Operations Decisions For Krafts Foods Inc. And Manute Foods Company Evaluation Essay Argumentative Essay Help

Companies’ Background The two companies referred to in this study operate in the foods and beverages industry. In addition, the companies concentrate in the production of low calorie microwavable foods.

Krafts Foods Inc. is a leading global manufacturer and marketer of beverages and packaged foods (MarketResearch.com, 2011). It has its headquarters in Northfield, Illinois, but also operates in the other continents. Low calorie microwavable products from the company fall under the convenient meals sector. For instance, cheese and Kraft Macaroni come in ready-to-heat pouches.

Manute Foods Company is also a multinational foods company. It specializes in the manufacture and distribution of low calorie microwavable foods. Its operations are not as widespread as those of Krafts Foods Inc. However, its presence in the industry is significant. The organization operates from the state of Texas.

Low Calories Microwavable Foods Market Structure and Companies Effectiveness Determination Plan

Mankiw (2011) regards market structure as the number and types of competing firms operating in a given industry. Consumers across the US and the rest of the world are exhibiting increased preference for healthy and fat-free food products (MarketResearch.com, 2011).

According to IMAP (2010), the global demand for convenience foods and increasing health consciousness are expected to facilitate continued growth in the low calorie microwavable foods sector. In addition, majority of the processed foods consumed in the world are packaged.

Competition in the low-calories microwavable foods industry is intense. Krafts Foods Inc. competes with other global foods and beverages brands, not only in the low calorie microwavable foods sector. Some of the competitors include Tyson Foods (US), Danone (France), and JBS (Brazil). Others are Kellog Co. (US), ConAgra Foods (US), and HJ Heinz Co. (US) (IMAP, 2010; Rayburn, 2014; Jambrak, 2012).

In spite of the stiff competition, profits in this sector are relatively high. For instance, Krafts Foods Inc. recorded $42.2 billion in revenues in 2008 from its global operations. Operating profits and net income stood at $4.9 billion and $2.9 billion respectively (IMAP, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Krafts Foods Inc. market analysis above reveals that the low calories microwavable foods industry has a monopolistic competition market structure. The market is highly competitive, characterized by numerous operators (Yorke, 1984). The companies in this industry usually compete through the distribution of slightly differentiated products, albeit in the same line. Manute Foods Company exhibits these characteristics in line with the reality in the industry.

The two companies analyzed in this paper are operating at the product-market competition level. Analyzing market effectiveness should indicate the two organization’s firm and industry performance in terms of profits. The market effectiveness plan should be based on the entities’ operational strategies. Business strategies should exhibit the ‘forward-looking’ ability of the venture in relation to the choices and investments made. In addition, they should anticipate the future actions of the firm and those of the competitors.

Both Manute Foods Company and Krafts Foods Inc. should invest in markets that are characterized by viability and stability, as far as anticipated outcomes are concerned. Viability means that companies can make profits from the markets they are venturing. On the other hand, stability implies that entry into a new market will not lead to losses in the near future.

Two Factors Likely to Cause Change in the Low Calories Microwavable Foods Monopolistic Competition Market Structure

There are various factors that may affect the operations of the two companies. One of them includes regulations in relation to licensing and product quality.

Strict licensing terms with regards to these products might lock out some companies. Such a scenario may limit the freedom of entry into the market and exit from this industry. In addition, the terms may reduce the number of firms operating in the industry (Yorke, 1984). Reduced competition will translate to higher profits and market share for the existing companies (Arslan

[supanova_question]

Branding and Marketing Positioning Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Conclusion

References

Abstract The performance of many businesses nowadays depends on their competitive advantage. Businesses can achieve competitive advantage through its strategies by identifying their roles and that of their rivals.

The roles played by businesses in an industry are classified into three groups namely: market leader, market challenger, market follower, and market “nicher”. The paper explores different roles played by top female handbag designers, that is, Louis Vuitton, Coach and Michael Kors to brand and position their products in the fashion industry.

Introduction In the current competitive market, business success not only depended on consumer behavior, but also the number of competitors in the market. They must continuously evaluate their products, prices, distributional channels and promotional activities with their main rivals in order to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses.

Identification of the rivals, their moves and trends helps in the establishment of suitable strategies to compete in the market (Cuellar-Healey, 2013, p. 4). According to Kriemadis and Terzoudis (2007, p. 30), appropriate strategies can help businesses to maximize great opportunities to enhance sales and attain sustainable competitive advantage using the available resources.

A business can only gain further ground over rivals through its strategies by identifying its roles and that of its rivals. The roles played by businesses in an industry can be gainfully categorized into: market leader, market contender/challenger, market follower, and market “nicher”. The market leader is a company with the leading market share.

A company can be dominant in term of prices, product innovation, exposure, and promotional budget. Market leader always strives to be on top of the industry by expanding and defending its current market share (Kotler

[supanova_question]

Ultimate Software Human Resource Practice Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

There are many factors that were considered in electing the company with the best human resource practice. The human factor was a key factor in the whole process and companies that had a motivating human resource practice were nominated. Ultimate Software being one of those companies with a desirable human resource management system was elected among the best companies and to elaborate the details, its various practices are analyzed.

The medical cover is unique in that it even covers same sex partners and to add to that, the cover is attractive as the employees and their spouses are fully covered and no extra costs are to be incurred in case of any sickness. Unlike Ultimate Software Company, most medical covers do not include dental care. This is a rare cover to come across and it must have immensely contributed to the popularity of the company.

Another unique benefit is on the educational aspect of the employees of the company. The human resource manager has structured the system in such a way that it encourages the employees of the company to go for further studies and certification. The system allows reimbursement of money spent on obtaining certification and educational skills of their employees. This does not happen in every other company; it is a unique case and must have earned the company some extra votes.

The annual salary of Ultimate Software Company is also attractive. It is above the market rates as compared to those offered by its competitors. It is good to pay commensurate salaries to employees for services offered. This is happening in Ultimate Software Company as the salary plus the other benefits is enough to cover for the services offered by its employees. This is another reason the company was voted among the best companies.

Leaves for employees are an important aspect as far as human resource management is concerned. They allow the employees of an organization to attend to personal issues as well as unwind and kill boredom. Most companies do not offer leaves to their employees on a regular basis and when necessary and thus this is a cutting edge compared to their competitors (Wright, 2002).

However, Ultimate Software Company knows the importance of leave to its employees as it offers regular leaves. It also gives them offs when there is a need and an event they want to attend. Some of the other companies that offer leaves to their employees do not pay them during the days they are off work. However, this is not the case at Ultimate Software as the company still gives the employees their salaries on the days they are on leave. It also gives them leave allowances unlike other companies.

Disabled employees are rare to come across in most companies. Most human resource managers consider them unproductive and slow. Thus, they do not let them go through the selection stage of employment no matter how good they are in their areas of expertise. Those who become disabled while working in such companies are usually retrenched with little or no pay. This is not the case at Ultimate Software Company as the company does not discriminate employees on the basis of their disability (Ulrich, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disabled individuals are given an equal opportunity during interviews and selected on merit just like the other employees. They are never considered a burden and the company does not only give them equal chances during selection, but also give them additional benefits during employment. For instance, they are allowed long term disability holidays with pay. None of the employees of the company who becomes disabled in the course of duty is sacked as the human resource plan does not allow.

Maternity and paternity leaves are a rare thing to come across in most organizations and those that allow their employees such leaves do not pay them for those days. Paternity leaves are also not taken into consideration as the men do not carry the pregnancy.

The Ultimate Software Company has not only allowed its employees’ maternity leaves, but also paternity leaves. Adoption leaves are also given to individuals who adopt children (Armstrong, 2011). Very few companies offer such leaves to their employees and this is another reason as to why Ultimate Software Company managed to beat most of its competitors.

Wellness of employees is a major factor that should be considered by the human resource department of every serious organization. The health of employees should come first as it is likely to make the employees more productive and ready to work even more. Very few companies put health and wellness of its employees first.

In fact, most companies only look at the productivity aspect and forget about the wellness of employees. However, Ultimate Software Company does not overlook the wellness of its employees as it offers them online wellness services that ensure they are in good condition at all times. The health aspect is also covered under the medical and dental cover analyzed earlier.

In Conclusion, Ultimate Software Company is unique in terms of human resource management since the benefits offered to its employees are not found in most of its competitors. Thus, this explains why Ultimate Software Company was able to beat its competitors.

