will argue that deliberative democracy, which entails the involvement of the community in public affairs, is the most appropriate model and it results in community development.

The paper will reinforce this assertion by critically reflecting two arguments presented in the article “Communication and the other: beyond Deliberative Democracy” by Young and “Local Cross-cultural planning and decision-making with indigenous people in Broome, Western Australia” by Kliger and Cosgrove.

The Aboriginal Issue Kliger and Cosgrove (1999) highlight the situation of the Indigenous population of Australia. This people make up 2.4% of the Australian population, according to the 2006 Census, and face incredible social disadvantage with about two-thirds living in areas that are classified as “rural”.

Debates are ongoing concerning land issues which white settlers from Britain annexed and subsequently assumed dominance over while ignoring the Aboriginal laws.

The Aboriginal people were therefore sidelined in the decision making of their country but also lost their land due to the legal laws that were formulated by the government. Cultural difference especially towards the Aboriginal resulted in this people being termed as difficult people which resulted in discrimination (Kliger


Shared intentionality Reflective Essay college essay help near me

Introduction In this paper, Tomasello and Carpenter (2007) argue for the significance of processes of shared intentionality in children’s early cognitive development. To fully explore this idea, they discuss four vital aspects of social-cognitive skills and how they are altered by shared intentionality.

The authors look at two sides of each of these four aspects: a form of individualistic version of the skill and a version based on shared intentionality. As stated by the authors, shared intentionality is a very vital process in children’s cognitive development as it allows brings out the uniqueness out every child during the developmental stage, and is very important towards cognitive development.

Summary The authors attempt to answer the question on whether shared intentionality is important to the cognitive development of children. The question stems from the fact that human cognition is very different from that of animals, including our closest ‘relatives’, primates.

Although primates have some level of collaboration among them, the extent of the level of collaboration among them remains a controversial subject. Children, on the other hand, engage in collaborative ideas as they find it to be more rewarding as they develop shared goals and plans through shared intentionality.

The answer to the question lies in the authors’ analysis of the four core aspects of social-cognitive skills. They observe that apes are mostly concerned with individualistic objectives while engaging in group activities, in other words, they exploit others by collecting information from them, controlling them, coordinating actions with them for their own advantage, and frequently engage in competitive behavior.

However, children are more concerned with sharing psychological states during collaborative activities by providing them with useful information, forming shared intentions and attention with others, and achieving cognitive development from demonstrations for their own use.

Another answer to the significance of shared intentionality in children would focus on the fact that children are able to construct exceptionally powerful types of perspectival cognitive demonstration when they engage in shared activities. This might be shared intentionality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Work Cited Tomasello, Michael. and Carpenter, Malinda. (2007). Shared intentionality. Developmental Science, 10:1 (2007), pp 121–125


Customer Service Coordination Autobiography Essay college application essay help

Employability Skills Marketing Executive

The employer is looking for a Marketing Executive and the focus is on a marketing function. The remuneration package is in the range of £18,000 to 24,000 per annum plus excellent benefits. The job role is described as follows:

The Marketing Executive must prepare and deliver the marketing plan, on time and on budget on an annual basis using liaison with other departments where necessary.

The marketing plan includes all the traditional element of the marketing mix, including advertising, tradeshows and exhibitions, public relations, direct mail, search engine optimization, literature and promotional items. Some of the items will be external and require management of third parties (Turner, 2011, p.1).


There is no need to be a mathematical genius to take on this job. But the application of numeracy for this job is in professional level. Team work is very crucial for this job.

I need to establish a professional relationship with the people I am working with. At the same time I need to master self-management because part of the job requires the preparation and delivery of a marketing plan.

Business and customer awareness is necessary in order to create an appropriate marketing plan. It also requires a high level of computer literacy in order to use the computer not only to develop the plan but also to deal with search engine optimization needs. Problem solving skills are required because there is a need to interact with heads of various departments.

Thus, communication and literacy must be at a professional level. My main problem here is the lack of experience when it comes to the advertising aspect of the job.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Management Information Analyst – Banking Complaints

The job is on a contractual basis for six months. The salary is £18,000 to 23,000 thousand per annum. The job role is described as follows:

It requires the design, testing and implementation of operational processes and data systems. Also requires the provision of accurate, high quality reporting enabling the business to make timely and appropriate decisions, resulting in increased business effectiveness and reduced costs. Finally, the job requires effective interrogation and monitoring of management information related complaints, the identification of emerging trends and delivery of root cause analysis of complaints (FPSG Connect, 2011, p.1).


The application of numeracy is in the professional level. Team work is also an important concept to master because this job requires interaction with other people working on the same problem. Self-management is needed in order to pace oneself when it comes to providing time and accurate reports.

It also important to have business and customer awareness in order to develop an effective root causes analysis of problems. Communication and literacy skills are dependent on the software used by the company.

This also affects the other factors such as problem solving skills and application of IT. The only hurdle in this job is to become familiar with the software and that can be accomplished with a few weeks of training after hiring.

Customer Service Coordinator

The customer service coordinator is the first person seen by the customers entering the office. The salary for this job is £13,500 to 18,000. The job role is described as follows:

The Customer Service Coordinators is the first face-to-face point of contact for customers entering an A4e Office. Working on the new Work Programme contract, the coordinator will offer a warm and professional welcome, and direct customers to the most appropriate location or to an A4e staff.

We will write a custom Essay on Customer Service Coordination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The coordinator will effectively control customer flows within the office, maintaining a personal and courteous atmosphere (A43 Limited, 2011, p.1).


The application of numeracy is in the practical level – meaning there is no need to perform calculations using a calculator or computer. Team work is needed but it only requires minimal effort because the work load is not that difficult. Self-management on the other hand is the key factor because the coordinator must be self-aware all the time in relation to the environment and the needs of the customers.

