PenAgain Marketing Analysis Essay Essay Help

Introduction PenAgain was established by Roche and Ronsse back in 2001. PenAgain is a young company that is struggling to maintain and expand its market position. The company produces pens which it supplies in various parts of America and Europe. PenAgain is currently seeking to become Wal-Mart’s supplier in pens.

Wal-Mart is among the largest retail stores in the world with over 6,500 branches (Bounds, 3 Ariticle para. 4). The company aspires to achieve the levels of well established pen companies like Bic and Paper Mate in market position. Its operations and geared towards expanding its market shares.

SWOT Analysis of PenAgain Its main aim is to become a household name and to make its pens an everyday item. It aspires to establish itself as a global player in the market. The founders aim at making the company’s reputation known to everyone so that it is able to sell its products by virtue of its reputation in the market. It therefore provides a wide variety of pen products which come with unique features and advantages which enable it the capture attention of customers.

Internal Factors

Pen Again company employs internal marketing strategies to achieve competitive advantage. The pens are designed to reflect customers’ desire and the features that are currently missing in the market. According to Office Deport of Delray’s Senior Vice President, PenAgain is focused on ensuring that its retail customers get what they want (3 Article para. 12).

The product brand names are generally attractive, for example, wishbone pen reflects what the customer should expect from the pen. PenAgain also attaches price tags on its products in order to be more price-appealing to its primary consumers. The company has a testing store where customers are given the opportunity to try out some of its products designs.

PenAgain collects data and applies strategies which enable it track the movement and the usage of its products by analsying its sales volume. Its marketing involves online advertisement of its products through its website. This enables it attract online customers from different regions and to also achieve demographic market segmentation (Hill and Westbrook p19).

The company employs an outside group, Merchant Service Organization to monitor the display of its products at Wal-Mart stores so as to ensure that the company’s products are up on the shelves and that they are displayed in the right place. This tactic is standard among established retailing companies. This is aimed at making Wal-Mart make accurate judgment for PenAgain’s test run (3 Article para. 8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One major constrain that the company experiences comes from the company being a two-man operation with little infrastructure to enable it carry out large supplies. PenAgain is also incapacitated by its low capital and as such, is not able to employ advertisements through the TVs, newspapers among others. This therefore restricts the company to employ online advertisements only. This limits the company’s ability to reach other retail customers who do not access the internet and who have no idea about the company’s website.

External Factors

Customer behavior towards the company’s products has been positive. The company has been able to establish relationships with its retail customers and has achieved customer loyalty among some of its retail customers. It has also been able to establish strong distribution networks which is enabled by the transport infrastructure and the retail customers (eBoo p.207).

PenAgain faces strong competition from companies that are already established in the market like Bic. The company is also affected by Wal-Mart’s cross-merchandising behavior which limits its ability to provide customers with a wider choice when selecting from the shelves.

Wal-Mart’s low purchasing and selling prices also affect other PenAgain’s retail customers’ business operations. This implies that they also have to lower their prices especially in places where Wal-Mart has stores. It may also affect the company’s overall revenue collection.


The company’s founders feel that meeting Wal-Mart’s requirements may warrant more innovations and expansion of its product varieties. It also seeks to address the concerns of its smaller retail customers as it tries to meet the demands of Wal-Mart.


The major threat for the company is duplication of products by other third party companies (Bounds, 1Article para. 7). Wal-Mart has also put a price tag of $3.76 which is just a proportion of what other retailers have put on the same products from PenAgain. This threatens the pricing stability at PenAgain.

Marketing Research/Data Collection PenAgain is committed to meeting its customers’ expectations. Thus they are keen to obtain information on its customers’ characteristics in order to effectively meet their requirements and to also monitor and evaluate its performance.

We will write a custom Essay on PenAgain Marketing Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To monitor its performance at Wal-Mart stores, the company’s founders, Mr. Roche and Mr. Ronsse ensure that they visit 50 stores to check the performance of their products as well as the display of the products on the shelves. The company also has a testing station where it collects information on what the consumers feel about their products.

The company employs an online-based marketing strategy to collect information from customers. Its website is open to customers to comment on the company’s products and the important improvements that they would want to be made. According Bounds, 2 Article (para. 2), PenAgain has established it has about 10,000 customers who are normally interested in the activities of the company. It uses the information collected from its website to develop standard and more appealing models to customers (Kurtz, Mackenzie and Snow p.245).

The company uses Retail Link software which enables it to acquire information and understand how its products are put on shelves and how the displays by Wal-Mart affect its sales performance. This gives it the facts to pinpoint failures by its retail Customers to strategically market the company’s product at its stores (Gates and McDaniel p.154).

PenAgain also intends to establish an independent advisory team that would help it address the concerns of the smaller retailers. This team would collect information from the smaller retailers and provide feedback that would help the company develop versions of the models which can meet the lower prices and meet the customers’ expectations. This team will also be responsible for collecting information from consumers to determine their preference towards PenAgain’s new models, ‘indy’ (Bounds, 3 Article, para. 14).

Integrated Marketing Communications PenAgain applies an integrated marketing communication in its business operations. The company had to be creative as it entered the market with low capital that could not enable it apply traditional methods of advertisements. It used its website to promote its products by giving customers an opportunity to win prizes through an online game which was aimed at creating awareness on its products.

Online promotion has enabled PenAgain enter the volatile promotional market which comprises of many established companies as well as other companies which use PenAgain’s logo. According to Barack and Clow (9) advertising helps reinforce the company’s product brands as well as the company’s image.

The company also uses its website and online communication in consumer management. The company has about 10,000 customers who normally take keen interests in its products and business activities. It acknowledges that most of its consumers are from medical organizations and they include both doctors and patients since the ergonomic designs of its products have more appeal to them than any other consumer group.

The company focuses on reaching out to all its customers who have shown interest in the company and its products (Bounds, 2 Article para. 2). They use the information collected from its website and database on customers’ response to understand their characteristics and needs and design models which better respond to their requirements (Shimp p.47).

Not sure if you can write a paper on PenAgain Marketing Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More PeAgain uses its Retail Link software to track and monitor the daily sales at Wal-Mart’s stores where it is still undergoing a test run. This is done over the internet and it tracks all the sales data. It enables PenAgain inform its vendors on areas in which the products better perform and where they do not, thus providing its retail customers with important information that increases their sales information.

PenAgain also applies personal selling technique to reach its potential retail customers. The company’s founders applied to become Wal-Mart’s pen suppliers. They are more than willing to meet their customers in person and to negotiate business terms to ensure that they capture the market. PenAgain is a member of the Home and Office Products Association which promotes individual meetings with retail customers (Bounds, 1 Article para. 23).

Consumer Decision Making Process Consumers of PenAgain include both retail consumers and the final consumers. PenAgain enhances its consumers’ decision making process through advertisement as well as through sales promotion. This helps stimulate the consumers’ need for its ergonomically designed pens.

It also let the consumers’ physiological imbalances arouse their needs for the products by encouraging better positioning of the pens on the shelves of the retail shops. This gives the customers the desire and the need to purchase the products (Hammond, Kennedy and Raifa p. 262).

PenAgain enhance its customers’ ability to search for its products through its website. All the information regarding its products and latest models are available in the internet and therefore they are motivated to explore all the product brands available as well as their prices.

The retail customers are therefore given the opportunity to choose brands that better responds to their customers’ needs. The company also ensures its customers feel involved in its products. The company focuses in designing products which are relevant to the customers by taking into considerations their contributions of what they would want improved in the products (March p. 108).

It encourages trial of its products at its testing stations so as to communicate the important attributes of its products and hence reinforce customers’ decision making process as it provides them with evaluation alternatives. The company also enhances customers’ decision making process through participation in trade shows.

The company also focuses on creating exclusive offerings to its small store customers. It plans to develop ergonomic designs which would enable them meet the needs of the small retail customers. It is also developing ways to adopt to ensure that it balances its price offerings to Wal–Mart and its other retail customers. The company’s pricing strategy is seen as the major attraction to its customers.

Conclusion PenAgain marketing strategies are varied and are all geared towards meeting the customers requirements. However, implementing prices that are leaner to the requirements of Wal-Mart while ignoring the pricing of other retail customers may affect its overall revenue collection.

Works Cited Bounds. 3. Article: Pen Maker’s Trial by Wal-Mart, Part III. July 18, 2006. Web.

Bounds. 2. Article: One Month To Make It: Two entrepreneurs persuaded Wal-Mart to give their pen a tryout. May 30, 2006. Web.

Clow, Kenneth E.; Baack, Donald (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications 3rd edition. New York: Pearson Education.

eBoo, Kindle. The SWOT Analysis: Looking Outside for Threats and Opportunities. Boston: Harvard Business Press. 2005. Print.

Gates, Rogers, H. and McDaniel, Carl, D. Marketing Research Essentials. Boston: John Wiley


Atmospherics in Starbucks Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Atmospherics has emerged as a complex and important business issue as far as the whole aspect of marketing is concerned. This is because of the most outstanding and notable fact that we always respond to the atmosphere around us. In this case, it can be positive or negative depending on the business environment that we have been exposed to. As a matter of fact, most businesses come up with an atmosphere to suit their target market in relation to their goals and objectives.

Starbucks prides itself as the largest coffee house in the world with various local operations around USA. As a matter of fact, the company has more than 11,000 stores in USA. It should be known that Starbucks stores sell a large number of products to suit different customer tastes and preferences.

The company has continued to attract customers because of a good atmosphere that creates a special, diverse and distinct experience. Generally, it can be said that the company offers a casual and relaxing atmosphere to its customers. This is meant to give them a different experience that they have never got before. As far as the general atmosphere is concerned, the company has ensured that everything is done as par the customers expectations.

Its stores have a distinct signage that stands out thereby attracting different customers. This has been fused with attractive paintings and color to make it unique. Inside, there are several tables and chairs. In addition, there is a couch alongside this tables and chairs to give customers a sitting room experience. As a matter of fact, the stores resemble a sitting room and this makes customers comfortable when they are taking their favorite drinks.

It should be known that the company has stores that can accommodate 20 to 30 people at a given period of time. This means that the sitting area is not expansive to give the stores the privacy that customers need. As far as music is concerned, Starbucks plays good and soothing music in the background to give customers a relaxing atmosphere and experience. This is done while customers are enjoying their favorite food and drinks.

Initially, Starbucks was well known to play Jazz music but this has changed as time goes by. As a matter of fact, they nowadays play popular music. There is a joke that customers can hear their favorite beverages being made. Starbuck stores have a unique layout that can make customers to be intimate and cozy at any given period of time. The staff at Starbuck has been known to be very welcoming and decent from the way they interact with different customers.

This gives customers a cool, contemporary and calm atmosphere that can always encourage them to visit the store again and again. The walls are well covered and painted to give the stores a relaxing atmosphere. Starbucks has a unique scent in its stores and this hits a customer right from the door. In this case, it has a unique coffee fragrance that has continued to attract customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Starbucks targets any person of any age. This is because its stores offer various foods and drinks that can suit the whole community. In a broad perspective, Starbucks is mostly adult focused. Everything at Starbucks works because it has a wide range of products that can suit all its customers. In this case, the whole community and children can be well attended to and satisfied. Because of a calm and relaxing atmosphere, the company has been able to suit different customer tastes and preferences.