References Armstrong, M. (2011). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Independence, MI: Kogan Publishing.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ultimate Software Human Resource Practice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ulrich, D. (2006). Human Resource Champions, The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Wright, P. (2002). The Chief HR Officer: Defining the New Role of Human Resource Leaders. San Francisco, SF: Jossey-Bass.

[supanova_question]

Operations Management: Toyota Motor Company Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help

Inter-links and synergies of the five objectives of operations management Operations management has become increasingly important over the last couple of years as a result of the changing business environment. The level of competition among organizations is becoming stiffer each day. The competition puts pressure on the organizations and the management to work tirelessly to gain and maintain a competitive edge. Any organization that is willing to succeed in the current business world cannot afford to relax in the competition (Slack, 2009).

Losing a competitive edge means that the organization loses its customers and sales. One of the ways that have the capability of guaranteeing the organization a competitive edge is customer satisfaction (Slack et al. 2012). Customers are always willing to get quality products and services from organizations. Therefore, quality production can increase customer satisfaction and an organization’s competitiveness.

Operations management is the department that plays a major role in production and providing quality products and services. It oversees the design and management of processes, services, as well as the supply chains that are carried out as raw materials are converted into finished products ready for use.

It also oversees the movement of products from the location where they are produced to the point where they are consumed (Slack et al. 2012). The operations management acquires, develops, and utilizes resources that an organization requires to deliver the goods or the services to the customers (Mahadevan, 2010).

Operations management has 5 major objectives, which include cost, quality, speed, dependability, and flexibility (Slack, 2009). Most organizations that have been successful and able to win the competition battle have combined all the five operations management objectives effectively (Slack et al. 2012).

Toyota Motor Company is one of the largest companies in the automotive industry. The company has one of the best operations management departments. Toyota has been able to produce high quality vehicles and sell at low prices that are affordable to many people.

In addition, Toyota is able to deliver the goods to the desired consumers at the right time. The operations management is flexible such that it can adapt to the different tastes and preferences in the business world and produce different vehicles based on the customer needs. Toyota is further independent in that it can perform at a high level without necessarily depending on other companies (Slack, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Toyota Motor Corporation vehicles are relatively cheap compared to those of other companies, such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, Audi, Land Rover, and Ford, among others. This makes the Toyota vehicles more affordable to many people. The company produces cars that are meant for different classes of people, including high income earners, middle income earners, as well as low income earners.

It should be noted that most customers are able and willing to spend the least amount possible on a product. However, customers are also conscious about the quality of the products they purchase (Ahoy, 2009). Toyota has been able to address this need in that it produces goods that are of high quality. The low price by Toyota does not compromise the quality of its vehicles.

The operations management of the company has been able to secure low cost production and low prices for its products because it is located in a country where there is plenty of cheap labour. Toyota is based in Japan, a country that is ranked among the highest populated nations in the world.

A large percentage of the Japanese citizens have skills and knowledge that can enable them to participate in production activities. This has been an important factor to the operations managers in that they can easily reduce the production cost and the selling price of vehicles.

Toyota’s operations management is already in a position of satisfying its customers in matters of quality and low cost production. However, it has adopted the Toyota Production System to further increase the level of satisfaction. This is a system that ensures vehicles are produced and delivered to their target customers in time.

The company does not hold too much inventory. This further helps in reducing operations costs and prices of vehicles. The Toyota Production System it is able to produce in a speedy and timely manner to deliver the vehicles at the right place and the right time without the need to hold stock (Wild, 2003).

One of the factors that help Toyota to deliver on time is its dependability. The company depends on itself for most of the production activities. Therefore, it is not easy for it to experience delays on grounds that it was inconvenienced by a third party (Slack et al. 2012). Dependability is an operations management objective that has been effective in increasing the production speed and efficiency of Toyota. The company has all the technology that it requires for its production. It also has sufficient labour and finances to fund its operations.

We will write a custom Essay on Operations Management: Toyota Motor Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, Toyota is flexible and able to address all the needs of the different customers speedily. Further, dependability facilitates flexibility in that the company has all it requires to respond to the customer needs. The business world today is changing rapidly. The needs of customers are equally changing fast and an organization should be in a position to address the changes as they come to maintain a competitive edge.

The advancement in technology further facilitates the increased changes in the business world. An organization should be flexible enough to adapt to the changes (Slack et al. 2012). Toyota is able to respond to the changes in a timely manner, given its dependability, the cost advantage, and its speed of production.

Recommendations Toyota is among the largest companies in the world. Its success is linked to its operations management department. Toyota has been able to reduce the production cost of vehicles, thereby reducing the price at which it sells the cars to customers. However, Toyota should ensure that it is up to date with the changes in technology to maintain and improve on its current performance. It should also have the right employees all time to realize this objective.

Reference List Ahoy, CK 2009, Customer-driven operations: Aligning quality tools and business processes for customer excellence, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Mahadevan, B 2010, Operations management: Theory and practice, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Slack, N 2009, Operations and process management: Principles and practice for strategic impact, Prentice Hall/Financial Times, Harlow, England.

Slack, N, Brandon-Jones, A, Johnston, R,

[supanova_question]

“Garbage Wars” by David Naguib Pellow Critical Essay college essay help: college essay help

“Garbage Wars” is a book about how garbage is handled in Chicago and the politics that surround it. The book is authored by David Pellow a lecturer and the head of the sociology department at the University of Minnesota. The book offers detailed accounts of how garbage affects the people who live in vulnerable areas and the accompanying health risks of handling garbage. Pellow also delves into the issue of racial politics and how this issue plays out in the garbage management arena.

The author of this book is able to maintain an ethnographic tone throughout the book. As a renowned psychologist, the author stays within his area of expertise and delivers an insightful account of the sociological impact of degradation. According to the book, racially motivated ideologies are one of the main causes of degradation.

The book traces the origins of the federal waste management to the Second World War when recycling policies of the Nazi Regime were racially motivated and tended to favor the elite and oppress the minorities. The author notes that the racial aspect of recycling is not limited to small organizations, but even large organizations are culprits.

The effects of degradation are more severe to the lower and working class members of the society. The book also relates degradation to other historical events such as struggles for labor rights, civil rights, and women’s rights. According to Pellow, environmental degradation is also a major cause of inequality in the modern society.

“Garbage Wars” provides a rich account of how the efforts to reclaim and process garbage have affected the lives of the citizens. Although the book refers to several historical accounts and figures, all of these are easy to corroborate. The author is also able to refrain from turning the book into a speech about inequality. Overall, the book is a valuable asset to scholars, environmentalists, and social activists.

[supanova_question]

“The Freedom of the Streets: Work, Citizenship, and Sexuality in a Gilded Age City” by Sharon Wood Critical Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Book Summary

Important Lessons from the Book

How the Author did it

What the Author was trying to do

Reference List

Book Summary In the book, ‘The Freedom of the Streets’, Sharon Wood explores the socioeconomic challenges of Davenport’s women in the aftermath of the Civil War. Wood describes the interrelated issues of sexuality, gender and prostitution, which dominated public morality debates during this era. The book explains how in the aftermath of the Civil War, economic hardships forced young women in small Midwestern towns to move to big cities such as New York and Chicago, as well as the smaller Iowan city of Davenport in search of paid employment.

The young women looked for work in factories, offices and storehouses, and formed self-support groups in a bid to establish themselves as single, independent working women (14). Their lifestyles and presence in the city streets had a dramatic impact on urban life, public perceptions and social institutions of the 20th century urban centers.

Important Lessons from the Book Wood offers a detailed study of the place of young women in America in the 19th Century cities. In particular, the author delves into prostitution in the city streets of Davenport, Iowa, how it was perceived and its ramifications on the society. In Wood’s view, the struggles of the young women forced them into prostitution, which, in Davenport’s context, was considered a form of gainful employment.

Wood’s approach gives the reader an all-new perspective on prostitution that is different from the typical perspectives offered in other studies. From a public morality perspective, prostitution was considered a social evil that contravenes moral values. Though considered one of the dangers of social growth in urban centers, prostitution played a role in shaping the civic institutions and politics of the 19th Century cities.

Another important lesson from this book relates to the significance of small cities and towns in the industrialization of America. Wood focuses on Davenport to emphasize on the role of smaller cities during this era. She contends that their smaller geographical size allowed people to live in defined communities, which “may be lost in the vastness of large cities like Chicago and New York” (4).