Business and customer awareness is also an important factor as this is the area that the employer would measure when it comes to being effective as coordinator. Application of IT, problem solving and communication and literacy only requires the minimum application. This means that the job does not require technical and specialised skills in these areas. I have the skills set to accomplish all of the above.

Lending Assistant – Banking

This job requires the applicant to work closely with the Business Manager of the said bank. The salary is £18,500 per annum. The job role is described as follows:

Assist Business Manager to prepare credit proposals for new and existing borrowing customers. Prepare credit reviews on customer’s standing, business performance and relationship with the bank. Carry out the pre-call and follow-up marketing works. Follow up on account opening for new and existing customers. And to prepare instructions and follow-up letters to surveyors (Wilde Associates, 2011, p.1).


The application of numeracy is at a professional level. This is related to the application of IT because the job requires mastery of the use of software applications such as spreadsheets etc. Team work is not a primary concern because the job basically centres on the need to assist the Business Manager.

However, business and customer awareness is an important part of the job requirement because it is impossible to prepare credit reviews without this skills set. Problem solving, communication and literacy is a skill that is developed after a few weeks of spending time with the Business Manager as I try to master a system unique to the organisation.

Self-management is important in order to meet deadlines and submit accurate reports. There is a need to learn the intricacies of a new system; this would require a few weeks of on the job training but I have the skills set to accomplish all of the above.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Customer Service Coordination by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Business Banking Relationship Officer

The job requires a close working relationship with the Senior Business Banking Manager. The basic salary is £25,000 plus bonus. The job role is described as follows:

The applicant must assist the Senior Business Banking Manager in the running of a portfolio of local business customers, helping to build strong relationships and assisting in the acquisition of new customers.

The applicant must possess a good understanding of company financials such as balance sheets, profit and loss accounts and cash flow statements. The job requires the applicant to develop excellent communication skills with the ability to focus customer needs (The Oakland Partnership Limited, 2011, p.1).


The application of numeracy is in the professional level. This requires understanding of mathematical formulas that would result in generating data used in balance sheets and profit and loss accounts.

At the same time the IT application factor is related to the use of software such as spreadsheets and whatever system the bank is using to integrate all pertinent information into one report. Team work is an important concept to master but there is no need to learn how to manage a group because the position requires an assistant role to the Senior Business Banking Manager.

Business and customer awareness is needed to address customer needs. The same is true when it comes to problem solving and communication and literacy. These are needed to provide excellent service. I have the skills set to accomplish all of the above.

Communication Skills Customer Service Coordinator

The customer service coordinator is the first person seen by the customers entering the office. The salary for this job is £13,500 to 18,000. The job role is described as follows:

The Customer Service Coordinators is the first face-to-face point of contact for customers entering an A4e Office. Working on the new Work Programme contract, the coordinator will offer a warm and professional welcome, and direct customers to the most appropriate location or to an A4e staff.

The coordinator will effectively control customer flows within the office, maintaining a personal and courteous atmosphere (A4e Limited, 2011, p.1).

Dear Mr. Turner:

With reference to your advertisement on looking for a Customer Service Coordinator, I submit my candidacy today with the attached curriculum vitae.

I have been working as a customer service representative for a reputable bank in London for three years now. Ideally, this position will enable me to use my experience in the banking industry and use it to serve customers at A4e Limited. I also started my professional life working as an executive assistant.

The skills that I acquired from these two jobs would give me enough confidence and knowledge to tackle the problems as a Customer Service Coordinator. But at the same time I look forward to learning the unique way that your company deals with customers.

I realise that there are limitations to written communication of this type. Therefore, I look forward to participate in a personal interview. I would then be able to answer your questions. It would also be the best time for me to better present my qualifications.

Thank you very much for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking with you Mr. Turner.

Career Objective

A highly-trained customer service representative with several years experience working in a London bank. Seeking a position, that will leverage working experience in the field of customer care.


2005-2008 Bachelor’s degree in Accounts and Business Administration from the Manchester Business College

2002-2004 Diploma in Business Administration from the Manchester Business College

Work Experience

2003-2004 Executive Assistant


Record and transcribe the minutes of executive meetings;

Travel arrangements for CEO;

Prepare expense reports; and

Responsible for providing back-up data.

2008-2010 Customer Service Representative


Receiving and processing new client accounts;

Implement requested changes to existing accounts; and

Performing other clerical duties as requested.

Management Information Analyst – Banking Complaints

The job is on a contractual basis for six months. The salary is £18,000 to 23,000 thousand per annum. The job role is described as follows:

It requires the design, testing and implementation of operational processes and data systems. Also requires the provision of accurate, high quality reporting enabling the business to make timely and appropriate decisions, resulting in increased business effectiveness and reduced costs. Finally, the job requires effective interrogation and monitoring of management information related complaints, the identification of emerging trends and delivery of root cause analysis of complaints (FPSG Connect, 2011, p.1).

Dear Mr. Chesterton:

With reference to your advertisement on looking for a Management Information Analyst, I submit my candidacy today with the attached curriculum vitae.

I have been working as a customer service representative for a reputable bank in London for three years now. Ideally, this position will enable me to use my experience in the banking industry and use it to serve customers at your bank. My three-year work experience in the bank exposed me to the different aspects of the banking industry, especially when it comes to dealing with customer complaints.

The skills that I acquired from my past employment would give me enough confidence and knowledge to tackle the problems as a Management Information Analyst with specific application on banking complaints. But at the same time I look forward to learning a new system especially if your bank uses particular software that integrates all pertinent information regarding customer information and feedback.

I realise that there are limitations to written communication of this type. Therefore, I look forward to participate in a personal interview. I would then be able to answer your questions. It would also be the best time for me to better present my qualifications.

Thank you very much for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking with you Mr. Chesterton.

