Overview People with disabilities have always been regarded as being special and rightfully so. Despite this classification however, most of them in many societies still face obstacles that inhibit them from exercising their abilities effectively hindering their full participation in societal activities (Mooney et al. 2008, p. 67).
The United Nations Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities/ or Persons’ with disabilities considers disability as a human rights issue (Dobson 2001, p. 100). Traditionally, disabled people have been marginalised in social and economic development programs by governments of different jurisdictions (Middleton 1999,P 12).
While progress has been made on many fronts in many regions of the world, the depth of the problems affecting disabled persons still paints a bleak situation for the vast majority of these people (Gordon et al 2000, p. 28).
Even in cases where concrete steps have been taken to reduce the marginalization of persons with disabilities while increasing their integration, there is still more that needs to be done (Beresford 2002, p. 147).
In such situations, there have been efforts promoting changes in the social fabric that includes liberation and empowerment of people with disabilities effectively enhancing their equalisation opportunities (Read et al 2010, p. 130). Such a community is the Jeddah community in Saudi Arabia whose initiatives towards promoting equal opportunity access by persons with disabilities has been exemplary.
Given Jeddah’s position and location in Saudi Arabia, it’s important to note therefore that some information that will be referred to here will be from Saudi Arabia policy documents on persons with disability (Marchant
Willingness to Judge: A deconstructive approach to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Salvation and damnation argument
Deconstruction of the Puritans
Examples of Hawthorne’s Claims
The Puritan’s Dilemma
Introduction The Scarlet Letter, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, has plenty of lessons for both psychotherapists and psychoanalysts. It can be argued that no other novel dwells so much on the in-depth examination of the conflicts, dynamics and defenses attributes of shame (Adamson 53).
Although a number of critics on The Scarlet Letter have attributed Reverend Dimmesdale’s pain to guilt while Hester Prynne’s to shame, others suggest that both characters are distressed with shame. However, Dimmesdale’s pain is more severe than Hester’s because it is deeper and lethal (Kilborne 32). This paper will therefore attempt to analyze The Scarlet Letter through the glasses of deconstruction.
This paper will focus on how Hawthorn uses a deconstruction method to analyze the Puritan reading. Special attention will be placed on the turnaround of the Puritans’ order of reading and writing with its related transcription of reading as the non-origin authenticity of writing.
This paper will also talk about Dimmesdale and Hester and their conflicting views about the Puritan reading. Emphasis will also be laid on the significance of the scarlet letter imprinted on the bosom of Dimmesdale.
Salvation and damnation argument According to Stewart, Hawthorne is considered to be a “Puritan of Puritans (16). But how can one attach a deconstructive of Puritanism to Hawthorne? Dimmesdale shouts, “Stand any here that question God’s judgment on a sinner? Behold! Behold a dreadful witness of it!” (Scheer 2). What ensues after this is unclear. “It was revealed!” Asserts the narrator, “but it were irrelevant to describe that revelation” (Scheer 2).
It can be argued that the revelation is about the scarlet letter imprinted on the bare bosom of Dimmesdale. It can be assumed that the presence of this imprint of sin on Dimmesdale’s rear end is not precisely masked in mystery. On the other hand, it is also not clearly asserted.
What the reader that ascertains from this context is the breaking of the spell that sets free Pearl’s tears and kisses and the concluding trade of words between the former treacherous partners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hester expresses the optimism that they use up their “immortal life together,” however, Dimmesdale scolds her when he says, “the law we broke!” (The sin here so terribly unveiled) let these unaided be in thy thoughts!” Later on, Dimmesdale shows gratitude to God for his “afflictions,” without which he believes he “would have been lost forever” (Scheer 2).
Dimmesdale submits his soul by extolling the God’s name and asking for “His will to be done” (Scheer 2).
A major part of the salvation and damnation argument in the critical canon is initiated by these last moments of Dimmesdale’s mortal life. The squabble on both sides-and the rationale of each side is in fact incontrovertible- center on either side of a symmetrical inquiry: if Dimmesdale assumes that he is damned, he is saved; if he assumes that he is saved, he is damned.
The argument put forward by Edward Davidson (among the formidable in the damned theory) appeals to the Romantic and Puritan theories of the Fall: Dimmesdale’s solipsistic partition of the spirit from the body (90). This argument posits that Dimmesdale incorrectly points sin to the body rather than to the spirit and therefore assumes that he is saved (Davidson 90).
Some of the proofs that Dimmesdale puts forward to sustain his assumption is Mistress Hibbins’s acknowledgment of Dimmesdale’s as being part of the Black Man. Davidson asserts that Mistress Hibbins, prior to the public confession made by Dimmesdale, is aware of the minister’s situation with unrivaled clarity (86). Accordingly, there is a debatable gap in the logic of this edition of the damned theory.
The gist of the matter is when Dimmesdale agrees to Hester’s plan to run away. Dimmesdale knows that he is damned because even his ensuing public declaration of guilt is not enough to turn things around. With respect to the logic of salvation, Dimmesdale’s public admission is absolutely unnecessary (Scheer 3).
Deconstruction of the Puritans In what ways does Hawthorn presents his deconstruction of the Puritan community? The exact form this deconstruction occurs is the turnaround of the order of reading/writing with its associated transcription of reading as the non-origin authentic of writing. The quality of Puritan reality is based on a reading of selected Scriptures and texts (that are unreasonably factual text).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Willingness to Judge: A deconstructive approach to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is of necessity to acknowledge that the Puritan community asserts the texts themselves fairly than their reading of the pertinent transcripts as the basis upon which the quality of their realism rests.
The manner in which Puritans’ reading are conveyed by Hawthorne in The Scarlet Letter institutes theocracy that mirrors Nietzsche’s maxim which postulates that facts do not exist in the real world, only interpretations do (Nietzsche 267).
This implies that the arrangements made by Hawthorne with regards to the production and sustaining of the Puritan’s are based on the adage that social truths are creations grounded upon a circular reading. The truth is founded by a reading of the root of the reality in question where in every case the ensuing fact is an occulted form of the reading.
What implores the query is the reading (understanding) which acquiesces the reading. However, the fundamental (the productive) explanation is actually a type of writing-while-reading. Heidegger asserts that an interpretation is in no way an assumption-less understanding of a concept conveyed to us (191).
This implies that if we appeal to what stands there, then we discover that what stands there in the initial case is nothing apart from the apparent un-discussed conjecture… of the individual who performs the interpretation (Heidegger 192). It will be inappropriate to designate this interpretation as a type of reading. This implies that what is read constitutes what is written in the manner of reading.
It is this previous writing that is occulted- reading in the normal manner, which is, the second phrase of the order of writing/reading. Moreover, it is based on this occulting that Hawthorne’s deconstruction regarding the basis of the Puritans reveals. In other words, the truth is blameworthy and utter truth cannot be fortuitous (Kilborne 471).
This is exactly what the Puritans’ ruthless and inflexible reading of the Scriptures and associated texts (which are usually interpretations) fail to accept. Paradoxically, the Scripture both verifies and discards all human power that compares itself with the godly.
The Bible (the Writing) is a Reading that usually re-writes the readings. This aspect of the Scripture (readings/writings) begs the question: Were there defects in the original truths? In other words, one could argue that what is reflected in Hawthorne’s argument about the Puritans mirrors that concealed defect of the truth where all answers are simply fragmented questions (Scheer 12).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Willingness to Judge: A deconstructive approach to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Examples of Hawthorne’s Claims There are numerous examples in the texts to substantiate Hawthorne’s claims. A few examples should be enough. For instance, Hawthorne narrates about the earliest practical for prison and cemetery envisaged by the Puritan constructors for their “Utopia of human virtue and happiness” (47). This stems from the Puritan community’s reading of the outcomes of the Fall (to appeal to common sense here would simply invoke the question given that prisons and cemeteries did not exist in the pre-lapsarian ecstasy of paradise).
The society of “religion and law” (Hawthorne 50) erected by the Puritan community in the wilderness and the periphery of the New World is therefore overwhelmed from the onset by a post-edenic autocracy which fails to acknowledge (ironically in the same manner of recognizing) that the first sin has indefinitely prevented humankind from achieving human happiness and virtues on earth.
Therefore, prisons and cemeteries constitute a segment of the text marked on the wilderness. According to a reading of the Scriptures (which is also a reading), both prisons and cemeteries are imprinted on earth to serve as punishment to humans from the beginning (Scheer 13).
It is important to note that sustained reading also is“writing” in itself. However, what is read does not automatically imply what was written in the first case. As a matter of fact, it is by virtue of this unexplained inconsistency between writing and reading that Hawthorne exploits in his deconstruction of the Puritan community. Again, this reading/writing signs abound in Hawthorne’s book.
Consequently, the “grim rigidity verdict” (punishment) imposed by the Puritans upon Hester Prynne turns into a “living sermon against sin” (Hawthorne 63). The present of the scarlet letter on the bosom of Hester is thus not only a type of “writing” in the accurate sense but also in the figurative manner of the phrase.
“This writing derives is based on the violent and forcible alteration of the camouflage into a disclosure grounded on a broad though aggregating Puritan reading which, according to the “grim beadle”, gets its collective sanction from the violent and forceful writing of a communal structure” (Hawthorne 56).
The creative manner in which Hester “writes” her letter “A” is ambiguous to the bleak texture of Puritans’ realism where the alteration of the camouflage into disclosure as reflected in this case by letter “A” automatically becomes manifest. In addition, the symbol of sin is a ploy, the archetype of all workings of art being the mastermind of the Fall (Scheer 14).
The inconsistency between the writing and reading becomes manifest to the reader who understands that not only is Hester symbolized by the Scarlet letter but also obscured by it. Hester is not only concealed by the letter from “human charities” (Hawthorne 81), it also gives her liberty to speculate.
If the Puritans knew about this, they would have considered it a deadlier offense than the disgrace caused by the Scarlet letter. This uneven link between the signifier and the signified prolongs further to Puritan members’ majority of whom declined to construe the scarlet ‘A’ by its initial meaning (Hawthorne 164).
Thus, the concealment of what is made obvious is the self-deconstructive aspect that Hawthorne presents in his texts. What is reflected in Hawthorne’s text is a type of imprinting that his text must both impulsively reveal and repeat. Accordingly, his writing reflects the reading of the Puritan writing/reading of a reality produced by the imprinting of the Scriptures and associated texts regarding the reality in question.
For instance, as Hester evaluates her past experiences that have contributed to the stalemate of the scaffold, where she is compelled to disclose her own scarlet letter and its existing counterpart (Pearl, considered by Puritans as a symbol of adultery, a living disclosure of prior hidden sin) crafted by both Hester and her hidden counterpart.
Hester is thinking about a “new life” that is yet “feeding on time-worn materials…on a crumbling wall” (Hawthorne 58). According to this sentence, Hester is not only thinking about the dissimilarity between the New and Old World bust also the remains of the concept of the lost paradise (the collapsing of the barricades of Eden, once a place of happiness).
Thus, Hawthorne’s text has plenty of scriptural examples of inter-textuality that imprint themselves on a texture that is eventually vital with respect to text-making by Puritans (Scheer 15).
The compulsive nature of Hawthorne’s text (exposure/recurrence) makes the Scarlet Letter a fascinating book for deconstruction. The link between art and sin in Hawthorne’s book has attracted abundant treatment in the critical law. On the other hand, Hawthorne’s text faces both approval and rejection with regard to this connection.
For example, Leslie Fiedler makes a comment about the letter “A”. He asserts that this letter “may have represented to Hawthorne not only Adultery but Art,” by “involving precisely that adornment of guilt by craft which he attributes to Hester’s prototype” (Fiedler 237).
On the other hand, Claudia Johnson considers the “productive irritant” that drives Hawthorne into art as the “sinful” dismissal of art which Hawthorne had come across in numerous instances (8). Ironically, this same accusation can be traced in Hawthorne’s text.
It is wrong to assume that Hawthorne is disrespectful of art. On the contrary, he senses that he has justifications to be wary of the artistic undertaking preciously because of the unforeseeable twist it make assume.
The Puritan’s Dilemma The deconstructive venture evident in Hawthorne’s romance is itself a sign of defiance per excellence. Although it is not aptly expressed in many words, its more telling statement is that the Puritan creation of reality (based on imprinting and writing/reading) is a ploy which is almost permanently subdued.
The Fall remains the source of this subdued art although in the case (Fall) of Puritan power, the exact sin under consideration here is the arrogant manner in which humankind usurp divinity and pretend to dispense God-like judgment (Scheer 16).
The Puritan dedication to the disclosure of hidden sin repetitively lends credence to creative arrangements (dignitaries on the balconies, pillories, scaffolds, etc) without which the intended disclosure of hidden sin would be impossible.
To be certain, Hawthorne makes it obvious that the Puritans were cautious of the any kind of pretentious ploy or ceremony, essentially considering it as wicked, they were nonetheless “native Englishmen…of the Elizabethan epoch” (Hawthorne 230). For example, Kenneth Murdock countless illustrations of the impasse Puritan divines encountered as they attempted to convey their religious tenets (34).
He asserts that although Catholics and Anglicans both used organ music, incense, and other instruments in their religious activities, to Puritans, this was a testimony of their sinful ignorance of Scripture (Murdock 34). As a result, the Puritans rejected the use of metaphors, especially those that appealed to the sense, in religious worship. Here, the link between metaphor and sin is fairly clear according to Puritan’s imagination.
The Puritan divine were even compelled to acknowledge, rather unwillingly, that the Holy Scriptures contain metaphors that appeal to senses. The explanation for this is not difficult to unravel. Given that we are imperfect, we are unable to appreciate any language that fails to appeal to the senses. Although such appeal is essential and useful, it is nonetheless unacceptable (Scheer 17).
Hawthorne’s romance mirrors this Puritan predicament in a true historical fashion. It not only dwells on their religious tenets but also focuses on their political rituals. For instance, during the Election Day, Hawthorne asserts that had they maintained their traditional taste, the New England colonizers might have demonstrated all ceremonies of public merit by banquets, bonfires, and processions and pageantries (230).
Although, during Election Day, there was some semblance of this sort, what the Puritans forbade is specifically the humor, the mischievous and the potentially insubordination (which would be synonymous to metaphors that are deemed indecent because they appeal to senses).
Therefore, Hawthorn informs us there were no minstrel, no offensive shows, and no juggler, with his deceptions of imitating witchcraft. All this activities were banned by the stiff laws of Puritans (Hawthorne 231).
The repression of artifice of potentially impish appeals to the senses, of historically pretentious political and religious traditions, ceremonies or rites becomes- according to the narrator- the symbol of an unconscious suppression of the creativity which is nonetheless the basis of the Puritan society and their writing/reading of reality.
It is also the foundation of the Puritan’s idea of a bleak and firm version of the human/divine dichotomy. However, in spite of the Puritan’s distaste for artifice, they remain unwilling dramatists and rhetoricians. On the same note, there is no gap of uncertainty in the framework they imprint on the facade of their reality.
Accordingly, it can be argued that The Scarlet Letter is not a disclaimer of the religious whims but a deconstruction of its gloomy absolutist aggregation. It is the absence of a redemptive fault in their theology that remains-according to the narrator-the incorrigible fault of the Puritans (Scheer 19).
The issue of the scarlet letter stamped on the bosom of Dimmesdale lends credence to the paradigm signified by the gap between the consciousness of the minister to the Puritan’s principles and his cataleptic romanticism. It is the former that compels him to make a public confession.
On the other hand, it is the latter that permits him (the minister) to consent to Hester’s evaluation of their illegitimate affair, “what we did had a consecration of its own” (Hawthorne 195). Without doubt, it is not possible to attribute Puritanism vs. romanticism to the narrator.
The alienated outlook of Hester with respect to human institutions (regarding whatever is established by the legislators or priests and making summary criticism without any reverence) may have liberated her. On the other hand, it taught some important lessons (Hawthorne 199). Dimmesdale is tortured by the disparity between what his real personality and what he appears to be.
Hester, also experiences the same disparity. However, she uses it to rebuff the system. Hawthorne tells us; “wild, heathen Nature has never been subjugated by human law, or…illuminated by higher truth” (203). This implies that Hester’s suppression by the Puritan tenets is peripheral (Scheer 20).
As readers, we cannot tell if Dimmesdale has agreed to escape with Hester, her illicit lover. Dimmesdale “fancied himself inspired” (Hawthorne 225). It can be deduced from this statement that Dimmesdale disapproves the apparent link between art and sin, which is the unavoidable outcome of the Fall, the biblically corroborated origin of both art and sin.
It is this denial of the fault of truth and sin of the art that is liable for hollowing the scarlet letter on the bosom of Dimmesdale. Hawthorne’s deconstructive argument should be emphasized here: it does not carry much weight whether it is present or not for nothing that is simply imprinted is actually there at all, in spite of the fact that it is.
Works Cited Adamson, Joseph. Guardian of the inmost me. SUNY Press: Albany, 2009. Print
Davidson, Edward H. Dimmesdale’s Fall. The Scarlet Letter. Ed. John C. Gerber. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1963. Print
Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. Del – Delta: New York, 1966. Print
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Ed. William Charvat et al. Ohio UP: Columbus, 1850. Print
Heidegger, Martin. Sein und Zeit, Being and Time. Ed. John Macquarie and Edward Robinson. Harper
Organization Culture Report essay help: essay help
Executive summary Firms are faced with progressively more dynamic environments, which are distinguished by significant and impulsive variations in economics, politics and social aspects. The ability of an organization to respond rapidly to these changes depends on the organizational culture.
These cultures therefore exert stabilizing force on organizations by encouraging cohesion, organizational commitment and desirable working conditions among the employees.
Organizational culture is well known to have a particular definition of being collective shared customs and values not forgetting the expectations that are shared between individuals and groups in an organization where it governs their interactions amongst each other and also how they interact with the stakeholders of the organization.
Therefore, it is a collection of mental hypothesis that steer the interpretations and events in an organization through giving a clear definition of the right behavior for different situations (Ravasi and Svchultz, 2006 68).
This definition brings into light organizational values which in turn can be defined as ideologies concerning the goals members of an organization should aim at and eventually achieve having used the appropriate standards of behavior. In simpler terms, organizational culture is what is expected for an employee to do so that he/she can fit in and enhance efficiency of the organization.
Abstract The purpose of the research below is to evaluate the changes that are interconnected with organization culture and how these changes can be incorporated into the organization for effective success and accomplishment organizational goals. The paper focuses on organizational cultures that influence change in organization and how the changes should be implemented.
The research done mainly relied on literature works that clearly defined organizational culture in relation to the need of change in an organization. Several challenges that prompted the need for change have been discussed. Most of these challenges have been identified from different literatures. The discussions have been augmented with possible solutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction Organizational culture is a collection of mental hypothesis that steer the interpretations and events in an organization through giving a clear definition of the right behavior for different situations (Ravasi and Svchultz 2006, 91). Organizational culture can be described in terms of norms and practices.
Norms represent beliefs on how members of an organization ought to behave while practices are the routines used by an organization to carry out its operations (William and Jeffrey 2010, 112).
Thus, organizational culture can also be defined as a set of perceptive which are shared by a group of people that are fundamentally understood among the members and are undoubtedly appropriate and characteristic to the specific group and they eventually are passed onto new members.
Strong vs. weak culture Due to the fact that all organizations have cultures there are some that have stronger cultures than others. An organizational culture can be either weak or strong and both of these have their merits and demerits. A strong organizational structure co- exists where members of an organization respond effectively to the organizational values and this is vital to organizations since it enables proper execution of duties.
A weak organizational culture on the other hand occurs when there is little or no alignment of organizational values between members of an organization and intensive procedures in addition to bureaucracy ought to be put into action for normal operations of the organization to prevail (Cunha and Cooper 2002, 52). For a strong culture, a lot of emphasis was put on
The extent of constancy of values and ideas in members of the organization.
The articulacy of consistent beliefs, hypotheses and performance.
Various components of organizational culture had the assumption that a strong organizational culture had numerous benefits to almost all organizations since it motivated the members and created solidarity among them that brought about commitment to the organization thus leading to the facilitation of internal amalgamation and dexterity.
On the other hand, it was realized that a strong culture is more essential to several categories of organizations than others for instance; volunteer organizations must be emphatic on culture than organizations that deal in business.
We will write a custom Report on Organization Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strong culture may be undesirable at times since it has numerous probable dysfunctions and a good example of this is where an individual could put unconstraint stress on him/herself because of a strong culture and the internal controls that are related with it and by this, it acts as a barrier to adaptation and change. Not leaving out the fact that a strong culture can be a way of manipulation and co-optation (Dean and Gerald 2004, 61).
A strong culture could lead to the disarticulation of aims and objectives indicating that the behavioral values and methods of carrying out activities in an organization could turn out to be so vital that they start overlooking the main purpose of the organization (Alan, 2000).
However, a weak culture opens up the opportunities for each member of the organization to explain concerns exclusive to them while on the other hand a weak culture can lead to the encouragement of individual thinking and contributions and this could really help an organization that requires innovation to grow (McKeown 2008, 98).
A cohesive organizational culture The term ‘cohesion’ in social policy means the link and bond between members of a society hence in organizational structures; cohesion is the term used when referring to the emotional aspects of organizations.
In a cohesive organizational culture, all members of an organization work together and there is efficient coordination of the organization’s operations. In this organizational structure, members of the organization are usually on the same page.
Benefits of a cohesive organizational culture A cohesive organizational structure has numerous benefits to the organization and organizational science researchers used metaphors to intricate the importance of organizational culture. Organizational culture has the ability to be measured and this assists managers and their relevant organizations to carry out an assessment and examination of organizational culture hence upgrading the performance of the organization.
Also, a strong organizational culture is highly related and prone to other concepts of interest such as innovation and knowledge management; a factor that boosts the efficiency of the organization. One of the benefits of a cohesive organizational culture in an organization is the increment in financial growth.
This culture has a strengthened internal communication system, a high employee input and it encourages risk taking in the organization that eventually leads to innovation. A cohesive organizational culture benefits an organization by improving its performance and gradual growth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Work group cohesion in an organization leads to proper coordination of operations and the employee output generates tremendous financial results for the organization (Ahmed 2008, 106). Also, a cohesive organizational culture is good for the organization because it gives the members the capability to generate innovative ideas and strategies. This factor is quite profitable and beneficial to the respective organization.
There are several changes that should be implemented by management of BSG Ltd in order to tackle the issues of larceny, low level of job contentment, poor group work, lack of unity amongst employees and low levels of trust between the management and employees.
It has been proven that organizational culture affects the efficiency and performance of an organization despite the fact that it is implicit on organizational activities (Cullen 2002, 45; Mathew 2007, 10). A change in the management should consider putting into practice is that of offering support orientation to the employees. Support orientation is the assistance given to an employee either through counseling or by being trained.
Support orientation is an aspect of organizational structure whereby the problems that employees experience are commonly categorized as personal and work related. For instance, an employee problem that is work related concerns official relationship issues while an upcoming retirement is a personal.
Offering financial help to employees during their hardships is a form of support orientation. Before implementing any changes the management must conduct extensive research to note the problems that are present in the organization in order to make sure that the changes implemented will be used to effectively sort the problems at hand. These challenges include:
Lack of cohesion among the employees
As an organization, the management has to put that into consideration today because of the rapid environmental changes since human resource is a critical part for a competitive advantage.
Without a good human resource management, the organization faces a likelihood of failures as compared with when the human resource is has a better human resource management as it provides the opportunity to work with highly competent employees. How employees relate with each other and the management defines the effectiveness of achieving set goals.
Cohesion is uniting people together in a bid to achieve a common goal (Glisson 2007, 104). Cohesion is considered among the most important influences on organizational performance therefore lack of cohesion among the employees may be due to a number of factors these factors may include:
Absence of clear and common goal
If employees are not aware of the organizational goals then there is a high probability that employees will lack a sense of cohesion among them. Any organization trying to be successful has to have a clear vision that will guide employees to strive and achieve even in the future. Inability to communicate (lack of effective communication) these goals may result to conflicts and lack of cohesiveness among employees.
Communication and trust
People build trust through communication. Lacking an open communication process is a contributing factor to lack of cohesion among staff. It is therefore the duty for organizations’ management team to ensure that there is open communication between the management and the staff. In many cases, conflicts arise due to lack of effective communication among individuals especially when people do not trust each other.
A cohesive organizational culture is an organization whereby all members of staff labor together and there is competent harmonization of the organization’s operations. An organizational with a sense of culture is an organization that provides its members of staff with the ability to see things in the same way hence they are usually on the same page (Glisson, 2007).
Without organizational culture there are no clear understandings of what behaviors are important, what attitudes are appropriate, or what kind of consequences shall be vested to those not abiding the place culture for the company to strive for success
Achieving cohesiveness among employees relies significantly on the capacity of the management to treat employees fairly and employees treating each other fairly. “Fairness is easily realized when people exercise mutual respect arising from a fair power balance that may be as an outcome of marketplace-driven difficulties in finding good human resources or philosophy driven legal restraints on employee’s rights” (Cowin 2002, 45).
One of the changes that should be implemented is changing the hostile culture to progress organizational performance hence increasing its degree of competition.
Low levels of job satisfaction
According to Cowin (2000, 85), job satisfaction is an emotional state resulting from an individual’s attitude about their job. This is the extent to which one feels positively or negatively about intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of one’s job. Low level of job satisfaction can result from shortages, poor management or lack of organizational support.
When the organization faces a shortage in manpower, it results to heavy workload to the few members of staff which later may lead to development of job stress leading to low job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is defined within extrinsic and intrinsic values.
Extrinsic values comprises of the tangible aspects of a job. These include wages, bonuses and benefits. Intrinsic values on the other hand comprises of intangible aspects of a job like, status, recognition, personal and professional development opportunities and other comparable factors (Cowin 2002, 86).
Reasons for employee’s dissatisfaction may be due to lack of involvement in decision making process, poor relationship ties with the management low salaries and poor benefits, lack of job security poor recognition and lack of flexibility in scheduling. It is important to note that job satisfaction has been found to be better predictor of intent to leave as compared to availability of other employment opportunities.
Organization’s commitment has arguably been correlated to output, work attendance, revenues, retirement, involvement and consideration for welfare. It is an exogenous variable that predicts the result of both hypothetical and practical interests for organizational analysts. Thus analysis of organization’s commitment roots from apprehension of the behavioral effects that are assumed to be an outcome of job satisfaction.
According to William and Jeffrey (2010, 201), “organizational commitment is a step in the right direction as it expresses behavioral intentions which can be defined as the intention to remain with the organization being primary but it too suffers the problem that weighed down job satisfaction”.
Low level of trust between management and employees
The relationship between an employer and his/its employees is the basis of what makes an organization effective. A good relationship depends on respect and trust whereby, trust is a social mechanism that has been approached by many economist and organizational theorist.
Trust is significant in promoting consensual relationships and facilitates cooperation between individuals within organizations. Where there is mistrust between the management and the employees, the organization is bound to fail. Lack of trust becomes one of the top priority problems in an organization
Poor work team
Teamwork involves groups of interdependent employees who work cooperatively to achieve group outcomes. Effective team implementation can enhance the motivational properties of work and increase job satisfaction.
Although there are various advantages of team work, sometimes these teams may fail to yield the expected outcomes for individuals and organizations. Poor team work impacts negatively on the ability of the organization to achieve its goals.
However, there are many reasons for poor team performance such as, the team may not have clear goals or performance metrics, the team may be composed of the wrong people with the wrong set of skills for the task at hand, the team may not be in a position to foster creativity or good decision making or also poor teamwork may result due to individuals trying to dominate a group by imposing their opinions and solutions so as to meet their own needs most of which vary from the needs of the team.
Largely, poor team performance is mainly because of a team’s inability to systematically engage in team building activities like team processes for evaluating the team’s performance and engaging in problem-solving activities that lead to improved team performance (Mathew, 2007 13).
In order to curb the poor team work problem, management should encourage knowledge sharing between members since this improves organizational effectiveness and efficiency not forgetting its overall output (Wubbolding 2006, 142)
The ability to manage and maintain human resource in an organization is a challenging task since workers do not always behave ideally as managers would want. There are instances when people leave suddenly due to various reasons; they get sick, take maternity leave or retire early, the coming in and going out of employees is what is referred to as staff turnover.
Staff turnover may be caused by several factors which maybe due to low or high unemployment figures or feeling of insecurity due to reports of poor performance which maybe a reason for an employee to leave an organization. High staff turnover rates create continual human resource problems for any organization’s management.
Recommendations To restore employees’ cohesiveness in the organization, the management is advised to develop and communicate clearly common organizational goals to its employees. Employees should also be aware of the organizations vision and mission. They are advised to ensure that the employees are included and recognized as part of the organization stakeholder to ensure that the company is growing to achieve the company’s growth.
This can be done through bonus schemes, which stimulates employees to attain higher work performance levels and it can also be used as a great motivator to accomplish organizations goals.
In addition, employee stock options is a kind of compensation package which could be implemented because these two options grants an employee a physically powerful reason to work for the growth of the company as they feel that they are valued hence will stay with the company.
There is need for management and employees to trust each other so as to build strong cohesion within the company. Trust can only be rated in terms of actions and intentions carried out over a timed period.
This is a two way process, therefore it needs efforts from both the management and the employees although the management has to be on the forefront for structuring and strengthening this trust (William and Jeffrey 2010, 41).
The organization has to have strong cultures where values and norms are shared and strongly held which in turn leads to an organization enjoying better returns on investments higher net income growth and bigger increase in share price than counterpart organizations with weak cultures.
The management must be concerned with team performance because most of the work done today requires it to be successfully completed in a team environment. It is important to note that no single person is capable of developing, manufacturing and selling any type of product single handedly.
Therefore teams of individuals with complementary knowledge must coordinate effectively in order for an organization to be successful hence there is need for teamwork.
To be a high performing company in today’s competitive market, it requires one to have high performing teams these are members with skills, attitudes and competencies that will help an organization realize and meet its goals, encourage team members to be optimistic in terms of productivity and give them morale as they are the most important factors to attain a high performing team (Ahmed, 2008 49).
High performing teams do not just happen; it is the management’s duty to ensure they are developed and natured. As a result, it always takes the combined efforts of the visionary leader and willingness of the team members to come up with a high working and performing team. One way of encouraging team work would be rewarding performing teams while punishing poor teamwork behavior.
Organizations administrators must ensure that they are aware of the number of employees that are at risk for leaving employment at any given time. Most of the time employees leave their present employment environment in such of new opportunities that would adequately meet their needs. Getting to know your staff will help you notice some of the warning signs of potential staff turnover.
Another way to curb staff turnover would be to develop new strategies to improve retention over time. Once the administration is aware of factors such as age, education marital status social support and employment tenures of their employees, it would greatly impact job satisfaction one of the core factors in staff turnover.
The organization can also ensure its employees experience job satisfaction by ensuring that the level of job supervision is of high quality. Proficient supervisors who treat employees with respect and think about the needs and interest of the employees when they make decisions tend to foster high levels of job satisfaction in the organizations employees (Cullen 2002, 47)
Employees’ participation in developmental activities may be influenced by their level of job satisfaction. Employees who have high job satisfaction are prone to participate in developmental activities to enhance the probability of maintaining of their current job or remain a member of the organization.
Organizations executives are also encouraged to be flexible and recognize when particular situation calls for them to change tactics. There are several other ways for the organization to increase on job satisfaction. For example, rewarding the employee with a pay raise or amending employee’s job description to match employee’s interest is likely to increase worker job satisfaction.
Conclusion An organization will only achieve its goals only if its human resource management is competent. This is the body that brings together the view points of personnel staff and is in line with supervisors with an effort to get the most effective workers to help the organization attain its goals.
Management should measure the organizational culture because by doing so, organizational utilities such as employee performance and improvement are thus influenced and pragmatically observed. A strong organizational culture is highly related and prone to other concepts of interest such as innovation and knowledge management; a factor that boosts the efficiency of the organization.
References Ahmed, N., 2008. Corporate governance around the world Volume 1 of Routledge studies in corporate governance. London: Routledge.
Alan T. B., 2000. Leading the learning organization: communication and competencies for managing change. New York: SUNY Press.
Cowin, L. S., 2000. The effects of nurses’ job satisfaction on retention: An Australian perspective. New York, NY: John Willey.
Cullen, J. B., 2002. Multinational Management. Kansas: South-Western College Publishing
Cunha,R., and Cooper, C., 2002. “Does privatization affect corporate culture and employee well being?” Journal of Managerial psychology. Vol 6 Issue 1. p. 56-89.
Dean, S. Gerald, D. B, John K., 2004. The Carolina way: leadership lessons from a life in coaching. London: Penguin.
Glisson, C., 2000. “Assessing and changing organizational culture and climte for effective services.” Research on Social Work Practice. Vol 4, issue 2. p. 45-114.
Mathew, J. 2007. “The relationship of organizational culture with productivity and quality.” Employee relations. Vol 14, issue 2. p. 4-14.
McKeown M., 2000. The Truth about Innovation. London: Prentice Hall.
Ravasi, D. and Schultz, M., 2006. “Responding to Organizational Identity Threats: Exploring the Role of Organizational Culture.” Academy of Management Journal Vol 6, issue 9. p. 65-94.
William, G. D. and Jeffrey H. D., 2010. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance 4th ed. Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Wubbolding, R., 2006. Employee Motivation: What to Do….when What You Say Isn’t Working! New York, NY: Sage.
Comparison between Sculpture in Kuwait and Australia Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Synopsis
Significance of the Study
There have been significant differences between the sculptures in Kuwait and those in Australia. The research will evaluate the weaknesses in Kuwait sculptures in terms of funds accessible, available galleries and the public awareness on this artistic works. In addition, the research will evaluate ways of strengthening the sculptures in Kuwait.
Synopsis The difference between contemporary and traditional art can be demonstrated by analyzing the sculptures in Kuwait. This is because the available sculptures have been neglected and the artists remain unappreciated despite their amazing talent and dedication.
This paper will analyze the galleries in Kuwait, the art schools, funds allocated and the existing sculptures, and compare these factors with those in Australia. The differences to be realized after the analysis will be used to develop a strategy aimed at improving the sculptures and other artworks in Kuwait.
Background Information The sculptures available in Kuwait have been long forgotten, especially those in public places. The sculpture in Rumaithiya is one example of sculptures that have been neglected, as demonstrated by the rust and cracks in the sculpture (Modeen 2009).
For a very long time, many people have ignored artworks and sculptures across Kuwait. The government has also not been vibrant enough to promote sculpture making. This has made individuals to take to other jobs, hence reducing the number of artists willing to engage in sculpture making.
The artists who have concentrated in sculpture making have been reducing in numbers given that in this era developed computer software is being used to generate virtual designs. Graphic design and other computer-based applications have made it possible for individuals to create designs without having to create a physical structure.
This has reduced the number of sculptors in Kuwait and since there are fewer incentives to encourage new sculptors, sculpture making has been slowly fading away. In Australia however, the government has ensured that sculptors and artists are promoted by creating funds for galleries and other exhibitions, an initiative that has encouraged more artists to demonstrate their talent (Lumley 1990).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The establishment of art schools has helped in encouraging young and talented individuals to participate in sculpture making. Because of the government’s direct participation in promotion of art, there has been development of contemporary sculptures, with many being erected in public places across the country.
Artists are also trained in Australian art schools and other accredited art schools in the world. Self taught artists are given incentives in term of awards and exhibition opportunities in the Australian galleries and other exhibition areas. The difference between the Kuwait sculptures and those in Australia helps in the identification of ways that will assist in promotion of sculptures in Kuwait.
Most of the sculptures that are found in Kuwait and especially those erected in public places are old and worn out. This shows that there has been reduced concern in the government with respect to caring for artworks and this has reduced the morale of the artists. The sculptures also illustrate past events and there are few that demonstrate contemporary issues.
In Australia however, more sculptures and statues have been created with reference to contemporary issues. The sculptures in Australia have also been created using contemporary means, with some being designed and generated using automated means (Sturgeon 1991).
The focus and promotion of arts in Australia has encouraged many sculptors to try out new and amazing designs that are then displayed in strategic locations for locals and visitors to see (Sturgeon 1991). The funds, which are granted to the artists as incentives to help promote their talent, has assisted the individuals in realizing their dream careers, with most individuals taking sculpture making as a profession (Drury 1993).
However, the sculptors in Kuwait combine sculpture making with other jobs, making sculpture making a hobby or a part-time event. The creativity and designs between the sculptures in Kuwait and those in Australia are also different with those in Kuwait being more into religion and past events.
The sculptures in Australia are centered on contemporary issues, with modern designs being incorporated in most sculptures. The nature of the available sculptures in Kuwait illustrates that there is no notable involvement in sculpture making in this country.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Sculpture in Kuwait and Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The unavailability of new sculptures shows that there is a reduction in the number of interested sculptors, with funds and incentives being the main inhibitions (Art Kuwait 2011). Galleries in Kuwait have in excess, paintings and other artworks, and very few sculptures are available.
Significance of the Study The research is very important since it will help in the establishment of sculptor-centered approaches that will improve sculpture making and encourage development of contemporary sculptures.
In addition, the research will assist in creating an awareness campaign that will push the government to participate in the promotion of art, especially sculpture making. The study will also help the sculptors to be more involved in sculpture making and help in making it a fully-fledged profession.
Methodology To conduct the study, the research will analyze the available galleries for the qualifications of sculptures in an exhibition center. This will be done by use of questionnaires, with gallery workers being the main interviewees. They will be asked about the frequency of sculptures in the galleries as compared to paintings and other artworks.
In addition, government literature will be evaluated to determine whether the government has allocated any fund to promote art. Art schools in the country will also be visited to collect information about the available sculptors, evaluate the teaching contents and compare them to those in Australia.
Due to the time limit, physical study will not be conducted in Australia, but rather, literature review will be done. The review will help in realization of the differences between Kuwait sculptures and those in Australia.
The strategies used by Australia to promote sculpture making and other artworks will be analyzed and the same compared to those in Kuwait. Renowned sculptors will be contacted for interviews on why sculpture making is on the decline in Kuwait and the same done for those in Australia.
Social media and emails will be used to contact renowned artists in Australia, as physical contacts may not be possible. After conducting interviews and researches, the data will then be analyzed accordingly, with the main focus being to generate differences that would help in development of counter plan.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Sculpture in Kuwait and Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Work Plan The research will commence in November this year with the galleries being the first target. Evaluation of galleries is expected to take seven days, after which literature review will commence.
This will take another seven days after which the renowned artists and sculptors will be contacted. Depending on their schedules, the study will give each individual an allowance of ten days, and since the artists will be three, one month will be used to conduct the interviews.
References Art Kuwait 2011, Spatial sound sculpture – new generation of art. Web.
Drury, N 1993, New sculpture: Profiles in contemporary Australian sculpture, Craftsman House, Sydney.
Lumley, A 1990, Sydney’s sculpture, Longman Cheshire, Sydney.
Modeen, T 2009, Public sculpture in Kuwait – Rumaithiya. Web.
Sturgeon, G 1991, Contemporary Australian sculpture, Craftsman House, Sydney.
Invasive Species Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Abstract Some pests and weeds are considered by the Australian government to be of national significance. Most of these species were introduced from other countries and continents. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the Alligator Weed (Alternanthera Philoxeroides) are some of the invasive species which threaten the ecology and several sectors of the Australian economy.
This document discusses why and how these species were introduced in Australia, factors which ensured their successful establishment in the country, as well as, their ecological and economic impacts. Finally, it examines the advantages and disadvantages of the control methods used to manage them.
Introduction Numerous invasive species have been introduced in Australia over the years. These species are considered pests and have become a serious threat to biodiversity as well as agriculture in the country. Generally, pests have a direct effect on the environment/ecosystem as well as on human life wherever they exist.
Their rate of reproduction is high making it difficult to control them. Most of them were introduced either deliberately or by accident, including some brought in to assist with the control of other nuisance species.
Among the animal pests in Australia is red fox (Vulpes vulpes) also known as the European red fox was introduced in Australia in 1855 from Europe (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water and Communities 2010).
Since its introduction in Australia, it has spread across most parts of the country, although it is no longer found in the tropical north as well as some off-shore islands (Tasmanian Department of Primary industries, Parks, Water and Environment, 2010). Vulpes vulpes is classified as a serious invader to native animals as it kills them.
On the other hand, one of the weed species which has invaded the ecological system of Australia is the Alligator Weed (Alternanthera Philoxeroides). It was also introduced from Parana River region, South America (Everitt, Little
The Discrimination Against Women Employees in the Telecommunication Industry Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Aims of the Dissertation
How the Research Fits Existing Published Work
Reasons for Choice of This Topic
Aims of the Dissertation This dissertation will aim at investigating how women are impacted negatively as a result of employment discrimination in the telecommunication industry in Europe and Middle East. Discrimination in this sense means that there are fewer women than men working in the telecommunication industry in Europe and Middle East.
In investigating this matter, the dissertation will answer the question of whether the discrimination against women employees in the telecommunication industry is justified or unjustified. The dissertation will examine whether discrimination against women working in the industry has a negative impact on them. This research will endeavor to answer the following research questions:
Why do telecommunication businesses discriminate against women employees in Europe and Middle East?
What mechanisms should be put in place to increase the ratio of women to men working in the telecommunication industry in Europe and Middle East?