The vivid account of Davenport’s women, public lifestyles and prostitution offers glimpses into the forces behind the civic and political transformations of the 20th Century. Moreover, the book shows how the relations involving Davenport’s prostitutes, the public and the city officials determined how social and civic institutions would operate in the turn of the 20th Century.

How the Author did it The book begins with an account of the struggles of Davenport’s young women, who were trying to establish themselves as working class women by engaging gainful employment. To support one another economically and enhance the accessibility of employment opportunities for women, young women who believed in “the idea of self-support for women” (67) formed a ‘Lend a Hand Club’.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This club, under the leadership of Jennie McCowen, recruited young women from several occupations including clerks, teachers and domestic servants (65). As the working women lived in defined communities, their presence in the city streets when walking to work was associated with prostitution.

To remove this stigma, they forced the city officials to employ a policewoman to tackle the problem of prostitution that was on the rise in the city streets. Through this account, the author shows that social stigma was associated with women workers who dominated public spheres such as city streets and entertainment areas.

In the following sections of the book, Wood focuses on the prostitution in Davenport’s streets. In Davenport, the public perceptions of ‘paid sex’ varied depending on gender, economic class and age. She notes that “men and women, young and old, working and middle class” (78) held different views regarding prostitution.

Wood uses police records of rape cases to explore the common line of defense used by the perpetrators or the “sporting men” (78). The defendants often argued that it was the young women’s misbehaviors in the public sphere that prompted them to assault their victims. Moreover, the young women’s presence in areas such as city streets and entertainment spots frequented by men shaped the public perceptions and justified the “sporting men’s” actions.

Davenport adopted a regulated prostitution strategy in tackling the problem of prostitution. Its approach (regulated prostitution) required brothel owners to pay a monthly fee to the city officials to get a registration license. Davenport banned unregistered ‘paid sex’ in public places such as hotels and lodgings.

Besides banning unregistered prostitution, Davenport’s city officials engaged in strategic anti-prostitution campaigns to prevent teenage prostitution. According to Wood, the “Good Shepherd Home”, served as an informal reformatory center that protected young girls from exposure to teenage prostitution (82). Drawing from cases of girls who were sheltered in this home, Wood explains how Davenport’s novel approach helped reduce teenage prostitution in this city.

What the Author was trying to do Wood attempts to explore the public perceptions surrounding gender, female sexuality and prostitution in small cities in the 19th Century. Through her account of the young women’s struggles and the public presence of young women, the author examines how public perceptions largely defined the women’s place in society.

We will write a custom Book Review on “The Freedom of the Streets: Work, Citizenship, and Sexuality in a Gilded Age City” by Sharon Wood specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Working women, fearful of being maligned as prostitutes for venturing out into the city streets, had to coerce city officials to remove prostitutes from Davenport’s streets. The author underscores the issue of social stigma and how the anti-prostitution campaigns were discriminatory. The young women’s relations with the city officials and the public perceptions would later define the political, social and civic institutions of the city in the 20th Century.

Reference List Wood, Sharon. 2005. The Freedom of the Streets: Work, Citizenship, and Sexuality in a Gilded Age City. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

[supanova_question]

“the Second World War: A Short History (Struggle for Survival)” by Robert Alexander Clarke Critical Essay college essay help online

Introduction The objective of this review is to provide a synopsis of the events surrounding the Second World War as presented in the book by Robert Alexander Clarke Parker The Second World War: A short history (1997-2001). This review seeks to establish whether the content of the book reflects the actual happenings that took place during the Second World War.

The review is further meant to analyze the author’s motives and attitudes when compiling the writing and establish whether he is prejudicial or not. The review will explore the author’s feelings, reasons that prompted him to write on the issue, and the sources he used in the work in a bid to determine its credibility. Finally, this review will explore the strongest as well as the weakest issues depicted in this piece of work.

Summary of the book This book offers a sweeping survey of all the events that took place during the Second World War in a simple and clear manner, all wrapped up in a single volume. It seeks to explore the causes of the war, how long it lasted, and its short-term and long-term effects on humanity.

It also gives a clear picture of the severity of the war as well as its participants and perpetuators. The book takes the reader through the war and comprehensively describes the events as they unfolded in the period between 1939 and 1945. In addition, it gives a brief summary of the historical crisis that characterized the period in question. It places Britain and Europe at the centre of the war and analyzes deeply the role of the two in the war.

According to the book, the war started as a geographical war at first with Germany fighting Poland in order to control it (Parker 2001, 9). The war later turned continental, when Britain and France intervened to oppose the move by Germany and declared war against the latter. This move prompted Russia to join the war by attacking Poland from the south and controlling a great section of the country.

The author traces the cause of the war from the Europeans and the Germans who were the key participants in the crisis. He assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each participant and strategies that each used in the fight. The author conveys a clear picture of the events that made this war different from any other that came before this historical one. Packer is unbiased when writing this piece of work and he narrates the entire story without taking sides.

Critical analysis Robert Alexander Clarke Parker wrote this chef-d’oeuvre book with the assistance of a team of historians. The author is a European historian with great experience in the field. He worked as a history lecturer at the University of Manchester (Williams 2001, 48). His experience and expertise in the field of history is demonstrated by the simplicity and clarity of writing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As mentioned before, the book describes the events, that characterized the Second World War, in about 300 pages. In particular, it describes the cause of the war in the European countries and points out that the European and the Far East wars were the two main battles that heralded the Second World War, which was perpetuated by differences in leaders of the affected countries (Parker 2001, 1).

Leaders from the United States, Britain, and France were against actions taken by Germany and Japan, and they argued that Hitler, the then leader of Germany, was a dictator and his government was non-representative. In addition, the attempt by Germany to take over Poland also contributed to the uprising as Britain and France merged against the move.

The war was sparked by the aforementioned countries. After 1939, other European countries joined the war and turned against Germany (Parker 2001, 10). The book attributes Germany to the overall cause of the war through its governance under the leadership of Hitler. It explains the rise of Hitler into power coupled with description of how he succeeded to disband all other political parties in Germany.

Main argument Parker attributes the cause the war to Germany, Britain, and France. The author claims that if Britain and France did not intervene in the Germany-Poland standoff, the war crisis would not have spiraled to a full-blown war. He explains that the war would have remained geographical (between Germany and Poland), and thus lasted for a short period.

According to Parker (2001, 10-11), the war turned continental when Britain and France turned against Germany in the name of safeguarding the independence of Poland. They declared war against Germany and, even before they could go ahead and execute their plans, Russia joined the war by attacking Poland, which the two countries were defending. From this confrontation, the Second World War was born.

Readability The book summarizes events of about five and a half year period in only 300 pages. It is the most compact yet complete work amongst the existing ones on the subject. It is designed in a manner that attracts the reader’s attention and the flow is appealing. The masterpiece underscores one of the writings that any reader would love to read from start to the end. It is based on facts and the author is not prejudicial.

The book is written by a historian with unparalleled experience in writing history works, thus he not only makes history look attractive, but also interesting by the use of humorous language that breaks the boredom that often overwhelms a reader when reading historical writings. Parker (2001) narrates the story based on his own point of view by supporting his arguments in an expert way, hence making the entire work naturalistic and enlivening.

We will write a custom Book Review on “the Second World War: A Short History (Struggle for Survival)” by Robert Alexander Clarke specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Writing motives/ professionalism Robert Alexander Clarke Parker compiled this book with the help of professional assistants. The long service as a historian and subsequent career as a lecturer in the University of Manchester, probably, is a good indicator of the professionalism in his writing (Williams 2001, 48).

He is a well-known historian with great experience in history writing, which makes his book appealing. His opinions in the book are moderated, though it is evident that he wrote the book from his personal point of view.

However, he acquired information from over 82 sources, including writings from Winston Churchill, who was a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War, and thus Parker had the privilege to access crucial government records Nevertheless, the facts in this book are not complete, since the author could not access some information such as Ultra electronic intelligence and some diplomatic records, that cannot be accessed by a person outside the government. Therefore, this means that the book misses some bits of information from a historical point of view (Williams 2001, 48).

Parker’s narrative is based on his incomparable comprehension of facts and the ability to analyze various historical documents as well as official records. The book is based on his strong feelings and knowledge on how various conflicting aspects can integrate to cause an ever-unending crisis.