Career Objective

A highly-trained customer service representative with several years experience working in a London bank. Seeking a position, that will leverage working experience in the field of customer care.


2005-2008 Bachelor’s degree in Accounts and Business Administration from the Manchester Business College

2002-2004 Diploma in Business Administration from the Manchester Business College

Work Experience

2003-2004 Executive Assistant


Record and transcribe the minutes of executive meetings;

Travel arrangements for CEO;

Prepare expense reports; and

Responsible for providing back-up data.

2008-2010 Customer Service Representative


Receiving and processing new client accounts;

Implement requested changes to existing accounts; and

Performing other clerical duties as requested.

Lending Assistant – Banking

This job requires the applicant to work closely with the Business Manager of the said bank. The salary is £18,500 per annum. The job role is described as follows:

Assist Business Manager to prepare credit proposals for new and existing borrowing customers. Prepare credit reviews on customer’s standing, business performance and relationship with the bank. Carry out the pre-call and follow-up marketing works. Follow up on account opening for new and existing customers. And to prepare instructions and follow-up letters to surveyors (Wilde Associates, 2011, p.1).

Dear Mr. Blair:

With reference to your advertisement on looking for a Lending Assistant, I submit my candidacy today with the attached curriculum vitae.

I have been working as a customer service representative for a reputable bank in London for three years now. Ideally, this position will enable me to use my experience in the banking industry and use it to serve customers at your bank. My three-year work experience in the bank exposed me to the different aspects of the banking industry.

I am very interested to serve as an assistant to the Business Manager. My first experience as a professional was working as an executive assistant to a CEO. This means that I can handle the requirements of the job especially when it comes to creating reports and writing letters to prospective clients.

The skills that I acquired from my past employment would give me enough confidence and knowledge to tackle the problems as a Lending Assistant. But at the same time I look forward to learning a new system especially if your bank uses particular software that integrates all pertinent information regarding customer information and feedback.

I realise that there are limitations to written communication of this type. Therefore, I look forward to participate in a personal interview. I would then be able to answer your questions. It would also be the best time for me to better present my qualifications.

Thank you very much for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking with you Mr. Blair.

Career Objective

A highly-trained customer service representative with several years experience working in a London bank. Seeking a position, that will leverage working experience in the field of customer care.


2005-2008 Bachelor’s degree in Accounts and Business Administration from the Manchester Business College

2002-2004 Diploma in Business Administration from the Manchester Business College

Work Experience

2003-2004 Executive Assistant


Record and transcribe the minutes of executive meetings;

Travel arrangements for CEO;

Prepare expense reports; and

Responsible for providing back-up data.

2008-2010 Customer Service Representative


Receiving and processing new client accounts;

Implement requested changes to existing accounts; and

Performing other clerical duties as requested.

Reflective Assessment In any struggle, the battle is half won by those who come prepared (Dikel


Political Reformation in the Arab World Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

In his article, Diamond illustrates the political mayhem currently taking place in many nations of the Arab World. The current chaotic nature of these countries is because of political reformists that have sensitized the large mass of citizens about the significance of moving from dictatorial-type of ruling to democratic-type of governance.

This document, therefore, critically analyzes these incidences and examines the causes and impacts of these occurrences in Arab world reformation, as illustrated in Diamond’s article.

In the last few decades, most countries around the world have experienced major political revolts, all in a bid to oust tyrannical rulers, who have sunk their countries into havens of corruption, nepotism and other ills associated with bad governance. The revolts chiefly originated in Eastern Europe, where angry activists toiled hard, to uproot these autocratic rulers, and their regime of corruption and non-democracy.

In the 1970s, for instance, countries such as Greece, Spain and Portugal had undergone this reformation and had transformed into democratically governed states. This phase was dubbed as the first wave of political transformation, with a shift from dictatorial rule to democracy.

The second phases took place in Korea and Taiwan, with the Philippines following suit. The third occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, where Muslim states took their frustrations to the streets to force out these leaders. Established political analysts around the world, now view the political mayhem happening in Arab world as a possible start of the fourth phase.

Diamond also exemplifies how different leaders have been overthrown, paving way for democracy, examples being the Tunisian leader, and his Egyptian counterpart. Diamond, on one side, believes that the mass oppositions will bring liberation and end despotism in the concerned Arab countries (King 35).

This is evident in countries such as Egypt, which is now headed for fresh elections that will bring in a new dawn of democracy (Ottaway and Amr 25). On the other hand, the article seems to differ with the protestors’ main call, arguing that they are now gradually petering out as they tyrant forces overpower them through intimidations, seizure and persecutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As it is evident in Bahrain and Yemen, the law enforcers have retaliated by perpetrating violence to demonstrators, killing and injuring scores along the way. As a result, many have relented, negatively affecting their struggle for reformation.

Based on this unending struggle for independence in most of the Arabian countries, it is safe to say that other unaffected countries such as Morocco and Jordan will use this as an example, thereby starting political upheavals in their nations as well. This will hence lead to the ultimate end of the long-lived tyrannical rule and institute a fair and democratic ruling regime.

Conversely, if the protestors admit defeat in their struggle for liberation, the current tyrants will be more vigilant and strengthen their authority to fight any further opposition. This will in turn make it more difficult protestors to struggle for political overhaul.

Currently, rulers of the nations unaffected by these civil disorders have taken new measures, in a bid to curb protests, but not necessarily to bring reform. The said leaders put up boards that studies reforms in governance, but they do not proceed to implement these reforms. Besides, the people are watchful and may as well revolt, on failure of reform implementation.

It is also apparent that the older ruling styles of power inheritance are gradually losing ground, and are bound to fail if intervention through reform does not occur. Moreover, even if these governments defeat the reformists, their relief is only for a while, since more and more revolts will emerge.