Methodology The data to be collected in this research is first hand information from women working in the telecommunication industry. The women will give their views and experiences regarding employee discrimination against women in the industry. In collecting the data, the research will consider reviewing secondary sources of information such as government studies.
This will provide the researcher with information about any research that has been done by the government in an attempt to get information regarding the telecommunication industry. The kind of research methodology to be used is determined by the nature of the research being conducted.
Quantitative research methodology is used when measuring variables or trying to test existing theories and establishing their validity (nsf, n.d). The collected data is used to formulate new hypothesis on the basis of new evidence.
On the other hand, qualitative research is more applicable in understanding meanings, experiences and beliefs about a particular subject. The methodology that this research will heavily rely on in data collection is qualitative data collection because it is varied and provides information in its entirety as long as it is not statistical or numeric.
The first qualitative data collection method to be used is conducting interviews. Since the aim of the research is to investigate the negative impact on women arising from their discrimination in telecommunication in Middle East and Europe, it will be crucial to interview a sample of women working in telecommunication industry. This will give first hand information which is the perspective of the women themselves regarding the subject.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An interview will be an effective methodology of collecting information since it first establishes a close relationship between the interviewer and the interviewees. Through interviews, it will also be easy to make follow up when looking for finer details of any interesting piece of information.
Sampling is the random picking of a group of people to provide information on a particular subject. The countries from which the samples will be taken include Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, and Lebanon.
The sample will include wide range of women including employees of operators, vendors and intermediaries. The technique to be used in the research to identify the sample is picking women who have worked in the industry for at least two years.
Interview is an effective way of answering the research questions because definitely, from the interviews reasons of why employers discriminate against women in the industry will be given. Through the interviews, women will also be capable of suggesting ways through which they feel that their ratio in the industry can be increased.
There are two types of interviews to be used. The first type of interview is a structured interview where a questionnaire is given out to the respondents to fill out the information .The other type of an interview is referred to as in-depth interview which does not involve any rigid questions to be answered.
The study will use the structured questionnaire to get answers for some specific questions in order to get uniform results from several respondents. In-depth guided interviews on the other hand will give the respondents a chance to answer questions freely and hold discussions. For the sake of collecting ample information, the research will conduct individual interviews several times.
The choice of qualitative data collection as the methodology to be used is backed by the fact that qualitative research has the capacity of providing detailed information regarding the way a group of people experiences an issue that is being researched. This type of methodology presents the human part of an issue such as the beliefs, opinions or even the expectations of different people.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Discrimination Against Women Employees in the Telecommunication Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The methodology fits in well with the aim of the research of identifying the negative impacts on women of denying them a chance to lead in the telecommunication industry. Women’s being denied leadership opportunities in the telecommunication industry is a sensitive issue that would require closeness in trying to understand the negative side of the matter to them.
Such closeness with the respondents in collecting information can only be achieved by using qualitative methods such interviews. Observation at times will also be applicable because in discussing with the women, it will also be possible to observe their reactions and emotions.
Data analysis is a crucial part towards completion of a study. In this research, data analysis will involve carefully looking at the results from the interviews conducted. From the data provided by the interviewees, the researcher will try to identify the reasons behind discrimination against women employees in telecommunication industry.
The analysis will involve identifying some of the ways suggested by interviewees of eliminating the discrimination. In the analysis, the practicality of the research outcomes in solving the real problems in the field will also be evaluated.
It is common for research undertakings to present challenges and this research is no exception. The first challenge that might surface is that some of the interviewees may be biased and provide information which is not reliable.
This may be as a result of personal dispositions or general unwillingness among some interviewees to participate in the interviews. Another challenge is the financial cost of the research. Although the initial budget has been factored, additional cost may spring up while the research is in progress and this will be a challenge for the researcher
Feasibility A successful and comprehensive dissertation requires the researcher to be determined and committed (White, 2004). There are some resources such as books and funding for travel among others that a researcher should ensure are in place before the actual data collection begins. This necessitates a feasibility study to determine whether all the necessary resources for the research are available (White, 2003).
The research will use both primary and secondary sources of information. Secondary sources will include books, journals and internet sources while primary data is new information that will be collected from the field. The required resources such as academic texts are available in the online library and other public libraries I have identified.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Discrimination Against Women Employees in the Telecommunication Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, a trial with a subset of the prospective interviewees has already been conducted and their response is positive towards facilitating the research. The researchers’ employer is understanding and has granted full permission for the research to be conducted.
The employer has permitted the researcher to interview the samples during specific working hours. He has also allowed the samples to talk to the researcher during some agreed hours. Travel outside the country is also anticipated hence the travelling cost and permission have been sought.
How the Research Fits Existing Published Work Different researchers have conducted various studies focusing on women in the telecommunication industry and how they are either discriminated in some various countries. For example, in 1995, the South African government enacted a policy aimed at providing access to information to all South Africans.
According to Schreiner (2011), Bamshela which is a rural town in South Africa is selected to receive the services of a telecenter. It is one of the most underdeveloped regions in South Africa where infrastructure and communication facilities are hard to get.
This study is important to the current study because by looking at a case in Africa, this can be used as an example in understanding employment discrimination against women in telecommunications in Europe and Middle East.
Women in Bamshela are unfortunate and spend most of their lives in subsistence farming with only a few of them securing positions in the telecommunication industry. Schreiner discovers that there is employment discrimination against women at the telecenter.
The study further analyzes the effects of discriminating against women as employees in telecommunication industry (Schreiner, 2011). From Schreiner’s study it was evident that women employed at the telecenter were not less productive than men. This research was conducted using surveys in these regions to collect the information.
Secondly, women are discriminated against in telecommunication industry on the basis of race and gender (Robinson
Lego Serious Play Methodology Thesis essay help
Discussion The Lego serious play methodology is a problem solving and insight building approach or strategy whose aim is to enhance creative thinking among all participants in organizations (Gauntlett, 2007).Through the methodology, organizations are able to have the employees and shareholders think and express or speak their true feelings without the fear of intimidation.
Through it also, organizations have an opportunity to have everyone on board in the discussion of organizational issues which stimulates learning as well as thinking. The thinking and learning by all participants in organizations leads to new ideas or insights in regard to particular organizational issue(s) (Lockwood
The New Concept of Market Segmentation Report essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Executive summary
Unstable and evolving demographic factors
Geographical factors and globalization
Evolving behavioral factors
Benefits of marketing segmentation
Shortcomings of market segmentation
Executive summary Marketing segmentation is the new cliché in the field of marketing. Initially, mass marketing was very popular, but the new concept of market segmentation was developed to address challenges arising from mass marketing. Unlike mass marketing, market segmentation recognizes disparities that exist among different consumers and it is upon this notion that its principles both in theory and practice are founded.
During segmentation process, consumer needs among individuals with similar characteristics are identified and concurrently specific products and services are designed to suit those needs. The popularity of the above strategy has been accelerated by instability of segmentation variables such as demography, behavior and geography.
In addition, firms that have adopted marketing segmentation have realized benefits such as market niche benefits, consumer brand loyalty and competitive positioning in the market. On the other hand, market niche might lead to negative results especially to small firms in the event of sales decline.
Introduction The concept of marketing is not anything new in business. The rise of free markets, in spite of its numerous benefits, posed serious challenges to businesses due to increased competition (Martin, 20011, p. 15). As a result, the idea of marketing was conceived as firms tried to promote brand recognition among potential consumers (Martin, 20011, p. 15).
Initially, firms embarked on mass marketing whereby consumer’s tastes and differences were not differentiated (Bell, 2009, p. 27). However, numerous researches in this field exposed new information that consumers’ needs were diverse and differed from one individual to another (Bell, 2009, p. 29). It is against this background that the concept of market segmentation was developed in theory and sooner adopted into practice.
According to Dibb and Simkim (2007, p. 53) the concept of market segmentation seeks to establish different needs of targeted consumers with an aim of grouping together individuals who share several characteristics.
Since the initial conception, market segmentation has experienced rapid growth owing to its popularity in the business arena around the world (Martin, 2011, p. 17). The recent popularity of market segmentation can be linked to several condusive environment factors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unstable and evolving demographic factors To begin with, market segmentation is dependant on demographic composition of a population (Kim, 2011, p. 153). Concurrently, research studies have indicated that demographics variables such as lifestyle and gender based preferences and tastes are evolving each day (Martin, 2011, p. 16). For instance, only recently men were not known to take interest in cosmetic products and fashion.
However, in recent years, the rise of metro-sexual man has compelled producers to come up with cosmetic products, fashion magazines and other similar brands that target male consumers. For instance, Nivea for men brand which was developed to address the needs of the aforementioned type of men (Kim, 2011, p. 156).
In terms of lifestyle variable, research has shown that present day consumers have developed sophisticated tastes and this has greatly impacted businesses dealing with food be it raw or ready, as people become more conscious of their health.
As part of market segmentation strategy , products to suit the needs of this particular group of people have found their way into the market and it is now common to see food labels such as ‘low fat’ ‘whole meal’ , ‘high protein’ and so on (McWilliams, 2011).
Similarly, consumers’ needs vary with age, hence market segmentation based on the same. However, in recent years, aging is being looked at differently. Whereas there are individuals who are proud of the various body changes that occur with age, others despise the aging process.
For this reason, products targeting this group of consumers have evolved and nowadays it common to find cosmetics with labels such as ‘anti-aging cream’ in supermarket shelves (Martin, 2011, p. 17).
In addition, income disparities among populations have promoted market segmentation based on this concept. Marketers have realized that price sensitive buyers represent the larger part of the population (Raaij, 2004, p. 52). In order to maximize turnover, firms have no alternatives but to develop products and services that target this particular group of people.
We will write a custom Report on The New Concept of Market Segmentation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The recent economic recession has reduced consumer spending habits and thus firms are rushing to tap the little money that consumers are willing to spend (Martin, 2011, p. 16). The recent rise and popularity of budget hotels all over the world can be attributed to reduced disposable income due to deteriorating economic times (Bell, 2009, p. 30).
Geographical factors and globalization Secondly, globalization has accelerated market segmentation based on geographical variables (Gaston
Industrial relations pressures in Equity Bank Essay best college essay help
Introduction Industrial relations is a very complex and delicate issue in many organizations now days. An organization cannot progress unless there exists cooperation and relationships that are harmonious between the management team and the organization’s employees.
The term industry basically refers to any undertaking that is productive which a person or a number of people do. Relations simply imply relationships between the workers and their employer. Industrial relations are mainly rooted in the relationship between the worker’s unions and the employers (Bain and Woolven, 1979, p. 2-3)
Industrial relations can best be described as the relationships that exist between the employees, their employers and the government (Bendix, 2007, p. 39 – 50).
This does not leave behind the associations and institutions that play the role of mediation of these interactions. This does not only deal with the practice but also the study of management of labor, the element of collective bargaining and the act trade unionism (Blanpain, 1992, p. 65-70)
Like any other employer, Equity bank that operates in the Eastern part of Africa is faced with several industrial relations pressures. Being one of the fastest growing banks in the region, it is faced with several issues at the work place.
These issues range from the interactions that exist between individual employees, the employer and their workers, interactions between employers and the relationships that exist between the workers unions and the employers ( Kaufman, 1995, p. 5-18)
The aim of this paper is to bring to light all the employee relation issues that put the stated bank under so much pressure and to develop an efficient strategic plan that will be employed in addressing the analyzed issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More National culture and comparative industrial relations theory The industrial relations pressures at the bank will be analyzed using the national culture and comparative relations theory. The most important employee relations issues are developed well but there still exists a gap between improvements that have been made in the international industrial relations and the real actual stability of the employee relations sector (Barbash and Barbash, 1989, p. 123 – 154).
The industrial relation pressures at Equity Bank Management efficiency and effectiveness
The term efficiency in the management context simply means doing things in the right way. On the other hand, management effectiveness is doing the right things. Management efficiency and effectiveness therefore implies doing the right things in the right way. In light of industrial relations, this concept refers to the act of managers handling their subordinates in the right manner at all times.
At this bank, there have been reported many conflicts between managers and their subordinates. The complains range all the way from the top management through the middle level managers up to and including junior supervisors at the branch levels.
The cases reported range from sexual harassment, ethnic and race discrimination, use of abusive language, unfair promotions, and biasness in treating staffs among several other issues.
These issues have coasted the organization part of its quality time in trying to settle the individual cases both internally and externally. Being the fastest growing bank in eastern and central region, it is expected to continue bringing in more and more employees. If the industrial relation pressure between the managers and their subordinates is not sorted out on time, it may become even more costly to the organization.
One of the most important things that every employee longs for is the ability to move from one position to the other within the organization. Equity bank has been hard stricken by these issues because of its current promotion policy. There are two basis of promotion in any given organization.
One is performance and the other is seniority. Each organization chooses between the two, which one suits it most. One important thing to note is that each organization is affected in a different way by each factor depending on its internal operating environment.
We will write a custom Essay on Industrial relations pressures in Equity Bank specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a profit making organization, Equity bank has decided to go the productivity way. Many senior workers have been subjected to situations of great crisis with the top management because of this decision.
Some of them claim that it is a subjective way of looking at things by the management and it has seen some junior staffs being promoted faster than the long serving staff. Some of the explanations they give seem to be making some sense. (Lewin, Michel and Sherer, 1992, p. 193-238)
The senior employees claim that the department in charge of performance monitoring only looks at the figures but they don’t look at the surrounding conditions. They claim that workers employed in hardship areas are rated nearly the same as those in fertile urban areas.
Senior workers in hardship areas end up putting in so much but reaping so little. At the end, the junior workers in fertile areas end up rising above the career ladder faster than their senior colleagues.
The affected staffs claim that the leadership team should either revise the promotion policy so that it be based on seniority or it should revise the targets of the branches accordingly. This has caused a lot tension in the organization that has seen some staffs leaving in search for greener pastures.
The issue of productivity has also raised a lot of complaints across the board. Operating on the profit maximization goal, the staffs complain that the targets given to them are unrealistic. The issue of high targets and low return has caused great conflict between the management team and the workers. In fact, most workers see this as an intentional goal by the management to throw them from the book of getting end of year bonuses.
The leadership team on the other hand claims that it has provided the staffs with all they need in order to provide goal oriented results. The workers on the other hand claim that the current working environment cannot allow them to meet their targets. This has led to constant misunderstandings between the management and the rest of the working force which needs to be sorted out soonest possible.
Another great concern has been that of overtime working hours. Most workers claim that most of their overtime dues are not paid and if paid, then the compensation is very low. They argue that the client base is growing at a faster rate than the recruitment process. This leads them to a lot of over work and the over time is not compensated accordingly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrial relations pressures in Equity Bank by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The management on its side claims that some of the staffs just delay to finish their work in order to make a few cents out of over time hours. The managing director said that those working in main cities enjoy spending their evenings making some overtime earnings as they wait for the time jam to clear. This issue remains a thorn in the flesh for the bank’s harmonious operation.
Punctuality and attendance
This issue has affected the field officers especially in charge of credit and sales. The policy of the bank states that they have to report in the office before going to the field. Most of them claim that this policy is inconsiderate bearing in mind that sometimes they have to catch up with their customers early. Most of them need exemptions from this provision.
The management on the other side is trying to cub the idea of staffs staying in their houses and claiming to be in the field. They claim that clocking in and out is a practice that should be adhered to by all staff at all times. According to the leadership, this is meant to cub unauthorized absence. Some staffs claim that they come out of the field too late under some occasions hence this can not apply to their job description.
There is a complaints book in every branch in which customers are expected to record all their concerns regarding the service they get from the staffs and the products that are at their disposal. Because of the belief that the customer is the king, the organization tries to avoid customer dissatisfaction by all means. Most staffs complain that in many instances, the organization favors the client at the expense of the staff.
Many claim that the staffs are treated as liabilities while clients are viewed as assets. The management claims that the customer is the future of the organization and hence they have to be satisfied under all costs. The worst scenario happened when some staffs were fired because of customer’s negative reports yet they were being followed up as the bank’s loan defaulters.
The staffs claim that the bank has like thrown them in a river full of crocodiles and let them to swim there. They feel insecure on their jobs and claim that they are discriminated against. This issue has caused unsettled disputes between the two parties that need to be handled with care to avoid any form of breaking.
This is one of the most serious relations issues within the bank that has now escalated from the staff up to the client. There is a general view that a majority of workers in the bank come from a single ethnic community. The same goes ahead to claim that a majority of promotions are given to members from the single ethnic community.
As a bank that is growing globally, claims of both ethnic and racial discrimination should not be heard leave alone practiced. This is an urgent issue that calls for quick intervention. This is why the following strategic plan is developed in order to handle this concern among the others that have been raised as pressing industrial relations issues facing the bank.
Strategic plan for Equity bank industrial relations pressures Introduction
The team working to implement Equity bank activities in East Africa came together with assistance of experts from new line management consultants to develop this strategic plan. It provides Equity bank with a five year program implementation that will help in addressing issues of employee relations within the organization in the context of specific management or employee (or other stake holder) goals.
Equity bank started as a building society that was operating in the republic of Kenya way back in 1984. Later on it transformed in to a micro financial institution before becoming an all inclusive Nairobi securities and Uganda securities public listed commercial bank (Olsen, 2007, p. 59-118)
The bank takes its services to the people to through its well structured financial services that are flexible, accessible and affordable. The bank has since then won several awards nationally and globally due to its financial model that is unique and transformational.
We exist to transform the lives and livelihoods of our people socially and economically by availing them modern, inclusive financial services that maximize their opportunities.
To be the champion of socio-economic prosperity of the people of Africa.
We offer inclusive customer focused financial services that transform livelihoods, gibe dignity and expand opportunities.
Creativity and innovation
Unity of purpose
Respect and dedication to customer care
Effective corporate governance
Current products and services
Cash back services
Retail internet banking
Achievement and challenges
Equity bank has had several achievements in the resent past, it boasts of several awards globally due to their unique financial services. The bank has been invited to several international bodies and forum to share of the secret to their success. In January 2010, the CEO was named the on top 50 emerging market business leaders.
In October 2009, the bank was named as the microfinance bank of the year 2009. In September 2009, the bank received the Africa investor series awards 2009. In September 2009, the equity chairman was awarded the global prize in agriculture. In July 2009, Equity received the African business award.
In May 2009, it was named as the most sustainable bank of the year. In April 2009, it was recognized as the best bank in Kenya 2008/2009. In March 2009, it received the AI financial reward, and in early 2009, it emerged as the best bank overall 2009
Historical Development of Health Care Ethics Methods Research Paper college essay help near me
Introduction Medical ethics is an area that has aroused enthusiasm and controversy in terms of investigation and finding a position in society. In raising and sustaining interest, medical ethics continue to draw more considerable attention in terms of research and inquiry. On the other hand, controversy has been ignited to a standstill in classifying medical ethics as either a field or a discipline.
Nevertheless, according to definitions that have been provided to discipline and field, together with what methods constitute, Sugarman and Sulmasy opine that medical ethics should be perceived as a field that embraces inquiry and integrates many subjects rather than viewing it as a discipline on its own.1
In the midst of all this, common sense still drive among scholars in this field due to their uniform consensus that medical ethics as a body of knowledge cannot function on its own instead it functions appropriately depending on other areas.
The position taken by the authors point out to one thing, medical ethicists share ordinary subject matter but the diverse disciplinary mode of investigation of the subject. Therefore, to medical ethicists, the shared common theme is the normative aspect of health care and the way they approach this is through the integration of wide varieties of disciplines2.
Consequently, the various disciplines in their nature employ a wide variety of methods, whereby some of the ways are shared by different disciplines while others are unique to a particular subject. 3
Notably, medical ethics has been explained as a field that embraces different disciplines and methods hence the rise of diverse sub-areas of interests and specialization. For instance, there are medical ethicists with backgrounds in philosophy, theology, healthcare, history, and to mention but a few.
Consequently, the majority of medical ethics have specialized in critical areas of education, consulting, policy analysis and writing, and expert witness. Further, just like any other field, medical ethicists are not experts all-round, and specialization characterizes medical ethicists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, today it is conventional to find specialists in research ethics, ethical issues in genetics, public health ethics, ethical issues at the end of life, and many more depending on academic, training, and professional background.4
Understanding bioethics and its contribution to a broader body of knowledge of medicine require an adequate account of the field history since its inception to its current position. It is in this respect that this research paper aims at providing the historical development of healthcare ethics methods with the aim to understand how normative practices in healthcare ethics have developed over time.
Bioethics in the early stages Traditional period
The development of bioethics is perceived to be heavily implicated by multiple factors and occurrences in the history of humanity and progress in medicine and biology. Before the period of 1945, development in medicine was appreciated and encouraged as solutions to humankind problems became inevitable. However, it is also during this period that laxity in moral probity was pronounced.5
What majority of practitioners thought was necessary was the recitation of the Hippocratic Oath upon graduating as medical practitioners6. As a result, the period before 1945 was primarily characterized by little consideration of medical ethics, and many of practitioners were probably guided by informal and self-convictions of moral beliefs and character.
Many people viewed the practitioners to be, “jealous, quarrelsome, and delighted in annoying and ridiculing each other”.7 In general, medical practitioners had established mistrust among the people, and the overall actions of the practitioners were viewed to be aimed at killing and not saving lives. All was not lost, as this was the period when it could be said the birth of medical ethics was inevitable, and expectations were high.
This was the period when patterns of medical ethics became a constant novelty in the field of medicine. The work of Richard Cabot (1869-1939) became the driving force in initiating medical ethics during this period.
Cabot noted that medical practitioners need some forms of medical ethics to carry out their duties more effectively. All together, Cabot observed that medical practitioners required a thorough understanding of aspects of diseases including: causes, signs, symptoms, courses, prognoses, treatments, as it pertains to individual patients.8
We will write a custom Research Paper on Historical Development of Health Care Ethics Methods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the above expression, Cabot observed that the new roles and duties of doctors were to be premised within lenses of moral and ethical performance of a task. This led the author to propose numerous measures that practitioners were to abide to establish and seek extensive cooperation between physicians and all subsequent professionals that have an interest in the care management of the patient.
Further, the need for accurate records of patient care which was to be effectively kept and analyzed. Next, the number of patients each doctor was supposed to treat was to be undertaken in a way that does not compromise attention to other patients. Also, practitioners were required to inform their patients about their diagnosis, and their treatment explained to them more appropriately.
Moreover, practitioners were to uphold the utmost respects for their patients and not be used for teaching purposes without their consent. Besides, senior practitioners were required to ensure they respect their juniors and the harmonious relationship established between them. Lastly, disputes among the profession were to be handled by established committees.
Development of medical ethics in the 1950s
1945 to around 1950 acted as a period of transition from the traditional period. During this period, a lot of observation had been made, and some of the practitioners developed a passion for sanctifying the negative perception that had developed and persisted in the field. One such figure that became prominent during this period was known as Ceriani.9
In the company of other practitioners, the doctor embarked on activities and strategies that eventually saw some organization in the field of medicine.
For instances, the combined efforts of the practitioners resulted into improvement in medical education, an organization in the field especially with the adoption of code of ethics, regulation of the licensure in the area, stigmatization of immoral acts in the field and improvement of the overall administration of medicine. Efforts during this period were directed at reclaiming the moral image of medicine as a field.
Subsequently, there was the establishment of the Code of Ethics by the American Medical Association. The code became essential and beneficial to the field, especially in informing medical practitioners about their primary duty to the patients. According to expressions in the system, the practitioners were to refrain from unorthodox, uneducated and unethical practices that could harm their patients.10
Growth of medical ethics in the 1960s
Momentum in medical ethics was evidenced in the early 1960s, especially after the revision that was done on the Code of Ethics in 1966. Upon this ratification in 1966, medical ethics were reduced from an earlier number of ten to seven, and the expression of these principles was in clear terms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical Development of Health Care Ethics Methods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On overall, the established principles required physicians to uphold utmost respect for the rights of the patients they were attending, to improve on their professional skills, to operate with the disciplinary limits of the profession willingly, to ensure thorough consultation where necessary, to keep confidences and to always work as good citizens.11
Together, the principles outlined limitations on the extent physicians could restrict or allow independent medical judgment or on how to obtain professional income other than the outlined remuneration for services. Consequently, it became clear that ethics performed the role that ensured professional cohesion and respectability.
Contribution of religion to the growth of bioethics Ethics within the understanding of religion
The position of theologists is that theology is composed of specific norms that can be applied comprehensively to any new or complicated situation in the environment.12 As such, theology promotes understanding that the presence of beliefs about creation, responsibility, sin, and salvation are adopted to ensure that individuals act within the specified moral limits and a clear direction of progress is established.13
Thus, a religious position can be interpreted to postulate that there are a universal human nature and an acceptable unified ideal of the good society. To reinforce this, medical ethicists in the Catholic community observe that people have a common environment and an acceptable allied model of good society.14
As a result of having shared experiences and common fundamental values, a common ground always emerges of what to permit, prohibit, or limit about science, innovation, and genetic engineering. In their overall applications, it is expressed that the ethical methods of theology cannot be perceived to be either separated or insulated from one another or even detached from the realities and dilemmas of particular historical contexts.
Theologists’ contribution to the development of bioethics
During the early 1960s, the majority of theologists commanded significant influence in outlining the basic ethics in the medical field. For instance, theologists, in this period, became pivotal in defining questions that guided the emerging field. It is anticipated and almost accepted the conclusion that the desire of theologists together with that of philosophers was largely ignited by the emergence of new biomedical technologies.15
Bioethics exhibit great appreciative work from critical protestant theologians such as Joseph Fletcher, Paul Ramsey, and James Gustafson, who is contributing to the emerging field, incorporated ideas of self-sacrificial love, covenant, creation and image of God16. The understanding was that incorporation of these aspects in the field of medicine was paramount in ensuring the moral ability of area.17
Another group was that of Catholic theologians’ who included Richard McCormick, Charles Curran, and Germain Grisez who brought immense benefit to the emerging field by introducing the traditions of authoritative teaching and moral law18.
Subsequently, theologians such as Ramsey, Gustafson, McCormick, and Lebacqz who served in essential policy bodies in 1970, 1975, 1981 and 1983 respectively19 took a more active role in designing policy framework for bioethics while at the same time working to enrich the field.
Examples of the vital bodies the theologians served under include National Commission on the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1974); and the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical Behavioral Research in 197920.
By being part of these bodies, the theologians became key pillars in providing resourceful help in the creation of bioethics institutes. For instance, the early publication and edition of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics were immensely designed and enriched by theologians.
The success of theologians in their various capacities in these initial stages of bioethics development can be associated to the presence of long-standing traditions of reflection on life, death, and suffering which had provided a fertile ground for the establishment of moral conduct norms and moral philosophy at the moment of development.21
Development of bioethics in institutions Role of conferences
Before institutions and centers became the major fortified avenues in which bioethics methods were cemented and developed, meetings played significant roles. The discussions became critical in the 1960s when considerable changes in terms of innovations and development were being realized in medicine. This was a turmoil period in medicine as social and ethical problems emerged from the increasing medical and scientific progress.22
In the majority of these conferences held in major cities of the USA, medical scientists gathered to discuss the significant issues that were affecting the medical field as science and technology became inevitable. Themes of the conferences leaned significantly to the morality of medicine and the area as large where the idea was to explore how well drug could perform in larger society even as social and ethical problems became a setback.
According to S. Marsh, one of the conferences key personalities, medicine in the growing science and technological world was becoming remote and indifferent to human values.23 As a result, there was a need for the field of medicine to remind itself of the fact that it is a human factor that should override everything else in medicine administration.
Due to this, Tenney, observed that the primary aim of the conferences during the time was to, “examine the issues of conscience in medical and scientific progress, not simply the question of the survival or the extinction of man, but what kind of survival and a future of what nature?”24
This led to a cornucopia of time during the conferences being dedicated to discussing genetics and brain sciences and mainly to discuss and debate ethical considerations that could guide the identified issues.
Institutions and centers where bioethics developed
The end of the 1960s and start of a new decade of 1970s witnessed the shift of debates and discussions of medical ethics from the conferences to development and enrichment of medical ethics in interpretive centers.
The observation that was made for this was that there was a paramount need to move from conferences and its procedures to a more disciplined, careful, long-range way of operation in which concrete solutions to emerging ethical problems could be found.25
Institutions were preferred as the best avenues given their relative possession of critical resources that could be used in establishing concrete bioethics methods. The foundation of the centers was largely ingrained in tremendous work of conferences where materials from meetings became tools of developing framework of research, which now had to be carried out in permanent centers.
As a result, three key centers which became avenues for the development and growth of bioethics discourse were created. These centers included the Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences (The Hastings Center); the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University; and the Society for Health and Human Values26.
The Hastings Center became operational in the mid-1960s, pioneered by Dan Callahan and William Gaylin. The need to do intensive research on abortion is what drove Dan Callahan into developing the desire to initiate the center.
Observation made by Dan was that the list of controversial moral questions that were appearing in the biomedical world was becoming more abundant and given that conferences and media had become prominent, the issue was that there was the absence of provision for concentrated interdisciplinary study.27
Therefore, the effect of abortion and its related aspects could not be explored adequately outside an established center of a distinguished body of literature and concrete frameworks.
After the initial processes of equipping the center with adequate human resource and infrastructure, four areas emerged in which the center became prominent in terms of research: death and dying, behavior control, genetic engineering and counseling, and population control.
Activities of the center became famous mainly through the organizing of symposium and conferences. As a result, the center is credited for inviting and having one of the largest pools of scientists and non-scientists who came together for topical discussions and debates which propelled bioethics into the intellectual map.28
The Kennedy Institute’s pioneer was Andre E. Hallegers, a research scientist in the area of fetal physiology. As a research scientist, Andre became prominent in organizing conferences on abortion, especially in 1967, which he did in collaboration with Kennedy Foundation.
After the conference, the scientist developed an urge that occasional meetings could not address the emerging issues in reproductive sciences and what was needed was a center that could turn to be a scholarly unit for these issues.
As the center developed into a full academic organization, it was clear that it became an avenue where bioethics studies became more pronounced and an avenue where organization and assembling of scientists and moral ethicists shared platform and knowledge that became critical and resourceful in development of bioethics.
More so, the center is credited with fostering professorships, fellowships, and courses by creating the tools for research specifically in the Bibliography of Bioethics and the Encyclopedia of Bioethics.29
Another center was the Society for Health and Human Values, which was appreciated for its role in the development of the field of bioethics. The center was a matured idea following discussion between United Ministries in Education and Methodist and Presbyterian Churches.
Primary aims for the establishment of the center rose from the identified concern to do with ‘depersonalization of medical students and the tendency to teach mechanistic medicine30.
As a way of providing the necessary contribution in the medical field, the society became critical in identifying the related problems, forming groups that could develop methods to clarify and assist in solving the issues and subsequently developing a change in professional attitude and public awareness.
Following this, the society became deep-seated in identifying and solving ethical issues in health care and advocating for medical humanities. This way, the community did participate significantly in the creation and development of bioethics methods.
Conclusion In this short account on the development of healthcare ethics, it has become clear that the field of bioethics possesses multiple origins in interdependent areas. Nevertheless, the majority of early contributors and field development were drawn from theology institutions, and their overall role to the ground is enormous.
However, it has to be remembered that as time has elapsed, the field of bioethics has continued to grow and expand, especially as dynamism engulfs the entire field of medicine and society. Development of science and technology has guaranteed the continued growth of the field of bioethics, which is likely to continue.
Although the field in concerted efforts to establish its unique methods, it should not be forgotten that much will still come from other areas, a situation that will see bioethics continue to depend on other disciplines.
Endnotes 1 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, Methods in Medical Ethics (WA: Georgetown University Press, 2010) p.5.
2 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.79
3 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.6.
4 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.7.
5 Albert R. Jonsen, The Birth of Bioethics (NY: Oxford University Press, 1998) p.4.
6 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.100
7 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.5.
8 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.6.
9 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.7.
10 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.8.
11 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.9.
12 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.34.
13 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.73.
14 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.79.
15 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.75.
16 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.41
17 Albert R. Jonsen, ibid, p.73.
18 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.76.
19 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.35.
20 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.36.
21 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.77.
22 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.13.
23 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.14.
24 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.15.
25 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.18.
26 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.20.
27 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.21.
28 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.22.
29 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy, ibid, p.23.
30 Jeremy Sugarman and Daniel P. Sulmasy , ibid, p.24
Bibliography Jonsen, Albert. R. The Birth of Bioethics. NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sugarman Jeremy and Sulmasy, Daniel. Methods in Medical Ethics. WA: Georgetown University Press, 2010.
Proposal for improved Healthcare Research that is based on the modern technologies at AHRQ Coursework argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality is a federal agency under the United States Department of Health and Human Services that has the responsibility of ensuring that there is improved superiority, safety, competence and efficacy in the delivery of healthcare services and medical research.
This is in accordance with the mission of the organization. In addition, the AHRQ provides research information that helps in the making of good decisions with the main objective of improving the quality and delivery of healthcare services.
Identified Need Medical research is an important factor that determined the effectiveness and quality of healthcare delivery; as such, it requires taking into consideration the important role that technology plays during medical research and delivery of medical care.
Therefore, the aim of this proposal is to facilitate the implementation of modern technology in the field of medical research and efficient and timely availability of medical information to the various healthcare delivery professionals.
The present healthcare delivery platform and research frameworks have not adequately implemented modern technologies. In addition, the current medical professionals are not conversant with the role that technology plays in increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of medical research and healthcare delivery.
Description The project will basically entail the acquisition of modern medical technology equipment for both research and medical services delivery purposes. The equipment acquisition is a significant milestone for the project. The next phase of project implementation will significantly entail detailed training of medical personnel regarding the use of the acquired medical technology equipment.
The main focus will be centered on the aspect of information availability by the medical personnel and improve the quality of medical research (Agency for Healthcare Research Quality, 2011). After detailed training, the effectiveness of the program will be evaluated depending on the positive outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is anticipated that the program will experience a tremendous expansion during the first five years of operation. This will be achieved using rigorous campaigns to that will be aimed at targeting the private sector in the medical industry.
First Year Costs
The following table 1 represents the First Year Cost associated with the implementation of the proposed program.
particulars Cost (USD) Description Acquisition of medical research technology equipments such as MRI sand CAT scans 300,000 This will be costs associated with the procurement and purchasing of modern technology equipments for medical research. Computer systems for Health Information Technology 150,000 This will facilitate the timely and efficient delivery of medical information to the practitioners in order to improve the quality of healthcare delivery Implementation and training 100,000 This will entail costs associated with carrying out comprehensive training of the practitioners regarding the use of technology in medicine Operational costs 50,000 Involves the costs associated with ensuring that the project is running in accordance to the anticipated goals and objectives Total 600,000 Future Year Costs (FY 2 to FY 5)
year 2 3 4 5 Operational costs 50,0000 50,0000 50,0000 50,000 Leaseholds improvements 11,500 9500 8450 5000 Totals 61,500 59.500 58,450 55,000 Total: 234,450
Grand Total for implementation of the project: 834,450
Measure of Success
The key success indicator will be an improvement in the quality of the delivery of medical services and the positive apprehension by the medical practitioners
A significant change that will be required is that the medical services such as nursing, prescription and patient care will be dependent on Information Technology systems. This will require medical practitioners to undertake additional computer classes in order to function effectively (Smith
International and Strategic Marketing: Teejays Case Study essay help free
Company Analysis Teejays is a Customer Care Training and Consultancy Organization that is based in London, UK. The organization has a large clientele with majority being businesses. It provides effective and excellent services to its clients hence playing a very big role in business growth.
The training programs and consultation ensures a strong customer-management relationship that leads to customer loyalty. It also offers consultancy services on customer care to its clients.
The company has expanded over the last few years. This is due to quality services offered to the clients hence winning over their loyalty. The company therefore seeks to expand its base to international market, and in particular Asia. The move is aimed at achieving sustainable growth.
Penetrating a new international market can be challenging and complex hence the need to conduct a feasibility study before making a move (Blythe 2000). The right marketing strategy should be considered depending on the background of that particular market. A wrong strategy can be disastrous causing the business to incur massive losses.
Asia is inhabited by people of different race and religion background compared to inhabitants from London. The cultural difference should also be a factor that should be considered before setting base in the new market. Our report will examine the organizational buying behaviour of our clients in Asia and the market segmentation.
Brief Analysis Of Asia Market Before examining the organization buying behaviour of the clients, it is important to understand the current market condition in Asia. This is important to enable Teejays employ a successful global strategy. The strategy needs to be formulated, implemented, evaluated and controlled by the company.
This process can only be successive if an effective market analysis is conducted. The analysis includes the current economic growth of the market, political stability, legal perspectives and other factors that may affect organizational buying behaviour of the clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being the largest continent in the world, Asia is inhabited by over 3 billion people. This is therefore a prime market to invest in due to high human traffic. The economic growth in Asia is dynamic. China for example has recorded a high GDP growth in the past years hence attracting more foreign investments and exports (O’Callaghan 2007).
This growth has been attributed to high demand of goods and services to cater for its high population. Asia has also developed its economic performance. For example, the buying capability of consumers in Shanghai has drastically improved due to economic stability.
The continent also enjoys political stability which is ideal for any foreign investment. Most countries in Asia are open to global companies investing in their regions. Trade barriers have been reduced with the countries being members of World Trade Organization.
This provides an important investment opportunity to a company like Teejays. The legal constraints in Asia have also been reduced. A good example is the reduction in taxes imposed on foreign goods and services delivered to the locals. The legal requirements required to set up a business in the region are straightforward and less strict due to the influence by the World Trade Organization.
The market analysis eases the understanding of organization buyer behaviour, which is the core business of this report.
Understanding Organisational Buying Behaviour Of Business Market Teejays target markets are businesses that deal directly or indirectly with their consumers. The business clients targeted include companies that will buy services from Teejays and in turn produce goods and services to sell to their clients by utilising the service bought from Teejays.
Asia offers a diverse range of business market ranging from transportation companies, financial institutions, accounting firms, advertising companies, shippers and hotel industries. The businesses are either privately owned or public. Several definitions of organisation buying behaviour have been put forward.
We will write a custom Report on International and Strategic Marketing: Teejays Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, it entails decision making and communication adopted by organisations before buying a product or a service (Webster and Wind 1972). To understand the buying behaviour of the clients in Asia, it is important to study the competitors and their marketing strategy to penetrate the market. Teejays main competitors are the Omnitouch Consultancy Group and Asia Training and Consultancy Company Limited.
Omnitouch operates in more than five countries in Asia with its competitor, Asia Training closely following suit. Both companies have taken large market segmentation and an innovative strategy will be required so as to compete with them. A close study to their operations will help Teejays understand the types of decisions made by the clients and the decision process itself in order to understand the buying behaviour in Asia market.
Examining The Organisation Decision Process In Asian Market Business buyers in Asia are wary of new services offered due to the financial risks involved and uncertainties. Earning a buyer’s trust therefore becomes a process (Robinson and Faris 1967). Teejays’ aim is to offer their consultancy and training services to the business clients at a price. The money invested in the service should be worth every penny spent by the client in the buying process.
It is this reason that business clients in Asia take a longer time to make a decision. A study in the Asian market indicates a formalized approach in the buying process. Teejays will have to prepare a detailed specification of the services to be offered to the clients, the purchase orders or even a policy manual providing the buying process.
The decision process affecting the business client in Asia indicate a dependent relation between the business client and the company offering the particular service. This means that Teejays will have to work closely with the clients to help them in the decision process. Asian business market is diverse and this plays a big role in decision making.
The Main Influences On Organisational Buying Behaviour The buying behaviour of an organisation is influenced by various factors that become an important component of this report (Bonoma 1978). One major influence is the environmental factors that are difficult to categorize and measure due to their subtleness. This factor is characterised by the level of client demand, the economy status and uncertainties, cultural influences, technological and also infrastructural factors.
Political stability and level of competitiveness are also challenges that should be considered by the business marketer. There is a high demand for customer care services and Teejays big challenge is to be at par with the two competitors currently dominating the market. The culture of businesses in Asia portrays a quest to deliver the best services to their clients.
However, Asian culture is somewhat different from other developed westernised continents such as the role of women in a company is not highly perceived as those of their male counterparts. In addition, it is important to note that the presence of competition in the Asian market is an indication of high direct control over the service which is beneficial to Teejays.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International and Strategic Marketing: Teejays Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Awareness of customer care training and consultancy in Asia market will ensure a soft landing for Teejays. The other factor is the organisational structure. Organisations differ from each other as regards their objectives, operations and technology advancement. The industrial organisations in Asia reflect major changes in their structures. The changes include innovativeness in the buying process, decentralisation and centralisation of organisational materials and top level recognition.
The interpersonal factor introduces the motives and perceptions at an individualised level. The factors are affected by language, professional identification individual business attitudes towards the perceived risk. Business clients in Asia have different buying styles and others analyses the competitive nature of the service before identifying the supplier.
Organisation Market Segmentation The organisation clients will require to be categorised in accordance to their needs. The process is important in any company to identify the business client to engage for both profitability and loyalty (McDonald and Dunbar 2004). Organisation client segmentation can be complex due to the difficulties likely to be encountered in the buying process and criteria of the services.
Other difficulties entail the nature of financing and contracting. However, the goal of Teejays is to recognize the important differences among the potential client organisation that is likely to affect their purchasing capability. The segmentation process will allow Teejays to determine prices at different organisation levels to ensure a greater competitive benefit.