Five Reasons to Trust the Government and Five Reasons not to Trust the Government Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction The main role of the government is to guide and secure effectiveness of the social units that constitute the public. Political debates mainly influence government undertakings and therefore the strength, effectiveness or efficiency of the political system highly depends on trust and support that the public accords its leaders.

In order to gain the required public trust, the government requires transparency and impunity measures that give people reliance for making decision to either trust or fail to base their confidence on the govrnment. This paper forms a brief summary of some reasons why the public either trust the government or fail to base their reliance on the system.

Five Reasons for Public to Trust the Government Reforms

One major question that determines the citizens’ trust concerns the expectations for community policies to shape and reform administration. There is lack of specific measures to enhance reforms, but the restructuring efforts range from review of fundamental governance roles to utilization of the public resources.

The reasons why people trust the current Obama’s government as opposed to the former president Bush administration lie upon identification of common interests and goals (Welch et al, 17). Current government system ensures that its citizens are aware of the objectives, plans and reform solutions, therefore the citizens have a stronger trust.

Proper Performance

There are various responsibilities or duties that the current U.S. government ensures, as a measure to correct and perfect performances such as addressing the basic needs of citizens. Basic human necessities are a requirement for enhancing decent livelihood.

Today. citizens’ trust depends upon the common reform objectives such as the current health-sector reforms (Reese, 21). The government is more responsive to societal needs as well as changes and therefore remain as an entity that enforces performance through guidance for citizens to achieve widespread public goals.


One of the Key roles of the government is to enhance security for its citizens especially against terrorists and local insurgencies. After the September 11 2001 terrorist attack, the U.S government emerged stronger in implementing measures that ensure total avoidance of such repetitive attacks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The anthrax scares also strengthened the citizen’s trust for the government protection. Major catastrophes such as the hurricane hits causes the government to respond promptly to save lives and this form of protective reactions promotes trust among citizens.

According to Reese, (21), threats that compromise homeland security triggers on the government role of protection and causes a rise on reactions concerning security, for instance the ‘President Bush’s ’attack on Iraq to confiscate weapons of possible attacks led to better trust that the government was ready and able to protect its citizens against such brutal attacks.

Healthcare Provisions

President Obama’s government implemented laws that ensure every citizen has access to basic healthcare requirement regardless of one’s economic abilities (Welch et al, 17). A good example is the ’2014 plan’ to have a law that ensures insurance companies give cover for anyone who has a pre-existing health condition.

Government policies also ensure that health insurance firms do not drop people from coverage due to their sickness or related conditions. According to Galston (1), citizens therefore have better reliance and trust on current form of health policies that the government implements.


One of the key aspects notable in the Obama’s style of leadership is the similarity between the democrats, republicans, conservatives or liberals who form either side of any political debate. Each of these groups of persons suffers from self-interest and thus the system has little or no distinction of the political sides. There is a form of equality within the political deliberations.

Five Reasons Not to Trust the Government Accountability

The government officials are answerable for any form of mismanagement and misbehaviours. They are reliable for any of the public assets or entities bestowed under their authority. There is lack of the required measures that indicate presence of accountability for instance, lack of proper measures and standards that ensure good governance. Governance innovations require the government to be in a position of enhancing strategic efforts to find optimal results that restrain problems regarding the internal political, social, and economical factors. Such governance gets support through “transparency, efficiency and participation” (Seasons, 432).

Citizens’ Participation

Some of the aspects that need urgent address in governance include the low intensity of services due to poor participation by the public, who are the main satisfaction indicators. There is urgent need to redesign operation procedures, to come up with proper orientation over courses of action and to enlighten the public over the governance system.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Five Reasons to Trust the Government and Five Reasons not to Trust the Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Development faces a major setback due to lack of information sharing procedures, to strengthen cooperation among government departments and the citizens. Majority of the citizens are often unfamiliar with any existing governance system and thus keep literally away from seeking services or fail to inquire the required information.

Participation enhances self-governance and thus costs people less time and cost for the reason that there is easiness over transactions’ speed. The government fails to consider the main stakeholders (citizens), in the decision-making procedures. According to Welch et al (17), a trustworthy government does not make key decisions without involving diverse inputs, especially from the citizens who are aware of the effects or outcome the decisions might have on their lives.


One of the main failures and thus a reason citizens fail to trust the government is lack of clarity over transactions. According to Lukensmeyer and Boyd (12), governments consider citizen participation as unnecessary, complex and costly procedure to implement in the governance system. For this reason, governments include electronic techniques in their systems, but fail to engage citizens into consultation and forums.

This is an indication of low citizen participation in governance despite the incredible advancements. The U.S. government has initiative to modernize the government through strategic management of human capital, expanded e-government and integration of public budgeting and performance analysis.

Citizens ought to demand for the decentralization, digitization and automation of government undertakings (Galston, 1). Does the government provide a transparent system that enhances such arrangements? The government fails to practice transparency over regulations, rules and decisions. Due to lack of necessary information concerning governance policies, citizens suffer from poor decisions thus instability of various sectors of a country and compromise on trust.

Poor Budget Allocation

Another key factor that causes the public to lose government trust is budgeting. There is need to involve citizens in budgeting procedures so that the allocations of funds occurs in accordance with credibility of projects. Trust in this case depends greatly on the appropriation of funds to projects through corrupt-free, transparent and programs that lack the anomalies. Budgeting today mainly involve few people and principally has higher attentions to those in authority.


In cases of crisis such as the hurricanes and financial predicaments, the government clearly indicates lack of responsibility through the political blame games. Arguably, there is still massive corruption within the government, which is easily observable through unbalanced budget allocations or through such instances where those in authority engage anomalous questioning and political attacks, such as questioning each other’s responsibility.

Conclusion The cause of lack of public trust depends on the responsive nature of leaders. Citizens will appreciate a government system that has extreme performances at the least possible cost. Current reforms focus upon provision of faster or better needs and services.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Five Reasons to Trust the Government and Five Reasons not to Trust the Government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Citizens are tired of more provisions of similar services, thus the reason why the current U.S government worn easily because they advocated for change. The social needs are dynamic, diverse, fragmented and complex. The pace for change is thus steeper and people can only trust a government that is in a position of enforcing dynamic solutions and is able to listen keenly to the diverse demands for innovation and solutions.

Works Cited Galston, Williams. Americans Still Don’t Trust Government- But They Could Go For A Health Care Plan Modeled Like This. New York, NY: The New Republic Journal. 2009. Print.

Lukensmeyer, Carolyn, and Boyd Ashley. Putting the “public” back in management: seven Principles for planning meaningful citizen engagement. Public Management, 86, 10-15. 2004.

Reese, Charles. Industrial Safety and Health for People-Oriented Services. Florida, FL: CRC Press, 2008. Print.

Seasons, Mark. Monitoring and evaluation in municipal planning: considering the

Realities. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69. P 430-441, 24 November 2009. Web.

Welch, Susan et al. Understanding American Government. Massachusetts, MA: Cangage Learning Press. 2010. Print.


The Actual Causes of the Great Depression Essay (Article) essay help online free: essay help online free

In the period between the end of First World War and the onset of the great depression, United States enjoyed relatively stable economic conditions under the leadership of a string of republican presidents.

The market was flooding with new and improved products, business men engaged in extensive marketing and financial institutions provided potential consumers with easy credit to boost their purchasing power. In fact, in August 1928, Hebert Hoover, a republican presidential candidate at the time confidently proclaimed that America was nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before (Wiegand, 2009).

Economists, historians, and financial analysts have over the years tried to reach a consensus over the actual events that led to the great depression. In the 1920s persons employed in the service industry such as office secretaries comprised 30% of all the people who were gainfully employed and this percentage had risen to 38% by 1929 (Wiegand, 2009).

However, the economy of America lacked diversification and employment opportunities was heavily dependent on a few industrial sectors which were operating in the economy. Upon the declination of these industries in the late 1920s, expenditure in the construction industry reduced by approximately18 % in the period between 1926 and 1929 while automobile sales continued to decline (Wiegand, 2009).

Consequently, the need to lay off workers who were not directly involved in production process such as service industry workers emerged which led to widespread unemployment and poor standards of living among these workers.

In addition to lack of diversification in American economy, there was unequal distribution of wealth in the country’s economy which resulted in reduced purchasing power among consumers (Brinkley, 2007). In the period before the great depression, industrial and agricultural production had increased significantly.

However, low income levels among most American consumers reduced overall demand and resulted in disequilibrium between demand and supply which negatively impacted on industrial performance. The credit structure in pre depression period contributed to occurrence of the great depression. Financial institutions incurred great losses emanating from customers defaulting on loans and reckless investment in the stock market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the late 1920s, Europe, a major importer of American goods reduced its demand for American products. This was attributed to increased productivity among some European countries and the fact that some countries within the region were experiencing financial difficulties (Brinkley, 2007).

In addition, the international debt structure in American economy was highly unstable due to the post World War effects. Some European countries with shattered economies such as Germany and Austria owed huge amounts of money to American banks and were unable to repay. In response to this, American banks made huge loans from European countries’ governments to service their own loans which led to piling up of debt.

Economic and Psychological Impact Summary The great depression brought with it a great deal of hardship and suffering which extended in every aspect of American life. Its consequences were devastating to the country’s economy and to people’s lives. For an office secretary, the major threats posed by the great depression were loss of employment and reduction in disposable income.

Unemployment caused adverse psychological effects to American workforce whom had developed in a culture where unemployment and poverty were viewed as signs of failure rather than transition in life. A jobless office secretary would develop a sense of idleness, helplessness and reduce his/her self esteem which resulted in frustrations and loss of self worth among the unemployed Americans.

The great depression adversely affected the financial ability of American workers such as office secretaries. Due to loss of employment and reduction in per capita income, consumption ability of office assistants considerably reduced leading to reduced purchasing power hence poor standards of living.

Due to persistent unemployment and decline in income, poverty incidences among these workers increased rapidly. Increased strain for such families to meet their basic needs and the prevalent uncertainties in the economy resulted in the market retreat from consumerism which reduced overall demand.

The great depression presented new challenges for workers who were already facing the risk of unemployment. Bank loan officers incurred enormous losses due to payment default by low income borrowers while manufacturing executives had to deal with reduction in financial resources available for spending. In addition, automotive dealers experienced reduced sales while farmers lacked adequate market for their products due to reduction in overall demand.

We will write a custom Article on The Actual Causes of the Great Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More President Roosevelt’s new Deal Summary Franklin Roosevelt’s new deal played a major role in reconstruction and recovery of American economy from the great depression. The republican president established the federal emergency relief administration which provided financial grants to relief agencies which provided assistance to desperate and unemployed Americans (Brinkley, 2007).