Such are the cases that have taken place in Libya and Syria. In addition, international players such as the US are also responsible in sensitizing the natives of these countries about the benefits democracy. On the other hand, the US and some European countries exacerbate the condition by supplying demonstrators with ammunitions.

Numerous nations in the Arab region have experienced countless protests as reform advocates clash with the authorities, in an effort to bring democracy in these autocratic systems of ruling. In their struggle, they have undergone through strong opposition from the authorities, leading to many casualties, many of whom are innocent demonstrators.

We will write a custom Essay on Political Reformation in the Arab World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some have succeeded by ousting and prosecuting their leaders. Moreover, this trend seems to continue until the end of the tyrannical regime.

Works Cited King, Stephen. The New Authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa. Indiana, IN: Indiana University Press, 2009. Print.

Ottaway, Marina, and Amr, Hamzawy. Getting to pluralism: political actors in the Arab world. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2009. Print.


Supply chain management process Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Supply Chain management is an integral part of every organization that deals with manufacturing with an aim of supplying finished products to a specific group of customers. Supply chain management ensures that organizations are able to accurately and efficiently acquire raw materials, manage work In progress and also deliver finished goods to where they are needed in good quality (Bardi


Quality Management systems Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Quality management system used by Toyota Motor Corporation

Quality management system in Australian airline


Introduction According to Larry English, the principles and strategies for information quality management have been in existence for decades. Any quality management process begins and ends with the consumers.

It starts with understanding consumers’ needs for the product, initiating quality parameters to attain them and culminates with assessing whether consumers’ requirements are attained (English, 2004). I will discuss how quality management systems are used to improve the quality of a product/service and satisfy customer needs.

I will evaluate how the Toyota Motor Corporation has employed quality management systems to improve the quality of their Corolla products. I will also talk about how the Australian Airline use its modern mobile messaging system to provide quality services to passengers at affordable prices.

Quality management system used by Toyota Motor Corporation The Toyota Motor Corporation is the biggest car producer in Japan. It has been the largest automobile producer in the world since 2004 (Leney, 2004). Since 1999, Toyota has made aggressive marketing campaigns to encroach into the European Market (Bodevin 2010). The company hired European designers to develop cars that matched the needs customers from Europe (Vries 2001). Toyota also aimed to expand its production capacity in Europe.

For example, it launched two new manufacturing plants in 2004: the Polish plant for manufacturing manual transmissions for Avensis, Corolla and Yaris; and the Valenciennes plant in France for producing Yaris. In 2002, the company set up Toyota Motor Manufacturing Turkey, to produce Corolla sedans for export purposes (Prebil 2010).

Toyota Corolla has many competitive advantages when compared to other automobile competitors. For example, the 1998 Corolla model offered superior power with admirable economy, a comfy interior and reliability. The current model is evolutionary, fixing shortfalls without reducing Corolla’s strengths.

For instance, it is now easier to handle Corolla S than the previous Corolla LE model because it offers a well-cushioned ride. The poor air condition system has been enhanced especially in the 2004 models compared to the 2003 generations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The interior space has been enlarged to accommodate five passengers comfortably. In addition, the current model has a superior acceleration with an automatic transmission. The gas mileage is also very efficient (about 38 for highway and 29 when driving in the city). Even the small irritations seen in previous Corolla have been rectified.

For instance, the fragile-feeling door handles have been swapped with pull and it opens handles to enable people with gloves or bigger hands open the door easily. Moreover, the exterior of the Corolla S model has been upgraded with a European-bulbous appearance. The back has smart tail-lights with assimilated amber turn indicators for safety (Zatz, 2008)

The S model has a superior rpm range when compared to other competitors. The model has an efficiently-designed pedal-to-fuel curve that makes Corolla stronger even in city traffic.

In addition, the engine is not extremely noisy under hard acceleration. Generally, the S model is easier to handle than other cars. Majority of drivers will discover that Corolla S will swiftly attend to their needs. The S model feels lively and fast even if the tires appear to complain under stress (Zatz, 2008).

Quality management system in Australian airline Quality management system is a combination of work ethics and practices for enhancing passenger safety and upgrading boarding services in aviation industry (Smith, 2002). For example, Australian airline has upgraded its mobile messaging system to provide quality services at affordable prices (Mulholland, 2005).

The airline has launched an SMS-based boarding pass and also installed novel self-service check-in reception desks at airports to provide customers with an efficient and swift check-in services. Under this new system, all passengers receive their flight pass via email or text messages.

For those passengers who do not have check-in luggage, they immediately board the plane using the pass sent to them through email or SMS. Passengers are also allowed to select their preferred seats at the check-in reception desk. The entire process takes about 13 seconds for each passenger, compared to the previous process which took over 60 seconds (Milojkovic, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Quality Management systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The major aspect of this messaging system is the novel scanning technology that scrutinizes the text message conveyed to a passenger’s cell phone via the boarding code SMS platform. The new mobile messaging system is able to analyze a message transmitted to any type of cell phone, including smartphones.

This represents a major technological advancement that has enabled Australian airline to issue boarding passes for all passengers. As a result, the airline recorded over 9% increase in the volume of passengers who used this service (Smith, 2002).

It is worth to note that both Toyota Motor Corporation and Australian airline have integrated quality management systems in their operations to improve the quality of their products and services respectively. These efforts mirror David Garvin’s eight dimensions of quality which he observes that consumers have diverse opinions on quality compared to that of a producer.

Garvin defines quality in relation to costs and prices. He states that a quality product (service) is one that offers performance, reliability and serviceability at an affordable price (Das 2007).

As noted above, safety management systems play crucial role in any airline operations. Experience has revealed that quality management systems enhance productivity of any organization. Given the current economic status and stiff competition in the global market, it is paramount that top-level management and employees play active roles in implementing quality management systems to provide superior products/services to meet customer needs.

