Panera Case Analysis Essay Essay Help

Executive summary Problem Statement

The restaurant industry is very competitive and Panera has to overcome the many challenges including new entrants and high expenses in order for it to continue making profits.

Analysis There are many problems being faced by Panera and they have come up with strategies that give them an edge over other similar businesses. Some of the problems and strategies used by Panera include:

The ease of accessibility of alternatives to the dishes offered at Panera. An example is coffee, which can be swapped with any stimulative drink. They have overcome this challenge by providing a relaxing and comfy environment.

New entrants in the restaurant business can reduce the number of sales for Panera. They have been able to overcome this by providing a variety of dishes in their menus and changing the menus constantly.

The buyer can choose to go elsewhere if the food is monotonous or poor service delivery. To ensure customer satisfaction, the service at Panera is excellent and the quality of food exceptional. This way, their rating by law is high, and attractive to consumers.

To overcome challenges that may arise due to unreliability of the suppliers, Panera buys its ingredients from multiple businesses, and does its own delivery of the bread.

Panera faces high transport costs due to the few branches located within the dough delivery region. The distance covered requires that the tracks be refrigerated, which is quite expensive.

Alternatives For Panera to maintain its competitive edge over similar businesses, it has to come up with workable strategies such as:

Venturing in the catering business more, so that it can increase its sales and draw more people to its restaurants.

Provide a broader menu to accommodate more fruits and other healthy dishes suitable for dinner, so that they can increase sales during off-peak hours.

Recommendation To reduce the expenses incurred due to long travel distances in delivery of dough, Panera should open more branches in these regions, so that the cost of delivery can be distributed. Opening cafes in new areas would also increase their market share.

Implementation The opening of new cafes and increasing the variety in menus would require strategic advertising. Panera is known for providing an aesthetic environment and healthy foods. This should be their primary focus when advertising. Expansion of their catering services in new communities would also help to draw more people to their restaurants.

Panera case analysis Introduction

About $1 billion is spent by US consumers at eating establishments, making the restaurant industry very competitive. There are many fears in the industry including the struggle to make profits as well as the entry of new competitors. The main competitors of Panera in specialty foods and fast informal dining are Subway, Starbucks and McDonald’s.

The competition that Panera faces comes from various directions, including both the local and national markets (Locke, 2008). One of the strategies used by Panera in order to stay profitable is the regular review and revision of their menus. This is aimed at meeting the requirements of the different seasons of the year, satisfying the changing preferences of the customers and maintaining the interest of the usual customers (Locke, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Main problems facing the firm and their solutions Threat imposed by alternatives

One of the problems facing Panera is the availability of substitutes to their coffee selections and atmosphere. The fact that food is a basic need means that people have to consume something, which implies that the market is ever present. The problem lies in the variety of places available for people to eat (Locke, 2008).

The atmosphere at Panera is one that allows for people to work and hold meetings. The alternative to this is that people can choose to do their work from the comfort of their houses or meet in the workplace (Locke, 2008). Panera has overcome this by providing a distraction free and serene surrounding that is necessary to perform well in their duties.

Coffee is one of the main menu items for Panera, and it can be easily substituted with a power drink. The provision of such an alternative could limit the number of people going for coffee at Panera, though the chances of switching from one to the other is low, and the market for coffee is therefore not diminishing (Locke, 2008).

Threat imposed by new restaurant businesses

This is a threat since the people who can get into the business is unlimited due to the few barriers to entry including minimal government regulations, no need for a patent and lack of technological shortcomings. There are new restaurants opening up in various places due to the high demand imposed by customers who like eating in new and different places.

At the same time, the restaurants are short lived due to poor delivery of services, including menus that do not meet customer needs and dining events that are unsatisfactory. The motivation for opening up new restaurants is consumer adventure, since consumers like to visit new places. Panera keeps up with new business ventures by altering their menus regularly, in order to meet the periodical needs and diets of the clients (Thompson, 2009).

Bargaining power of the buyer

The consumers have access to information regarding value and nourishment which makes the restaurant industry very competitive. The patrons can easily switch to other restaurants if their preferences are not satisfied, which means that the conditions and quality maintained by these restaurants must be high and satisfactory.

It is easy for a customer to change their eating place from Panera, since the only variable may be the cost of food (Thompson, 2009). Panera is well aware of this, and solves the problem by providing the customers with a wide variety of menu items. The customers can therefore enjoy various items on different days of the week.

We will write a custom Essay on Panera case analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The power of the consumer is greatly increased due to the accessibility of information regarding the restaurant industry. The food products are provided with nutrition information, and this is appealing to the customers. Restaurants are also required by law to post inspection results in a visible place, and therefore poor results may be bad for business (Thompson, 2009).

Bargaining power of the supplier

Panera makes their bread on a daily basis as it is their number one product. They also have their own transport tracks that provide the bread to stores within a 500 mile radius daily, which makes the delivery fully controllable (Thompson, 2009). To increase their efficiency, they ensure that the suppliers have limited control over the cost of products. This is achieved by contracting various suppliers for the ingredients.

This means that the shift from one supplier to the other is relatively easy for them, which ensures that the suppliers making the deliveries do so promptly and error free. Panera is able to control the costs of supplies by use of contracts with both the suppliers and distributors. Panera is therefore very cautious with its presentation and reliability to the market, by ensuring that the prices of supplies remain unchanged, using contracts (Thompson, 2009).

Strategies used by Panera

One of their main strategies is the provision of a menu with wide variety, and good service delivery in an inviting ambience. People who lack the time to dine in traditional restaurants appreciate quality foods contained in Panera’s menus. The provision of freshly baked bread is also advantageous to Panera, since the customers can be assured that there is no musty bread.

Panera provides a comfortable setting, which includes comfortable seating and the provision of Wi-Fi connections, suitable for customers during any time of the day. This, added to their strategic location in the urban and suburban areas encourages the customers to stay longer (Locke, 2008).

Panera has ensured consistency in the quality of its products especially bread, by creating strong networks with the suppliers. They also have a variety of suppliers who provide them with the essential products, which denies them leverage, therefore enabling costs within the franchises to remain low.

The facilities responsible for the supply of dough are strategically located throughout the country, and this ensures fresh supply of dough (Locke, 2008). Panera provides its customers with a unique dining experience. This is achieved by welcoming atmosphere, the designs of the cages as well as the variety of foods provided in the menus.

Unlike other restaurants that prefer to remain small, Panera restaurants are large, which is advantageous to them since they can prepare a variety of meals, and therefore tend to attract customers with a variety of taste. Their large operations allow them to keep their prices lower than the traditional restaurants, and provide fast delivery of meals, which allows the customers to enjoy their meals and ambiance with no rush (Locke, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Panera case analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the problems faced by Panera is the huge sum of money spent in transportation of fresh dough to its cafes. The distance travelled by the tracks is at least 300 miles, and the deliveries are made to only six branches. Due to the distance, the temperature of the tracks has to be controlled.

Investors in Panera have been discouraged by the large capital requirement, since potential owners are required to simultaneously open twelve restaurants. This requires people to invest about $1 million. Panera provides a variety of dishes in its menus, which broadens its target market, enabling them to create loyalty within its customers (Locke, 2008).

Current issues facing Panera

Increasing competition in the fast-casual food industry has been one of the biggest contributors to the reducing profits at Panera. At the same time, their stringent operating criterion has raised the expenses, with the costs of administration being much higher.

Panera has penetrated larger markets though it is unable to open stores faster than the competition, due to the requirement that every new owner must open a minimum of fifteen cafes at once, which is expensive for them (Locke, 2008). Due to this reason, Panera has been unable to penetrate individual communities that can provide them with more opportunities.

Recommendations The fast-casual dining industry is very competitive, and in order for Panera to minimize its expenses and maximize on profits, it needs to:

Open more cafes within a particular region

Open new cafes to cater for individual communities and

Invest more in the catering services

Advertise the use of natural ingredients in their meals

Provide menus for off-peak hours

One of the expenses that Panera experiences is the transportation of dough over long distances to very few stores, two in Miami and several in Dallas (Thompson, 2009). In order to compete with the other restaurants like Starbucks, they need to open mores stores in these areas.

This will increase the number of stores within the travelling distance of the dough tracks, hence improving on the efficiency of delivery and reducing the overall expenses. In addition to this, there are many markets that Panera has neglected, which would appreciate their artistic and lovely environment as well as their quality meals.

Such a move would result in the creation of more cafes by the owners in the region, and their familiarity with the population would enable them to cater for the varying needs of the patrons, allowing them to gain the loyalty of the masses (Thompson, 2009). New York would be a nice place to open a few cafes.

The catering services would be in a position to expand due to the good reputation that Panera has within the societies, and its expansion in new and current markets. Panera would be able to meet the needs of its consumers easily by opening more cafes, which would also increase its market share and consequently bring more people to its restaurants.

Expansion through catering would be good for Panera to grow its restaurant’s brand. Advertising is important for the success of any business. Since Panera is known for the provision of a diverse and healthy menu, advertising by letting people know of their use of natural ingredients would attract more patrons to their restaurants.

They would also attract more customers if they expanded their menus in order to accommodate more options that are suitable for patrons who prefer to dine during off-peak hours, therefore increasing their sales (Thompson, 2009).

Implementation of the strategies Expansion of the catering division would allow Panera to venture into new markets without changing their brand image, therefore increasing their sales. By taking advantage of their already popular healthy meals, with many vegetables, Panera should increase its variety of fruit choices in the menus, which would draw more people in to the restaurants.

In addition to this, their menu contains healthy chicken, antibiotic-free, though most of its patrons are not aware (Thompson, 2009). A nice marketing strategy would be advantageous in making people aware of the healthy dishes that are available at Panera. This would definitely increase their sales since most people prefer to shop in groceries, and would not mind having a good healthy meal without preparing it themselves.

The busiest hours for Panera are the lunch hours, due to their menus. More sales would be achieved if they were to introduce suitable dishes for dinner, which is an off-peak time. One of the dishes that could be added to the menus is a chicken dish or healthy pasta, which would complement their brand image (Thompson, 2009).

References Locke, B. (2008). Panera Bread Company. Web.

Thompson, A. A. (2009). Panera Bread Company. Crafting and Executing Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 17th Edition.

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Mohandus Gandhi’s leadership Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction Mohandus Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma, was a leader of the people of India; he was not only a political and ethical leader, but also a religious leader. This leader is the founding father of Indian nation, as he aided his nation to attain independence from the British. The guiding principles of Gandhi were truth, individual and political self-policing (Bischoff, 2010, p.3).

Generally, Gandhi used various weapons that included “non-cooperation, non-violence, and peaceful resistance” from the British (Bischoff, 2010). Simply, leadership is defined as a process by which someone takes the role of motivating or influencing others to follow a certain course for a common agenda or objective.

Many styles of leadership have been employed in various fields in life; however, the style of leadership employed by Mohandus is termed as follower centric that evaluates the existing conditions before setting strategies to be used. Moreover, mahatma’s leadership was also situational as various tactics were employed to different circumstances.

The style of leadership used in the Indian revolution is applied in some governments and businesses to day. A key aspect of the leadership was motivation and empowerment, which are essential in business and requires every member involved to be connected to the organization’s goals. Gandhi has a way of doing that – making sure that everyone in the cause is connected to the goal.

As a great leader, Gandhi managed to not only influence his fellow Indians, but also many other leaders in the world to participate in movements for civil rights internationally, for instance, Nelson Mandela, and martin Luther Jr.

This paper will explore leadership of Mohandus, and some government that use his style of leadership. Moreover, personal qualities, traits, and characteristics that made mahatma a successful leader will be explored. Finally, the paper will discuss Gandhi’s limitations in his role as an Indian leader.

Thesis statement: the most important principle of leadership is forming personal character, having personal conviction and the influence of religion through prayers. Moreover, essential leadership skills emphasized by Mahatma include the need for constant growth and strength, while influence is not obtained by muscle power.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership style of Gandhi Gandhi was an outstanding and charismatic leader in India who led a revolution to end colonialism by the British. In his leadership, Gandhi leadership skills were centered on ethical, servant, and spiritual leadership theories (Bischoff, 2010). However, Gandhi’s leadership is seen to be situational, since he advocated for use of a leadership style depending on the circumstances prevailing.

Ethical leadership Gandhi was an ethical leader who modeled ethical behavior to the Indian community. Ethics are standards of beliefs and values that guide conduct, behavior, and activities; in other words, a way of thinking that provides boundaries for our actions. Ethical leadership is therefore defined as the act of leading based on ethics at all times. The principles of ethical leadership are truth telling, keeping promises, and fairness and respect for all individuals.

Through telling the truth, Gandhi was able to influence people of India to recognize their rights and need for revolution. He modeled what he expected his followers to act on and practiced ethical leadership, as his core motivation was to benefit his fellow countrymen and women rather than himself, thus he was ready to face the consequences of his actions.

Moreover, his life’s motivation was to attain social achievement rather than personal achievement. He attained his goal by transformation of the beliefs, values and the behavior of his followers. In this case, the transformation was achieved by empowerment and education.

Integrity is essential in ethical leadership; Mahatma portrayed his integrity through adhering to ethic behavior, thus his advocacy for non-violent means during the revolution. He actually cancelled campaign that yielded to violent behavior i.e. rioting. Moreover, Gandhi applied equal standards to all people regardless of their caste in society.

He did not manipulate his followers to participate in revolution activities i.e. fasting, but he allowed them to make choices freely. As a leader, Gandhi was imprisoned for several years for his actions but he did not give up his desire for change in his nation. Finally, Gandhi categorized seven social sins that he challenged his followers to evade at all cost.

Servant leadership Mahatma was a servant leader; servant leader is defined as a leader who serves his followers (Bischoff, 2010, p.6). Servant leaders usually have various traits including integrity, empathy, listening to name but a few. Gandhi as a servant leader was ready to suffer for what he believed in and he was not influenced by titles or wealth and money but lived in humility, which can be attested by the simple loom, weaved cloth he wore.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Mohandus Gandhi’s leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Polelle (2007, p.24), “modern servant leadership approach emphasizes collaboration, trust, empathy, and ethical use of power.” Gandhi was largely involved in humanitarian work; indeed, most of his money obtained from his work as a lawyer was used in assisting needy people in the society (Polelle, 2007, p.24).

Importantly, his leadership did not discriminate any caste in the society, as he worked with low castes in India who were discriminated by fellow Indians.

Spiritual leadership As a spiritual leader, Gandhi demanded peaceful coexistence of all religions irrespective of the fact that he was a Hindu spiritual leader. He believed that all different beliefs led to the same ultimate truth; hence, there was no need for religious conflict (Polelle, 2007, p.24). Using power of love, the leader was able to overcome any negative emotions on the colonial masters that led to his choice of non-violent ways to repel the British.

Through this belief, he advocated for peaceful coexistence of Hindus and Muslims and all levels of castes in the community, hence a unified nation. Further, he promoted other spiritual attributes such as Peace. Mahatma believed that his enemies should be treated honorably irrespective of their behaviors.

Transformational leadership Gandhi is seen as a transformational leader as he single handedly raised the motivation and morality of his followers during the Indian revolution (Shriberge

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Effectiveness of prophylaxis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Prophylaxis refers to therapeutic or community healthiness procedures carried out with the aim of putting off, as opposed to offering treatment or restoration to health of an existing condition (Community-Based Prophylaxis, 3). Prophylaxis is as well a means to curb an outbreak of infection, or reduce the signs of a person who has had exposure to an infection or germ.

Principal prophylaxis involves any procedure that is carried out to put a stop to infection prior to its occurrence. An appropriate illustration of this is having one’s teeth proficiently cleaned by a dental practitioner. This exercise goes a long way in putting to a stop bacterial plaque, tooth rot, and gum infection.

Resulting prophylaxis involves measures that help put a stop to contagion following contact with an infection, or to play down signs linked with a sickness or fitness state. For instance, if a medical practitioner gets infected with the HIV/AIDS virus, they will take an antiretroviral medication to assist them keep contraction of the ailment at bay.

Immunizations are an appropriate case in point of prophylaxis. Vaccinations are used to make certain that the receiver does not catch a given ailment, for that reason doing away with the likeliness of a requirement for therapy later in life.

On a broader extent, urgent situation preparedness is a further type of prophylaxis. In view of the fact that epidemics can come about in devastating circumstances, being geared up for such an occurrence reduces the requirement for ultimate cure.

Condoms are branded as prophylactics since they help put a stop to maternity and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Antibiotics are in given times utilized as prophylactics when the affected role has got contact to an ailment or germ such as anthrax, to minimize the signs or secondary effects from the contact.

Anticoagulants are administered to those persons who are ill with heart and blood vessel ailment(s). In most times these patients take a day after day prescribed amount of acetylsalicylic acid in the type of over the counter medications. These medications assist in thinning of blood and as a result lessens the danger of blood coalesces that leads to heart attack or stroke.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every therapeutic field one can consider makes use of prophylaxes. Cosmetic general practitioners administer medications to their patients to assist keep at bay deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This is a possible danger with any superficial surgical procedure. Exposure to radioactive substance for cancer sufferers is regarded as prophylaxis.

Even the persons who carry out homeopathy and substitute medication have an assortment of types of prophylaxes that they utilize in providing treatment to sufferers (Community-Based Prophylaxis, 6). Prophylaxis can make reference to a far-reaching regime of medications and therapeutic measures, or it can be as straightforward as using an antibacterial mist on an injury to hasten curing and put a stop to contamination.

Mass prophylaxis Mass prophylaxis refers to the capacity to save from harm the healthiness of the populace by means of administration and effective management of important interventions in reaction to a community health urgent situation in a bid to put off the buildup of infection amongst the persons who are uncovered or are potentially uncovered to community health dangers.

This ability takes account of the availing of suitable go through and keeping an eye on undesirable occurrences, not forgetting risk announcement subject matters to tackle the distresses of the community (Mass Antibiotic Dispensing). Mass prophylaxis can take place at the local, regional, state, or federal levels.

Is there a level where mass prophylaxis is more effective than the others? The not long ago anthrax attacks in the United States and other assaults like 9/11 and destruction as a result of Hurricane Katrina and the corresponding measures serve as the best grounds on which to get answer(s) to this question. To face up such tests one has to be aware of performance necessities for a most important occurrence at the duty stage and make and uphold the abilities to carry out those duties.

What took place from the above mentioned cases showed that watchfulness for major occurrences has to engage all echelons of the administration (National Incident Management System). That means the local, regional, state and federal levels play equally significant roles in the undertaking. The private sector, non-governmental entities and the general public also need to chip in for success to be realized.

Effect Proper medicine prophylaxis and immunization approaches are put into operation in a well-timed method in the lead to the commencement of an occurrence to put a stop to the progress of ailment in exposed persons. Community information approaches take account of proposals on detailed measures people can take to save from harm their relations, acquaintances and themselves.

We will write a custom Essay on Effectiveness of prophylaxis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contribution by all levels to offer desired results What is required in such an arrangement is a nation geared up with harmonized abilities to put a stop to, save from harm, act in response, and pull through from all dangers in a manner that steadies threat with the available resources and requirements. For this to be achieved, the course(s) of action has to come up with precedence to meet the needs at hand. To begin with area group effort has to be spread out in order to reach as many people as possible, if not all.

This needs to start at the local level. With such an arrangement in place it then becomes easy to put into operation the national incident administration scheme and the national reaction arrangement, among others. While this is taking place it needs to be ensured that information distribution and group efforts are made stronger (Hupert, 17).

With this then medicinal surge can be built up together with mass prophylaxis abilities. Once all the above has been done then the reinforcement of planning and population watchfulness abilities automatically falls into place. Achievement is delivered by suitable arrangements of scheduling, categorization, apparatus, instruction and workouts.

All the stakeholders have to be involved at all levels if the desired results are to be achieved. They have to be involved right from the start, that is, in drafting of the course of actions to be followed. Chipping in can be done through nationwide stakeholder forums, operational organizations and the private division.

Defining the Capabilities The abilities are obtained from a hazard and operation scrutiny. The foremost step should be finding the response to the question ‘how prepared does the given entity need to be?’ This means there has to be the variety, capacity, enormity and difficulty of the situation to be tackled.

Operation breakdown has to be worked out in order to offer a general idea of all the significant roles connected to attainment of the desired outcome. It is there to make sure that awareness undertakings are centered on task accomplishment (Emergency Management Accreditation Program Standards).

The nationalized scheduling situations are there to serve as the ground for classifying roles that may be essential to effectively put a stop to, guard against, act in response to, and pull through a broad array of dangers and risks, also the abilities required to carry out the assignments.

From this it is clear that whoever is keen on isolating the federal and carry out the exercise at the local, regional, or state level is going to miss out on a very important matter. As a result there needs to be a collective assignment list where assignments that needs to be carried by various stakeholders as the administration, non-governmental, private and the public are catalogued.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effectiveness of prophylaxis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For such an exercise to be successful, it has been shown that no single authority or organization should be anticipated to carry out each assignment identified and no two entities need matching height of abilities. This is further proof that all levels have to work hand in hand, that is, local, regional, state, and federal levels.

The reality of the matter as regards to federal priorities is that they are subject to be altered together with their sustaining plans. This occurs whenever there is a surfacing intimidating situation and struggle for limited resources. As a result, mass prophylaxis will suffer a setback if it were being carried out at the federal level minus involvement of the other levels.

Alteration of plans by one level will not bear negative consequences in a case where all levels are involved as one or more of the other levels will chip in to accommodate such changes. What’s more, divisions of roles to be worked out are normally decided on considering definite tasks, assignment, purposes, and the suitable echelon of abilities will rely upon risk and requirement when all the levels are involved.

One of the main roles of the federal entity is to make available a guide for establishment of a lead for coming up with a nationalized system of capabilities that will be at hand at the moment and place where required in order to put a stop to, guard against, act in response to and pull through major occurrences.

On the other hand, if such a duty were left to say the local level, then it would prove to be an uphill task to come up with the required results (Incident Communications Emergency Plan). However, when the state has come up with the guide and definitions for the entire task at hand, then lower levels can comfortably chip in. In addition, it will be a problem for the lower ranks to carry out their assignments if in the first place they are not adequately defined.

In this spirit, the federal level has to craft an objective abilities catalog(s). This is a reference draft that illustrates the abilities for attaining comprehensive watchfulness. It also steps in as a scheduling, evaluation and workout tool. The list has to fully cover the areas discussed below for satisfactory results to be attained.

Risk evaluation is the foremost of these items. The definition of risk takes account of recognition and categorization of dangers, their end results, and the populace’s susceptibilities.

With each of these being vital for abilities-based scheduling and national watchfulness, establishments of susceptibility are vital as they consist of not only contact and predisposition, but toughness. Hardiness is a major aspect as it refers to the populace’s dealing with capability to soak up occurrences, become accustomed to, act in response to and pull through its affects.

The next item is planning and is devised to set up and uphold the capacity to build up, bring up to date, and experiment strategies. What’s more, each item is normally full of both watchfulness and performance roles and procedures that back up the ability result and act as a lead for watchfulness scheduling.

The watchfulness assignments and procedures illustrate most important aspects or matters that should be taken in hand in strategies, events, and schemes, as well as administrations, interactions, and accords that need to be in place to get geared up to utilize the item. The performance assignments and procedures as well enlighten the scheduling procedure.