He sheds light on the way in which diplomatic and military factors were integrated to cause the Second World War, which lasted for about 6 years. In connection to this aspect, it is sufficient to say that the author employed muscularity and perceived historical background in putting together this work.

Strongest issues The strongest issue emerging from this book is how the author tackles the use of the military to cause violence. Britain and Europe at large are portrayed as the firsthand perpetrators of the war (Parker 2001, 11).

The reason behind this observation was two-fold. The immediate reason was to safeguard the independence of Poland, whilst the other one was to secure their borders. The British felt that unless Germany was defeated, there would be no peace in the country. However, critics fault this version of events, as at the end of it all they achieved none of the said objectives (Hillenbrand 2010, 91).

According to this book, Britain and France were thus not justified to declare war against Germany and the move was politically instigated. This assertion is further amplified by the view that the two countries failed to attack Russia, which invaded Poland immediately after they had declared war against Germany. If the move to declare war against Germany was justified, then Russia deserved the same treatment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “the Second World War: A Short History (Struggle for Survival)” by Robert Alexander Clarke by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, Russia was allowed to continue controlling Poland even after the end of the war. This aspect portrays that the declaration of war by Britain and France was ill-informed and unjustified, something that many historians shy from. Hence, this is one of the book’s strong points. This realization perhaps explains why Russia had to intervene in a bid to counter what appeared as an indefensible war on Germany.

Parker’s stand to question conventional wisdom surrounding the war is another strong point for the book. The book also has an elaborate index, which allows the reader to follow through its contents. In addition, the author draws information from a wide array of sources.

The resources used include works on Germany, Britain, France, Poland, Italy, the USA, the USSR, and Japan. Other sources cover battles, campaigns, and socioeconomic issues surrounding the war. This aspect shows that the author carried out extensive research and had an in depth understanding of the events that surrounded the war.

Weakest issues The use of propaganda is believed to have influenced and shaped the events of the war. Goebbels, a former communist, is said to have used the media to turn people against Hitler in early 1930s (Dobb 1950, 430). The leader is believed to have used television, radio, and even writings to show the inferiority of the Jews.

This continued until 1939 when the Second World War commenced. During the war, the media was again used considerably by the Axis power to create a propaganda war of its own kind. Propaganda, as one of the numerous causes of conflicts in the history, cannot be ignored.

However, in this book, the contribution made by the media is not adequately covered; hence, it emerges as a shortfall to the credibility of the material. In addition, the number of deaths reported is not certain as it is only given as an estimate probably due to the reluctance by the government to produce some important documents that could be useful in determining the actual numbers.

Conclusion/ Own opinion In my opinion, the book was written in good faith and without prejudice. It analyzes all the events without favoring any side. The work is compact, but it explores almost all aspects of the history surrounding the Second World War. The Second World War was characterized with distinct features that made it very different from all other wars that preceded it, ranging from the use of nuclear weapons and mass displacement of people to massive destruction of properties.

The book details the actual cause of the confrontation, how the war was won or lost together with its general outcomes for humanity. In his writing, Parker discusses individual aspects in a simple yet convincing manner, thus making it easy for a reader to understand the contents of the book.

He describes the events in a more detailed and professional way as compared to other authors in the same field. The author evaluates each cause of action taken by the participant and then analyzes the effects it had on the progress of the war. Therefore, this chef-d’oeuvre is one of the books that anyone would recommend to a reader wishing to gain maximum knowledge on the issues surrounding the Second World War.

Reference List Dobb, Leonard. 1950. “Goebbels’ Principles of Propaganda.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 14, no. 3 (June): 419-442.

Hillenbrand, Laura. 2010. Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption. New York, Random House.

Parker, Robert. 2001. The Second World War: A short history (Struggle for survival). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Williams, Perry. 2001. “Obituary: R. A. C. Parker.” The Independent, May 8.

[supanova_question]

Types of Cardiac Arrhythmia Resulting From Centrifugal Acceleration Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Abstract Cardiac arrhythmia is one of the many health conditions that form the basis of aviation medicine. The absence of adequate information around the condition necessitates studies to that effect. The current paper sought to determine the types of cardiac arrhythmia that result from aviation related movement. The study relied on findings made in centrifugal training experiments, where subjects are usually placed in a human centrifuge.

The objective was to expose the subjects to Gz forces, which are similar to the ones in a military jet or a commercial flight. During such exercises, the tolerance level of the subjects was determined relative to the G-forces. It was found that sinus arrhythmia, premature atrial contraction, premature ventricle contraction, and atrial fibrillation are the common cardiac arrhythmias during such exercises.

Types of Cardiac Arrhythmia Resulting From Centrifugal Acceleration: An Overview of the Effects of Centrifuge Forces on the Heart Aviation Medicine An Overview

There are certain health-related problems that are unique to the aeronautical and aviation industry. Rayman et al. (5) point out that aviation medicine can also be referred to as flight or aerospace therapy.

The idea behind this kind of healthcare is the need for a medicinal approach in tackling the wellbeing of people in aerospace industries. Pilots and astronauts are good examples of individuals who are covered by aviation medicine. The principle behind this field is the fact that the patients find themselves physiologically affected by aviation-related factors, such as gravity.

Advancement in the aerospace and aviation sectors imply that most of the aforementioned factors will increasingly affect the persons in the industry. Newman (4) affirms that progress is inevitable in the aviation industry. An example is the case of air force pilots. The need to develop faster and effective jets means that the aerodynamic factors will be modified. Consequently, the pilots end up being affected by some of these forces.

The advancements made in aviation medicine rely on its relevance to the world of aerospace. Whinnery indicates this importance by outlining the fact that the United States Air Force (herein referred to as USAF) has a School of Aerospace Medicine (1) Such institutions justify the reasoning that research in aviation medicine is important.

G-Forces in Air Planes

Airplanes are constructed in such a manner that they respond to the laws of aerodynamics (5). The operation of these laws relies on gravity and how to overcome it. Whinnery brings out the understanding that gravity, as a force, is observed as acceleration (4). The implication is that there is motion involved. Going by the arguments made in Newton’s laws of motion, it is evident that gravity is characterized by several forces. The study restricts itself to the forces exerted on an aircraft due to gravity, which is referred to as ‘g-force’.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More G-forces are considered as accelerations, as previously indicated. As a result, one can determine these forces on the basis of their respective weights. By virtue of the acceleration nature of gravity, the g-forces appear to multiply the weights of a given mass. In the context of an airplane, these factors tend to reproduce the weight of the unit mass of the persons in the jet. To appreciate how a pilot will experience this multiplier effect, one ought to obtain the sum of the non-gravitational forces acting on them.

The aforementioned non-gravitational forces are considered as the proper accelerations (5). Their effects include stress and strain on persons in an aircraft. In their study, a group of researchers (1) make the claim that high amounts of g-forces are destructive to the aircraft and to the people.

Effects of G-Forces on Human Anatomy

G-forces cause strain and stress on the bodies in an aircraft. In line with this, the elements have a physiological effect on human bodies (5). Most of the components of the human anatomy have mass. As such, the effects of stress and strain on them vary (4). indicate cerebral perfusion as a major impact of these forces. In such cases, the patients tend to suffer from a condition known as G-induced loss of consciousness (herein referred to as G-LOC). Such conditions are common among military pilots during the maneuvers displayed by the fighter jets.

Arrhythmias is another common phenomenon resulting from the g-forces, especially in instances where flight crew are taken through centrifuge training. In such cases, the pilots are subjected to the same conditions as those of a plane in the air.

Consequently, the developments tend to alter the rhythmic patterns of an individual’s heartbeat. The effects of g-forces are so serious on the human anatomy to the extent that Newman (4) proposes the presence of specialists during centrifuge training. Effects of G-Forces on the Heart

General Effects

An analysis of g-forces makes it apparent that human anatomy is severely affected by stress and strain, as illustrated in the previous section. Advances in aerospace technology imply that human body will continue to be subjected to such forces to determine its tolerance (5). For the purposes of this study, it is important to understand the effects of g-forces on the heart as an organ in human anatomy.