Targeting and Positioning Target and positioning is very essential during market segmentation. This is the process where a company identifies a particular segment market and downplay others as a tactic to enhance their competitive gain and a high chance of success.
Establishing a specific target helps the company position itself strategically ahead of its competitors (Hooley, Saunders and Piercy 2003).This helps the company to establish the ideal mode of advertising its services that will persuade the market segment. It also enhances the level of trust in the company.
Method Of Segmentation Organisation client can be segmented through atomization, differentiation and concentration (McDonald and Dunbar 2004). Atomization is the process of segregating the business client into small segments. Differentiation takes into consideration different needs of organisation clients in order to market the services. Concentration entails reaching to a specific market segment.
Several factors should be considered when determining the ideal mode of segmentation. The company resources should be a determining factor. The company should determine the segmentation cost in each method of segmentation. Atomization and differentiation may cost a lot of money as compared to concentration. The other factor is the service line required to be sold.
If the competition is limited, the company may prefer concentration and if it is expansive, differentiation is ideal. Teejays main competitions are the two companies that have not penetrated to all the markets in Asia. The ideal mode of segmentation by Teejays is therefore concentration.
Not only is it cost effective, but the main goal of Teejays is to penetrate a particular niche that its competitors have not reached. The market segmentation should be integrated into the marketing strategy of Teejays to establish the strategic position of the target market.
Conclusion Examining the organisation buying behaviour of Asian clients is very important to any company wishing to penetrate an international market. This is to determine the competitive edge in the market. Asia is a big continent with a large population hence the need to conduct a market segmentation. Teejays therefore has a high chance of succeeding in its business albeit competition.
Reference List Blythe, J (2000) International Marketing Strategy. London, Prentice Hall.
Bonoma, T (1978) Organizational Buying Behaviour. New York, American Marketing Association Press.
Hooley, G., Saunders, J and Piercy, F (2003) Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning. (3rd Ed) London, Prentice Hall.
McDonald, M and Dunbar, I (2004) Market segmentation: how to do it, how to profit from it. Burlington, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
O’Callaghan, B (2007) The economic relations between Asia and Europe: Organisations, trade and investment. California, Chandos Publishers).
Robinson, P and Faris, C (1967) Industrial Buying and Creative Marketing. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.
Webster, F and Wind, Y (1972) Organizational Buying Behavior. London, Prentice Hall.
Theories of Cultural Diversity – Anthropological Theory: Discrimination, ratio prejudice, and male chauvinism Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brodkin’s and Salamon’s writings on Africans Jews and Americans
Introduction Discrimination, ratio prejudice, and male chauvinism have been evident in our societies since time immemorial though some people in all generations have tried fighting it and hence it has been reducing with time. In some communities, it was openly practiced but in some it was secretively done and both the victims and the racists pretend like nothing of that kind happens.
This essay analyses the written works of Hagar Salamon “Between Conscious and Subconscious: Depth-to-Depth Communication in the Ethnographic Space” and Karen Brodkin “How Jews Became White Folks”. It features on the similarities and differences of the two writings by comparing and contrasting all aspects evident e.g. the main themes, peoples opinion, the victims (Jews and Africans).
Brodkin’s and Salamon’s writings on Africans Jews and Americans The two Authors, Brodkin and Salamon, clearly introduces us to the discriminated groups and their origin in that, in both stories the victims are immigrants and they are forced to accept the ill treatments in fear of being denied everything including the little that they are allowed.
Brodkin (43) starts her story by quoting how Kenneth Roberts how America was founded by the Nordic race, she clearly states that Kenneth did not consider her ancestors, Jews, as the same as him i.e. at that time Jews were not referred or treated as white people. The northwestern Europeans were the only immigrants ones who were considered and treated as people and in addition they also believed that they were biologically different.
Salamon on the other hand introduces us to the chewas (masters) and baryas (slaves) who are Jews originally from Northern Ethiopia but immigrated to Israel. She talk about how the Ethiopian Jews referred to as the Beta Israel or Falasha and they live in secluded communities of their own within and outside the boundaries of other Jews in Israel.
They also have the issue of skin color whereby the Chewa back in their home considered themselves as not black but que or t’eyem (i.e. red or brown respectively) the barya on the other hand were perceived as tequr (black) and socially inferior compared to the Chewa (Salamon 253).
The ‘Inferior communities usually face a lot of discrimination and deprivation of their fundamental rights for instance, the Baryas are not supposed to marry from any other communities except from their own even after gaining their freedom. Salamon gives a perfect example of one of her interviewees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Almaz, the oldest of the three children born to Habtesh through her relations with her master’s son-in-law, was the only one of Habtesh’s daughters who cooperated with me from the outset.
A 24-year-old high school teacher with perfect written and spoken Hebrew, Almaz symbolized successful integration into Israeli society. At this period in her life, she was preoccupied with the humiliating fact that despite her success, none of her Ethiopian acquaintances would risk marrying her.”(Salamon 259)
As you can see from the quote above Almaz’s father was a Chewa, a son to one her previous masters, but took no responsibility of her daughter. Salamon also says that it was common for barya women to be sexually abused or even impregnated by their masters, Mammit Almaz’s cousin consider herself lucky to have controlled her maternity by gaining freedom without a child from the chewa men.
Mammit had two kids from barya men though not on her own will but to the deliberate intention of the barya men (Salamon 258). this shows that there were instances of male chauvinism among the freed baryas.
Brodkin tells us how the Jews were after being discovered that they were the Euro-immigrant group that had sent a significant number of children to colleges in America, they faced a lot of discrimination to an extent that they were denied admission and Jewish instructors were never promoted ( Brodkin 45). Male chauvinism and racial segregation is also evident in Brodkin work than in Salamon’s.
Brodkin comments about “the GI bill of rights as the 1944 Servicemen Readjustments Act” (Brodkin 47). This was the most massive affirmative action in U.S history. This act enabled sixteen soldiers who participated in the Korean War acquire jobs by preferential hiring, small loans as capital for small enterprises, lowered interest rates on mortgage and educational benefits.
Only white men were the beneficiaries of this act, white women and men from other races were not favored by this act. It is clearly quoted that black men were never offered both employment information and opportunities in the south and those already in service were discharged dishonorably and most of them denied their benefits.
We will write a custom Essay on Theories of Cultural Diversity – Anthropological Theory: Discrimination, ratio prejudice, and male chauvinism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Black men were never admitted on white colleges and black colleges were over populated despite the end of Jewish and other Euro-ethnic restrictions in other words the discrimination was shifted from the Euro-ethnic groups to the African Americans.
The two stories show that there must an external influence for the liberation of to take place. The American Jews required the economic recession and the great demand for labor after the war. This led to the enactment of new statutes, as quote above, that promoted the rise and recognition both socially and economically (Brodkin, p 51).
The baryas on the other hand required Salamon.according to Almaz’s dream for them to claim their liberties. In the dream the light skinned lady who holds Almaz’s hand after she takes the 50 shekels from her is assumed to be Salamon. She, saw Salamon, in the dream prophecies’ that when Almaz attains the age of 28 she shall lead a revolution that would help all baryas attain their freedom (Salamon 260).
Salamon’s and Brodkin’s work also contrast in the way the groups which are considered inferior are liberated from their position. After Salamon interviews a number of baryas who are willing to share their common experiences as slaves but never willing to talk about their personal experiences, she discovers that most of the freed baryas, e.g.
Mammit, struggled for their freedom without any support or aid of any kind from the authority (government of the day) or economic circumstances (Salamon 258). On the other hand the Jews in America did not actually fight for their liberation but they were actually helped by the government as brodkin quotes in her summary,
“The myth that Jews pulled themselves up by their own bootstraps ignores the fact that it took federal programs to create the conditions whereby the abilities of Jews and other European Immigrants could be recognized and rewarded rather than denigrated and denied.
The GI Bill, the FHA and the VA mortgages were forms of affirmative action that allowed Male Jews and other Euro-American men to become suburban home owners and to get the training that allowed them to… become professionals, technicians, Salesmen and managers in a growing economy”(Brodkin 51)
The Jews in America are openly discriminated and the government even enacted laws, before the war, that helped in discriminating the south eastern Euro-immigrants from accessing education, employment and financial assistance from all aspects of the economy. In Israel the situation is different and the slavery is not openly done and it’s very hard for anyone to discover it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theories of Cultural Diversity – Anthropological Theory: Discrimination, ratio prejudice, and male chauvinism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Salamon had been interviewing a Chewa for months and an old barya severed them tea frequently. When Salamon asked about her after noticing that she was always silent and her presence was never noticed by the hosts, Salamon managed to ask about the lady but this was ignored by the hosts who never commented about it this clearly explained to her that she was a barya.
Both the chewa and the barya believe that exposing this idea of slavery to outsiders is considered as “a grave breach of faith” (Salamon 254).
Lastly in both stories the ‘mixed breeds’ are considered as inferior, Brodkin wrote that Higham suggested that “the cross between any of the three European races and a Jew is a Jew” (Brodkin, p 43). Salamon also says that Almaz’s father was a the son of her mother’s, (Habtesh) master meaning she was a cross breed but still treated as a barya (Salamon 259)
Conclusion The two authors write about very different times but both of them comment on three main issues (themes) racial segregation, discrimination and male Chauvinism. The victims as we have seen above are immigrant who are mistreated and deprived of their rights by others who consider themselves superior.
Works Cited Brodkin, Karen. “How Jews Became White Folks” . p 43-51.
Salamon, Hagar. “Between Conscious and Subconscious: Depth-to-Depth Communication in the Ethnographic Space”. Ethos, Vol. 30, . Sep., No. 3, p 249-272.
The impact of the problem of nuclear radiation on the exports of Japan Essay essay help online: essay help online
Abstract According to BBC news on 15th march 2011, the radiation caused by the Japan explosion had risen at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. According to the government report, the quake-stricken plant had reached levels that were harmful.
The warning came after the same plant had been hard hit by the quake for the third time now. This third blast was the worst because for the first time it was thought to have damaged a reactors containment system. (Tabuchi, 2011, p.1-2).
At that particular time, there was a lot of worry of further leakages of radioactive from the nuclear plant and the experts extended the boundaries of the harmful zone to be within a range of thirty kilometers or eighteen miles and the people who were living within this limit were being advised to relocate or remain inside their houses.
In fact, the citizens in Koriyama were being observed if they had been exposed to any exposure of radiation (Sanger and Wald, 2011. p. 1-2)
Introduction This explosion had great impacts on the exports of Japan as an economy. This has effects to both the global and national economies. This has led to a decline in the exports of Japan and a shortage in the countries that rely heavily on exports from Japan. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of this quake on the exports of Japan.
Other aspects included in this paper are the descriptive analysis of the Japan nuclear radiation and the relevant theories related to the nuclear radiation topic (Foster, 2011, p. 1). Because this is a very current phenomenon, most of the materials available are news documents. Most publishers have not yet released books and other scholarly documents on this happening.
Descriptive analysis The magnitude of the Japan explosion was 9.0 but the government sources later on reported that the levels of the radiation at the main entrance of the plant had dropped tremendously. In less than four days, reactor two was the third to blast and reactor four shortly caught fire. Shortly before the blast reactor four had been closed because it was under maintenance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At that point in time, reactors five and six were being observed keenly because sources said that they had also begun overheating. This was a hydrogen blast which caused the level of radiation to rise above the normal in the capital city of Japan. However, government officials claimed that this was not harmful to health. (Mcchinney and Sign, p. 123)
International business theory A theory can be defined as set of principles or statements that are written in order to give explanation to a number of phenomena or facts, mostly those that have been tested severally or broadly accepted and can be used to foretell about a natural phenomena.
One of the relevant theories referred to in this phenomenon is the international business theory. International business is a wide terminology that explains all the transactions that are commercial and occur between two or more countries. These business undertakings could be either governmental, semi governmental or private.
With a lot of improvements that have taken place in the business industry, nations can now export their products to any republic globally. There are several theories that explain why a given nation should go to another nation to purchase given goods and services even if it produces the same products at their local market.
Some examples of international business theories include the absolute advantage theory, the comparative cost theory, opportunity cost theory and the vent for surplus theory. The absolute advantage theory was developed in the year 1977 by Adam Smith.
The theory is based on the fact that production of some goods and services are cheaper in some countries due to some natural factors like natural resources, cheap labor skilled labor and good farming land. Each country concentrates in production of goods and services it has absolute advantage over for export purposes.
Comparative cost theory was developed by David Ricardo. This theory explains that two nations can trade over a commodity if one of them has an advantage of manufacturing the good or service over another product in comparison of another republic’s ability of producing similar products.
We will write a custom Essay on The impact of the problem of nuclear radiation on the exports of Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gottfried Herberler developed the opportunity cost theory in 1959. The value of alternatives that have to be forgone in order to attain a particular product is the opportunity cost. The opportunity cost theory suggests that a nation will produce and export the products that are more profitable to it as compared to others.
Lastly the vent for supply theory simply states that if a country produces more than the domestic demand, the extra produce has to be sold to the international market. If this is not done, part of the countries labor force will become redundant because their produce have no where to go. International business theories are therefore a special contributor to the whole aspect of international trade.
Impact of Japan nuclear radiation on exports Impact on power generation
The explosion at the main power plant in Japan led to a serious shortage of power supply both to millions of house holds and manufacturers. In terms of exports, the worst heat sector is the automotive manufacturing industry. This lead to low production in automotives and other manufactured products, hence low supply to the market that imports machines from Japan.
This is mainly because a big proportion of the Japan economy heavily relies on nuclear power. Most of them site the heavy cost of electricity and also it’s not enough for the power intensive country. This continually leads to a reduction in production for export and hence in return reducing the export quantities.
Japans economy relies heavily on the manufacturing industry for sustenance. Export from this is heavily dependent on power. This has largely affected production in Japan and coupled with increasing oil prices, the products are becoming very expensive for the export market. Japan has to find a quick and durable solution for its export products if it has to maintain and even improve its place on the international market.
In mitigating the impact on power generation, the government and the industry have to work hand in hand to provide both long term and short term solutions. In the short time, the government has to import power in from other nations in order to ensure that production still goes on as usual.
This will maintain its place in the market lest it looses its customers due to shortage in the market. In the long term, the government should place measures in place to ensure that the nuclear firm works effectively with no further explosions.
Radiation testing on Japan’s food exports
Even though Japan is not heavily involved in food export, experts argue that air borne radio actives can get their way into the body through the skin, inhalation and food. If animals graze infected grass they too get infected and consequently, their products like milk and meat get infected too (Mc call, 2010, p. 210).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of the problem of nuclear radiation on the exports of Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If these radiations also fall on plants, they also get infected and so they are not good for human consumption. This ends up being a threat to food supply of the affected economy to the rest of the world (AFP, 2011, p.1)
Japan’s export industry received negative publicity of their food industry due to this explosion. Many economies feared importing food products from Japan because of health issues. Countries like Singapore and Thailand were among the first to test Japan’s food products for radiation contamination. Such food products included fruits, sea foods, meat and vegetables (Willacy, 2011, p.1)
This effect on Japan’s food exports did not affect the economy of its country alone by reducing exports, but is also caused and continues to course great shortages of these products in countries that heavily rely on Japan for their supply.
The condition is further worsened by the thought that intake of radioactive iodine contaminated food leads to thyroid cancer. No body wants to be infected under all costs. In fact the radiations lead to a ban in shipment of some food products from Japan. The main consumers of Japan’s food products are China, US and Hong Kong.
Up to date, the food exports from Japan are still not being received well on the international market. Consumers still fear these products and this has reduced the earnings of Japan from its food export industry. It’s upon the work of the officials to convince the whole world that their products are now safe and that security measures have been put in place to avoid any contamination.
In handling this problem, the government should test its products to ensure that they have no elements of radiations before they are exported. They have to establish laboratories that ensure that their exports are safe for consumption.
It can be very bad for their customers to detect the radiations before Japan itself can do so. Once all the products prove to be harmless over a long period of time, then the government can have the breakthrough and confidence of selling on the international market.
Effect on the value of the yen
Due to the fear of consuming products from Japan, the effect has been seen and will continue being seen in reduced demand from the international market. This continuously leads to a flight in foreign capital and in turn it results in Japanese exports becoming cheaper and imports on the other hand becoming more expensive.
This has led to a state in which the value of the Japanese Yen in relation to the US dollar has been continuously depreciating. Japan is an energy intensive country and any negative effects in its energy sector, causes it to import more energy.
This continues to increase the value of imports and further increase inflation causing the yen to loose its value. The direct implication of this is that the country now needs more units of yen for its imports and receives fewer units of the same for its exports. This has direct negative effects on the foreign trade of Japan as a republic (Harukoya, 2011.p. 1)
The negative effect on the value of the yen is mainly caused by fall in demand and hence the government and all the affected industries have to lay strategies of inducing demand on the international market by coming up with promotion programs that are geared towards restoring the confidence of Japan’s products on the international market.
Impact on manufactured products
Japan heavily relies on the export of second hand and new automobiles for their economic sustainability. The fear that radiations can penetrate the body through the skin has affected this export business. It is widely believed that automobiles from Japan are contaminated and purchasing them is harmful.
This is a double tragedy because as Japan would be working towards stabilizing its power supply, it would heavily rely on products that are ready for export. However, these products have no place in the market because of fear.
The fact that radiation can be inhaled or penetrate through the skin puts Japan’s export industry between a rock and a very hard surface. It may surely take decades for the international community to build confidence in Japan’s products.
The only way to handle this challenge is for the manufacturers, the government and other stake holders restoring the confidence of the international market by testing their exports to ensure that they are harmless and then putting in place suitable programs for marketing their products on the international market.
Effect on flight trips
Flying of planes in and out of a country is a very good indicator of a successful foreign exchange sector. This is because, foreigners come in form of investors and tourists hence injecting foreign investment into the country. Due to the fear of radioactive contaminants, many visitors have shied from visiting Japan.
The fear of being infected has made Japan loose a lot on their foreign income in form from visitors. The fact that Japan has to continue spending more and more on exports yet receiving lesser in form of imports places the economy in a bad state (Kobata, 2011, p. 1-2).
The only way for checking out on this is by the ministry in charge of tourism, trade and other stake holders holding very serious campaigns of assuring the foreigners that the affected areas are very safe for human habitation. In case there are any traces of radiation effects still in the air, then the government should look for experts globally to neutralize the concentration of the radiation within the environment.
Damages on the surrounding firms
Due to the explosion, several manufacturing and business enterprises were also hard hit by the explosion. This caused several damages to the manufacturers and other businesses and as a result, it led to low production of goods and services meant for both the local and international markets.
This in itself enhanced the problem of exports because even though Japan’s products were receiving negative publicity, the level of production also fell tremendously.
There is only one way to help in solving this problem, the way out is for the affected firms to squeeze for some funds in their budget, with the sole reason of rebuilding the destroyed amenities. This is an expensive unplanned for undertaking but it has to be carried out in order to avoid shortages in the market.
Effects on employment
This problem of damages to the surrounding led to many manufacturing firms and businesses to reducing their number of staff until the required renovations had been carried out. The problem of an abrupt drop in employment has negative effects to the exports of a country and the economy at large. This is mainly because it is this source of labor that produces for export purposes.
Once the labor force is reduced drastically, it has a direct effect of reduced production. Such a reduction in production does not only affect goods and services for the local market but it also affects the international market at large (Arthur, 2011, p.1)
The effects on employment can be sorted by the government putting in place measures that ensure that the production process is restored and the manufactured products are marketed for properly on the market. This includes all the above discussed recommendations of rebuilding any destroyed infrastructure and product promotion to ensure that customer confidence is gained.
Conclusion From this paper, it has come out evidently that the event of the nuclear radiation that was largely covered on both the local and international media has had great negative effects on its economy. The effects have been felt in the main sectors of the economy not leaving behind the export sector.
It appears that any single effect of this event has had a direct impact on the exports of Japan. One thing to note is that these effects are still being felt and it may take Japan some time before going back to normal. The greatest challenge Japan has is that of convincing the whole world that their products are now safe, especially after the media widely covered topics on the potential effects of radiation.
Not accusing the media at all, but to a great extent, it contributed to the negative publicity of Japan’s export products (Gyogy 1980, p. 27). Attempts by the government of Japan to re-assure the international community that its products and environment are now safe have not yet yielded much fruits.
One this to not is that by the fact that the exports of Japan are affected, then this does not only affect the economy of Japan, but it also affects the economy of other countries. Economists argue that these effects may persist for some time.
Reference list AFP, 2011. Japan lifts ban on beef following radiation scarce. Tokyo: Jiji press Web.
Arthur, H. 2011, Asian week: Earth quake rocks US nuclear industry from North Anna to India point NYC. Asia. Web.
Foster, M. 2011. USA today: finance minister to be japans next prime minister. NY: Associated press. Web.
Hoffman, M. 2011. The Japan times: forgotten atrocity of the atomic age. Web.
Hirokawa, T. 2011, CBC.ca.business news, candidates to succeed can call for unity, differ on taxes. Tokyo. Web.
Gyorgy, N. 1980. No nukes: Everyone’s guide to nuclear power. Boston: South end press.
Kobata, Y. 2011. Reuters: Japan faces costly, unprecedented radiation clean up. Web.
Mc call, R. P. 2010. Physics of the human body. Maryland: john Hopkins University press.
Company Research: Whole Foods Essay essay help
Introduction The US organic food industry has remained relatively competitive throughout the 80s and early 90s. However, in recent years, Whole-food market has maintained a competitive advantage through various means (Nina, 2007, p.3).
Whole Foods tendency to merge with its competitors, or entirely acquire the operations and businesses of other organic food companies in the US has left Whole Foods with a near monopoly of the US organic foods market.
Whole Food Competitors Trader’s Joe Company, head quartered in Monrovia California, has remained one of the main competitors to Whole Foods (Kroll, 2009, p.3). Over a three-year period between 2000 and 2003, Trader’s Joe posted annual profits that were near those of Whole Foods, and had an annual average increase in profits of about 14%, while Whole Foods had an annual average profit growth of 19%.
The two organic foods companies were also the only companies during this period to post sales figures in the realm of billions. The sales figures for Whole Foods over the stated period were $ 1.8 billion in 2000, $ 2.2 billion in 2002, $2.6 billion in 2003, and $ 3.4 billion in 2004.
For Trader’s Joe, the figures were $ 1.6, $ 1.9, $ 2.2 and $ 2.5 billion respectively. The third ranked organic foods company in terms of sales figures during this period, Wild Oats, posted annual sales figures in the realm of hundreds of millions, with its sales figure for the year 2003 being $960 million.
Therefore, the singular challenger and competitor of Whole Foods during this period was Trader’s Joe. However, since this period (2000-2003) there have been many changes in the US organic foods industry, mostly occasioned by Whole Foods tendency to merge with its competitors in order to gain a competitive advantage.
In the year 2007, Whole Foods acquired Wild Oats, effectively gaining a sales figure advantage over Trader’s Joe. Managerial and structural changes within Whole Foods have also seen the company change its corporate outlook slightly with the virtual retirement of founder and CEO John Mackey as the chairperson of Whole Food’s board.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides Trader’s Joe and Wild Oats (which Whole Foods subsequently acquired in 2007), Whole Food faces competition from rival supermarket chains such as Stop ‘N Shop and Shaws, with both these chains having the competitive advantage of engaging in sales promotion for their products.
Another company that offers competition to Whole Foods is Stonyfield, which while primarily involved in the production of yoghurt, also distributes fresh organic foods and vegetables.
General Introduction All the four competitors of whole Foods mentioned above have certain general characteristics that provide a hint to their business and economic plans and desires. By the simply skimming through the websites of Stonyfield, Trader’s Joe, Stop ‘N Shop and Shaws, the common thread running is the interactive nature of these websites.
Therefore, one inference that a person can draw is that, these companies have put in place measures to interact with their suppliers, consumers and even employees in the most open, transparent and interactive format. As the business world invests more in online transactions, these companies will stand a good chance to capture as many online customers as possible.
Measuring performance: The Current key Initiatives of the Companies The Shaw Supermarket chain is currently involved in initiatives to promote ‘zero waste’ of recycling materials – the promotion of green products that are not toxic to the environment. As part of the Supervalu stores chain, Shaws benefits from an extensive network supported by Supervalu, which as a corporate brand announced a profit of $ 37 billion dollars for the year ending 2010, which represents a 6.4% increase.
Stonyfield is currently involved in corporate-social efforts aimed at highlighting the benefits of organic foods. Through its Profit for the Planet Program (PFP), Stoneyfield last year donated upwards of $ 2,000,000 in countrywide awareness programmes. For the year 2010, the company posted annual revenue of $ 24 billion, representing a 7% increase.
Based on the situation, as it appears on the ground, Trader’s Joe is currently phasing out products from China. This is due to the questionable standards of organic products from China.
We will write a custom Essay on Company Research: Whole Foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company also busy advancing the terms of service of its employees, even though the work conditions for employees in the company are some of the best in the world, with Trader’s Joe ranked as one of the most ethical companies (Kroll, 2009, p.4). Trader’s Joe annual revenue for 2010 was $ 8.5 billion, an increase of 5% from the previous year.
The current corporate-social responsibility activities, for Stop ‘N shop, are in the areas of cancer research, famine relief, and educational grants. In 2011, Stop ‘N shop acquired about five key store outlets also opened another one in downtown Massachusetts in line with its expansion and growth initiatives. Stop ‘N Shops profit for 2010 was $ 11.7 billion, representing an increase of 6.1%.
All these companies are engaged in viable and meaningful expansionist programs as well as a community welfare projects. These sustainable business practices by these four competitors combined point to a likelihood of continuation into the near future. Therefore, barring acquisition by Whole Foods, which has a tendency to merge with its competitors, they are likely to continue offering competition to Whole Foods.
Analyzing the Competitive position of KFC, Pizza Hut, Burger King, and McDonald’s KFC, Pizza Hut, Burger King and McDonald’s are all fast-food companies based in the US but with an international presence in virtually all continents. KFC (formerly Kentucky Fried Chicken), is based in Louisville, Kentucky. Pizza Hut is based in Plano, Texas. Burger King is based on Miami, Florida. McDonald’s is based in Oak Brook in Illinois.
The fast-food industry has continued to grow despite members of the medical profession and other nutritionists’ spirited campaigns of warning the public of the harmful effects consumption of such foods.
McDonalds has the largest global presence amongst the four companies, and reported revenue for the 2010 financial year at $ 24.7 billion (Smith, 2007, p.371), nearly 5 times higher than that of its nearest competitor Burger King. The latter announced revenue of $ 2.5 billion for the 2010 financial year (Wong, 2006, p.5).
Comparatively, Pizza Hut’s reported revenue was $ 800 million (Schoifet, 1985, p.14), while KFC had annual revenue of $ 520 million. All the four companies experienced increased revenues for from the previous financial year of 2009. In terms of employee numbers, McDonalds has about 400,000 employees distributed across the globe. Meanwhile, Burger King has 38,000, Pizza Hut 30,000 and KFC 24,000.
All the four companies, as stated earlier, have a global competitive scope. As the market leader, amongst these four companies, McDonald’s strategic intent is to maintain its current position.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Company Research: Whole Foods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other three fast food selling companies: Burger King, Pizza Hut and KFC all have strategic intent of overtaking a particular rival, specifically McDonald’s, which is the market leader. However, amongst these three companies, a level of competition to outdo each other and attain a relatively higher level of market dominance exists.
The market share objectives of the different companies vary. McDonalds’ market share objective focuses on consolidating its current position and increasing revenues through diverse strategies. Since KFC is the company with the least market share, KFC’s market share objective involves expansion via acquisitions (Shanahan, 2005, p.7).
In fact, KFC has recently been involved in expansion programs that have seen it place a foothold in previously untapped markets in the third world regions, in Asia and Africa. The other three competitors already have branches in these mentioned areas of the world. The competitive positions of all the four companies are strong.
As they expand out of the US market into global markets, all the four companies have maintained relatively high standards of operation acquired in their home countries. In terms of remuneration, these four companies have been able to retain overseas employees due to the comparatively higher wage pay when juxtaposed with local companies throughout the globe.
McDonald’s competitive position mainly involves projecting its image as the trusted leader in the fast foods industry. Other differentiation strategies by McDonald’s base on quality, where the food served is of the highest possible standards. The other three companies have similar and more growth centred company strategies that aim to increase their market share.
References Kroll, K. (2009). Consumer Reports ranks top supermarkets. Retrieved from https://www.cleveland.com/business/2009/04/consumer_reports_rates_superma.html
Nina, W. (2007). “Whole Foods Market prepares Kahala site for store”. Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Schoifet, M. (1985). “Pizza Hut kicks off $15M Priazzo campaign”. Nation’s Restaurant News.
Shanahan, A. (2005). “Anatomy of a dish: KFC Family Feast – eight pieces of chicken (known as the “finger lickin chicken”), four regular fries, gravy and corn cobettes, £9.99″. The Guardian (UK).
Smith, A. F. (2007). The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Wong, G. (2006). “Burger King IPO set to fire up”. CNN Money. Retrieved from https://money.cnn.com/2006/05/12/markets/ipo/burger_king/index.htm
Six Sigma a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Today, more than ever before, enterprises are increasingly being faced with unparalleled competitive and regulatory demands, along with elevated levels of business uncertainty as they wade through the upsetting waters of contemporary global economy.
On yet another front, the convergence of technology witnessed in the 21st century has made many enterprises increasingly concerned with how to productively transition to an enterprise exploiting information technology to its fullest strategic potential (Morganwalp
International strategy for Airbus Report writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Models and framework (Internal and external issues)
International strategy recommendations for 2012-2016
Introduction Airbus has emerged as one of the most powerful aircraft manufacturers in the world. However, it is facing a number of internal and external problems that will require fresh insights. The report will look at these issues and recommend a five year plan designed to meet those challenges.
Models and framework (Internal and external issues) The Porter Generic Model is quite useful in analysing the external issues affecting Airbus. Five major factors are usually analysed in this model and they include: threats of substitutes, threats of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers and threats of competitors.
When one considers the threats of competitors, it is evident that the aircraft manufacturing industry has relatively few players. Most of these manufacturers are internationally renowned and have built networks across the globe; they include Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. Currently Airbus and Boeing have the largest market share in the industry.
Boeing has attained this large market share through an extensive aircraft range. Boeing’s investments in technology have also contributed to its successes. The development of solutions that can contribute to cost effectiveness of airplanes has also made Boeing quite successful (Matthew, 1997). Examples here include: optimisation of seat capacities and creative wing design.
Boeing has also forged strategic alliances and initiated joint ventures with many foreign associations and forums. These and many more reasons make Boeing a force to reckon with in the aircraft manufacturing industry. Airbus caught up with this organisation but much more needs to be done for the organisation to dominate market shares.
Boeing will keep Airbus on its toes in the near future especially through its recent legal suits. The former company claimed that Airbus was not playing fair by its overreliance on government subsidies (Burgos, 2005). Airbus needs to think of other ways of securing its financial future if it hopes to compete with Boeing.
The second element in Porter’s five forces is threat of new entrants. The aircraft manufacturing industry has very long product development cycles. Furthermore, entrepreneurs must part with huge capital investments before they can establish themselves in the industry. They also require a vast pool of skilled employees before they can build or design any aircraft.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Existence of a proven track record is also another factor that needs to be taken into consideration prior to entry into this industry. All these obstacles make it such an uphill task to start aircraft manufacture.
Nonetheless some countries such as Japan and China already have the right infrastructure and trade policies needed to make it in this industry; Airbus needs to enact measures that will always keep it a step ahead of such potential threats. Military craft manufacturers may also be tempted to enter into this market once their respect markets start going down (Nichols, 2001).
Threats of substitutes in the airline industry are also another reality. Airbus deals with the manufacture of aircrafts. Any industry that can substitute airline transport is considered as a threat. Although few sectors can deliver the economy, efficiency and security of the airline industry, it is necessary to acknowledge that train services are still a very formidable force.
Some electric trains now exceed 200 miles per hour and if these rail networks are integrated in Airbus markets, then demand for the company’s products could substantially reduce. Information technology may also prove to be a substitute in the future.
It is likely that more companies will embrace teleconferencing and other technical methods of communication. This will reduce the need for air travel and would thus minimise demand for Airbus’ products.
In terms of the bargaining power of buyers, airlines have considerable clout in this industry. Most of them have been affected by the global economic downturn and many are dealing with financial challenges.
A number of them are working on optimising their operations so this will definitely affect how they purchase products from Airbus. Aircraft manufacturers have a small selection of buyers because their products cannot be sold to the mass market (Benkard, 2004). Most airlines have associations that give them a lot of power and clout in determining the prices or strategies of aircraft manufacturers.
We will write a custom Report on International strategy for Airbus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Airbus must look for ways of coping with this strong market base either through technological or strategic advancements. Unless Airbus can deliver, it will be extremely keep such as demanding market base satisfied.
Threats of suppliers are also crucial in Airbus’ external environment. In engine manufacture, companies like General Electric and Rolls Royce have a lot of bargaining power. These engine suppliers sometimes get into joint development programs with airlines; they determine how engines for their planes will be manufactured.
The ability of suppliers to vertically integrate with other members of the supply chain makes them quite a formidable force. Airbus must also deal with the problem of regulatory institutions. All of them need to give approval to the company’s products before it can be sold.
Sometimes the firm needs to negotiate or defend itself and this may slow down business. Financial leasing institutions that purchase products from Airbus and lease them out to airlines are also another entity that adds to the strength of suppliers in this industry. Airbus must seek new ways of staying above the tide even with all these external challenges.
An internal analysis of this organisation reveals several challenges as well. The World Trade Organisation has ruled that the dependence on subsidies by Airbus is not a fair way of carrying out business (Newhouse, 2008). As a result, Airbus must now look for new ways of managing its finances by either cutting costs or creating new revenue generating streams.
This aircraft manufacturer also has some challenges in product development. Currently, the firm is trying to create a model that can match up to rival Boeing’s Dreamliner 787. It has been working on the A380 jumbo jet but the product is yet to be fully developed (Norris and Warger, 2008). Operational challenges are also worrying this organisation.
The company needs to improve its cycle times and manufacturing efficiency. At the same time, excessive inventory must be avoided in order to minimise wastage. In the process of dealing with the latter two challenges, Airbus needs to streamline its supply chain through integration of customers and suppliers into the manufacturing process. These challenges must be done in a way that delivers quality services
International strategy recommendations for 2012-2016 If Airbus is to cope with excessive competition from Boeing, it needs to cost cut, deal with operational challenges and respond to product innovation needs through implementation of an outsourcing program in the next five years.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International strategy for Airbus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major aims of enacting an outsourcing program will be to address inefficiencies in operations through lean manufacturing. The company will be sure about on-time delivery and high customer satisfaction if it outsources wisely.
In the next three years, the company will be in a position to boost the quality of its products by reducing any returns that may have been instated by aircraft regulatory bodies. It will reduce lead times and thus produce aircrafts in a faster and more efficient way.
Airbus ought to outsource wisely; the company should not enact a radical operation as this may backfire on it (Perret, 2008). Part of the reason why Airbus has been doing so well is that clients can hold it responsible for the products it creates. If responsibility for the whole construction process is transferred to another party, then this could undermine the company’s credibility.
The first thing that Airbus must continue to do is to design the aircrafts themselves. Airplane construction consists of a series of sophisticated components that involve several specialised employees who must each take charge of separate production lines.
These separate parts must then be taken to the main line and assembled. Sometimes the tail of the plane may not even appear as it should be until months after working on it. Because of these complex production processes, Airbus must spend a lot of money on wages, operations, inventory and other operations. Handling these disjointed processes has therefore been hurting the firm’s profit margins.
As a result Airbus has been spending approximately six hundred thousand pounds per hour during the assembling process. Clearly, it would make sense if the company could cut down on some of these expenses by outsourcing. In this regard, instead of leaving the production of particular components to certain suppliers, these same vendors could create an entire section of the plane and then deliver it to airbus.
It should be noted that outsourcing is nothing new to Airbus. It has been using suppliers from various European countries and has been taking the final assembly to France. In this global strategy, Airbus will take their outsourcing to another level; they need to outsource the parts to other non European countries such as Japan and China.
The main advantage with these Asian economies is that they are low wage regions. Furthermore, their governments will be willing to provide a local market for the airplanes if the production process is in those countries. Japan’s government asserted that they were willing to offer a ready market to foreign airplane manufacturers if those processes were brought closer home, so this would be a great destination.
Not only will Airbus be guaranteed a regular market in Asia, it will also be producing its airplanes at a much cheaper price. The company will increase its profit margins substantially if it continues to do this effectively. The other country that will be an important part of this outsourcing strategy is China.
China has great prospects for the manufacture of aircrafts because its government is planning on building a mainline airliner there (Kogan, 2008). Besides, this nation is very competent in manufacturing technologies. The only challenge for Airbus will be handling the potential competition that may emanate from the collaboration.
Between 2012 and 2016, Airbus should work on construction and designs of certain components with Chinese partners. They can avoid giving away all their knowhow so that they can protect themselves from any losses to competitors. The current aircraft A380 should be a start; China should be working on twenty percent of the Aircraft while other traditional plants can work on other parts (Robertson, 2006).
In the next five years, Airbus should dedicate its efforts towards design and improvement of some of its models. It should still maintain production of essential aircraft components because these could make or break the firm.
Nonetheless, engineers and other professionals in the original production plants need to keep collaborating with the Japanese and Chinese component producers in order to ascertain that previous standards are met or even exceeded.
Traditional manufacturers like the UK should still be maintained because it has been shown that this country is an expert in wing production. Excellent plants ought to be retained but those who demonstrate otherwise need to be replaced by the Asian centres.
This strategy should also involve pushing maintenance functions further down the supply chain line. Airbus is incurring a lot of expenses during after-sales maintenance processes. Dissatisfied customers may bring the aircrafts to Airbus who must compromise on their core competences because of these needs. In the next five years, Airbus needs to change this process; it should outsource maintenance services to specialists.
They are likely to produce very effective results because their sole focus is aircraft breakdowns. Specialised third parties can even predict potential failures and thus save consumers from any costly accidents. This would free up Airbus so that it can focus on its main goal which is to manufacture airplanes; not to repair them.
Outsourcing has already been embraced by Airbus’s rival – Boeing and this explains why that player has reduced its operational costs in the short term (Irwin, 2004). If Airbus chooses this strategy, it is likely that the firm may save approximately ten billion Euros by the end of the five year period.
This will largely stem from lower overhead costs that account for about 32% of the company’s expenses. At the end of this period, the organisation should assess the success of the scheme and continue to improve it if it appears to be working. Furthermore, the A38O jumbo jet will be worked on thoroughly by the concerned organisation. It will get a chance to meet its target and will also share risks with its partners.
Conclusion An analysis of the aircraft manufacturing industry reveals that there is immense competition, buyers are becoming more demanding, costs are increasing, product development is lagging behind especially for the A380 jumbo jet, buyer demand may go down, and countries like Japan may enter the aircraft manufacturing industry.
To respond to these challenges, an outsourcing strategy has been recommended for the next five years. It will entail component outsourcing to Japan and China and collaboration with engineers there. The strategy will save on overhead costs, improve core competencies and spread risks.
References Benkard, C. (2004). A dynamic analysis of the market for wide bodied commercial aircraft. Economic studies review, 3(16), 45-67.
Burgos, A. (2005). US, EU to settle Airbus-Boeing dispute. Forbes magazine, January 11 2005, p. 14.
Irwin, D. (2004). Airbus versus Boeing revisited: international competition in the aircraft market. Journal of international Economics, 64(2), 223-245.
Kogan, E. (2008). China’s commercial aviation in take off mode. Asia Times, February 8 2008, p. 23.
Matthew, L. (1997). Birds of prey: Boeing vs Airbus, a battle for the skies. London: Four walls eight windows.
Newhouse, J. (2008). Boeing versus Airbus: the inside story of the greatest international competition in business. NY: Vintage.
Nichols, M. (2001). Airbus Jetliners: the European solution. Stanford: Key Publishing.
Consultant and Client Communication Strategies Research Paper essay help
Businesses depend heavily on consultants who are useful in carrying out technical problems or tasks that arise in an organization. Consultants are usually specialists with skills, experience and knowledge used to drive a particular business activity. They oversee the implementation of a business activity that the organisation was unable to carry out or lacked the expertise and the manpower.
Strategic planning is part of change and consultants are seen as the drivers of change in organisations. In general, consultants provide solutions to manage problems by carrying out operations towards a specific function. The report is based on the marketing department that has sought consultancy in coming up with a strategy that seeks a new market for its products.
The report develops strategies that can be used to develop effective client relationships with the marketing department. It also gives the importance of having an effective client and consultant relationships. Lastly, it provides supporting research on how client consulting relationships can be maintained.
Strategies for developing effective client and consultant relationships Effective client and consultant relationships are usually developed through various strategies. Close interaction and communication between the parties bonds the relationship. This builds trust, transparency, and emotional confidence among other attributes which are necessary in building effective communication.
The bond that is build on trust based on communication is lasts longer as both the client and the consultant feel free around each other and are more likely to be more open. Providing the best solution and responding quickly when a problem arises deepens the relationship between the two parties.