The next stage involves crafting of lines of attack to tackle the issue at hand and validation of the venture. Normally, the general structure presented by the instructions, priorities, and abilities serve up as a lead to improve mother nation defense policies and venture rationalizations at all echelons.

Evaluation of watchfulness is vital and needs to be carried out. A well researched catalog should be in a position to offer a ground for evaluating watchfulness to assist authorities and societies to prepare tactically, draw suitable plans that satisfy verified requirements, and assess the efficiency of ventures over time.

Emphasis should be laid on duty performance. Training agendas need to be adjusted as proper to make certain that they offer partakers with understanding, technique, and capabilities to carry out the most important duties defined by the list of activities to be worked out (DHS, Office for Domestic Preparedness). It is vital that these duties are worked out to an aptitude level adequate to attain the competence end result(s).

Assessment of abilities needs to be carried out through work outs. Such work outs offer a way to assess and authenticate watchfulness. For instance in the United States, the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program, popularly referred to as HSEEP is intended to egg on a universal exercise plan, carry out, and assessment line of attack crossways all echelons of the administration and private sector.

The duties of this body are intended and assessed to show capacity levels by means of evaluation of performance of decisive duties and attainment of results, as laid out by the list of tasks to be accomplished.

Hypotheses required for prophylaxis to be carried out successfully For such an exercise to be worked out fruitfully, there are assumptions which all partakers and especially at the federal level need to bear in mind. The first is that the requirement for prophylaxis can come about at any moment with little or no notice at all.

What this basically means is that all the levels right through from the local, regional, state and federal have to be ready for such an eventuality(s). This means coordination between the various levels can be easily achieved to attain the desired result(s).

Giving out as much information as possible as relates to the matter at hand is very vital. This has to apply at all levels for effectiveness of the exercise. Again, this should take place at the off the record and unclassified stages crossways various authorities and among the civic and private sectors (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

The exercise has to engage solitary or several geographical regions. With this in mind then it again calls for collaboration between the various levels of society for effective outcome(s).

It is important for the partakers in such an undertaking to have it in mind that whatever is being carried out has may bear noteworthy global affect and/or may require considerable global data giving out, resource harmonization, and/or backing.

As the world is today there are some nations that are more advanced in one sector or another than others. As a result, if a nation is well endowed in knowledge and expertise in what some other nation requires, then the two have to work out a compromise on how to assist the one in need.

Carrying out of prophylaxis effectively can stretch the field of occurrence supervision to take into account putting a stop to, defense, reaction and resurgence.

The exercise also engages numerous, very much wide-ranging risks and dangers. As such all the partakers at all levels have to take precautionary measures to keep out of harm’s way. Carrying out prophylaxis may end up in several injured persons, losses, dislocated people, and loss of material goods, interference of regular living prop up structures, vital public amenities, and fundamental infrastructure. There might also be the occurrence of considerable harm to the surroundings.

The exercise may affect vital infrastructure crosswise sectors. It also has the capacity to overcome abilities of federal, state, regional and local administrations. The same may also apply to the private sector resource holders and operatives.

It is also noteworthy to assume that prophylaxis may be a magnet for an incursion of spur-of-the-moment unpaid helpers and provisions (Receiving, Distributing, and Dispensing Strategic National Stockpile Assets). The exercise may also call for short-notice positive feature harmonization and reaction. It may also call for long-drawn-out, continued event running actions.

Community preparedness and chipping in It is now clear that all the administration levels in any given country or nations have a role to play in effective implementation of prophylaxis. The local community is also very important and efforts need to be geared to ensuring that all persons are wholly awake, educated, and trained on the way(s) in which to put a stop to, safeguard against, get ready for and react to all dangers.

As a result, it is vital for the whole populace to have a duty in individual awareness, trainings, and continuing volunteer curriculums and rush forward competence reaction. Detailed capacities for general awareness, together with understanding of all risks (scientific, ordinary, and rebel occurrences) and associated defensive procedure, techniques, and provisions should be able to be settled on by the locals by means of a joint procedure with urgent situation respondents.

Consequently, there needs to be a framework and a course of action for continuing group effort between government and nongovernmental resources at all echelons.

The outcome of this should be that volunteers and private sector contributions are slotted in policies and work outs, the populace is informed and skilled in the key assignment areas of awareness, and they take part in volunteer undertakings and offer capacity back up (Hupert, 25). Such preparedness will also ensure that private resources are administered efficiently in catastrophes and there is a provision in place to assess advancement.

Moving forward – improvements to any form of prophylaxis capabilities list The capabilities list stands for a most important footstep toward being prepared and effective application of mass prophylaxis. In instances where values and guiding principles are real, they have to be used, although standards and guiding principles may not be real for a lot of these capabilities.

As a result, a good deal of the information in the capabilities catalog is to be founded on the best decision and know-how of the persons who took part in drafting it and those who analyzed and made comments on it.

The capabilities list is therefore a vital document that has to be devised so that it can be added to as time goes by as stakeholders gain knowledge form its function and relevance in the practical arena (Emergency Management Accreditation Program Standards). The most excellent way through attaining this is by utilizing it and making out and highlighting where it requires alteration.

For instance, one needs to find out whether there exist urgent tasks that have to be incorporated or improved. Whether there are standards to gauge performance, if these standards need adjustment such that they can fit in various situations or levels and whether there are enough resources t the given level and task at hand are some of the other questions partakers need to ask themselves.

Another important thing to find out is whether the goals and duty responsibility for drafting and holding up offer the set of connections of capabilities that will be offered at the time and place they will be required. Partakers have the duty to assist change anything that they see that will not work for their field.

Works Cited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “PHIN Preparedness – Countermeasure/Response Administration Functional Requirements.” Version 1.0. (April 2005).

Community-Based Prophylaxis. “A Planning Guide for Public Health Preparedness.” Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Department of Public Health. (August 2004).

DHS, Office for Domestic Preparedness, Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) program. (2006). Web.

Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP) Standards. (September 2003). Web.

Hupert, Nathaniel. “Modeling the Public Health Response to Bioterrorism: Using Discrete Event Simulation to Design Antibiotic Distribution Centers, in a September-October 2002 supplement to Medical Decision Making (Med Decis Making 2002:22(Suppl): S17-S25).” (2002).

Incident Communications Emergency Plan. ICEP–2004. “U.S. Department of Homeland Security.” (2004).

Mass Antibiotic Dispensing: A Satellite Web Cast Primer. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (June 2004). Web.

Mass Antibiotic Dispensing-Managing Volunteer Staffing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (December 2004). Web.

National Incident Management System. “U.S. Department of Homeland Security.” (March 2004). Web.

Receiving, Distributing, and Dispensing Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) Assets: A Guide for Preparedness, Version 10 – Draft, June 2005.

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Leadership: Alan Keith Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Context

Discussion and analysis

Conclusion

References

Abstract Exemplary leadership in organizations is an important ingredient if success is to be realized. In this regard, it is crucial to note that different leadership styles influence the manner in which organizations are run on a daily basis. In other words, success level of any organisation or company is gauged by the leadership structure in place.

From the style of leadership, the top management of companies and other organizations can affect how ethics and ethical dilemmas are handled especially when making decisions. Nonetheless, the various sources of power such as legitimate and expert power are equally strong determinants in exemplary leadership. Additionally, character trait as described by the theory of the Big Five has also been found to be very instrumental in influencing leadership.

Introduction Leadership is a very momentous practice that is required in day-to-day running of organizations and small groups. Effective leadership is paramount if significant success is to be realized. The ability to pioneer has been known to be one of the most important attributes of exemplary leadership. Thus, leaders should be people who are willing and able to venture into the ‘white spaces’ or the unknown.

The need to expedite growth and innovation is usually the desire of leaders to boost the performance of organizations. Nonetheless, new products and services are not created by leaders per se. Indeed, other staff members of an organization are instrumental in initiating the process of change and the much needed innovation (Brown

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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Sexuality in the Hispanic Culture Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Cultural Overview

Attitudes and Preconceived Ideas

Counseling Approaches and Challenges

Conclusion

References

Cultural Overview Hispanic Americans (also known as Latinos) are individuals of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexico, South or Central America, or other Spanish cultures regardless of their race (Foster, 1999). Despite, the differences in terms of nationalities, LGBT Hispanics have many values in common as reflected in their spirituality, altruism, and family values. Regardless of the diversity in their socioeconomic and cultural systems, their contribution to the society is remarkable.

Lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgender sexuality is tough in the Hispanic community. There is a clear definition and rigidity of female and male roles guided by strong cultural taboos. Men are the breadwinners of the family, a duty that requires men to play the father figure role in the family (Eisenberg, 1999; Green Heritage News, 2010, November 26).

Women on the other hand have to be submissive and play a subordinate role in the family (Green Heritage News, 2010, November 26). Hispanics therefore has to conform to the societal standards making it difficult for those who would have to play reversed roles given their sexuality. This conformity standard thus makes it difficult for homosexuals to expose their sexuality in spite of their fight for respect in the society and an end to stereotypes.

In simple terms, Hispanic community rejects LGBT. Traditional Catholicism in Spain, as was practiced and still is, only permits marital procreative and chastity sexual behavior (Eisenberg, 1999). Catholic teachings thus regard all forms of LGBT sexual behavior sinful, a stain in the church. This rejection of homosexual and bisexual behavior is, however, dangerous as it only aggravate health problems in the society (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010).

For instance, while there has been a rising trend in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Hispanic men who have sexual relationships with more than one partner, including homosexuals and bisexuals, infections among LGBT remains unreported. The case is the same even for lesbians.

Eisenberg (1999) asserts this in his historical overview of homosexuality in Spain, which dedicates twenty pages to lesbian writing in Spain. In his writing, he expresses the fear that female homosexuality has been underexplored owing to the rigidity of cultural and religious values.

Attitudes and Preconceived Ideas Jorge Sanchez, a researcher with the family Acceptance Project, said cultural issues make homosexuality a difficult topic among Hispanic families and communities (San Francisco State University, 2009). Family issues are kept secret; a practice, which Hispanics believe protects the harmony of family.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prevailing cultural values and norms makes it even difficult to discuss sensitive issues of sexuality within the family or at the community level. Given the negative views arising from cultural perception, it is hard to deal with homosexuality topic in Spain. Hispanic Americans still live under the macho-patriarchal mentality, which is strong in Hispanic culture (Foster, 1999).

During the first one and a half decade after the return to democracy, LGBT issues in Latin America remained in the closet (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010). Hispanics only discussed topics of homosexuality and bisexuality in very small circles. Unquestionably, autocratic rule was not generally gay friendly.

In Brazil and Argentina some tiny, but visible, “homosexual liberation groups” emerged in the 1970s and took a beating from authoritarian (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010). In Cuba, LGBT citizens placed themselves in labor camps in the 1960s (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010).

However, since the 1990s Hispanics has experienced a significant “coming out” that included protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation. In 2003, Rio de Janero state legislation banned sexual orientation (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010).

Counseling Approaches and Challenges In treating Hispanic clients, the family is the cornerstone. The family, which may be one’s relatives or just host to an immigrant, constitutes the support network (Sue and Sue, 2007). New immigrants even find it devastating since they have to cope with the stress resulting from separation from their families and loved ones while at the same time they have to learn a new language, cultural values and behavior (Sue and Sue, 2007).

Even though homosexuality exists in Hispanic community, the behavior is only acknowledged privately (Eisenberg, 1999). Furthermore, issues of homosexuality remain in the closet owing to the rigidity of Hispanic culture. Driven by this, Hispanics may prefer being members of the mainstream culture to self-identification as lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgender culture (Eisenberg, 1999).

In the mainstream culture, a person who engages in sexual act with a member of the same sex is labeled gay or lesbian depending on his or her gender identity (Sue and Sue, 2007). However, in Hispanic culture some men who play the dominant role during the sexual intercourse refuse to accept the gay label (Foster, 1999). Providers should consider this distinction especially when treating Hispanic clients.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Sexuality in the Hispanic Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hispanic culture demands high respect for family ties and values, individual trust, group needs and objectives, some of which are rooted in traditional values relating to Catholic faith. Religion plays a central role in the lives of most Hispanics especially Hispanic Americans who hold high respect for religious values.

Hispanic Catholic values consider topics of homosexuality and bisexuality sinful thus discouraging open discussion of related issues. Latino clients value the recognition of challenges arising from cultural issues when dealing with sensitive issues like drug abuse. Providers should recognize individual stress arising from family, spiritual and emotional challenges (Sue and Sue, 2007).

The same approach should be used when addressing Issues related to LGBT. Most clients are likely to hide information regarding their private life including sexual behavior, addiction and illness. Besides, most families value strong gender roles making it difficult for LBGT Hispanics to speak about their problems in public.

For instance, machismo, which is the strong sense masculinity, can make it difficult for gay Hispanics to seek treatment since this is likely to expose their sexuality and make them subjects of stereotypes in the community. Machismo is just one of the many ways stereotypes have affected the rights of women and the minority like gay people in Hispanic community.

Other traditional values ascribed to men and women equally make life difficult for lesbians and gay Hispanics. For instance, Hispanic culture views assumption of the opposite gender role as a taboo. Lesbians and gay Hispanics may thus find it difficult to expose their sexual roles. Furthermore, Hispanic culture places men at the centre of the family (Eisenberg, 1999).

It would be thus difficult for Hispanic men to accept themselves as members of LGBT culture. If only families would be empowered to accept such critical issues as homosexuality, then it would be easy to deal with problems arising from LGBT behavior. Family heads always play the important role of guidance and counseling.

It is, therefore, important to empower the family to be able to discuss issues arising from homosexuality, bisexuality and transgender openly. Most Hispanic Americans base their leaning on the context as opposed to the process. It is worth noting that the way one presents information greatly influences how the learner receives it. Avoid mentioning direct names when giving examples to minimize chances of embarrassment when discussing sensitive issues of sexuality.

The best healing method should draw some teachings from religious beliefs. People always hold high reverence for religious beliefs. Counselors should use spirituality as a background to influence decisions regarding behavior change processes. However, cultural and religious values of procreation, machismo, and family name continuity may be a barrier towards the disclosure of one’ sexuality.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Sexuality in the Hispanic Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Hispanic culture is deep rooted in Catholicism and family values. There is a clear distinction of gender roles and any behavior that goes against is a taboo. Hispanics use stereotypes to insult LGBT Hispanics. It is thus difficult to address the subject of LGBT, which many regard as sinful and “un-Spanish”. Knowing one’s culture is a testament to discovering and learning other’s culture when counseling.

It is important, as a counselor, to understand Hispanic culture including their rituals and relationships. The counseling atmosphere must be comfortable to LGBT and I am sure I will create a gay-friendly environment for clients. I also believe that in my counseling profession, this newly gained knowledge about LGBT issues among Hispanic Americans will be very useful during the counseling assessment process.

References Corrales, J.

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Curriculum Development Paper Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Curriculum development is a well structured plan of the subjects to be taught in school and what is being learned by students as is reflected in the courses that are offered for study and the programme in school. This systematic plan is then embedded in an official documentary or put together as a curriculum guide and then disseminated to the interest groups and key stake-holders in the education sector for the purposes of implementation and strict adherence.

A curriculum has to be made mandatory and not a choice. The curriculum discussed in this paper is very specific and follows the formula 6-3-3-4.These curriculum has been developed to reflect the changing scenarios in the world today and the dynamics in the job market.

Currently the kind of curriculum followed will go along way in determining the quality of workforce being produced and will too affect the economic advancement of a country. A nation build on strong education or school system will be well managed and its base will always be on a sound footing (Hunkins, Ornstein, 2009, pp.6-30).

Some countries have very comprehensive curriculum development and education system such as the one used in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries with very high literacy levels in the world today which stands at 62.8%. The percentages of males who are literate stand at 71.5% while that of female stands at 50.2%.

The system of segregation in terms of the sexes is followed in Saudi with the education system being divided into three distinct parts which are usually administered separately. Important to note is that both the boys and girls usually do the same exams.The curriculum in Saudi Arabia follows the technical-scientific approach.

The distinctions of the education administration include the education specific for boys, for the girls and also the traditional education which is muslim oriented.The curriculum followed in the country constitute 6 years in the primary school with the age of the students being 6-12 years, then intermediate schooling at the age of 12-15 years which takes 3years at most.

After the intermediate the student proceeds to secondary school which again takes 3 years at the gae of 15-18years. Students at secondary school level can choose the general school, religious school or the technical secondary. After the secondary school the curriculum of Saudi Arabia stipulates that a student proceeds to for higher education at the university which takes 4 years at the age of above 18years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the higher education at the university, there is the university –higher education where one can persue masters which takes 2 years, general diploma in the department of education which takes 1 year or do PhD which takes 3 years following a qualification for a masters degree and where one has to present a dissertation which should be based on own and independent work on research (Hunkins, Ornstein, 2009, pp.40-57)

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum identified in this paper is reflective of the one for Saudi Arabia but distinct. It is embedded and undertaken in the following way. The system is usually administered separately for each of the four stages involved and no segregation by sexes as both boys and girls are taught in same classes and environment.

The first six years involves children aged between six to twelve years. These will be called primary school in which upon completion a student will be awarded a leaving certificate called the general certificate for primary education. The curriculum will incorporate subjects like English, Kiswahili, art education, history, Christian religious education, home economics, geography, mathematics, basic agriculture, social education

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Leadership of the School Community Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Literature Review

Method and Analysis

Conclusion

Work Cited

School managements should ensure that leadership practices exceed previous systems regarding their administrative roles, this can be realized when the administration makes involves other stakeholders in decision-making proceses.

In order to ensure that the relationship between the management and the stakeholders is fruitful, the objectives of the two parties must coincide. In this article, Legotlo and Mathibe prove that a school’s administration can collaborate with the local community in issues such as decision-making, and the benefits of this collaborative effort.

The objective of this paper is to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the article in the areas of style, problem definition, methodology, originality and analysis as used by the author in coming up with this document.

Literature Review In this section, we attempt to give a summary of the document under analysis. As an introduction, the article mentions that if a school relates with the society positively, the partnership will lead to the school’s development, whereas the neglect of such a relationship would lead to the school’s alienation.

The stakeholders in the society who can collaborate with the school comprise of students, teachers, parents, non-governmental organizations and the state. School managers should incorporate decentralization in their leadership style as opposed to the former principles of centralization in which school heads make all the decisions (Legotlo and Mathibe).

The authors then attempt to define leadership both in general, and when applied in a school setting. The authors say that a school leadership should motivate the community to support their visions by being actively involved in their implementation. He explains that, in the 21st century, there is a requirement for transformational leadership to empower all stakeholders.

Legotlo and Mathibe then embark on a case study of South African schools. From their findings, they state that the country produces outstanding leaders despite South Africa’s rating as one of the countries with the least developed educational systems in the world. This success, according to statistics, is because schools meet the interests of the entire body of stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The stakeholders, on their part, do much in ensuring that schools meet their objectives. In addition, the South African government stipulates that decision making in schools should be decentralized. The authors conclude that this decentralization concept of leadership will work only if the stakeholders and the schools have a common vision.

Method and Analysis The research articles used by the authors are crucial to understanding organizational behavior and the effectiveness of such organizations, however, one has to read the article numerous times to have that clear understanding concerning UAE’s organizational behavior patterns.

The topic, though, suggests that decentralization of decision-making in a school is vital to incorporating other stakeholders such as parents, students, non-governmental organizations, staff members and the state. From the findings of this research, many of the management bodies ought to borrow organizational practices of decentralization from schools in South Africa.

The authors’ introductory note and the assigned studies are significant in the education sector. The introduction gives useful information, for example, the government of South Africa insists that there should be a partnership among all stakeholders.

For us to relate the introduction of the article to the problem statement, one would have to read the introduction several times. Nevertheless, the authors’ thoughts in the introduction have a decent flow. They start by emphasizing the importance of human relations and serving people, since these promote the development of a school.

In the second paragraph, they show that partnership with stakeholders leads to joint decision-making and equal distribution of power. The authors conclude that it is necessary for school institutions to upgrade their leadership structures to transcend past management practices of centralization.

When it comes to the relevance of the sources, we can conclude that they are comprehensive and up-to-date. According to a website dictionary, educational leadership is the process of capturing talent and resources that are available within the school staff, pupils and parents.

We will write a custom Essay on Leadership of the School Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This definition coincides with the definition given by one of the cited authors, who mention that educational leadership is the process of acquiring knowledge and making prerequisites for development.

These similarities prove that the document and its claims are up-to-date. Nevertheless, the authors need to state clearly that they are discussing the topic of leadership in the education circle, although we can get that from the text. It would have been better if they added “educational leadership” in the section title where the topic on leadership is under discussion (Legotlo and Mathibe).

The tone of the article is stern and objective, and the authors go straight to the point. Legotlo and Mathibe vary their findings from factual to comparative. For example, they state clearly how the Education Department in South Africa is heavily involved in the participation of stakeholders in the development and management of schools.

Table 2 in page 6 gives a comparison between leadership and management. The authors’ conclusive research is evidently by their use of numerous sources. Their choice of words is appropriate although other sections are complicated to the average reader. For example, the thesis statement is not easy to comprehend.

In the article, there is the incorporation of statistics, where the authors cite the Beehive Survey in page 4. This survey expounds on community participation in organizations and the way it leads to the production of outstanding leaders.

Nevertheless, one would expect to find more than one set of statistics for such an informative article. In addition to the statistics given, the use of graphs and charts to present these statistics would bring out their findings in a more profound way.

There is some limitation to the author’s originality since he is citing too many articles to support their claims. There is no problem in using these citations, but the author’s original thoughts seem to get lost within the numerous citations quoted.

The authors did a lot in analyzing leadership and management as shown in table 1 and 2 of pg. 3 and 4 respectively. Table one gives the differences between transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Table 2, on the other hand, gives a comparison between leadership and management.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership of the School Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, from the discussion, we would expect to find a table comparing performance of schools, where the involvement of the community in decision-making and where community is not involved. Such a table should have social relevance of the content taught in school on one side, and its outcomes one the other as the variables.

The authors’ conclusion, though wordy, emphasizes the need for partnership between schools and communities, to improve the quality of education. However, stakeholder interests may be in conflict with those of the school, and this would lead to a stalemate. The ideal situation would be when the school’s vision and the stakeholder interests are in line.

There were sources that could prove that the above findings were accurate and executable. In addition, Legotlo and Mathibe made an excellent reference page. He arranged the references in alphabetical order, according to APA citation style requirements.

For the in-text citations, there were good citations quoted from other sources, showing that the author is knowledgeable. The only concern was that most of the sources dated before the year 2000. This implies that some of the findings in the article might be either irrelevant or outdated.

The article contributes to the organizational behavior of an institution given that other organizations, apart from schools, can adopt the authors’ findings and use them for their benefit. An example of such institutions is local government offices, which would benefit from a partnership with the citizens.

This would improve their service delivery and the government would be more accessible to people. Although few leaders are aware of the advantages of decentralized management, the knowledge and implementation of the findings can become truly profitable to their organization.

The essay shows complication, and reading the content can be difficult. There are sections in the article where spotting the main idea that the authors want to bring out is difficult. It would be advisable that the reader should be able to understand the main idea of the section or paragraph within the first few lines of their reading, yet this is not the case. For example, the diction used in concluding the article is complex, and not easy to understand.

The article is lengthy, and the authors needs to improve on structuring the hierarchy to improve the logical flow of the document. The headings and subheadings stand out, and the lines are of reasonable length. The writer has used many paragraphs, and this helps the document improve on its readability although none of the paragraphs is indented.