The unemployed office assistants consequently benefited from such relief programs which provided them with basic needs and financial assistance. In addition, Roosevelt’s government established temporary projects through the civil work administration where workers would gain temporary employment to further sustain themselves. Office assistants secured employment in these industries which provided them with an opportunity to earn income.

In a bid to establish a long term solution to the problem of unemployment in the United State’s economy, President Roosevelt sought to promote industrial recovery in the region through a series of reforms. His administration allowed the creation of labor unions which advocated for protection of worker’s rights, reasonable salaries, and creation of jobs in America.

In addition, the congress passed the national industrial recovery act in 1933 which further promoted efforts towards stabilizing the labor market through improved industrial performance (Brinkley, 2007). An office secretary would therefore benefit from working in a relatively stable economic environment where jobs were secure and the income levels were reasonable.

President Roosevelt’s new deal aimed at responding to the economic depression which had sent a series of panics to the banking sector and threatened the entire financial system and the living standards of Americans. Coupled with the president’s pleasant personality, the new deal served to promote confidence among the Americans amidst economic and social turmoil that persisted in the society at the time.

The new deal spearheaded recovery efforts in United States through its imaginative and far reaching projects instigated by the federal government and the Alphabet Laws. These projects promoted industrial growth, financial stability, stock market recovery, social and political reconstruction, and overall economic development.

However, the new deal faced a lot of criticisms from President Roosevelt’s opponents such as the American liberty league which raised a lot of concerns over the new deal’s dictatorial policies and its supposed attacks on capitalism consequently raising substantial public opposition (Brinkley, 2007). In addition, the new deal appeared to focus more on the role of federal government in American life rather than providing immediate solution to the great depression.

Reference List Brinkley, A. (2007). American history: a survey. New York: McGraw Publishing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Actual Causes of the Great Depression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wiegand, S. (2009). Lessons from the Great Depression for Dummies. Indiana: Wiley Publishing Inc.


Gold’s Effective Marketing Report essay help online free

Introduction Gold is among the most admired and popular minerals in the world. It is famous for its high value and extraordinary properties. Majority of ancient gold specimen underwent smelting for production. Fine gold specimen has a higher market value than ordinary gold specimen.

Gold has stains of silver in its natural state after mining. It may a few times contain traces of iron and copper. A nugget is typically 71 to 90 percent of gold. The remaining percentage is always silver. South Africa was the largest producer of all the gold in the world from 1880 to 2007. In 2007, china emerged as the largest gold producer in the world (Corral


The basis of Civil Liberties Definition Essay essay help online free

Introduction Civil liberties in the United States revolve around religious freedom and freedom of speech among other liberties that feature prominently in the Bill of Rights. Religious freedom for instance allows Americans to subscribe to a faith of their choice. The state has no right to impose any religion on its citizens (Bardes et al., 2010). This paper looks at the separation of the church from the state and at how the Establishment Clause has impacted on some highlighted controversial issues.

Separation of church and state as interpreted by the United States Supreme Court The United States constitution grants all Americans the freedom of religion in the first amendment where it allows its citizens to follow whatever religion without its interference. The First Amendment contains two clauses to this effect that include the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause.

The Establishment Clause ensures that the government does not set up a state religion and neither does it favor one religion over the other. The American government has no right to take a religious stand and can therefore not prefer non-religion over religion and vice versa. In addition, this clause emphasizes on the separation of the church from the state. The Free Exercise Clause ensures that the state does not interfere with its citizen’s choice of religion (Robinson, 1995).

How the Establishment Clause impacts controversial issues The Establishment Clause when it comes to aiding church-based schools does not prohibit the ‘blue laws’ enforcement and neither does it prohibit the ferrying of parochial school students when it comes to transportation. The Supreme Court has in recent times supported government’s support for private and public religious schools in terms of school vouchers.

This kind of support includes funding in terms of textbooks, constructions, and transport. In addition, the court has supported school districts in their effort to formulate a curriculum that caters for their religious education needs. The Ten Commandments were initially included in the state laws that required them to be posted permanently on school buildings. This issue brought about controversy in that it was argued that posting them would promote some religious views.

When it comes to religious holidays, teachers are allowed by the establishment clause to teach them. However, their teaching must be objective, sensitive, and general and should cover how these holidays came to be, how they are celebrated, their history as well as their origins.

Religious symbols may be used as teaching aids and they may be displayed temporarily during the lesson. Religious symbols artworks may be created by the students but the teachers must not influence their decisions. The Supreme Court in 1962 banned a prayer that had been sponsored by the state for use in schools (Engel v. Vitale).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This happened as a result of the prayer being declared unconstitutional according to the U.S. Supreme Court. The teaching of evolution in public schools was prohibited in 1928 by the Arkansas Education Association that saw it as a contravention of the Establishment Clause. However, Epperson who was a biology lecturer challenged this law in court and won as it was seen as a violation of the Establishment clause (Haynes et al., 2003).

Intelligent design is against the evolution theory as it sees it as incomprehensive and argues that the gaps left unexplained by the evolution theory can only be explained by God. Its proponents argue that it is a science and must therefore be taught in public schools regardless of the controversies surrounding it.

They further argue that it would only conflict with the Establishment Clause if it was religious and in this case, according to them, it does not contravene the church’s separation from the state laws. The intelligent design is therefore a worthy viewpoint that aids the teachings on the origin of life as presented in the scientific discussions.

Public schools must therefore keep an open mind while handling this issue and that is why intelligent design should be taught alongside the evolutionary theory. The reason is that the evolutionary theory encompasses modern biology and science continues to discredit the alleged gaps (Bardes et al., 2010).

Conclusion Civil liberties have played a great role in the rights of the American people who enjoy several freedoms as evidenced by this study. The Establishment Clause on religious freedom features prominently in this paper and highlights various views that are regarded as controversial. The Supreme Court has printed its foot in the matter and it is clear how the state has been separated from the church especially in issues that concern public schools in America.

References Bardes, B.A., Shelley, M.C.,


Today’s Business Trends Essay (Article) best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A trend in today’s business world

Relevance of these trends


Reasons as to why you should accept my recommendations



Introduction Today’s business environment is highly dynamic and volatile. How business used to go about business yesterday is not as the same as today and neither do we have the luxury to assume that the future will be as the same as today (Boone 2010). Everyday there are new trends emerging in the business world which either influence or act as a force of initiating change in the business community.

From that rationale, the creation of value and satisfaction, which consumers demand end up pushing companies to develop strategies that govern their marketing mix and overall business strategy and go a step further to create general corporate strategies that will preside over their whole business processes to make sure they succeed in today’s fickle business surroundings. Trends are not threats but rather frontiers of new business possibilities (Carsrud


Understanding Environmental Problems through Poetry Essay essay help online

Environmental issues are burning ones in modernity; however, they are not new for the 20th and 21st centuries, since they were raised much earlier, at the outbreak of the Industrial Revolution. It is also true that the environmental problems have been frequently raised in poetry – the works of Wordsworth, Bishop, and Yeats may serve as evidence for this fact. All these authors have repeatedly raised the issues connected with the pace of progress and its impact on the surrounding nature, and have devoted some lyrics to these questions.

One of the remarkable pieces of poetry dedicated to the impact of man on nature is Sonnet; the poet voices his regrets about the Industrial Revolution and its effect on the connection between people and nature. He stresses the fact that with the emergence of machines people have lost their unity with nature they used to have before: “Little we see in Nature that is ours” (Wordsworth 3).

This is the reason for which the author disapproves of the progress and longs back to the time when no pollution, plants, manufacture, and industry existed, and wants to become a wild pagan on the untouched Earth: “I’d rather be/A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn” (Wordsworth 9-10).

The topic of regretting the progress and missing the genuine nature are also visible in the work of Yeats called The Lake Isle of Innisfree written at the end of the 19th century. The beginning of the poem takes the reader to the beautiful, untouched world of charming nature. All the author wants to have is a hut “of clay and wattles made” (Yeats 2), and “a hive for the honeybee” (Yeats 3). The dream of the poet is to “live alone in the bee-loud glade” (Yeats 4).

The pictures that the poet draws with the following lines of the verse are romantic, attractive, and naturally charming for all people who know what natural, simple beauty is. However, the author then shows the setting of his dreams, thus juxtaposing his dream and the surrounding reality: “I hear the water lapping with low sounds by the shore/ While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray” (Yeats 10-11)

The motives of nature are also present in the verse titled The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, and the author’s intent is to show both the dominance of people over the nature, and the respect they should have towards it. First of all, she shows that the way fish live is much better because of the pollution people have created – “his gills were breathing in/the terrible oxygen” (Bishop 22-23).

By these words the author shows that her habitat is worse than the fish’s is, but still she is the winner in the race as she has caught the fish that is in her power. Only seeing that the fish is an old fighter, and he has got into her hands only because he is tired of fighting, she provides an artistic comparison of the fish to people. She compares the hooks in the fish’s lip with the medals of an old soldier, and gives a metaphor of an old, wise man with a beard:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Like medals with their ribbons frayed and wavering, a five-haired beard of wisdom trailing from his aching jaw (Bishop 61-64)

Thus, as one can see from the present works, there is much on the issue of environment and nature in poetry; the poets have been not only worshipping the beauty of nature in their verses, but have managed to show how tragic the disconnection of people with nature is, and how drastic the role of industrial development is in this process. Poets show themselves as tied to the modernity, but longing back to the untouched, virgin nature that is lost forever for contemporary material and technologically advanced people.

Their nostalgia about the foregone times of unity with nature serves as a good guide for people forgetting about the nature, its place in human lives, and its truly dominant position compared to mechanics and human impact. Therefore, such readings and analysis may deepen the human understanding of what environment is, and what it should be for us – not only the subject of preservation, but of admiration, attention, and appeal in its genuine simplicity and charm.


Effects of War on Economics, Politics, Society Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Economic effects of war

Social Effect

Political Effects of War

War destroys the Environment

Psychological and Emotional Effects

Mental Consequences

Moral Consequences

Health Effects

Works Cited

War is harmful not just to the civilians but the soldiers as well. The effects range from physical, environmental, economic, psychological and even mental effects. All these effects depend on the magnitude of the war. War has enormous civil, political and moral consequences. A society’s happiness is usually diminished due to diminished morality. War leads to loss of life and property. It harms people’s morals as well as their sensitivity to moral issues.

Economic effects of war War has usually proved to be costly to the countries involved. There is increased military expenditure hence hampering the economic growth as most of the country’s money is channeled towards the purchase of weaponry and improving the defense. In the 1990s Russian for instance spend about three times of the Gross Domestic Product on its defense and after that it was in a serious economic chaos. War in most of the cases usually drives a country into debt and the creditor nations take advantage of this.

Wars usually reduce the long-run productive capabilities of any nation as the population’s growth is reduced and there is reduced inflow of immigrants. The economic burden of any war is usually placed on the working class as well as those who have modest education while benefiting a few for instance the war veterans.