Cardiac Arrhythmia

The functioning of the heart is largely attributed to its electrical properties (5). The stresses and strains brought about by the g-forces tend to affect the organ’s electrical attributes. As a result, the heart beat is altered. Conditions of this nature are what are referred to as cardiac arrhythmia. The condition is not age or gender specific. Researchers (1) point out that the condition if often not fatal. However, studies illustrate that cardiac arrest is associated with arrhythmia (4).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Types of Cardiac Arrhythmia Resulting From Centrifugal Acceleration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cardiac arrhythmia can occur in one of the compartments of the heart. The same explains why there are different types of the said condition. Rayman et al. (5) point out the existence of four types of cardiac arrhythmia. The first is supraventricular arrhythmia, which is characterized by a fast heart rate (5). Secondly, there is bradyyarrhytmias. The condition arises when the heart beat is extremely low. In such cases, the blood hardly reaches the brain.

The third type is ventricular arrhythmias. The occurence is associated with the lower chambers of the heart (5). Finally, there is premature beats. It is a type of arrhythmia associated with the upper atria of the heart. The ‘premature beats’ are an indication of a mild form of arrhythmia, whose symptoms are not easily noticeable.

Cardiac Arrhythmia in Aviation Medicine

The aviation industry is a sensitive area, which involves out of space explorations and normal flights. The machines involved are quite complex. The sophistication requires the complete application of the pilot’s cognitive abilities. Within the broad spectrum of aviation medicine, cardiac arrhythmia falls under the physiological effects. The heart plays an important role in human anatomy. As such, studies have been conducted to illustrate how best to overcome the condition.

Factors Influencing G-Force Provoked Arrhythmia

During centrifugal training, the participants are subjected to Gz forces. The procedure leads to stress that affects human anatomical functions. It is evident that cardiac arrhythmia results from the effects of the G-force on the heart. According to Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6), the rhythms are distorted from their normal patterns. It is important to appreciate the factors that influence the occurrence of arrhythmia due to the G-forces.

Over the years, aviation medicine has relied on centrifugal training to obtain information about cardiac arrhythmia. Such information includes the various types of the condition and their influencing factors (6). Experiments carried out to determine this rely on the use of human centrifuges, which are found in special units. The most common areas where such apparitions are found include special aviation medical departments in military wings.

One of the factors that influence cardiac arrhythmia during centrifugal training is the magnitude of the Gz. Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6) proved this in a study in which they sought to determine hemodynamic changes resulting from centrifugal acceleration and the corresponding cardiovascular responses. The study reveals that an acceleration of 1Gz is responsible of acute hemodynamic changes. The same magnitude of acceleration was found to be an activator of cardiovascular responses, arrhythmia being one of them (6).

Anti-G straining maneuvers (herein referred to as AGSM) are other factors that influence g-force-provoked arrhythmia. Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6) point out that the same has a direct effect on the nervous system, which impacts on the heart’s electrical properties. Such measures are seen as an attempt to reduce the effects of g-forces.

They limit the impacts of Gz on the electrical characteristics of the heart. Other factors include the health status of the subject and the duration of exposure. Latent cardiac medical histories give mixed results. Exposure durations increase the chances of cardiac arrhythmia, which further aggravates the severity of the conditions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Types of Cardiac Arrhythmia Resulting From Centrifugal Acceleration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Materials and Methods Introduction

The current study is hinged on the hypothesis that centrifugal acceleration results in cardiac arrhythmia (5). The research relies on a series of peer reviewed articles, which provide a detailed discussion of the topic. More importantly, the articles relied on address the issue of g-forces and their effects on human subjects. They illustrate the various types of arrhythmia and their relationship with g-forces.

Safety Criterion

The study by Newman (4) sought to develop a safety criterion for centrifugal training. The study relied on pilots from the Japanese Air Self-Defense forces. Each of the subjects was conversant with F-4, F-15 and F-2 fighter jets. Such familiarity was a requirement to be part of the study. It was meant to ensure that the subjects were all familiar with increased G-forces due to the aircrafts’ high rates of acceleration.

As expected, there was a preliminary medical examination carried out on each of the participants (6). In addition, the subjects were taken through a pre-determined duration of centrifugal acceleration to obtain specified results. The study created several profiles to analyze the effects of different Gz forces. The data analysis phase was characterized by anonymity. The names of the pilots were not included in the profiles.

G-Force Tolerance

In their study, Blue et al. (2) examined levels of tolerance associated with g-forces during centrifugal training. The study revolved around subjects with an interest in spaceflight. The participants were part of Virgin Galactica crew and would- be passengers. An equipment referred to as a ‘Space Training Simulator’ was used in the study.

The machine operates like a human centrifuge. Prior to the experiment, a medical examination was carried out. Afterwards, the subjects were taken through an anti-G straining procedure. There was a descriptive representation of the data collected in the study.

Cardiac Arrhythmias in Flight and Centrifuge Simulations

In their article, Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6) argue that centrifuge acceleration has an effect on cardiac arrhythmia. Consequently, their study analyzed the two scenarios in which such acceleration is achieved. They examined the rhythm balances when the subjects are in centrifuge training and in actual flight.

Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6) point out that the two instances have similarities and differences. Ultimately, the research sheds more light on cardiac arrhythmia resulting from centrifugal acceleration. In the study, Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6) relied on 20 experienced pilots and 20 students. The student pilots were selected from a group of 3rd and 4th year cadets in the Polish Air Force Officers’ College.

According to Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6), the average age of the experienced pilots was 35.3 years. There was an allowance of 4.9 years in the positive and negative extremes. The average height was 176.6 cm, while body mass was 79.3kg. The average flying hours of the experienced pilots was estimated at 2620. The trainee pilots, on the other hand, had an average age of 21.9 years and median height of 178.2 cm. Their mean body mass was 78.7kg.

They had an average of 252 flight hours on their records (6). One of the requirements for participation in the experiment was that none of the pilots should take any form of medication. Ethical issues were also taken into consideration, where the participants were required to submit a written consent. The approval to conduct the study was granted by an ethics committee constituted by the ‘Polish Air Forces Institute of Aviation Medicine’ (6).

The study required the subjects from the two groups to carry out flight protocols in pairs, where one acted as a pilot, and the other as a passenger (6). Each of the subjects was required to make 2 flights. In the first flight, the subject was required to act as a ‘pilot’ (herein referred to as AF).

The second flight demanded that they act as a passenger (herein referred to as PF). According to Zawadzka-Bartczak and Kopka (6), the participants were required to take a break in-between the flight schedules. The study gave an allowance of 1 hour as the duration of time that each pilot should take before taking part in the next flight. To attain consistent results, all the subjects made use of the same TS-11 ISKRA Jet.

Once all the pilots had made their required flights, the researchers took a break of two days. During the break, the subjects underwent human centrifuge tests. It is important to note that the subjects did not wear G-suits during the study. The omission was meant to allow the Gz effects to be conclusively examined. The forces were generated from the maneuvers carried out in the flight program. They ranged from 0.57 G.s-1 to 4Gz when the maneuver involved three successive turns.

With regards to the split S maneuver, the acceleration was recorded between 1.7G. s-1 and 5.6 Gz.7 The ‘two-successive loop’ maneuver was characterized by an acceleration of 1.4G.s-1 to 5.0Gz. The other maneuvers carried out were the immelman and the one turn. The former had an acceleration of 5.6Gz, while the latter gave results identical to all the other maneuvers. The results from the flight protocols were recorded separately.

As aforementioned, the study carried out a centrifuge test. The same was realized using a centrifuge with a radius of 10 meters (6). The equipment was provided by the Acceleration Tolerance Laboratory, which is situated within the Institute of Aviation Medicine. The latter is a department of the Polish Military.

At the resting level, the acceleration was 1.4Gz. Thereafter, it was increased by 1G.s-1 to a maximum of 7Gz. When the human centrifuge was involved, the accelerations were set at levels similar to the aerobatic maneuvers. GZ and the Electrocardiographic Response

Scholars (1) sought to establish that the g-forces experienced during centrifuge training have an effect on an individual’s electrocardiographic (herein referred to as ECG) response system. The study involved a total of 59 subjects. According to researchers (1), the study relied on the responses of the flight surgeons that developed the acceleration profiles of the subjects. The participants were drawn from the United States Air Force and the United States Navy.

The two training profiles developed for the study included the gradual and the rapid onsets. Observation of the subjects was carried out based on their respective ECG dysrhythmias. The first profile was developed when the participants were allowed to put on a standard anti-g suit (1). The suit was not inflated. There various reasons why inflation was omitted. The major objective was to ensure that the subjects were relaxed and that their loss of peripheral vision was gradual. The maximum limit of Gz was estimated at 9Gz.