The use of tables is commendable since it breaks the monotony of the plain text. Such a document would be even more appealing, if the author included graphs and charts to explain his findings in a better way. As stated above, the relationship between academicians, practitioners and other stakeholder, where there is sharing of leadership and decision-making, would be extremely fruitful, if their objectives are in line.

Conclusion Legotlo and Mathibe conducted in-depth research before coming up with the article, this is readily evident from the volume of sources that they use to back-up their arguments. The advanced language used made the article complicated; thus it was not so easy to read, although it was appropriate for the intended audience.

The argument was logical, and the author’s facts were accurate. The text was well organized and clear, and this helped the reader to have a better understanding of what the concepts put across by the authors. There is sufficient evidence to back-up their claims, bedsides, there is clear definition of relevant terms and the arguments made supported the main points.

The texts did not have an opposing point of view (or a counter-argument), though the writer concluded that all stakeholders had to have a common goal.

From the article, the writer makes it is clear that whenever the school or any other organization incorporates all stakeholder in the decision-making and leadership process, both stand to benefit, as long as they have come together to achieve a common goal. This information would be beneficial to UAE’s organizational behavior and organizational effectiveness.

Work Cited Legotlo, Modise W., and Mathibe, Isaac Ramoloko. The Leadership of the School Community as Sharing Power and Decision Making in the School. No Date. Web.

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Quality Management in Education Term Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Quality Management

Quality Management in Education

Application of Quality Management in Universities

Conclusion

References

Introduction Improving the quality of education around the world has become an important activity as many institutions of higher education (colleges and universities) struggle to create better educational opportunities for their current and prospective students. According to various stakeholders in the education sector, quality management has become one of the fundamental components of higher education in the 21st century.

The access to education is no longer an important fundamental component of education as quality education continues to gain centre stage in many educational institutions. Basic education is now deemed insufficient or incomplete if it is not accompanied by quality management in teaching and learning strategies.

Quality education has gained a lot of importance as it is used in the development of excellence, knowledge and expertise which are vital aspects in the growth of an economy (Ali

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The Power in Social Science Report (Assessment) custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Agenda Setting

Structural and Disciplinary Practices

How Power is Created

Conclusion

References

Introduction In a general sense, power gives an individual (or an entity) the authority to control the behaviors of other people or influence the environment to suit ones need. Power has often been perceived in a number of ways but legitimately, it has often been referred to as authority (Greiner 1988, p. 4). The exercise of power in the society can be either beneficial or retrogressive to the society, depending on how it is applied.

For example, in the business environment, power can be either perceived as top-down or bottom-up (Greiner 1988). Either way, control is exerted on the subordinates or the leaders. For example, in the top-bottom approach, power is exerted on the subordinates but on the bottom-up approach, power is exerted on the leaders.

Often, power is confused with coercion and arm-twisting of peoples’ will towards the advantage of an individual or entity (however, this need not be the case at all times). On one hand, power is normally referred to as influence (in the European society), and often, the two terms are used interchangeably; but practically, it refers to different things (Moore 1990, p. 1).

Nonetheless, in political and social circles, power has often been analyzed in the context by which it enables individuals to do something. Many researchers and philosophers such as Michel Foucault and Niccolò Machiavelli have in the past tried to expose the existing dimensions of power but evidently, power is witnessed in almost all forms of human actions (Moore 1990, p. 1).

Comprehensively, it can be analyzed that power is the distinctive tool that makes most human actions possible and in the words of Michel Foucault (a French philosopher) (cited in Moore 1990, p. 1), power is “a complex strategic situation in a given society social setting”.

These definitions abound, this study seeks to analyze the concepts of power and how it dictates the social and political landscape of the society. Emphasis will be made on how power influences the setting of agendas and how it determines structural and disciplinary practices. These factors will develop a conceptual understanding of power after which this study will analyze the sources of power and how it can be created.

Agenda Setting Agenda setting is basically a political process which involves very competitive players who normally have conflicting points of view regarding a number of political, social or economic issues (Sanchez 2002, p. 1). When power is in play, the agenda setting process is normally contingent on competing entries on policy agendas; but most importantly, power influences the behavior of groups in the entire process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the position and views of policy makers can be directed in a pre-determined manner, upon the exercise of power. For example, if a decision maker is the custodian of power, a lot of the interest groups can tailor their decisions towards the decision maker’s point of view.

In a different light, there are many issues that affect the society, and a number of them require immediate spotlight during the process of agenda setting. Power is a tool that is normally exercised to elevate certain issues to become matters of priority, with some of them being accorded high or highest attention, depending on the amount of power that may be exercised (Puentes-Markides 2007, p. 1).

This analysis exposes the fact that power can be exercised to spotlight certain issues to reach the highest platform in political agenda setting through capturing the attention of the government, media or the public. In fact, the agenda setting process is normally very competitive, such that, even the most important issues may fail to be highlighted.

A clear example of how power play takes centre stage in the agenda setting process can be evidenced from the recent healthcare debate in the United States. Puentes-Markides (2007, p. 5) explains that this kind of example is a political process where the numbers of people who support a given bill are categorized on one side and those who oppose are categorized on another.

He points out that the power-play going on in this kind of situation is based on the power to mobilize players and an assessment of the strength of all supporters in the agenda setting process. More emphasis is made on the political feasibility of a given process, based on the powers and strengths of the players in the process. The powers and strengths of players can either be categorized as low, medium or high.

Structural and Disciplinary Practices The structural concept of power can be easily determined through power structures that influence how long one can be influenced by control and who ultimately holds the realms of power in any given situation (Strange 1996, p. 54). The structural aspect of power can be equated to democratic processes where the structures in place (electoral structures) are set to determine who holds power and for how long.

Through the structures of power, the relationship between power and the people is redefined. For example, dictators like Adolf Hitler (and the likes) assumed a lot of authoritative power because the people let go off their power in the first place. This kind of scenario affirms the point of view that power does not exists in a vacuum because often, it is people or leaders who exercise it, therefore birthing it.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Power in Social Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When deeply analyzing power structures, the relationship between the actors or players in a power game is exposed because their relationship is defined by power structures.

Power structures however vary from one geographical region to the other. For example, the power structures in the rural and urban communities are different because of the nature of homogenous communities in the rural areas and the disintegrated communities in the urban settlements (Moore 1990, p. 7).

In the field of social science, power structures are normally perceived as static, but in the real life situation, the structures of power change and shift due to changing coalitions brought about by conflicting interests on various issues (Moore 1990).

For instance, in the modern society, where power is more complex than the rural areas, the structures of power are normally sophisticated and an evident focus on specialization of skill and knowledge is often evidenced.

This kind of situation can be represented in a manner whereby in a community, a certain individual can have knowledge and skills about how to deal with the community’s issues; meaning that they would be a source of power (as pertains to matters regarding the particular community).

The power structures existent in any given community does not exist in vacuum because a number of external forces are normally in play. For instance, there is the issue of government influence that normally influences the power structures in the community, or the issue of external financers who sponsor the work of different communities (Moore 1990, p. 11).

Power structures are normally evidenced in a number of ways. For instance, there is a power structure that gives control and influence to a single individual who makes most of the decisions within a community. This type of power structure is quite rare in today’s society (even when studied in rural community settings) and can be equated to the pyramidal power structure where excessive control and influence is entrusted on a single family, industry or any other entity (Moore 1990, p. 10).

Secondly, there are clique power groups that can wield so much power, as to control the activities of a given group. This implies that a group of individuals with common interests come together and pool their influence to create a centre of power. Thirdly, there is the opposite of the clique power group which concentrates power on two different communities (Moore 1990).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Power in Social Science by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This can be generally assumed to be a split-community power structure where power is concentrated on two separate centers of power. Normally such situations are evidenced when there is competition between two opposing groups or when there is a force of change working, where one group opposes change and the other supports it.

Thirdly, there can be a power pool structure that concentrates power to different centers which are formed by a clique of people who are aware of each other’s existence, but do not partake in each other’s decisions (Moore 1990, p. 11). Finally, there are amorphous power structures where new communities develop but no strong power structure exists. Such sort of situations can be evidenced in mobile home parks, apartment complexes or other similar environments.

In the area of disciplinary practice, power can be exercised to affect virtually all types of disciplinary practices. First in the formulation of disciplinary practices, power can be used to determine the type of disciplinary measures to be undertaken in any given social setting.

In most traditional societies where power was heavily vested on an individual; the individual could use his position to determine the type of disciplinary measure to be carried out in a given situation. For instance, if a person committed the crime of robbery, the power wielder could determine the type of disciplinary measure to be given to the offender.

However, in today’s world, power has been focused on the law and the constitution, such that, disciplinary practices are essentially defined by the law. Courts are the official custodians of the law and they execute what is written down as the law of the land. In a general sense, this means that power is vested in the law and the courts in particular.

However, the exercise of power can surpass the laid down disciplinary practices and structures as identified in this study. Again, the type of power structures evidenced in a given community is the determinant for excessive control that power gives people or institutions.

For instance, there have been many situations in a number of countries where power is excessively exercised by an incumbent president, such that, the laid down laws and disciplinary practices in a given community are subordinate to his or her control.

For example, if an offender is arrested by the government for committing a certain offence and sentenced to life imprisonment; in some societies, the president (who is vested with immense power) can pardon the given offender. This kind of excessive control is even evidenced in the Western society.

How Power is Created Power is normally created in a number of ways. However, before we understand how power is created, it is important to reiterate that power does not exist in a vacuum but rather in relationships between two or more parties (Mann 1993). In this manner, we can deduce the fact that power is not constant but can shift from one party to the other.

The first way through which power is created is through coercive means where power is vested on an individual, out of the basis of fear or an unimagined force (Moore 1990). For instance, the power God has over people, or the power religion has over its followers can be largely termed as coercive power because it is largely based on an unimagined force and fear.

However, this power is still wielded in the real world where people give power to an individual, out of the pretext of fear or of escaping hurt or unfair treatment from the central source of power. This is one way through which dictators, the world over, have used to exercise authority over their fearful subjects.

Some of them have perfected the art in such a way that they reinforce the belief that a contravention of the will of the person in power can tremendously affect the life of the subordinates. Some use threats, extortion, death and such like tact to instill fear on their subjects so that they rule. If people cave in to such fears and coercive tact, then they give the mastermind of such tact, the power to rule not only over them, but their consciouses as well.

The above power relationship can be evidenced through the power wielder and the subjects. In other words, the subjects give away their power to the power wielder by acting in a given manner that suits the power wielder (in order to avoid being hurt). This kind of power creation method is not as common today as it used to be in the past because in most societies, democracy is quickly taking root and more freedom is being evidenced through unrelenting global, political and social pressures to do away with coercive forces.

Secondly, power is created through legitimate or positional means whereby an officeholder enjoys immense powers attributed or entrusted to a given office (Mann 1993). For instance, the office of the British prime minister is an example of an office that has immense powers on national politics and the office holder enjoys premiered powers attributed to the office.

Often, the higher the status of the office, the more compliance one is able to enjoy; as can be seen through certain high offices like the president’s, dean’s, directors’ and the likes (because such officeholders can practically determine what happens in their spheres of control and be assured that whatever they order will be carried out) (Moore 1990, p. 14). Usually, such sort of power is uncontested because it is legitimate and positional; meaning that people acknowledge its existence and decide to let it prevail over them.

The relationship evidenced in this type of power-play is almost similar to the coercive type; only that the will of the people is normally respected in the positional type of power. For instance, in the election of the president of America, or any other democratic country, a democratic electoral process is normally undertaken where people vote to entrust a certain individual with the power to lead.

The biggest distinction between coercive and positional power is that no coercion actually takes place in the creation of positional power and people vest power to a given individual, purely on their own prerogative. However, instances where democratic processes have been infiltrated by malpractices such as voter bribery, voter coercion (and the likes) are isolated cases. Nonetheless, the kind of relationship depicted in positional power can be evidenced between the voters and the officeholders, where voters give authority to a given individual to wield power.

Thirdly, power can be created through the possession of knowledge or expert skills needed in a given social, economic or political environment (Moore 1990, p. 14).

However, such powers cannot be created until the followers or subjects acknowledge that the skills, talents or expertise possessed are needed (and they respect the custodians of such expertise) (Moore 1990, p. 14). Examples of expert power can be manifested through doctors, lawyers, college instructors and similar professionals and where subjects respect the expertise brought by these individuals.

Giving rewards is also another way through which power is created among individuals and institutions. In the socio-political discipline, this type of power is normally referred to as reward power. It is created out of the ability of an individual or institution to give gifts, promotions, recognitions or such like rewards (to the subordinates).

In this manner, subordinates are bound to reciprocate through acknowledgement and respect, which ultimately gives an individual immense power. The organizational setting is a good platform to explain this kind of power because certain individuals hold reward power over others.

For example, a managing director is normally entrusted with the power of acknowledging or recommending certain employees for promotion or bonuses. His or her ability to do so automatically elevates him or her to some level of power within the organization, where he or she can determine the fate of an employee in the given organization (with regards to career progression or monetary reward).

This kind of ability gives one the power over subordinates because many would not cross such power wielders, just so they get a given reward. In organizations or setups where the stakes are too high; the power of individuals who wield the reward power is also likely to be increased in the same manner. The opposite is also true whereby if the stakes are low, the power wielded by an individual may equally be low.

Power can also be created on the basis of an individual’s traits and characteristics (Moore 1990, p. 15). This can be evidenced when a leader possess charm, charisma, sensitivity or creativity in a given field of excellence, where other players in the same field recognize him or her as the power wielder.

These types of powers are normally intangible and it becomes increasingly difficult to quantify them, but when well exercised, an individual can command a lot of loyalty, respect and awe in his or her peer circles. This kind of situation can be evidenced in the political scene where leaders who possess charisma, charm or such like attributes command a huge following.

In fact, the possession of such traits normally increases the popularity level of such leaders and therefore other political players in the scene can easily acknowledge the potential of such kind of power in changing the political scene (because with it comes a huge following of people).

The ability to possess information is also another way through which power can be created (Moore 1990, p. 16). This kind of power exercise can be evidenced in the ability of certain individuals to disseminate or withhold information in the society. The same power is also evidenced in the ability of an individual to get hold of information.

The power of an individual increases if the kind of information withheld by a given institution or person is of utmost relevance to someone else, organization or a given community. This means that many people would go out of their way to get hold of a given piece of information if they cannot do without it. The person who holds such kind of information is therefore the power wielder.

People who have been synonymous to such powers have effectively used information power to channel and withhold information to suit various interests in the organization or community (Moore 1990, p. 16). This sort of strategy has been observed to be an effective way to control human actions because people act in a correct or incorrect way, depending on the kind of information they have.

The ability of an individual to know someone who holds power is also another way through which power is created (Moore 1990, p. 17). This kind of power is often referred to as relational power. It is interesting to note that this centre of power normally differs with information power because its proponents are normally motivated by the assumption that “it does not matter what you know but who you know” (Moore 1990, p. 18).

The ability to develop strong networks between individuals is therefore very essential to the creation of relational power, but more importantly, such networks should be proved beneficial to the community, individuals or a given organization. For instance, people who have stayed within a given social setting for a long time are likely to develop relational power because they are more likely to have developed strong social networks as opposed to those who have stayed within a community for a short time.

Conclusion Power in social science can be a useful piece of study, as this study points out, because power affects most functional areas of life. Understanding power structures (as this study identifies) can be a useful tool to induce change within a given society and in understanding past and current political systems.

In the political setting, we can see that power significantly affects agenda setting where comprehensively, this process determines what issues are to be dealt with in the society.

We can also see that power significantly affects, or surpasses disciplinary practices in the society. This is majorly evidenced in the social context. From the understanding of power-play in the society, it is therefore easy to understand how power is created. This is the ultimate step through which individuals can learn how power affects the society. Comprehensively, these factors determine power in social science.

References Greiner, E. (1988) Power and Organization Development: Mobilizing Power to Implement Change (Addison-Wesley Od Series). Alexandria, VA: Prentice Hall.

Mann, M. (1993) The Sources of Social Power: The Rise of Classes and Nation-States, 1760 – 1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moore, E. (1990) Understanding Community Power Structures. (Online) Web.

Puentes-Markides, C. (2007) Policy Analysis and Decision Making. Bridgetown: Barbados.

Sanchez, M. (2002) Agenda Setting. (Online) Available at: http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~johnca/spch100/7-4-agenda.htm .

Strange, S. (1996) The Retreat Of The State: The Diffusion Of Power In The World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Motivational Interviewing Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Motivational interviewing principles

Group Therapy Approaches

Family and marital therapy

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction As a treatment intervention, motivational interviewing hinges on humanistic psychology principles. The treatment is directive, client-centers, and endeavors to enhance motivation for change via ambivalence resolution, in addition to enhancing the patient’s perceived self-efficacy (Burke, Arkowitz

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The role of women’s labor in British Columbia Report best college essay help: best college essay help

The epoch of industrial capitalism of XIX-XX centuries was full of difficulties and challenges. The women were engaged in economic life of the country all over the world, and Canada is not an exception. Through women’s hard work, the female part of the human society asserted themselves as equal members of society.

Exactly women’s work in the industrialized and capitalistic world of XIX-XX inspired the report. The aim of the paper is to understand the role of women’s labor in British Columbia during the period of industrial capitalism.

In XIX century, British Columbia was one of the British distanced colonies that experienced industrial capitalism and colonialism in its own way. The immigration of aboriginal women to British Columbia was one of the wide-spread phenomena of that time.

The role of women grew in the context of Euro-Canadian labor, as many countries enriched and capitalized itself by means of exploitation of the aboriginal population of the colonies. Millions of women from different parts of the world became the servants of the dominant English class.

For example, the Indian women processed different materials that allowed them to manufacture baskets, gloves, moccasins, make rags and mats, etc. for the benefit of the white race. Other aboriginal women sold berries to European tourists. Some of them were employed to do a laundry work and other productive activities.

There was a high demand in handicrafts and clothing for traders, tourists, hunters, and travelers. The exploitation of hard labor and skills of the aboriginal women in British Columbia was accompanied with numerous problems. The position of such women in society was miserable. In the capitalistic world, they could not but to choose paid domestic work or seasonal waged labor in order to survive.

Canadian industrial revolution happened in 1851-1921. This period was exhausting and painful for many women. Certain changes were inevitable. That time, domestic service was the most accessible paid employment for such women. Those women, who moved from rural unprofitable areas to urban industrialized localities, could find paid work within manufacturing enterprises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the service sector developed intensively, the women could be engaged in sales, nursing, teaching, etc. By the World War I, the amount of women with white-collar jobs prevailed over women in manufacturing. However, the life of the women in the rapidly developing Canada became more complicated.

Women faced the evident difference between the life of a woman at home and the reality of a hard work within the industrialized world. Often, they experienced poor working conditions; for this reason, the protests were the natural reaction. Gradually, the phenomenon of an employed woman outside her home led to changes in public’s opinions.

Migration became challengeable experience for many women who searched for the better life. Sometimes, such women achieved their aim, and settled in the farming territory, where it was possible to live a peaceful and happy life. Nevertheless, some of them died of a hard labor; some of them had to wait for their husbands who went off to the distanced places to make money (for example, to Klondike).

There was a tendency to migrate to the western, more profitable regions. There were different motives: a successful marriage, a high-waged job, etc. In the same time, more and more immigrants entered Canada in the beginning of XX century (about a half million). They came from the USA, the British Isles, France, Poland, Ukraine and other countries of the continental Europe.

Of course, immigrants faced lots of barriers: language gap (for those who did not speak neither English nor French), racial and cultural hostility. Many white women saw the future of Canada without female representatives of Asian countries. For this reason, there increased the cost of a head tax for those immigrants who wanted to live in Canada: in 1904, it was $500.

It led to the presence of illegal female immigrants who were brought by businessmen (especially, the Chinese girls). The migration helped women to escape from the past life; absence of a good job and financial status made people search a better life abroad. The migration of that time had its own tendencies: often, it became impelled and illegal.

The female immigrants worked as waitresses, domestic servants or prostitutes. However, thousands of women who migrated to British Columbia faced poverty. Thus, women who had many children could die because they were unable to support their large family. In this context, the role of an immigrant aid committee grew. It provided some help for such women (for example, daughters of such women could be hired as kitchen helpers for a minimum wage).

We will write a custom Report on The role of women’s labor in British Columbia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The women who migrated from the rural territories to the cities had logic reasons. There were some “push” and” pull factors” that motivated women to move to the Canadian cities. Pull factors were economic opportunities and prospects of a city, need for independence, achievement, attraction of wealth and status; push factors were conditioned mostly by economic necessity.

The farming live was full of challenges and exhausted labor, but the life in the city seemed hard, as well. Nevertheless, more and more women hoped to find a well-paid job and realize their prospects in the cities and industrial towns: Toronto, Monreal, Hamilton, Ontario, Quebec and others.

Although many women moved to the urban are, some women remained in the rural localities. Sometimes, their labor-intensive work brought little wage or no pay at all. Women worked at home and in fields, as well. They made and washed clothes, cooked food, gathered and grew vegetables and fruits. Those women who dedicated their life to rural work did know neither weekends nor festal days.

Successful work brought income to both their families and the country’s economy. Market-oriented women sold their products (eggs, meat, milk, butter, etc.) on markets, and earned money to produce more products that would help the families to survive.

In the context of the industrial world, spinning and weaving continued to be quite popular productive activities. It was either family tradition or possible income. However, the role of men in farming and trading grew. It means that many rural women found themselves without occupation; their work became less demanded, and women felt less appreciation.

The dower rights of aboriginal women were tenuous. When a woman’s husband died, the land could be inherited by either a son or a widow. However, the land was speculated in the industrial and the capitalist world; the positions of a dower were too weak. In 1866, there was adopted the Lower Canadian Civil Code gave dower more rights in order to preserve the inherited land.

Nevertheless, few women inherited their land, and became real landowners. Women suffered from lack of public recognition. Consequently, the women’s role was isolated. The condition of aboriginal women worsened the superior status of the western-European communities.

Gradually, a woman’s role was decreased, as there spread the idea that a husband is the only responsible family member in terms of money making. The status of a man as a family supporter overshadowed the women’s positions in society. Thus, a woman turned into a home worker who looked for children, and did domestic work. However, the life of an urban woman was different.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of women’s labor in British Columbia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In cities, the families were smaller; for this reason, an urban woman had less cares. Besides, labor-saving technological advantages facilitated women’s housework (for example, in 1890s, a washing machine appeared). A woman did not need to take care of her children, because a half of a day they spent at schools. Unfortunately, not each family could afford a technical domestic device, as it was rather expensive.

In 1891, about 40 % Canadian women were involved in domestic service. Thus, the considerable portion of feminine workforce found itself in this employed area. Exactly young women became domestics, most of all.

Some white women believed that domestic service was more suitable for black domestics. This way, among some white women, racial and ethnic prejudices and stereotypes were cultivated. The unfairness toward colored feminine population grew; in its turn, it resulted on their poor financial condition.

Thus, a domestic became a live-in servant (she had a free room and board), her feminine employer – a mistress. Also, a domestic was vulnerable to be sexually exploited by mistress’s husband or son.

Sometimes, it even led to pregnancy, abortion, dismissals, voluntary redundancy and trials. That time, one could even meet a servant without pay, or a servant who had become a prostitute. The wage of a servant was not high: from $8 to $20 per month. Of course, it can hardly be called a living wage.