This has been supported by LaBonte and Necessary (2007) who note that relationships are build on the value and commitment a consultant brings and has in ensuring the client’s business succeeds. This kind of strategy can be adopted to ensure an effective clients-consultant relationship is developed and maintained. Socializing with the clients outside the office which is a more open space deepens the relationships.
This can be realised through dinner arrangements or attending of social functions where the client and the consultant interact. However, when using this kind of strategy it is advisable to be aware of the policies that guide the client as far as gifting and entertainment is concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because some companies have laws and ethical policies that prohibit gifts and dinners or they have limitations on the two. This way the consultant becomes aware and does not end up crossing boundaries that may jeopardize the relationship.
Importance of an effective client and consultant relationship Client and consultant relationship is the association that exists between the client and the consultant (Briggs, 2010).The success of an operation that an organisation is seeking consultancy on, depends on the relationship quality that exists between the consultant and the business unit. This is achieved through proper open communication and understanding between the parties involved.
According to Kubr and International Labour office (2002) the success depends on client and the consultants and they should be aware of the factors that may have effect on their relationship so as to avoid any errors that may occur in the process and jeopardize the working of the two. If the relationship between the client and the consultant is not effective, then the goals of the consulting would not be achieved in first place.
Wrangles and costs are reduced if the clients and consultants involved collaborate and work together with an understanding. This benefits both the client and the consultants as the parties can achieve their goals. Effective relationship builds the emotional confidence and trust between the client and the consultant. This increases the rate at which the consultant can effectively use their expertise to come up with the solution being sought.
For example, a client and consultant relationship that is not based on trust and emotional confidence has the likelihood of not being effectively executed. However, if the trust and emotional confidence levels are high, then a vehicle that determines future decisions that the consultant may make regarding the solutions to particular issue is realised.
The relationship establishes a credibility that benefits the consultants and the clients (LaBonte
The Justification for the Victorian Desalination Project Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In June 2007, the Victorian Government released the State’s next stage water plan that was christened ‘Our water, our future’.
One strategy formulated is premised on the need to construct and operate a $3.1 billion desalination plan under a Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangement1, with Powlett River located at Wonthaggi being identified as the preferred site for the desalination plant. This research aims to evaluate the justification for the project.
Economic Justification Employment is an aspect that ensures continuity of any society in a stable way. Economic statistics retrieved from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) indicate that Wonthaggi District has an employment rate of 50.4% and when compared to larger Victorian region, unemployment in this district is estimated to be high2.
Employed people on the project will have a secure income that will enable them to meet their social, economic, and environmental needs.
Further, the area is going to be a fertile ground for entrepreneurship activities and this will promote self-employment, as more people will venture in trade activities, sustainable agriculture, and real estate development. Therefore, Victorian Desalination Project is perceived to be viable in ensuring economic benefits, and development of the region is realized3.
Social Justification Social security is the ultimate goal for sustainability of any given society. It has been noted that Melbourne region and specifically the Wonthaggi area and Bass Coast Shire area have limited social infrastructures.
Outlined in its development plan, initiation of the project in the area is likely to result in upgrade of roads in the area ($12 million allocated); water supply is going to improve with proposed “$5 million pipeline connecting Wonthaggi, Inverloch and Cape Patterson to the desalination plant “4.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The project is further going to ensure provision of educational, interpretive facilities recreational and cultural assets. Social justification for the project can therefore base on assumption that, once the project starts operating, there is going to be: increased visitation to community activities and events, greater social interaction, and diversity and increased investment in social and commercial services in the area5.
Environmental Justification Safe environments promote health well-being of an area and enable realization of other set goals in social-economic sphere. With the project, it is mandatory that there will be adoption of comprehensive environment policy framework that will enable the region to realize a completely coordinated preservation and protection of both terrestrial and marine environments of the area.
Environmental justification for the project can be attached to the role the project will play in terms of: management of saline concentration; protection of biodiversity and preservation of native vegetation; efficient use of resources and minimizing resource use through recovery maximization and recycling; and protecting air quality.
Conclusion Economic, social, and environmental activities in Melbourne have been affected by long periods of drought. Nevertheless, with proposed Victorian Desalination Project, all indication point to an improvement and development of the area.
It is recommended that all stakeholders involved in the project should ensure there is thorough economic, social and environmental assessment of the project to ensure negative impacts are minimized and net community benefit of the project are maximized.
Bibliography AquaSure. Victorian Desalination Project: Local benefits and initiatives, 2010. Web.
Bass Coast. Community Profile: Wonthaggi District. ID Consultancy PTY Ltd, 2007. Web.
We will write a custom Report on The Justification for the Victorian Desalination Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Capital Projects and Department of Treasure and Finance. Victorian Desalination Project: Partnerships Victoria Project Summary, Capital Projects Division, 2009. [Attached notes].
Mitchell, K, et al, Environmental Effects Act 1978: Victorian Desalination Project Environment Effects Statement, Ministry of Planning, 2008. [Attached notes].
Footnotes 1 Capital Projects and Department of Treasure and Finance, Victorian Desalination Project: Partnerships Victoria Project Summary (Capital Projects Division, 2009) p 4.
2 Bass Coast, Community Profile: Wonthaggi District (2007) p.1.
3 K Mitchell, N Wimbush, C Harty, G Lampe and G Sharpley, Environmental Effects Act 1978: Victorian Desalination Project Environment Effects Statement, Ministry of Planning, 2008, p 67.
4 AquaSure, Victorian Desalination Project: Local benefits and initiatives (2010) p.1.
5 K Mitchell, N Wimbush, C Harty, G Lampe and G Sharpley, ibid, p 218.
Human Resources Management in the Saudi Arabia Airliners (SAA) Report best essay help
Introduction Strategic management entails the managers, acting on behalf of the owners of the business, to utilize the resources they have so that they better the performance of the organization. In order to utilize the resources of the business effectively, the managers of the business must consider the mission, the objectives of the business and the vision of the business in order to develop the plans and the policies that the business seeks to achieve.
Human Resource Management in the strategic management of an organization Human resource management in the world today plays a very important function when it comes to strategic management of an organization. To start with, human resource management seeks to achieve the organization’s desirable features: that is the objectives of the organization as well as the goals of the organization.
Among the principles that human resource management focus on is establishment of effectiveness, increasing of productivity, establishment of effective competitive advantage in the organization, as well as establishment of flexibility in the organization. All these principles are aimed at getting the business to gain the objectives of the organization, which is highly highlighted in strategic management.
In the world today, human resource management has been strategized to become what is now known as strategic human resource management. Strategic human resource management entails the organization in focusing on the long term plans of the organization along with the strategies and objectives of the business organization that affects the external environment.
Such is an important consideration that is greatly considered by strategic management of an organization. The external environment is inclusive of global and technological issues, the competitors of the business, and the economic conditions so as to achieve success in the organization. Saudi Arabian Airlines is one of the organizations that the human resource management plays a great role to strategic management.
One of the ways the human resource management department plays a part is achieving the objectives of strategic management in helping out formulation of policies (Nankervis et al., 2005). The human resource management is involved in making policies that aim at benefiting the organization when it is meeting its strategic management policies.
In Saudi Arabian Airlines, human resource management is also involved in the personnel employment and effectives. The personnel and the staff are the main players that usually ensure that the policies that the organization set out to achieve are attained. They are what can be considered as the drive towards achieving the goals and strategies of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, human resource management can be considered as a key player in strategic management as it brings in place the personnel, which is needed in achieving the objectives and the goals of the organization. The human resource management acts as a coordination department in strategic management (Nankervis et al., 2005).
Through looking for the best employees who would improve the performance of this organization, the HRM ensures there are able employees with the right experience and education to face any problems that may come their way in achieving the underlined goals and objectives.
Influence of HRM on planning, policy, practices and job design The Human Resource Management affects the structure and design of an organization through planning, formulating policies and practices, and by effective job design. It does this through influencing the resources assigned to it. In this case, the resources in question are the personnel and the staff that will be involved in reaching the goals of the organization.
Job design entails increasing the quality of work that is in existence in a certain organization. The only way that job design can be achieved is ensuring that the employees of a particular organization are motivated and work in such a way that they are motivated. The work of motivation and enrolling workers is entirely achieved by having good management in the human resource management department.
When it comes to the structure of the organization, the human resource management is also greatly involved (Singh, 2010). For a structure to be fully developed it requires assignment of tasks to various personnel in the organization. Such work is solely dependent on how the human resource is organized to be able to hold together the structure.
The human resource management lays down the guidelines and rules that relate to the work and the procedures that need to be there. The human resource assigns the work and establishes the responsibilities and the authority in the organization. Policies made by the organization are also dependent on the human resource management.
The reasoning behind this is due to the fact that unless the organization knows its capability, it may not be able to know what to produce and in what amount. Capability of production is partly dependent on the human resource available to the organization, which is related to human resource management (Singh, 2010).
We will write a custom Report on Human Resources Management in the Saudi Arabia Airliners (SAA) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Importance of recruitment, training and induction programs Appropriate recruitment, training and induction programs can help in developing philosophies and structures that are beneficial to the organization. To start with, recruitment programs are important to the organization as they help out in identifying the best candidates for the particular work that the organization is offering.
Other consideration taken to account during the recruiting program is whether the applicants have the right requirement which the specific job needs. On the other hand, training programs are aimed at equipping the selected individual for job with the right skills needed in the job. It is therefore of utmost importance that the training programs be of relevance to the particular job in question.
For success to be achieved in the training program the trainers, the trainees and the training climate need to be good as well as good communication among the various parties. When a training program is being developed, there is need to ensure that the needs of the organization as well as the constrains that are in existence in the organization are dealt with.
The training programs also help out to teach the recruited employees of the organizations concepts and background as the basis of their learning. Induction programs are also of utmost important in the organization. The main purpose of having these programs in the organization is to ensure that the new employs are introduced, integrated and well familiarized with the organized as quickly as possible.
Through these programs, issues like the culture of the organization and expected standards of the organization are discussed (Johnson, 2010). The programs also help the new employees to grow and feel motivated when working in the organization. Other elements of character are also instilling on the new employees in the organization due to presence of induction programs.
Among them are confidence, responsibility and employment philosophy. Having these programs leads to the new comers achieving the initial targets and make an impact to the organization. It is also worth noting that induction programs do not just take for a day or two it should continue until the employees are fully integrated in the workplace (Johnson, 2010).
Collectively, the three programs are important in making the structure of the organization. They develop the guidelines of the responsibilities in the business and assign them to certain individuals. They are also on record or developing the protocol to be followed in the organization due to their ability to offer assignments.
Methods of appraising, evaluating and rewarding performance There are various ways in which performance of an employee can be appraised and evaluated. One of the ways to evaluate performance is the use of checklist method. The method entails the senior boss being handed a list of question that he is supposed to answer about a junior worker in the organization. In every question there is a check box that contains Y and N where the tick mark is going to be put.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resources Management in the Saudi Arabia Airliners (SAA) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Y stands for yes while N stands for no. To achieve uniformity, the checklist may be distributed to various employees in the organization. The method is notably one of the simplest methods that can be used for evaluation. The second method that can be used is called the confidential report method.
The method entails the senior boss in the organization writing a report about a certain worker or any other high level employee writing a report about a junior worker. The report contains details about the workers performance and their positive as well as their negative traits. The report also contains the responsibilities that have been assigned to the employee and how he/she has fared in it.
Such a report is important for future recommendation for promotions that may occur in future. Also notable about these reports is the fact that they are limited in access as well as being highly confidential (Nankervis, 2009). The third method is the Critical incident method. The method considers various incidences that the employee has undergone through and how the employee behaved in these incidences.
Also notable about this method is that other positive and negative incidences are noted. The analysis of the person, their abilities and there talent are also notable in this methods and may be used for any promotions that may occur in future. There is also the ranking method. Ranking is specifically due to the performance of the employee in question. Ranking may further be divided into three methods.
The simple ranking method: the method entails ranking the employees in a serial number from the best employee to who may be considered last. Each employee has to be given a rank, for example, if we have ten employees all the ten employees have to be given a rank. Alternative ranking is the second of the ranking methods. The method entails defining the best employee and the worst employee.
The first employee is given rank one and the worst is given the last rank depending on the number of employees. Paired comparison is the last of the three ranking methods. The method focuses in comparing the people in a group or a department with other people in the same group or department.
Certain criteria are chosen to determine the best way to compare the various employees in the organization after which the employees are ranked. Finally there is graphical rating scale method. Like the name suggest appraising, evaluation and rewarding performance is presented using a graph.
The graph contains columns which the appraised qualities that has been accessed. The quality of work is the main determinant to the seniors who put tick marks on the quality alongside the rank (Nankervis, 2009).
Problems encountered by Saudi Arabia Airliners The organization’s strategic goals in Saudi Arabia Airliners have been hindered by several problems. For one, there is the issue of inequality among the employees working in Saudi Arabia (Nazir, 2009). Just like may organization in Saudi Arabia women are still considered as if they are second-class citizens.
The notion that women are only good in office work is still predominant in the organization. My view is that the country needs to change their laws and social customs as well as changing their [perception when it comes to equal rights of men and women.
The problem of nepotism is also one of the problems encountered in Saudi Arabia. In fact, it is renowned as “Wasta”. Selection of workers by the human resources is at times affected by this problem. Though not a good thing, Nepotism is still practiced in most organizations in Saudi Arabia, with Saudi Arabia Airliners not being an exception (Romero, 2011).
The best solution to this problem would be assigning a code to the applicants in a certain job so that the names do not sell out the individuals’ tribe or identity. It is also notable that diversity offers many benefits to organization that embrace it due to different exposures of the various individuals (Hayajenh, 1994).
Conclusion In conclusion, Saudi Arabia Airliners is one of the biggest airlines in the world. The fact that it has been privatized into strategic Business Unit should make it become even more competitive due to ability to reach high on the various units. The adventure of the human resource management to use effective ways of selecting qualified employees offers it an edge to have competitive prices against other competitors.
List of references Hayajenh, A. F. (1994) Research Note: Assessing the Effect of Nepotism on Human Resource Managers. Lousiana, MCB UP Ltd.
Johnson, A. W. (2010) The Importance of Workplace Training Web.
Nankervis, R. C. ( 2009) Effective Recruitement and Selection Practices. Sydney: CCH Australia Limited.
Nankervis, A. R., Compton, R. L.,
Timeless Lessons learnt from previous U.S Conflicts Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The core responsibility of the Department of Defense is to ensure that there is well sustained security and homeland defense in the United States of America. Besides, the department is also charged with the task of overseeing international security issues that may equally pose potential threat to the United States and its citizens (NDS, 2008).
As a result, the unparalleled conventional military wing capability is always prepared to counteract any possible attack on the U.S interests both at home and abroad. This has compelled both perceived and real enemies to restructure and find the right balance in the art and science of warfare in order to be resilient enough against United States’ grand strategy on security plan.
Additionally, the U.S government in collaboration with its military leadership has quite often endeavored to shape the country’s military capabilities to be stable enough in readiness to fight and win attacks launched by the emerging 21st century enemies.
On the other hand, while the U.S. military forces continue to fight insurgency warfare in Iraq and Afghanistan, the same insurgents and other rival nations are integrating modern technology with ancient techniques such as mutiny and terrorism aimed at achieving egocentric political goals. It is imperative to note that countering terrorism requires appropriate strategies as well as preparedness for war at any given time.
However, past war events have left trails of defeats and uncertainties due to myriad of factors that should act as lessons in guiding military and political leaders to redirect and reexamine their actions. This essay offers a succinct analysis of some of the prudent lessons that the United States military and political leaders need to learn on past conflicts.
Today, the United States government has put in place myriad of strategies aimed at curbing rising rates of revolts and insurgencies. It makes use of its intelligence wing to gather credible information on the strengths and weaknesses of terrorists alongside other forms of enemies.
According to General Petraues (2006), one of the key elements of effectively tackling insurgencies is obtaining precise and exact intelligence. Accurate, actionable and timely intelligence reports regarding revolts, planned acts of terror as well as other related security threats have been revealed to the U.S key decision makers and military leaders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both internal and external capabilities of all threats to security have been identified by intelligence department. They have used intelligence information gathered to establish grand strategies. However, in order to avoid biasness and mishaps that leaders in the past committed, it is crucial for decision makers to come up with sound judgments before engaging in any form of war so that past blunders can be corrected once and for all.
Past conflicts have witnessed U.S. military forces being committed to war with little regard of other important factors. Hence, it is highly recommended that decision makers on homeland and foreign security of U.S interests ought to read, understand and follow the Weinberger Doctrine. This doctrine lays out integral parameters that must be met prior to committing the U.S. military forces to war.
The Weinberger Doctrine parameters clearly points out that before any act of war, a determining factor such as vital interests of the United States or of one or more of its allies being at stake should be established (Handel, 2001). Additionally, sufficient force should be applied to reflect unequivocally the intention of winning.
Moreover, the Weinberger Doctrine highlights the principles of objective and simplicity by emphasizing that political and military goals must be clearly defined and continuously reassessed to keep cause and response in synchronization.
Most importantly, before troops are committed to war, there must be a reasonable assurance of support from the American public. Finally, undertaking of a combat role should be done when there are no alternatives and as last resort (Handel, 2001).
Clear and well defined objectives depend on accurate knowledge of an enemy’s anatomy and physiology. The success of the grand strategy depends on accurateness and timely intelligence information shared by every participating organization. The lessons learned from the Vietnam War clearly emphasized the importance of having sterling intelligence gathering capabilities in order to shape the U.S. grand strategy.
Apparently, the United States decision makers did not have vivid information on the Viet Cong’s strengths and weaknesses. In turn, it led to vague political objectives. The United States Armed Forces employed superior air power attacks against Viet Cong and achieved swift military victory. This decisive military victory did not kill the determination of the Viet Cong to fight with the Americans.
We will write a custom Essay on Timeless Lessons learnt from previous U.S Conflicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, Viet Cong’s army employed the art and science of guerilla warfare against the U.S. military forces. The U.S. decision makers and military leaders continued in ignorance to deliver fly-by responses to counter the Viet Cong attack. The end result was that the number of U.S. casualties started to pile up.
The aftermath of Vietnam War has been used as a lesson to the United States decision makers and military leaders about the need for balance mechanism before engaging in any war. During conflicts and times of war, the concept of Clausewitz trinity emphasized that it is crucial for the government, military and the general public to exercise proper balance (Handel, 2001).
It is instructive to note that the United States lost the Vietnam War since its government lost the battle back home. If the United States government intends to succeed in fighting wars abroad, it must first win the battle at home (Gray, 2005). Professor Zimmermann (2011) argues that both senior military and political leaders must be adept and flexible enough in forming winning strategies before going to war.
Furthermore, they must be well acquainted with comprehensive knowledge on the art and science of war and how it is supposed to be balanced. Finally, he points out that knowing the enemies’ strategies, societal and cultural weak points as well as their mindset is key to victory (Zimmermann, 2011).
The U.S. decision makers and military leaders must deliver clear and achievable objectives. The leadership must incorporate some exit strategy and well-defined end-states when establishing war plans to avoid mistakes made through fly-by responses.
The Vietnam War planners violated key doctrines related to the 12 Principles of the Joint Operations which includes the principles of objective, offensive, mass, economy of force, maneuver, unity of command or effort, security, surprise, simplicity, restraint, perseverance, and legitimacy (JP 3-0, 2008). As Handel (2001) observes, one of the ways of achieving political goals is through military victory (Handel, 2001).
According to President Bush, military wars are not intended to bring stability or linger for long, but they are meant to be swift with winning purpose (Gordon
Nationalism does not form a single fraternal community Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Lomnitz affirmed that nationalism does not form a single fraternal community because it distinguishes between various categories of people1; indeed these assertions hold to be quite true in Argentina. Argentineans have been struggling with the concept of nationalism for a long time because no basis for commonality actually exists2.
Nationalism and the lack of a single fraternal community in Argentina The debate over nationalism and its constituents have often led to bitter if not violent confrontations3. This has been the result of various political and historical events in the country. Argentina is an amalgamation of various cultures that range from European immigrants, Indians, Spanish descendents, indigenous Argentines as well as Afro Argentines4.
Furthermore, the country’s affiliation to its Catholic heritage further complicates this definition of nationalism5. Political control of the concept of nationalism has also added to this complication. At one point, emphasis was given to the links between Mother Spain and Argentinean nationalism.
However, when threats of foreign domination emerged, Argentine authorities soon rejected associations with western cultures by postulating the very notions that they had banned prior to these anti-colonial sentiments6.
Now that a description of the Argentinean historical and political discourse has been given, it is crucial to link this to the divergent occurrence of nationalism in the country. Lomnitz explains that nationalism in Latin America has often been defined by the elite classes7.
In the nineteenth century, they were the ones that determined the elements of modernity which were desirable and the ones that were not. They were patriotic and had great taste. However, their foreign contacts made them appear less patriotic than indigenous Latin Americans8.
In fact, certain powerful figures such as the 1976 President – Arturo Frondizi asserted that foreign ideological influences and customs were detrimental to the national roots of Argentina9. He believed that the country’s citizens had the responsibility of saving their traditions and cultures10.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This understanding of nationalism (one that is defined by social classes) delineates the upper classes from the lower ones. It creates greater division between these two categories of people because the majority of the population may not belong to the elite classes11.
Concepts of nationalism in Argentina possess certain cleavages that make some citizens appear less associated with the nation than others12. Indeed, concepts of race and ethnicity have been acknowledged as important contributors to the understanding of nationalism in this country13. Political elites have frequently propagated the notion that Argentinean citizens and hence true nationals are descendants of Spanish nationals.
In essence, these are people who are predominantly white or European14. The country’s capital – Buenos Aires – has often been understood as being predominantly white but this is not always the case if one critically examines the demographics prevalent in that location15. Indigenous groups have sometimes been defined as being less Argentinean than members of the white race16.
Indians account for approximately three hundred thousand of the people who live in Argentina and they are sometimes discounted by some of the predominant races in the country. The same thing has been happened to black populations in the country. It should be noted that blacks got into Argentina as a result of slave traffic.
In the middle of the twentieth century, people of African descent (including mulattoes, who were mixed-race children of Europeans and blacks) represented approximately thirty percent of the capital city’s population. However, these numbers reduced dramatically in later years. The population of Afro-Argentines has often been resented because they are considered as invaders of urban spaces17.
They are sometimes called ‘negrola’ and the areas that they occupy are called ‘cabecitas negras’. Such terms are quite derogatory and have been termed as racist. In the eyes of the people who use them i.e. the upper and middle class white population, ‘Negrola’ is not a term that denotes unity in citizenry18. This group of people thinks of itself as more Argentinean than the blacks and the mulattoes.
To them, nationalism is symbolic of modernity and progress. Certain races are automatically associated with poverty, so they tend to defy that understanding of nationalism. This perception of who is a real Argentinean has sometimes led to xenophobic relations between various races19. Perceptions of non whites have been difficult to reconcile with nationalist sentiments.
We will write a custom Essay on Nationalism does not form a single fraternal community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Argentina, state interventions occurred in order to spearhead a form of popular nationalism. Ideologies that stemmed from the government were to be spread out to the people through the education system20. The only challenge was that there were already professional cultural producers who could not identify with this state sponsored form of nationalism.
Consequently, the latter groups often challenged the nationalist project propagated by the government of President Peron. He was trying to spread these sentiments into different parts of the country through an unconventional system.
However, those who could not identify with those nationalist sentiments claimed that education should not be used as cultural machinery. Therefore, politically shaped nationalism did not create a fraternal community because it created two sets of groups; the non state groups and state elites21.
In the nineteenth century, nationalism was presumed to be exclusionary because it was only designed for a small portion of the population. It was understood as something that encompassed the literate and the wealthy. As a result, most poor people or uneducated people were cut out from this definition22. It was this kind of thinking that eventually led to a populist kind of nationalism that began in the 1940s and fifties.
Populist nationalism tried to correct the ills in early nineteenth century understanding of nationalism. It wanted to include members of sidelined races into the political sphere. Blacks and Indians alongside other delineated groups were bracketed and referred to as ‘the people’.
The only problem with this perception was that it led to a politically based conception of the Argentinean nation that has persisted to date. People were now divided into two divisions; some of them were categorized as Peronists (President Peron had propagated this ideology) while the anti-Peronists were considered outcasts and non nationals.23
Conclusion Nationalism in Argentina has created several dilemmas that fail to achieve the very notion of a single fraternal community. In certain circumstances, nationalism has caused class based divisions in Argentine because it was linked to the literate and the wealthy.
In other situations, it has separated non political adherents with political. Finally, nationalism has divided Argentines along racial lines as well since members of certain ethnicities were not considered as real nationals. This has sometimes sparked violence and xenophobic reactions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nationalism does not form a single fraternal community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Anderson, B, Imagined communities: reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism, Verso Publishers, New York, 1991.
The relationship between the Rubber Boom and the Second Industrial Revolution. Essay college admissions essay help
The discovery of natural rubber changed the dynamics of western economies in the late eighth century and early ninth century. To get a better perspective on how the rubber boom redefined the second industrialization, a brief history of the discovery of rubber will shed more light.
Rubber was discovered in the Amazon region of Peru and Brazil by the indigenous Indians who had used it to make an elastic ball that they used in a game called Tlachtlic, at around 1600BC. The rubber was extracted from a tree called rubber tree (Havea brasiliensis)1.
Rubber got to Europe through early expeditionary trips by the likes of Christopher Columbus2. It was used as an as an eraser by Joseph priestly. The practical use of rubber was not well developed until 1800s when the first rubber factory was built in the United Kingdom, France and the United States increasing the demand of the product in the world market.
Use of rubber gained momentum through clever discoveries like vulcanization, which led to different applications of rubber like Michelin 1895 was able to adapt the bicycle tire to automobile tires3. Prior to this, in 1815 Hancock had discovered the first rubber mattress and together with a Macintosh, they developed a waterproof coat and the list is endless of how new rubber applications developed.
The impact of the boom in rubber in Europe, America and Asia led to emergence of new economies especially in Brazil where small towns like Belem, Manaus and Porto Velho grew rapidly to become major towns in Brazil4. The effect of this sporadic growth and massive demand called for increased supply of the product to meet the demand which further meant that a larger workforce needed to be put in place.
The negative aspect that reared its head in economic growth was that most indigenous Indians were forced to work for the rubber barons and although the venture was very profitable those who collected the rubber in the fields were grossly paid and the native Indians of the Amazon were made slaves to work for the plantation owners5.
In one of the plantations, it is quoted to have started with around 50,000 workers of Indian decent. When the plantation was put on the limelight, it was revealed it had only about 8,000 Indians. The rest had died either under unorthodox means or just brutally murdered6.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, on the other side, Brazil emerged as a well-developed economy. The rubber boom never lasted for long in Brazil as by 1873 the Britons had migrated their interest to Malaysia and had stated their own plantation7.
The rubber boom had led to an industrial revolution in Brazil’s economy through an advanced infrastructural system in railroad, construction of roads and an improved communication that allowed and facilitated other facets of the economy to grow tremendously like mining and agriculture. It is also important to mention that the boom brought both political and economic redefinition of the economic prospects in Brazil8.
Other economies that emerged from the rubber boom were countries like Malaysia. Although rubber trees grew spontaneously in the wild in Malaysia rubber plantation were introduced by the British in 18709. The Havea Brasiliensis specimens were transported notably to Singapore and Ceylon where they performed better than expected.
The boom and increased rubber prices that had reached an all-time high in 1910, which boosted the economy drastically through its exports that also included tin10. By 1921 Malaysia was exporting 50% of the world’s demand for rubber with an estimated 1.34 million acres under plantation. The projected economic growth had surpassed the 4.5% mark, making Malaysia to be one of the rapidly growing economies in the world11.
This was aided by the cheap labor that was acquired from Indian migrants brought in under the government auspices, the Chinese who had invested heavily in Malaysia’s rubber industry and who operated as private companies sought for the “coolie” trade as a means to getting an alternative workforce12.
In addition, Malaysia was strategically placed and its deep harbors proved essential in trade compared to other islands which were slightly away from the main route13.
Besides, the steady growth of exports in Malaysia was due to better governance and policies made to ensure a competitive growth and a well-developed and elaborate infrastructural system in road, railway, ports in Penang and Singapore together with good communication networks allowed for the rapid economic growth. 14
We will write a custom Essay on The relationship between the Rubber Boom and the Second Industrial Revolution. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly other economies that benefitted in a way to the rubber boom were the Belgium that controlled the Congo under King Leopold II. After successful acquiring the Congo through the Berlin conference, king Leopold set out to make the venture profitable to be able to run its administration15.
Unlike Brazil and Malaysia where rubber was grown under plantation, in Congo, rubber was extracted from wild vines that grew in the jungle16.
The extraction also took unorthodox means. Instead of tapping the rubber the Congolese took to slashing the tress and lathering their bodies with the sap and when the sap had hardened they would curve it off their bodies this was an extremely painful procedure as the hardened latex would come out with human hair. The practice also led to massive destruction of the tress.
By 1890, rubber had surpassed the ivory exports in Congo17. King Leopold was able to make massive profits by the end of 1903 at the expense of the Congolese people who had suffered from massive atrocities like being raped, murdered and their hands being severed18.
Belgium had come out as a powerful economic block in Europe, but just like Brazil the boom never lasted long and eventually due to massive western pressure king Leopold had to yield to pressure and hand over the Congo leaving the worst record on human rights violation19.
The rubber boom helped to propel the then developing economies to become developed economies and giving rise to new economies from the renowned dominant ones like America, United Kingdom, Russia and Europe20.
It’s critical to understand that the emergence of these new economies was boosted by the high demand of raw materials after the Second World War which left Europe in a crisis in form of labor and provision for its industries, the second world war provided a ready market for processed goods especially agricultural products which were essential for the revival of the western economies21.
The second industrial revolution was characterized also by other booms, not only in rubber, but also in other cash crops22. For instance Brazil had the sugar boom, Malaysia before the rubber boom had the tin boom which was its largest export.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The relationship between the Rubber Boom and the Second Industrial Revolution. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the world’s fronts there were great innovations in the communication sector like the telegraph, in textile there were still major strides in synthetic fiber23. All these aspects played quite a crucial role in boosting markets and products for these new developing economies that characterized the second industrial revolution.
Bibliography Akers, C. The rubber industry in Brazil and the Orient / with twenty-six illustrations. Upper Saddle River: Cengage Learning. 1914.
American Bibliographical Center: Twentieth century abstracts. American Bibliographical Center of ABC-Clio, 1980.
Andrew, D. Lonely Planet Brazil, Regis St. Louis. Lonely Planet, 2005
Cohen, S. B. Geopolitics of the world system: Regional geographies for a new era. Rowman
The Cane Toad Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Introduction
Threat to other natural species
Lethal Toxic Venom
Introduction The Cane Toad was introduced from the tropical island of Hawaii in the year 1935 by one of Australia’s bureau, The Sugar Bureau Experiment Station. Cane toads were introduced as a measure to curb the problem of the native cane beetle otherwise known as Domolopedia albohirtum. The toads were first bred in captivity and they bred rapidly to a population of 102 toads by the month of August in 1935.
The toads were first released in the Northern Queensland, as was referred then, in a few areas specifically the areas around Carns. After sometime the cane toads were released tp other areas in the second drive.
At first the toads were released temporarily owing to the emerging concerns over the environment. Once the concerns were addressed the toad release was resumed in the month of September 1936.
The cane toad multiplied rapidly in a short span of time compared to other species in the same habitat. The toads had breed rapidly leading to the toads migration to other areas beyond the areas around the Queensland.
This can be attributed to the toad’s large and wide body, longer legs compared to other amphibians that helps in the toads movement from place to place and part of the frog, ten per cent, was affected by arthritis ( Tyler, 1944, 112).
The cane toad is a large amphibian, slightly heavily built with dry as well as warty skin cover ( Kessler, 2011, 7).
Reasons for Introduction Cane toads were introduced in Australia in the year 1935 from South America ( Kessler, 2011, 3). The major reason for introduction of the cane toad was to control the French Cane Beetle and the Grey Back Cane Beetle that were destroying acres and acres of sugar cane crops( Kessler, 2011, 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The natural habitat for the cane toad is in the Central and South America ( Tyler, 1994, 123). They are basically terristerial animals but from time to time require the acquatic environment for rehydration as well as for breeding purposes ( Kessler, 2011, 11). In Australia the cane toad is found in mangrove areas, in rainforests as well as around sand dunes.
The toad breeds in slow-flowing or stagnant but clean water bodies. These kind of climate is favourable for the rapid growth of the cane toad. The Australian climate encourages the toads rapid and unparalleled growth. The female cane toad lays approximately 7,000 to 35,000 eggs at a go and breeds at least twice in a year.
The laid eggs hatch after seventy two hours into tadpoles. In a period of about twenty one days to a half a year the tadpoles develop to toadlets. A cane toad has an average lifespan of five years (Tyler, 1994, 156).
Another factor that led to the successful establishment of this pest is the fact that the cane toad has no known natural predator such as the fresh water crocodile or crawling reptiles. The tiger snakes have been known to eat the cane toads but they later die from the toads poisonous venom that it produces once it feels threatened or in danger. This venom is excreted from glands that are located right above each shoulder of the cane toad.
Another factor that has lead to the cane toad successful establishment is the fact that cane toad has a venom secreting gland on either side of it body right above the shoulders. The gland excretes venom immediately the toad feels threatened or in danger.
Another factor is that the Cane Toad is poisonous in all its stages of its life cycle. A cane toad excretes poisonous venom in all its developmental stages therefore insuring its survival no matter what stage of development the toad is. The toad has no stage where it is any less vulnerable to danger as it uses its poisonous venom as a protection measure to ensure its survival. Pros and cons of the method used to control pests.
Threat to other natural species The cane toad eats a variety, a wide variey, of different species. A cane toad can eat approximately two hundred times as much as other amphibians therefore a large variety of prey. The cane toad consumes almost anything it can find that can fit in its mouth. It therefore consumes too much of what is in its environment making it a potential threat to other species living in the same habitat as the toad.
We will write a custom Essay on The Cane Toad specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cane toad breeds very fast and opportunistically as well. They breed rapidly especially in habitats that are generally warm all year round. As the cane toad continues to consume other species in the habitat essentially colonising this habitats preventing the other natural species from breeding.
Predation Cane toads breed rapidly in a given area over a relatively short interval compared to other species. Since this toads consume large amounts of food therefore leaving it in completion with other species over food. They indirectly alienate other species from accessing this food. Cane toads feed on almost anything from ants to termites, flies and everything a cane toad can manage to put in its mouth.
In addition to this, the cane toads are in completion with other native species for things like food, water resources as well as shelter. The cane toad has been regarded as a major factor leading to the decline of the native species population because of the cane toad’s rapid breeding, consumption of large volumes of food as well as the toad being a predator.
Lethal Toxic Venom In all the development stages in a cane toads life cycle its is poisonous in all the stages right from the tadpole stage all through to the adult stage, from the egg stage to adulthood. The cane toad has venom poison excreting glands on either of its shoulders that it utilises whenever it feels threatened or in danger (Barker et al 1995, 3).
If the venom is ingested it leads to convulsions, a rapid increase in heartbeat rate, over production of saliva and in later stages causes paralysis. It is therefore dangerous to other inhabitants especially the native species.
References Barker, J; Grigg, G.C; Tyler,M.J. (1995) A Field Guide to Australia Frogs. Surrey Beatty
Marketing: Tourism in Egypt Report (Assessment) online essay help
Introduction Dallen J. Timothy and Gyan P. Nyaupane, in their classical tourism book titled, “Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: a regional perspective” observe that every region in the world possess unique histories, cultures, political traditions, heritages, issues and problems and the methods that have been employed in solving the various different issues differ from one region to another1.
Cultural heritage tourism, as it may be known has evolved from the understanding that heritage constitutes a fertile ground and area that people (tourists) can draw pleasure and learning experience. Therefore, this assignment is going to be an assessment of cultural heritage tourism particularly dwelling on tutankhamun heritage and exhibitions.
Factors that have contributed to tutankhamun mania
Tutankhamun exhibitions are constituted as part of National Geographic exhibition, which is run in several parts of Europe and America2. Tutankhamun exhibitions rest on the tendency of National Geographic Society to showcase to the public the most prominent figures that guided and ruled the old Egypt in the last 3000 years ago3.
The paramount theme of the exhibitions has put more focus and emphasis on the 18th Dynasty, which is calculated to be about 250-year period when Egypt was characterized by dynasty rule and the society was at the peak of artistry4.
Tutankhamun mania can be seen to have resulted due to interplay of several factors. First, staging of tutankhamun exhibition around the world is seen to have being transformed with regard to management and the focus is gradually shifting as an academic venture to more of commercial activity5.
Commercialization of tutankhamun exhibition has been accompanied by massive advertisement and promotion an aspect that has ignited among many people desire to learn, know and even marvel at these Egyptian heritage.
Another aspect that is leading to tutankhamun mania in many parts of Europe and America has to do with the content and enrichment of tutankhamun artifacts6. Just imagine bringing live the history of around 3000 years ago in a more subtle and captivating way. This is what tutankhamun exhibition is achieving. More people are just excited to read Egypt’s long-time unique cultural heritage that is depicted in the tutankhamun exhibition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people have developed curiosity to know and even see numerous copies of all the famous pieces of Tutankhamun tomb and history7. Moreover, curiosity for knowledge and contextualize what has been for a long time expressed in movies and books, constitute a reason why tutankhamun exhibition is becoming a mania.
Generally, for majority of people around the world, tutankhamun heritage has for a long time been expressed and explained through books, films, and movies with less real life experience8.
In this way, it can be deduced that educational and informative ‘thirst’ for Egyptian cultural heritage persists in many people. As a result, tutankhamun exhibition tend to play the role of bringing about the ‘real’ picture about the tutankhamun history, which in turn is receiving massive acceptance.
Moreover, it can be deduced that tutankhamun mania has increased based on the argument that over-visiting monuments in Egypt is seen to pose damage to the monuments and as a result, visits in the country are regulated, that is to say, minimized9. To make it more difficult, authorities in Egypt have restricted access to the real Tomb of Tutankhamun and it is therefore unlikely for many visitors to see the heritage.
Therefore, the solution to satisfy this desire and curiosity has been directed to tutankhamun exhibitions hence drawing many people. Another factor has to do with cost and financial aspects that an individual would have to meet before accessing monuments in Egypt.
Given the large enthusiasm expressed by many people about the Egyptian cultural heritage, the government and monuments heritage management authorities have continuously increased fee fort the visiting tourists10. This may be at disadvantage of majority of people especially students and young people and therefore as a way of obeying the law of opportunity cost, they decide to fulfill their desire and curiosity in exhibitions.
Heritage tourism as oxymoron and the implications to Egypt
Tourism is perceived to have a long history, which at the same time has been fascinating11. At the same time, tourism has maintained links with history where as time has elapsed, history has evolved to become one of the essential components that make up tourism industry. In most parts of the world, commercialization of history together with culture has become critical and part process of developing tourism products for sale12.
We will write a custom Assessment on Marketing: Tourism in Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At this point, it can be said that, today in many parts of the world there is apparent growing interest among tourists to manifest liking for historical, cultural, philosophical, and artistic aspects of other peoples’ cultures13. According to 19997 Ohio Division of Travel and Tourism, heritage tourism has been defined as “traveling to experience the places and activities that authentically represent the stories and peoples of the past”14.
As heritage tourism continue to grow, there is also growing concerns about the numerous impacts, constraints and management implications that this sector brings about in society15. For example, Dallen J.
Timothy observes that different societies are constructed differently and they manifest great differences in terms of politics, power, power and empowerment, conservation and preservation practices, social mores, cultural vitality, socio-economic disparity and legislative engagement16.
As heritage becomes a phenomenon that modern tourism is being build on, it is understood that three reasons exist that facilitate the concept of heritage: to protect the past; to create a unique identity; and to attract tourists17.
In this way, it can be evidenced that as more urbanization and economic developments take place in different countries, there is concern intertwined with conflict on how the idea of protection of the past can be achieved in order to avert more destruction.
Unfortunately, there has been twisting and manipulation that has characterized conservation process, which in turn has led to emergence of heritage designed largely to satisfy purposes that are different from conservation purposes18.
It should be remembered further that heritage in the modern world is gradually being commoditized as a commodity of the past for the present19.
Tourism in Egypt remains key aspect especially to the economy. Tourism contributes heavily to the GDP of the country and many opportunities have been created as a result of tourism20. Heritage tourism is what Egypt is best known for given its vast heritage resources such as Pharaonic sites, Graeco-Roman Egypt attractions, and Museums21.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing: Tourism in Egypt by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to these factors of cultural heritage combined with other modern ones, tourism sector in Egypt has experienced growth at a faster rate. Nevertheless, heritage tourism has accompanied itself with numerous complications that further have affected Egypt as a society and its cultural heritages. Heritage tourism is seen to consume not only natural and human resources but also consume cultural resources22.
As this takes place in the Egyptian society and context, it has to be remembered that cultural resources are finite and as a result have to be managed like any other scarce resource. The country has to move away from the previous tendency where majority of archaeological heritage were maximized in terms of revenue through opening up of more sites to visitors.