Such veterans in the United States for instance have enormous benefits. The veterans of the World War II for instance have benefits that amount to more than three hundred billion dollars, which is very expensive and unsustainable. War is a major hindrance to globalization as it reduces the global economic output. It leads to a decline in global investment and trade.

Terrorism and war bring doubts which baffle the usual estimation and discourage foreign investors since business flourish in a nation that is stable politically. Commerce only flourishes where there is political stability and economic confidence. During the period of war scarcities generally make lavishness impossible and not conducive.

There is increased inflation with commodity prices being higher than normal hence reducing the purchasing power of the civilians. War leads to unrest, strikes and loss of lives as well. Property is destroyed and the livelihood of many people is significantly tampered with. It leads to people losing their homes and becoming refugees who need economic help. It cripples the economies and destroys industrial infrastructure.

Social Effect War has the ability to reshape and change society. It has for instance led to an increased participation of the womenfolk in workforces. It leads to the women assuming the roles that were initially meant for men. War also leaves a trail of women and girls who have been raped, traumatizing them and hence affecting their attitudes concerning sex hence resulting to social problems between the women and men.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While going to war, soldiers usually leave many of the war children behind. When war terminates, these children and their mothers mostly undergo retorts. War results to existence of many casualties in a country that greatly impact on the demographic population profiles in these nations. War leads to a significant change in the sex ratio hence increasing the out-of-wedlock births as evident after the Second World War.

Political Effects of War War has a significant effect on any political ideology. It usually leads to invasion and upsetting of the long-held sentiments and political tradition. The post war period is characterized by the recognition of allies and those who were aligned during the war. The alliances and treaties that were made before world war one in Europe for instance led so many of these nations to participate in the war even while unprepared or without so much consideration being put on its repercussions.

War destroys the Environment It is generally destructive to any prevailing development. It greatly destroys the environment due to the weapons used as some cause fire that destroys the environment. There is soil, air and water pollution. People and animals are killed and several health effects are witnessed among those who are still living.

There is a significant loss in biodiversity. In addition, there are famine and sanitation problems that are witnessed at the refugee camps. The eventual result is disease outbreak and starvation. Refugees usually opt to hunt wildlife for meat so as to certain them and there is a significant destruction of the natural habitat resulting to soil erosion and desertification as witnessed in the Congo war.

Vessels that are attacked in water during the combat usually spill the oil in water hence causing enormous water pollution (Miller 56). Toxic materials are released into the atmosphere hence causing air pollution. The noisy explosions which are from explosives are a major cause of noise pollution and could permanently affect the auditory capability of the victims. Landmines usually render the land unsuitable for agriculture.

War leads to the discovery of dangerous weapons like the atomic bomb in the case of world war two. Weapons that could render the earth unsuitable to live in. the bombs have a blinding light followed by excessive heat. They cause death, break water lines and unquenchable fires with radioactive precipitation, which causes extensive death and even affect the children to be born later (Glasstone 111).

The fire produced at the time of war burn down forests. This makes the soil bare which promotes soil erosion. At the same time the fumes produced during such a war usually leads to the formation of black/acidic rain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of War on Economics, Politics, Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Psychological and Emotional Effects War has effects not only on the civilians that are involved but the soldiers as well. There are several psychological disorders that are associated with war. This includes shell shock also known as Combat Stress Reaction. There is also the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

The emotional effect of any war can be very distressing particularly to the soldiers and any of the victims. Hallucinations are particularly common to them. Victims tend to strongly react to things that remind them of traumatic encounters that they had during the war and tend to avoid those things that are associated with that war. It usually leads to social and emotional alienation (Kassin 77).

The psychological effects that are experienced by soldier after the war limits their future accomplishments. Some of these soldiers are so much affected that do not even marry to raise as they are afraid due to the near death incident they come across.

Most of the affected have witnessed the death of close friends and have even had to escape from the jaws of death themselves. War usually results to regrets with most of the victims wishing that it should never have happened. A good example is the holocaust which left the survivors wishing that they were the ones who had died.

Mental Consequences War has fatal consequences on the mental health of the civilians as well as the soldiers. Studies have shown that there is an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders especially in the areas that are prone to war. This is witnessed more among the women as compared to men. Other vulnerable groups include children, the disabled and the elderly. This is attributed to the traumatic experiences that these groups undergo during the period of the conflict.

People in these regions live in constant fear. Most of the children that are borne the war torn regions grow while knowing only war and they have the warring mentality. The psychological problems that these people encounter could easily escalate into permanent mental problems depending on the magnitude of the problem and how fast these problems are tackled. War has catastrophic effects on well being of a nation and the health of its people. The victims exhibit problems that are associated with mental health.

Some develop behavior that hinders them from functioning effectively. They may show depression, anxiety, psychosomatic problems like insomnia among others. People that are affected by war, particularly the children need to undergo programs that are meant to repair their psychological damage.

Moral Consequences In war efforts are made towards subverting love’s moral force and its connection, though the end usually results in love prevailing. War leads to separation and isolation of mankind hence making love to be rare and ego takes its place instead. It only leads to alienation and brutality. War is a human weakness which is created by the war mongering leaders who send young, gullible, ignorant and active members of lower caste of society to battle.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of War on Economics, Politics, Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The result is unimaginable brutality characterized by the hunger to rape and maim the desire to kill as well as inflicting suffering and pain. People act indiscriminately, not considering the rule of law and have no respect for humanity. War breeds terrorism as well as constant crime against humanity with torture being the order of the day. There is evil and tyranny.

Health Effects Any extensive war in this century has a higher capability for mass killing over a long distance. Most of the people who die from indirect and direct causes are usually the civilians. Many people are wounded with a good number of the victims being children. War results to the damage of the health as well as the economic infrastructure leading to in increase in the post-war deaths. It is said that the civil wars usually maim and kill people a long period after the stopping of the shooting.

Armed conflicts usually result in the deaths and disabilities that are related to the war long after the end of the conflict. It is unfortunate that the major victims of any war are usually women and their children. This could be attributed to the fact that most of them are defenseless and it is never easy for them to escape as well.

War results to severe injury, trauma, death and extensive suffering. It is always a better option to involve diplomatic approaches so as to minimize hostility and reject revenge by violent means. In any case, the best remedy for any conflict is peace, healing as well as reconciliation. War may have fatal effects on women who in most cases suffer more than men do. Most of them are traumatized, due to the military brothels employed during the conflict.

Some are raped, trafficked for prostitution and violated. War widows, female victims of landmines as well as those women that are refugees due to war are highly vulnerable to living in poverty, prostitution or illnesses and death in the periods after the war. Most of them are prone to sexual slavery and brutality in during the war. This renders them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS (Phillips 29).

War should never be justified. In any case, the resources that are channeled towards war could be put to good use in education, healthcare, green jobs and even other activities that are life-affirming. Foreign policies should never be based on aggression and domination. Instead, diplomacy, compassion and commitment to international law should be embraced. All forms of sexual exploitation particularly the female trafficking should be effectively tackled.

There is no evidence whatsoever that hostility and cruelty are innate aspects of mankind. In any case the reverse is true as every baby is born non-violent and cooperative. No man is borne exploitative. This is an aspect that one acquires and natures. Love and the urge to unite are the default aspects of people of any society.

The only known powerful force that can sabotage war and its might is love. War is a clear indication of the deficit of people’s emotional life. During war and in the aftermath, those who can remain sane, those who never hate the enemy are those with good relationships and those who are in love.

Works Cited Glasstone, Samuel. Nuclear Weapons. Redmond: Microsoft Corporation, 2006. Print.

Kassis, Rami. Social Psychology. London: Macmillan Publishers, 2008. Print.

Miller, David. Navy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Phillips, John. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. London: Macmillan Publishers, 2000.


Information Handling: the Selection and Acquisition Process Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The process of selecting and acquiring the information system

The goals of the organization in relation to the project

Role of the stakeholders

Reference List

Introduction The organization has in recent years been faced with the challenge of information handling. The current method of storage and circulation of data within the institution has become overburdened and is gradually becoming obsolete. Setting up an information system is fundamental to the development of the facility particularly in the wake of the facilities accelerated growth.

However, adequate measures have been taken to ensure that the system installed is suitable to our immediate, mid-term and long-term needs. In this regard we need to identify a proper method of establishing how the new information system will link in to the organization’s goals aside from determining the role of the stakeholders in the process of acquiring and installing the system. These items have been briefly discussed below:

The process of selecting and acquiring the information system The first item in the process of determining the type of information system to install is the identification of the particular needs of each department of the institution. The information obtained will help to provide the basic criteria for analyzing the available alternatives and selecting the one that will be most appropriate to the needs of the institution (Muñoz, 2009). Various costs have to be considered in the quantitative analysis.

These include the cost of purchasing the hardware needed for the system, the costs of modifying the available infrastructure to accommodate the new hardware, the costs of operating the system per year, the cost incurred in training the members of staff on the usage of the system and the administration costs (Muñoz, 2009). Once the appropriate system has been identified, the next step is choosing a supplier.

To this end, an evaluation of the available suppliers will be conducted with the aim of isolating the one who can provide the desired requirements at a cost that is within our budget. The first step in this process will be to conduct a proper search in the market through going through magazines and online presentations (Glaser, 2002).

The known suppliers will be contacted and requested to provide as much information as possible regarding the selected system. With the research on suppliers complete, the next step is the developing a list of the potential suppliers (Clemen, 1996). All the individuals on the list will be considered potential candidates and they all will be taken through interviews.

The interviews will aim at collecting all the information as part of the evaluation process of all the candidates on the list (Saaty, 2001). After interviewing and evaluating the candidates, the best one will be conducted and negotiations on the costs and implementation will start immediately (Drazen and Metzger, 1998). Finally, the implementation process will kick off and the staff training started immediately.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The goals of the organization in relation to the project The goals of the organization will guide the entire process of acquiring and setting up the system. Top on the list include the fact that the institution essentially aims at serving clients with utmost level of professionalism and effectiveness. An information system that will serve to bring order and organization into the storage of facility records in such a way that they can be accessed with ease should be selected.

The integrity of the patient data should also be maintained with the inter-information system shift. Owing to the sensitivity of the facility’s information database the new system should have methods of guaranteeing data safety including a password dependent access interface. This will ensure that only individuals with the necessary authorization can access data in the system.

Role of the stakeholders All the stakeholders from managers to the lowest cadre members of staff will be involved in the selection and acquisition process. The discussions with the entire staff base will essentially help identifying the emerging needs of access to information. Each and every member will be asked to list his/her issues pertaining to the challenges with the current information system.

From these lists the most recurrent complaints and suggestions will be picked as part of the primary guiding data for the setting up of the new information system. The senior members of management, particularly those from the finance department will be called in to establish the amount of money that the institution can spare for the purpose.

Incase more external funding is needed the finance team will advice on the best available options. The information system being a long-term investment will need to be properly established in order to have the highest levels of effectiveness and longer service length. It is therefore imperative that enough resources be dedicated to its establishment.