By 1871, about 40 % of children (mostly, they worked in mills) and women constituted the industrial workforce in Canada. Especially, the textile and cotton industries were in demand. Some textile companies could recruit experienced women from abroad, as women were most welcomed in such industries.

However, the unemployment rate among women increased, and many women left their native land, and went off in search of a good job. For example, in 1909, about 10 thousand women moved to the USA. The number of active young women increased in the following years.

Gradually, women experienced the advantages of protective legislation. In 1884, Ontario adopted the law that facilitated the life of a woman, engaged in a hard industrial manufacturing labor. The work hours were limited to 10 per day. However, there flourished immorality toward female industrial workers. Some women could be even spanked if they refused to do a certain thing.

The development of protective legislation did not exclude inequality of women. The situation worsened: more and more women earned a small wage that was less than a living wage. Numerous women had to do a hard and poorly paid job. Thus, it is not surprising that many women turned to feminists who wanted to protect their legal rights and gain the equity with men.

In XIX, women were occupied not only with domestic service, but teaching, as well. In Canada, there appeared special schools hat gave a future teacher a certificate. Nevertheless, the feminization of teaching was a challengeable process for women, as male teachers were more welcomed. Lots of female teachers became nuns as clergy opened doors to women.

In general, women made certain contribution to the development of public and religious education. Women earned less than men; in rural territory, a female teacher earned even less that urban ones. Promotions among women were rare. Consequently, the women’s struggle for recognition in society faced many obstacles on their professional way.

Also, thousands of women were involved in nursing services (especially religious nursing). The number of public health nurses, school and private-duty nurses increased. It was evident that women faced numerous barriers in their career ladder: there were few fulfilled female workers in health care industry. In addition, some women dedicated their lives to jurisdiction. More and more women became advocates.

By the middle of XX century women had realized their secondary status, and started civil rights movements. Boycotts, sit-ins, freedom rides, marches were only one of the forms of protests. Analyzing the women’s role in industrial capitalistic world, one can not avoid the discussion of the following phenomenon.

In XIX-XX centuries, the suffragettes’ movement proved to be the natural reaction to the gender inequality in human society. The activity of suffragettes led to the Canadian feminization. As suffragettes and feminists pursued practically the same aims, some key elements of this movement should be pointed out.

This feminine movement appeared as a reaction on such issues as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, voting rights, and sexual violence. In addition, this movement was concerned with racial and ethnic oppression of women. This way, suffragettes and feminist wanted to exclude unfair discrimination of the feminine class in political and economic life of the society.

Marching in the Canadian streets, women wanted to dispel the Victorian stereotypes about womanhood. Mostly, the movement used nonviolent methods of the struggle, and was directed to securing civil rights and expansion of social justice. Their way to civil freedom was long, and achieved its final destination only in the middle of XX century.

The Canadian women were engaged in journalism, as well. Women wanted to take an active part in the newspaper business: they became editors, redactors, writers, etc. In Canada, it was possible to buy numerous women’s magazines and journals, edited by women. For example, the published “Provincial Freeman” in the middle of XIX century publicized the condition of African Canadian women.

Performing arts were also attracted many women. Canadian women have an opportunity to show their literature, musical talents, and present their creative pieces of art in public. Cinema and theatre studios welcomed actress, and made them cinema stars. Successful women achieved high results in their career ladder in the business sphere.

In XX century, women entered business sphere, and became to show good performance on equal terms with men. Lots of people thought that business activity was not for women who could have either domestic responsibilities or an ordinary work. Nevertheless, women’s activity was evident.

Taking into consideration everything mentioned, one can make the following conclusions. The industrialized and capitalized world presented a difficult life style, full of challenges and obstacles for women. In the same time, it gave an opportunity for lots of women to perform themselves in the economic sphere of Canadian life.

The aboriginal portion of Canadian female population was exploited. They had to do a poorly-paid and hard job to survive. It made them feel pinched and discriminated members of human society. Rural and urban life presented various difficulties for women. For this reason, migration was the only possible way to find a better life for some women.

Most of all, women were engaged in productive activities, manufacturing industries, domestic service, etc. The servant-mistress relationship was a wide-spread phenomenon in Canadian life of XIX century. However, the industrial revolution introduced technical devices in women’s life, and put them on the back burner.

In XIX-XX centuries, male workers dominated practically in each sphere of human life. Nevertheless, some changes were inevitable, and women became to take an active part in different professional spheres. Gradually, women became equal members of Canadian society. The feminine movements expressed women’s desire to equity and worthful status.

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Age discrimination at the Workplace Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Background

Legal Implications

Forms of Age Discrimination

Preventing Age Discrimination

References

Background Age discrimination occurs when an employee is discriminated against on grounds of age. In theory, the term can refer to any age group, however, the group that is most commonly discriminated because of their age is that aged 40 years and above. Employee age groups are divided into three:

The youth;

Those aged 40 years or more; and

The elderly.

Many organizations simply refuse to hire persons who have passed a certain age despite the growing lifespans of the general population (Doyle, 2011).

Some employees practice age discrimination as they believe that younger people are more energetic and give the organization a positive image and that older employees lack the experience required to meet job expectations, other real concerns like laws that give older workers higher pay or other benefits also come into play.

Besides, it is common knowledge that younger employees cost the company less with regards to salaries, insurance costs, and pension benefits. Although it is illegal to discriminate a person at the workplace because of age, the practice is not so easy to identify, and preventing it is even harder (Devine, 2011).

Legal Implications It is illegal to discriminate a worker simply because of his/her age: the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) is a regulation that protects persons aged 40 years or more from discrimination because of age (HR Hero, 2011). An employee who is discriminated against may file his case under the ADEA legislation (EEOC, N.d).

Another legislation, the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990 (OWBPA) particularly forbids organizations from denying benefits to workers aged 40 years and above, including retirement benefits.

While an older worker is also protected by other workplace legislations, the ADEA and OWBPA are the main laws that protect workers against age discrimination (Workplace Fairness, 2011). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces both of these legislations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Forms of Age Discrimination The ADEA legislation states that no organization can take action against a worker for questioning organizational practices that seem to tolerate age discrimination. Besides, a company may not include age preferences, restrictions, or requirements in job adverts. An exception occurs when the company can prove that age is important in carrying out of one’s duties.

Most instances of age discrimination normally occur during recruitment procedures although others occur in form of unfair dismissals, promotions, job appraisals, training programs, and age-biased comments, among others (Directgov. 2011).

Preventing Age Discrimination The first step to preventing age discrimination in a company is for the management to understand the meaning of age discrimination and its effects on the company. This demands the adoption of sound policies against this vice. The policy should be clear on how to report age discrimination, investigation, and the penalties.

The organization must take serious measures on all complaints. Besides, the organization must monitor the workplace routinely and to talk freely to workers in order to identify any potential problems not necessarily related to age discrimination.

Other effective ways of preventing age discrimination include appraisal of the company’s culture, preventive training, amendment of recruitment procedures, cautiously prepared benefits and retirement guidelines, and an improved commitment to present a work environment that caters for all age groups (Epson, 2011). Training sessions and peer reinforcement can also help in preventing age discrimination.

References Devine, J. (2011). Age Discrimination in the Workplace. Web.

Directgov. (2011). Age Discrimination. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Age discrimination at the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Doyle, A. (2011). Age Discrimination: How Old is Too Old? Web.

Epson. (2011). Avoid Age Discrimination in the Workplace. Web.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). (N. d). Age Discrimination. Web.

HR Hero. (2011). Age Discrimination in the Workplace. Web.

Workplace Fairness. (2011). Age Discrimination. Web.

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Honda Corporation: Corporate Responsibility with a Focus on the Community and Honda Employees Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary This report has been aimed at examining Honda Corporation in terms of its relationship with employees and community. While discussing this issue, we relied on the Stakeholder theory which explains how an enterprise can be influenced by various external and internal forces. Findings of this report indicate that on the whole, Honda Corporation invests heavily in its stakeholders and particularly and promotes their wellbeing.

The ethics program at Honda Corporation is such that all employees are treated equally and are provided with the same at-work benefits even wearing the same uniforms regardless of their position with the corporation. Behavioral guidelines include provisions and requirements for mutual respect among employees and management.

Apart from that, this report has demonstrated that Honda Corporation greatly contributes generously to community and education programs. Nonetheless, this study has also identified the key problems, faced by the company, especially in its relations with the stakeholders.

In particular, the company should not pay more attention to the demands of trade unions whose representatives argue that the company very resists unionization of the workers. Additionally, it is crucial that this company will establish better relations with the consumer unions which attract the public’s attention to the fact that the company does not provide full information about their products.

Introduction This work has reviewed a large volume of literature relating to the Honda Corporation and its ethical policies and corporate social responsibility principles and the way in which they impact Honda stakeholders, in particular, the community and the employees. This discussion will be based on the stakeholder theory which explains the relationship of an organization with the employees, customers, governmental organizations, and so forth.

This theoretical framework explains how corporate social responsibility can contribute to the overall success of an enterprise. While discussing Honda Corporation we focused on such parameters as transparency of HR policies, the willingness to comply with consumers’ demands and governmental regulations.

This analysis will enable to us to point out those areas which require improvement. Yet, at first, it is vital for us to discuss the concept of stakeholder and how this person or organization can shape the performance of the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of stakeholder Such approach as the stakeholder theory has become extremely popular among modern managers. The representatives of this approach urge the business administrators not to forget that the concept of a stakeholder should not be limited only to those people, who own the stock of the company since such a view overlooks the role of customers, community, and certainly employees (McWilliams et al, 2006).

It should be that the interests of various stakeholders do not always coincide with one another, and the management of the company must be able to reconcile them. Overall, it is possible to argue the relations between a private business and its stakeholders can be described as a form of interdependence.

Furthermore, the existing research shows that corporate social responsibility should not be viewed only as some moral obligation imposed from outside; more likely it is a necessary condition for the survival of the organization.

Overall, it is possible to argue that Honda is an example of company that does care about its stakeholders. As a matter of fact, it is rather difficult to point out those areas which require improvement, and the record of this company seems always impeccable.

Findings Honda’s relations with the employees

Strengths

The investment in the individuals and their community is critically important to Honda’s stakeholder strategy. A primary part of the compliance and ethic program at Honda Corporation is the company’s ‘Egalitarian’ culture characterized by: (1) All employees wearing the same uniform and being addressed as ‘associates’; (2)

All employees eating in shared cafeterias and all employees parking in the same parking area with no reserved parking spots; (3) Managers at Honda are located on the production floor with offices being well-planned in an open design with no designation of high rank employee workstations. (Gupta, et al, 2010, paraphrased)

Honda reports that it is key to “promote accessibility across the company by removing physical and social barriers, thereby eliminating the natural intimidation employees often feel when they wish to speak with their managers.” (Gupta, et al, 2010 p.1).

We will write a custom Report on Honda Corporation: Corporate Responsibility with a Focus on the Community and Honda Employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the whole, the existence of these strategies indicates that the management of Honda Corporation does care about the needs of its employees and attempts to prove that they personnel is the most valuable asset of the company. To a great extent, the HR policies of Honda Corporation resemble that one of Toyota Motor Company.

Weaknesses

Certainly, Honda always tries to pursue honest policies in its relations with the personnel, however, in some cases even they infringe upon their rights. In particular, one has to bear in mind that the company resists unionization of the workers and such an attitude can be regarded as a violation of their rights (Bybee, 2008, unpaged).

It seems by restricting the rights of these people, Honda only compromises its reputation and public image. It should be mentioned that the management refused to acknowledge the existence of the trade union in Great Britain (Clement, 2001). Apart from that many critics of the company believe that the company’s hiring policies are marked by racism (Bybee, 2008, unpaged).

In particular, they maintain that they avoid employing African-Americans and the unionized employees (Bybee, 2008). These are the key issues to which the management of this enterprise should pay attention to. Again, we have to emphasize an idea that these accusation of racism may result of a misunderstanding.

The thing is that the company hires only those people who live within a certain radios from the factory. Many critics believe that in this way the management tries to exclude the black or unionized workers. This is why the company should take a closer look at this issue.

Honda Corporation and its interaction with the community

Strengths

It should be mentioned that the concept of community includes a great number of components, for instance, people, living in a certain area, governmental and non-governmental organizations, environment protection group, and certainly customers.

Honda has as its fundamental approach in business ethics the goal of earning the trust of customers and society and toward this end they have frameworks in place “to ensure a systematic approach to compliance and risk management” along with the “formulation of behavioral guidelines and procedures for self-assessment.” (Gupta, et al 2010) (p.1)

A group governance system establishes behavioral guidelines that serve to “guide the behavior of all employees through conduct guidelines” in combination with “division wise specific guidelines according to specific attributes.” (Gupta, Priy, Kundu, and Dixit, 2010)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Honda Corporation: Corporate Responsibility with a Focus on the Community and Honda Employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More President and CEO of Honda Corporation, Takeo Fukui states that Honda Corporation is “sharing dreams with people everywhere, striving to become a company that society wants to exist.” (Gupta, et al, 2010) (p.1)

This is stated to be based on corporate activities focused on “…creating value, expanding value through globalization and realizing its commitment to the future.” (Gupta, et al, 2010) (p.1) Findings in this report on the impact of Honda Corporation on its Community-Stakeholders includes the Honda pursuit of daily business interest under the principles stated as follows:

Honda will strive to “recycle materials and conserve resources and energy at every stage of our products’ life cycle;

Honda will strive to minimize and find appropriate methods to dispose of waste and contaminants that are produced through the use of Honda products and in each stage of the life cycle of these products;

Honda associates, as members of the company and society will focus on the importance of making efforts to preserve human health and the global environment and will do what they can to ensure that the company as a whole acts responsibly.

Honda will consider the influence that corporate activities have on the regional environment and society, and strive to improve the company’s social standing. (Honda, 2010, North American Environmental Report) (p.1)

It was reported by Market Research World that Honda “…ranks top in UK companies for corporate social responsibility” (Market Research World, 2006) (p.1) in a study that was carried out for the purpose of understanding the public perception of automotive companies in respect to compliance and “contribution towards corporate, social, environmental and philanthropic activities.” (Market Research World, 2006) (p.1)

Key practices of Honda Corporation include: (1) product planning and development; (2) manufacturing; (3) recycling and green guiding; and (4) communication. (Honda, 2010, North American Environmental Report)

Honda is reported as having been a consistent leader in fuel-efficiency technology and specifically with its commitment to advancing internal combustion engine fuel efficiency including VTEC and Variable Cylinder Management along with an expansion in Honda hybrid technology. (Market Research World, 2006) (p.1) Honda is reported to have:

“…gone beyond development new vehicle technologies including: (1) development of photovoltaic solar cells which are reported to “significantly reduce the energy and CO2 emissions in the manufacturing phase1.; (2) FFVs- Flexible fuel system; (3) Bio-fuel; and (4) MCHP or micro-combined heat and power cogeneration bringing about a 30 percent reduction in energy use and associated CO2 emissions. (Honda Corporation, 2011) (p.1)

One example of community commitment is illustrated in the actions of Hero Honda Motors, a retail Honda dealership who has reported “…taking considerable pride in its stakeholder relationships, especially ones developed at the grassroots.” (Hero Honda, 2006) (p.1)

Hero Honda relates that the foundation has “adopted various villages located within vicinity of the Hero Honda factory at Dharuhera for integrated rural development”. (Hero Honda, 2006) (p.1) These initiatives include: (1) installing deep bore hand pumps to make the provision of clean drinking water; (2) construction of metalled roads and connecting these to the National Highway;

(3) renovation of primary school buildings and making the provision of hygienic water and toilet facilities; (4) ensuring a proper drainage system at each of these villages to prevent water-logging; and (5) promotion of non-conventional sources of energy by providing a 50 percent subsidy on biogas plants.(Hero Honda, 2006, paraphrased)

American Honda Motor Company reports being committed to running an enterprise “of real and continuing value to society.” (Hero Honda, 2006) (p.1) The corporate objectives pursued by the American Honda Foundation toward this end include the following corporate objectives:

To apply to the Foundation’s grantmaking program the same professionalism and creative management processes that characterize the other activities of American Honda Motor Co., Inc. Resources used in this program are reported to have come from capital revenues which will be invested with care and planning;

Identification of activities for contributions that provide special emphasis;

Operation of the Foundation in a manner that is flexible and responsive to the changing needs of society and to provide momentum for innovation and leadership;

Complementing rather than substituting the role of public institutions and funds;

To provide contribution funding that is reflective of American Honda Motors Inc. level of success;

To make sure the grants of the Foundation accomplish the most possible good. (American Honda Foundation, Contributions Policy, nd) (p.1)

The American Honda Foundation states that the grantmaking it will engage in will be consistent with characteristics as follows related to youth and scientific education:

Programs dedicated to making the human condition better;

Programs that are managed properly and administered by individuals who are “enthusiastic and dedicated”;

Programs that look to the future;

Programs that are innovative and creative;

Programs with a broad scope, intent, impact, and outreach;

Programs that have a great potential for success;

Programs that operate from a position of financial soundness;

Programs that urgently need funding and which are important to the public; and

Programs that “represent a minimal risk in terms of venture capital investment”. (American Honda Foundation, Contributions Policy, nd) (p.1)

Weaknesses

When speaking about the problems in relations with the community, we need to discuss its relations with consumer unions. Some of them accused the management of the failure to inform about the faults in their vehicles (Skrzycki, 1998). Certainly, the company has already made numerous recalls and each of them was aimed at protecting the lives of customers throughout reforms.

In fact, the company filed a lawsuit against several consumer unions charging them with defamation. The key objective of the management is to establish better relations with these unions since they have a profound effect on the customers’ opinion.

Conclusion Overall, these findings indicate that Honda does tries to managing the interests of different stakeholders. This enterprise attempts to act as a company which creates value for the customers, stockholders, the employees, community, and environment.

The key problems, are connected with the following areas: attempts to stop with the unionization of workers; 2) accusation of alleged racial discrimination, and unwillingness to acknowledge the faults or defects in the products.

Recommendations On the basis of this discussion we can make a set of recommendations which can improve the company’s interactions with the stakeholders. They are as follows: 1) the management should take a more lenient stance toward trade unions, the attempts to stop the unionization of workers usually only spoil the public image of the company.

Moreover, the employees may be forced into belief that the management tries to subdue them. The top executives must prove that there is no need for trade unions, instead of trying to forbid them. 2) The second step which must be taken is the evaluation of hiring policies. The company has to make sure that that there is no loophole for the discrimination against employees on the basis of their sex, age, or race. 3)

The third recommendations is to establish a better partnership with customer unions which represent a large part of the community. Namely, the management should prove to them that Honda does everything possible to eliminate any risks for the customer’s health or life. These strategies can strengthen the company’s reputation of a responsible corporate citizen.

References American Honda Foundation Contributions Policy. Web.

Bybee Roger. (2008) Whitewashing Honda. Multinational Monititor pp 8 – 9.

Clement Barry. (2001) Honda workers vote for union recognition. The Independent.

Company Information (2010) Honda Motor Company Limited. Web.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Report (2010). Web.

CSR Report (2006) Honda Corporation. Web.

Environmental Technology (2011) Briefs and Reports – News

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Organisational Management Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Functional Organisational Structure The structure is designed on hierarchies such that positions as well as functions of each individual within the company are clearly stated. The organisation is segmented into key functional departments where each department encompasses all the activities related to it and all the departments within the organisation work towards achieving the common goal of the organisation.

Organisations which mostly apply functional structure usually deal in one product or service just like Barclays Bank which offers financial services to customers. In Barclays Bank for example, there is the human resource, sales and marketing, accounts and finance, security, wealth management, mortgage, banking and insurance departments. Under these departments are other sub departments (Barclays 2011).

Functional structure offers Barclays various advantages in its management and business processes. Since the structure ensures that Barclays has a well structured hierarchy as well as functions for each department and individuals, executing projects and providing instructions to employees in particular departments is easier (Miles

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Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Trends in the Global Beer Market

Modelo’s International Expansion Plan

The Next Foreign Market

Challenges that Modelo Faces from its Competitor, InBev

Diversification

Conclusion

References

Introduction Foreign market entry refers to the process through which companies join overseas markets in order to expand their operations. Businesses expand in order to increase their market share and competitiveness in the market.

Diversification refers to the process through which companies invest in different industries in order to improve their growth and stability. This paper focuses on the application of the concept of foreign market entry and diversification in the context of Modelo and the beer market.

Trends in the Global Beer Market The global beer market is characterized by the following trends. First, the companies that operate in the industry are focusing on market consolidation. This has been done through international expansion and acquisitions. In 2008 the top ten firms in the industry accounted for 59% of the market. Second, the sales volume in the developed Western economies is steady.

However, in a few developed economies the sales are slowly declining. The sales in the emerging economies in Asia and Eastern Europe are growing rapidly. Third, the rise in sales in the market is attributed to high quality of beer products, rise in disposable income and effective marketing and sales campaigns. Besides, local spirits are being substituted by beer due to “increased responsiveness to brands and marketing”.

The rate of consumption in the developed economies depends on the level of product differentiation. Finally, most markets are divided into two levels. The lower end of the market features discounted brands while the higher end of the markets features premium and imported brands.

Modelo’s International Expansion Plan Modelo’s rapid expansion in the global beer market is attributed to strategic partnerships with experienced distributors. The company implemented this strategy in two ways. First, the company formed strategic alliances with other brewers and soft dinks manufacturers. Under these alliances the company distributes the products of its partners in various markets (Modelo 2011).

Second, the company has formed joint ventures with independent distributors in various parts of the world (Modelo 2011). The distributors are responsible for selling the five brands that are exported by the firm. The company has established offices in all markets where its products are sold.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The offices are responsible for coordinating and supervising the activities of its distributors in order to ensure that sales targets are achieved (Modelo 2011). The joint ventures have enabled the firm to serve the global market without necessarily establishing production plants in every market.

The Next Foreign Market Modelo should join the East African market using the joint venture strategy due to the following reasons. First, there is low competition since there is only one main brewer in the region, EABL. Second, the emerging breweries in the region lack the capital to expand. Thus Modelo can partner with them in order to introduce its products in the region.

Third, the East African region is currently encouraging foreign investors to join the region in order to achieve rapid growth. This means that foreign investors enjoy incentives such as low taxations in return for their presence in the region. Finally, several independent distributors have emerged in the region due to the steady economic growth and availability of infrastructure.

Challenges that Modelo Faces from its Competitor, InBev InBev is one of the main competitors of Modelo since it controls a better part of the global beer market. Modelo finds it difficult to compete with InBev due to the limited number of brands that it offers. While Modelo has only 13 brands, InBev has 200 brands (Modelo 2011). This gives InBev a greater competitive advantage as compared to Modelo since the customers of the former have a wider range of brands to choose from.

In response to this challenge, Modelo has formed alliances with other brewers in order to expand its brand portfolio. InBev also controls the distribution channel in the major markets since most of the well established distributors have partnered with it. This makes it difficult for Modelo to expand by partnering with distributors.

Modelo can respond to these challenges by focusing on product differentiation and cost leadership strategies. This will enable it to position its products as the best in the market. Besides, it will be able to increase its market share by selling its products at low prices.

Diversification Modelo should diversify its business by investing in two industries namely, the soft drink and shipping and logistics industry. This proposal is informed by the following reasons. First, the high threat of substitute products in the beer market is attributed to the goods that are produced in the soft drink industry.