It is important to note that the tolerance levels during the centrifuge training were recorded from 2 extremes. There was the relaxed and the straining levels of tolerance. In both cases, the aim was to obtain the proficiency of the anti-g element in the experiment.The researchers (1) analyzed the various symptoms exhibited by the subjects. To achieve this, the results were computed in terms of the average, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum.

Scholars (1) used the ages of the subjects to estimate the results. Of particular interest was the comparison between the ectopy occurrences among the subjects. An elaborate outline of the results is discussed in the subsequent sections of this paper. The objective, as already mentioned, is to build on the hypothesis of the current study. The discussions will involve results from studies similar to the ones referred to in this section.

Results Introduction to the Results

From the materials and methods discussed in the previous sections, it is apparent that there is enough evidence to support the hypothesis made in this paper. The evidence suggests that cardiac arrhythmia is caused by g-forces that result from centrifugal acceleration (2).

The results of previous studies conducted in this field highlight the various types of arrhythmias and the effect of centrifugal acceleration on the rate of heartbeat. In addition, the findings made illustrate the various cardiovascular parameters related to arrhythmia. In line with this, analysis of this condition in relation to centrifuge is outlined in this section.

Types of Arrhythmias

As aforementioned, there are multiple types of arrhythmias. Each of them has unique characteristics that set it apart from the others. In a study to determine the safety measures needed to be put in place during g-flight training, Newman (4) found out different types of this condition.

Centrifugal Acceleration and its Effects on the Rate of Heartbeat

As previously mentioned, centrifugal acceleration has an effect on human anatomy. The effects of this phenomenon on human body vary between different organs. Studies reveal that centrifugal acceleration gives rise to g-forces. As such, it follows that their effects on the heart touches on its rhythms, leading to cardiac arrhythmia (6). In their study, researchers (1) affirm that g-forces affect an individual’s heart rate.

The major focus of this study is centrifugal acceleration and its effects on human anatomy. Aviation regulations require pilots (and in some cases passengers) to undergo some level of centrifugal training. Such trainings simulate the acceleration likely to be experienced in fast moving aircrafts. An example of such instances involves commercial space-crafts. The high acceleration associated with such crafts requires some training to acquaint the persons with the g-forces.

Blue et al. (2) carried out a similar study in which occupants of a spaceflight were subjected to centrifugal-stimulated sub-orbital flight. The objective was to create conditions similar to those in a fast moving aircraft. The participants in the study by Blue et al. (2) were all healthy. The simulation was expected to provide information on how g-forces affect the heart. It was also expected to shed light on the influence of the forces on the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmia. Their study used a total of 81 participants (2).

The research by Blue et al.(2) required healthy individuals. As a result, all the participants were subjected to medical screening. Consequently, the initial number was reduced to 77 subjects. Out of this, 65 were men, while 12 were women. Another batch of 21 participants was subjected to cardiac examinations to check for any latent complications.

The medical examinations revealed that 16 had histories of hypertension, while 5 had diabetes. Another 5 had undergone a coronary heart bypass. In addition, 17 participants had a history of hyperlipidemia. Prior to the simulation, there were 2 individuals who were found to have severe cases of peripheral vascular disease.

The objective of these tests was to obtain exact results from the simulations. The aim was to ensure that the findings made were due to g-forces from centrifugal acceleration and not from latent conditions. The participants with medical histories had little complaints from the centrifugal acceleration in comparison to those without backgrounds of medical conditions. However, both sets of participants complained of nausea.

The same is common in cases where subjects are exposed to high centrifugal acceleration. Another effect of this development was greyout. To this end, participants complained of incidences of mild greyout. Interestingly, none of the participants experienced any form of G-LOC. There were, however, incidences where the participants would perform head movements with the sole objective of self-inducing sensations similar to coriolis.

Discussion Overview

From the various experiments highlighted in the current study, it appears that cardiac arrhythmia is caused by g-forces associated with aerodynamics. The various studies made reference to centrifugal acceleration. It is not possible to obtain results from the specific aircrafts that the researchers used to generate centrifugal acceleration. As a result, most studies depend on simulations of conditions found in an aircraft. During such instances, the subjects are rotated at speeds that are almost equivalent to those in an aircraft

The objective of such simulations is to expose the subjects to g-forces from acceleration. The specific elements observed are the Gz forces. The designation ‘z’ implies that on a 3 dimensional plane, the said forces act on the z axis. Their effects on the subject are longitudinal. In addition, they are the most common forces that affect the rhythm of an individual’s heart when in flight. The different levels of exposure to g-forces are a contributing factor to the occurrence of the various types of cardiac arrhythmia.

The study by Newman (4) highlighted three types of arrhythmia common among pilots, especially in military jets. The three were identified as PAC, PVC, and sinus arrhythmias. According to Newman (4), the three occurred due to the variant levels of exposure to Gz. For instance, sinus arrhythmia occurs in instances where subjects are exposed to high g-forces. In such cases, the resulting levels of stress are high. The same has an effect on the heart rate. It distorts the rhythm of these rates once the subject comes to rest.

It is noted that PVC and PAC are the most common types of arrhythmia that result from interactions with high-G training. Newman (4) addressed this issue by pointing out that the two are common in normal day-to-day exercises. The researcher found it prudent to do away with centrifuge in cases where subjects exhibited PAC and PVC.

The argument is strengthened by the assumption that the two arrhythmias are a normal occurrence among subjects. It is posited that there are certain tachycardiac arrhythmias that reduce tolerance to G-stress resulting from centrifugal acceleration. In such cases, the subjects exhibit PSVT and VT. Their study revealed that PVST is possibly a major cause of loss of consciousness during centrifugal training.

The findings made in the current study are best understood from the perspective of a detailed discussion of centrifugal acceleration and its effects on the heart. In so doing, the researcher aims to prove that cardiac arrhythmia is a result of centrifugal acceleration. In this section, the specific types of this condition are analyzed in detail.

Protocols for Centrifugal Acceleration The findings in Grossman et al.’s (3) study reveal that centrifugal acceleration is an important component of aviation medicine. The process creates an environment that is similar to that experienced in fast moving aircrafts like fighter jets.

Such individuals as military pilots and astronauts are the most affected by the G-forces arising from the acceleration of high speed aircrafts. It follows that such individuals require some form of training to acquaint themselves with the strenuous conditions and to help them bear with the stresses brought about by the forces.

Centrifugal training, as already indicated, is the process through which pilots and other crew members are subjected to controlled conditions of G-stress. During such sessions, aviation medical personnel examine individual subjects’ tolerance to G-forces (4). It is important to take the subjects through certain protocols.

Such a move is necessary as it helps in the attainment of accurate results from the exposure to the said forces. Several studies are used to elaborate the importance of these protocols as indicated in the ‘methods’ section of this paper.

The first and most important protocol to follow in centrifugal training is preliminary medical check-ups (5). The objective of such preliminary medical examinations is to ensure the effects of G-stress exposure are not confused with the symptoms of latent medical conditions.

The second protocol during centrifugal studies is the exposure levels (1) During the training exercises, the subjects must be exposed to varying levels of Gz so that a proper comparison can be arrived at. The subjects were exposed to stress levels of 1G.15s-1 which were gradually increased. There was also another exposure referred to as the rapid onset exposure in which the subjects experienced g-forces of 1 G.s-1.

The initial tolerance level is essential in evaluating cardiovascular reflexes. On the other hand the second tolerance level are useful in determining the subjects’ tolerance in terms of the hydraulics. During these exposure levels, in centrifugal training, it is expected that the subjects end up experiencing total loss of their peripheral sight. The aforementioned protocols are key in ensuring that the results are obtained as expected.

Arrhythmia Resulting from Centrifugal Training Overview

From the findings in this paper, it is apparent that the rhythm of the heart is distorted by the G-stresses during centrifugal training. As previously mentioned, centrifugal training involves rotation of subjects in a contraption referred to as a human centrifuge. The objective is to expose the participants in such exercises to Gz forces. Consequently, the individuals in such studies are observed to determine how the G-forces affect their human anatomy, of which the heart is a vital component.

The contents of the articles referred to in the current paper reveal that there are 4 major types of arrhythmias that result from centrifugal acceleration. The four include sinus arrhythmia, premature arterial contraction, arterial fibrillation, and premature ventricular contraction. In order to categorize each of the mentioned arrhythmias, the author of the current study made observations depending on the levels of Gz exposure. A detailed discussion is provided in this section.