The involvement of all the organizations workers starting with the senior managers is a clear indicator of the importance of the project. With them leading from the front, junior associates will take the training seriously and this will in turn reflect well in the entire performance of the company. Donors and other contributors to the running of the institution will also appreciate the importance of the changes provided the company heads are committed in their involvement with its implementation.

Reference List Clemen, R.T. (1996). Making hard decisions an introduction to decision analysis (2nd Ed.). Pacific Grove, USA.:Duxbury Press.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Information Handling: the Selection and Acquisition Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Drazen, E.


Jimi Hendrix: Bipolar Disorder Essay writing essay help

Hendrix is one of the renowned musicians who left a legacy despite the fact that he did not live for long because he was only twenty seven at his death. One of his outstanding songs is titled maniac depression which is also known as bipolar disorder. Critical analysis of the song reveals that there is a high possibility that Hendrix may have been writing about his mood disorder although there is no evidence of the same.

However, even though he was writing about his mood disorder which he described as maniac depression, it is clear that there are some differences between his description of the disorder and the DSM-IV-TR description of the same.

With that background in mind, this essay discusses the difference between Hendrix and DSM-IV-TR description of maniac depression. In addition, the paper shall also focus on the similarity between regular cocaine addiction and maniac depression symptoms.

The whole song by Hendrix discusses all the feelings and emotions that the victim was experiencing. Hendrix begins by illustrating his emotions.

He says that he knows what he ought to do but he does not know how to do it. The song also illustrates a happy mood since he says that he is feeling sweet. However, the feeling is followed by a feeling of frustration as the singer indicates that he cannot be able to make love and ends up being frustrated. The last part indicates a feeling of hopelessness as he says that it is better for him to quit (Hendrix, 2002).

As much as the song is titled maniac depression, the description is limited in describing the same in relation to the description of DSM-IV-TR. To begin with, DSM-IV-TR describes the disorder as a condition characterized by major changes in the mood of a person; characterized by either high or low moods (Durand


Cereal Aisle Analysis Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Background to the study

Krexox is a store owned by a sole-proprietor and is located within the suburban Mill Run shopping center. The store has been in operation for 5 years. In its operation, the store deals with a variety of food products such as cereals. To ensure that consumers easily access the cereals, effective positioning is integrated.

The firm has attained this through incorporation of racks which are strategically located within the store. The racks are 20 meters in length, 1 meter wide and 1.5 meters in height. To increase their carrying capacity, the racks have two shelves on which the cereals are stocked. Since its inception, the firm has managed to attain an optimal performance as a result of integration of effective marketing practices.

In order to analyze the operations’ of Kerox store, the researcher conducted an observational study. The observation is conducted during the busy morning and afternoon hours for a period of three days.


The report is aimed at analyzing Krexox cereal aisle.


The report entails an analysis of Krexox store. The various types of cereals the store deals with are identified. In addition, the report also includes the various consumer behaviors identified. An explanation of the findings is also given. Finally a conclusion giving some of the marketing strategies which the firm can integrate are given. However, the report is limited in that it is only based n observation.

Types of cereals The entrepreneur has appreciated the fact that consumer’s have diverse product requirement. As a result, the store stocks various cereal brands. From observation, it was identified that the store mainly stocks wholegrain cereals.

Some of the whole grain cereals which the store stocks include cheerios, mini –wheat, muesli, French toast crunch, golden grahams, cinnamon toast crunch, low fat granola, oatmeal crisp, oatmeal squares, shredded wheat, multi-grain chex, wheat chex, grape nuts and grape nut flakes. In addition to whole grains, the store also stocks other cereals with other characteristics such as novelty ingredients, cereals which lead to reduction of weight and also those which reduce heart diseases.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was also observed that the cereals were stocked in various quantities while the packets were branded in different colors. From the observation conducted during the three days, it was observed that the rate of restocking the various cereals varied. The rate of restocking was measured on a scale of 1-5 where 1-2= slow rate of restocking, 3-4= medium rate of restocking, 4-5= Fast rate of restocking. The table in the appendix section illustrates the rate of restocking identified.

Consumer behavior observed

From observation, a number of consumer behaviors were identified as outlined below.

The consumers enquire about the characteristics of the various cereals. One of the elements enquired about relate to health characteristic of the cereals.

Consumers evaluate the quantities in which the cereals are packaged.

The consumers enquire about the price of the various quantities.

From the three day period in which the observation was conducted, it was identified that the wholegrain were restocked daily. This indicates that there is a high demand for breakfast cereals.

Explanation of the findings

Decision to stock a wide variety of cereals would enable the store to attract and retain a wide range of customers. Decision to stock whole grains and other variety of cereals may have resulted from realization of the fact that consumer’s are increasingly becoming health conscious in their purchasing patterns (Leven, 2009, p. 23). In addition, the consumers are considering purchasing food products which have high a high nutritional value (Miller, n.d, p. 298).

Whole grain cereals are considered to be of high nutritional values. In addition, the cereals have minimum amount of fats and sugars. By packaging the cereals in different quantities, the firm is able to meet diverse customer demands. In addition, it has become possible for the firm to price its cereals. Positioning the cereals in sizeable racks enables consumers with different characteristics to easily access the cereals.

By branding the packets in different colors, the firm is able to appeal to a wide range of customers considering the diversity in consumer preferences with regard to color.


From the above analysis, Krexox Store can be able to improve its marketing efficiency through observation of consumer behavior. As a result, the entrepreneur can be able to influence the consumer decision making process.

We will write a custom Essay on Cereal Aisle Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, the firm can be able to identify the products and services which are highly demanded. This means that it will be possible for the entrepreneur to ensure that the particular cereals are in sufficient supply. In addition, gaining knowledge regarding consumer product requirement will contribute towards the firm attaining a high competitive advantage.

This can be achieved through effective branding. For example, the entrepreneur can make a decision to add value to the various cereals. This will culminate into the store attaining an optimal market position. The resultant effect is that the threat of competition arising from new entrants will be minimized.

Reference List Leven, M.(2009). Marketing: defined, explained and applied. London: Pearson Education.

Miller, J.(n.d). Encyclopedia of human ecology. New York: ABC-CLIO.


Criminal Justice Department Essay a level english language essay help

Introduction The criminal justice department is one sector of public administration that has had to go through a period of transformation as far as the usage of technology in the fulfillment of its role to the public. The changes in this regard have been informed by the fact that over the years criminals have improved the ways in which they conduct their business to further become technology-savvy.

This essay seeks to illustrate the evolution of technology in the criminal justice department. To this end, various forms of literature shall be consulted in order to provide a proper groundwork for the discussion. Proper exemplification shall be provided from the different time-frames of the evolution and its relevance with today’s practices in the criminal justice department illustrated.

Development of the criminal justice department and the role of technology in the development The development of the criminal justice department has been divided into three main eras depending on the relationship between various stakeholders and the public security authorities (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). These two categories are the political, professional eras and the community policing era.

The political era

This was a period of 80 years spanning from 1840 to 1920 (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). The era was named ‘political’ because of the links between the criminal justice and the political class. In this area, administration officers particularly the police started incorporating new technological components in their duties (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). These were the gun and the bludgeon. The two weapons have been retained in the force to date albeit with vast improvements.

During this period, changes happened in the communication aspects of the criminal justice department. This was notable through the 1870s usage of the telephone in easy dispersion of messages from one center to another as well as the setting up of police telephone booths in the following decade (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). Fingerprinting technologies were incepted and were incorporated in investigative procedures.

The professional model era

This was the period between 1920 and 1970. In this period reforms took place to ensure that all state agencies were separated from the influence of politicians (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). This was with the aim of instilling professionalism within the department. Technology found a role in this regard with the usage of the polygraph lie detector (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). Crime laboratories were established in various states which served to train in the elements of fingerprint and handwriting classification.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation established a professional investigative laboratory which was well equipped with state of art forensic equipment (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). By the 1930s the police force and other state agencies tasked with the role of implementing law and order had fully embraced the usage of motor vehicles and communication using two-way radios (Muraskin and Robert, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Going into the 1940s radar speed monitoring systems were developed and they found early usage by the traffic department. In 1960s, the federal government started advocating for the implementation of new technologies within the police force (Muraskin and Robert, 2002). These reforms were particularly started in 1964 after president Lyndon B. Johnson assigned the Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice the role of investigating the particular needs by law enforcement agencies in fulfilling their duties properly.

The commission came out with a report that provided over two hundred recommendations, of which eleven were touching on police technology. One of these recommendations was that it was necessary for the criminal justice department to embrace computer technology as part of its modernization strategy (Pattavina, 2005).

Immediate steps were taken by the Johnson government to address the issues raised and within a few years hundreds of millions of dollars were invested into the upgrade of existing state and local federal agency technologies. The embrace of technology was gradual but by the early 1990s over half of all police departments in t country were using computers (Muraskin and Robert, 2002).

Even more interesting is that by this time computers were now being regarded as useful tools in performing all departmental duties including investigation and crime analysis aside from the record keeping functionalities of the systems (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). Computer-mediated information databases particularly found prominence with the advent of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC).

The NCIC stored records of all criminal activities in such a way that easy access was granted in the process of conducting an investigation (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). Computers also played a critical role in the establishment of the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) which played the role of locating the identities of all persons within huge interlinked databases (Muraskin and Robert, 2002).

The community policing era

Having started in the 1970s, this is the newest of all the criminal justice technology development eras and it covers current reforms in the field (Maguire and Radosh, 1996). The advent of community policing called for the installation of proper systems to facilitate the communication between members of the public and the administrative authorities. Some of the introductions made include the establishment of an online system for reporting offenses (Pattavina, 2005).

This system has been well embraced by members of the public mainly because of the anonymity it accords individuals reporting criminal activities. The police department has also started using a computer-mediated dispatch system which hastens the process of attending to calls of public distress (Pattavina, 2005).

We will write a custom Essay on Criminal Justice Department specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A decade ago, the sheriff’s office at Pinellas County in Florida had a very weak information systems that was made of a number of independent databases all operating at the same time but with each only capable of doing a certain number of functions. Operations within the department were however happening at a very slow pace owing to the administrative challenges that were linked to these inefficient systems. With recent system modifications the institution has grown to be one of the displays of efficiency within the country.

All the databases have now been linked together and average time taken in the process of searching for information has been reduced from over half an hour to less than ten minutes. Consequently, the criminal justice officers in the region now have enough time to do their field duties.

The future of criminal justice technology For most institutions a constant review of its technological systems and upgrading to suit the current industry standards is advisable provide the organization can afford the changes. The criminal justice department is one organization which requires the best technologies particularly because of the sensitive nature of the country’s security which falls under its mandate (Muraskin and Robert, 2002).

The police and the security agents need to work on ways of improving and maximizing the impact of all the programs that they establish; most of which are aimed at reducing the time taken to respond to distress calls and increase the speed with which information can be transmitted from one region to another (Pattavina, 2005).

Unfortunately, the installment of the new systems comes with a hefty financial burden on the institution. However, weighing the benefits against the expenses shows that benefits greatly outweigh the challenges that come with the initial investment.