We will write a custom Essay on Foreign Market Entry and Diversification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus investing in the soft drink industry will enable the company to cushion its investments from the threat of substitute products (soft drinks). Second, the company will be able to use its subsidiary in the shipping industry to import and export its products in time and at low costs. Besides, the firms in the shipping industry are likely to be profitable since the industry is very stable.

Conclusion The above analysis indicates that the global beer industry is yet to reach its maturity stage. This means that firms can increase their profits by expanding their operations in the market. Modelo has achieved its expansion objectives by partnering with experienced distributors (Modelo 2011).

The firm can use the same strategy to join the East African market that is associated with low competition. The company should also diversify its business by joining other industries such as shipping and soft drink industry.

References Modelo. (2011). Annual reports: 2010.

Wade, J. (2010). Heady days for beer. Business Wire, vol. 23 (1) , 67-101.

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Teachings of Hebrew Wisdom Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The Bible covers all aspects of human life. Christians always refer to the teachings in the Bible when coming up with their decisions. The book of Proverbs covers the teachings of Hebrew wisdom on contemporary issues such as relationships, marriage, wealth, family, and self-control (Hindson, 2003).

Solomon, the author of the book, associates diligence with terms such as riches, abundance, busy, power, and wisdom (Yates

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Yayi jia Essay online essay help

One look at the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel and it is already apparent that such an object is more inclined for use by the upper class of Chinese society. The reasoning behind such a statement is due to the relatively large size of the object (roughly the same proportions as a man’s chest) and that it was made of solid bronze.

Considering that the working class of Chinese society focused more on practicality and functionality rather than ostentatious displays of wealth for mere decoration, it is more than likely that the Yayi jia belonged to a rich household1. For example, in the painting “Life along the River” by Zhang Zeduan and the animated version created for the 2010 Shanghai Expo in China, the lives of everyday people in Chinese society can be seen with various depictions of people drinking and enjoying themselves2.

In no instance throughout the entire painting, which is one of the most acclaimed vessels of Chinese artwork in the world, is the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel seen. When people were depicted as eating and drinking, their jar of choice seemed to closer to that of the amphorae of ancient Greece rather than the large and hugely elaborate Yayi jia.

This is further proof that the item was most likely used as a means of depicting wealth and was utilized primarily as a household decoration or during funerals since its size makes it impractical as a method of actually serving everyday liquids that people would drink. The association of luxury goods with wealth and prestige is actually nothing new and is seen throughout many examples within past and present day Chinese society3.

Utilizing impractical objects as a method of showing off wealth and prestige is seen in many cultures and, as such, it is not surprising to see such an example exemplified in historic Chinese society. It is based on this example that I have come to the conclusion that historical Chinese society is dominated by the influence of popular culture (in this case showing wealth and prestige) with many believing that in order to fit in or be popular there is a distinct need to look the part.

This particular assumption is exemplified by the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel since it is an impractical method of serving drinks. The trend in purchasing luxury goods to look the part is a practice that is unlikely to be going away anytime soon. Up till today, such a practice continues to be prevalent within China.

After doing a brief skim through various articles on Chinese history and culture, I have come to the conclusion that one of the belief systems within China during the time of the Shang dynasty when the Yayi jia was created was that people who look the part and act the part were more likely to be given more opportunities than a person who chooses to base their look on what they perceive as an adequate dress code for their social and financial class4.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ostentatious nature of the Yayi jia is meant as a method of showing that a family is wealthy enough that they can afford to waste money on useless depictions of wealth. This creates an impression on visitors which results in greater levels of prestige which, more likely than not, would create more opportunities for them in the future.

It is due to reasons such as this that luxury brands and external trappings of wealth within various cultures around the world from thousands of years in the past till the present have continued to thrive the way they do. They represent an aspect of society that people want to attain in order to show success and be judged as being successful.

While this may indicate that human society itself has a streak of vanity, this is not far from the truth when taking into account the fact that throughout history, the classes of society have been distinguished not by accomplishments but rather by their appearance wherein the peasantry, the middle class and the upper class itself have been distinguished by the manner in which they dressed or what sort of possessions they had within their home.

Fully Identify the Object The Yayi jia is a ritual wine vessel that was made sometime during the Shang dynasty in China (roughly during 1600 – 1050 BCE). Its overall size is roughly the same as that of a man’s chest and its original purpose was as a type wine vessel that was used during ritual ceremonies at the time. This can be related to funeral practices, celebrations and other such events that include the consumption of alcohol.

The surface of the vessel is covered in motifs that have been etched into the oxidized metallic surface and have long since faded away. Overall, the artefact itself is quite interesting and says a lot about the practices and rituals that took place within China during this particular period of time.

What is impressive about this wine vessel is that despite the base which seems out of balance and fragile, the entire artefact actually stays steady. On the other hand, it cannot be stated that there is balance in the creation of the work since the shapes on the surface seem to be haphazardly added here and there along with hard geometric lines. Such a distinction though may just be due to time removing the original details of the vessel itself.

Visual Examination When first examining art, one must take into account each art’s inherent theme and message in order to understand the stylistic justifications that went into the usage of colour, shapes, contours and lines in the art itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Yayi jia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the metal work itself is far from the quality of the old masters of Ming dynasty art work, it does bring out a certain emotional response as the dragon head motif on the handle is probably meant to connote some sort of awe since dragon symbols were permitted by use on personal belongings only by important members of Chinese society at the time.

The vessel itself was most likely painted or emphasized in some way as it can be seen through the use of relatively thin lines, its slightly open composition in terms of the scarcity within the work and its emphasis on the accurate usage of lighting in the vessel itself. This means that it was either minimalist in design or had some form of outer decoration that wore away over time.

The entire bronze sculpture seems to exude a feeling of artifice wherein through its use of curving straight lines any form of actual emotional connection established with viewers is lost. The art work feels too “modern” (i.e. it lacks any of the beauty seen in Ming dynasty vases) and too “artificial” in the sense that it has lost its artistry by trying to appeal to too many audiences (the overall appearance does not seem all that unique).

While there are various colours utilized in the work (though this could just be the result of age affecting the vessel over time resulting in a distortion of its overall appearance), they feel flat, dead and lack any form of actual liveliness. While it may be true that the work itself may have been created through some use of bronze working, this just further emphasizes its divergence from other types of Chinese art that I am used to that usually portray a sense of delicateness to the vessel.

In fact, in terms of the overall balance and texture of the vessel it just seems too “clean” in the sense that it feels far too planned out, that the realism that can be captured in the moment is not there at all.

While it may be true that its utilization of space and contours is efficient, therein lies the problem wherein the wine vessel seems too “perfect” in the sense that it lacks any divergent emotion from the artist and merely looks like a vessel that can be created within a few hours by a bronze worker.

While there are many interpretations of what can be called “art”, the fact remains that I know what I like and this bronze work diverges from everything that I would actually call “likable” art. On the other hand, from a more positive perspective the use of light and shadows lends the bronze work a surreal realistic quality wherein the dragon head handle seems almost lifelike.

This is surprising when taking into consideration the rather minimalist perspective the bronze worker utilizes wherein the surface of the wine vessel is nothing more than a series of striated and curved lines that have faded over time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yayi jia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most striking and realistic feature is the face of the dragon on the handle where the use of lines, slightly raised ears and the use of a distinct curve to emphasize a mouth on the left most portion of the handle while emphasizing the ears on the top side creates an almost lifelike like realistic effect where the subject within seems to have been paused momentarily in a stitch in time.

In fact, when examining the rest of the wine vessel it can be see that the most painstaking detail applied to it was concentrated on the surface with the rest of the subject’s body being akin to a sparse outline.

This particular facet of the work itself could be considered purposeful on the part of the artist as he attempts to concentrate the perception of the viewer directly on the face of wine vessel and bring about the fanciful introspection of wondering what the various symbols on the jar mean and, as a result, causes the viewer to come closer to the object for a better look.

Overall, the use of lines in this particular vessel is dominated by either thin line outlines as seen in a majority of the work or faded curled lines utilized to create some effect that has long since faded. The one dominating colour in this artwork is the colour green as seen directly in the middle of the work which is evidence of considerable levels of oxidation which lends credence to the authenticity of the vessel.

Aspects of Civilization and Cultural Development Just by viewing the Yayi jia itself, it becomes obvious that it represents not only the advanced nature of the field of bronze metalwork during this particular time period within ancient Chinese civilization but it also represents how important iconography was to the ancient Chinese people since the vessel itself is rife with various faded icons that used to cover its surface.

Influence of Previous Civilizations It must be noted that the Yayi jia is not unique in the sense that it is the only example of its kind, such an assumption is fallacious since that the iconography of the Yayi jia (i.e. the dragon head motif) was featured prominently in various other artwork from ancient China hundreds of years before its creation.

Rather, a far more accurate statement would be that the Yayi jia from the Shang dynasty is merely one of the largest and most well known example of its kind (i.e. a ritual wine vessel) and is a representation of hundreds of years of ancient Chinese tradition in which the dragon was known as a guardian of tombs, temples and a representation of an aspect of their society.

Related to Artwork within the Same Civilization It is quite interesting to note that the Yayi jia has several stylistic elements which were quite prominent within this particular period of ancient Chinese civilization. For instance, the same dragon theme often was utilized on a variety of dragon statues on temples.

In the case of the Yayi jia, it can be stated that the overall shape of the body is somewhat dragon like in nature with the tripod like formation at the bottom looking almost like legs. In fact, it can even be said that the Yayi jia is nothing more than an older and smaller version of its counterparts seen in a variety of ancient Chinese tombs and temples.

My Thoughts on the Work Art is completely subject to interpretation however in this particular case I would have to say that in my opinion, while the bronze sculpture does look overly intricate, it lacks a sufficient “pull” so to speak in that it does not capture the attention as much as other vessels within the area.

While it is interesting to look at, the use of rusted colours of the sculpture actually makes it rather forgettable since it makes itself seem rather subdued and not eye-catching or memorable. Further examination of the vessel reveals that the sterile green colour of the sculpture and the use of geometric shapes with a hardness and sharpness not found in nature is in fact intentional which gives it a nice contrast to the overly natural shapes in the background.

Overall Impact In terms of its impact on me, I would have to say that I was not significantly affected in the least due to the fact that the sculpture seems overly subdued when it could have had a greater impact if the colour was different instead of the rust colour it had.

As such, while the work is being featured by a museum, I would still say that it lacks the necessary impact necessary to continue to attract visitors, however, art is completely subject to interpretation with others having a different interpretation of the sculpture itself. I do have to admit though that its vivid nature and the way it stood in stark contrast to its surrounding environment makes one think of the nature of man and how he stands in contrast to nature.

While I do not disparage the work of the artist, it definitely seems subdued and less eye-catching as compared to the various examples of Ming Dynasty art that I have seen. It is based on my impression of the vessel that I definitely agree that it belongs in a museum and that its worth as a vessel of art is in its ability to create a deep contrast between the artificial nature of humanity and the shapes of the natural world.

How does your object fit into a broad historical context? An examination of the work of various Chinese sculptures during the Shang dynasty reveals a continuing theme in most of the metal work which often incorporates unique animal forms. These forms are usually skeletal in appearance yet when hit with the light at a certain angle they show a unique representation of an animal from China’s natural environment or mythologies.

From a broad historical context, the vessel actually represents the excesses of the Chinese upper class at the time since the ostentatious nature of the wine vessel far outpaces its overall level of practicality since it is far too big and heavy to act as a conventional drinking receptacle.

Illustration of Object

Example of Yayi jia ritual wine vessel as seen in Mysteries of Ancient China5

Bibliography Childs-Johnson, Elizabeth. The Meaning of the Graph YI and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art. London: Saffron Books, 2008.

Ebrey, Patricia. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Ledderose, Lothar. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. New York: Braziller, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Elizabeth Childs-Johnson, The Meaning of the Graph Yi and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art (London: Saffron Books, 2008), 33

2 Patricia Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (New York: Free Press, 1993), 11

3 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

4 Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 1-4

5 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

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Yayi jia Essay college essay help

One look at the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel and it is already apparent that such an object is more inclined for use by the upper class of Chinese society. The reasoning behind such a statement is due to the relatively large size of the object (roughly the same proportions as a man’s chest) and that it was made of solid bronze.

Considering that the working class of Chinese society focused more on practicality and functionality rather than ostentatious displays of wealth for mere decoration, it is more than likely that the Yayi jia belonged to a rich household1. For example, in the painting “Life along the River” by Zhang Zeduan and the animated version created for the 2010 Shanghai Expo in China, the lives of everyday people in Chinese society can be seen with various depictions of people drinking and enjoying themselves2.

In no instance throughout the entire painting, which is one of the most acclaimed vessels of Chinese artwork in the world, is the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel seen. When people were depicted as eating and drinking, their jar of choice seemed to closer to that of the amphorae of ancient Greece rather than the large and hugely elaborate Yayi jia.

This is further proof that the item was most likely used as a means of depicting wealth and was utilized primarily as a household decoration or during funerals since its size makes it impractical as a method of actually serving everyday liquids that people would drink. The association of luxury goods with wealth and prestige is actually nothing new and is seen throughout many examples within past and present day Chinese society3.

Utilizing impractical objects as a method of showing off wealth and prestige is seen in many cultures and, as such, it is not surprising to see such an example exemplified in historic Chinese society. It is based on this example that I have come to the conclusion that historical Chinese society is dominated by the influence of popular culture (in this case showing wealth and prestige) with many believing that in order to fit in or be popular there is a distinct need to look the part.

This particular assumption is exemplified by the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel since it is an impractical method of serving drinks. The trend in purchasing luxury goods to look the part is a practice that is unlikely to be going away anytime soon. Up till today, such a practice continues to be prevalent within China.

After doing a brief skim through various articles on Chinese history and culture, I have come to the conclusion that one of the belief systems within China during the time of the Shang dynasty when the Yayi jia was created was that people who look the part and act the part were more likely to be given more opportunities than a person who chooses to base their look on what they perceive as an adequate dress code for their social and financial class4.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ostentatious nature of the Yayi jia is meant as a method of showing that a family is wealthy enough that they can afford to waste money on useless depictions of wealth. This creates an impression on visitors which results in greater levels of prestige which, more likely than not, would create more opportunities for them in the future.

It is due to reasons such as this that luxury brands and external trappings of wealth within various cultures around the world from thousands of years in the past till the present have continued to thrive the way they do. They represent an aspect of society that people want to attain in order to show success and be judged as being successful.

While this may indicate that human society itself has a streak of vanity, this is not far from the truth when taking into account the fact that throughout history, the classes of society have been distinguished not by accomplishments but rather by their appearance wherein the peasantry, the middle class and the upper class itself have been distinguished by the manner in which they dressed or what sort of possessions they had within their home.

Fully Identify the Object The Yayi jia is a ritual wine vessel that was made sometime during the Shang dynasty in China (roughly during 1600 – 1050 BCE). Its overall size is roughly the same as that of a man’s chest and its original purpose was as a type wine vessel that was used during ritual ceremonies at the time. This can be related to funeral practices, celebrations and other such events that include the consumption of alcohol.

The surface of the vessel is covered in motifs that have been etched into the oxidized metallic surface and have long since faded away. Overall, the artefact itself is quite interesting and says a lot about the practices and rituals that took place within China during this particular period of time.

What is impressive about this wine vessel is that despite the base which seems out of balance and fragile, the entire artefact actually stays steady. On the other hand, it cannot be stated that there is balance in the creation of the work since the shapes on the surface seem to be haphazardly added here and there along with hard geometric lines. Such a distinction though may just be due to time removing the original details of the vessel itself.

Visual Examination When first examining art, one must take into account each art’s inherent theme and message in order to understand the stylistic justifications that went into the usage of colour, shapes, contours and lines in the art itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Yayi jia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the metal work itself is far from the quality of the old masters of Ming dynasty art work, it does bring out a certain emotional response as the dragon head motif on the handle is probably meant to connote some sort of awe since dragon symbols were permitted by use on personal belongings only by important members of Chinese society at the time.

The vessel itself was most likely painted or emphasized in some way as it can be seen through the use of relatively thin lines, its slightly open composition in terms of the scarcity within the work and its emphasis on the accurate usage of lighting in the vessel itself. This means that it was either minimalist in design or had some form of outer decoration that wore away over time.

The entire bronze sculpture seems to exude a feeling of artifice wherein through its use of curving straight lines any form of actual emotional connection established with viewers is lost. The art work feels too “modern” (i.e. it lacks any of the beauty seen in Ming dynasty vases) and too “artificial” in the sense that it has lost its artistry by trying to appeal to too many audiences (the overall appearance does not seem all that unique).

While there are various colours utilized in the work (though this could just be the result of age affecting the vessel over time resulting in a distortion of its overall appearance), they feel flat, dead and lack any form of actual liveliness. While it may be true that the work itself may have been created through some use of bronze working, this just further emphasizes its divergence from other types of Chinese art that I am used to that usually portray a sense of delicateness to the vessel.

In fact, in terms of the overall balance and texture of the vessel it just seems too “clean” in the sense that it feels far too planned out, that the realism that can be captured in the moment is not there at all.

While it may be true that its utilization of space and contours is efficient, therein lies the problem wherein the wine vessel seems too “perfect” in the sense that it lacks any divergent emotion from the artist and merely looks like a vessel that can be created within a few hours by a bronze worker.

While there are many interpretations of what can be called “art”, the fact remains that I know what I like and this bronze work diverges from everything that I would actually call “likable” art. On the other hand, from a more positive perspective the use of light and shadows lends the bronze work a surreal realistic quality wherein the dragon head handle seems almost lifelike.

This is surprising when taking into consideration the rather minimalist perspective the bronze worker utilizes wherein the surface of the wine vessel is nothing more than a series of striated and curved lines that have faded over time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yayi jia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most striking and realistic feature is the face of the dragon on the handle where the use of lines, slightly raised ears and the use of a distinct curve to emphasize a mouth on the left most portion of the handle while emphasizing the ears on the top side creates an almost lifelike like realistic effect where the subject within seems to have been paused momentarily in a stitch in time.

In fact, when examining the rest of the wine vessel it can be see that the most painstaking detail applied to it was concentrated on the surface with the rest of the subject’s body being akin to a sparse outline.

This particular facet of the work itself could be considered purposeful on the part of the artist as he attempts to concentrate the perception of the viewer directly on the face of wine vessel and bring about the fanciful introspection of wondering what the various symbols on the jar mean and, as a result, causes the viewer to come closer to the object for a better look.

Overall, the use of lines in this particular vessel is dominated by either thin line outlines as seen in a majority of the work or faded curled lines utilized to create some effect that has long since faded. The one dominating colour in this artwork is the colour green as seen directly in the middle of the work which is evidence of considerable levels of oxidation which lends credence to the authenticity of the vessel.

Aspects of Civilization and Cultural Development Just by viewing the Yayi jia itself, it becomes obvious that it represents not only the advanced nature of the field of bronze metalwork during this particular time period within ancient Chinese civilization but it also represents how important iconography was to the ancient Chinese people since the vessel itself is rife with various faded icons that used to cover its surface.

Influence of Previous Civilizations It must be noted that the Yayi jia is not unique in the sense that it is the only example of its kind, such an assumption is fallacious since that the iconography of the Yayi jia (i.e. the dragon head motif) was featured prominently in various other artwork from ancient China hundreds of years before its creation.

Rather, a far more accurate statement would be that the Yayi jia from the Shang dynasty is merely one of the largest and most well known example of its kind (i.e. a ritual wine vessel) and is a representation of hundreds of years of ancient Chinese tradition in which the dragon was known as a guardian of tombs, temples and a representation of an aspect of their society.

Related to Artwork within the Same Civilization It is quite interesting to note that the Yayi jia has several stylistic elements which were quite prominent within this particular period of ancient Chinese civilization. For instance, the same dragon theme often was utilized on a variety of dragon statues on temples.

In the case of the Yayi jia, it can be stated that the overall shape of the body is somewhat dragon like in nature with the tripod like formation at the bottom looking almost like legs. In fact, it can even be said that the Yayi jia is nothing more than an older and smaller version of its counterparts seen in a variety of ancient Chinese tombs and temples.

My Thoughts on the Work Art is completely subject to interpretation however in this particular case I would have to say that in my opinion, while the bronze sculpture does look overly intricate, it lacks a sufficient “pull” so to speak in that it does not capture the attention as much as other vessels within the area.

While it is interesting to look at, the use of rusted colours of the sculpture actually makes it rather forgettable since it makes itself seem rather subdued and not eye-catching or memorable. Further examination of the vessel reveals that the sterile green colour of the sculpture and the use of geometric shapes with a hardness and sharpness not found in nature is in fact intentional which gives it a nice contrast to the overly natural shapes in the background.

Overall Impact In terms of its impact on me, I would have to say that I was not significantly affected in the least due to the fact that the sculpture seems overly subdued when it could have had a greater impact if the colour was different instead of the rust colour it had.

As such, while the work is being featured by a museum, I would still say that it lacks the necessary impact necessary to continue to attract visitors, however, art is completely subject to interpretation with others having a different interpretation of the sculpture itself. I do have to admit though that its vivid nature and the way it stood in stark contrast to its surrounding environment makes one think of the nature of man and how he stands in contrast to nature.

While I do not disparage the work of the artist, it definitely seems subdued and less eye-catching as compared to the various examples of Ming Dynasty art that I have seen. It is based on my impression of the vessel that I definitely agree that it belongs in a museum and that its worth as a vessel of art is in its ability to create a deep contrast between the artificial nature of humanity and the shapes of the natural world.

How does your object fit into a broad historical context? An examination of the work of various Chinese sculptures during the Shang dynasty reveals a continuing theme in most of the metal work which often incorporates unique animal forms. These forms are usually skeletal in appearance yet when hit with the light at a certain angle they show a unique representation of an animal from China’s natural environment or mythologies.

From a broad historical context, the vessel actually represents the excesses of the Chinese upper class at the time since the ostentatious nature of the wine vessel far outpaces its overall level of practicality since it is far too big and heavy to act as a conventional drinking receptacle.

Illustration of Object

Example of Yayi jia ritual wine vessel as seen in Mysteries of Ancient China5

Bibliography Childs-Johnson, Elizabeth. The Meaning of the Graph YI and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art. London: Saffron Books, 2008.

Ebrey, Patricia. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Ledderose, Lothar. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. New York: Braziller, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Elizabeth Childs-Johnson, The Meaning of the Graph Yi and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art (London: Saffron Books, 2008), 33

2 Patricia Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (New York: Free Press, 1993), 11

3 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

4 Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 1-4

5 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

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Bonus Banking: Case of UBS Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Background

Employees of financial institutions have been considered for quite some times as being among the top earners in the country. Indeed, financial service organizations have defended their compensation and bonus structure, claiming that it helps them attract, recruit and retain the best talent. In addition, these organizations have previously claimed that their employee are remunerated based on their performance.

Therefore, employees will be motivated to work hard and in return create long-term value to all the organizations’ stakeholders. On the other hand, it would be expected that when an organization underperforms, the employee will similarly be affected and hence their bonus reduced (Pert

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Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Who are Europhiles and Eurosceptics?

Creating European Identity: possibilities and challenges

Europhiles and Eurosceptics: which side seems to win?

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Different literatures have postulated how the process of Europeanization has been perceived with great enthusiasm by some people, while others have perceived it with intense skepticism (Smits p.1).