Reference Bodevin, L. 2010, ‘While Detroit Slept: Toyota Invaded the American Car Market’. Web.

Das, S. 2007, ‘Quest for Quality: Thoughts, Ideas, Concepts, Views on Quality and Process Improvement in the Information technology’. Web.

English, L. 2004, putting Quality Process in Place to Exploit Technology. DataFlux Corporation, Cary, NC.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Quality Management systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Leney, A. 2004, ‘Vehicle Recycling on South Tawara’. Web.

Milojkovic, D. 2011, ‘Australian airline introduces SMS boarding passes’. Web.

Mulholland, K. 2005, ‘Aerospace Standard’. Web.

Prebil, S. 2010, ‘The international expansion of a company into a foreign market’. Web.

Smith, M. 2002, ‘Safety Management Systems: What’s in it for you’. Web.

Vries, W. 2001, ‘Performance, quality, Management’. Web.

Zatz, D. 2008, ‘Introduction: 2004 Toyota Corolla Reviews’. Web.


Psychological Impacts of Sexual Abuse on Ryan Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

An older boy had allegedly abused Ryan sexually on several occasions. Such instances are dramatic and bring about a physical and psychological distress that may affect Ryan`s life in the short run and in the long run. With regards to the case at hand, Ryan is likely to suffer psychologically as a result of trauma and depression.

These will have overall effect of reducing his self-esteem (Elam and Kleist, 1999). In normal circumstances, Ryan is expected to suffer from trauma because of the experience that he had. This may affect his ability to live as a normal teenager and adult later on in life.

The effects and intensity of the negative experience that he had during the encounters when he was molested are likely to instil fear, anger and rage in him. He may develop a phobia to other childern, a move that will affect his social life as a teenager and as an adult. As a result, there is a high likelihood that Ryan will not be satisfied with his adult life.

At the same time, Ryan may suffer from depression and low self-esteem. The events that happened to him will affect him psychologically. This may lead to the development of helplessness attitude in Ryan (Jack, Dutton and Webb, 1995). He may also feel neglected by his family, friends and the entire society.

In addition, as a child, accepting and living with the condition might prove to be difficult. Dealing with emotional and psychological distress may lead to the emergence of low self-esteem in Ryan. This may can occur immediately, when he is a teenager or as an adult. As a result, Ryan might have a rough childhood as a result of the event which is likely to haunt him for the rest of his life.

Hindrance to Recovery Victims of sexual abuse are expected to recover from the emotional and psychological sufferings that they go through. However, there are some instances where recovery may prove to be futile. In Ryan`s case for example, emotional distress and trauma may lead to the development of powerlessness in him (Wilcox, Richards and O`Keefe, 2004).

Once this happens, Ryan will find it difficult to accept and live with the fact that he was sexually abused. Due to this fact, his self-resilience process will be distorted. It will therefore be difficult for him to contain the situation, accept it and keep it in the past.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To try to redeem himself from the predicament, Ryan may try to dominate other children by sexually abusing them in a relatively similar manner as he was abused. Individuals do this to relieve themselves from the negative experiences that they have faced in life. However, if this happens, it will not make the situation any better but instead, it will be a hindrance to the recovery process.

Resilience Factor that may help Ryan Cope with the Situation Not all is lost after an individual is sexually abused. Ryan can cope with the situation and fully recover from it if he gets proper support from his family after the disclosure of the situation (Chaffin and Bonner, 1998).

Family support is essential as it assists an individual to cope with the situation through moderating the overall effects of the abuse. At the same time, family support will aid in reducing the adjustment problems to the situation.

In addition, the victim will receive love, acceptance and companionship from his family members. This will enhance his chances of recovering from the situation. Through family support, Ryan will therefore find it easier to accept and cope with the situation.

References Chaffin, M. and Bonner, B.L. (1998). Don’t shoot: we’re your children. Child Maltreatment, 3, p. 314–416.

Elam, G. and Kleist, D. (1999). Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse. Family Journal, 7, p. 154-160.

Jack, L. A., Dutton, D. G., and Webb, A. N. (1995). Affects of early abuse on adult affective reactions to exposure to dyadic conflict. Canadian Journal of Behaviourial Science, 17, p. 484-500.

We will write a custom Essay on Psychological Impacts of Sexual Abuse on Ryan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wilcox, D., Richards, F., and O`Keefe, Z. (2004). Resilience and Risk Factors

Associated with Experiencing Childhood Sexual Abuse. Child Abuse Review, 13, p. 338-352.


The Affordable Health Care for America Act of 2009 Expository Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A Brief Explanation of the Law

Thesis Section

Opposing Views


Works Cited

Introduction Law has been an integral component of all societies whether civilized or primitive, big or small, rich or poor, strong or weak, since the very humble beginnings of human civilization. Societies have always had notions of what is permissible or impermissible and what is right or wrong. At a deeper level, law is a manifestation of people’s ideals.

It is a reflection of a society’s appreciation of its imperfections and the need to achieve order and sustain harmonious interaction between individuals and groups. It is an expression of a society’s desire to guide, direct, and control its destiny in terms of socio-economic and political development and safeguard justice, which underpins societal order.

This paper is a discussion of the Affordable Health Care for America Act approved by the House of Representatives on 7 Nov 2009. This legislative instrument has attracted important and at the same time, interesting debates from different individuals and groups of the differing sections of the multifaceted American society.

Therefore, this discussion is an addition of pertinent opinions and perspectives regarding the need for the form of healthcare guiding principle provided by this law, which the reader will obviously find worth considering. In short, this paper is an affirmative argument in favor of this critical healthcare legislation.