It has also been noted that very little effort and resources have been committed to the function of creating public awareness. Individuals have also complained of complexities being associated with new technological acquisitions (Muraskin and Robert, 2002). It is therefore imperative that in future proper consideration be accorded to the function of ensuring that newly installed technologies completely serve the purpose for which they were acquired. This can only be achieved through committing of funds to public education.

Advances in computer and communication technologies have brought in new changes in the way that criminals conduct their activities. For instance in recent days drug traffickers have obtained communication devices that cannot be tapped into using the devices owned by law enforcement agencies (Muraskin and Robert, 2002). In the future more changes need to be made as pertains to the technologies at the disposal of criminal justice authorities in order to ensure that they can appropriately deal with their adversaries.

Conclusion Changes in technology are among the few elements that impact on the efficiency of institutions which if not well embraced may result in the downfall entire organizations. This is even more so for the criminal justice department which if faced with some small amount of laxity results in irreversible security issues such the deaths of innocent citizens and the failure of criminals to face justice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Criminal Justice Department by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay has served to illustrate how the United Criminal Justice Department has incorporated newer elements of technology in the period spanning from 1840 to current times. It has been noted that this is one of the public sector that took to technological changes at a very slow rate, sometimes taking the intervention of politicians to appreciate the importance of these changes. However, research has helped find out that with the entry of the 21st century, the department has made headway as far as leading other institutions in updating the technologies they use.

Reference List Maguire, B.


Intellectual Property Definition Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Discussion Board

Definition essay

Reference List


Discussion Board The information article Intellectual Property, written by a group of authors under direction of Evan Davies, aims to define the concept of intellectual property (IP) and identify its key characteristics. Secondly, the authors give a brief overview of legal means that help to protect the right for IP.

According to the scholars, intellectual property can be defined as any tangible or intangible asset that results from the process of human discovery, creativity, and invention (Davies et al, 2003). The authors single out the two characteristics, which are typical of IP: 1) immaterial nature, in other words, this asset can be owned by a great number of people at the same time; 2) inability of the inventor to appropriate it for private gain, since this kind of assets can be easily copied and transmitted (Davies et al, 2003).

The key idea which the writers express is that contemporary legislation does not provide specific guidelines, regulating the use and transmission of intellectual property, for example, a person, who tries to sell a certain idea or invention, can easily be defrauded, and there is no way for him/her to prove his rectitude. These are the major issues, discussed in this article.

Overall, it is quite possible to agree with the authors, when we are speaking about the use and transmission of intellectual property. At the moment, there are very few safeguards that can protect the author (inventor, designer, musician, writer, artists and so forth) from encroachment on his/her rights.

In part, it is connected with the rapid development of Internet technologies which enable users to share copyrighted information (songs, videos, software, books etc) with any obstacle. Secondly, as it has been pointed out in the article, in some cases, the author finds it very difficult to prove that he/she is the inventor of a certain device or the author of some television show.

However, the definition, proposed by the authors can be disputed. Evan Davies et al focus mostly on the origins of IP such as invention, creativity, discovery, and so forth. Yet, very little attention is paid to the qualitative characteristics of IP. One may point such qualities as novelty and utility, which means that any asset, protected by the copyright law, has to have some new elements and may have some practical application.

Besides, in this article the authors emphasize the so-called “weightlessness” of IP, which means that the term intellectual property refers to some intangible assets, yet under some circumstances, IP can be both tangible and intangible, for example, hardware, vehicles, and mobile phones, which can considered as both tangible and intangible assets. In this case, the intellectual property is not easily transferred from one person to another. One should not assume that this definition, advanced by the authors is inaccurate or limited.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the given moment there are hundreds definition and interpretations of IP and its elements; they may focus on some specific characteristics of IP and one cannot say that these definitions are inaccurate or false since they just focus on different aspects of the same phenomenon. Overall, this article can be helpful to the students and other people who want to gain a basic idea about intellectual property.

Definition essay The definition of such term of intellectual property has long been one of the most debated issues among lawyers and policy makers, since they need to compile a list of those objects or assets, which have to be protected by copyright law. This concept is so difficult to define because it has several components and several characteristics which are equally important.

We cannot argue that the interpretation, provided in this paper will be conclusive, yet it give a more comprehensive view of IP and its elements. At this point, we can say that intellectual property is any tangible or intangible asset, deriving from human creativity, discovery, invention even contest[1]; it has such characteristics as originality and perceived value. In the following sections of this paper, we will try to justify our interpretation of this notion and its constituent parts.

The term “intellectual property” is inevitably associated with ideas, designs, works of a person’s mind or intellect, but these ideas usually have some material representation. In other words, one should not forget about those devices which help to carry and store this information, for example, compact discs, audio tapes, floppy disks, audio tapes, DVDs and so forth (Barrett, 2008, 108).

Moreover, some ideas or concepts can be inseparable from their material representation, for instance, paintings or drawings. In point of fact, in some cases, the value of idea dramatically declines if it is deprived of its original material form. Even the most meticulous copy of Van Gogh or Rembrandt cannot be compared to the original and it will never have the same commercial or artistic value.

This case illustrates the point that intellectual property is not always easily transferable and that it cannot be owned by several people at a time. Furthermore, it shows that the importance of material representation should not be underestimated and one should not perceive IP only as some intangible asset since such a perception is just a common stereotype.

A person, who tries to define the concept of IP, would have to focus on such characteristics as value and novelty. This asset or product must have some innovative elements, which differentiate it from similar products or assets. Furthermore, it may be of some commercial or aesthetic value. The aesthetic value is particularly important, when we are referring to works of literature, music, art and so forth. Again, we have to stress an idea that commercial and aesthetic value are quite separable from one another. In addition, the notion of aesthetic value is very subjective, and it cannot be measured in any qualitative or quantitative way. Thus, when we identified value as an intrinsic attribute of intellectual property, we referred only to the subjective opinion of a person, who has invented a certain device, created some work of art or made some scientific discovery. Intellectual property must have value or worth in the eyes of the creator or discoverer, rather than in the eyes of the public. This is the most important characteristic of this concept.

We will write a custom Essay on Intellectual Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those people, who view intellectual property from legal or commercial standpoint, often refer to such a requirement as utility that has not been mentioned in our definition. Such characteristic as utility is more appropriate to some inventions, pharmaceutical recipes, new business models etc (Dratler, 1991, p 162; Bouchoux, 2001).

Yet, this requirement is inapplicable to the works of art. Apart from that, the utility of many inventions were bitterly disputed when they came into existence. To prove this point, we can mention the alternating current system, designed by Nikola Tesla. At the end of the nineteenth century, it was widely believed that such systems could hardly find any practical application (Colladay, 1996). These are the reasons why such characteristics as utility or practical application have been excluded from the definition.

Another important question which should be discussed in this paper is the ownership of intellectual property. As we have said, it derives from human discovery, invention, knowledge, or creativity. In the majority of cases, IP is the result of close collaboration, involving many participants, whose contribution is not always equal.

In the thesis statement, it has been said that IP derives from invention, creativity, discovery or contest. The final component may seem slightly confusing at first glance, yet such copyrighted materials as broadcasts of football games are the result of competition and contest, yet they are also classified as intellectual property.

Therefore, one can argue that while defining intellectual property one should not focus only on some scientific discoveries, technological devices and works of art. Such interpretation does not reflect the full complexity of this term because intellectual property can be just the result of mere coincidence, rather than some prodigious mental effort.

The most important idea that can be derived from this discussion is that intellectual property can have several elements and characteristics; however, the most important one is novelty. Moreover, it seems rather unreasonable to limit the notion of IP only to a specific list of intangible assets like books, pharmaceutical recipes, drawings, utility models and so forth.

Such an approach can be suitable for commercial relations but it is not acceptable for philosophical discussion. Apart from that, we can say that utility, commercial value, and practical applicability are not inherent characteristics of the intellectual property. More likely, one has to speak about novelty and perceived value.

Reference List Barrett. M. (2008) Intellectual Property. Aspen Publishers Online.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Intellectual Property by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bouchoux D. (2001) Protecting your company’s intellectual property: a practical guide to trademarks, copyrights, patents


Studies in the Education of Adults Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Adult education is an area that most educators and stakeholders in the education sector find interesting. Stakeholders in the education sector need to understand the factors that influence the teaching and learning processes in adult education. Adult education is considered a complex issue and therefore to comprehensively understand factors affecting its nature and process we must involve both empirical research and theoretical studies.

Therefore, any study carried on this topic should be critically analyzed to better understand the significance of the research on the processes of adult education. It is important to fully understand the research article and then critique the credibility of the information contained therein.

This research paper seeks to analyze two articles. The two articles will be discussed to better understand how prior experience and knowledge, intrinsic motivation and exposure to the carrier subject are related and how these influences a person’s performance in adult education.

In her article, The role of prior experience in adult learners’ acquisition of postgraduate literacies in a postapartheid South African University, Cooper Linda (2011) argues that prior knowledge and experience of the subject or carrier discipline is a significant resource for learners’ success in their field of studies (Cooper, 2011).

The research is known as Prior Learning Assessment (Cooper, 2011). The research focuses primarily on the influence of the learners’ prior experiential knowledge on the outcome of the academic literacy practices gained in higher learning institutions as well as their contribution to the learning process.

The underlying principle of the current research is that learners’ literacy skills outcomes largely depends on an interaction of three main components that includes the disposition and habitus of a learner, how the academic discipline in question has been structured, and the pedagogic agency.

The study required that the teachers recognize the learners’ prior knowledge on the academic disciplines chosen while the teachers controlled the challenges in each academic program and the learning processes as well as the accommodation and learning group mix (Cooper, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article examines the case of a group of disability rights-activists who were given the opportunity to enroll for master’s degree program under the recognition of prior learning (Cooper, 2011). The disability rights activists were asked to choose master’s degree programs of their choices and where they best thought represented their careers and abilities, as well as those that they thought they had adequate prior experience in.

However, all the activists were restricted to enroll in the academic programs which were related to their activities. In each academic discipline where the activists were enrolled, they were distributed into different learning groups. They were further distributed into different hostels to mix with other students.

The lecturers in the each discipline where the learners were enrolled provided different levels of challenging tasks for each activist-learner and the learning groups they represented. The lecturers were asked to use different teaching methodologies and resources each time they wanted to evaluate the learners’ progress and the impacts of their prior experiential knowledge.

During their master’s degree programs, the supervising lecturers were asked to monitor their performance and their interaction with other students in their various faculties. The supervisors recorded every significant contribution made by each learner and kept records of their performance in relation to those who had no prior knowledge and experience.

The activist-learners’ were interviewed and asked to fill questions related to how they viewed their overall performance and the factors that influenced their performance and learning processes. The supervising lecturers were also asked to submit the activist-learners progress reports and their general evaluation of the learners’ progress and performance.

The research results showed that the learners’ prior knowledge of their academic disciplines positively influenced their overall performance. The learners’ showed confidence in all their activities and had the drive to achieve the maximum in all the tasks that they were assigned.