Since the advent of the call and much effort exhibited to the European integration process, both Europhiles and Eurosceptics in almost equal measure have argued their case that some time have motivated vigorous debates about the very nature of this European project (Smits p.1). What needs to be known is the fact that both the Euroscepticism and Europhilia base and pursue their different particular views of how largely citizens interests should be represented.

According to many citizens of the countries that have formed the European Union, views and positions taken by leading advocates of Europhiles and Eurosceptics have influenced the positions taken by the citizens of the different countries of European Union. Within the European Union jurisdiction the key issues that have led to existence of these two schools of view revolves largely around the economy, politics, legal, financial system, identity, culture, and sometimes language.

The point of note here is that European integration process has largely been perceived and regarded to be possible after integration of the above highlighted key aspects. Subsequently, the above highlighted key aspects constitute the very aspects that have divided citizens of EU into Europhiles and Eurosceptics, which each group arguing its case decisively for or against Europeanization.

Therefore, the essence of this research paper is to explore in detail ‘Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics’ within the perspective of the above-outlined aspects. Further issues of national identity will also be explored and how it has further influenced Europhilia and Euroscepticism ideas and dreams.

Who are Europhiles and Eurosceptics? Definition of these two terms has been varied and multiple. For example, Euroscepticism has no one single usage where in some cases, the term has been used to refer to the lack of enthusiasm over the increasing powers of the European Union that exists, especially within the British public debate (Harmsen and Spiering p.15).

Other people have adopted a more broad definition, which decompounds and perceive Euroscepticism to constitute negative view of the process of Europeanization. The kind of position taken by this later group is one that has criticized EU policies and their position has been to oppose vehemently the EU enlargement where they express fears that with European integration then pursuit of social justice will be endangered (Smits p.2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another group has defined Euroscepticism as “states’ fear of losing sovereignty and the subsequent consequences this has for the legitimacy of decisions that directly touch upon the rights and obligations of citizens” (Smits p.2). In other words, Eurosceptics express worry and fear about the diminution of national autonomy and the leaking away of the national parliaments’ power as democratic law-making institutions.

The general fear for Eurosceptics is that of the EU turning and evolving into a bureaucratic super-state that has powers to decide upon the numerous issues that affect its citizens in an undemocratic way (Smits p.2).

Overall, Eurosceptics are characterized by their tendency of: being against EU integration, defense of the national state sovereignty, oppose EU federation, oppose globalization, oppose foreign immigrants, and are against multicultural for the national cultural identity, and lastly, many of them have become emphatic xenophobia and Islam-phobia (Arato and Kaniok p.46).

On the other hand, Europhiles constitute a group of European citizens who have expressed unequivocal support and confidence in the European Union integration (Arato and Kaniok p.41). The position taken by Europhiles is that EU integration has more benefits to European citizens as compared to individual national sovereignty, which has tended to block developments in the regions (Hoogmoed p.1).

Europhiles point numerous reasons within the economy, political, information, trade, financial, governance, climate and environmental management, and many more others as key aspects that are likely to benefit the people of European upon integration. The argument of this group is that national cultures and identities should not play as barrier to the integration of the EU countries.

Europhiles counter the position of Eurosceptics by observing some of the notable positive impacts of EU integration. For instance, Europhiles content that, with integration of EU, there will be a strong economy, which in turn will lead to alleviation of poverty among member countries (Hoogmoed p.1). At the same time, Europhiles are confident that with Integration of EU there will be removal of trade and legal barriers.

As a result, there will be more free movement of people between the nations without having to fulfill many strenuous legal requirements. Further, EU integration for Europhiles will enable integration of individual country military forces, a situation that will lead to availability of more and enough funds to modernize the military to perform to their extreme capacities (Hoogmoed p.1).

We will write a custom Essay on Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More EU integration further is seen to important in making global citizens within the EU jurisdiction with elimination of national, cultural, and even religious differences. Crime issue is an aspect that is drawing attention in most parts of the world, and the issue is further aggravated by the advent of increasing and sophisticated terrorism.

As a way of countering and responding to these crime threats, Europhiles are convinced that integration of EU countries will results into establishment of a well trained and equipped police force that has the capacity to respond well to challenges of crime and other illegal activities (Hoogmoed p.1).

Cross-border and growth of a diverse human resource manpower is another element that characterize Europhilia where the belief is that with EU integration, there will be more highly trained human resource manpower who will be able to contribute to the economy growth of the EU countries.

Lastly, on overall Europhiles are confident that with EU integration there will be enhanced industrial development, there will be increased potential, new global business, the living standards of the people will increase, and there will be increased and improved human rights aspects (Hoogmoed p.1).

Creating European Identity: possibilities and challenges The end of the Second World War had far-reaching impacts on the European countries where efforts were started to integrate majority of European countries with hope that such an initiative would results into prevention of future conflicts since the old rivalries would be diminished (Castano p.40).

This grand and ambitious process was in the leadership hands of the elites who at the same time owned the whole process and drew inspiration from the neo-functionalist approach (Castano p.40).

One key principle that was incorporated in the entire integration process rested on the idea that all citizens of EU member countries would in gradual process but inevitably “shift their loyalties away from their national government toward the European institutions, which were going to provide greater material benefits” (Castano p.40).

By the signing of the Maastricht treaty, Eurobarometer data indicated that Europeans had a positive perception that European integration process was a good thing (Castano p.40). Despite this positive perception, observation made is that it has not translated into national citizens of various European countries abandoning their national loyalty to embrace a common European identity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It can be deduced that the call for European identity was untimely and very fast and was done before the existing constraints had been resolved, especially with regard to institutions (Castano p.40). The same data collected by Eurobarometer indicated that European institutions have experienced a slow but steady increase in their popular support though the acceptance level of the institutions is still low.

Integration process for EU has become standstill and there has been a constant call for improvement in the legitimacy of the EU, a situation that calls and requires fostering sense of belonging among the citizens of the national member states (Castano p.42). The common and wide misconception has been that with improved economic policies then this integration will be possible to be achieved, a notion that is not true at all.

Economic integration is perceived and even proving to be insufficient to instill a sense of belonging at the European level and some people have further argued that fostering European identity through formation of a single European cultural identity again is likely to fail.

Paramount reason given by these people is that it is actually diversity, which is needed for European integration and not homogeneity (Castano p.43). In order to realize some genuine integration for EU countries, more people and suggestions have been leveled against the need to establish itself as a possible self-representation at the collective level for its citizens.

In a 2006 opinion poll among the European citizens it became evident that majority of the citizens were satisfied with the economic developments that had taken place although pessimism remains over political integration (Aulich p.1).

The findings of the poll showed that the living standards in the major country members of EU was extraordinarily high, much higher that other regions of the globe, a situation that had led to expression of satisfaction among the member countries.

For instance, statistical data of the poll showed that 90 percent of Europeans perceived themselves to be happy in their current family life and 84 percent expressed satisfaction in their current occupation (Aulich p.1). Further, 90 percent expressed their confidence in the sovereignty of their countries, although some slight differences were noted among different member states (Aulich p.1).

According to these data and overall conviction among the European citizens, the EU has succeeded and achieved economic integration for the member states, and which to them is enough as far as the basis foundation of the EU is concerned. On overall, European citizens in their individual countries considers themselves to have achieved success, happiness, fulfillment, and satisfaction, and generally enjoy social and economic status hence no nudging need to preoccupy with needs of integration (Aulich p.1).

French and Dutch constitute two countries of EU, which rejected the Euro-constitution that advocated for political integration. The position and conviction of majority of citizens in these two countries was that their level of economic advancement has gone up and therefore do not see likelihood of any tangible benefits arising from EU integration to them (Aulich p.1).

Further, the conviction of the two countries was that with the growth and advancement of their economies any likelihood of integration especially with less developed countries had ability to lead to retardation in economic advancement as there will be need to sacrifice their current economic status and overall standards of living in order to compensate and uplift the benefits of the poorer nations (Aulich p.1).

In other words, political and legal integration of EU member states has been hampered by perception economic of member states will disintegrate instead of growing and it is an aspect that has largely influenced the voting behavior of citizens in the member countries.

Different reasons have been given as to why EU integration process has appeared to be a tall order and difficult. For a start, EU as an entity is seen to receive less attention as compared to individual nations in the media (Castano p.43). This particular aspect of featuring less in the media is an aspect that has relegated EU to sidelines as more citizens of EU pay more attention to their national identity.

The media at the same time, is seen to reinforce more national identity than European identity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that when EU receive media attention it is largely because of internal disputes between the representatives of its member states or the inability to reach a common position in international arena.

As it can seen the attention of the media to these aspects are not basically aimed at reinforcing European identity, in fact the aim is to portray the dysfunctional of EU hence making integration impossible in the minds of the citizens (Castano p.43).

Another reason that continues to undermine efforts of the EU at integrating has to with entitativity of the EU in international context, which has largely been undermined by the direct actions of individual governments.

For instance, these governments have engaged in actions that can be described and viewed to be circumventing and sometimes contradicting the position of EU, a situation that generally embarrass the European citizens (Castano p.43).

Lastly, the EU integration process is seen to get hindrance from a lack of geographical boundaries. This particular aspect has largely weakened the efforts of the EU to evolve and establish itself as a real entity. In sum, EU aspect is yet to become a psychological existence in the minds of its citizens, a situation that continue to weaken and play against the European identification.

Europhiles and Eurosceptics: which side seems to win? Debate over the integration of the EU is likely not to disappear from the political elite and media any time soon and opposing sides are likely to be sustained. Nevertheless, many opinion polls across European citizens still portray a divided citizen group over the issue of integration.

There is no yet consensus as to how integration process should proceed or be facilitated, and members are much divided as to what should constitute the integration content.

As some members express confidence that political and legal integration can be achieved, other members are of the view that the basis of integration was to be realized through economy, which in turn has been achieved or fulfilled; hence, members should not be burdened by increased responsibility of working out a political and legal integration.

However, it should be noted that integration of political and legal structures and system of the EU chances appear to be scarce or just bleak due to existing numerous reasons. For example, national identity and national cultures have proved to be the strongest factors contributing to the un-realization of EU integration.

The national identity has superseded that of EU and member countries together with their citizens seem not to be ready to relinquish their paramount sovereignty to EU. Cultural differences have become evident as hindrance to EU integration process success as evidenced in the case of Turkey application for admission (Anonymous p.1).

Cultural differences manifests in different attitudes the citizens of different countries have over the EU, the different languages, where some citizens are opposed to the idea of creation of one language to unite member countries of EU (Anonymous p.1).

In addition, cultural differences in manifested in religious affiliations of different communities in different countries, existence of different interests that members see may not be addressed by the macro and mega institutions of the EU, existences of different laws that sometimes are designed on the cultural aspects of each country hence largely unique in nature.

Regulations regimes and systems among the EU member countries are totally different an aspect that might prove to be difficult to harmonize given that some countries have strong regulation mechanisms while others have largely weak mechanism (Anonymous p.1). Poverty levels among countries are another issue that poses danger to the integration of EU countries.

Different countries have manifested different levels of poverty and even some countries have come out to oppose integration on the basis that it will lead to their economies declining and standards of living ion their respective countries going down. Way of life, customs, and different political and administrative structures constitute another class of factors that continue to limit chances of EU integration.

Consideration of these factors it becomes clear that each country manifest different forms of ways of lives, societal and national norms and totally different political and administrative structures which cannot be merged into one structure bringing together the citizens of the countries.

Economic differences again constitute a set of factors that are perceived may block the likelihood of EU integration process from succeeding.

This economic difference are manifested in areas such as: different economic structures; different tax systems; labor costs; worker’s rights; different levels of wages, different social security contributions; welfare systems that are different; safety standards that are totally different; different environmental regulation mechanisms (Anonymous p.1).

Other notable differences in this category include different professional training schemes; different levels of economic standards, and lastly, the nature of state interference in economic activities also differ (Anonymous p.1). Last set of factors that hinder integration originate from geographical differences, whereby distance, climates, sizes of states, and landscape are seen to negatively contribute to the integration of EU member countries (Anonymous p.1).

Conclusion Formation and calls for formation of European Union were met with greater enthusiasm, as members held broad vision of how such integration would benefit the county members. Nevertheless, after its establishment, many views have erupted as to whether the EU has the ability to tackle key issues facing its member countries.

This situation has led to emergence of two groups of people Europhiles and the Eurosceptics where each group has presented its case for or against intention to integrate the EU. Seen and the way it has been identified in the paper, integration of EU is likely no to be achieved very soon as more national identities and cultures are reinforced among member states.

Works Cited Anonymous. European Integration: Reasons, Problems, and Criticism. Web.

Arato, Krisztina and Kaniok, Petr. Euroscepticism and European Integration. Zagreb: Political Science Research Centre.

Aulich, Sebastian. “United State of Europe?” European Courier. Web.

Castano, Emanuele. ‘European Identity: A Social-Psychological Perspective’, in Richard K. Herrmann, Thomas Risse and Marilynn B. Brewer (eds.), Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Oxford: Rowman

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Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction Conflict is part of human existence. Theories expounded by scholars and theorists state that conflicts are the result of human needs not being met, or as a result of competition. When these needs are addressed to, conflicts lose significance. There are a number of theories discussed in this essay and most delve on the interconnectivity of society and the individual members.

Paramount is the study of Lewis Coser which states that conflicts have a positive effect on society. Historical events relate that social groups are strengthened by conflict. Conflict and social upheaval are common in history. Oppression characterizes historical events. If there was no conflict, it would have been very difficult to write history because history is filled with conflicts of tribes and peoples, kings and their dominions, and nation states against nation states.

People and organizations deal with conflict day in and day out. Human nature is complicated; it is filled with emotions and feelings which can be the cause of conflicts. In an organization, there are complexities, errors, and successes, because organizations are manned by humans. We are not governed by theories but we formulate these theories out of our experiences and continued socialization. In the course of time, these theories seem to rule over our behavior and activities.

In our socializing activities, we commit errors which are a part of our behavior in making judgments, interpretations, assumptions, and beliefs about our social world, the people within it, and our place in it.

This essay will try to delve on the many aspects of conflict, but most especially on the theories of conflict, and on the why and the how of conflicts encountered by man.

The Theories Human Needs Theory – John Burton (1990)

The theory states that conflicts are caused by human needs that are not met. These needs can be psychological, social, economic, political, etc. The needs and problems of the people involved in conflicts have to be understood and addressed so that the issues that preoccupy the groups and people lose significance and therefore conflict can be resolved.

Another argument by Burton and Dukes (1990 as cited in Anyanwu, 2009, p. 58) states that satisfying human needs seems to be present in all conflicts although there are many kinds of conflicts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common to the Human Needs theory are self-actualization and self-determination. Human needs are strong motivating factors which influence the way people behave and act in society. (Webster, 2006, p. 84)

The theory also asserts that people have urges relative to the three needs which are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power (Firth, 2002, p. 86; Kopelman et al., 2006, p. 233). The need theory is focused on the acquired needs that people learn in the process of acquiring new life experiences over their lifetime. (Armstrong, 1998)

Justice was a human need for people during the time of Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement. Justice should have been addressed to for the African Americans who sensed injustice. When this was met after years of demonstrations and rebellion by the coloured population, conflict seemed to die down.

According to Abraham Maslow (1943), our needs are arranged like a pyramid or ladder.

The physiological needs can be found at the bottom of the pyramid. This includes food, water, oxygen and sex. As one set is met, the need moves up the ladder to the next. Belongingness and love needs come next which include the need for recognition, acceptance and approval of others. Self-esteem needs include how we value ourselves and our love and respect for ourselves and for others. We also have the desire to know and understand. (Firth, 2002, p. 85)

It is the motivations that people have for certain attitudes towards their work and their relations with their employers. Affiliation is the need that people try to satisfy in the work place. Organizations must provide their employees with favorable conditions for professional and personal development in the work place and encourage growth and career advancement.

Realistic-group-conflict Theory (The Robbers Cave Experiment) – The Sherifs (Carolyn and Musafer Sherif)

This theory involves conflicts between groups which can be nations, tribes, ethnic groups, etc. Competition between different groups is a continuous phenomenon. The causes that the groups compete for may range from power and prestige to wealth or property. There is heightened animosity toward each other.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Muzafer Sherif (1961, as cited in Goldstein, 1994, p. 98) and his research team conducted studies on the causes of intergroup competition. The research was known as the summer camp studies. They recruited 24 12-year-old boys who came from middle-class families. The boys were not informed of the experiment; instead they were told that it was just a summer camp. The Researchers planned the experiment to be in three stages including group formation, conflict between the groups, and reduction of the conflict.

The first stage involved transporting the boys into two separate groups and classifying them according to their psychological and physical characteristics, and separating those who were friends. Inside the camp, the two groups were separated from each other in two distant locations, avoiding possible contact with each other. Activities for the boys involved athletics, hiking, camping, swimming, and developing group structure.

Toward the end of the first week, the two groups realized that they were sharing the same facilities and were beginning to exhibit a different kind of behaviour against the rival group. The two groups were now aiming for competition. The Researchers staged the games of baseball, tug-of-war and other contests, increasing the tension among the boys, until it escalated into verbal insults and other hostilities.

Throughout the period, the attitudes of the two groups became more hostile but were cohesive towards their own team. More activities or experiments, disguised as games, were conducted by the Researchers, and each time the boys showed bias toward their own group.

When they were asked to indicate their best friends, they chose their co-members of the group when in reality their best friends before they were brought to the camp were those from the opposite group.

The experimenters created instances where the two groups could cooperate with each other and this was when they had to pool their money for a movie that they all wanted to see. Another was for all to help in rescuing the water truck when it got stuck. All other activities involved interdependency for the two groups. The result was that there was a reduction in hostility. (Goldstein, 1994, pp. 98-9)

Team development is designed to improve the effectiveness of team members with interdependent jobs, where effectiveness refers to managing problems and accomplishing group goals. The experiment proved that behaviour of groups could escalate conflict and how easily hostilities can form. The experimenters designed tasks wherein the two groups had no other recourse except to help each other.

Functionalism – Emily Durkheim and Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)

This is sometimes known as ‘the society perspective’ or the ‘social-system perspective’. The original work of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim links this theory to the existing system at the time, but it was provided further study by the American sociologist Talcott Parsons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This theory was dominant in the United States during the period 1940s to the 1960s. It gained wide prominence but soon waned down although insights for this theory are linked to the existing social issues. According to this theory, human nature is irrational and self-centred. (Willis, 1996, p. 117)

Society has a great influence to the order of things and can prevent the escalation of conflict and war.

Willis (1996, p. 117) describes the tension between society and the individual members:

‘… the civilizing influence of society keeps irrationality in check, and individuals do not actively create social lives but are products of the external society. Individuals can be free and happy only within the confines set up by society.’

In this theory, society has a great influence on the individual members. It can be said that society comes first and the interest of the majority is ahead of the interest of the individual members.

The studies of Frederick Taylor are somehow linked to the society-individual interaction in the functionalism theory. He defined work in terms of the specified tasks designed for the workers to follow, and with no chance of freedom or judgment left on the part of the workers. There is no motivation during those early years of industrialization, which is the basis of Taylor’s theory. (Luecke

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Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Essay essay help online: essay help online

Abstract This paper takes a critical look at market efficiency as well as the efficient market hypothesis (EMH). The three forms of market efficiency are defined and illustrated while a correlation of the three forms of market efficiency proportionate to analysis is also identified and discussed.

Effective market hypothesis is further discussed and illustrated and academic evidence regarding the different stands and viewpoints on market efficiency is examined. In addition, different financial analyst’s explanation in relation to the role and impact of an investor in the financial market is examined and discussed.

The prices of shares are also discussed together with the elements in the market that greatly influence the prices of shares and securities in general. The stability of various stock indices is also looked at and relevant factors that contribute to the alteration of the indices either through speculation or economics are discussed from different analytical perspectives.

Finally, examples of market inconsistencies are discussed in order to identify instances where the share prices of particular firms have deviated greatly from the standard equilibrium. The paper goes ahead and further identifies and discusses the prevailing circumstances that led to the abnormal deviation of share prices and the subsequent corrective measures taken.

Introduction In order to be in a position to discuss the three forms of market efficiency, it is very important to comprehend the fundamental nature of market efficiency which is usually a major component of capital market efficiency. By definition, market efficiency is the level at which the present value of a given asset correctly replicates the existing information of the asset in the market place (Taleb, 2008).

Market efficiency necessitates a well organized capital market given that it is in such a market that new information on an asset is rapidly and accurately reflected in share prices and the current price is an objective estimate of its accurate economic value based on the revealed data.

Efficient Market Hypothesis on the other hand requires that all relevant information is in total and instantaneously mirrored in an asset’s market price, therefore presupposing that an investor will acquire an equilibrium rate of return (Shiller, 2003). An investor should therefore anticipate generating a standard return through the application of both technical analysis and fundamental analysis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The three forms of market efficiency Three forms of efficiency have been identified and grouped according to the nature of information which is replicated in prices.

Weak-form efficiency This efficiency means the information contained in historic price action of a share can be recognized in the current share prices though analyzing the historic prices has no predictive effect on the future prices since different information will be released in the future.

A number of varieties of fundamental analysis techniques are apt to offer surplus returns in Weak-form efficiency, whereas most technical analysis systems will fail in this form of efficiency or intermittently produce surplus returns (Keynes, 1936).

This is largely owing to the fact that the historical share prices in addition to other historical data cannot be utilized for an extended period of time in investment strategies to make surplus returns. Share prices have no price patterns that can assist in the assessment of current prices and hence lack serial dependencies.

Future price movements are for that reason determined entirely by the information disclosed at that particular time which is not currently enclosed in the price series (Fama, 1998). The history of share prices can therefore not be studied so as to forecast the future in any unusually gainful approach. Serial correlation in daily stock returns is close to zero as shown in the table below

Table 1. Serial Correlation of Daily Returns on Eight Stock Markets

USA 0.03 Germany 0.08 France -0.01 Holland -0.02 UK 0.08 Belgium -0.02 Italy -0.02 Switzerland 0.01 Source: Solnik, B. A Note on the Validity of the Random Walk for European Stock Prices. Journal of Finance (December, 1973).

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Semi-strong-form efficiency Entails that share prices fully and rapidly mirror all the major publicly available information in a neutral manner thus investors cannot earn excess returns through the trading on that information (Fama

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Managing Diversity at Workplace Report argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Outline

Introduction

Why Diversity Management?

Different Dimensions

Benefits of Workplace Diversity

Diversity Management and implementation of diversity policy

The link between workplace diversity and good management

Conclusion

References

Outline Workforce diversity should be treated as a business initiative and not a human resource or personnel department function. There is a strong business case for diversity in the workplace. The 21st century enterprises have a felt need to value, and leverage diversity. It is top agenda item for successful CEOs. It is commonly accepted business reality that heterogeneous groups outperform homogenous groups.

Heterogeneous groups are better at problem solving, effective at decision making, and they are particularly well equipped in generating creative ideas. The advantage comes from the fact that the diversity of the workforce background itself imparts a fertile launch pad for creativity to work at its best. Two brains are better than one is a truism aptly applicable to business situations.

The power of brainstorming to create a dramatic impact in finding creative solutions to business problems is enormous. Modern work teams can do wonders in workplace. Productivity, and work quality significantly go up when employees have, or perceive they have, a full opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way.