A Brief Explanation of the Law Virtually, every sound member of a given society yearns to have good health for a prolonged period, and where possible, prolonged lifespan. In deed, a healthy population is a requisite for sustainable social, economic, and political development. Consequently, the government, especially in a welfare economy, shoulders the responsibility of providing quality health care services to all citizens irrespective of their race, ethnic background, age, gender, religion, or political affiliation.

It also has a duty of ensuring that necessary preventive measures are put in place in order to safeguard the health of its subjects. In fact, within the well-established welfare economies like the United States and the Scandinavian nations in Europe, health care service is more of a basic human right to which all individuals and groups are entitled rather than a commodity that is available for sale in the market.

This democratic principle of governance forms the background that has informed the need for this form of law in the American marketplace (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320). However, it is pertinent to note that, many factors are traceable in the Unites States’ histories, which have influenced its formulation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The intent of this law is to make available, an inexpensive health care coverage for all Americans and to put a hold on growth in national health care spending and other practical reasons.

This law intends to expand health care coverage to around forty million Americans, who are currently uninsured, by reducing the cost of health care insurance and making the overall American health care system more efficient (OpenCongress Para 1; House Committee on Energy and Commerce 318).

The law comprises a new government-run health insurance plan, popularly referred to as a public option, meant to compete with private insurance companies in health care coverage (OpenCongress Para 1).

It provides that all Americans should have health insurance and outlaws denying coverage because of a pre-existing health condition of an individual (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 318). It also includes surtax on individuals with an income exceeding $500,000.

Broadly speaking, this law seeks to introduce strong insurance market reforms in to U.S healthcare system. Its proponents believe that the system has dire broken aspects that disadvantage millions of the helpless Americans.

According to House Committee on Energy and Commerce, to improve the situation, the law has sought to introduce a new national health insurance exchange in order to ensure that “…individuals and small groups can purchase health benefits, with a choice among private insurers and a new public option competing on a level field” (319).

Another important intention of the law is the enhancement of a shared duty among government, individuals, and employers in matters of health care coverage. Therefore, under this law, employers, apart from small employers, are expected to provide legally recognizable health benefits or contribute toward the costs of health care. In addition, individuals are expected to have health insurance.

We will write a custom Essay on The Affordable Health Care for America Act of 2009 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The law is meant to facilitate new insurance changes and supervision by the state and federal governments with a view to create an economy that promotes competition and choice. At the same time, the law seeks to ensure that health coverage is made available for Americans who are less privileged and who need help (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 319; Jacobs and Skocpol 215).

Policymaking and implementation, in a democratic culture, is hardly a preserve of the government exclusively. Various relevant stakeholders of a given socio-economic sector have a right to take part in the formulation and implementation process of a policy, especially policies regarded as critical. Therefore, various active institutional participants took part in the creation and implementation of the Affordable Health Care Act 2009.

Thesis Section This paper is an assenting argument in favor of the Affordable Health Care Act of 2009. As pointed out earlier, the provision of quality and affordable health care services is a core responsibility of the American government. However, it is important to note that private health care sector plays a critical role in the provision of health care services.

There are many reasons that support my agreement with this important law. First, from a constitutional and moral point of view, all Americans have, and should enjoy, an inalienable right to quality and affordable health care services. As such, the government has the responsibility of intervening on any health care matter that comes as an obstacle to citizenry access to quality health care services.

Health care coverage is certainly a big issue of national concern with respect to any government that has due respect for its citizenry’s well being, because it touches on individuals and groups’ ability to access quality health care services when need be. For instance, the available statistics from the U.S Census Bureau approximated that, over 45.7 million Americans were uninsured as of 2007 (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320).

This was equivalent to about one-seventh of the American population. Yet, even though the American government spends hugely on health care, it scores averagely, on quality-of-health care indicators. Therefore, the Obama administration’s success in instituting this legislation was timely and highly welcome.

Second, there are sufficient economic reasons that necessitate the need for this legislation. Rising healthcare costs are a critical public policy concern and a major impetus of the requisite to reform the U.S healthcare system.

For example, in the year 2008, the U.S spent roughly $ 2.4 trillion, or 17 % of GDP, on national health (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320). Here, it is pertinent to note that the government is always under pressure to ensure fair spending on all socio-economic and political sub-systems that are under its management.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Affordable Health Care for America Act of 2009 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it is economically practical to reform the healthcare system in order to curb unnecessary and preventable budget strains on government, families, and businesses among other socio-economic sub-systems, which are critical to sustainable development.

Moreover, there is an apparent reduction in healthcare coverage and substandard quality in the U.S healthcare system. This legislation is viable because it promises to provide shared responsibility among employers, individuals, state, and federal governments on matters of healthcare service provision and acquisition.

While we recognize the benefits of the government’s non-interference in an economy, it is equally significant to appreciate the fact that market forces alone are not sufficient in cushioning the economically less privileged from the rising costs of health care. As a result, the government should intervene and to facilitate competition and choice where possible.

This law will ensure that the uninsured and financially less privileged Americans have an affordable public option to turn to for healthcare coverage. The competition and choice introduced by this legislation will cushion millions of Americans from the current health insurance coverage and premiums, which have been growing swiftly (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320).

Furthermore, these laws will relieve employers from exorbitant healthcare coverage for employees and their families. In the past and currently, employers have been encountering an ever-increasing challenge of paying expensive health benefits as costs of health insurance rise, while at the same time trying to cut on labor costs in order to succeed in an increasingly competitive market (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320).

Thirdly, from a moral viewpoint, the Affordable Care Act will assist in reducing the rampant inequalities in access to health care among the Americans. Currently, racial and ethnic minorities, low-income Americans, and underserved populations tend to have higher rates of sickness, reduced access to healthcare, and fewer treatment alternatives ( Para 1). In addition, these groups are also more likely to lack health insurance in comparison to other groups of the population.

The Affordable Care Act will reduce disparities in health care access, by addressing significant health care access and initiating improvements in the health care personnel and public health. It also provides for critical expansion in community health centers to promote access to the required health care services (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 319; Para 1).