The research also proved that the level of difficulty of the discipline had very little effect as compared to the learner’s prior experiential knowledge and intrinsic motivation (Pajares,


The Theories of Person Intelligence Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Can The Intelligence Be Tested?


Introduction There is no single definition of intelligence that is generally accepted. However, different scholars have from time to time come up with theories that may be used to understand the concept of intelligence. The theories of intelligence may be broadly categorized into two; the general intelligence theories and the multiple intelligence theories.

Spearman was the first person to try and explain the concept of intelligence (Sternberg, 1985). Spearman, in his work, also known as the two factor theory, proposed that there was a positive co-relation between an individual’s academic test scores and their abilities. The two factors that he suggested made up a person’s intelligence were: the G-factor or the general factor which could be measured and quantified, and the S-factor also the specific factor.

He suggested that the G-factor mainly dealt with a person’s general knowledge while the S-factor was more specific, in that, it referred to the individual’s specific abilities. Therefore, in conclusion, he insinuated that a person’s level of intelligence could only be determined through academic tests according to Gardner (1983).

The second scholar, Thurstone who rejected spearman’s proposal came up with his own theory. He suggested seven measures of intelligence as being; numerical reasoning, verbal meaning, memory, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed, spatial ability and word fluency. Unlike Spearman, he believed intelligence could be looked at from a more diversified dimension.

Later, Cattell also came up with his own theory. To some extent, he agreed with Spearman’s theory but he added two more factors. These factors were fluid intelligence which he explained as being the capability of an individual to find solutions to problems with no earlier information. Crystallized intelligence, which he defined as being the capability to solve troubles using precedent events, was the second one.

In 1983, Gardner the pioneer of the multiple intelligence theory came up with the theory that implied that, intelligence was a diverse concept and therefore needed to be measured using multiple tools. He identified eight types of intelligence; bodily kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, musical, intrapersonal, verbal linguistic, naturalistic and visual spatial Gardner (1983).

Sternberg (1985), agreed with Gardner’s theory but he claimed that the types of intelligence included; analytical intelligence, creative intelligence and practical intelligence. Further, he claimed that a person’s intelligence depended on the surrounding environments. This simple deviation from the theory developed by Gardner was the basis of the subsequent researches that have been carried out in the recent years on the topic.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Findings Based on these studies, the theories that best explains intelligence are the multiple intelligence theories of Gardner and Sternberg. This is because they give a broader description of what intelligence is. They not only take into account the academic perspective but also the non academic perspectives of intelligence. Gardner’s theory for example, gives importance to interpersonal and intrapersonal skills which today an individual cannot survive without. Sternberg also explains how intelligence can be shaped by one’s surroundings.

Can The Intelligence Be Tested? Multiple intelligence theories cannot be subjected to a simple test as it would be very difficult, impossible even, to measure a person’s non-academic abilities.

Things like interpersonal skills are things that can only be measured over time and not through a simple aptitude test. Therefore, it follows that it is simply hard to measure intelligence based on the theories presented above.

References Gardner, H. (1983). Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Organizational Development Concepts best essay help: best essay help

Introduction One company that can be said to have changed the automobile industry is Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC). Since its establishment in the year 1937, Toyota Motor Corporation has evolved to become one of the best car selling companies in the world. At the same time, Toyota is estimated to provide employment opportunities to about 317,000 people at the moment, working as dedicated employees of the company.

Major activities of Toyota Company started after the Second World War, when the company started to design and manufacture automobiles in large number.

The history of Toyota Company is associated with Kiichiro Toyoda who was an excellent inventor and established Toyoda Automatic Loom Company that largely relied on his prolific designs (Toyoland, n.d). As part to generate more capital resources, the company Kiichiro Toyoda licensed part of the designs to the British and the generated money was used to establish Toyota Motor Company, an idea that received government’s support due to its military applications (Toyoland, n.d).

Before the establishment of the company, Japanese armies relied on imported trucks, and as a result of depression that affected the world and the country at the same time, resources to import trucks became scarce (Toyoland, n.d). As a result, domestic production was seen as an avenue to reduce costs, create employment opportunities, and empower the country to be self-reliance (Toyoland, n.d).

Some of the automobile designs by Toyota Motor Corporation in the history include: Model A1 and G1 models, model AA, sedans, phaetons or model AB, Toyota model, GB truck, G1 truck, Toyopet or the model SA, SD models, RH model, Landcruiser, Crown, Corona, Avalon, Camry, and Lexus (Toyoland, n.d).

Toyota at the same time throughout history has been able to establish plants in other regions of the world specifically in Latin America and USA. Today, Toyota Motors has evolved as the global largest designer and “manufacturer of automobiles, both in unit sales and net sales” (Toyoland, n.d). For instance in USA alone Toyota has succeeded in eclipsing Honda and sustained fierce competition to GM and Ford motors (Toyoland, n.d).

Further, in 2002, Toyota Motors incorporated 2010 Global vision, which according to the company is a vision aimed at achieving mobility needs in away that considers and respects environment and the people (Toyoland, n.d). Major themes in this Global vision include “Toward a recycle-oriented society, toward the age of IT and ubiquitous networks, toward a mature society, and toward motorization on a global scale” (Toyoland, n.d, p.1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Toyota’s Organizational Structure and strategy Richard D. Daft, writing in the book titled ‘Organizational Theory and Design’ observes that in defining what organizational structure is, it is important to put into consideration three important aspects: organization structure constitute formal reporting relationships that include number of levels in the hierarchy and span of control of managers and supervisors (Daft, 2009).

Second, organizational structure establishes the grouping together of individuals into departments and of departments into total organization. Lastly, organizational structure constitutes the design of systems to ensure effective communication, coordination, and integration of efforts across departments (Daft, 2009).

According to the author, these three elements involve both the vertical and horizontal aspects of organizing, with each representing a structure that is more appropriate in certain specific organizational orientation. Accordingly, an ideal structure should be in a position to encourage employees to provide horizontal information and coordination where and when it is needed (Daft, 2009).

From 2003, Toyota Motors was seen to be causing ripples in the automobile industry as it undertook initiatives at high speed catching up with the industry’s perennial leaders and dominant players like GM, Ford, and Chrysler (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). Many people viewed this as a risk strategy, which upon failure would have severe negative impacts on Toyota Motors.

However, on gradual note, the strategy has been working out as some instances of literature postulate that Toyota Motors has been able to outperform one or two of these companies (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). As the strategy appeared successful, Toyota put in place strategies to re-invent itself and one of the re-invention strategies was to introduce new designs.

One of the changes that has characterized Toyota introduced by the management include introduction of a number of new designs such as introduction of Prius hybrid model in 2004 (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). When the success of this model was realized, Toyota was motivated to introduce another hybrid luxury sport-utility vehicle known as the RX 400h and today the company offers these two designs in the world’s market estimated to be about 50 per cent (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).

Accompanying Toyota’s introduction of new designs in the marketing is the company’s well-established and known reputation that, on wider global scale characterizes the company as one of the world’s leading corporation to be involved in massive cost cutting. The company has continuously invented and improved guided by the kaizen (continuous improvement) philosophy. Kaizen has further been strengthened by the company’s kanban (just-in-time inventory) systems (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).

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Statements about Justice Compare and Contrast Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

To Kill a Mocking Bird

The Merchant of Venice


Works Cited

Introduction For many years drama has been used as a means of altering social perception with regard to various social issues. For example, literature on the issue indicates that effective use of drama can change student attitude towards various pervasive issues such as bullying (Belliveau, 136). In this report an analysis will be performed on two classic texts to identify statements about justice woven within them. It is hoped that such statements can be crafted into plays and used to teach social justice throughout society.

To Kill a Mocking Bird In this text one of the statements about justice that becomes apparent as the story builds is the presence of racial prejudice in Maycomb (Lee, 25). This is made evident by observing the description provided in the text about the trial of Tom Robinson. The accused is a black man and has been charged with the rape of Mayella Ewell, daughter of Bob Ewell. Despite the fact that there is little evidence that can conclusively prove guilt of the accused, the court proceeds to find him guilty and sentences him to prison.

The manner in which the trial is carried out and the judge’s attitude indicate that the trial of a black man especially in a case against a white lady was influenced to a large extent by expectations of the community instead of the facts. Further the reaction of the town people towards Atticus and his family after his decision to represent Tom indicate the existence of racial prejudice in the Maycomb community.

Another statement on justice that appears in the text is the lack of fairness in the Maycomb community. In the course of the trial it becomes apparent that despite the fact that Mayella has been raped and bruised, her bruises could only have been caused by a left handed individual (Lee, 26).

The text proceeds to establish that her Father, a drunkard is left handed and most likely is the perpetrator of the crime. This unfair trial is embarrassing to people such as Ms. Maudie who decline to attend (Lee, 26). Such suggestions in the text allow the conclusion that the text exhibits the absence of equality in provision of justice in Maycomb.

The people of Maycomb as portrayed in the text indicate that the community was not established in equality. This is witnessed in the scene that describes the common and respectable folk of the town ganging up and making an effort to lynch Tom Robinson. This attempt is only thwarted with the intervention of Atticus which sees him branded a “nigger lover” (Lee, 61).

This fact is further pointed out in an analysis of the facts of this era that indicates that during this period over 600 similar incidents were reported (Lee, 61). It is also indicated that these events were perpetrated by normal and respectable town folk alike in a bid to maintain the superiority of the Anglo Saxon race (Lee, 61). This information only goes further to prove the veracity of the story in relation to the era.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the story also provides a good example of statements about justice in the actions of Boo Radley. Following the embarrassing trial Bob Ewell vows to take revenge on Atticus and his family for allegedly damaging his reputation. In the events that follow an enraged Bob Ewell attacks the children Scout and Jem in a secluded spot (Lee, 69). In the confrontation that follows an unknown stranger comes to the children’s aid and saves the day.

This unknown stranger turns out to be the reclusive Boo Radley. In the course of the text this character has been portrayed as a reclusive individual lurking behind the shadows. This action by Boo to protect the rights of the innocent provides a bold statement about justice. Unfortunately in the process the attacker is severely injured and looses his life providing us with a situation that provides a mild statement on punishment of the guilty.

The Merchant of Venice In the tragic comedy depicted in this text the theme of prejudice is indicated in the action of Antonio towards Shylock. In the text, Shylock, is in the business of lending money with interest to people of the town. Antonio is a rich merchant and also on occasion lends money to the town folk without interest. It is possible that the anti Semitic attitude Antonio exhibits by spitting on Shylock is as a result of unscrupulous business practices (Stevens and Shakespeare, 33). The Jews in Europe during this era were shrewd business people and as a result there was much envy between them and the local population.

The text also provides scenes that depict unfairness in society. This is witnessed in the text illustrating an encounter between Antonio and Shylock in a hearing on the debt owed by Antonio. On this occasion Shylock behaves unfairly probably in revenge for a past disagreement (Stevens and Shakespeare, 33).

The section of the text describes how Basanio upon hearing of his comrade’s dilemma rushes to his aid. In an attempt to resolve the issue Basanio offers to settle the debt by offering two times the principal amount. Shylock promptly refuses this offer stating that the contract between him and Antonio allows him to extract a pound of flesh as compensation.