3M typifies such philosophy abundantly. There is a sense of job ownership, project ownership, ownership of the outcome. Even the most die-hard critic of workforce diversity will be unable to refute the obvious benefits of diversity.

Introduction We live in a society that is known for its differences. Diversity in terms of multiculturalism, gender politics, affirmative action, preferences, and mandates have become part of our existence. We are today more actively dividing ourselves by race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, cultural norms, physical ability, and socioeconomic status, than in the past (George, 1961).

Though diversity is in existence since long, it is only recently that it has attracted greater attention from the corporate mandarins. Managing diversity is nothing but changing the organisational culture or its standard operating procedures. The fostered culture should enable employees to closely examine their values and beliefs and question themselves as to why others look different for them.

Diversity management must essentially create an environment that works naturally for the total diversity mixture. Keeping this in view the present paper attempts to clarify some of the real life business challenges in an environment characterised by diversity in workforce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Diversity Management? Human beings tend to see through their own views and interpret the views by what is accustomed to them. There is an addiction to seek the aggregation of those makes a lot of agnate to them for the acquisition and assurance in similarities. It is difficult for humans to conceive power, and history shows that it is rarely done voluntarily. They abide by the external changes and always strive for an accompaniment of homeostasis.

This amusing absoluteness makes an atmosphere appropriate for diversity, which includes anybody; adolescent, old, abandoned and affluent, Hindu or Muslim or Christian. Assortment calls for anniversary being advancing to agreement with his or her attitudes, beliefs, and expectations about others and accepting abundance with the differences.

To achieve from the affluence of talents and perspectives that can alone appear from accepting an advanced array of humans in adjustment of authoritative roles, managements accept to alternation advisers to accept the differences that abide aural cultures and as well amount the similarities that abide amid capricious cultures.

Even to absorb humans with altered backgrounds and characteristics who are able with appropriate skills, organisations accept to ensure that such advisers are not appropriate for their different claimed and cultural ancestry as the amount of inclined behaviour in the organisation; they may acquire their own way to other firms who wish them on their own terms.

Different organisations are viewing diversity’ in different ways. By diversity, we commonly mean differences based on ethnicity, gender, age, religion, disability, national origin and sexual orientation.

But technically speaking, “diversity goes beyond these visibilities and encompasses an infinite range of individuals’ unique characteristics and experiences including communication styles, physical characteristics such as height and weight, speed of learning and comprehension, socioeconomics, and education” (Anthony, 2005, p. 1).

The diversities associated with education, socioeconomic and work experience are, of course, considered more critical for organisational success today. In this context, diversity has become a resource for organisations.

We will write a custom Report on Managing Diversity at Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the workplace, diversity, if properly managed, optimises the willingness and ability of all employees to contribute to the organisational success by encouraging each employee to draw fully on the talents, different points of view, skills, and practices that have been brought into the system for the benefit of both the individual and the organisation.

Today, flourishing companies are taking action to appeal people who are blessed with talents, adventures and perspectives, socioeconomic accomplishments and again to alone and aggregately empower them to accord aggregate they accept in adjustment to attain business objectives.

The ambition of assortment is not to calculate humans by category, but to account from the best mix of humans of such a category. It is the organisations that could instil variety into the organisation in tune with their eyes and cardinal objectives accept reaped added benefits.

Different Dimensions People exhibit abundant differences in how they recognize changes in the organisation based on claimed characteristics. Of course, there is a hypothesis in psychology, which says that behaviour of an individual is an action of the being interacting with his or her environment. For example, an annoyed worker gets balked while alive for a close that requires approval of place from abounding levels.

That is how assortment in the workforce fosters mixed responses, ideas, and outputs in the organisation. Researchers observe particularly seven major differences: Humans alter in productivity; humans alter in adeptness and talent; humans differ in their ability for accomplishing top superior results; humans alter in how abundant they wish to be empowered and involved; humans alter in the appearance of administration they adopt and need; humans alter in their charge for acquaintance with added people; and humans alter in their bulk of charge and adherence to the firm.

Personality differences are another source of diversity. The personality factors such as sociability, affecting stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, artlessness to experience, self-monitoring of behaviour and affecting intelligence make an impact on employee’s achievement at work places. It determines how an employee gathers and evaluates information.

Sensation displays individuals’ ability to accept and orderliness in their job action area as employees’ admiration to accept an all-embracing viewpoint and as well adore analytic new problems. Feeling blazon humans are about conformists and by all agency try to abstain disagreement. Contrarily, cerebration blazon individuals await added on their ability rather than affect to break problems.

It is believed that a diverse work force is always superior to a homogenous group. A heterogeneous group is proved to be capable of producing higher-quality ideas and is likely to take quality decisions for greater the diversity, greater will be the innovation in the organisation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Diversity at Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A company’s mere willingness to employ diverse workforce such as people from different races, genders, cultural backgrounds, the disabled, etc., may make it a darling of the market and thus give a boost to its market cap and sales volumes (Gregory, 1980).

Organisation image: The image of an organisation follows same connotations and meanings as that carried by an individual in real life. The organisations also exhibit same traits and behaviour as exhibited by individuals.

So organisations must create a culture that values diversity; practices policies that foster mutual respect, a sense of belonging for all, and the acceptance of differences, promote a culture where diversity is valued; and corporate wide diversity training serves to promote this image.

Concern for equality: In their practices, organisations must demonstrate equal respect for minority and majority group members. To achieve this, companies must develop performance expectations and reward systems that are unbiased. Often, minority-group members feel that they work harder than majority group members, but still are not compensated equally (Orlando, 2000).

Career development: Companies that want to create a climate where diversity is valued must promote minority group members with the opportunity for development and promotion. Most important, they must provide minorities an access to top-level management positions. Minorities who hold high-level positions can send a message to those in the lower ranks that this is a company that values diversity.

Hiring practices: Organisations must work hard to recruit and hire multicultural employees. At the same time companies must provide those prospective workers with an opportunity to be hired into well-paying positions, equal to the opportunities extended to majority groups. Companies can benefit from setting goals and guidelines for minority hiring.

Unfortunately, some organisations seek to build a diverse work group by hiring many minority group workers into low-paying, unskilled positions. Rather than creating an image of a positive multicultural environment, however, this crowding of minorities at lower positions fosters negative feelings. Minority members sense that they must do the “dirty work” and feel they are being used by the organisation (John, 1982).

Benefits of Workplace Diversity In the global economy, lack of cross-cultural understanding among the business people may lead to delays in getting the job done right, poor performance, decreased revenues and lost opportunities. Similarly, the need for adaptability is found to be quite essential for success in the globalised economy and diversity enhances adaptability.

It is only by employing a wide assortment of people; richness of talents and perspectives can be brought into organisations. There are thus more than one reason why companies deliberately take initiatives to build diversity among its employees, of course, in tune with its stated vision and mission statements.

Organisations that manage their diverse workers can increase their productivity substantially through many ways, one of which is increased problem-solving ability. Such productivity may result from increase in creativity that has been hypothesised to be related to heterogeneity. For example, bilingualism and biculturalism have been found to be related to divergent thinking, which in turn has been hypothesised to be associated with creativity (John, 1995).

Recently, it has been demonstrated that ethnic heterogeneity in small groups is associated with increased quality of ideas generated for solving problems. Increased heterogeneity also brings in another benefit the prevention of group think phenomenon that occurs only in cohesive groups.

Such factors however depend on how factors such as amount of diversity, ease of discussing differences, cultural awareness training, and background information on group members affect the quality of idea generation.

With the advent of digital economy one of the greatest challenges facing the organisations is the increasing diversity of workforce. It has become an essential business concern. There is a talent war raging among companies to retain their best talent in a bid to retain their competitive advantage. Diversity management and change management go hand in hand.

They mutually support each other (Anton, 1970). Organisations that adapt themselves to change are more likely to be comfortable with managing diversity better. Likewise, organisations are comfortable with diversity and are more likely to be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the globalised business environment.

They will be nimble footed to react instantaneously to the situational demands. It is known that organisations that are ready to accept changes can be stronger inherently as it would benefit them in terms of achieving adaptability to manage complexity, contradictions, and paradoxes.

Office technology has felt the revolutionary nature of change the most. The technological sophistication is a natural enabler to the manage diversity in a planned and systematic manner. Technology offers a level playing field to each individual regardless of gender, race, age, and so on. It is a great equaliser (Bertallanfy, 1968).

It eliminates the human bias. Electronic meeting is case to point as an example. It is a way of exchange ideas for free. Everyone has an active participative role shot. An electronic meeting paves the way for a secured atmosphere in which ideas and suggestions can be shared and proposed easily.

As a marketing strategy in today’s global economy it makes eminent sense to make the workforce represented by people from all walks of life covering a broad spectrum like different ethnicities, races, ages, abilities, genders.

To ensure that their articles and casework are advised to address to this assorted chump base, advancing companies are hiring people, from those walks of activity for their specialised insights and knowledge.

Similarly, companies having direct interface with the clientele are finding increasingly important to match the profile of the workforce with the profile of their customer base. Homogeneous workforce always result in less external interaction and communication and companies that retain such a workforce would not be effective in framing policies and programmes in consultation with people of different tastes and preferences.

To stay competitive the workforce diversity helps the companies as a capacity-building strategy. They need to sprint in order to stay where they are. The dynamics of change is no more evolutionary in nature rather it is revolutionary.

Companies that advance accept the accommodation to actually break problems, bound acclimate to new situations, readily analyse new opportunities and capitalise on them instantaneously. The scope of talent, experience, knowledge, insight, and acuteness accessible in their workforces can go a continued way in architecture the accommodation for the enterprise.

Whatever may be reasons that prompt companies, it is an obvious fact that companies that diversify their workforces will have a distinct advantage over those that don’t. The huge allowances of workforce diversity will be experienced, not by the companies that accept abstruse to apply humans in animosity of their differences, but by the companies that accept abstruse to apply humans because of them.

Diversity Management and implementation of diversity policy The acceptation of workforce diversity has been a cause for worry in contemporary years. Not continued ago, diversity referred to a person’s gender or indigenous group.

Diversity today encompasses differences in age, administration in an organisation, educational background, human acclimatisation or preference, concrete abilities or qualities and amusing status, bread-and-butter status, lifestyle, religion, ethnicity, and genders a part of abounding added characteristics (James, 2001).

Also the abstract suggests that diversity administration refers to efforts to animate a amalgamate workforce to accomplish up to its abounding abeyant in an candid plan ambiance area no one accumulation has advantage or disadvantage. Its focus is on alone differences rather than ability differentials. The main arguments identified in these definitions can be summarised by defining diversity as:

Diversity is an authoritative behaviour, which acknowledges and ethics differences and similarities a part of humans and how the differences can plan to advance the organisation. It as well agency compassionates the authoritative environments with an acknowledgment for gender, culture, and indigenous lifestyles.

Developing and maintaining programs that foster diversity have proven difficult for companies in which embracing diversity amounts to a cultural change. Because, company cultures are deeply rooted and the resulting beliefs are widely held, and culture is difficult to change.

Many organisations have attempted to find quick fixes for diversity enhancements, but sooner or later those firms have learned that there is no such thing as a quick fix. Fostering and managing diversity requires a comprehensive and carefully planned approach.

Given below is a diversity management model that the authors have developed through extensive literature review and issues raised by researchers and scholars in the field. The differences in ethnicity, culture, gender, age, and lifestyle impart variety of perspectives to the workplace.

All perspectives are not only essential but should be actively sought. The spirit of alternate regard, cooperation and investment through acquainted accomplishment to advance development of agents leads to synergy the action in which alive calm yields after-effects greater than the sum of alone efforts.

Proactively create and sustain an internal climate of equal opportunity for all through work force development initiatives such as job growth opportunities, through mentoring, job shadowing and training, tuition reimbursement, employee recognition, and improved communication on relevant issues and activities.

The link between workplace diversity and good management The organisations are also waking up to the fact that managing workplace diversity is imperative. Though organisations acknowledge the importance of maintaining a diverse workforce, efforts are not in tandem with the prominence given to the issue.

Workforce diversity is throwing up complexities no doubt, but looking at the broader picture, we see that there has been a movement from simple to complex in all realms of the workplace.

System thinking has replaced a simplistic cause- effect relationship. Managements are trying to integrate and benefit from a diverse workforce by coming up with options like flexi time benefits. Gender diversity training programs aimed at highlighting the politically correct work practices and individual behaviours are gaining popularity worldwide (Christopher, 2000).

The flip side is that some managers feel that increased workforce diversity may cause management problems. Diversity brings with it the need for more flexibility, which makes management more complicated (e.g., scheduling, compensation plans, interpersonal communication, ethnic differences) (Philip, 1974).

The crux of the issue lies in the fact that women in workforce is a reality and the aim of organisations must be to think of how best to harness this vast pool of talent and not glorify the issues as complications.

The boards of companies, which expressed faith and backed their women employees, have been rewarded handsomely. Management research is now focusing on a feminine style of management that highlights the success of adopting a feminine or a softer approach to managing people. Many studies have shown that women in fact can make better managers.

Workforce diversity can be managed only through a change in the mindset. Integrating the people working in an organisation successfully should be a product of the organisational culture and not a stand-alone training program. The day the women in organisations are accepted as being indispensable, just as in a family, that will be the day the term gender diversity with its negative connotations will cease to exist.

Efforts to build a diverse climate and creation of multicultural opportunities will not by themselves create an organisation that values diversity unless management practices reflect this commitment (Robert, 2001). If diversity is to be optimised, top managers must recognise the capabilities of all employees, take their ideas seriously, and support both minority and majority-group employees.

Managers must communicate effectively and accept employees who do not speak the local language. Finally, managers must respect the cultural beliefs and needs of employees and truly value the diversity of the workforce. Strategies that can lead to diversity include diversity-awareness training and the hiring of managers and top executives who reflect variety in gender, race, and ethnicity.

The role administration practices plays in acknowledging assortment highlights the charge to appoint and advance top-level agents associates who are acute to the apropos of multicultural employees. The management can do this by incorporating this in their hiring practices to hire people who are sensitive and can relate to multicultural workforce.

Conclusion Diversity among workforce becomes an asset business. It enables organisations to have a command over choice. Diversity brings to organisations unique perspectives. Understanding the demographic differences among the workforce can help organisations capitalise on diversity and avoid negative stereotyping.

If managed properly, diversity optimises the willingness and ability of all employees to contribute to organisational success besides, encouraging each to draw fully on the talents, different points of view, skills, and practices that have been made available by diverse workforce. Diversity, if managed badly, can become a liability.

References Anthony, Ferner, Phil Almond and Trevor Colling (2005), Institutional Theory and the Cross-National Transfer of Employment Policy: The Case of ‘Workforce Diversity’ in US Multinationals. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 36, pp 1- 86.

Anton, C. Zijderveld (1970), The Abstract Society-A Cultural Analysis of Our Time, Penguin Books, Middlesex, England.

Bertallanfy, Von Ludwig (1968), General System Theory: Foundations, Development and Applications, George Braziller, New York.

Christopher, Earley P. and Elaine Mosakowski (2000), Creating Hybrid Team Cultures: An Empirical Test of Transnational Team Functioning, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No1, pp-26-49.

Gregory, Bateson (1980), Steps to an Ecology of the Mind (chapter on Double Bind Theory of Schizophrenia), Ballantine Books, New York.

George, H. Sabine (1961), A History of Political Theory (Chapter Hegel: Dialectic and Nationalism’pp-620-668), George G Harrap

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The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities Coursework argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory and Art Introduction

Importance of the issue

Appreciating pieces of art is a great pleasure as it gives us time for imagining the personalized meaning of those objects through our own personal mirrors of our egos and minds. Sometimes, we try to find the meaning of what we see or hear with the help of our instinct or intuitive feeling beyond the logic and strict reasoning to understand the pictures or sculptures.

The same can be claimed about psychology and different theories that are aimed at explaining human desires and unconscious intentions. The perception of art objects can be understood with the help of applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to objects depicted and the way people usually understand those.

As psychological interpretation of contemporary art suggests abundant sources for comprehending our experience on art, it is possoble to use Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to understand the essential aspects of postmodern artworks in terms of the concept of desire. The relation between the concept of desire according to Jacques Lacan’s theory and such aspects as what is shown, what is seen, and the way of perception in the objects of art are of the main focus of the current paper.

Aim and scope

The current paper is aimed at showing the number of different explanations that can be evoked by implementation of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory while observing and discussing the objects of art such as mixed media sculptures created in contemporary conditions with the help of modern materials, techniques and methods including postmodern tendencies.

In particular, reviewing the works designed by Louise Bourgeois including Arch of Hysteria (1993) and Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) (1989-1993) and Yayoi Kusama’s Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field (1965) and Narcissus Garden (1966) can demonstrate the most prominent features of Lacanian theory in these art objects regarding desire in postmodernities.

The art objects mentioned above will be analysed in the current paper in accordance with the Lacanian psychoanalysis theory that includes such aspects as concept of mirror, phallocentrism, femininity, and mirror with regard to desire and psycho-sexual tendencies.

Theoretical Background

Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory

Lacanian psychoanalytic theory’s main purpose is to evoke hidden side of human mind, the unconscious, so that people could explain things that seem ambiguous or, on the contrary, obvious. The number of explanations of the unconscious desire can vary due to the background of every person involved in the process of discussion. For instance, certain events, either negative or positive, in the life of a person influence his/her perception of self and individual desire in different ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Lacanian theory of mirror stage in terms of personality development, the aspect of Narcissism is the shared feature of personal human desire. “The mirror stage is also closely related to narcissism”1 as the Greek myth dwells on the beauty of a young man who fell in love with his own reflection in the water.

“Lacan develops Freud’s concept by linking it more explicitly with its namesake, the myth of Narcissus”2. The mirror image in early childhood serves to mould a self-image that is not actually a self-image, but an ideal one of what we want to be, and, consequently, it serves to set a psychological drive toward self-definition based on a imaginary structure forced by the identification with external social order.

In this respect, Lacan’s theory does not focus only on biological aspect of mirror stage of psycho-sexual development; the mirror stage is suggested as the primary stage in the perception of a person that helps to conceive the real image from the self and from others. The scope of ideas on the concept of mirrors can be presented in a multivolume work whereas the main ideas can be found in the theory of psychoanalysis established by Jacques Lacan.

Though Lacan’s theory has proven to be one of the most insightful interpretations of our time, some critics found explanation and analysis of certain concepts gender-oriented and discriminating. For example, French feminists Julia Kristeva and Helen Cixous have argued about the objectivity of presentation of concepts of phallocentrism made by prominent theorists, philosophers, and psychologists Jacques Lacan and the person influenced by Lacan’s ideas, Jacques Derrida.

Female writers criticized Lacanian theory because it suggested lack of self in women making them penis-less creatures deprived of the ego and associated more as a part of the male essence. In this respect, Helene Cixous’s essay ‘The laugh of the medusa’ is aimed at discussing the influence of gender aspects on cultural life of people, art objects, and language in particular.

The author dwells on the difference between cultural concepts and gender aspects that, as the author claims, should not be mixed with one another and with biological peculiarities of life.3 The more we try to tie the aspect of gender to other areas of human life, the less appropriate these concepts may become.

Different problems with the perception of this or that idea or object of art can be the main reason for treating the phallocentric concepts as those discriminating femininity as a feature of the gender. Julia Kristeva suggests the idea of “drives [that] involve pre-Oedipal semiotic functions”4; this statement can be considered one of the most appropriate ideas for discussion with regard to desire and drives in the process of analysing the objects of art.

We will write a custom Coursework on The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phallocentrism is defined here as irrelevant panegyric on make sexual organ and behaviour of male representatives associated with their attitude to this organ as well. In this respect, the desire related to the objects of art can be found in the issue of glorification of the male sexual organ.

The more theories try to approach the concept of the mirror, the more ideas appear in the process of analysis even on the simplest phenomena that did not suggest that many explanations of a specific term before. In this respect, it is necessary to emphasise that Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is aimed at provoking human thoughts on different subjects as a person who knows about the suggested concepts would use those ideas while analysing the objects of art.

For instance, Jacques Lacan introduced a concept of mirror and explanation of the function of the unit I as suggested in psychoanalytic practice. His work “Mirror stage as formative of the function of the I as revealed in psychoanalytic experience” demonstrates the inner stage that is suggested to analyse as the initial condition or a ‘mirror’ as the inner reflection of all actions performed by a person.

This mirror is treated as a specific place or an object used for analysis of actions, behaviour, and deeds by a person; such a self-analysis and counter-analysis are used for signification and counter-signification of the self.5

This concept was not critically perceived by female writers Cixous and Kristeva because it was not treated as the one that is posted against the femininity, female concepts, and feminine gender in general though the concept of mirrors helps to assess the role of desire in the analysis of the self.

Desire in Postmodernities

Postmodernism is a movement in art and architecture that can be considered one of the most influential trends in twentieth century due to its simplicity and complicatedness at the same time. Though different styles in art can be claimed to have found their application in culture, postmodern movement had a prominent impact on the architecture and art objects.

As suggested by Tobin Siebers in his book Heterotopia: postmodern utopia and the body politic, the postmodernities can be compared to desire that cannot be explained and understood completely.6 On the other hand, it is necessary to trace the real meaning of postmodern art objects that can be insightfully explained using psychological analysis theories aimed at explaining human desires, fears, and intentions.

The analysis of the self can be performed through the use of mirrors that represent the relations between what a person wants to show and others want to see or are able to see. Besides, as suggested by Jacques Lacan, the desire can be clearly understood after analysis of the body: Fragmented body is analysed in terms of the desires and fears and the hidden intentions behind the reflection of different parts of the human body.7

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most postmodernists are sceptical of the concept, ‘certainty’ or ‘authentic truth’ because the function, meaning, and symbolic value are varied in the context or situation; the same can be traced in psychoanalysis where every detail is thoroughly examined to trace the connection between the desire and images usually reflected in the inner mirror.

Though every object of art can be analysed in a different way, there is a number of traits that can be traced in most of them with regard to the gender of the author, the inner reflection of the actions, and attitude to the self, and other concepts that can be easily found in psychoanalytic theory established by Jacques Lacan.

So, the objects of art created with regard to the tendencies and concepts established for postmodernities can be easily analysed with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory designed merely at the same time as the postmodern movement.

In this respect, it is possible to apply the concepts of psychoanalysis such as self-criticism by Freud8 to the objects of art designed by contemporary authors due to the background of authors and their reflection of the self in those art objects.

Position of Theory to the Art Object

Louise Bourgeois, Arch of Hysteria, 1993

The first object of art that should be analysed with regard to the concept of desire in postmodernities and the basic concepts revealed in Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is the one designed by Louise Bourgeois. This piece of art was created in 1993; the Arch of Hysteria can be considered one of the most feminine and delicate works created by this author.9

At the same time, it is powerful demonstration of the human body. And the name of the sculpture created using polished patina on the hanging piece made of bronze talks for itself. The attack of hysteria makes people change the positions of their bodies.

The same can be traced when a person experiences some strong emotions or feelings and is not able to control the movements, gestures, and emotions expressed on his/her face. Every attack of hysteria can be depicted in another way because every individual has his/her own reflection of the self and is able to analyse the self using the inner mirror.

The discussion of femininity is related to the ideas the author of this object of art found relevant due to the feminism movements and active involvement in those.10 The author manages to create her works without being too gender-discriminating toward the representatives of the opposite sex. Moreover, her work Arch of Hysteria (1993) can be considered the one that makes the male body the core concept of the overall image created.