This led to massive advertisement and promotion and the eventual results was to witness exerted pressure on the country’s cultural and heritage sites as more tourist became unmanageable. Informed by this past reluctance to establish effective check mechanisms, the government has realized the need to establish and implement sustainable tourism development strategies23.
In this way, it is anticipated that the government will be able to establish comprehensive tourist development plans; and tourist development plans should have both conservation and benefit aspects as part of the plan especially for heritage and cultural sites24.
Dilemmas of Egyptian government in satisfying local and international visitors interested in viewing heritage artifacts
Tourism in Egypt has grown as it was highlighted earlier to a level that it has become one of the economy engines of the country. As fact heritage tourism in Egypt, continue to unprecedented growth thus bringing many benefits to local communities, regional authorities, and national government.
Nevertheless, even as the tourism in the country continues to grow more challenges emerge and this forces the government to sometimes make hard choices. As it was seen earlier tourism planning and development in the past has been ill managed in Egypt, a situation that led to overexploitation of cultural artifacts and sites without proper management25.
Due to massive advertisement of heritage tourism, Egypt continue to experience influx of tourist and as the number grows, pressure exerted on these scarce resources is imminent leading to their destruction or misuse26. Thus, more challenges can be observed from Egypt’s increasing tourist activities.
Some of the challenges include emergence of uncontrolled, unsustainable, and mass tourism growth; detraction of local people’s lives and this may be evidenced in aspects such as intrusion in their daily lives, loss of privacy, and a sense of crowding which makes them view the overall tourism as un-developed27.
Exposure of local and cultural aspects to outsiders with little planning and management has exposed communities ‘secrets’ to outsiders, a situation that may cause discomfort among the people concerned28.
All the above aspects have combined to make provision of tourism services by the Egyptian government a great challenge that sometimes turns into dilemma. Solving this dilemma and ensuring both local and foreigners experience some sort of satisfaction in consumption of tourism products, the government has to fulfill some roles and activities.
Marketing and promotion of tourism both domestically and in foreign countries need to be well planned, and the idea should rest on promoting sustainable tourism29. In this way, as the government continue to advertise numerous cultural sites and heritage destinations to the outside world, concerted efforts should be directed at conservation of environment, social and cultural aspects.
With regard to tourist crowding and causing exerted pressure, the government should device appropriate check mechanisms that ensure positive and productive restrictions are complied with30. Moreover, it is upon the government to only ensure that sites that are ready are the once selected for tourism development and this should involve local and community participation.
Furthermore, the government agencies involved in tourism should be at forefront in ensuring that travelers (tourists) receive accurate information and the destinations they are supposed to visit31. In this way, it is necessary for all government agencies to refrain from activities that may result in lack of information, false impression, misinformation, poor communication, and poor knowledge32.
How spirituality and the arts are represented in Egypt
Numerous literatures in form of history have been developed on the influence of Egypt’s art on religion and spirituality33. Art in Egypt has greatly influenced and been influenced by religion and culture of the society which has characterize Egypt for a long time34.
Egypt as a country that has a rich history and culture than any other country is perceived as the cradle of civilization and for a long time the country remained a land of all-pervasive magic35. Art is associated with symbols and it is from these that Moshe Barasch (2000) observes that actual symbolism began in Egypt36.
It is in Egypt that there is an elaboration of the symbolic art form and thus Egypt has been referred to as the country of symbol37. In this way, the author observes that, “Egypt is a country which sets itself the spiritual task of the self-deciphering of the spirit, without actual attaining to the decipherment”38.
Manifestation of religion in Egyptian can be constructed from Hegel’s argument where the author stress that Egyptians while practicing their religion did not project divine dignity onto real natural objects, nor did they consider actual creatures as themselves gods39.
Thus among the Egyptian there was emphasis on congruence between the meaning invested in an object and the object itself40. Given this demand for congruence, it can be said that in real life situation, certain incongruence prevails between nature and spirit.
As Egypt was in the process of discovering itself, it was caught up in a conflict: that on one hand there was overall sense of contrast between nature and spirit and on the other hand, people developed wish to make the spiritual manifest in the natural and material41. In addition, according to the author this was the beginning of visual arts.
The understanding of Egyptians was that in order to develop and ensure manifestation of spiritual in material object, one was supposed to move beyond finding the object in nature. Therefore, there was the immediate need to make the material object transparent, in that inward, the spiritual could shine through and this forced individuals to invent such an object.
Symbols (objects) thus were used to represent spirit, divine, the infinite, and so on and this had to be made (invented). It is in this sense that in Egypt both religion and art are seen to be dominated by the spirit’s striving for self-understanding and by man’s endeavor to explain his own misery42.
To Egyptian the process of understanding one’s self was achieved through building and from this, the Egyptian became masters in erecting huge cities of the dead, they constructed pyramids and shaped the sphinxes43.
Defining and identifying authenticity of Tutankhamun: His Tomb and His Treasures exhibition
Since 1960s, the selected finds from Tutankhamun’s tomb have been on showcase in Europe and America countries44. The exhibitions that for a long time continue to be characterized by huge number of people have become popular due to representation of an almost real picture of Tutankhamun tomb artifacts.
As they become popular, it has been noted in the last forty years numerous changes having been taking place in the staging of Tutankhamun and this has been manifested by the selection of materials to include in the exhibition. The exhibitions are as a result of excavation works of Howard Carter and Carnarvon on Tutankhamun’s tomb45.
The exhibition is regarded big and the question of authenticity of the exhibition can be captured in many ways. First, Tutankhamun: His Tomb and His Treasures exhibition has become famous in showing the real replica of famous pieces like funerary shrines, all the three coffins, the sarcophagus, all the major furniture items, one fully-assembled chariot and hundreds of small items46.
As a result, attention that has been paid to details in this replica is astounding and enriching making the exhibitions authenticity achieved. This can be observed from the words of the author who postulates that, “I tried to test and went around the exhibition looking for misunderstood or misinterpreted inscriptions and was unable to find more than a handful of errors of little significance”47.
At the same time, the author constructs a picture of authenticity when he describes the overall organization and management of the exhibitions. For instance, it is observed that in the exhibitions, the tomb’s rooms are being shown, as they were found, with objects in situ, although there has been reduction in the scale of the objects.
Nevertheless, it has been identified that the exhibitions have largely performed the role real and actual museums with Tutankhamun artifacts in Egypt would have performed. This role is largely ingrained in the effort to inform visitors about Egypt’s geography, history, religion and other aspects of civilization48.
Another aspect that makes the exhibitions more authentic has to do with the place of designing and subsequent make, where in this case happened in Egypt. The author states that, “all the items were made in Egypt by Fine Art Cairo, first in plaster and then finished in synthetic resin”49.
Moreover, there has been inclusion of multiple researchers and specialists in the designing of the exhibitions, an aspect that has increased their authenticity.
What makes an authentic tourist and an authentic attitude to places?
Relph observes that something authentic is “genuine, unadulterated, without hypocrisy, and honest to itself, not just in terms of superficial characteristics, but at depth50. As such this concept has been attributed to places and to people and in most cases it has been used to denote culture where in most instances questions arise as to whether cultural manifestations can be regarded to be authentic or not51.
In an attempt to provide more insight on the concept, Relph went ahead to discuss the authentic attitude of place. This, according to the author, is “a direct and genuine experience of the entire complex of the identity of places-not mediated and distorted through a series of quite arbitrary social and intellectual fashions about how that experience should be, not following stereotypical convections”52.
Some purviews of literatures have denoted that the concept of authenticity is a consequence of modernization during which people become separated from ‘reality’ or dis-embedded from space and time53. Given this, tourists in modern world are seen to have quest for authenticity for the actual or real thing that is not part of their own every day life54.
According to Ian Yeoman, observes that as economy matures in most societies, there is emergence of authenticity since many consumers are looking for real experiences instead of ‘products’ which are manufactured55.
In this regard, it is becoming clear that there is growing desire among tourists to achieve experiences and products that have originality and are real, and are not contaminated by being un-original or impure56. Wilmott and Nelson (2003) observes that, understanding authenticity involves understanding peoples desire in life and as consumerism become the idea in modern world, authenticity is likely to become subject in tourism57.
Authenticity has been linked with to Maslow’s self-actualization concept, and today apart of having interest in tourism products, tourists are developing great interest in aspects such as environment, animal rights, poverty, and education58.
Interpretation of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs then it can be concluded that movement to self-actualization is largely aimed at searching for deeper meaning and finding sense of worth beyond goods and services and to experience.
Ian Yeoman, further notes that certain trends in the modern world that can be evidenced are likely to likely going to shape people’s desire for an authentic experience. This is going to be so especially given that modern tourists appear to be more educated, more sophisticated, have traveled widely and they are concerned about the environment while at the same are looking for a better quality life59.
As a result it can be seen that tourists in modern world are seeking and exhibit desire to have ‘real’ experiences rather than being subjected to something false. Authentic tourist developing an authentic attitude to places has been explained to be contributed by certain and specific factors that are becoming dominant in modern world.
Such factors include: global network; ethical consumption and volunteering; the affluent consumer and the desire for new experiences in faraway places; the educated consumer; the role of the media; individualism; time pressures and authenticity; busy lifestyles and getting away; and lastly, people’s affection for wildlife60.
Conclusion In its essence, cultural heritage tourism encompasses the typical ability to rely on living and built elements of different cultures whereby there is both use of tangible and intangible past as critical tourism resource61. Therefore, it is likely that within the broad perspective of cultural heritage tourism, an individual is likely to find key heritage elements that in one way or the other remains distinguished.
Some of the heritage elements in this broad sense may include immaterial elements such as language, music, artistic tradition, museums, historic monuments, archeological ruins, and so on62. Thus, an attempt to understand heritage tourism is welcome and highly enriching.
Bibliography Anonymous. “Tourism in Egypt”. Web.
Anonymous. Ancient Egypt. 2010. (Attached notes).
Backhaus, Norman. Tourism and nature conservation in Malaysian National Parks. Berlin: LIT Verlag Munster, 2005. Web.
Barasch, Moshe. Theories of Art: From Winckelmann to Baudelaire. NY: Routledge, 2000. Web.
Burns, Peter M and Bibbings, Lyn. Tourism and Visual Culture: Methods and Cases. MA: CABI, 2010. Web.
Erman, Adolf and Tirard, Michael. Life in Ancient Egypt. NY: Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
Hoffman, Barbara T. Art and cultural heritage: law, policy, and practice. London: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Inwood, Michael. A Hegel dictionary. MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1992.
Kaplan, Leslie C. Art and Religion in Ancient Egypt. NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004.
MacDonald, Sally. Consuming ancient Egypt. NY: Routledge, 2003.
Morgan, Michael, Lugosi, Peter and Richie, Brent. The Tourism and Leisure Experience: Consumer and Managerial Perspectives. NY: Channel View Publications, 2010.
National Geographic Society. Tutankhamun and the golden age of the Pharaohs. Australia: National Geographic Society, 2011. Web.
Page, Stephen and Connell, Joanne. Tourism: a modern synthesis. OH: Cengage Learning EMEA. Web.
Preucel, Robert W. and Mrozowski, Stephen A. Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: The New Pragmatism. MA: John Wiley and Sons.
Smith, Melanie K. Issues in Cultural Tourism Studies. PA: Taylor
Ethical Capital and People’s Roles in it Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethical Capital in the Indian Society
The soviet and Post soviet era
Umbilical cord blood
Introduction In the 19th and 20th century people who were successful in business and political world had one thing in common, they all appreciated and invested a lot in physical capital.
During those times capital was any form of assets or finances but in the modern world things have changes and the definition of capital has broadened to not only including assets and finances but also the human and ethical aspects which constitute the human capital and ethical capital respectively. Human capital involves the skills and knowledge that individuals acquire from education and experiences.
Ethical capital on the other hand can be defined as the practices, tools, and techniques of refining and defining values that an organization possesses (Harvard Business review, pp 4). In other words ethical capital goes beyond the monetary value and involves the practices and techniques of creating values.
This essay primarily discusses peoples’ roles, understanding and perception, towards ethical capital in different societies and disciplines. It majors on the Indian community and their cultural religious and political beliefs that either help in building or destroying ethical capital in India. We will also briefly look into the Russian post soviet era and a new and invention in the medical field and their contributions towards ethical capital.
Ethical Capital in the Indian Society According to a research done by Jacob Copeman (2-3), Indians are never willing to voluntarily donate their blood to blood banks, in other word they only donate with a clear objective in mind for instance donating blood for close relatives, friend or for certain rituals either religious or political. There were made to believe that one looses a lot of energy after donating blood.
This is the main reason why most Indians drink milk after donating blood to replenish the lost energy. Also in most parts of south Asia Impotence is linked with strength. This belief makes everyone not willing to ‘sacrifice’ his blood to save the life of others in fear of becoming weak hence becoming impotent.
Going back to the definition of ethical capital it is clear that since time immemorial the Indian society has had the wrong perception of some ethical issues in relation to blood donation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The caste system has also contributed to this situation in that Indians believe that a person’s body parts, clothes and everything he owns can act as conduits of personal and spiritual qualities of that person since they possessed with them.
Blood donation and transfusion is also viewed in this perspective and no one especially in the higher castes wants to acquire the personality or spirit of a person from a lower caste through donated or transfused blood (Jacob 3). This complies with the “Purity and Pollution” belief of Sikh and Hindu revivalist organizations.
These organizations organize blood donation events all over India as part of ‘seva’ (service) to purify oneself by removing some of the “senile blood” to allow formation of new and pure blood. As much as this groups help in donating blood they also discourage patients from accepting the blood.
They believe that the donated “senile blood” is polluted with sins and impurities of the donor. In a nut shell this belief does not actually hinder blood collection but limits some needy patients from receiving donated blood in fear of being polluted by it (Jacob 3).
This helps in building and destroying ethical capital in India but in my opinion it builds more than it destroys because comparing the number of people who donate and those who benefit from the donations to the ones who refuse it the donors and beneficiaries are more hence they build more than they destroy ethical capital.
Jacob also acknowledges Addlakha’s work where he explains how the media is the main tool that can be effectively used in building a strong ethical capital base in the Indian population this is due to the fact that it assumes and performs several roles as he quoted “it performs the role of commentator, communicator, educator and watchdog during crisis” (Addlakha 154).
Some non-governmental organizations and other humanitarian organizations e.g. the Red Cross society in India have been advocating for a stronger ethical capital base by trying to change the attitude and perception of the public towards blood donation.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Capital and People’s Roles in it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They have come up with slogans which are written on posters and websites e.g. “A blood donor has no equal” and “the desire to share something of oneself is what singles out a blood donor from the others” (Jacob 5). This enables more people to accept blood donation as a good thing since the people advocating for it are known to be of good motive e.g. the Red Cross society.
In my opinion deified politicians e.g. Indira Gandhi and her son Rajiv Gandhi (Jacob 6) help in building ethical capital when their deaths are commemorated. People donate blood in respect to this martyrs who died for their countries.
This political rituals help in uniting people from all over the country to ‘shed’ (donated) blood in their remembrance. People consider it a good action and as a result they volunteer in large numbers hence ethical capital is built.
The soviet and Post soviet era According to Rivkin-Fish (48) In the Soviet period in Russia paying physicians for medical care was an illegal and immoral action in that doctors who asked for any form of payment were viewed as the selfish, immoral and most corrupt. This changed in the post soviet Russia and doctors were allowed to accept and demand for payments for their expertise and time.
This situation complies with definition of capital as discussed earlier in this essay i.e. during the time when physicians were not allowed to demand for payment for their services the ethical were not relevant when considering capital as opposed to the modern world, post soviet Russia, where it is considered and appreciated.
In other words ethical capital has been is appreciated in post soviet Russia though it is facing certain challenges as discussed below.
People destroy the little traces of ethical capital in our modern society ignorantly without realizing by asking for favors from acquaintances. Rivkin-Fish gives an example of her friend, Valya, who earns favors from friends for medical checkup. She pays for the services through a friend who introduced her to the doctor and not through the hospital administration as required.
Some things may appear right to us but ethically they are not, for instance Valya gives her friend $150 and a few bottles of vodka as payment for the medical services which is literary right but ethically its wrong.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Capital and People’s Roles in it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She was supposed to pay through the cashier where she would obtain a receipt. She suggests that “paying for medical services is a moral action that conveys respect and recognition for professionals’ attention and expertise” (Rivkin-Fish 48). She criticizes the traditional modes of operation of the soviet era yet she offers the doctor payments directly which in real sense is a form of bribery.
This proves to us that the same people who are in the frontline of fighting corruption are the same ones who engage in them ignorantly and as you know in a corrupt society ethical capital is usually very minimal.
Umbilical cord blood According to Waldby (2006, 55) “Umbilical cord blood has proved an effective substitute for bone marrow in the treatment of blood disorders.” This has led to the establishment and development of both public and private cord blood banking facilities.
Bioethicists and other medical professionals advocating for ethical capital condemn private cord blood banking by claiming that it converts valuable clinical cord blood banks into privately owned and managed accounts which are of no help to the public and they can only selfishly benefit only the owners.
They also claim that the great demand and value for cord blood may lead to the risk of thee medical staff shifting their attention from the mother and child to the cord blood (Waldby, 59-60”). By so doing the life of both the mother and the child are put to risk by the profit minded staff and this is against doctors’ work ethics hence it is against the ethical capital in the medical world.
Conclusion As we have seen in the above discussed issues establishment of a strong ethical in any form of society requires critical evaluation of all actions and decisions with an aim of determining whether it is ethically right or wrong because ethics have proved to have a great influence to the success of any organization or society.
Works Cited Addlakha, Renu. “State Legitimacy and Social Suffering in a Modern Epidemic: A Case Study of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Delhi.” Contributions to Indian Sociology Volume 35, , Issue 2: p 154.
Harvard Business review. “Ethical Capital Is Capitalism’s New Cornerstone” . pp4. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2010/06/ethical-capital
Jacob, Copeman. “BLOOD WILL HAVE BLOOD: A Study in Indian Political Ritual” Social Analysis Volume 48, . Issue 3, p 2-6.
Rivkin-Fish, Michele. “Bribes, Gifts and Unofficial payments: Rethinking Corruption in post-Soviet Russian Health Care”. Corruption: Anthropological Perspectives, ed. Pluto press, . P 47-48.
Waldby, Catherine. “Umbilical Cord Blood: From Social Gift to Venture Capital” Sydney: The University of New South Wales, School of Sociology, 2006. p 55-60.
Commoditization of Culture Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Commoditization of Culture by Michael Brown
Other Dimensions of Commoditization of Culture
Introduction For a group of individuals to be classified as a society, it must have some shared values within its members as diverse from other groups. Among the shared values is the cultural heritage that the society cherishes and works hard to maintain and sustain to benefit its various generations, both the past, present and the coming generations.
For this culture to continue being a unique item for such a society, it needs to be protected. In the contemporary society, protection will most obviously include legal measures.
But writers are of the opinion that legal measure should not be used to protect intellectual property as this amount to dilution of the sacred value inherent in such culture and prevents the community from enjoying such culture together as it should be. This paper discusses three writers and their various proponents on legal methods as a way of protecting culture.
Commoditization of Culture by Michael Brown Brown, author of Heritage as Property, begins his debate by creating a paradox. He says that culture is mostly associated with the society at large as opposed to a particular individual. It is seen as being embedded to a particular society and therefore the connotation of its being tangible and solid is not a welcome to most people.
Thus, several groups are undertaking various efforts to conserve their cultural heritage and to define its context. Examples of such efforts have been evident in such policies as the UN Draft Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples enacted in 1994 as well as the Inter-Apache Summit on Repatriation formulated in 1995, (Brown, P.51). These policies define the culture of the people and the means of protecting it.
Countries are also undertaking these efforts. An example is the French community which has been endeavoring to protect its language and Canada which wants nothing to do with cultural influences from the US, (Brown, P.51). In the process, these efforts are not only demarcating their culture but also commoditizing it, something which has diverse effects, both negative and positive.
Brown says that the use of the term ‘cultural property’ to connote items of heritage may not look harmful on the face of it. But it has serious implications to the various societies in regard to such culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It denotes some concrete and a totally demarcated element which violates the rules of culture which should give a feeling of sanctity, wholesome and beautiful possession held by an entire group but to be preserved for the benefit of all the generations. This concept of culture has further been contaminated by the various property rights granted by property laws being enacted.
The property rights such as copyrights and patents only work to individualize cultural heritage something that should be collectively owned. And instead of protecting it, these laws only serve to kill creativity and innovation, (Brown, P.55).
The Intellectual Property system does not serve to respect the rights of the community by creating exclusive property rights in culture. Further, such protection measures are only for a limited period of time after which such culture starts circulating all over the market.
But the Intellectual Property system can also be effectively used to protect cultural heritage. This may be done through the use of trademarks whose protection exists in perpetuity. It illegalizes the use of such works or their reproduction thereof by other entities. Scholars also are of the opinion that other policies should be developed to protect culture.
The Author offers ways in which cultural heritage may be protected without having to commoditize it as he argues that legalistic measures cannot be appropriately used to protect our cultural heritage. According to him, the best method would be to use the civil society, which includes major organizations throughout the globe each of which should seek to promote indigenous knowledge in their respective spheres.
This will provide a channel for coming up with new ideas on alternatives of protecting culture from the local level and then this applied to other natives but will also get modified with other ideas from those other natives.
This will not only motivate the local individuals to forge forward in their fight against misappropriation of their cultural heritage but will also create a worldwide movement so strong that theft of information and culture will become a thing of the past.
We will write a custom Essay on Commoditization of Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other Dimensions of Commoditization of Culture Another writer, Coombe who has authored Objects of Property and Subjects of Politics, also argues that, through such legal items as copyrights, patents, trademarks etc, the law only converts the various innovations and creativities into commodities, designed for the exclusive use and control of specific individuals or organizations.
According to her, individuals should be allowed to scrutinize and alter the original meaning of such works. Putting up of such legal measures only kills creativity and only used as a way of differentiating the powerful and the powerless, and is actually a role of politics.
The writer uses a series of court decisions to show that large and powerful organizations, e.g. Coca Cola, General Electric, etc, are more likely to be favored by courts in protection of intellectual property suits.
For her, dropping such legal protections is a way to show that democracy prevails on what one can do in regard to even existing culture.
People should be allowed to change such “If what is quintessentially human is the capacity to make meaning, challenge meaning, and transform meaning, then we strip ourselves of our humanity through overzealous application and continuous expansion of intellectual property protections,” (Coombe, P.122).
Such legal measures inhibit the ability of others to come up with alternatives to the particular item. Such lack of alternatives will definitely lead to diminishing cultural heritage for the particular community.
Another writer, Hyde in his work The Body as Property, talks about commoditization of human body. He says that in the contemporary society, law only functions to define everything in such a way that it can be sold and bought in the market. It serves to materialize all human relations existing in abstraction.
He says that, “the discourse of commoditization normalizes the personal, the subjective, the abnormal…and reinscribes them into the normal regulatory apparatus of consumer, market society,” (Hyde, P. 48). He argues of how the law as well as court decisions, has worked to transform even the most abstract things such as human feelings e.g. emotions, pain and desire into tangible elements capable of quantification, (Hyde P. 49).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Commoditization of Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The law has extended to materialize body organs as well such as blood and spleens. The legal construction of the body as property denotes that the body belongs to the individual person to the exclusion of all others. About sale of organs, he advocates for a situation where individuals are encouraged to donate their organs out of their own free will and spirit of brotherhood.
For him, “any proposal to pay people for what they ought to do is merely a tribute to our ignorance of the institutional framework for a caring society,” (Hyde, P.67). This means that the law, when formulated to allow sale of organs, is being used as a vehicle to destroy what should be shared out and enjoyed by the entire community, their heritage.
But the law also adopts differing discursive constructions to refer to the body specific to each situation including; “machines, property, sacred and noncommodified,” (Hyde, P.74).
According to him, describing our bodies as property in such a way that associating it with any other meaning is hard, even though it does not go against our moral principles, it brings about issues of great concern that needs to be resolved. Thus any legal definition to commoditize our body should be abandoned and we should adopt such descriptions as are in line with our ethical concerns.
Conclusion Most of the writers are of the opinion that the law should never be used to protect culture or as it is commonly referred to as ‘to commoditize’ cultural heritage. According to them, law only serves to individualize the culture which should be collectively shared by the whole community. This, they claim that not only does it kill creativity and innovation but it also destroys the essence of the culture for the community.
While this may be generally true, we cannot underestimate the role that the law plays to protect intellectual property from being misappropriated by other individuals. It ensures that lazy people do not benefit from other peoples hard work by selling unauthorized work. So as much as we do not agree on the legal methods of preserving culture, we should also accept that they have also acted to protect it on the other hand.
References Brown, Michael. Heritage as Property: Property In Question: Value Transformation in the Global Economy, Katherine Verdery and Caroline Humphrey, eds. Oxford : Berg Publishers, 2004, pp. 49-68
Coombe Rosemary. Objects of Property and subjects of politics: In Law and Anthropology, A Reader, ed. Sally Falk Moore, Malden MA, Blackwell, 2005, pp. 111-123
Hyde, Alan. Bodies of Law: The Body as Property, Priceton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey, 1997, pp. 48-75
Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective Essay best college essay help
Basically, political economy and in particular Marxian economics, the concept of exchange value is traditionally employed to define one of the core aspects of a commodity. Some of the correlated concepts are price, use value and value. This shows that a product has; a value, an exchange value, use value and a price.
These attributes have an extensive history ranging from the era of Aristotle all the way to the period of David Ricardo. However, the entry of Marx concepts tilted the earlier concepts of exchange value.
From an economic perspective value is presented as the worth of either goods or services as set or determined by the existing markets. However, this observation does not hold the real formulation of what is in essence defined as value. For years economists as well as other social scientists have attempted to link and estimate the significance of value in relation to individual.
Similarly, this approach has over the years been extended to both goods and services being exchanged. Hence, such approach saw the development of such dynamic concepts as value in exchange as well as value in use. Thus, examining the argument presented by Kalman Applbaum in the article “Pharmaceutical Marketing” the concept of value is correlated to marketing and branding.
As the article asserts individuals are willing to pay higher prices for a brand than for a helpful product (Applbaum 0446). This concept is thus widely employed by pharmaceutical companies. The core objective of such approach is to create more earnings from a brand value than from the products. What this means is that brand value dictates what the greater society consumes.
Equally, this same approach is well illustrated by the manner coca cola brand is marketed. Basically, the brand value seems to be more profound than the product itself. This indicates that value can be measured as the set price of the given products. However, in regard to the argument presented by neoclassical economists, the value of any product is correlated to its price in relation to the free and competitive market.
And the value is thus determined by the demand of the product relative to the market supply. Examining the approach etched in the pharmaceutical industry it can be argued that the market demand surpass the supply and this has played a critical role in establishing what is in essence value. In relation to value in use as well as brand value, these firms have opted to embrace the concepts developed by neoclassical economists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the elements of value are not linked to improving the innate consumption of humans but rather to attain the greatest profitable margin. The principal features which drive such an approach can be explained by the fact that brand value has over the years been used as the vehicle by corporations tied their hope (Applbaum 0447).
Hence, this has resulted in a situation whereby brand value supersede the need for satisfying the innate needs of humans through provision of what anthropologists defines as human value. The scope of brand value is thus echoed by Robert J Foster in his article “The WORK OF THE NEW ECONOMY: Consumers, Brand, and Value Creation.
The author observes that consumers tend to go for popular brands while the product manufacturers through elaborate marketing strategies exploit this window presented by brand value (Foster 708). Equally, this results in value creation which rests on brand value rather than on the product itself.
Though, Foster seems to suggest that the creation of new values begins with innovation; it is evident that the natural flow of market demands creates values. Thus, in an economic perspective the intensity of value is compactly determined by price as well as the price attached to products whether goods or services.
Another notable aspect examined by Foster revolves within the context of satisfying what is defined as surplus value. This concept is defined by Marxian theorists as a notion that attempts to define and explain market instability in regard to capitalism.
Thus, this posits that human labor forms the foundation of economic value. Thus, exploring the argument presented in the article we find that the concept of surplus value is definitely less examined. This can be linked to the fact that modern corporations are more concerned in making profits rather than satisfying the market values. Hence, the creation of brand values which are becoming more potent than value in use.
Comparing the explanations brought forward by both Foster and Applbaum it is evident that the concept of use value is less considered in the current society. This is elaborated in the manner diverse organization are anchoring on massive marketing without examining the aspects of use-value which is in essence the qualitative characteristic of value, that is, the solid manner in which a product satisfy human needs.
We will write a custom Essay on Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps that is why Graeber argues that when we are talking of use value we tend to think that we are dealing with definite attributes such as tons of, dozens of or meters of (442). Basically, he notes that use-value correlated to commodities becomes real when the given commodity or product is used or consumed. According to Graeber the concept of value is predominantly defined differently economists (443).
To his observations the concept of value have been restricted to market theories which are designed to produce mathematical satisfaction in relation to allocating limit resources while pursuing profits. In essence, the core argument in his article suggests that the concept of value is based on market convenience rather than on satisfying the human needs.
Hence he attempts to draw a parallel between what the anthropologists think of values and what economists take as value. From such an observation we are brought to the same sentiments voiced by Foster and Applbaum, exchange value seems to be the determinant factor in regard to what is assumed to be all inclusive.
Thus, the scope of neoclassical economy is brought as being the modern measure of value, this approach assumes that human approaches calls for allocation of available resources in pursuit of limited resources. Yet exploring the dynamics of use value, brand value as well as surplus value, this concept fails to satisfy the innate needs of man.
What this demonstrates is that the diverse economic projections witnessed have evolved to be restricted to the available resources or markets without exploring other regions of improving on value.
As noted in the article “The Work of the New Economy” the diverse attributes of what is defined as value can be said to be tied to profits This is also established by the massive marketing investments which have overtaken the noble cause of production.
It ought to be noted that marketing is essential in building brand value and this has gone to the limit of misleading the consumers who rarely identifies the use value of the given product or services.
Graeber, “Value” Foster, “The Work of the New Economy” Applbaum, “Pharmaceutical Marketing” have all accepted that the scope of value is money-priced. This seems to be due to the emerging market demands which are not fully satisfied.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Market Value Concept from an Economic Perspective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the dynamics of value are not treated as processes of enhancing social well being rather the concepts of value are left to the domain of traditional social scientists. Thus, it becomes difficult to establish in essence what the core purpose of value is in the growing neoclassical economy.
In conclusion, it is evident that the scope of value is the most disputed feature in regard to political economics. This can be allied to the fact that the hypothesis of exchange which rests on the porch of science happens to be the bridge linking problems allied to economics to problems social in nature. And this happens to be the pointer of exiting from the theoretical manipulation affecting the whole sphere of human economy.
More so, its conceptual nature makes an objective approach quite complex for all those who have ventured into exploring the aspects of value in regard to human economy. Thus, the concept of market values in regard to exchange values though essential presents a mountain of queries than answers.
As established by Graeber the concept of value compactly left behind as the political economists are more concerned with developing attributes that are profit oriented in regard to labor, pricing and distribution. And this seems to be the foundation laid by those advocating for neoclassical economy, that is, capitalist markets.
Works Cited Applbaum, Kalman.Pharmaceutical Marketing.Pls Medicine 3.4. (2006):0445-0447.
Foster, J Robert. The work of new economy. Cultural Anthropology 22.4 (2007):709- 729.
Graeber, David. Value: anthropological theories of value. A handbook of economic Anthropology. Oxford: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.
Abolition of Slavery in Brazil Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction For many historians, modern Brazilian history begins with the abolition of slavery. Talks of transition from slavery to freedom always take centre stage1. In most parts of America, the legislation to abolition slave trade was greatly opposed by big plantation owners who needed the services of slaves and knew that the legislation to end slavery was a major barrier to the success of their plans.
Most of them hoped to expand their plantations further and the law to abolish slavery would bring this dream to a stop2. However, although opposed to the move to abolish slave trade, slave owners never resisted with military force. They instead chose to lobby support from other people so that together, they would fight against the abolition3.
The Origin of Brazilian Slaves Various studies have indicated that the slaves who came to Brazil originated from African countries such as Congo, Angola, Benguela and the East African Coast. These slaves were exchanged between colonial masters and were chosen very carefully4.
Even though a license to trade slaves between Mozambique and Brazil was granted in the year 1645, activities of slave trade begun when the Portuguese finally got rid of restrictions that once existed between the two countries5. Familiarity to English norms was one of the criteria used to select slaves. The slaves were imported mainly to supply the much needed labor for plantations6.
Brief History of Brazil at the Time of Abolition During the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Portuguese royal family relocated to Brazil for fear of being attacked. They later established their rule in Brazil7. Even though Pedro II was such a conservative ruler, he realized that slavery was hurting his subjects and started looking for ways to rescue them from the unfair treatment8.
With this conviction, Pedro II slowly passed laws that sooner or later would lead to the abolition of slavery. Afraid of the repercussions of Pedro’s legislations, Brazilian land owners together with the military did not support his ideas wholeheartedly. They were very much aware that with abolition of slavery, slave owners would be required to spend quite heavily on production as their plantations were quite huge.
While away on a trip, Pedro returned to find that his daughter, Princess Isabel, had already passed a law to abolish slavery on May 13th 1888. Although the enactment of this law brought honor to the Brazilian royal family, the unhappy land owners started opposing the monarchy9.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Liberal Brazilians the period between 1822 and 1855 marked an era of action, reaction and transaction and the subject of slavery was regarded as being an ethnic, racial, and cultural rather than a political and economic problem10.
Reasons Why Brazil was the Last Country to Abolish Slavery The delay in ending slavery in Brazil is partly linked to the fact that Brazilians were in tight collaboration with the Portuguese. The fact that the British had no legal authority to search Portuguese colonies, made it easy to move slaves to Brazil while challenging for the British to stop the advancement of slavery.
The problem was later dealt with when the British slowly loosened the interpretation of the treaties, creating room for British ships to check all Portuguese vessels11.
Another reason that must have led to the delay in abolishing slavery in Brazil is the heavy dependence on slavery to provide labor for the country’s huge plantations and other sectors of the economy.
Brazilian slavery cut across all parts of its economy and was critical to the existence of almost all social institutions and in particular families. The ownership of slavery was open to all Brazilians in the countryside as well as in the cities12.
In 1770s, planters in Brazil ventured into coffee farming to generate income. Just like slaves, the coffee crop also had its roots in Africa. This decision led to an increased demand for cheap labor and made it quite difficult for opponents of slavery to succeed in the fight against slave trade. Proponents who included both growers and politicians strongly resisted the abolition of slavery knowing clearly, the repercussions of the act13.
When slavery was at last abolished in 1888, proponents made various attempts to regain the control they earlier had wielded but is was all in vain as slaves had declared themselves free and were determined to leave their masters14.
We will write a custom Essay on Abolition of Slavery in Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arguments for and Against Abolition of Slavery in Brazil According to Pedro II, slavery was subjecting his subjects to great injustice and had to be brought to an end. For the plantation owners, however, the end of slavery would mean hard economic times as operational costs would increase. Clearly, financial benefits or fear of losses influenced the actions of slave owners.
Brazil Today Modern day Brazil is multi-racial and according to research, Brazil’s racial climate is the most tolerant in the world. Unlike societies such as the United States, Brazilians do not practice any form of racial segregation. Both blacks and whites in Brazil receive equal treatment. Some people have categorized Brazil as a racial democracy in which even during slavery, whites treated blacks better than anywhere else in the world15.
Over the years, Brazil’s economy has kept growing. Complete with natural resources and a large international market, Brazil is a home to large global corporations and is identified by many as an emerging super power. The country still continues to draw a lot of attention from international observers16.
The greatest desire for Brazil is to be self sufficient. To accomplish this, the country’s leaders have always focused on creating state led development policies17. Obviously, ideas such as offering subsidies to farmers to enable them use modern fertilizer inputs played a big role in growing the country’s economy18.
Although Brazil’s economy is mainly based on cultivation and export of sugar and coffee, stakeholders want to transform it into a more modern industrial and service economy19.
The Influence of Slavery on Brazil’s Culture Slavery greatly shaped the culture currently witnessed in Brazil. As slaves were brought into Brazil, they came along with their cultures and these slowly permeated into the Brazilian society influencing especially religion, music and dance, as well as food and eating habits20.
Unlike in the United States where the separation between blacks and whites is crystal clear, Brazilians regard all citizens the same way regardless of what their origins are. Every person is entitled to equal treatment and no race is considered inferior or superior to others21. With the abolition of slavery, slaves received their freedom but knew no other home apart from Brazil.
Consequently, they settled in the country and although initially they operated ambiguously as both slaves and freed men and women, they slowly became legal citizens working and living in Brazil22. The diverse religious beliefs in Brazil are also seen as resulting from the influence of slavery on the Brazilian culture23.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Abolition of Slavery in Brazil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The eradication of racism in Brazil was eventually realized by the change of the terminology color after the abolition took place, decline in slavery, opportunities for slaves to be free, the disappearance of the aging population of African origin and the expansion of free Brazilian born population of African background24.
In the years following the abolition and immediately after the abolition, Brazilian elites embarked on addressing the issue of race and made race and slavery to be national symbols to define national culture and identify25.
For many Brazilians, race was a great concern not only in the post abolition era in Brazil but also in other societies that were in similar situations26. There were competitions between systems of slavery and those of free labor on one hand and the place of race in determining social status on the other hand27.
Conclusion The involvement of Brazil in slavery brought great benefits to the country and helped to boost the economy and social standing of the country. In the early days of its development, slaves provided cheap labor that supported the growth of the Brazilian economy. Although many people were affected by the abolition of slavery, this did not have a serious negative impact to the economy as the country’s economy was already on the rise.
Bibliography African American Registry, Brazil Abolishes Slavery, John Wiley
Consumer empowerment: How influential is user generated content towards consumers purchase intentions of beauty products? Dissertation college essay help: college essay help
The ability to motivate consumers throughout their buying experience demands up to date user-generated content which may be enhanced through recommendations obtained from online opinion experts and regular feedbacks from customers. As such, it is prudent for company managers to play active roles in designing beauty products, advertising and brand promotion in addition to retailing the needs of orient customers.
These aspects will motivate customers who purchase beauty products in terms of confident shopping based on the parameters of value and quality. Therefore, the philosophy of retailing beauty products on online markets need to be changed from self-reference criterion to lifestyle and value perceptions driven by social-cultural and peer forces (Park et al., 2007, p.99).
Owing to the increasing number of beauty products, managers can opt to either assist customers in making decisions by putting in place price-value relationship that will result into affirming customers’ intentions (Adam, 2003, p.78).
Therefore, it is important for businesses to demonstrate price-value relationship via online stimulators. The beauty product sellers can equally attract clients by using channels like e-bays, catalogues and socio-media tools.
According to Terblanche and Boshoff (2005, p.77), online marketing of beauty products further provides customers with faster product search, price, promotion, comparative data, and availability of services to the customers in addition to building their motivation. Therefore, it is important for beauty products marketers to take advantage of existing positive linkage between beauty search behaviour and the design features of a website.
They can achieve this by tracking down the expectations of customers. Most importantly, managers of beauty products should put into consideration the fact that the shopping behaviour of customers is influenced by aspects such as shopping motivations, referral and credit incentives.
Most online opinion experts recommendations will also enhance brand recognition of various beauty products (Peterson
Layoff in the public sector Trends Paper Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Legal environment for layoffs
Unfair Act of Discretion by employers in the public sector
Shortcomings and solutions
Introduction The global economic environment is currently experiencing instability and is becoming weaker and weaker. This has forced many businesses across the divide to take drastic measures to cut down the cost, such as restructuring their operations and reducing their workforce (Cascio, 2005, p.40).
However, these decisions are becoming very difficult for the employers since they have to justify their actions to the labor organizations and the court. Regrettably, these actions have led to court tussle between employers and employees who feel they were unfairly selected (Wagar, 2001, p.852).
Terminations of employee’s contract or layoffs as part of company downsizing policy have generally caused employment discrimination claims. These claims characteristically have always stem from the protected group of workers, for instance disabled employees, minorities, older employees among others, who have been affected by these decisions (Cascio, 2005, p.41).
Additionally, employee’s contract terminations have also resulted into retaliatory acts such as legal actions. On other occasions, get laid off for participating in legal activities such as complaining of harassment, poor working conditions, and request for accommodations among others (Gibson, Hurd
The Nature of Knowledge Work and Knowledge Workers Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The nature of knowledge work and knowledge workers Knowledge management involves discovering, developing, exploiting, and offering the knowledge contained within and without the organizations premises. By use of relevant management process, the management is able to cater for current and future requirements of the organization.
Knowledge work is the type of work that calls for specialized knowledge and skills, in such works, there would be need for creating a new knowledge for the activity to continue. The major difference between the knowledge work and physical labor is that the knowledge work is based on creating more knowledge for the worker to create some values in his activities.
Knowledge workers are the individuals who have high levels of education specializing on a specific area, and most of the time, these workers apply their cognitive skills when about to handle complex situations. The definition of knowledge workers is very broad, and requires different levels of understanding for one to incorporate the meaning.
For instance, all sorts of meaningful work are under this category because even activities like cutting hair, hair styling, or other minor works, the workers involved in them have some levels of specialized knowledge about their work. The only difference that is realized is on their productivity and effectiveness with regard to individual’s knowledge.