Sinus Arrhythmia

According to Rayman et al. (5), the heart has a specific rhythm to which it beats. Consequently, any external force like g-stress tends to distort the normal pattern of this organ, resulting in what is now known as cardiac arrhythmia. From the articles reviewed in this study, subjects in centrifugal training experiments were found to exhibit sinus arrhythmia among other complications known in aviation medicine.

The study by Newman (4) revealed that this complication is common during centrifugal training, where the subject’s heart rate normalizes immediately after a rapid heart-beat rhythm. Interestingly, there were subjects who exhibited this particular kind of arrhythmia prior to centrifuge acceleration and the subsequent exposure to the Gz forces.

As illustrated in table 2, the occurrence of the SA in the participants was recorded at 48%. It is important to appreciate that the high occurrence rate is not really due to the centrifugal acceleration. Newman (4) argues that the condition is a normal occurrence, especially among persons involved in physical training. Studies illustrate that the normal rate of a healthy adult lies between 60 to 100 beats every minute (5).

However, some studies indicate that the pattern varies between the genders. A normal female’s heart rate, for instance, is estimated to fall between 47 and 103 beats for every minute. In men, the estimated rhythm is placed at the range of 43 to 102 beats per minute. Alterations in heart beat rhythm due to sinus arrhythmia are not fatal. There are cases where the condition cannot be detected. As such, members of a flying crew who are found to have the condition are not in danger.

Premature Arterial Contraction (PAC)

The human heart is fitted with a pace maker that has electrical characteristics (5). As a result, when this part is exposed to external forces, there are distortions in its normal functioning. Centrifugal acceleration, as aforementioned, has an effect on the organ. The resultant Gz forces give rise to G-stress. As mentioned earlier, these stressors tend to affect the normal workings of the human anatomy. The pacemaker is among the body parts affected.

As a cardiac arrhythmia, premature arterial contraction is a phenomenon where the heart’s pacemaker emits signals before the ‘stipulated’ time. The maker is located above the ventricles, meaning that these chambers respond to the distorted signals.

As a result, the heart’s rhythm is altered by the ventricle’s ‘irregular’ response. An arrhythmia of this kind is usually common when an individual is stimulated either through exercises or as a result of such beverages as coffee. However, the same is also true when an individual undergoes centrifugal training.

In the study by Newman (4), PAC exhibited itself in a number of the subjects used in the experiments. Despite the fact that the condition is not lethal, it can present itself in a manner that would require a discontinuation of the training. In such cases, it is considered as clinically severe. Newman (4) points out that repeated PAC is quite severe and advices intermittent discontinuation of centrifugal training among subjects who exhibit the condition.

Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)

The heart’s functions rely on the electrical impulses of the pacemaker. In cases where Gz forces are introduced into the human anatomy, the said impulses are interfered with. When such interferences occur, the functioning of some of the compartments of the heart is impeded, resulting in a distorted rhythm of heart beat.

As an example of cardiac arrhythmia, PVC is characterized by the contraction of the heart’s ventricles before the expected electrical signal. The name ‘premature’ is sourced from this irregular contraction of the ventricles. The diagram below is an ECG representation of this condition:

The study by Newman (4) points out that PVC can exhibit itself in different degrees. There is the occasional premature ventricular contraction, which is a mild version of the condition. Subjects who present the said condition are allowed to continue with centrifugal training owing to the fact that it is not harmful. The harmful case of PVC involves repeated PVC and Bigeminy, Trigeiny PVC. However, in spite of the fact that it is more harmful in comparison to occasional PVC, the latter case calls for the termination of centrifugal training after some time.

A look at the study by Newman (4) reveals that 19 pilots exhibited the paired PVC condition. The number of subjects who presented the condition in subsequent training sessions kept on decreasing.

The same indicates that despite being a common occurrence due to centrifugal training, PVC is only severe when a subject is exposed to High G-Stress over a long period of time without a break. A case in point is a pilot who travels in an aircraft at speeds that result in a stress of 5Gz.s-1 without taking a break. Such an individual is likely to experience a severe case of PVC, which might lead to cardiac arrest.

Artrial Fibrillation

Exposure to Gz requires some form of tolerance from the persons participating in the centrifugal acceleration exercises. Increased exposure and the resultant stresses affect the heart’s electrical functions. The atrial happens to be another region of the heart that is affected by the G-forces. According to Rayman et al. (5), the Gz forces can increase the rate at which the pacemaker emits electrical impulses. When this happens, the ventricles contract in an irregular and erratic manner, leading to arterial fibrillation.

Exposure to G stress in such centrifugal exercises is characterized by atrial ectopy. As is the case with the other arrhythmias mentioned in this paper, this condition can be mild or severe depending on levels of exposure. However, the researchers point out that the condition becomes severe in cases where the G-force is increased to 5G and the subjects exposed to the same for a period of more than five minute.

Conclusion Researchers point out that centrifugal training, and by extension centrifugal acceleration, has a direct impact on cardiac arrhythmia. In the context of this study, centrifugal acceleration is regarded as an avenue of generating G-forces to create stress on human anatomy. Aviation medicine makes use of centrifugal training to effectively understand cardiac arrhythmia. In essence, this condition is caused by the distortion of the normal heart beat.

Scholars (1) introduced the element of human centrifuge in their study. The contraption is used in aviation medicine to conduct experiments on centrifugal acceleration. During such experiments, two main factors determine how G-forces give rise to cardiac arrhythmia. The two include the degree of Gz and the duration of exposure. Intensity and duration are crucial elements in explaining the various types of arrhythmias.

Newman (4) points out that centrifugal acceleration in centrifugal training exercises gives rise to 3 main types of arrhythmias. The analysis points out that sinus arrhythmia, premature atrial contraction, and premature ventricular contraction are the most common conditions. Atrial fibrillation is another type of arrhythmia associated with the exercises.

Each of the conditions above is graded on their severity depending on the magnitude of Gz. in addition, the duration in which the participants are exposed to the forces adds to the severity of the conditions. As such, it is important to pay attention to the degree of these conditions among individuals taking part in centrifugal training. The aim is to avert cases of cardiac arrest. Such occurrences are fatal, especially when the subjects are exposed to real time flight conditions.

References Alotaibi HM, Almasoudi AS, Alhomaid SI, et al. Types of cardiac arrhythmia resulting from centrifugal acceleration: an overview of the effects of centrifuge forces on the heart. Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research. 2017;5(3):18769-18781.

Blue SR, Riccitello JM, Tizard J, et al. Commercial spaceflight participant G-force tolerance during centrifuge-simulated suborbital flight. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2012;83(10):929-934.

Grossman A, Wand O, Harpaz D, et al. Acceleration forces and cardiac and aortic indexes in jet fighter pilots. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2011;82(9):901-903.

Newman DG. High G flight: physiological effects and countermeasures. New York, NY: Routledge. 2016; 268 p.

Rayman RB, Hastings JD, Kruyer WB, et al. Clinical aviation medicine. 5th ed. New York, NY: Castle Connolly Graduate Medical Publishing; 2013. 485 p.

Zawadzka-Bartczak EK, Kopka LH. Cardiac arrhythmias during aerobatic flight and its simulation on a centrifuge. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 2012;82(6):599-603.

[supanova_question]

Procter and Gamble’s Organizational Culture Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Abstract

Description of Procter and Gamble

Procter and Gamble’s Culture

Signs of the Innovative Culture

Factors for the Incorporation of the Culture

Effective Leadership Style

Cultural Change

References

Abstract Organizational culture entails the way a business carries out its functions; it reflects on the ideals of a company. A firm’s values, actions, beliefs, norms, and practices show its overall culture. Procter and Gamble (P

[supanova_question]

Time to Fly: Predicting Director Exit at Large Firms Critical Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Research Question

Theoretical Framework

Research Design, Data Collection, and Analysis

Summary of Findings and Authors’ Contribution

Critical Examination of the Study

Reference List

Introduction The article titled, “Time to Fly: Predicting Director Exit at Large Firms” by Boivie, Graffin and Pollock (2012) presents a unique perspective to the issue of board operations.

The writers sought to investigate the factors that influence the decision by directors to quit or to remain on the board of large firms. This paper presents a systematic review of the article with an emphasis on the research decisions made by the writers, as well as the nature of the information presented.