It also intends to improve health care personnel investments by increasing financing of training for basic care doctors, public health professionals, and nurses with unique attention to the labor force diversity and the requirements of the health care shortage departments (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320; Para 1-6).

It also seeks to reduce disparities by investing in local public, state, and territorial health infrastructure. Finally, it promises to make improvements in research and embrace policy improvements, in both community and clinical preventive services, and removal of cost sharing on particular preventive services (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 320).

Finally, yet importantly, there is an evident close link between access to affordable and quality health care services and health insurance. Unfortunately, there has been a sharp decline in health coverage, which is even projected, by the relevant stakeholders such as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies, to continue if the U.S’ healthcare system will remain unreformed.

The IOM points out that, health coverage is fundamental to personal health and wellbeing because, for the uninsured people, there is a gap between health care needs and acquisition of health care services regardless of availability of some safety net services (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 322).

Moreover, the IOM asserts that high numbers of people without health insurance may undermine health care for people with health insurance (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 322). Concisely, high levels of uninsured, and underinsured, individuals in the U.S present critical challenges to public policy makers.

These challenges necessitate the reforms of the health care system and health insurance industry, which play a significant role in facilitating individuals and groups’ to access health care services (House Committee on Energy and Commerce 322; American Association of College of Pharmacy Para 2).

Therefore, the Affordable Care Act is a giant step towards the United States’ efforts to make its healthcare system more efficient.

Opposing Views As mentioned earlier, policy creation and implementation is not an exclusive function of the government. Rather, a process that attracts inputs, views, opinions, and ideas of various individuals and groups with stakes. In other words, the making and implementation process of a given policy faces support and opposition almost in equal measure.

Unfortunately, various relevant societal groups and stakeholders in the sector view implications of a particular policy as either beneficial or unfair. Therefore, these social and political formations seek to lobby legislators to pass, amend, or even reject a given proposed bill depending on their perceptions of a bill, as well as, their interests in relation to changes provided by a given legislative policy.

Perhaps, the Affordable Health Care for America bill encountered the toughest opposition than any other legislative policy proposed by the Obama administration (Vivar 7). The toughest opposition to the Affordable Care Bill came from the Republicans. For Republicans, the Democrats’ idea of the government assuming a leading role in health care insurance market was incompatible with their ideas. Therefore, the Republicans strongly opposed the idea of a public option.

Unfortunately, even though this law remains a highly contested issue, the major focus of the arguments is based on partisan issues, instead of an in-depth review of the actual policy. For instance, according to Georgetown Public Policy Review, contrary to claims by government organs such as the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), this law is neither cost effective nor able to facilitate reduction in the amount of money spent on national health care system (Para 1).

This opposing camp asserts that, even though the Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the deficit by about $ 230 billion during the first decade of its implementation, the overall health care reform will cost the government $ 938 billion over ten years (Kahn, Karl, and Wolf cited in Georgetown Public Policy Review Para 2).

These opponents argue that, in order for this law to help the government save money, instead of inflicting costs up on the taxpayers, the controversial Medicare cuts must occur and that the estimated costs aught to have been projected correctly; something which, in reality, remains relatively unknown (Georgetown Public Policy Review Para 2).

The opposing camp also denounces the prospects of the Affordable Care Act helping employers to save money on health care costs as promised by this law. The dissenting camp holds that as opposed to helping employers reduce save money on health costs, health care costs are projected to increase apart from for three percent of all employers. In turn, because of the current American economic instability, more people will lose their jobs.

Therefore, given the factor of time, this camp maintains that the United States’ unstable economy should focus on job creation now, as opposed to running the risk of rendering more people jobless. The antagonists further opine that, the need for waivers by employers from the government as a temporary fix meant to help them maneuver around these new health care regulations, is an indication that its legal requirements are not practical (Georgetown Public Policy Review Para 4).

Consequently, if companies fail to ask for waivers from the government, they must comply with regulations of the new health care policy, which opponents regard as unrealistic; or be forced to hire more temporary or contracting workers instead of full time employees.

Irrespective of the apparent opposition to the Affordable Health care Act, the most important fact is that all groups acknowledge the need to reform the U.S health care system.

They only differ on the important question of how then the system should be reformed to make it efficient. While we cannot pretend that the Affordable Health care law creation, and its implementation process, will not cost our government substantial amounts of money, the ultimate benefits promised by this law are worth its costs of implementation.

It is economically arguable that the more broken the U.S health care system is now, the more it shall cost the government to reform. Therefore, participants should guard against the dangers of being over obsessed with the cost of effecting necessary reforms into our health care system at the expense of the long-term benefits that are bound to accrue from this law.

After all, we cannot dissemble that our current healthcare system is perfect, or that another alternative law will be perfect. In other words, even though this law has its own flaws, it is a perfect starting point for establishing sustainable and implementable health care reform.

Conclusion It is evident, now and in the past, that the American healthcare system requires sustainable reforms through a legislative policy that is realistic and implementable.

This paper supports the Affordable Health Care for America law of 2009 irrespective of the unavoidable flaws, which are usually common in any given policy. Its benefits outweigh its implementation costs and leave a room for any changes that can make it better. In deed, it is now a fact that, this bill will always be the starting point of any proposed health care changes.

Above everything else, fear of competition should not be given a room in our quest to establish a health care system that is responsive to our diverse socio-economic privileges and needs. Therefore, a public option is worth considering given the inability of our economic system to cater for the needs of all people uniformly and fairly.

Works Cited American Association of College of Pharmacy (AACP). Affordable Care Act Implementation, 2011. Web.

Georgetown Public Policy Review. The (Un) Affordable Care Act. 2011. Web. Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act, 2011. Web. Understanding the Affordable Care Act: Introduction, 2011. Web.