To most of people, knowledge workers are taken to be individuals in the famous professions like lawyers, scientists, teachers, etc. To some extent, some top positions that can also be categorized under such levels include the senior personnel in advertising, insurance, and in project development among many others.
As far as the world has diverse activities, many types of jobs are upcoming, which require specialized knowledge like musicians, business executives, and even some top officials in government. The works of knowledge workers involve much the interpretation and controlling of information, and at a certain point to come up with new knowledge.
This makes it unique from the usual manner of data collection and then processing to obtain the results of the issue in question (Garber, 2003). There is a major difference between knowledge workers and less skilled or white-collar workers, who are destined to a certain work routine, with a specific structure and limitations as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the current world, most of people are adopting the qualities of knowledge workers due to the availability of the right resources to perform their activities. The introductions of computer-based technologies in most production companies have facilitated the practice of knowledge workers with some employees .
In most of the factories today, even the lowest levels of employment like factory floor workers requires some knowledge and high tech skills, as most of them are done with machines. The main background of knowledge workers is to handle diverse set of tasks and responsibilities by use of their knowledge and creation of a new knowledge.
In the current working conditions, there are two main types of knowledge workers such as knowledge executors and knowledge generators. Knowledge executors are those groups of workers who make use of the existing knowledge by controlling the information through processes conceived by others (Davenport,
Empirical Research on Individual Conformity to Group Pressure Essay essay help
Introduction Human beings are social and interact with others in different social arrangements. Many times the associations take place in group settings that require individuals to work jointly to meet set goals. At the work place, groups are commonly formulated to complete tasks meant to grow an organization.
With the advancement in technology experienced globally, the concept of work teams has been taken to an even higher level. It is therefore common to come by virtual teams that are constituted by individuals who may or may not be geographically dispersed. With the help of tools such as wikis and blogs, virtual teams are able to carry out activities with very minimal face to face encounters.
As stated by Griffin and Moorhead (2011), individuals influence groups as much as groups also influence the individuals. Within a group, an individual with a strong character can easily determine the others act while the use of very strict group norms can compel members to conform either willingly or against their will.
According to Mowday (1993) one is able to understand organizational behavior by studying the link between individuals, groups and the organizational culture. These three are interrelated and determine how far an organization can go in offering services to the public.
This paper presents a critical evaluation of research that has been done by different authors on the subject of individual conformity to group pressure.
Groups and Social Norms According to Bendor and Swistak (2001), a group norm is defined as a rule or behaviour that triggers punishment if violated by an individual who is a part of the group. Norms exist to provide stability to a group so as to ensure that the group is able to accomplish stipulated tasks as planned.
In a study by Brown (2009), organizations have for many years been encouraged to build strong cultures that can help in the achievement of goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organizations that are keen to realize greater performance have a culture of creating and reinforcing strong group norms to ensure that groups are used to benefit the organization. Further claims indicate that the presence of a strong organizational culture will inspire works teams to execute tasks as required and complete them within the stated time period (Brown, 2009).
Durlauf and Blume (2008) observed that the main purpose of social norms is to govern the interactions within groups and to successfully coordinate the varying expectations of the individual team members. The group norms are particularly valuable when a group is made up of people with diverse backgrounds.
Durlauf and Blume (2008) further argued that once a group has created the norms, all its members required to conform and act in accordance with stipulated rules. Even though there is a general belief that group norms greatly enhance the performance of a group, good management is, however, critical for success to be realized.
Durlauf and Blume (2008) described three different approaches to do this. These include coordination, threats of a member being punished by the group if he or she deviates from what has been agreed and specifying an agreed code of conduct.
Although norms may not formally appear anywhere or even be discussed quite often in the context of a working group, they are a very powerful tool in guiding the behaviour of a group and ensuring that goals are met.
The article on ‘Practice-based Evidence: Towards Collaborative and Transgressive Research’ Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
Introduction The article on ‘Practice-based Evidence: Towards Collaborative and Transgressive Research,’ discusses the challenges of applying research based evidence in policy and practice.
This article points the blame to practitioners who fail to apply research evidence, and ‘irrelevance’ of academic research to practice. The author accounts, in part, the conflict of the two factors to academic paradigm of research designed in contrast to practice.
The author criticizes the traditional research model and proposes an optional practice-based model. Fox (81) identifies three suggestions for developing practice-based evidence. First, the reader should recognize the quest for knowledge as local and dependent process. Second, research process should be inclusive of divergence, challenging the legitimacy and repression of distinct perspective of the world.
Third, theory-construction should be perceived as an add-on to practice. These collective perspectives refute the research/practice and researcher/researched contrast in traditional research and provide a politically and ethically employed research.
The author has indicated several research evidences to support his arguments. He cited the study conducted by Mulkay on the opposition in the initiation of biochemistry (Fox, 83). Mulkay arrived at the conclusion that innovations were most effective where they harmonized current and popular technical and cognitive standards.
The letdown of antisepsis to be embraced in the 19th century surgery perhaps mirrored the theory’s attribution of the aetiology of infections to the surgeons. The author demonstrates the relevance of the practice norms by suggesting the reason for the failure of the antisepsis theory in comparison to the asepsis theory that surgeons effectively implemented because it harmonized with the practice norm.
Research approaches Study by Callon
The researcher analyzed biological scientists’ struggle to resolve over fishing in the French scallop sector. The scientist encountered a first challenge when they discovered that scallops, which proliferated in laboratory tanks, were unable to attach to the rocks in their natural habitat. This scenario clarifies that translation of research findings to actual practice is not straightforward (Fox, 81).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This situation necessitated another rigorous study to fix the problem, which failed because of inconsistency between a forced moratorium on fishing practice and the changes of the local economy.
The researcher arrived at the conclusion that the world-views of the biologist and fishers were divergent to the extent of hindering the translation of scientific propositions into a model, which appeared applicable to a community whose livelihood sustained on the scallop (Fox, 83).
The researcher relied on secondary data of a biological scientist project. This approach is cost-effective since it excludes the expense of data collection.
However, this approach does not allow the researcher to build his or her theory of the problem of concern, wherein it ties the researcher to the theory of the previous biological scientist. This research underscores the importance of considering the divergent views of researchers and practitioners. In this research, people’s world-view of the problem differed from those of the researchers.
Study by Wood et al
These researchers investigated evidence-based procedure on exploitation of laparoscopic surgery for repairing inguinal hernia, oral anticoagulants for stroke prophylaxis and the suggestion for obstetric care established in a government circular called ‘Changing Childbirth’.
On the one hand, the studies revealed a seemingly overall acceptance of the latter, and a patchy adoption of other initiatives on the other, particularly slow with regard to anticoagulant prophylaxis in spite of the evidence of decreased mortality and morbidity.
These researchers postulated that disembodied research findings did not convince the practitioners, although they desired to observe these evidences contextualized in their practice. Wood and colleagues found it crucial that the proposed amendments influenced the practitioners.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The article on ‘Practice-based Evidence: Towards Collaborative and Transgressive Research’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is necessary for research to take consideration of locally based practices that relate with the research. The researchers arrived at the conclusion that research evidence signify not sufficient truth about reality, like one ‘reified moment’ related with the continuing account of practice (Fox, 83).
The researchers perhaps employed a quantitative approach to identify the extent of adoption of evidence-based guidelines by the practitioners. This approach allows researchers to highlight the significance of divergent views between researchers and practitioners.
Indeed, the author argues that research and practice should be regarded as divergent world-views on the same theme, whereby researchers perceive data, whereas practitioners perceive individuals. Policy makers must translate research data from the former to the latter world-perspective prior to its acceptance into practice by practitioners.
Fox has failed to show how research developers can translate practitioners’ world-views into researchers’ world-view, so that practitioners can identify with research findings and easily adopt them. Although, the author proposes the use of practice-based evidence as the workable way of ensuring that practitioners directly employ research findings, there are serious ethical concerns that may arise from this perspective.
Because practitioners see people, it means that the researchers will put many human lives at stake on the claim of obtaining findings that practitioners will directly embrace. Therefore, research developers should first postulate how researchers can adopt practice-based research [PBR] model, without infringing on human rights.
Works Cited Fox, Nick. “Practice-based Evidence: Towards collaborative and transgressive reserach.” Sociology 37.1 (2003): 81-103.
Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A vision statement of the team project
Phil Bernstein project management
Introduction In order to provide a successful work of the project team, and successful outcomes of the project, it is necessary to ensure the collaboration of the all members of the team and make sure that responsibilities, reward and charges are distributed. It is also important that the “key participants” of the project (designer, builder and owner) to be early involved and well aware of their responsibilities.
As well as the members of the project team shared the risk and reward structure during the building construction process (Cohen, 2010). In order to ensure the implementation of the conditions mentioned earlier, an integrated project delivery should be introduces into the project.
A vision statement of the team project The main purpose of this project is to ensure quality and smooth work of the team. We are focused on the new comprehensive process of the work that ensures collaboration of all members of the projects. One of our purposes (to improve the work of the team) is to step outside the boundaries of traditional project management and provide work roles distribution between owners, architects, designers and builders.
We also focus on a new application of the design algorithm. Each member of the team should be involved into a decision making process, as well as feel free to communicate personal ideas to other members of the team. Free, open and direct communication among the participants of the project is one of the keys to success.
Phil Bernstein project management During the KlingStubbins
Business Process Outsourcing Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) involves a firm contracting some of its operations and processes to another firm. According to Duening and Rick (2), Business process outsourcing is a movement of business process from inside the organization to an external service provider. Outsourcing enables the company to concentrate on the main objective.
Rafiq (4) describes business processing as a white collar services required to service employees to customer. The services given by BPO firms may include: auditing, tax processing, Payroll, e.t.c. India has for a long time dominated the BPO market, mainly because of availability of labor, resulting from the high population in the country. There has been tremendous growth in BPO industry in china.
The growth can be attributed to Chinese richness in experts, knowledge and skills, as well as increased proficiency in English language in the recent years, compared to the past.
China’s main barrier to becoming the top BPO provider is the English language (Shalin 1). A lot of Chinese people today are learning English and the government plans to use billions of dollars in English Education so that China can become a global leader in BPO.
Outsourcing has become popular in developed nations and across the world, with the firms being drawn to the BPO because of factors like availability of expertise, availability of improved services and cost reduction (Reid 1)
Who are the major competitors? India hosts most of the leading BPO companies and enjoys vast market from United States, and around the world. It has firms like Genpact, Infosys BPO, IBM India and HCL which are globally competitive
IBM offers BPO services, among many other services and it’s based in the United States of America. It manufactures and sells computer software and hardware. IBM offers the following outsourcing services;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Customer Relationship Management
Finance and Administration
Procurement and supply chain management
Technical Help desk services
Industry Bank office
CRM services involve provision of an improved customer experience and also intensive analysis of customer’s data, so that it becomes possible to come up with actionable and viable customer initiative.
Customer Relationship Management also involves reduction of bad debts, through managing of debts. IBM also offers analytic business services which are supposed to give insight to customer management, and also to help the firm make better and valid decisions.
IBM technical services helps a firm to utilize technologies in a way that they will reduce cost and ensure incidents that result to losses are reduced through proactively scanning IT environment.
IBM has a branch in India, (IBM India) which was awarded the Golden Media HR Excellent awards for the year 2011, due to its effectiveness in Human resource and customer management.
Accenture is another major competitor in the BPO market. It is an information technology outsourcing company, based on Ireland. Among the services that it offers are listed below.
Procurement and human resource
Finance and procurement: these includes
Learning and Human resource
IT outsourcing in conjunction
According to Zacks investment Research (1), Accenture secured a number of contracts, for example, a 6-year outsourcing contract to provide application management services to Germany-based Henkel’s North American operations in the year 2010. This is an indication of how globally competitive the firm is, because of its links with Europe and proficiency in English language.
Genpact also is another competitor to Chinese outsourcing companies. It offers services like,
We will write a custom Report on Business Process Outsourcing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sales and marketing.
Finance and Accounting.
Health care and learning.
Genpact went into a contract in January 2010 with US largest drugs store Walgreens, transferring at least 500 jobs to Genpact (Sachitanand 1). The main reason behind the outsourcing was to improve cost productivity and facilitate growth strategy aiming at maximizing returns.
Genpact may be a big challenge to Chinese companies because, despite it having high skilled experts in various fields of services, it has the advantage of having staffs that are proficient in English, a language widely spoken in Europe, America and around the world.
These are just but a few giants in the BPO market, that are out to compete with China in this business. Most of these firms get their employees from India due to the availability of cheap and efficient labor which makes the outsourcing firms to prosper.
Infosearch BPO is another company based on India that offers outsourcing services to their clients. According to Inforsearch BPO website, the company offers services ranging from:
Outbound Call centre solutions
Chat and e-mail support
Web related services
In the BPO services, they offer
Account and finance operation
Various accounting services include: Accounts payable processing, interim Audits, General ledger Maintenance, Monthly and year end closing assistance, payroll processing, sales and tax returns preparation and Accounts reconciliation.
Human resource services
Human resource services include: Payroll Administration including handling of taxes issues, employee benefits, health, and Medical employees’ background verification
Data processing and Management
Data Processing and management services includes: Data maintenance, data entry, Data processing, data conversion data mining and new database creation
Chat and Email support
Chat and email support include, Customer service, Technical support, inquiry Handling order taking and Follow up services
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Process Outsourcing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strength and weakness of the main competitors Based on the above list of competitors, most companies that can give Asia a challenge in outsourcing business are in India. A company like IBM is based on United States; therefore it can enjoy better access to USA market than Asian companies due to the advanced market in the United States of America. India has been preferred to be a good source of labor force. India has low labor costs and high quality of skilled labor (Shalin 7).
Outsourcing services in India has grown among major cities with some firms avoiding the major cities of India, to operate from minor towns in the service industry with low cost. Some firms are again looking for cheaper and efficient labor in the remote cities (Kobayashi 115)
Shalin observes that the flourishing BPO industry in India is a result of a strong English speaking workforce that joins the market every year (vii). Outsourcing industry in China is faced with a Language challenge as many of the citizens cannot use the language well. To remove this barrier, the government of China is putting in place academic programmes and has also developed curriculum that will lead to more Chinese enrolling in those programmes to familiarize themselves with the English language.
Accenture on the other hand offers extensive services, ranging from application, infrastructure, to business process outsourcing. It embarks on cost reduction to its clients, at the same time offering high quality services. It surpasses china by the fact that it is based on an English speaking country, and also being strategically located in Europe. According to Zacks investment research, “It has been expanding over the years, Accenture also has extensive relationship with world’s leading companies and government, and it operates in over 120 countries” (Zacks investment research 1). This has given this company an upper hand in securing a share in the BPO market (Zacks investment research 1).
Infosearch BPO, another outsourcing company based in India, stresses the need of offering the best services to its customer. Inforsearch seeks to offer Financial and accounting services emphasizing on data security, risk management, governance and improved efficiency (Infosearch BPO services 1).
Inforsearch BPO also offers excellent data processing and management at low rates, and also performs error- data management services that will help the organization save time, and hence money. They also respond to email of clients effectively without delay, removing the offload of many mails thereby reducing email overcrowding.
Labor arbitration across Asia Labor arbitration is an economic concept where, with the removal of trade barriers, labor moves from regions with low paying jobs to regions where jobs are paying better. Some nations have very high population, and so they educate more labor than can be absorbed in the market. This leads to low wages and salaries. Labor arbitration allows these employees to migrate to other countries and seek employment.
lupinacci (1) found out that cost of labor in Asia is 75% the cost of labor in United States. Therefore creating a need for companies to source cheap labor form Asia, just to save on cost. However, outsourcing only helps to reduce cost and is viable if you are importing labor at a lower cost. Companies in china cannot therefore source labor outside the country, if such labor is abundantly available right in the country.
Initially, outsourcing clients were expected to come from expensive economies such as Japan, USA, Singapore, simply because labor costs in these countries were high, and therefore companies operating from there would wish to import labor at lower costs.
Surprisingly, KPMG international (2) found out that 55% of surveyed companies in India and 46 percent in China say that they already outsource. 24 percent of respondents in India, and 30 percent in china plans to outsource in the next three years.
Companies in India have greater tendency of outsourcing business functions as compared to other Asian companies and this distinguishes the operations of the companies between the two territories. According to the report, 64% of respondents in India say they currently outsource, or plan to outsource accounting, debt collection and tax processing. Only 50% in the rest of Asia say the same (KPMG 2).
Language is an important and indispensable Criterion for companies when selecting and putting into place a service provider.
To majority of the respondents, language and the country’s culture strongly dictates their outsourcing requirement. Although English remains the key language of the subsidiaries of multinational companies, it is not the case with local companies. Therefore, companies looking for outsourcing markets in Asia should employ people who are fluent in Asian languages.
Most of the respondents viewed some tasks such as strategic planning, sales and marketing, risk management and research and development as very important and essential to the company, and so they should be done from inside. According to KPMG international (2), BPO business will boom in Asia, when more Asian companies agree to trust outsiders in the areas they regard as key player. For example, accounting, finance, etc.
Finally, an explosion in the market is set to happen, when the companies that are already outsources succeed over their competitors, as a result of reduced cost brought by outsourcing. The competitors will be forced to follow suit, in order to stay in the business.
Growth strategy to outsourcing company in China Outsourcing is one of the strategies that firms in developed world are using to lower cost of production, by outsourcing labor which is cheap, lowering their labor cost. Wage rates in China and India range from 10% to 25% as compared to those for quality workers in the US and elsewhere in the developed world (Brecher et al 1).
What this means for Asia is that they stand a chance to expand their markets event wider because more and more firms in the developed countries will tend to source more labor from Asia. A good growth strategy would include:
Adoption and campaigning for policies which allow labor migration across the world. In a free market economy, labor can easily move from countries where demand is low, to countries where demand is high. If all countries adopt this policy and ceases government intervention in labor markets, then firms in a given country can easily outsource.
The government of China should ask its trade partners to adopt this policy, which is widely used by many developed countries in the world. The main drawbacks are that national labor union, as well as non-governmental organizations, which will always challenge the government if most of the countries workforce is outsourced and the unemployment levels, are high.
Mostly, trade unions in developed countries demand for higher and higher pay. With the labor unions as watchdogs, it becomes tricky and difficult for the firm to replace the costly labor with a cheap one.
Language is another factor that needs to be addressed. Language and culture of firms in outsourcing should be that which is acceptable and admirable to those who wish to get their labor. The main reason why Indian firms get a wider market in United States and Europe compared to other Asian countries is their ability to communicate in English.
Chinese government has already embarked on programmers to make its citizens more conversant with English language. However, this does not rule out other Asian languages.
The bottom line is for each BPO company to clearly make a target in the market, and ensure they are proficient in the language spoken in the spotted and targeted market. Companies like IBM India Genpact market share is largely attributed to their staffs’ proficiency in the English language. Asia, that is china and India should embrace outsourcing with both hands.
KPGM international survey report shows that most firms in China embrace outsourcing, but just not with both hands. There are areas in the firms that the management feels so precious to outsource, and therefore they would rather produce their own workforce to do these jobs.
These jobs include strategic planning, risk management, research development. If only everybody could embrace BPO, then china can enjoy the market first in the region and later in the rest of the world. However I strongly feel that in due time, the few firms that have embraced BPO in all areas will make tremendous success against their competitors.
The government of china should adopt policies that are likely to encourage firms to indulge in BPO, either as the supplier of services, or consumers. The policies should involve a tax holiday, for companies in BPO business. If an employee goes to work outside china and they are taxed on their income, the Chinese government should not tax the same so that they can avoid the problem of double taxation.
Recently, the government of china has been encouraging multinational companies to set up outsourcing operations in the country or event set up joint venture with Chinese outsourcing companies.
According to Ensinger, “the Chinese and the US government’s chamber of commerce and industry, Chinese branch, has worked hand in hand with the US government to Sponsor events in America, encouraging the US companies to seek for workforce overseas” (Ensinger pg. 1). The chamber has funded pro outsourcing campaigns, and has openly opposed those who are against it.
This is yet another strategy individual firm should have good management skills that will enable to adopt strategies that will lead to success. Every firm should have a good IT infrastructure management that will ensure the firm advances in IT skills and should produce staffs that possess the same skills. Expertise in area of specialization is a self marketing concept in staff, and china should make their staff as experienced as possible.
The firms should adopt measures to ensure that hard working and focused employees are given incentives and good working conditions and the company should dedicate its resources towards their career development and experience so that they do not leave the firm.
High employee turnover
Raman classifies the reasons that lead to high employee’s turnover into “Drive attrition” reasons caused by the employer, or “drag attrition” reasons due to the employees. Drag attrition are caused by employer, who may fail to re hire employees after the contract period. The employing company’s policy may require retention of only the productive employees, with the rest being sent away (3).
According to Raman, “Drag attrition is due to insecurity and vulnerability associated with taking on a career with a BPO company, while others may quite as a chance to rise up the corporate ladder” (Raman 3). Nature of work in many BPO companies is psychologically stressing and may lead to illness, fatigue, ulcers, depression and other chronic illnesses.
In order to overcome workers turnover, BPO companies should give initiatives to ensure that employees remain with them and to make them feel that they gain more when they work with BPO than when they leave. Incentives may be financial; it can be a pension scheme which is enjoyable after working for years with them so whoever leaves earlier looses the benefit.
High salaries that meet employee’s needs should be a must, alongside the assurance of a job security. The employees should feel that the BPO Company holds the future for them.
Raman suggests various ways that employees can be made to stay in a BPO company (8). One of them is changing employee’s attitude towards BPO. Employees should cease from seeing this job as a lifestyle or may be a job to cling on waiting for greener pastures ahead, to seeing it as a career.
This can be done through changing organizational structure, which will give the employee a chance to climb up the corporate ladder, may be from a subordinate staff, to junior staff and later may be a manager.
BPO companies should also present a socially presentable image to the employees and the public at large.
Raman (8) says that “BPO firms should take those physically handicapped in the community, and thereby become socially responsible” as this will present a very good image in the eyes of the employees and they will feel a part of the organization and they will be more loyal and willing to serve the company to the best of their ability.
According to Raman (9), effective communication should be used as a tool to give the employees a sense of belonging. Their views should be taken seriously and whoever has an incentive in the company should be taken seriously. Employees should be informed of what is happening and should be updated on issues of the company.
Employees should also be given a choice of reward. Every employee should be in a position to choose among the varieties of rewards that the company offers
Some people may prefer more pay, while others may prefer more time off. Personalizing rewards shows the company cares for each individual’s needs, as opposed to distributing generic rewards (Raman 10).
This is also very important in outsourcing business; the firm should aim at achieving the needs of the company that it is supplying with technical experts. A good vendor – client relationship also is a key thing in boosting BOP business (Mayen 4).
Schwartz and Ye (1) attributes the key to business success to indulging yourself with a good outsourcing company that will ensure reduction in cost and lead to increased production capacity. The main reason why firms outsource is to attain competitive advantage, and achieve economies of scale (Kakabadse and Kakabadse 3).
According to Harley (106), both the BPO Company and the client should consider certain aspects when developing a good negotiation strategy that amount to good result
Both should understand negotiation position, and the position is largely determined by the objectives and goals of the BPO Company and the client. The clients aim at reducing cost and gaining competitive advantage.
The scope of business
The scope of business being outsourced should also be considered. This is driven by consumer’s business requirement and it will be determined by how the BPO Company deals with certain legal terms.
Relative bargain positions of either party should also be put into consideration. The bargaining position is influenced by the client’s urgency to enter into a BPO contract and also the benefits that the transaction carried out offers to the vendor.
The parties should establish the objective and goals of the contract because it largely influences the substance and form of the contract entered into.
The parties should define the scope, according to the client’s requirements and the company’s resources and capabilities. The client must first define the scope of the agreement, and then the company redefines it. This process will help to come with good terms over the contract and it is a key to establishing a good and satisfying contractual relationship.
Establish the value and urgency of the contract in terms of your client. The value may range from increased profits as a result of saving on costs to creating a good image in the eyes of the public, as a multinational company that take regards need of other nations.
According to Harley (108), the value may also be psychological whereby if the contract has already been communicated to the employees and the public as a whole, failure to close the deal may be seen as a weak point in the eyes of the public and may demean the client.
Each party must define roles it intends to play in the contract. This involves the legal process of drafting the agreement, where both parties ensure that all its concerns have been put into consideration.
A good contract negotiation strategy by China BPO Company will lead to happy customers and long ties that ensure business progress in the coming years.
Willcocks and Cullen (46) talk of a contract management that will ensure that firms operate at lower costs and in the spirit of profit maximization and relative competitive advantage.
With these factors taken into consideration, Chinese BPO companies can at a significant amount overcome the challenge of employee turnouts and they would be at a path to become world leaders in this business.
Why china has a great potential for BPO China’s BPO potential has been on the rise over the years, attracting more and more international companies. This strength can be attributed to:
Strong domestic market
China is a country with very high population. This population offers a market for business growth. Many Chinese firms have also started outsourcing some services. The BPO industries therefore enjoy both the domestic market and the international market, leading to a tremendous growth.
A survey conducted by Sanchez (20) shows that many companies in Asia and Canada do not outsource the areas they consider strategic, such as finance, but 90% comfortably outsource it. Companies should however embrace outsourcing in all sectors, to increase the domestic market
Improving education infrastructure
According to Gallagher et al (5), on a higher education report in china by (OECD), enrollment in higher education in China has risen from 5 million in 1990, to 23 million in 2009. This tremendous investment in education means improved and quality workforce for china. The workforce has hence led to high growth in BPO industries.
Skilled labor at low prices
China enjoys a vast population of skilled labor. Going with the law of demand and supply, higher supply will reduce the cost of labor, making manufactures enjoy low labor at very low costs. It has the largest population with 1.3 to 1.4 billion people (Eltscjomger, 34)
Brecher et al (1) argues that wage rates in China and India rang form 10% to 25% of those for comparable quality workers in US and elsewhere in the developed world. Due to this, firms in developed countries are moving to china to source for cheap labor boosting the BOP industry.
Comprehensive IT infrastructure
The government of China has embarked on a massive investment on the IT sector. China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) declared that the government has spent RMB 367.6 billion on infrastructure. This infrastructure is therefore boosting businesses, especially IT outsourcing.
KPGM international survey report shows that most firms in China embrace outsourcing but just not with both hands (4). There are areas in the firms that the management feels so precious to outsource, and therefore they would rather produce their own workforce to do these jobs. These jobs include strategic planning, risk management, research
The Chinese government has embarked on policies that are at largely aimed at boosting BPO businesses. The policies are together with increased English education to make China population to be fluent with the English language and make China globally competitive. The policies also involve giving tax rebates, incentives and subsidies to BPO Companies (Rightsite Team 1)
Exchange Nexus is a Chinese based company that provides insight to other companies on how to outsource. According to Exchange Nexus (1), the company works with top Chinese outsourcing companies trying to outsource and provide them with training resources and this firm is just another reason why China is climbing heights in outsourcing.
Conclusion The BOP industry is one of the largest growing industries in the world as a result of benefits that accrue to those who use it. The cost of initial investment can be tremendously high, because of capital assets as well as experts in various fields. In fact, the time that a firm may take to develop human resource that it requires and train them to high standard may be too much, considering how important time resource can be to an organization.
BPO makes it possible for you to acquire these services without necessarily training the workforce yourself. BPO can also offer flexible labor because you can have a short term outsourcing contract for a service that you do not need for long. It can also be a good method of acquiring employees, because you can consume them in your program after the contract is over.
Some firms even have policies to retain productive employees after the contract. In the long run, it means such a firm will employ a very productive workforce even in other parts of the world, a supermarket that want to develop sales software, probably do not have a programmer at hand. However, they can indulge an IT company to make this software for them without necessarily employing a programmer.
The outsourcing business also helps in cost reduction because the firms can import cheap labor from developing countries to cut down on production cost. Outsourcing is therefore becoming a very common way of acquiring what firms do not have and the demand for the BPO services is increasing. India and China have got a large pool of skilled employees (Infosearch BPO Services Pvt Ltd 1).
Over the years, India has dominated the market due to proficiency in English language of its citizens. Key leaders in the BOP business include IBM and Infosearch. These companies have branches in India. They are attracted by the large percentage of skilled workforce. Both India and China enjoys high population, resulting to surplus labor which should to be exported to other countries.
China recently has enjoyed tremendous growth in the BOP sector (Weinberg pg 1). The government of China has been encouraging other countries to import labor from china, by diplomatic relations. We have already seen that the United States chamber of commerce and industry (China branch) is very active in campaign to encourage the US companies to outsource cheap labor from china.
Initiatives are also underway to make most of the population to be fluent in English so that they can comfortably engage in business transaction Europe and America. The government has also made allies with other governments, in a view to expand international markets in the spirit of globalization of the labor force (Bpovia.com 1).
Individual firms are also encouraged to undertake strategic measures that will ensure they live long in the business. They should build a good business name by providing high quality services to their customers and establishing good customer relations. Public image presented by a BPO company may either attract customers or chase them away.
If the current trend continues, China will be the leading BPO services provider in the world due to the abundance of professionals with high expertise at a very low price as well an increased IT revolution in Asia, and particularly in china.
Works Cited Bpovia. China Government favorable policies outsourcing China Business news, 2008. Web.
Brecher, Jeremy., Costello, Tim and Smith, Brendan. From Campgains to movements: Global labor strategies, 2006. Web.
Duening, Thomas, and Click, Rick. Essentials of Business process outsourcing. Canada: John winkly and sons, 2005. Web.
Eltscjomger, Cyrillm. Source code china: a new global hub in IT outsourcing. New Jersey: John winkly and sons, 2007.
Ensinger, Dustin. Report: chamber of commerce held seminar promote outsourcing: America’s Economic report, 2010. Web.
Exchange Nexus. Connecting outsourcing opportunities in china, 2010. Web.
Gallagher, Michael., Abrar, Hasan., Canning, Mary., Newby, Howard., Saner, Lichia – Yiu and Whitman, Ian. OECD Reviews of Tertiary Education, 2009. Web.
Harley, John. Business process outsourcing: Process, strategies, and contract, 2nd ed, 2007. New Jersey: John winkly and sons, 2007. Web.
Infosearch BPO Services Pvt Ltd. BPO Company India: Outsourcing BPO Services
Internet Marketing: Advantages and Disadvantages Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Website marketing entails use of internet as the medium for marketing products and services. The use of internet as the marketing medium has various advantages that range from lower cost of disseminating information to its ability to reach the global audience. Website marketing also involves digital client data management and electronic client relationships handling.
Nowadays there is widespread adaption of website marketing due to the prevailing enhanced growth and propagation of the Information Technology globally. These days most of established and incoming firms are opting in adapting web marketing as their most preferred means of marketing and advertisement.
This has helped these companies to increase potential customers who visit their homepage and learn about their products or services. The benefits that are associated with website marketing outweigh its shortcomings and thus, it is a very effective medium for marketing (Arnold, 2011).
The World Wide Web is generally available to a large number of individuals. This makes it very easy for many businesses to reach millions of customers by just a few clicks of the mouse. The ability of internet marketing and in particular website marketing to reach a broad range of consumers has made it become a very common marketing medium in many current businesses.
The use of website in marketing makes businesses’ products or services being accessed by potential buyers anywhere in the world. In relation to other forms of advertisement, website marketing has been noted as being more effective in reaching greater number of customers than any other means. There is no comparison that can exist between the use of website marketing with the use of radio and television ads.
In addition, it is not even comparable with the Billboards which are only effective in reaching only those people who just happen to pay them attention while passing where they are placed. Moreover, it is common that consumers will hang up on or put off speaking with a telemarketer. Similarly, the time you use to talk to one consumer can be used to reach thousands of customers through website marketing (Charlesworth, 2009).
In addition to its fastness, website marketing is also noted to be very inexpensive compared to other forms of marketing. The only costs that are associated with website marketing are the initial costs that are required for designing and hosting the website plus the costs that are associated with its maintenance and updates which are mostly negligible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Website marketing can often become very expensive depending on the kind of ads adapted. For instance a banner ad or a link to a very famous website can cost a firm a considerable amount of money (Sweeney
Human Resource Management. ‘Cockpit for You’ Company Case Study essay help: essay help
Introduction The success of a firm’s productivity depends on the organization of the human resource management. Reflectively, labour as a factor of production, determines the gross output, performance, and goal achievement at optimal resource use.
The Company ‘Cockpit for you’ has been struggling with human resource management problems that range from competition, labour structure, and financial constraints. Budget constraints for ‘Cockpit for you’ are represented by a production possibility frontier curve which is dangerously skewed towards deficits in productivity.
The curve shows the limitation of available factors of production, especially on optimal labour use and employee motivation. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly analyse thematic areas that have negative influence on the company’s labour use and display them as part of a mind mapping plan.
Besides, the paper presents a comprehensive theoretical backup for one of the identified thematic area as part of a remedial case study. In addition, the paper develops a personnel evaluation system using a project management plan that targets to restore human resource efficiency.
Mind Mapping of Challenges at ‘Cockpit for you’ Company Current budget of the ‘Cockpit for you’ firm may not allow it to utilize all factors of production in the economy. Therefore, there is always need to maximize use of obtainable resources. ‘Cockpit for you’ Company faces several limitations in its operations after the sudden restructuring.
First, the uncertain working conditions greatly impacted on employees’ confidence and performance patterns. As employees’ incomes remain unstable, and relatively low, it was natural to witness an underperformance and low morale at work. The trading conditions continued to remain a challenge especially for this company. These adversely influenced the ability of ‘Cockpit for you’ to achieve the forecasted sales and consequently, the overall budget was affected.
Increase in prices of factors of production directly affects budgeted cost of production, and thus low income earned by employees. In addition, inability of the company to leverage its systems and processes hindered the growth of its business as it reduced ability of the company to attract the right labour skills and attitude.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the company faces operational risks in areas such as supply chain management, communication systems, and human resource management. Given that the company has to operate within a predetermined budget, changes in the individual component of the budget affect the operations of the entire business.
Evaluation of strategic threats and opportunities is important for an organization as feedback from such appraisal is vital for execution of strategic plans and decision making. ‘Cockpit for you’ is exposed to numerous threats. For instance, following the acquisition logistics and restructuring, the company has to remain afloat despite competition. Secondly, the human resource department is fairly responsive to sudden swings and also very sensitive to changes in income.
Since the change of ownership, the company has suffered heavily, as communication system for implementing these changes seemed to have broken down. Due to redundancy, lack of performance evaluation processes, employee testing, and healthy work culture, the company is currently facing uncertainty and is at the brink of total labour force redundancy.
These systems are critical in improving leadership skills, evaluation skills, promoting creativity, and rewarding outstanding achievement. The company is surrounded by several opportunities for growth of business. However, the human resource department is seriously underdeveloped despite the fact that labour determines total output, thus profitability.
‘Cockpit for you’ Company has done little to have a pipeline of talent to work towards achieving long-term objectives. Reflectively, the company has not organized several tailored training and development schemes designed to help its people fulfill their potential. According to Burke
Impacts of the Implementation of Australia’s “Carbon Tax” Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impacts of the Implementation of Australia’s “Carbon Tax”
Introduction The increased need for environmental sustainability within the global perspective has made countries to adopt robust strategies. The effects of global warming and high production levels of carbon have particularly drawn a lot of interests. Countries have extensively debated on the growing concern. Evidently, there have been development and ratification of several policies that have influenced the operations of most global firms.
Australia includes one of the countries that have adopted robust measures towards reducing its carbon production levels (Kenrick, 2011). Through this initiative, the operations of most of its firms have been greatly influenced. Observably, this has occurred within the domestic and the international platform.
Carbon tax refers to the government’s initiative for minimizing the level of carbon emissions. Basically, this initiative places a permanent price for the quantity of pollution. The federal government is the sole initiator of the carbon tax principle. Although the policy may have positive implications, it is also notable that there are negative effects (Kreiser, Sirisom, Ashiabor
Evolution of Candy Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin has been used as a master piece in the study of evolution. In the book, Darwin explains how natural selection was an important sieve for growth of different species. Only animals with desired traits were able to survive and perpetuate in the environment.
The book, also discusses divergent and convergent evolution theories. Just, as the organisms, candy has gone through evolution over time, in his lecture Pauls says “Candies’ morphologies are similar to those of organisms,” (Steve, 2011, p.1). Candy’s divergent evolution system also has seen a variety of candy types today.
The evolution of candy similar to those of the organism, may explain the reason why candy has found a centre spot in celebrating Darwin’s days. Walter a biology proffers in their yearly celebration did say, “I can’t remember ever having this much fun on Darwin’s birthday” (Steve, 2011, p. 1)
The word ‘Candy’ can be traced back to 13th century, as French term Cucre Candi, which also was adopted from Persian Qand (cane sugar). There is a belief the root of the word is Sanskrit Khanda (sugar piece). Historians and linguistics also associate the word with kattu or Kantu (condense or harden) from Dravadian.
Candy is generally used to as a name for various kinds of brands such as tart, licorice, chocolate, salty candies, taffies, hard candies, gumdrops, candy bars, marshmallows, and sour candies (Steve, 2011). Nevertheless; several fruits, vegetables and nuts were glazed and called candies. In most Commonwealth nations, candy is generically referred to as sweets, while in New Zealand and Australia, they are called lollies.
Candy bore its ancestry to ancient Egyptian civilization. Certain fruits and nuts made in honey roll and left to dry. During this type, refined sugar was not available. Later, the honey coated fruits and nuts spread to the Arabian and Chinese world. Element of today’s candy is traceable to when sugarcane growth started. During this time, only upper class members of the societies could afford it, however.
The first form of modern candy was used in the American colonies made of boiled sugars. Cocoa for chocolate bore its origin in Mexico, after its discovery several candies started to spring up. It was used as a tasty dish and a coating additive for nuts and nuts. Mayan community was already using hot chocolate even before candy birth surfaced.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is evident that evolution of candy was widely spread across the world and over a big span of time. Industrial revolution of 1800s marked the growth of candy. Machineries were created to help in different manufacturing processes during this time. Demand also increased due to wider capitalist market. Sweetshops were rapidly opening up and candy competition was rapidly heightening.
Wunderlee is remembered as the first man to produce candy from candy corn. This was in the late 1800 century. Jelly Belly formally known as Goelitz Candy Company is among the earliest producers of candy. Popularity of cone grew as a result of its agrarian among farmers due to its agrarian look.
However, production inefficiency only made its production to be carried out twice a year. However, the crop found its usefulness in Halloween for over 100 years. It is day is celebrated on every 30th of October as National Candy Corn Day. It has high calories up to 140 calories per serving. Candy has found extensive use beyond Halloween as Christmas Reindeer Corn, Easter Bunny Corn and Cupid Valentine Corn.
Candy first came into America as imports from France and Britain. Most colonialist had no knowledge of sugar work; hence the wealthy capitalist could not access sugar. Rock candy came in handy among the rich during this time; however, it was very expensive that only the very rich could afford it. Advance technology of 1830s industrial change created a shift in candy market as well. Industrial revolution created wider market as the working class also joined the rich in consumption of candy.
Children as well could afford confections and they demand rapidly expanded. Candy store were rapidly growing for children both from the rich and working class. This was when penny candy strike the market for children. Medically, lozenges were coated with penny candies for children due to their bitter taste (Wallace
Organizational Change Plan for Accor Company Essay custom essay help
Introduction Accor Company Change Management Project Team (ACCMPT) will provide Accor Company with methods that will help sustain customer satisfaction for a long time in Accor Company. ACCMPT has significantly involved in Accor Company different changes implementation. The changes included change to spread the company worldwide, change on methods of recruiting workers of Accor Company, and development of an enticing strategy to attract customers.
Accor Company is Europe leader in hospitality industry (Accor, 2011). It is a multinational company handling different customers. This plan identifies benefits that Accor Company will enjoy if it maximize, and sustain customer satisfaction. Research shows that it is not easy to attract customers in hospitality industries. Therefore, retaining them for a long time is beneficial to a business. Customer satisfaction in any hospitality industry depends on the quality of services.
At our service (ACCMPT), we have a responsibility of working for the implementation of changes in the culture of Accor Company to help the company realize profits and survive in today’s competitive market. Accor Company has been enjoying our best services concerning the treatment of customers. In achieving our vision, it will help the entire Accor Company fraternity realize the benefits of customer satisfaction.
Executive Summary Purpose
The purpose of this organizational change plan is to demonstrate the ability of ACCMPT to achieve its’ objectives of introducing change in Accor Company to successful sustain customer satisfaction. The plan also describes the activities that the entire Accor Company stakeholders will have to practice during the process of change. The plan will also accomplish the following:
Define the change.
Identify the strategy for change.
Outline the activities for transforming Accor Company.
Explain how the stakeholders are to participate in the change process.
Emphasis the need or importance of commitment or sticking to change.
Define Accor Company structure that is to help the change process take place, and provide for the morale and motivation of the stakeholders.
The plan is to help Accor Company realize the benefits of sustaining customers’ satisfaction.
Give a clear and understandable vision to the company workers and the role they would have to play in the change process.
This plan is to concentrate on the activities that will help Accor Company to realize the success of the delivery of the change program. The plan will also be a long–term document for Accor Company to use as a proof as long as this change is going to last in the company. The plan document will be updated when the company begins to realize the result of the change. The scope of the plan includes the following:
A plan to move the company form the old principles to the new change.