In this respect, the idea of phallocentrism vigorously criticised by Cixous and Kristeva can be easily traced in this particular object. Moreover, the body hanging in the air can be analysed using the concept of fragmented body with regard to the wholeness of the subject, totalization and autonomous self. In other words, the concept of desire in postmodernities can be explained with the help of this sculpture that seems to be aimed at dethroning the power of the male body by making it more feminine with the help of hysteria that was considered a female disease.

Every person has certain secrets whereas all hidden desires and intentions can be revealed with the help of the psychoanalysis suggested by Lacan who based his theory on the concepts explained and analysed by Sigmund Freud.

The main idea of the current object of art can be considered the real human emotion captured in the earthly body while every gesture and movement made by the person helps to reveal this emotion and explain the reasons for experiencing it.

In the same way, every person can be read as a book with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory when every image, dream, or idea is the result of some events and situations that took place in the life of this person; the same events and situations can be treated as the reasons or causes of other events.

The concept of desire can be considered the core idea of every piece of art because every author has certain desires and intentions and can use those as inspiration while designing the object of art. Moreover, the sexual desire can be traced in every art object that is aimed at reflecting the author’s intentions through the presentation of the human body.

Louise Bourgeois, Cell (Eyes and Mirrors), 1989-1993

The next object of art is designed by the same author. This creation is represented through the cell which contains specific eyes and mirrors. In this respect, it is necessary to trace the meaning transferred with the help of those objects to the meaning of the whole piece of art.11 The more different objects we introduce to the piece of art, the more complicated it becomes.

The complicatedness of the object can be traced through the number of meanings attributed to every object it contains. In other words, the meaning of this Cell (Eyes and Mirrors)12 should be analysed with regard to the meaning of cell, eyes as parts of the human body, and mirrors and the concept of desire in postmodernities.

It is possible to analyse every concept in turn and, after that, try to explain the meaning of the whole object of art bearing in mind the meaning of each separate object that is included in the structure. For instance, the work of art Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) designed by Louise Bourgeois in 1989-1993 can be analysed as a set of objects each having its own meaning and contributing to the meaning of the entire object.

As every object can have meanings with regard to the context, it is necessary to analyse the possibility for occurrence of meanings and the number of meanings that can depend on different factors. In other words, the background knowledge and situations that occurred in the life of a person prior to observation of a concrete object of art should influence his/her perception of this work.

So, cell can be considered as the limitation or restriction imposed on a person by his/her parents, friends, or supervisors. Besides, certain prohibition can be treated as the reason for author to use such an object in the overall construction. If a person had no negative experience related to the image of a cell, this work of art would not evoke any negative emotions.

The concept of eyes in combination with mirrors represents the reflection of the ideas with the help of mirrors. In addition, this combination can be treated as the desire of the author to show the audience something hidden in her inner self which can be seen only through the eyes. Thus, the eyes reflected in mirrors suggest a hidden desire of the author to reveal her hidden feelings or something she cannot say aloud.

Another idea that comes to mind while looking at this object of art created by a woman is the female aspect of this work. In this respect, it is necessary to remember about the concern of all women about their look. As they often look in the mirror, they can see something that cannot be seen without a mirror.

In other words, the mirror can be used as an instrument to show and see something mysterious or at least something that cannot be seen without this magical device. The desire to say something can be treated as the core concept of this work because mirrors and reflections can often say something a person is afraid to reveal to him/herself or is confused about the consequences of such information transferred to a stranger.

Masks and disguise contribute greatly to the overall image of the object of art called Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) designed by Louise Bourgeois in 1989-1993 because it is a feature of most women to have many identities and play many roles while only a mirror can reflect the real image of a woman.

Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field, 1965

It is necessary to mention that the object of art designed by Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field created in 196513 can be considered one of the most original objects of art designed under the influence of postmodern trends and technologies. This work can be easily analysed applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to practice because mirrors play the core role in this work.

The more a person reflects on his/her self image in the mirror, the more he/she is likely to change in the inner world to adjust to the conditions of the outer world. On the other hand, it is possible that a person changes the inner world to have it as a shelter from the oppression and all negative factors that exist in the outer world.

In this respect, it is possible to treat the mirrors as an instrument for initiating self-analysis. As suggested in the work by Peter Gay who analyses Freudian theory of psychoanalysis, “The physician should be opaque to the patient and, like a mirror, show nothing but what is shown to him.”14

For Lacan, however, mirror image has some deceiving aspects that alienate human from the real self by representing the Narcissistic illusion of self-autonomy. In this regard, the mirror in the Kusama’s work is the place for searching human identity on the dialectical relationship between ‘seeing and to be seen’.

Lacan’s key concept regarding the mirror stage is for challenging the integrated identity that reflects human’s narcissistic desire for wholeness, totalitarian or self-autonomy which we should overcome to be mature.

In addition, he thought integrated identity to be illusion of synthesis which is not really existent in the real world. For Lacan, human is in fragmented body in the real world and the fragmented body refers not only to images of the physical body but also to any sense of fragmentation and disunity.

The life in society can be considered another influential feature in creation of this object of art due to postmodernities with regard to desire and values typical of times and cultures; many identities are reflected in the mirror and it is up to a person to see or not to see them.

The objects on the floor of the mirror room can be treated as obstacles for analysis because the roles we play in the everyday life can differ greatly from what we are and who we are because of the necessity to adjust to the conditions of the outer world. Besides, the society that we live in often imposes the roles on its members in order to protect itself from misunderstandings.

This aspect can be regarded as a great obstacle for analysis of a person, his/her real desires, fears, intentions, and beliefs. In addition, the efforts of a person to take away those obstacles can be considered unavailing because the mirror room is closed whereas all objects are inside it and there is no way out except the door.

It is possible that the only way to walk through the door is to recognise the reflection in the mirror and confront the uneasiness of the fragmented body in the number of identities assigned by contemporary life.

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 1966

The next object of art for analysis is the mixed media Narcissus Garden created by Yayoi Kusama in 1966.15 The author managed to use the reflection received while looking in the water. This object consists of a pond and silver balls in the water. These balls are light enough not to drown while their reflection in the water can be treated as the reflection of each person in the mirror in the previous work of art.

As suggested by Sigmund Freud in his study ‘On Dreams’, every dream has specific content16 that can be analysed. Moreover, every object depicted in the dream has a specific meaning with regard to the situation in which it appears. In this case, the balls that can be seen on the water surface can reflect the desire of a person to swim opposed to the possibility of drowning.

Every object that can be analysed can be influential in terms of hidden desires or fears that can be revealed in the process of analysing those dreams. Though some dreams may seem strange, it has some points to try to analyse each of them in order to see the real nature of the soul.

The pond with silver balls can be associated with a desire to see the number of identities. If a person reflects the pond with silver balls in the object of art, she may have some problems with self-identification. In other words, a person that experiences difficulties with analysis of the self can try to reflect those problems in this way.

For instance, the number of balls can correspond to the number of identities or roles a person has in everyday life and uses those while communicating with colleagues, building relationships in the family, and other situations.

However, the surface of the water shows everything that is reflected while some reasons can be found for this. In this case, the balls are reflected in the outer world while an inner mirror is situated in the inner world. In this respect, the number of identities will be reflected in the water every time.

Every identity has its own reflection in the outer world as well as every person can find his/her reflection in the mirror being a parent, a friend, or performing some other roles. In this respect, an inner mirror of the ego should show our Narcissistic desire towards independent entity.

Every concept of life can be reflected in the inner world whereas it depends upon a person whether to let certain concepts into the inner world or leave those outside. As the personal life of every individual is full of certain events, all those events can influence successive events and the condition of the inner worlds.

Thus, a reflection in the inner mirror can distorted due to the impact of all events that take place in the life of a person. The pond with silver balls can also be treated as the outer world with all its imperfectness and obstacles that appear on the way of a person when he/she wants to look at the Narcissistic reflection on self but can only see the numerous identities. Every identity can be reflected in the mirror of the outer world though it is up to a person whether to let those identities into the inner world to be reflected in the inner mirror.

Conclusion The concept of self, reflection in the mirror, the number of identities and roles assigned to every person, feminism and male sexual organs can be traced in the objects of art. As the theory of Lacan is mainly based on the theory established by Sigmund Freud, it is necessary to mention the significance of his study for analysis of sexuality and gender differences.

The Arch of Hysteria reflects the power of human body whereas it can be treated in a different way when applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to it. In this respect, a human body can be considered the symbolic representation of human desires reflected with the help of postmodernism trends.

Female critics of Jacques Lacan’s theory do not blindly criticise his theory; they try to see the discrimination of identity of woman in the analysis through rejection of the phallocentrism as a core aspect of most psychological analyses. In other words, Helene Cixous and Julia Kristeva apply Lacan’s psychoanalysis as the assessment of sexual features, desires (often sexual), and fears related to the gendered self.

Lacan’s theory of the mirror stage demonstrates that our self-identification is based on an illusion of an idealistic image of completeness that does not actually exist in the real. And the imaginary identity created by the co-operation between Narcissistic desire and external forces is subject to the fragmentation of identity in reality.

Thus, the ideal-I acts in similar way as Sigmund Freud’s ego in that it prevents this fragmentation from emerging to the surface. The main aspect that can be traced in the objects of art such as Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) by Louise Bourgeois and Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field and Narcissus Garden designed by Yayoi Kusama is the mirror and reflection of the self including the further analysis of the self.

Works Cited Bourgeois, Louise, Arch of Hysteria (1993). Web.

Bourgeois, Louise, Cell (Eyes and Mirrors), (1989-1993). Web

Cixous, Helene, ‘The laugh of the medusa’, in Peter Simon (ed.), The Norton anthology of theory and criticism (London: W. W. Norton

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Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back Term Paper college essay help near me

To begin with, upon seeing the title, I immediately thought of the Star Wars movie. The content is very far from the movie though. In general the book is a very helpful and clearly articulated accumulation of the main issues and problems in post-colonial scholarship. Although some scholars call it outdated and too academic, I think it has its historical value and will be used to teach postcolonial literatures for a long time.

In this paper I was trying to concentrate on the issues of revision. The notion of revision and the term “reversionary” have been discussed widely, although not theorized, by many feminists and postcolonial critics over the past few years. Harold Bloom is a pioneering critic who has theorized the nature of revisionism by describing it as anxiety, an “anxious expectation” in the Freudian sense (Agon Viii).

Revision in the Blooomian model suggests a mediated vision whose agonistic spirit “[contests] for supremacy, with other spirits, with anteriority, and finally with every earlier vision of itself” (Agon ViiI). However the agonistic fighting that Bloom proposes represents more of “a loving conflict” with previous works than one with the world. Bloom stresses agonistic revisions of texts, not of contexts.

Revision is given a pivotal emphasis in the influential work of Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back, in which they remark that the “ ‘revisioning’ of received tropes and modes…and the rereading of ‘canonical’ texts possess a powerfully subversive textuality, which emerges as the major post-colonial discursive practice” (Empire 194).

They argue that revision in a periodic modality has become the preeminent genre for writers of the colonial arena. Allusions to the Western classics and the borrowing of the Western model are not accidental. Those who grow up in colonial cultures are encouraged to imitate their Western fathers (Key 139).

Admittedly, the notion of mimicry, in the form of imitation, is effectively combined with the notion of revision of colonial terms. As Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin note, “When colonial discourse encourages the colonized subject to ‘mimic’ the colonizer, by adopting the colonizer’s cultural habits, assumptions, institutions and values, the result is never a simple reproduction of those traits” (Key 139).

The result, rather than a mere copy or mockery, is the “blurred copy”, ambivalent and menacing. Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin argue that mimicry is the overt goal of the postcolonial projects. They take V.S. Naipaul’s novel The Mimic Man as an example to illustrate that mimicry is implicit in postcolonial conditions (Empire 88).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin, literary revisions as mimic texts that stylistically and generically imitate Western classics disable the imperial center and spread disorder on the margins of empire. In mimicry, the dominant discourse constructs Otherness by a continual process of “repetition and displacement” to maintain control over the other. Mimicry serves as a partial representation that disturbs and mocks the narcissistic desire of colonial authority (Empire 115; Key 139-142).

Ashcroft et al. point out the disabling effect of colonial mimicry as it constructs an “otherness”, menacing the imperial discourse. Bhabha stresses the double vision of mimicry, its resemblance and menace evolving from the process of representation. These criticisms, although laudatory, have overlooked gender differences. I believe that colonial mimicry should be discussed and racial and sexual differences should be examined.

Due to my thesis topic I am very interested in the matters of postcolonial hybridization. Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin in their seminal study note that various postcolonial cultures produce a form of hybridization.

They argue that postcolonial literatures are intrinsically hybrid because they reveal inherently contradictory elements of different discourses that result from the translation and imposition of European thinking, grounded in ancestry, history, and time, onto a colonial space. The history of the dominant culture is exported to different colonies, but the amputated timeline makes the colonial history replete with internal competing voices (Empire 33-7).

Another point that drew my attention is the matter of language importance. Language has been regarded as an important medium by which colonial hierarchy is perpetuated and imperial domination is reified (Empire 7). The metropolitan assumptions of truth, order, and civilization are maintained and reinforced by an imperial language education that “installs a ‘standard version’…as the norm, and marginalizes all ‘variants’ as impurities (Empire 7).

Language is given a capacity to territorize. In the formation of imperialism, the King’s language, the center, with its Eurocentric standards of judgment, is the privileged form; the marginal or peripheral is denied or excluded.

A dispensation standard was instated at the crux of the development of English studies as a cut-out for the defiance of the value of the subsidiary uncolonized literature. The standardization became central to the civilizing enterprise by the colonists who sought to hue their subjects with their norms and practices in order to vanquish and subdue their cultures so that they can have an overt dominance over them in all spheres of their collective lives.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essentially, when the indigenous sought to disentangle themselves from the spooling supremacy their tactical move threatened the restricted claims of the centre (George 112-116). Consequently, they were subtly integrated this through the process of conscious affliction arranged under the semblance mimicry purposely to be both accepted and adopted.

This stir notably propelled those who were suspending at the periphery to It plunge themselves into the imported culture, consequently, denying their origins and as (Harris 133) puts it they attempted to become ‘more English than English essentially, English stands out as a sacrosanct tenet positioning its dominance over the other cultures, its unquestioned nature exerted its potency in cultural formation and in ideological schooling institutions (Memi, 28).

Nonetheless, with the advanced growth and development of the post colonial literatures, scholars have sought to establish why English garnered such dominance in the educational realms exerting its rule in the literal cycles.

After a keen scrutiny at the literature written after the upsetting colonial era, I established that the work produced immediately after the wallowing colonial eon went through various stages of development. At first, it was written and aligned with the colonial objective, neither did it display the ingenuous sentiment of the native writers, nor did it stand out as an original English text (Memi 76).

It couldn’t be deemed as a blend of the local with the colonial, it was a mimicry which lacked basis and an underpinning dangled in a balance where it could not assert its stand for it was a copy of the original. The paranoia and the dread of the colonial masters suppressed the native writers from lettering what they candidly believed; their creative work had to be forfeited and shelved because they lived under the shadow of colonial ascendancy.

The original work was tackled and handled in accord with the colonial master hence it had to be attuned to match up their interests and proclivity. Most of the original indigenous work was translated by the colonial masters, logically they molded it to fit their interests and convey the message they intended to convey to the world.

During the second stage of the literature development, the writers sought to blend what they believed to be true as they had learned and construed from their cultures yet they had to tone it down because they viewed the world through the lens of the colonialists (Memi, 31).

As Ashcroft et al focuses on; the conflict elicited by variation in the context and content in regard to background orientations they assert that the thinking and creativity of the invaded culture had been shaped through the educational program which was systematically programmed by the imperialists to sway their thinking to favor colonial rule at their own exepense.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their minds had been colonized and brainwashed adjusted to think in favor of the colonial ruler so their written text was still tainted with the spots of the imperialism. The breed thus spawned out of the colonial influence could not be termed as English neither could it be termed as indigenous it became a hybrid, tethered by the colonial influence (Griffiths 178-180). The stages in literature development are evidently paired with the phases of both national and the regional consciousness in the plagued societies.

It’s against this back drop that a new breed of freethinking literature intellects sort to revisit and revise the already published post colonial literature in order to give it and edge to stand out free from the colonial manipulate.

Whilst the invaded civilizations sought to equivocate and purge the imperial influence in their literal work, they were ensnared by the very fact that the imperialists gave them the communication language through which they could spawn ideas and reach an extensive audience. The regal rule was the platform through which they could aver their work; in essence they were made from a replication of the fellow colonists but they could not match up the imperialist (Memi 76).

The imperial domination over the local cultures spawned forth intrinsic challenges which garnered problems seeking resolution. In an inimitable way the domination is inexorably entrenched in the dominated cultures. I realized that there were various tensions which could not be disentangled in the post colonial literature.

There two world orders being enmeshed despite their divergent attributions, there was a clash between the old cultural aboriginal ways of life with the incoming dominating settler culture (Ngugi 86). In my view the settler culture sought to assuage the old style indigenous culture by imposing its values and provenance and this of course was broached with dissent from the dominated culture.

According to the book the new culture brought in by the settler was incongruous with the old native culture; there was resistance because the native populace was deeply entrenched in its own systems which were by far very different from the settler culture (Memi, 49). There was the ever nagging clash of the language, the newly imported language from the settler did not match with the new locality, and hence the settler had to impose his language on the native people in order to have a universal accord with his subjects.

I realized according to the literature that the colonial influence from the indigenous literature was nearly impossible, because the essence of the literature being revised was etched in the colonial insignia. Colonialism had given it subsistence; colonialism frog spawned the post colonial literature myriad facets of its content were interwoven having their root in colonialism.

Whilst language served as the media through which the colonialists exerted their rule over the subjects its still the same media through which the work written by the indigenous writers garnered pre-eminence due to its universal nature having exerted its rule in the world.

I realized that irrespective of the relentless exertion by indigenously bred writers from the colonialzed countries to curve out a niche in their texts to illumine their intrinsic cultures, values and attributions the hybridization of their mores by the colonial rule perverted their literature so that it does not come out as either aboriginal or imperial.

There is an inevitably effort to assert a variation between the local culture and the imposing centre of the colonialists (Ashcroff 63). Notably, in all the literature written immediately after the colonial period, there is an allege to remain objective in the matters being discussed yet after a deeper analysis it becomes clear that there is a deliberate effort to conceal the colonial discourse within which the literature was created (Ashcroff et al 94)

Here the hurdle is on the budding writers, the by products of the colonial governance and dominance, how can they evade their models, in what way are they able to sort and understand the imposition of new trends and values? The new information and knowledge they derived from the colonialists has to be matched with their cultures and intrinsically attained attitudes.

I found out that writers sought to identify any extensions of what they already knew in order to develop their texts from their own stand point yet the looming imperial influence chiefly altered their innovation blending their prior knowledge with the imposing colonial attributions and values.

The colonization occurrence and the myriad hurdles spawned by the experience garnered a new breed of writers in English language. The diverse and potent body of literature created unambiguous post-colonial writing in the various cultures affected by the colonial dominance which both defied the customary canon and overriding ideas of literature and culture.

The instant literature produced from the invaded countries identifies with the colonizing powers because the initial text is produced through coordinated activity of the colonized and the colonizers (Memi, 22). In my opinion such literature cannot in any way form a foundation for the indigenous cultures because its production is marred with the colonial intrusion.

Colonial rule essentially dominated and subjugated the indigenous culture, reeling under the austere rule of the imperial power; the writers spawned from the native culture had to adhere to the modalities of the colonial rule (George 52). The literate too has been aligned to match up the interests of the colonizers, the values and beliefs in the native cultures are subdued under the prevailing colonial dominance.

The number one strategy that the European settlers, the former colonies used to subdue and rule the indigenous civilization is by imposing their language on their dominated cultures.

This way they stamped a symbol of their supremacy over the culture reeling under their authority. Moreover, other facets of the colonizers civilization like education and moral codes were imported and vehemently instilled into the dominated cultures. Consequently, the indigenous cultures were overwhelmed and subdued under the colonial callous rule.

The settlers had a goal of imbibing into the resources and facilities of the native cultures, in order to exert their rule over such people they had to pacify and suppress them deeming their cultural elements as both uncouth and invalid (Ashcroff 45). This kind of approach was geared towards swaying the mode of thinking amongst the natives so that they venerated the foreign cultures at the expense of their own.

As the dominated cultures gradually attained their independence they could not phase out some tenets from the imperialists which had been inherently entrenched in their culture by the settlers. Such tenets included language and educational systems so the non indigenous language filtered its way in to the native culture and was easily utilized in the post colonial literature.

There was sense of displacement as the indigenous people held on to the imported language deeming it as an adequate media through which they could express their views. I noticed that the colonizers did not delve into enlightening the native cultures on the richness of their own language; this meant that the local language lacked rank and they feared that once they utilized it in their literature it would bring ruin since it was popularized by the colonial powers.

This was logical because even the education they had attained was conveyed through the imported settler language. Critics have subsequently come out to question the appropriateness of utilizing imported language in native cultures. Harris asserts the view that such brain wash was ensconced through the education system where the native civilization was debased in comparison to the imported culture which was given prominent extol.

The colonial rule dominates the native culture, as the imperialists stealthily crept into their culture and imposed their values on the indigenous people the old culture is progressively undone as guns and new language filter amongst the locals. The words and the diversity of culture from imperialists is aped and gradually etched in the minds of the native cultures as they follow blindly into dominating circular ways of the imperialists which swallow their ways from within.

As time elapses whether it’s in Canada, Africa or India, myriad revisions to the literature written immediately after colonial rule has to be taken through a rigorous revision in order to ape the intrinsic indigenous culture. The now elite and unconventional generation seeks to unshackle the previous literature from the dominating forced lens of the colonialists through which the work was spawned. Ironically, the revision is done in the same colonial language; Kafka uses German while Chinua Achebe uses English.

A major attribution exuded by the dominated literatures is the foreseeable tendency towards insurrection and a keen analysis of the tactics employed by the dominating rulers in their effort to pacify and rule over their subjects. The studies carried by the dominated scholars to illuminates the strategies of subjugation bring into light all the configurations of supremacy of the dominant cultures.

Conversely they also pay attention to the ingenious and imaginative responses exerted by the dominated cultures to this condition openly and obliquely. Thus empires writes back to gear to the imperial axis through nationalist contention asserting its centrality exuding its overt determination to seek answers on European metaphysics challenging the world view that can polarize centre and margins in the first place (Harris 67).

Works Cited Ashcroft, Bill T. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. New York and London: Routledge, 1998.

Ashcroff, Bill T. Post colonial futures: Transforming the imperial culture. London: Routledge, 2001.

Ashcroft Bill, Griffiths Gareth and Tiffin Helen. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York and London: Routledge, 1989.

George, Lamming G. The pleasures drawn from exile. London: Alison and Busby Publishers, 1960.

Griffiths, Gareth G. Double exile: African and West Indian writing Boyars Marion. NY: Kniff, 1978.

Harris, Willy C. On History Myth and Fable. Chicago: Calaloux publications. 1970.

Harold, Bloom T. Agony: Towards a Theory of Revisionism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Memi, Waltz A. Understanding the colonizer and the colonized. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965.

Ngugi, WA T. Mind Decolonizing: Language use in African literature. London: Macmillan press, 1981.

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