House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Report of the Committee on Energy and Commerce on H.R. 3200. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 2010. Print.

Jacobs, Lawrence, and Skocpol, Theda. Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know: What Everyone Needs to Know Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

OpenCongress. H.R.3962 – Affordable Health Care for America Act, 2011. Web.

Vivar, Luis. Obama’s Health Care Reform 2010: From Change to Concession?: Health Care Reform as an Example for Structural Resistance of the American Political System to Needed Change. New York: Grin Verlag, 2011. Print.


Congressman Grijalva and Howard Zinn Compare and Contrast Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Having read Zinn’s People’s History of United States and having watched Congressman Grijalva’s interview in I Have Something to Say with Gabriel Buelna, it is possible to say that Zinn and Grijalva have similar ideas as well as absolutely different points of view on particular situations.

The time periods in the book and in the interviews do not coincide, however, it does not prevent me from drawing the conclusions about personal considerations of each of the persons mentioned above.

The belief in American predominance and the necessity to control other nation’s lives was seen in the past (the desire to rent as many land as possible to controlling farmers) and can be easily deduced in the current situation (war in Iraq, the intention to enter Afghanistan, etc.). Nevertheless, having similar points of view in many topics for discussion, Zinn and Grijalva may also disagree in some particular issues.

Zinn and Grijalva are sure that American nation is predominant over other nations and its impact should be used for helping others. These ideas may be considered from Grijalva’s discussion of the war in Iraq, which he supports, and Zinn’s opinion about fight of rich and poor people who pursued different goals.

Talking about Iraq, Grijalva thinks that the war should continue. American army should remain in the region until people are secured there. The necessity to continue this war in Iraq is explained by the fact that having taken the responsibility for the people, the USA should bear this responsibility and continue this war until the security of the nation is achieved.

Talking about the domination of rich people, Zinn also point at the security. “Lost jobs”, “the sudden economic crises leading to high prices”, “the lack of food and water”, ”the epidemics of disease,” and “the deaths of children” were the main reasons for “sporadic reactions from the poor” (221).

Still, the intention of rich people to stabilize the situation did not work. The situations described by Zinn and Grijalva are similar and both these people support power as the means of establishing order and security in the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One more point where Zinn and Grijalva agreed is the necessity of the extension of the education. Zinn dwells in the 11th chapter of his book about industrialization and the increase of the machinery use. Moreover, more and more educated people were required, so the importance of education is one of the ideas Zinn considers (263).

The same opinion is expressed by Grijalva who highlights the necessity of the extension of the programs for early education. Education is considered as a guarantee of future success, the ability to work and feed the family. At the same time, Grijalva believes that government should be involved in the problems of its citizens connected with education.

The problems connected with unemployment and low level of life can be solved by means of increasing the population literacy. The industrialization cannot be implemented without educated personnel and those who managed to apply their knowledge in the developing world were successful, while those who had neither money nor knowledge had to suffer.

Grijalva and Grijalva have different points of view about treating other nations, different from American. Dwelling about population in the USA and human opportunities, Grijalva states that there are a lot of states where people from different regions were gathered and created a region with the history.

However, growing up in that region, attending schools and leading normal life may appear in the situation that they are limited in such opportunities as getting higher education or entering a military service. Grijalva is sure that it is impossible to choose one particular situation and deal with it separately.

What would happen with other people who appear at the same conditions? Grijalva is sure that to solve the problem of disbalance in the society the measures aimed at combating that unjust, while Zinn is sure that the disballance should be and it is important to create the legal acts which help control the possibility of rebellions (217).

Therefore, it may be concluded that Zinn and Grijalva have different opinions about injustice in the society. At the same time, it should be stated that both of them recognize the presence of those problems.

We will write a custom Essay on Congressman Grijalva and Howard Zinn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it can be concluded that the problems discussed in the book by Zinn and in the interview of Grijalva with Gabriel Buelna are similar. It should be mentioned that discussing different periods of time, they highlighted similar problems and in some cases agreed with each other, expressing similar opinions.

Still, Zinn and Grijalva have different points of view related to social injustice. Zinn and Grijalva provide strong arguments in supporting their points of view, however, the Grijalva’s opinion about social injustice is closer to me and I suppose that the intentions to reach the balance and equality in the society should be the main priority of the government.

Works Cited Zinn, Howard. People’s History of United States. Pennsylvania, 2005. Print.


‘Designing and implementation of HR scorecard’ Analytical Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction This paper will give a critical analysis of the article ‘Designing and implementation of HR scorecard’, as written by Garrett Walker and J. Randall Macdonald, and published in the Human Resource Management Journal (Vol. 40 Issue No. 4, p365-377) during the winter of 2001. This article shows the importance of the HR scorecard in measuring performance in a business situation as an important step towards improving the business in terms of cost and value.

Discussion The authors of the article have the proper credentials that make them eligible for writing this article on how to improve a business towards a market-focused approach. The authors have used the HR scorecard from Kaplan and Norton (1996) to argue out their ideas. Unfortunately, this is their only source of supporting material and is not enough because it is limited to this HR scorecard.

The authors have not used comparison studies, which are very important in supporting the use of the HR scorecard. The bias in using the scorecard is justified by the rational that it recognizes valuations of a business’ intellectual and intangible assets.

This article helps the reader to realize that human resource is not solely concerned with training and rewarding clients, rather it also entails the monitoring of employees’ performance to foresee business success and positive financial results.

Conclusion The HR scorecard in an ideal tool that is used to assess the value of HR services in relation to business results. The article is successful in convincing the reader on the use of the HR balanced scorecard.

The article is very important to human resource management as it gives insight into the effective use of the HR scorecard in assessing HR performance. The assessment results are important in determining people’s requirements and business drivers, all of which are part of human resource management.