The way Accor workers will get training that will help them work with the integration of new changes.
Description of the communication structure to be used during the change for effective transition.
The plan will also give the role to be played by Accor workers during the change process.
The plan will explain how the workers will participate in the change process.
How ACCMPT intends to shape the future culture of Accor Company
ACCMPT vision of change and how the team will operate during the change process.
Need for Change
Historically Accor Company handles a large number of customers worldwide. Accor Company need to ensure that their management and the way they deliver services is able to satisfy customers according to their expectations. Customer satisfaction will help the company to retain their customers for a long time and continue enjoying profits.
Failure by most industries to have ways of measuring customers’ satisfaction is one reason why most hospitality industries do not survive for a long period in today’s competitive economic environment. Accor Company needs to adopt a strategy that will help it deliver to customers the quality that they deserve.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, in terms of sex, women requirements on quality that they are to receive in hotels differ from that of their counterparts, men. Therefore, to address such issues, Accor Company requires changing from traditional methods in which the company assumes that all customers deserve same quality.
Accor Company existence in many countries is a crucial thing that requires the company to be vigilant on how it handles customers. The company handles customers who have divergent cultures. This calls for a strategy that will ensure that the customers receive quality service in relation to their cultures.
This is important because customers’ cultures have a great impact on the success of any hospitality industry. Customers’ culture and the way of service delivery in Accor Company will determine the level of customer satisfaction.
The diagram below summarizes the relationship of customer culture and service delivery
Source: (Lin, 2012)
Environmental Analysis of ACCOR Company
ACCMPT find it necessary to carry out the environmental analysis on Accor Company to see the current position of the company. The analysis is both external and internal to help suggest the best strategies during the change process on areas that proves to be weak. The analysis will give the team the roles it will assign to various company workers and stakeholders.
It will also provide ACCMPT with hints on the training that the team will need to design for the workers of the company and other stakeholders. Last, the analysis will provide the team with weaknesses and strength that Accor Company has, and how the change process will help improve this areas.
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Change Plan for Accor Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More External Analysis ACCMPT team will identify the effects of various external forces to Accor Company. This will help understand the way the team will have to respond to these forces during the change process. There are various external forces that demand for changes in the way Accor Company handles its’ customers.
This company direct interaction with customers in operations requires provision of high quality services. Accor Company is affected by various external factors. These factors include Physical or natural factors, social or cultural factors, technological factors, economic factors, competitive factors, and global market factors. Below is a review of these factors and how ACCMPT will integrate the effects of these factors in the change process.
Analysis of Physical or Factors
ACCMPT will identify the physical or natural factors that affect the performance of the company. These factors include floods, droughts and other natural disasters like earthquakes. In the process of change, the team will identify best activities that the company will adopt to sustain customer satisfaction, the team will propose the effective methods to counter these natural factors. Natural factors will help the team to identify the best change strategies for different business branches of Accor Company worldwide.
Analysis of Social and Cultural factors
ACCMPT appreciates the effects of the social and cultural factors. The team understands the effect of these factors to the performance of Accor Company. Social or cultural factors put pressure on Accor Company to adhere to this plan. Accor Company operates in divergent cultures.
The company has its’ branches in 92 countries (Accor, 2011). These countries have got distinct cultures. Customers’ culture greatly affects the activities of Accor Company. In delivering services to customers, Accor will have to ensure they consider the way they handle customers’ diverse culture. This is because customers’ culture together with the way the organization provides their services determines customer satisfaction.
Customers’ culture normally has a direct effect on the way of service delivery. Therefore, every customer who has a particular culture expects the services to be done in a certain way which will guarantee the customer satisfaction. For example, referring to “power distance”, customers with different powers expects the services to be differentiated in the hotel (Lin, 2012). Customers with different powers should not have the same services.
If customers of the same power receive services of the same level, there will be no satisfaction to some customers. The project team will accomplish its’ goals by monitoring the steps that Accor Company stakeholders has to consider in the desire to establish change in the organization. ACCMTP team begins from developing a sense of change in the organization to anchoring the change into the corporate culture.
The team will allocate unique activities to every branch of Accor Company in every country during the change process. This is because different branches of Accor Company experiences different socio-cultural behaviors, and therefore, their handling of customers is different. The ACCMPT will suggest different training procedures to Accor staff in different countries because of their handling of different customers with different cultures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Change Plan for Accor Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Analysis of Technological Factors
Technological factors are also key forces toward the adoption of change by Accor Company. This company is a multinational company which requires improved technology services to help it in the process of delivering services.
For high customer satisfaction, the company requires technological services that are up to date. For example, email accounts that are well protected, ability to use credit cards without exposing customers’ personal information. When such activities are well supervised, the company will be promoting customer satisfaction for a long time.
ACCMPT has to understand if the available technology in the company will accommodate the change. Current technology will be able to make the change process quick and reliable. Accor Company has got improved technology that can accommodate the needs of the company. The technology makes communications between various stakeholders of the company easier. These include the company’s website, telephones, and fax. This will offer ACCMPT with easier time and efficiency in communicating the needs of the change process.
Analysis of Political Factors
ACCMPT members understand the role of political force in the process of change. Political factors can obstruct the change process or support the change. Accor Company operates in different political spheres. The ACCMPT team will make sure that it respects the laws of this diverse political spheres under which Accor operates by seeking operation permission in written form. The stakeholders will receive training on different laws of various countries in which the company has branches.
Analysis of Economic Factors
ACCMPT understands that economic factors can limit or contribute to the success of this change process. From various literature and experiences the members of this team understands that economic factors influence the level of Customers satisfaction. The economic changes call for Accor Company to come with strategies on how to satisfy their customers’.
This is because, with a challenging economy, customers become sensitive to issues like prices. Economic recessions affect consumers’ income making their budgeting habits to change (Roberts, 2010). Therefore, ACCMPT team will be careful when addressing such challenges because if the team does not fully control these challenges, during the change process it can affect the customers (Humphreys, 2003).
When stakeholders of Accor do not respond well to the issues they are likely to lose some of their customers. ACCMPT team identifies the investment method to help deal with the economic recession. Holding to past principles will lower the profits of the company during this scenario and create negative perceptions to customers. Mere customer satisfaction is a cause of poor customer loyalty (Jones
Competing with Giants by Niraj Dawar and Tony Frost Coursework argumentative essay help
In the article Competing with Giants, Niraj Dawar and Tony Frost discuss the strategies that companies from developing countries can use in order to compete with international corporations. The authors argue that selling out or leaving the market is not always the most optimal solution for small businesses. According to this article, the managers should focus on the following issues:
Identification and assessment of ones competitive assets. The managers should focus on the strengths that their businesses may have, for example, well-developed distribution networks, low-cost of production, or loyalty of the customers. This knowledge will be essential for them in the future.
The degree to which the assets of the company can be transferred abroad. For instance, they should determine whether they have sufficient resources to enter foreign markets. Similarly, they should analyze the strategies of their competitors from the same perspective. This analysis will help them better develop their strategies and predict the actions of competitors.
Finally, they should evaluate globalization pressures or the likelihood that a foreign rival can enter their niche market.
Apart from that, the writers describe four possible strategies that local companies can adopt when facing foreign competition. Depending upon the path that these businesses take, they can be categorized into four groups:
Defenders or companies that focus on one of their competitive strengths and meet the needs of one target group that cannot be reached by foreign corporations. For instance, one can mention Bajaj Auto a manufacturer of scooters. They target people who are interested in durability and low cost of a scooter, rather than its brand. In this way, they can rival with large corporations like Honda.
Dodgers or those businesses that can redefine their goals and main strengths. In other words, they can move to a different market that is of little interest to international companies. For instance, one can refer to Chinese software developers that chose to design programs for Windows, instead of developing operating systems.
Extenders or those organizations that strive to transfer their capabilities into foreign markets. These businesses usually seek markets similar to their own. One of such organizations is Jollibee Foods which is a Philippine fast-food chain that operates in China and Japan.
Contenders or those companies that attempt to improve their capacities in order to compete with large international companies. Among such companies one can single out Samsung or Sony.
On the whole, this study outlines several ways in which local companies can withstand the rivalry of foreign corporations, namely:
Upgrading organizational strengths and capabilities so that the company did not have to move from a particular market entered an international corporation;
Diversifying the range of the products or services;
Moving to a different segment that is of no interest to a foreign competitor;
Focusing on the needs of a particular group of customers and offering products that can appeal to these people, their values, and income level.
The authors show that the arrival of international companies does not always lead to the failure of the local ones. The managers of such businesses should remember that the policy of protectionism cannot always shield them against their rivals from abroad. The strategies described in this article can help many local businesses from developing countries.
Business turnaround – Renault and Nissan company Coursework college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The Renault company best known for its innovative and design was to undergo a turnaround with the Japanese motor giant, Nissan. The Nissan has a prolonged fame of producing quality engine systems. The two companies agreed to form a major strategic alliance. This alliance would be the fourth largest car making company across the globe. The Renault was to assume $ 5.4 billion of Nissan’s debt.
This alliance made sense for both sides since the Nissan Company’s strengths would cover the gaps of the Renault company and vice versa. The Renault was to reduce the much debt owed to the Nissan industry. The success of the alliance would purely depend on the conversion of the Nissan of the Nissan industry into a profitable and rising business as proposed by Schweitzer. An earlier attempt by the Renault Company to merge with Volvo was not successful due to the traditional state control of the player countries.
Before the idea of turnaround had emerged, Nissan Company was really struggling to earn the estimated profits. The cost of making a Nissan vehicle was extremely high hence; its market price for its products were high compared to other firms in the industry. The company stock had to accumulate since it would pile more than million more cars each single year. This made the company accumulate more and more debts.
In order for the company to protect its identity and maintain self-esteem for its people merger was the most appropriate option as at that time. Currently, the turnaround has achieved more success beyond its imagination. Nissan is very profitable, and its identity has been on the upward growth.
The successful turnaround of the two companies is due to the mobilization of the Nissan managers through cross-functional teams meant to spearhead radical changes and maintenance corporate culture by the Renault Company. The Nissan Company made new culture by dramatically breaking its past traditional culture. This enabled it to save money and alienate form the persistent loss making habit associated with the former method.
The company had to dismantle the Keiretsu investments to realize its capital locked up in these in this real-estate investment. In a close analysis, the major problem of the Nissan Company was not only financial constraint but also cultural difficulties. Its older employees stuck down more money and power than they did actually perform breeding complacency to the company hence undermining its competitiveness.
This culture made the company realize more loses, as its customers did not consider how the company undertook the process. However, what the customer required was well-designed and quality products at affordable prices. The company had no choice but to drop this culture and ditch the seniority rule. The company also revamped its compensation system and focused on performance. The company also had another culture of blame where in the case of failure it was due to another persons fault.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The success of such turnaround is ensured by building a trust through transparency within the operations of the two parties. In this alliance, building transparency was through keeping promises and providing totally clear and verified reports. The transparency was through ensuring each party knew what the other was doing and had a record the expected outcome. The alliance has moved form cross-function to cross company.
The two companies had to set up series of joint ventures and formed legal structures that effected the cross-company plan. The companies set respect as the motivating factor for their combined dealings. Since the Renault was not the Nissan’s preferred partner bestowing respect was an important aspect for long-term friendship.
Generally, Nissan’s identity and culture have been the main cause of its success. The relationship between the two companies has grown greatly despite the fact that at the inception Nissan was more of a leaner than the Renault.
Strategic Planning in a Turbulent Environment: Evidence from the Oil Majors by Rober Grant Coursework college essay help near me
The main article to be evaluated is entitled “Strategic planning in a turbulent environment: Evidence from the oil majors” developed by Rober Grant (2003). This is in recognition that strategic planning plays a great role in effective performance of any organization including its quest for profit maximization. Indeed, an enterprise would not achieve its investment goals if it had a shaky strategic planning framework.
The aim of this study is to provide a summary of this article but with the hope that its findings can be used to develop more research on the study topic. The article is aimed at assessing the extent to which companies have directed their strategic planning processes towards addressing the rapid, unpredictable and changing business world dynamics. The author aims at identification of the main features underlying strategic planning systems in light of an industry that transitioned from being stable to turbulent.
In terms of contributions, the findings are relevant to strategic management understanding. For instance, it provides information on processes of strategic planning applied across the world’s biggest companies from the period 1990. It also demonstrates how such practices have evolved amidst increased turbulent situations.
It provides reconciliation between the “design” and “process” as applied in different schools of management. Finally, it illuminates more on effective management of complex enterprises that operate in dynamic business environments.
In the main theories, the author articulates various themes. For instance, he focuses on planning and environmental turbulence, the implications of environmental turbulence, strategic innovation among others.
In the section for empirical evidence, the author refers to the link between formal and informal strategic planning procedures. The assertion is that a greater part of major companies observes formal strategic planning processes.
In terms of approach, the development of this article used an exploratory methodology in investigating the extent to which corporations’ strategic planning models have withstood increased environmental turbulence. Thus, the author did not opt for formal hypothesis testing. This is because the study sought to develop descriptive data relating to strategic planning procedures in major companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main investigation included are the following:
Assessing the principal features underlying strategic planning models in large and international corporations;
Establishing the impact of increased volatility and unpredictability as a result of strategic planning processes used in a given corporation;
Evaluating on how companies’ systems of strategic planning interrelate with rational, analytic, formalized, staff-driven procedures; the same analysis extends to the manner in which such are consistent with emergent strategies underlying “process school”.
Thus, the study aims at international oil companies due to the fact that they succumbed to depression in oil prices among other economic crisis. The study also supports its findings by conducting interview surveys in different companies.
It has been affirmed that strategic planning plays a major role in how large companies manage their systems. However, it was not oblivious that practices in strategic planning had undergone transformations over the past years in the quest to respond to the challenges caused by turbulence and unpredictable environments.
The study addresses significant issues that might be of great help today. As mentioned earlier, strategic planning is something that contemporary organizations must take into serious consideration because it directly relates to the main objectives of an investment. That is why nowadays this article can be a helpful resource because its findings may be used to improve strategic planning of many organizations.
Reference Rober, G. (2003). Strategic planning in a turbulent environment: Evidence from the oil majors. Strategic Management Journal, 24 (6), 491-517
Collaborate with Your Competitors and Win Coursework essay help online: essay help online
In recent years, global competition in high-tech industry has taken a new form – collaboration. Despite the fact that it might seem as a harmonious unity of two companies, an alliance is, in fact, a form of rivalry in which each of the constituent companies fights for its interests. In such symbioses harmony is a sign that one division is slowly losing and frequent conflicts are a sign that the symbiosis is functioning well.
This type of collaboration is most often made between Western (US and European) and companies from East Asia.
Reasons for the formation of such alliances are different on each side. Western companies enter collaborations with the aim of avoiding initial investments. Asian companies have the main goal of acquiring new technologies developed in the West. Experience has shown that having same interests (e.g. acquiring technologies) makes the collaboration unviable.
If both parties are to gain from the collaboration certain conditions must be met. Firstly, there has to be a convergence of strategies of the two companies and divergence of competition. Secondly, companies have to be of similar strength and that strength has to be lower than that of the industry leaders for the collaboration to be fruitful. Thirdly, there has to be an exchange of different types of skills between the two parties.
Competition between the two constituent parties is mirrored in the following characteristics. The aim of each company is to preserve as much information about its technology and competence as possible while giving the alliance an advantage over outsiders.
Within these typical Western-Asian alliances, Western companies usually have more developed technology and scientific information which is of greater value but at the same time easier to appropriate while Asian companies have perfected competence in manufacturing with their precision and diligence. These qualities, despite their lower value, are much more difficult to appropriate as they are deeply embedded within the country’s working culture.
Western companies have devised ways to prevent the dissemination of their valuable technological information. First off, they have developed ways of limiting formalizations related to the exchange of information within the company. Secondly, a practice of incremental release has been established.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Motorola, in its alliance with IBM, was releasing information about its technologies in proportion to the rate at which the East Asian market was being conquered. In addition, the position of a gatekeeper has been made for a person who is in charge of controlling the amount of information passed over to the second party.
The practice of outsourcing also faced some drawbacks. The companies who provided facilities had the goal of appropriating the technologies and entering the market themselves. Therefore, it was necessary to monitor the dependence relationship to see if alliance was damaging the company. The key was to see if the company was releasing technologies and competence as rapidly as it was receiving them.
It is clear that too much collegiality in these relationships is bad. The goals of the companies should be to limit the ally’s access to their employees and facilities as much as possible. The problem of the employee loyalty is also important in this respect because Asian engineers usually have more loyalty to their firm than their Western colleagues which is clearly a cultural matter.
Finally, the location of the shared facilities plays an important role as well because if the shared facilities are near the headquarters of one company the employees of the other party can appropriate information about its technologies and competences. On the other hand, the other company runs the risk of an “expatriate employee” who can develop affiliation to the company on whose territory he works and work against the interests of his maternal organization.
Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines Dissertation college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Original Inhabitants
The Historical Culture of Aborigines
Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines
Effects of the Issues
How the Country’s History was Reported
Introduction Australia is one of the continents with very rich records tracing to the period before 1788. During that time, the area was called the Gwondaland, characterized by the presence of the Aborigines and huge animals called the dinosaurs. The country’s history is significant and could help one understand the present Australia, the struggles it has undergone and its people.
The Aborigines were the natives of the land prior to colonialism that tried to resist the English invasion of their territory, but lost the battle due to the sophisticated weapons that the whites had at that time.
It only through having the basic and deep knowledge of the country’s history that could shade lights on what it is today and its future The history of the country has been told through the preserves of generations and lately documented for its population to appreciate the past and what their forefathers did in making the place a better place for the then and future generations. Therefore, the paper presents an account of the country’s history.
The Original Inhabitants The people who originally lived in Australia, together with those who were living in the neighboring Islands constituted the Aborigines, and formed the rich history of the continent (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 22). After transforming through generations, the Aborigines are estimated at 2.5 percent of the total population of Australia.
The fore fathers of the Aborigines are estimated to have arrived in Australia 125,005 years back (Bartlett 44). Therefore, the original inhabitants of the Gwondaland, the present Australia who were the Aborigines descended from the ancient people whose history was not documented and have not been properly traced.
Those people lived in the continent before 1788 and faced off with the colonialists, thus an attempt to discuss the history of Australia has to touch on the uniqueness of the natives. In this regard, the natives of Australia were distinct from others in the way they lived and related to one another (Bartlett 44).
In essence, different people have different way of life as well as the cultural practices. Therefore, the indigenous Australians, their culture, the various issues affecting these people as well as the outcome of the issues are important while trying to understand the history of the continent. It is equally significant to determine whether these issues are stereotyped or not, then consider how the history of this country was reported (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Historical Culture of Aborigines As a result of the diversity of the communities of the Aborigines, there are historical differences in the cultural practices of the people. Notably, each community had its cultural practice and way of life that they identified with (Baumann 4). However, there were other historical practices, such as dances and traditional songs, which were commonly practiced across many communities.
Culturally, some of the common historical beliefs, which the Indigenous communities shared, were the Baiame, the Bunjil, Rainbow Serpent, and the Dirawong (Baumann 7). The author called these spirits controlled most of the ancestors (Baumann 7).
In relation to the history of Aboriginal credence, the resilience of the ancestors of the land came down from the sky, surfaced from the earth or pounced from streams. These ancestral spirits had supernatural powers, allowing them to transform into animal or human forms throughout the Dreamtime of the earth’s creation (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 2).
Ceremonial songs and dances honor myths of the Dreamtime creation period; they celebrated through music and dances, the activities and journeys of superhuman spirit ancestors. Members in traditional dance rites are painted with the emblems as well as totems of their tribes as well as their performances are purposed to hark back the spiritual influence of the spirit ancestor (Baumann 12).
Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines The history of the country was reported orally through the preserves of generations, thus distorted the content and accuracy of the information. On the historical context of the country, its indigenous people were mostly affected by health issues due to poor living conditions of the people (“Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission” 26).
Some of the diseases that the people experienced included the circulatory infections, communicable diseases, renal failure, diabetes, mental illness among others. In addition, the aborigines lived in poverty, suffered cultural tensions as well as insufficient education (Baumann 17).
Effects of the Issues The cultural and historical differences resulted to tension among the various communities, which lived in the content. Historically, the Aborigines suffered health complications that sometimes led to the death of the people (Flood 20).
We will write a custom Dissertation on Issues that Affected the History of Australia and the Aborigines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to statistics, diabetes accounted for 18 percent of the total deaths of the indigenous people. On the other hand renal failure accounted for 2.5 percent of the Aborigines who died, thus created a historical disaster of in the continent at that time (Bowern 55). The impact that the effects had on the people was the insufficient preparedness of the people to deal with the diseases, and the failure of the local herbs to curb the effects of the diseases (Hughes 28).
Racial Stereotype To an extent, the historical problems that the people faced in Australia were attributed to racial stereotypes of the different cultures (Crawford
Research Study Presented In a Journal Article for an Educational Research Methods Module Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online
Table of Contents The Focus, Purpose and Rationale for the Study
The Research Methodology Used
Population and Sample
Data Collection Instruments
Data Analysis and Display
The Claims Made by the Researchers
List of References
The Focus, Purpose and Rationale for the Study The study highlights the importance of investigating student-teachers’ involvement in active learning. Learning is a lifelong experience. It may also be attained from professional practice. The study utilizes an investigative approach. This approach is based on the assessment of competencies of the participants.
The basic focus of the study is to assess the methodologies that teachers adopt in their personal learning (Haggera, Burna, Muttona
Blood-collection agency – The CBS case Report best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Promotional objectives for the blood-collection agency
Some specific promotional strategies to achieve these objectives
The relevance to other non-profit organizations
Possible problems facing the blood-collection agency
The blood donation as an ongoing service
The necessary information required as a consumer
Blood donation has been a common practice in different countries across the globes. Different agencies have been established in different countries to deal with the collection and distribution of blood to the health institutions to save lives of other people. In Canada, the Canadian Blood Services (CBS) is an agency that manages the country’s blood system.
The agency is concerned with the collection and distribution of blood and blood products to manage different health problems relation to blood (Smith et al, 2011, p.46). The agency has several collection sites and donor clinics. It carries out the recruitment of blood donors and ensures a continued supply of healthy blood for the needy patients (Smith et al, 2011, p.46).
The agency embarks on extensive promotions to encourage blood donation in the country. However, despite these efforts, the rate of blood donation is still very low in the country with only about 3-4% of the total population donating blood towards the program (Smith et al, 2011, p.46).
The low rates are likely to pose challenges to the health centers that rely on such blood to manage cases like anemia and excessive blood loss following an accident. It is then necessary that other promotional strategies be applied by the CBS and other similar agencies.
Promotional objectives for the blood-collection agency Promotion as a marketing strategy has been a common practice by many business organizations. The organizations understand the need to attract and retain more customers to have a competitive advantage over their competitors.
The promotions are aimed at increasing the inflow rate of the customers to a given organization and ensuring the customers are satisfied and willing to buy the products again (Taffer Dynamics, 2006, p.7). Such promotional strategies are aimed at increasing sales by expanding the customers’ expenditure on the products and services.
However, the need for marketing has received less consideration in among the non-profit organizations (Lake, 2011). The organizations seem to have the traditional perception that marketing is merely aimed at increasing sales.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The promotional strategies of a non-profit organization should aim at obtaining donors and volunteers. It should also be aimed at satisfying the needs of both the donors and the consumers of the organization (Lake, 2011). Thus, one of the promotional objectives of the blood-collection agency is to attract donors and volunteers who would donate blood or provide financial support to the agency.
The blood-collection agency would wish to have its operations be sustained for a long period. The continuous supply of blood is affected by volunteerism of the individuals in a given country (U.S. Department of Health
Lessons from the Great Depression and Postwar Global Economy: A Critical Analysis Essay essay help free
Introduction The catastrophic convulsion of stock-market prices on the New York Stock Exchange in October 1929 and the Great Depression which followed are among the most noteworthy events of the twentieth century.
As noted by Steindl (2007), these two events changed the global economic landscape of the time as developed economies, led by the United States, gravitated towards a grotesque economic slump which resulted in massive job losses, meltdown in global trade, severe contraction in spending, and failure of financial institutions.
Granted the importance of these events, then, it was inevitable for policy analysts to learn important lessons from the Great Depression to avoid a repeat of economic blunders that precipitated the world’s worst depression to date.
Indeed, the widely held perspective, according to Bramble (2009), is that the experience of a generation that was faced with an overwhelmingly greater degree of uncertainty can teach us some important lessons about how to negotiate our own economic uncertainty.
This paper will attempt to critically analyze if the lessons learnt from the Great Depression were decisive in shaping the post-1945 global economy. This objective will be achieved by analyzing three broad domains, namely: consequences of the depression to the global economy; the fall of the gold standard, and; the Bretton Woods system.
The Great Depression Era
The Difference between a Hypothesis and a Research Question Report (Assessment) best essay help
A hypothesis can be said to be a form of research where information in terms of data is gathered by taking a preliminary or hypothetical investigation to come up with a tentative explanation of how the final result will reflect (White, 2002).
A hypothesis can also be said to be the ability of a researcher to attempt to pose questions on a particular topic and also give forth plausible explanations as what constitutes as being the final result in a yet to a proven fact through a rigorously testing method.
Hypothesis explains how a value of one variable is affected or changes in comparison with another variable either positively or negatively. Some researchers say that the prediction of the outcome may be based on a kind of educated guess and at times through a formal theory (Kasi, 2009). These postulations by a researcher try to predict what he or she may consider to be the outcome of an investigation.
A hypothesis indicates the outcome of a research based on certain variables. On the other hand, research questions deal only with a specific ideal. Some researchers say that these variables in business and management may include factors that may directly or indirectly affect the outcome of either production or service.
The major difference between a research question and a hypothesis may be the fact that in a hypothesis, the results are postulated and the questions are usually framed towards getting a similar outcome or something near the postulated outcome and therefore, biased (Hiraoka, 2008).
However, in research questions, there is basically no predictable or estimated outcome that may be said to guide the researcher (Buddenbaum
The Effectiveness of Marriage Conflict Resolution Programs in Reducing Number of Divorce Cases in USA Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Background Marriage is an institution that can be found in any society. Every society has its own definition and arrangement of marriage and as a result, it is likely to find many differences as to what marriage is composed of (Strong, De Vault, and Cohen, 2010).
Nevertheless, in all situations marriage is always founded on the expectations of the couples to have an enriching experience that is composed of stable and assured companionship, increased financial security, sexual gratification, and more importantly, a welcome relief from stressors of single life (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Further, marriage has been embraced by the larger society given its immeasurable contribution to the wellbeing of society largely through providing a stable environment for children to be born, grow up, and become members of the society (Nevid, 2007; Strong, De Vault, and Cohen, 2010).
When individuals get married, hope always is that such marriage should stay permanently and continue into unforeseen future. Although this may be the wish of everyone, it is not always that all marriages go well.
Divorce is what characterizes dysfunctional marriages. In its occurrence, divorce has been described to be unhappy occasion since breaking is accompanied by many costs in terms of financial and emotions.
For instance, couples divorcing are forced to divide their families, properties and even their lives, which in most cases is not easy. Fresh research continues to be generated on the most appropriate ways divorce can be reduced in the society (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Therefore, any attempt to explore and carry more research in this field is laudable especially for future policy-work.
That is why research work on the above-proposed title will be a great and positive step towards generating useful information for future policy-work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problem statement Divorce is an issue that is eating modern society and specifically the American society. Research in the area of divorce continues to draw more attention and today more effort has been channeled in researching on the issue. As research in the field continues to draw more interest, there is need also for more research work in the area concerning the various modern programs that are aimed at ensuring divorce rate in the society goes down.
The availability of statistics and profound information on divorce in America makes it possible to design various program-solutions that can be administered to various categories of people who have been identified as the most affected by divorce cases or likelihood. Given that divorce still face stigma in modern society, there are spirited efforts to develop prevention programs that can result into reduction or prevention of divorce.
Such prevention programs have largely been in form of marriage education workshops, where couples meet under a qualified marriage instructor who later provides marriage instructions in key areas such as communication, conflict resolution, and parenting skills. Therefore, an attempt to understand the role, contribution, and effectiveness of the various divorce prevention programs is welcome and timely.
The research will specifically dwell on the conflict resolution programs, whereby through application of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques, there will be an attempt to find and evaluate the success of the programs.
Rationale for the Research It is no longer secret that divorce is causing negative impacts on the society as a whole (Fletcher, 2002). Today, estimates indicate that for the last ten years, divorce rate in the American society has remained stable at 50% for the first marriages, 65% for the second marriages and higher statistics for the rest successive marriages (Fletcher, 2002).
Garner (2008) observes that divorce in modern American society is a serious problem that is “affecting an exponentially increasing number of people.” The author goes a head to note that about 50% of those divorcing manifest lack of civilized relations with each other in their marriage (Garner, 2008).
Further, another 50% of those who divorce were found “continued with the conflict and problems they had in the marriage or possibly worse” (Garner, 2008).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Effectiveness of Marriage Conflict Resolution Programs in Reducing Number of Divorce Cases in USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In another related research, Hetherington found out that “80% of people do not improve their lives by divorcing their spouses” (Garner, 2008). As such divorce was identified as a problem in society that “affects couples who went through divorce, their children, parents, extended family and friends” (Garner, 2008).
For example, statistics shows that 10% of adults who divorce experience serious problems while 10-15% of children also experience serious problems (Garner, 2008). Therefore, in American society today, “millions of people are living with serious problems due of their own or their parents divorcing” (Garner, 2008).
Given these alarming statistics, it is evident that an attempt to carry out detailed research work in the issue of divorce is welcome provided the generated information will unravel some of the issues still untouched.
Therefore the rationale for this research paper will be to gain greater understanding of how divorce prevention programs work and in which way such programs can be enhanced to ensure their effectiveness in reducing cases of divorce in American society
Research hypothesis Hypotheses are educated guesses at what the outcome of the study may be (Hall 2008). In this particular research study, the hypothesis to be statistically investigated is:
Does marital counseling contribute to lower statistics of divorces than divorces without marital counseling?
Research Objectives The motivation in undertaking any research work is usually inscribed in the overall objective of the research. Thus, research objectives constitute all those reasons why the research is necessary and has to be undertaken and what will be the impact or benefit of the research.
Divorce is currently impacting the family and larger society negatively. At the same time, divorce is still largely stigmatized and therefore whenever it takes place, it leaves the victims both financially, socially, psychologically, and physically deprived.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effectiveness of Marriage Conflict Resolution Programs in Reducing Number of Divorce Cases in USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With this in mind, undertaking a research on the divorce prevention programs is necessary and timely for the research will be able to provide important information concerning divorce in American society. Information will be generated through both quantitative and qualitative instruments and information is perceived to meet certain objectives. First, information concerning divorce rate and the current statistics will be generated.
This will be critical to have accurate information concerning divorce rate in America. Second, the research will identify some of the effective divorce prevention programs that have been implemented in society. In doing so, the research will be able to assess their effectiveness and possible recommendations for improvement.
As such, information generated and compiled will be important to various stakeholders in the field of marriage counseling especially at policy level. Divorce prevention programs need to be created on the understanding of existing programs, there effectiveness and the need to re-equip and re-structure them.
Therefore, this research will be appropriate in providing such information. Lastly, given this research will look at divorce conflict prevention programs, a solid body of knowledge will be created and this will serve as a solid ground for future research work in the field.
Definition of terms Counseling: This is a process whereby specialized skills are employed in helping people with emotional, situational, psychological, or practical issues in the daily life (Guindon, 2010).
Couples: These are partners dating, engaged, unmarried living together, or married and living together (Hunt, Hof and DeMaria, 1998).
Divorce: This is a concept that has been defined as the formal dissolution of a valid marriage by judicial decree (Mitchell, 2009).
Divorce prevention: a process that involves raising marriage protective factors and lowering marriage risk factors (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Society: This is a composition of persons who exhibit diverse beliefs and ways of living, who live in a particulate defined locality (Stubbs, 1996).
Chapter summary Divorce in contemporary society is rampant and its impact to the larger society is evident. American society has become one of the major casualties where divorcing is greatly affecting many people. In order to handle the problem more effectively, there is paramount need to understand the factors contributing to divorce.
Thereafter, more effort should be made at identifying some of the divorce prevention programs available, their strengths, and weaknesses. Lastly, when the above has been done, attention should be directed at evaluating the effectiveness of the programs to discover whether they actually help reduce divorce rate in society.
Overall, this section is basically concerned with introducing the idea that appropriate divorce counseling and prevention programs lead to reduction in divorce cases.
Review of Related Literature Divorce process and factors that contribute to divorce
Life events combine with daily stressors to constitute key factors that make marriage break (Gold, 1988). These key stressors and life events have been categorized into two major groups: macro-factors of divorce and micro factors of divorce (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Some of the macro-factors contributing to increased divorce in society include increased economic independence of women, whereby women who finds gainful employment outside their homes may decide to leave their husbands in order to pursue their careers (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Another factor is the changing family functions and structure in the modern world, whereby many of the protective, religious, educational, and recreational functions of the family have been substituted by outside agencies (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Another reason has to do with changing and liberalizing divorce laws, where in America majority of states recognizes some forms of non-fault divorce (Knox and Schacht, 2009). At the same time, in the modern society there are fewer moral and religious sanctions, where marriage is being viewed as a secular entity and not a religious obligation (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
With these understanding among many people, divorce today is accepted more easily will little moral orb religious sanctions. Other macro-factors contributing to divorce include those marrying for the first time are likely to divorce since couples view such marriages as temporal (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Today American society is full of more divorce models thus many people especially youth couples are likely to divorce as a result of influence from the model (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Lastly, macro-factors such as mobility and anonymity and individualistic goals cultural goal of happiness have all contributed to increasing divorce rates in USA (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Macro-factors have to do largely with the individual and immediate family specifically with regard to the type of relationships couples establish. Key factors in this category contributing to divorce include loss of love, where when couples feel that the other partner does not love her or him, divorce may be embrace (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Negative behaviors from both partners may infuriate the other and divorce may be sought.
When there is total absence of conflict resolution skills, couples may find it difficult to cope with the other and hence divorce may be the solution to their persistent conflicts (Knox and Schacht, 2009). Values changes by couples may results into differences that may be a problem to solve and when they become mature, tolerance level collapses and couples may seek divorce (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Other micro-factors identified include aspects such as satiation where couples loose desire for each other; extra-marital relationships; and the increasing societal perception that divorcing is better than being married (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Other related factors include: having little in common; courting for a shorter period; marrying while still young; differences as a result of race, education, age and religion; and lastly, poor communication skills (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
Strength of Current Divorce Prevention Programs in USA?
Divorce prevention in the society has become pre-occupation of many counselors and therapists. John H. Harvey and Amy Wenzel, observe that there exists a multitude of divorce prevention programs but in general, there is scarcity of research addressing the effectiveness of majority of these programs (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
In most cases, marriage education workshops have been established and used as mechanisms to bring couples together and provide useful advice information with regard to communication, conflict resolution and parenting skills (Knox and Schacht, 2009).
As a result of these marriage workshops, Stanley (2005) found that the programs had positive outcomes in marital functioning (cited in Knox and Schacht, 2009). Further, it should be noted that majority of prevention programs have originated from skills training approach (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
According to the skills training approach, emphasis is put on teaching couple’s skills that are important in managing differences, disagreements and conflicts that may arise in the family (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). These prevention programs have identified communication as key aspect that when effectively trained can help couples solve and manage their conflicts.
As a result, the key component of these programs has been training couples in effective communication strategies (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). Therefore, some notable prevention programs include prevention and relationship enhancement program (PREP); relationship enhancement (RE); and couples communication (CC) programs (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Relationship Enhancement (RE) is a program that is designed to develop empathy and mutual understanding with aim of enhancing intimacy, manage conflict, and effectively deal with numerous difficulties that emerge among couples (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009). It has been identified that Couples differences may originate from the following sources: differences in beliefs, feelings, needs, and desires.
Therefore, the foundation of the program basing on these differences has been constructed based on a set of ten communication and problem-solving skills where couples are able to identify and address the most issues affecting their relationship (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
The author observes that RE are largely enhanced with the aim of not just changing the dysfunctional behaviors with couple relationship, but also empowering couples in order to prevent future problems or to equip the couples have faster conflict resolution skills in future problems (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
There has been identification of four major skills that RE deals with speaking, listening, role switching and facilitating (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).Effectiveness of these programs has been evaluated by numerous researchers. For example, the RE has been found to be effective in terms of communication skills, disclosure, and empathy for the participants in the program (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
At the same time, Byington and Seattle Pacific University (2009) observes that RE as compared to CC, manifest more superior capabilities whereby RE has been found to increase marital satisfaction as demonstrated from Marital Communication Inventory and a follow-up test of three months (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
Further comparison has been made between RE and waitlist control group where it has been found that there are significant improvements in marital quality as evidenced from the Interpersonal Relationship Scale (Byington and Seattle Pacific University, 2009).
The second program is the couple communication (CC) which initially was known as the Minnesota Couples Communication Project (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). CC is developed from combination of related theories largely grounded in system theory, communication theory, and family development theory (Miller et al., 1976 cited in Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
In designing and implementing the program, two goals are desired: provide help to couples to develop greater understanding of their interaction patterns and rules of communication (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Second, the program aims at increasing the ability to change the current interactions rules and patterns that are not effective and advising the couples to embrace direct, clear, and open communication about the relationship (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
With regard to couple’s communication (CC) program, meta-analysis research has established that the program has been found to exhibit positive outcomes among the participants (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
For instance, the program had positive results for couples observed communication skills and on the couples self-report of communication skills (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). Nevertheless, it was also established that the effect size of CC declined on subsequent follow-ups (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
The third prevention program is the PREP where marriage couples are trained in skills that intend to avert future distress in their relationships (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002). Development of PREP was largely based on knowledge acquired through empirical research (Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Accordingly, PREP is premised on the need to identify those phenomena that have high potential of resulting into marital satisfaction and stability or deterioration (Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Four major goals have been identified that PREP address: teaching good communication skills; clarifying and evaluating expectations for marriage; creating an understanding about choices and commitment to the relationship; and enhancing the couple’s bond through fun, friendship and sensuality (Stanley et al. 1999 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
In an attempt to carry out evaluation of this program, extensive designed studies have been carried out among different population groups. In some of the designed studies that have been carried out, it has been found out that couples who take part in PREP in most cases exhibit increased positive communication and decreased negative communication as compared to control groups (Stanley et al., 2001 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Moreover, it has been found that participating in PREP for longer periods, couples exhibited higher relational satisfaction, fewer sexual difficulties and fewer instances of physical violence as compared to couples in control groups (Markman et al., 1993 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
What are some of the Weaknesses of the Identified Programs?
Related research on PREP has indicated that after about four or five years after participating in PREP, couples manifested no significant differences in the divorce and separation rate of couples who had participated in PREP (Markman et al., 1993 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
At the same time, more research was undertaken in Netherlands whereby statistics indicated that upon completion of the program, there were no recorded reduction in breakups, problem intensity had increased and sexual dissatisfaction were higher as compared to couples who were under control studies (Van-Widenfelf, Hosman, Schaap and Staak, 1996 cited in Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Other identified weakness of this program has to do with potential self-selection bias that ultimately leads to fewer couples completing the program thus evaluation may not capture the actual picture on the ground. As a result, testing and evaluating the success of PREP has only involved highly motivated couples in program (Segrin and Flora, 2005).
Relationship Enhancement (RE) programs have also been found to exhibit some weakness. For example, through an assessment that was carried out on the program involving the educated and less educated couples, (Halford, 2011) found out that generalizability of the results was for educated couples (Halford, 2011).
In this way, generalizability of less educated couples is still untested, a situation that renders the program to be somehow ineffective. Another weakness of this program has to do with exclusive reliance on self-report assessment. (Halford, 2011) observes that self-report may not accurately identify some key risk factors.
More so, Sanders et al. (1999) note that self-reports of couple communication in early stage relationships often do not reflect subtle communication deficits that are detectable with observational assessment (Halford, 2011).
Couple’s Communication, just like other programs of marriage counseling has exhibited some weaknesses. In a well-concluded research Butler and Wampler (1999) observes that CC has a smaller effect on couple’s self-report of communication skills (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Further, it has been found out that gains achieved through impacting communication skills among couples tended to decrease and even deteriorate as time went by (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
Lastly, although CC proved to be effective and useful to enhancing couple’s relationship satisfaction immediately after taking part in the program, it was noted that, the overall effect reduced to moderate in the subsequent follow-up (Harvey and Wenzel, 2002).
In this chapter, marriage was identified to be the dream of many people and hope is always that once married couples should stay into indefinite future. In this chapter evidence have shown that couples are faced with many life events and stressors that when inappropriately managed results into conflicts.
Conflicts were found to characterize many marriages where sometimes couples may find it difficult to form meaningful relationship and conflict resolution strategies.
When this happen, then divorce is likely to occur. Nevertheless, numerous programs were identified that have been used to provide conflict resolution strategies to couples that in turn help such couples avoid likeliness of divorcing. Researches from multiple authors have confirmed the effectiveness of these programs but there is need for improvement to realize meaningful results.