Shylock in a statement that exhibits his unfairness by refuses to accept the offer by Basanio and insists on the extraction of flesh to repay the debt (Stevens and Shakespeare, 34). It should be noted that by law the duke is entitled to arbitrate and must see to the honoring of a contract. The duke is therefore bound by the contract despite Shylock’s unreasonable demands. This shows the degree to which the society regards the importance

The duke being bound by the contract accepts the efforts of intermediation by Balthazar. This Balthazar happens to be Basanio’s bride who in disguise makes a clever attempt to arbitrate (Stevens and Shakespeare, 134). The Duke by conceding to this option shows fairness in standing firm in enforcing a legal contract.

We will write a custom Essay on Statements about Justice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As earlier stated the Duke plays a role of the highest legal authority in the land. If the Duke were to allow Antonio to breach a contract that was legally made in his presence it would set a bad legal precedence. For this reason the Duke is forced to stick by the law with regards to contracts.

Fortunately for Antonio the clever plot by the impostors reveals a flaw in the legal contract. It is established that though the contract allows the extraction of flesh it makes no mention of blood (Stevens and Shakespeare, 166). The impostors thus demand that Shylock extract the pound of flesh without drawing any blood or risk forfeiting the debt.

This scenario also provides another example of fairness. Shylock having been adamant in receiving his due in the manner stated in the contract is unable to enforce it in the manner stated. What follows is Shylock grudgingly accepts defeat and accepts to receive cash payment in lieu of the debt. However, since he had declined it the law now requires he forfeits the full amount (Stevens and Shakespeare, 170). This also portrays a statement about fairness.

The text also provides a statement on prejudice on the occasion when Jessica, Shylock’s daughter elopes with Lorenzo (Stevens and Shakespeare, 64).

The young man, Lorenzo is a Christian and Jessica elopes with him taking a substantial amount of her father’s wealth in the process (Stevens and Shakespeare, 64). This fact that his daughter will convert to Christianity causes Shylock much anger suggesting his dislike for Christians. This fact is supported by Shylock’s statement on meeting Antonio describing his dislike for Christians (Stevens and Shakespeare, 28).

Conclusion In this report the discussion presented has attempted to provide information that reveals various statements about justice woven into the text. Both texts can be used to represent communities around the world and their relations. It is possible that through observation of these communities and how they relate we too can learn to improve our present situation.

It has been reported that arts, especially drama can be a good medium for creating awareness and altering perceptions about perverse social issues. It is hoped that through the analysis of these texts our schools may be encouraged to seek new means to educate the young generation on social issues.

Works Cited Belliveau, George. “An Art Based Approach to Teach Social Justice: Drama as a Way to Address Bullying in Schools.” International Journal of Arts Education 3.2 (2005): 136-165. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Statements about Justice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird: Blooms Guides: Comprehensive Research and Study Guides. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2010.Print.

Stevens, John, and William Shakespeare. The Merchant of Venice. Clayton: Prestwick House Inc, 2005. Print.


A Just War: Where Fake Faces the Reality Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Plato’s Concept of War: Learning to be Decent

Augustine: Leading a Christian War

The Two Ideas Compared



Plato’s Concept of War: Learning to be Decent In spite of the fact that the mankind has been leading wars all the history long, the periods of peace and quiet changing with the devastating fights, most philosophers take the humane approach when considering the idea of war, thus regarding the latter as inappropriate.

Among them was the great Plato, who understood that even the resilience of the world could not take constant battles one changes with another. Claiming that war can be neither just, nor rescannable, he claims it to be one of those inevitable but destructing things.

In his early works, Plato seemed to take the position which nowadays could be called a humanistic one, considering that the states at war are destined to face terrible disorders. Plato considered that there were actually no winners in this game, for even the states which win the war are to face the devastation, the famine and the misery of the war.

Plato’s logic was that both countries are destined in be in ruins as the war ends, and the tasted of victory would be far too bitter to triumph. In his dialogue with Alchibiades he says that he finds the war unjust and contradicting human’s nature. Arguing Achibiadus back his reasoning of war as an action completely unjust, he says:

Soc.: Now, what of this? Whom will you advised the Athenians to wage war against, those behaving unjustly, or those practicing the just things?

Alc.: What you are asking is a terrible thing; for even if someone had it in his mind that war ought to be waged against those practicing the just things, he would not admit to it, at least.[1]

The sarcasm of Socrates cannot but be admired. With controversial statements he pushes his opponent to thinking that war is an unjust witch with an ugly face, a thing which has nothing to do with humanity and decency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Augustine: Leading a Christian War Whenever there is a need to balance the justice between the states, either ruler has to resort to strict measures and to call people to protect their homeland and fight for the ideas which they appreciate most. According to Augustine, war can be used as a defense mechanism against the invaders or a weapon to fight with for people’s beliefs and faith.

Augustine’s doctrine suggests that war can be just, and, moreover, that it has to be just. In his understanding, the sacred idea of protecting the homeland and the faith from the pagans and the unfaithful means more than the earthy life. The ideas of Augustine proclaim fighting for justice, and it seems that he was more than determined to win in his fight. Considering the just war as the means to restore the peace on the earth, he interpreted the idea of war as the idea of serving the homeland and the religion of the forefathers.

Taking into consideration Augustine’s understanding of peace and the peace in a state, it is possible to presume that Augustine considered war as another means of piece-making:

Because the name “peace” is also frequently used with respect to things which are subject to death, where there is certainly no eternal life, we prefer to call the end of this city, where its highest good will be, “central life” rather than “peace”.[2]

Thus, Augustine was gear up for war much more than Plato with his ideas of justice as peaceful problem-solving. Understanding that people are quite unlikely to submit to the other faith and other state ruler without struggling, Augustine considered war the only way to convert the unfaithful. To be more metaphorical, his idea of war was the position of a stronger state, while the mild ideas of Plato were the position of the strongest state.

The Two Ideas Compared Considering the viewpoints of both philosophers, it is necessary to say that Plato’s arguments on leading the war clash with the ideas of Augustine in quite a conflict. In contrast to the weighed and reasonable ideas of war which Plato suggests, Augustine molds the basis of the war ideology on the idea that war can be a means to achieve piece.

In contrast to Augustine, Plato thinks that prudence and strategic thinking is the key element of war: “Don’t you know that when we make war we begin to wage war after accusing each other of some affront and what term we use when we begin?”[3] Plato wants to analyze the war, making it closer to a chess game where the leaders have to think logically and make its course more predictable.

We will write a custom Essay on A Just War: Where Fake Faces the Reality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A brilliant strategist, Plato emphasizes the importance of the soldiers as the layer of society which will help the rulers to achieve the glory and to make the lives of the citizens safe. As a philosopher, Socrates understands that every element in the chain of state life is important; once letting one element loose, the chain will get broken for good. Thus, Plato’s strategy-and-order structure sounds as a well-thought idea of a state.

In contrast to Plato, Augustine suggests something completely different. What Augustine makes prior for the state is the faith and the religion. In Augustine’s understanding of the duty of the Christians, the latter are supposed to fight for their ideas as hard as they can. Avoiding expressing his ideas of what makes a just war, Augustine still made it clear that the three elements of justice must be present to call war a decent fight.

“The three jus ad bellum criteria of rightful (or legitimate) authority, just cause, and right intention, and even hint at the connection between the latter come to be called jus in bello”[4]. Thus, Augustine admits that war can be just, and he insists that there are certain elements which make it such.

Owing to the fact that “Augustine was never elaborate in his comments on just cause”[5], it is possible to suggest that the great philosopher was more of a tactician, while Plato was a strategist, which predetermined the difference in their understanding of war. Nevertheless, the great theories of the ancient philosophers survived the time testing and reached our epoch.

Denying the possibility if just war, Plato’s ideas prove not a bit less important than the ones of Augustine, and vice versa. The ideal war is impossible, so people had better start making the ideal peace.

Bibliography Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings. New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Print.

Footnotes . Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 22

. Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 78

Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 22

Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 81

Reighberg, Gregory M., Henric Syse and Endre Begby. The Ethics of War: Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 82


The Renaissance in Europe Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Renaissance was considered to be a time where there was exercise of a lot of inventiveness in art, structural designs, science, and writing in literature. This period lasted in Europe at an approximated period of three centuries between 1300 and 1600 which led to the interventions of the printing press as well as telescope.

There were also construction of beautiful buildings and great practice of theater thrived during this time. It is a new birth which happened through the resurrection of the dead ideas and taking a new state of action. In this exercise humanism was promoted in that there were changes which were made on the human role and figure. Therefore, humanism development during the renaissance period was considered as an attempt by the renaissance artists to perfect the perfect man.

To start with, there were visual and the literal work which were done by different artists such as the Da Vinci, Bellini, Van Eyck, and Titian among others which were meant to show man in a more perfect light. The whole reason behind the renaissance artists was the representation of nature in their work where the standards were however deviated into the reflection of the human beings as the central focus.

Through the art work, there was also the achievement of beauty which happened to surpass the humanistic values by then. In the exercise, there was the revise of the artistic treasures as well as the intellectual ones that lead to more inspirations into artistic greatness (King, 2003).

Da Vinci in his work portrayed the ideal and the real human efforts as it was possible to view into the inner essence presented in the paintings. He therefore made a change on the way paintings and the carvings or sculptures which were made by presenting misty scenery in the set backgrounds such as the Mona Lisa yet she had no eyebrows.

Bellini also a renaissance artist brought the human work of art on paintings in the realization of a different degree through the production of softening effects on his work. In his paintings, there were synchronization of colors, presentation of light, and the mood.

Van Eyck perfected the perfect man through oil painting sighting which was associated with the limitless effect. In his paintings, there was presentation of any form of emotional status. Before then, tempra which was composed of just one layer was not used in paintings but Van was among the first artist to use it followed by the use of the oil layer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, renaissance is said to place and value human beings in the central positioning of the life’s phase and there was therefore an infusion of ideas and thoughts which were promoted by the acts of art with creation values. The art work achievement was seen as one way which indicated the human ingenuity through his efforts thus it promoted meeting of their daily needs. The civilization which happened in Greek was no longer considered as partial influence.

A return into consciousness was experienced on people’s ancient culture which was made possible by the high desires which were held in the re-production of their culture where the renaissance artists played a very significant role on the same. Therefore, the perfect man was finally perfected through promotion of order, sense of balance and also harmony in the development of the humanism and renaissance (Duiker


Social Problem: Abortion Essay college application essay help

Introduction From a historical point of view, abortion has found use as one of the ways to prevent births in the society. It was only in mid-nineteenth century that the United States legally prohibited the practice. Until the 1960s, no one appeared to challenge the laws that had been enacted to prohibit the procurement of abortion. However, during the 1960s, the abortion laws were successfully challenged by an abortion reform movement.

This led to the modification of a number of the state laws to allow physicians to procure abortions, but on the basis of the specific cases at hand (Lamanna