Methodology This section aims to provide the structure of the study, which will serve as a guide for the overall flow of the research. Identifying the most appropriate research design, data collection technique, setting and sample of the study, instruments, and data analysis will help in the attainment of the main goal of this research proposal. The methodology section is sub-divided under the following sub-headings:
It is proposed that this particular study will gauge on both constructionist and positivistic approach (Gergen, 1999 cited in Bakhurst, 2011) wherein scientific and rational justification shall be implemented in coordination with subjective construction of insights entailed by constructionism (Audi, 2010). To achieve this objective, the research will select participants in the most appropriate way that avoid bias.
Therefore, research participants to be included in this study will include soldiers in their first marriage, soldiers in their second marriage and divorces from the United States Army Reserve Command. Further, the study will also incorporate a counselor from the Family Advocacy Center at Fort Bragg, NC.
As this study will utilize both constructionist and positivistic paradigms, the focal point will be to derive objectivity and in-depth analysis of the study. In so doing, quantitative and qualitative approaches are applied.
Through a combination of these research designs, data to be retrieved will be gauged using both strength of qualitative and quantitative designs, which include the strength of validity and reliability found in quantitative approach, while the qualitative design offers in-depth analysis of data.
In this manner, it is expected that a more robust and meaningful conclusion can be gauged by the research (Bryman, 1988 cited in Udokwu and University of Missouri, 2009).
Research objectives and research questions are developed in order to set the focus of the study. For this research paper, descriptive research will be adopted implying that the study shall gauge on existing characteristics of the variables under the study within its own natural setting.
The study will initially locate and identify divorce prevention programs that have been designed and implemented in USA. The respondents will be soldiers from the United States Army Reserve Command and a counselor from Family Advocacy Center at Fort Bragg, NC. First, the research will start by contacting the counselor where a survey will be carried out on the existing programs.
Then survey will also incorporate the soldiers who have participated in these programs. The counselor’s opinion and perception will be sought through the interviewed on how counseling programs have been effective in reducing divorce cases. Thus, it will be possible to learn the programs, which have been effectively implemented. Survey of soldiers’ feedback will be necessary for feedback purposes.
Proposed Analysis of the Data
The instrument to be utilized is a self-developed questionnaire, which will be composed of ten items with additional eleven open-ended interview questionnaires. The first set is gauged to inquire the counselor’s opinion and perception on how effective and successful the divorce prevention programs have been achieving goals of divorce reduction. Four likert scales will be used to assess the strength of agreement on each item.
On the other hand, the second set is for the survey of soldiers who have taken part in these programs. The eleven-item questionnaire will supplement information for the answers derived from the interview with counseling therapists. Data will be analyzed using Microsoft Excel, 2010 version.
Various pivot tables in form of frequencies, mean, and mode will be used for cross tabulation. In addition, graphs of comparison will be used and other statistical data will be accomplished using different Function tools within Excel. Data analysis will be in accordance to stated research questions and research hypothesis.
Results expected from the study include the number of soldiers who have participated in marriage and divorce prevention programs; the number of times participated; the duration that was spend in the program; the designation and process of teaching the program. At the same time, rate of divorce, weak marriages and young marriages will be generated from the three categories of marriages: first, second and divorces.
At the same time, results concerning reasons as to why people divorce will be generated from the research. The number of counseling programs, their rate of effectiveness, and their rate of failure will be generated.
Determination and analysis of categories of respondents will largely be demonstrated through use of mean tables, graphs, and pie charts. Percentages will be calculated with regard to responses on any given variable being investigated.
Implications and limitations
It is implied that counseling actually helps keeps marriages health and couples. Counseling will prevent divorces; however, this is not always the case. Even with adoption of some counseling programs, the rate of divorce in the population remains unchanged.
Some of the identified weaknesses of the programs have to do with ineffectiveness in self-assessment reports, lack of representative samples in gauging effectiveness of programs and deterioration of impact over a long period. Therefore, it is required that for effectiveness to be realized need assessment of client has to be thoroughly undertaken before recommending any particular program to the client.
Given that divorce is an issue that is complex and one that no particular individual would find great pleasure in narrating: time and financial resources may be a limit. This is particularly with regard to large number of respondents the research will want to interview.
Another limitation may arise from research instrumentation, whereby the selected samples may not provide the exact information concerning their reasons for divorce especially those perceived to be private and secret.
Lastly, limitation of the research will be exhibited in terms of content, whereby the research will confine itself to conflict resolution programs and how success they are. Thus, information on other programs such as communication and parenting styles may not be investigated.
Ethics of Research
Research ethics imply the cautious administration of research procedures especially when it comes to human subjects. In which case, this study shall be composed of human participants, thus, ethical processes must be observed. First permission will be sought from relevant regulatory board for the research proposal.
After obtaining the necessary approval, finding the right settings for the study and the participants who will be involved in the research will be the next step. Thus, prospective therapists and beneficiary participants will be gauged from the list obtained from the department. To apply fairness, a random selection technique shall be applied. In this manner, anonymity and confidentiality of information are important considerations.
Prior to continuing with the research, it is vitally important that consent be derived from the participants. Apart from this, the objective of the study is also explained to the therapists so as for them to know the honest intention of the research. Likewise, they will be guaranteed access to the results of the study and information on best practices, which can be applied in their context.
The methodology for this study will be mixed methodology such that it will apply both qualitative and quantitative research designs. The main objective of which is to utilize the collaborative strength of the two research designs where the quantitative design is able to provide reliable and objective results whilst the qualitative research applies in-depth analysis of data.
Research instruments to be used will be self-developed questionnaires and Four likert scales. Through these instruments it is believed that appropriate and accurate data will be generated that will further be analyzed through Microsoft Excel, 2010 version and various pivotal tables.
Conclusion Divorce in American society is rife and the problem can be tackled by implementation of appropriate prevention programs. There exists numerous prevention programs as identified and each has its own strengths and weaknesses. However, there is necessity for research on the effectiveness and success of the programs in order to ensure future programs are enhanced when designing is taking place.
This will ensure meaningful results are realized with regard to divorce prevention in the American society. Through undertaking this research, it is believed a body of knowledge will be created that in turn will offer insight in to the success of divorce prevention programs. This will enable key stakeholders to utilize the information in more meaningful and productive way.
Appendices Copies of instruments that will be used Questions from questionnaire What is your name?
What is your age?
Type of your marriage: first marriage second marriage divorcee
Do you find it easy to talk with each other?
Are you open to constructive feedback?
Do you accept your mistakes and learn from them?
Is your marriage free from intimidation and abuse of all kinds?
Are you capable of forgiving yourself and your partner?
Do you take responsibility for your own behaviors and happiness?
Can you communicate them clearly?
Do you think that counseling will save your marriage?
Participant permission form –
Time line – proposal time line is 6 months
1 Stage 1: Area of interest identified 05.08.11 2 Stage 2: Specific topic selected 15.08.11 3 Stage 3: Topic refined to develop dissertation proposal 22.08.11 4 Stage 4: Proposal written and submitted 05.09.11 5 Stage 5: Collection of data and information 31.10.11 6 Stage 6: Analysis and interpretation of collected data/information 20.11.11 7 Stage 7: Writing up 10.12.11 8 Stage 8: Final draft prepared – submission of dissertation 04.01.12 9 Final Deadline – six months from classroom date. 01.02.12 References Audi, R. (2010). Epistemology: A Contemporary introduction to the theory of knowledge. NY: Taylor
The Problem of Drought on Earth Essay college essay help near me
The earth goes through different climates, normally based on temperature and precipitation differences. Most of the organisms found on the earth’s surface have developed mechanisms to adapt to different climates, though some climatic conditions are too harsh for these animals. Drought is one of the worse climatic changes since it does not only interfere with the water cycle, but every living thing found on the earth’s surface.
The worst thing that has happened in the current century is not depletion of energy sources, nor is it an increase in nuclear war but loss in the biodiversity. The other catastrophes can be repaired within a very short period but loss in biodiversity would take millions of years to correct.
The biggest threat to biodiversity is drought; this can either occur due to natural processes or can be influenced by human beings. Management and conservation measures of the South African reserve should be aimed at establishing ways of preventing the current biodiversity as well as investing in others.
When planning on the conservation measure to adapt for the South African reserve, certain issues have to be put into consideration; both biodiversity and the ecosystem must be preserved for future generation. Since the drought is affecting the vegetation for grazers, it is likely that most of them will die or be eaten by the predators (the lions and dogs).
This may not continue for long as all the grazers may be killed and some may die out of starvation leaving no food for the predators. This calls for urgent conservation measures in order to ensure that neither the grazers nor the predators become extinct.
Many organisms are able to thrive in the habitations that they are most adapted to, for example, fish cannot be able to survive outside water because they have special features that enable them to stay in water. The same applies to wildlife which cannot be able to thrive in an area without vegetation. Conservation measures should therefore be aimed at preserving the vegetation so as to provide a habitat for the wildlife
One way of conserving the reserve would be to transfer the lions and dogs and some of the grazers to other reserves with plenty of food in order to conserve the affected reserve and ensure that none of the organisms get extinct. Transferring the predators and some of the grazers would not be enough because even after doing that the carrying capacity of the reserve remains low and thus the remaining grazers will soon die of hunger.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other conservation measures have to be adopted for instance planting of turf grass. Almost every cultural landscape contains turf grass lawn, which dictates the infrastructural aesthetic held by people and enforced by ordinance. The lawn is a landscape that requires regular watering yet does not get wet and require limited use of fertilizer and is always short.
The landscape is in essence designed to separate itself from the two most important components it needs, that is, water and resources. This is the heritage of a cultural endeavour to create a water-loving landscape that cannot put up with water.
Drought may be caused by increased human activities and thus the conservation plan must include measures on how to control such activities. It is true that human influences have led to the accelerating rate of climate change. In most cases, the human activities on land such as pollution and deforestation interfere with the water cycle. These activities do not only affect the aquatic life but also the natural cycle of water.
The aquifer table is depleted leading to increased surface runoff. If man was able to balance his activities with the water cycle, then there could be a strong relationship between land and water where each depend on the other one. Many people have changed their perspective about the environment and are now using measures of conserving it.
As we all know, drought is caused by lack of rainfall and the latter is being influenced by human activities such as deforestation and over-cultivation. To respond to this issue, trees should be planted and the government should issue bans to prevent the exploitation of the ecosystem. With all these measures being put into place, we expect the effects of the drought to decline although this may take quite some time.
Human beings in many parts of the world have become more conscious on the role played by living organisms. For instance, forests and vegetations are believed to regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thereby controlling the rate of global warming.
Measures have been put in place to ensure that certain areas are left as reserves and most governments have gone to the extent of planting forests. This has created an increase in the habitat of most species and the rate of extinction which has increased significantly is expected to go down.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Drought on Earth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the number of reserves is increased in South Africa, animals would be distributed evenly in these reserves and the impacts of the drought would not be as severe as if the number of reserves is limited.
Suicide prevention project geared toward the elderly population Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Suicide is an aspect that is well known by people due to its prevalence. However, there is much to be discovered in regard to the issues that are associated with suicide. Suicide can be defined as the process through which an individual ends his or her life purposely or deliberately. There are various factors that could lead to suicide, for instance stress, depression and in most cases, mental illness.
Suicide is a concept that is viewed differently by various societies depending on their culture and religion. Most western cultures and Christianity for example perceive suicide to be a very negative concept that should always be avoided. Statistics show that in the United States of America, suicide is ranked as the fourth leading cause of deaths.
Although suicide cases are seen in individuals of all ages and family backgrounds, there are some groups of people who are more vulnerable than others (Holmes and Holmes, 2005). This piece of work gives an in depth discussion of the issue of suicide with much emphasis being given to the elderly and how suicide could be prevented in this section of the population.
The Problem Statement The problem of discussion in this project is the issue of suicide among the elderly persons in the world and in the United States of America in particular. Depression is an alarming condition that has affected an estimate of 19million of the American population each year. Adults are the most affected. The conditions worsen among the elderly especially due to the fact that it is not usually easy to detect.
This is because the observed signs and symptoms with the elderly are usually confused or rather assumed for normal aging behavior. Research has showed that depression is a leading cause of suicide especially among the elderly and the fact that it is not easy to diagnose it makes it worse.
Over the past two decade, there has been an increase in the rate of suicide among the elderly. The elderly in the United States, those aged 65 years and above comprise a very small percentage of the whole population, only 13%. Despite this, they account for 20 percent of all the suicide deaths in the nation, which is an alarming number and hence the desire to carry out this project to help curb the problem.
The most notable factor that has been identified to be exacerbating this problem among the elderly in America is detection where the condition is noted at a very late stage. Fear of confronting the issue as a mental illness is also a contributing factor to this problem.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the elderly people are not usually ready to visit mental health facilities for assistance and hence the stigma in them leads to acute depression which in turn increases the chances of contemplating and committing suicide (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The project that I thought to be effective for this kind of problem is prevention and intervention oriented so as to come up with a long lasting solution to the problem.
Target Population, Stakeholders and Participants The problem of suicide among the elderly has been very disturbing. For this reason, there ought to be strategic intervention and treatment measures established to curb this ordeal that is claiming a lot of lives and leaving others in devastating conditions.
To do this, an exhaustive research ought to be carried out, involving all the individuals deemed to be appropriate in regard to contributing relevant information about the elderly and suicide instances.
To come up with some informative and effective report in regard to the issue of suicide and how it could be prevented among the elderly, some individuals and groups of people ought to be involved.
The target population will be men and women age of 65 years and above. Some of the other stakeholders and participants include the caregivers either at home or in the homes for the elderly, the relatives as well as medical practitioners that that are charged with the responsibility of dealing with emergency health issues such as suicide.
Data Collection and Analysis Methods Data collection is a critical and sensitive aspect that requires some technical skills to allow for success in the process. It entails the practice of preparing and collecting information related to a certain aspect for different purposes for instance to carry out a certain project or to improve an already ongoing process.
Data collection is intended to get relevant information that is used in making decisions and conclusions in regard to a certain topic of study (Sekaran, 2003). Data collection ought to be very objective for there to be informative and relevant data.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Suicide prevention project geared toward the elderly population specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objectivity is however undermined by the human nature of biasness. Sampling is usually a good data collection method but only when used effectively. In order to achieve a high degree objectiveness, the sample should be as representative of the total population as possible
In this study, a field research will be conducted where by information will be retrieved from various sources. This data will be useful in answering of the research question. Field data will be retrieved from a number of sources. Both primary as well as the secondary sources will be collected.
This will include visiting the elderly in their homes as well as in the homes for the elderly and taking notes on the information given by the elders, the caregivers as well as the medical practitioners who provide medical services to the elderly.
This will be very important in getting first hand information. It will also be important in enhancing the profitability of the data collected first hand. Important information will also be retrieved from the official documents from the nation’s health centers. Structured questionnaires will also be useful in collection of the necessary data.
This method of data collection will be very helpful in collecting qualitative data from the selected sample from the population. However, this will be done with a lot care to avoid any negative feedback since the respondents in this case may be tempted to exaggerate the information they give to favor themselves.
Data collection through interview will be conducted through face to face interaction with the respondents. This is where the respondents will be asked questions by the interviewer. In this case, the interviewer will read the questionnaire to the respondent and then record what they respond.
In data analysis, the data collected will be both qualitative and quantitative types of data. This data will be collected through interviews as well as the relevant reports. The main aim of the research in this case will be identification of the suicide prevention measures.
This will be done by analyzing the information retrieved from different individuals. Data from different sources will help in identification of the problems in specific areas. This will help in identification of particular areas which needs immediate reforms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suicide prevention project geared toward the elderly population by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are several methods which will be applied in data analysis. This analysis will include a precise documentation of the field data. The researcher will collect data from various sources. Then this data will be compiled and compared. It is therefore advisable for the researchers to ensure that the data collected is precise.
The data collected from interviews and reports will also be examined at this stage. In this process, certain patterns will be identified as well as connections and similarities. This analysis will also identify any deviation from what is expected. Here, the researcher will therefore be able to identify some critical areas which need urgent changes in regard to preventing suicide among the elderly (Burns, 2000).
Interventions and Treatment to the Problem From the above description of the problem of suicide among the elderly in America, it is evident that the issue is alarming thus necessitating some intervention and treatment measures to curb this ordeal that is claiming a lot of lives and leaving others in devastating conditions.
To come up with effective intervention and treatment measures, it is advisable to look at the root causes of suicidal cases so as to be able to handle them effectively. This will enable for preventive measures to be applied where the condition has not been experienced and proper treatment when the conditions that may facilitate suicide have already occurred.
From the data collected from the different participants using the various data collection methods and review of different literature on the topic, I noted that the identification of whether an individual is actually suicidal is a difficult task not only to a lay person but also to the trained professionals. It is however a greater challenge to those with less training and experience.
The following are some of the circumstances that may contribute to higher risks of an elderly person to commit suicide:
Financial crisis hence inability to live the desired life, depression, alcohol abuse, isolation which could be social, emotional or physical, the feeling of helplessness and hopelessness, loss of stature of the elderly in the family or society due to old age, some losses of either a spouse, a pet or a loved one, having life threatening or terminal disease and loneliness and inability to put up with it.
Other factors that may exacerbate the risk of suicide among the elderly include excessive pain that could be as a result of a disease where the elderly prefer death to unending suffering, loss of independence and immobility where their movement and course of actions are restricted and observed, and lack of employment among others.
Some medications can also cause symptoms of depression which may in turn cause suicide. They include hormones medication, steroids medication, blood pressure medication as well as arthritis medication (Ebersole, Hess and Luggen, 2004).
Among the warning signs that a person could identify in suicidal elderly people include frequent statements about death and suicide, social withdrawals and a tendency to say goodbyes, instances of writing and revising a will, taking some medications without prescriptions, being careless on some issues and failure to follow the orders given by medical personnel, interruption of sleep patterns, having some interests in firearms which was initially absent, giving suicide threats, having increased interests on death related issues and expressing hopelessness and helplessness in their talks and actions (Evans and Radunovich, 2009).
The knowledge of the above mentioned signs, symptoms and warning signs is very helpful in the event of being prepared and taking appropriate measures to prevent the issue of suicide among the elderly people.
According to Goldsmith et al. (2002), some of the intervention and treatment measures that could be taken on the elderly to reduce instances of suicide include as simple as being a helping element to the elderly.
One can offer help to elderly people who are contemplating suicide through various means for instance being alert to identify the common risk factors and warning signs associated with suicide and identifying and consulting health and medical practitioners in the society who may offer assistance when needed.
Another possible way is talking openly to a trusted person about your concerns in respect to a certain behavior exhibited by an elderly person under your care. This last step is usually assumed to be useless but in the real sense, it helps greatly by raising ideas that could help deal with the situation appropriately.
Cognitive therapy is a psychotherapy that is recommended as a treatment for suicide related syndrome. Clozapine medication also prevents suicide among people with schizophrenia (Brown, 2011).
Project Goals, Their Assessment and Action Plan Every project is usually carried out with some aims and objectives. Some of the projects are aimed at coming up with preventive, intervention or consultation measures in regard to a specific topic or problem issue. For the sake of this assignment, the project is aimed at coming up with all possible suicide preventive measures in an effort to saving the population’s lives more especially the elderly people.
The goals will be assessed through looking at the progress of the action plan. After the preventive and treatment measures are identified and analyzed, there is need to take action or else to implement the recommendations.
There are various ways through which the project’s results could be implemented, for instance, through taking a number of elderly people who are identified to be at risk of committing suicide and taking the advocated measures to see the difference that could be experienced under controlled situations and measures.
Challenges and Strategies to Address Them Projects are associated with a lot of challenges in their implementation depending on the situations surrounding the implementation. The project of study is not an exception and there are challenges in the implementation of the identified measures and strategies. However, the challenges have to be addressed in an appropriate manner that fosters success.
Some of the challenges that could be faced include problems in the collection of data where some respondents may not be willing to give adequate and appropriate information. Another challenge is lack of cooperation of the responsible bodies in delivering the changes advocated for, for instance, the elderly and the caregivers.
The challenges could be handled through assuring the respondents that the information they provide will be treated in a confidential manner and teaching all the responsible people on the importance of life and hence that of preventing any suicidal cases.
Impact of the Project on Social Change The project of study is meant to be a positive element which is supposed to help in bringing significant changes in regard to what should be done on the aspect of suicide among people in the United States of America and the elderly in particular. The fact that suicide could be viewed in a social perspective is a justification that this project should contribute positively to social change.
Some of the social aspects associated with suicide include pressures, excessive suffering and fear which are difficult to deal with, depression as well as social and mental disorder. In some instances, suicide attempt can be seen as an act of seeking help and attention, an expression of desperation and thus using suicide as a way to escape as opposed to a desire to die.
This therefore follows that in case a solution could be offered to the elderly and other people who are at a risk of contemplating suicide; there is a very high chance of change of intention, from death to life. This is because no one wishes to die whenever there is a chance of having a good life (National Institute of Mental Health, 2000).
In regard to social change, this project will change the society’s perception in regard to the issue of suicide. It will for example help them to be more prepared to prevent and deal with issues related to suicide among the elderly through the understanding of the warning signs as well as the symptoms associated with the suicidal elderly.
People will also be able to handle the elderly in an appropriate manner having the understanding that they are a vulnerable group that require care, for instance, through provision of company to avoid loneliness, provision of encouragement and motivation of a brighter tomorrow to avoid the feeling of hopelessness and helplessness and provision of the necessities and basic needs to avoid them to wish that they would afford some items, an aspect that could contribute to depression and hence suicidal behavior.
The elderly should also not be left to live alone since this may encourage suicide as they fail to see the meaning of life especially after comparing their earlier lives when they were independent and mobile and when they are elderly and hence incapacitated. This may lead to a feeling of regret and they may also feel rejected and hence contemplate suicide as a way of escaping the reality (Dougherty, 2008).
Conclusion It is evident that suicide is a chief public health problem that claims a significant number of lives, the young and the elderly, each day in the United States of America and the world at large. Unsuccessful suicide attempts are also experienced in a high rate. For this reason, there is dire need for preventive and curative measures in an effort to minimize the instances of suicide as well as attempted suicide.
There are various factors that have been attributed to be the cause of suicide for instance hopelessness, loneliness, stress and depression as well as mental illness among others. Preventive measures should therefore be directed towards solving the root causes of suicide other than the signs and symptoms of suicide since as the saying goes, prevention is better than cure.
Reference List American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Brown. K. (2011). In Suicide Prevention: Seniors In Houston Are A Forgotten Population. Web.
Burns, R.B. (2000). Introduction to Research Methods. London: Sage.
Dougherty, M.A. (2008). Psychological Consultation and Collaboration in School and Community Settings. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Ebersole, P, Hess, A.P and Luggen, S.A (2004).Toward Healthy Aging: Human Needs and Nursing Response.6th ed. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Evans, D.G., and Radunovich, L.H. (2009). Suicide and the Elderly: Warning Signs and How to Help. Web.
Goldsmith, K.S. et al. (2002). Reducing Suicide: A National Imperative. New York: National Academies Press.
Holmes, M.R. and Holmes, T.S. (2005). Suicide: Theory, Practice, and Investigation. New York: SAGE.
National Institute of Mental Health.(2000). Older adults: Depression and suicide facts. Science on Our Minds Series. Web.
Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. 4th Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley
Decision Making Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Decision-making is undoubtedly a fundamental practice the management of corporations. It denotes the progression of choosing and executing options, which are in tandem with an aspiration. It also connotes a string of actions commencing with a broad objective, trickling down to generating, appraising, choosing and executing favourable options.
Decisions made in organizations may have in-depth upshots on the firm and its employees. Such judgements in organizations are distinctive in terms of the risks involved, reservations managers have on them, their importance and contribution to the attainment of the firm’s broader objectives.
Some are tricky and requires insight thought, and may include setting of new policies, reorienting firm’s purposes and objectives, and large-scale ventures with a potential to impact on the economy of the firm. On the other hand, routine decisions also form part of a firm (Martin
Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU Dissertation argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Focus of Research and Research Questions
Methodology and Information Sources
Introduction Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU (1987) has brought the relationship between the two parties to the new stage. In 2005, Turkey was given the status of an official candidate for the EU membership, which made the prospect of accepting the country to the Union rather realistic.
Significant differences that relate to the fields of economy, politics and international affairs, culture, civil law and religion have predetermined strong interest to the initial conditions, peculiarities, possible outcomes, potential threats and benefits of the abovementioned union.
The rapid progress in the parties’ relationship corroborated the possibility of a quick positive outcome of the decades-long negotiation and seemed to reflect their opinion about the future union. At the same time, the last years were marked by a turn in Turkey-EU cooperation.
Turkey’s international policy shift from orientation to the West towards the strengthening sympathy for the Muslim Middle East identified the country’s international ambitions connected with its world recognition in the position of a strong independent state.
Correspondingly, the EU society found itself concerned about the capability of two different cultures to co-exist, integrate, and successfully interact. The rhetoric of the European countries leaders (Nicolas Sarkozy, Angela Merkel) indicated the shift in the EU society’s attitudes.
Today Turkey keeps the status of an official candidate for the EU membership. Both parties do not demonstrate the willingness to revise the prospects of the future cooperation, though not showing strong willingness to force the process. At the same time, it would be quite untimely to assume that both societies’ attitudes towards the potential union are homogeneous and coincide with Turkey’s and the EU’s official position.
This predetermines the significance of investigation of discussed topic for the further evolution of the Turkey-EU relationship and gies birth to a range of research questions in the field of social studies that require scholars’ and policy makers’ particular attention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Focus of Research and Research Questions The focus of this research is the attitude of the Turkish society towards the possible Turkey-EU union. The purpose of study is to detect the tendencies in the Turkish public opinion about the countries membership in the EU, which may clarify to what extent this prospect remains realistic and how the integration will progress in case Turkey is accepted.
In the course of study, the following research questions are expected to be answered:
What attitudes towards Turkey’s membership in the EU exist in the Turkish society?
What arguments do the proponents of each attitude provide to support their point of view?
What factors influence the Turkish public opinion? What information sources have the strongest authority with the Turkish population?
What is the official opinion of the Turkish government? Does it have significant influence on the attitudes of the population?
How do the Turkish people see their own future in case the country enters the European Union?
What parties of the Turkish society are the most interested in the EU entry?
What are the strongest potential threats of the Turkey-EU union? (economical, political, cultural, social, religious aspects)
How do the Turkish people want to see their country in the future? (internal condition, international arena)
How do the Turkish people perceive the attitude of the EU citizens and officials towards Turkey?
What alternatives to the EU membership do the Turkish citizens consider possible for their country?
Methodology and Information Sources The study implies analysis of information sources devoted to the discussed topic. It is planned to get familiarized and compare the opinions of scholars and journalists who have been studying the public opinion of the Turkish population about the EU entry, as well as the opinions of the Turkish policy-makers.
The following sources will be used in the course of the study:
Articles in scholarly journals
Turkish daily newspapers
Interviews with Turkey officials: Egemen Bagis (the Minister of EU affairs in Turkey), Uluc Ozulker (ex-ambassador of Turkey to the EU).
Argument The preliminary study of the given issue has demonstrated that the Turkish population is not homogeneous in evaluation of the outcome of Turkey’s EU membership. The tendency of opposition to the Turkey’s EU membership is expected to have been strengthening.
The Turkish citizens’ strongest concerns are expected to be connected with: 1) the role Turkey will obtain in the European community after joining the EU; 2) the impact of the union on the life of the ordinary Turkish people; 3) social, cultural and religious differences that will play a role of serious obstacles in the Turkey-EU integration.
Hypothesis: despite availability of the attitudinal factors that form resistance towards Turkey’s EU membership, the Turkey population has positive expectations about the potential union.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The literature review provided below is aimed at testing the abovementioned statements.
Literature Review Study of Turkey population’s attitude towards the EU membership requires obtaining a background on the Turkish political process. Much has been said about the impact of Islam on the Turkish society. Arat’s (2005) is devoted to analysis of Turkish Islam as a power that influences the Turkish political process. The author also estimates the power of the Turkish women in politics.
Arat mentions the “serious polarization within society” (5) between the secularist and the Islamist poles. White’s work (2002) helps understand the roots and the process of evolution of Islamic politics in Turkey. Özyürek’s (2006) demonstrates that the secular and Islam issues actively interact and to the great extent oppose each other within the borders of Turkey’s political process.
The author states that the secularist tendencies have been strengthening in Turkey during the last few years. Andreson (2008) discusses the dynamics of the democratic process in the Turkish politics and “the warped dialectic between state and religion in the Turkey”. The democratic trends have been competing to the approach expressed by Erdogan, the AKP leader, ”When the feet try to govern the head, it becomes doomsday”.
Arikan (2008) marks that the principles of democracy and human rights are the basis of the “new European political order” (113). Turkish expectations about the EU membership are to the great extent connected with blossoming of these principles in the social life of the country.
On the other hand, the domination of the mentioned “new order” is perceived by some citizens as the invasion to the unique Turkish cultural space that has been forming for centuries. However, Carkoglu (2003) marks that “general attitudinal bases of resistance to EU membership- religiosity, anti-democratic attitudes and Euro-skepticism – do not form sources of EU refutation” (186).
The author argues that the Turkish elites are now in the state of polarization, and each force is able to find the necessary rhetoric and persuasion mechanism to “conquer” the population’s support through media (187). Paradoxically, the elites that resist to the EU membership are able to keep their electoral support (ibid.).
Carkoglu says that despite the dominating positive attitude towards the EU entry among the Turkish political elites, the legislative changes required by the EU are conducted quite slowly (ibid). Besides, they prefer to not emphasize the EU-related issues during the “electoral rush”.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkey’s application for the membership in the EU by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To form a full understanding of Turkey’s attitude to the EU entry, it is necessary to study the opinion of different parties, such as (at least): officials, political organizations and social movements, media, different social groups. One of the most significant questions in the study of the Turkish public opinion about the EU entry is what parties are the most strongly interested in it.
In the abovementioned (2008), Anderson outlines the following, “In Turkey itself, as in Europe, the major forces working for its entry into the Union are the contemporary incarnations of the party of order: the bourse, the mosque, the barracks and the media. The consensus… is not quite a unanimity. Here and there, surly voices of reaction can be heard…
For the Turkish left, politically marginal but culturally central, the EU represents hope of some release from the twin cults and repressions of Kemal and the Koran; for the Turkish poor, of chances of employment and elements of welfare; for Kurds and Alevis, of some rights for minorities.
How far these hopes are all realistic is another matter”. It is necessary to mark that female participants of the country’s social and political life also demonstrate strong interest towards the issue of the EU entry.
Aybar et al (2007) who studied the ordinary Turkey citizens’ expectations about the EU membership argue that the union has been initially perceived by the Turkish women as a trigger of the women’s emancipation process. However, as Tunkrova argues in (2010), despite the legislative reforms, true democratization requires more time and the effort of the domestic actors (4).
However, some researchers share a pessimistic view on the capability of the Turkish society to accept the tendencies of the European new order. Particularly, Kösebalaban (2001) argues that the Turkish nation’s sympathy for the European values is not able to outweigh the Turkish domestic ideology.
On the “subconscious” level, says Kösebalaban, a union with Europe is perceived by certain parties as an invasion, an encroachment on Turkey’s independence and identity. However, at the moment, while Turkey has not faced the “challenge” of EU integration, this should not be equated with the “conscious level”: the overall attitude of the Turkish nation to the EU membership remains positive.
Conclusion A set of factors has predetermined the polarization of the Turkish society between the sense of the national identity and socio-cultural autonomy, and the sympathy for the so-called “European new order” with its principles of democracy and human rights. At all levels, from the political elites to the ordinary citizens, there are proponents and opponents of the Turkey-EU union.
Despite the required legislative reforms and social changes progress quite slowly, the overall attitude towards Turkey’s EU membership is positive.
It is remarkable that the Turkish people understand that the EU entry will intensify the secularist tendencies in the society and lead to the changes at all levels, from legislation to the everyday life. Despite this fact, the support of the EU membership prospect is strong, which may mean that secularization itself is considered by the Turkey citizens a positive change.
Works Cited Anderson, Perry. “After Kemal”. London Review of Books. 2008. 30 April 2011. .
Arat, Yesim. Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy Islamist Women in Turkish Politics. Albany: State University of New York, 2005.
Arikan, Harun. Turkey and the EU: an Awkward Candidate for EU Membership? Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Aybar, C. Bülent, et al. “Analysis of Attitudes of Turkish Citizens towards the Effects of EU Membership”. Turkish Studies 8.3 (2007): 329-348.
Carkoglu, Ali. “Who Wants Full Membership? Characteristics of Turkish Public Support for EU Membership.” Turkish Studies 4.1 (2003): 171-94.
Kösebalaban, Hasan. “Turkey’s EU Membership: A Clash of Security Cultures.” Middle East Policy 9.2 (2002): 130-46.
Özyürek, Esra. Nostalgia for the Modern: State Secularism and Everyday Politics in Turkey. 2006. Duhram, NC: Duke Uinversity Press, 2006.
Tunkrova, Lucie. “The EU Accession Process and Gender Issues: Central Europe and Turkey.” Report for the Fifth Pan-European Conference on EU Politics, Porto, Portugal, 23-26 June 2010. JHUBC. Web.
White, Jenny. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press, 2002.
What Makes an Effective Advertisement: Take a Bus and Then Tube It! Coursework online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction: Here Comes the Advertisement!
Victoria Station: The Journey Begins
Down to the Underworld
Conclusion: Something to Count on
Introduction: Here Comes the Advertisement! There is probably no place where an advertisement could seem out of place. With help if the modern media and the speed of passing the necessary information, advertisements gain the speed of light. However, one of the most reliable and time-tested methods of advertising the goods remains placing adverts in such places as stations.
On their way to another place, people start focusing their attention on all possible media, which makes such elements of advertisement as posters, billboards and all possible ads fall into people’s eyes immediately. It is no secret that a man can retain unconsciously the information concerning the advertisement for a relatively big amount of time.
Therefore, it seems most reasonable to place the advertisement in the station. One cannot call such ads annoying and obtrusive – on the contrary, one always has an opportunity to look away. Thus, placing the advertisement on the station seems the right choice.
Victoria Station: The Journey Begins One of the most winning places in terms of placing the advertisements, Victoria Station will help to promote any kinds of goods. There is no secret that this place is the point where the entire England clashes in attempt to get to the other side of the country. Thus, it is obviously the right choice to place the advertisement on one of the buses that stop at the Victoria Station.
According to what the most recent data claim, the place has its own periods of tides and ebbs – at certain periods of time people crowd the place, and in the next couple of minutes the station is empty as a nutshell. Therefore, the specific time must be set to keep people’s attention on the advertisement and at the same time make it as subtle as possible.
It is obvious that the ad must not be pushy, which means that people must have the opportunity to turn their gaze away from the ad and have time to consider it. Thus, it would be most reasonable to choose the period from midday till 5 p.m. – the time when the visitors are the most active (Steves, England 190)
Down to the Underworld According to Steves, many people come to Victoria Station just to take part in the pleasing turmoil (126). Making a good use of it, one could draw the visitors’ attention to the advertising in the moment when the crowd rushes into the iron-and-glass kingdom of the London tube. Thus, it could be a good idea to place the advertisements so that they could meet the eye of both the passengers and those who came to “have fun”:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While Victoria Station is famous and a major Tube stop, few tourists actually take trains from here – most just come to take in the exciting bustle. It’s a fun to just be a “rock in a river” teeming with commuters and services (Steves, Great Britain 126)
Therefore, placing the advertisement in the tube would be most effective if the number of the tourists and the local dwellers is the greatest. With help of a bright and exciting advertisement cast right into the eye of the crowd, one will have all chances for an incredible success.
Conclusion: Something to Count on With help of careful calculations and the well though-out placement of the advertisement, one can count on an instant success. Choosing the right time and the right place for the advertisement, one can draw the maximum of attention and reach the maximal effect. Thus, t is obvious that the idea concerning the use of buses and the tube as the means of advertisement is bound to have tremendous success.
Works Cited Steves, Rick. Rick Steves’ England 2011. New York City, NY: Avalon Traveling, 2010. Print.
Steves, Rick. Rick Steves’ Great Britain2011 with Map. New York City, NY: Avalon Traveling, 2011. Print.
Brand personality Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help
Introduction Background to the study
In their purchasing patterns, consumers do not have comprehensive understanding of the product they are purchasing compared to the firm offering the product (Yang, 2008, p.54). However, they perceive the products according to their own terms. Due to lack of knowledge, they gauge the products attributes on their own opinions. Their perception towards a certain product is based on the benefits they derive from the product.
These benefits may either be functional or emotional. The consumers’ perception towards certain products and services are in most not conscious. Considering the degree of complexity of relationship between the customers and products, brand names becomes necessary in selecting the products to purchase.
In their decision making process, consumers consider products which have characteristics close to their personalities (Kumar, 2009, p. 424). As a result, their selection process is influenced by their perception of the brand. To appeal the customer, companies put effort in developing products in line with their target customers’ personalities.
In an effort to understand brand personality, this report evaluates the link between individual personality and brand personality.
Scope and significance of the report
This is attained by conducting a literature review on individual personality and brand personality. The report will be of significance to firms who intend to differentiate their products in an effort to attain a high competitive edge. In addition, the report will help firms to understand how they can develop their brand personality.
This will be attained by considering the various product and non-product related aspects which lead to development of brand personality. In conducting the analysis, the takes into consideration the automobile industry in an effort to illustrate the concept of brand personality. The various brand personality dimensions are used as the core framework of the analysis.
Literature Review Individual personality and brand personality
There is a close link between an individual’s self concept and personality. Self-concept is composed of four main components which include social self, ideal social-self, ideal self and actual self (Lake, 2009, p. 115). Actual self concept refers to how an individual perceives himself or her.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ideal self entails how an individual desires to perceive him or her. On the other hand, social self concept entails how one believe others perceive him or her while ideal social self entails how one would like others to perceive him.
Individuals develop their self concept from three main sources. These include received messages, social comparison and culture. Self concepts are a component of an individual’s identity and hence they are difficult to change. This is mainly so when an individual gets older. One of the ways through which self concepts can be changes is by a new life experience (Lake, 2009, p.114).
Self concept is a major determinant in a consumer’s purchasing behavior. According to Webb and Gountas (2008, p. 2), self congruity determines the extent to which a consumers’ self-concept is similar to that of a brand. Bakk and Meisel (2008, p.2) are of the opinion that self-concepts determine a consumer’s choice of product or brand.
Therefore, an individual’s consumption pattern can be used to determine his or her sense of self. One of the ways through which this can be attained is by evaluating the products and services they consume. In most cases, the category of products and services consumed communicate an indivividuals characteristic.
Webb and Gountus (p.3) are of the opinion that an individual’s self image explains why he or she consumes certain products. This means that products and brand are an important component of defining one’s self. Heding, Knudtzen and Bjerre (2009, p. 124) opine that an individual consumers certain products because they have a certain symbolic significance.
Brands are considered to possess human characteristics or personalities. In their consumption patterns, consumers select brands that are in line with their personality and needs. As a result, firms ensure that their brands are inline with the consumers’ personality traits and self-concept.
Gelder (2005, p. 41) defines brand personality to include the various human-like attributes associated with a certain brand. Brand personality may either be endowed on a certain product or service by the consumers or the company. According to Franzen and Moriarty (2009, p. 230), there are certain aspects which a company desires consumers to feel about its products and services.
We will write a custom Assessment on Brand personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The core objective of brand personality is to appeal the consumers. Franzen and Moriarty (2009, p. 230) further assert that personification of brands appeals a consumer’s imagination. There are various forms which brand personality may take. Some of these include an animated figure (for example Ronald McDonald), an actual person (for example Marlboro cowboy) or a generalized persona such as the Singapore girl.
According to Gelder (2005, p. 41), brand personality is a creation of a product’s underlying characteristics. Brand personality can be identified by determining the consumer’s perception towards the product.
From a firm’s perspective, brand personality can be evaluated by analyzing various elements such as brand name, product price, distribution and logo. In addition, brand personality is also associated with the consumer’s emotional responses towards the particular brand.
According to Heding, Knudtzen and Bjerre (2009, p. 129), a brand must be durable and consistent for it to be successful in the market. These characteristics can lure consumers to purchase the brand. This is due to the fact that they develop a personal link to the particular brand personality. However, if attributes of the brand, are not inline with its personality, consumers tend to abandon the brand due to lack of credibility.
There are five main dimensions of brand personality which contribute towards development of a relationship with the consumers. These include competence, ruggedness, sincerity, sophistication, and excitement. The brand personality dimensions and the associated personality traits are illustrated in the chart below.
Brand personality dimension Dominant personality trait Excitement Up-to-date, spirited, imaginative Sincerity Cheerful, wholesome, down to earth Competence Successful, intelligent, reliable Sophistication Charming, upper class Ruggedness Outdoorsy, tough These brand personality dimensions enable firms to differentiate its products and services. This arises from the fact that brand personality is perceived to be a part of the of a product’s overall image. In addition, brand personality can be used to position a product in the market. For example, in its marketing strategy, Pepsi intended to position its soft drink brand using the theme ‘young and fun’.
In marketing one of its soft drinks, the Mountain Dew, Pepsico adopted the slogan ‘Be Young. Have Fun’ which depicts excitement (Babin