Research Question The researchers did not state a clear research question for the project. They however laid out a basis for their research on the fact that it is difficult to study why people choose to serve on boards.

Such a study would require access to people who have declined offers to serve on the boards as well as those who have accepted. That said, the introduction of the article points to an interest by the researchers in the reasons why directors “choose to remain or leave boards”. This will suffice as the research question for the purposes of this analysis.

Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework used in the research process had two aspects. First, the researchers explored the use of the agency theory in studies relating to director exit. This theory argues that the executives in a firm will tend to pursue their own goals rather than pursue the interests of the owners of the firm. Therefore, the presence of a board encourages the executives to stick to the objectives set by the owners of the firm.

The motivation of external directors is the good performance of the company, as well as the potential backlash arising from poor performance by the firm. The researchers faulted this theory because it focuses on extrinsic motivation to the exclusion of intrinsic motivation. In this regard, the researchers chose to use the self-determination theory as the guiding framework for the project because it accounts for intrinsic motivation.

Research Design, Data Collection, and Analysis The research design for this project took a long-term view of how directors exit firms. The researchers used data that followed the exit path of directors, rather than following how directors exited from specific firms. The data collected for the research came from various sources. The directors chosen were those listed in Risk Metrics, formerly IRRC.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The database contains a list of all directors listed in public firms in the United States. The list used in this project had more than 11,000 names, representing 30% of all directors. Other data, such as the demographic information of all the directors, as well as the characteristics of the boards, and firm sizes came from various sources. These sources include Social Register, LexisNexis, and Compustat.

The analysis of the data collected from the sources sampled above involved the identification of dependent and independent variables. The dependent variable in the project was “director exit”. The independent variables were prestige, director influence, as well as reputational and financial risk.

The researchers also identified a set of control variables. The control variables were firm size, firm diversification, CEO duality, and total director pay, among others. These variables formed the basis for data analysis.

Summary of Findings and Authors’ Contribution The researchers made the following findings. First, the researchers found that prestige contributed to continued board membership in addition to the holding of a formal position within that board.

The second main finding reported by the researchers was that the likelihood of board members quitting was higher with increased time demands. Boards that take too much time from the directors tend to have a higher transition rate. The researchers also found that board members are likely to quit from organizations that are performing poorly and those that have little media visibility.

Financial and reputational risks are closely correlated to board member retention. The main contribution of the researchers to the issues that they have investigated is that they have done a longitudinal study showing why directors leave, from the perspective of the directors.

Critical Examination of the Study The journal article presented by the researchers was well prepared. The researchers were able to show a distinct difference in their approach to the issue of directors leaving organizations by following the career path of directors through several organizations. This made the research question interesting.

We will write a custom Essay on Time to Fly: Predicting Director Exit at Large Firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The research was not groundbreaking, rather it was meant to fill in a gap. In this sense, the research questions were not original, but were very innovative in the context of the other studies that sought to address the same issue.

The researchers themselves indicate that the use of historical data was a weakness in their project. While this method made it possible for them to collect and analyse a large quantity of information, it was not possible to check the findings against current realities.

The researchers suggested that a study that uses questionnaires and interviews would help to check the attitudes and the views of current board members against their findings. A second way in which the researchers could have undertaken the project would be by looking at specific organizations as well as the directors who served in them.

The study results helped to answer the research question. The research question used in this research project was to determine the reasons why directors choose to remain or leave organizations. The researchers did well to find out reasons contributing to the retention of directors as well as those that lead to their exit from organizations.

The main limitation of this study was the lack of a mechanism to validate the information collected by the researchers. The researchers did not involve board members in the study. While the goals of the project as set by the researchers were achieved, the research results would have been more authentic if it was subjected to a validation process.

Secondly, the researchers relied on very specific databases and listings to get the research results. There is no proper basis given for the use of the Standard and Poor’s 500 list of companies. This betrays a lack of rigour in the choice of information sources by the researchers. What would the results look like if they used the Fortune 500 list of companies, or if they developed their own listing based on a stronger theoretical perspective?

Reference List Ambrose, ML

[supanova_question]

Separation of the State and Religion Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Separation of the State and Religion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The church and the state have always enjoyed a close relationship, but the treaty of Westphalia was signed in 1648 to separate the two following claims that the separation would spur social development, particularly in regards to enlightenment. Before then, the state implemented some of the rules and regulations that the church leaders formulated mainly because it has coercive power.

Scholars and political leaders demanded the separation of the state from the church in Europe because people were forced to obey some the rules formulated without questioning their authenticity and legality. The divide generated claims that there needs to be a separate set of laws on religious morality, which are different from secular laws.

Through secularization, it was the view of many individuals that the society would achieve democratic ideals, which is a precondition for modernization. Based on this, the development of universal human rights was possible. In the modern world, western scholars and leaders believe that the Muslim world can perhaps achieve modernity through secularization of politics, economic issues, and social life.

Following the 9/11 attack on the American twin towers, many western leaders demanded for secular democracy in various Islamic counties in order to encourage reforms.

Even though reforming the politics and economic systems is a necessity in the Islamic world, there is no concrete evidence suggesting that secularization is the only way. This paper evaluates the statement that separation of religion and the state is a necessary precondition for modernization.

Separation of the State and Religion In the western world, the church and the state have been in constant conflicts since religious leaders influence political and economic activities. This aspect is absent in the Islamic world since Islamic laws guide the behavior of each faithful. Based on this, it is fictional to claim that the state ought to be separated from Islam if the society is to develop and modernize in the Islamic states.

In the west, the church is separate from the state meaning that they simply enjoy close relationships, but they do not consult each other when it comes to making important decisions that influence the lives of the majority.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Islamic world, Islamic law, popularly referred to as Sharia law, is used in resolving various conflicts, ranging from bequest, matrimonial issues, divorce, and contracts to punishing those against the established societal rules and regulations. In the 1950s and 1960s, several Islamic countries tried separating the state from religion, but the results were unpleasant since conflicts were widespread.

A number of such countries embarked on efforts aimed at injecting religion into government. In the modern society, many countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe are inserting sharia clauses into their constitutions, which make Islam the state religion (Whitman 86). In this regard, any establishment that goes against the provisions of the sharia law is always declared unconstitutional.

This trend started in 1979 in Pakistan when Hudood Ordnance Act was passed. In 1980, the Egyptian government started the process of amending the constitution to include the provisions of sharia law in the country’s charter.

The bill provided that the principles of sharia were the only recognized source of legislation in the country. In Iraq, the new constitution that was ratified after the 2003 attack provides that no law is supreme to the undisputed laws of Islam.

Several political parties allied to the Islamic religion are gaining momentum in other countries perceived to exercise secularism, such as Turkey, Jordan, and Morocco. In 2002, the Islamist Justice and Development Party won elections in Turkey and it has been ruling the country up to date. In Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood won elections democratic, even though it has been removed forcefully through a coup.

The new trend whereby Islamic parties are gaining popularity in the Islamic states presents a challenge to the western policy makers. Western leaders and governments tend to claim that the participation of religion parties in the running of the government is dangerous and backwards since they suggest that the implementation of the sharia law is troublesome, as it interferes with liberation efforts and adoption of the universal human rights.

The governments of Saudi Arabia and Iran endorsed authoritarianism is a valid system of government, which is seen as a denial of fundamental rights and freedom to the populace.

We will write a custom Essay on Separation of the State and Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is agreed that reforms are needed in the Islamic world, but they cannot be achieved through introduction of secularization. Western leaders and Islamic regimes should try to reinterpret the sharia law since it is not inflexible and unchallengeable, but instead is hugely elastic and dynamic jurisprudence that can be applied to realize the objectives of the modern human rights structures.

Western policy makers should stop supporting a traditionally and ethnically extraneous model of material governance and instead focus on encouraging aboriginal efforts that would lead to restructuring in the Islamic world and rejuvenate the sharia law.

Therefore, the sharia law should be adjusted to reflect wishes and the desires of the majority meaning that tolerant and contemporary laws ought to be formulated in order to support respect for human rights.

If western leaders and human rights activists continue with the current programs aimed at bringing about political and economic reforms, the populace will be unwilling to cooperate since such attempts go against the provisions of the sharia laws. Such policies would be considered illegitimate and many people would be reluctant to incorporate them into their own programs.

It is factual that the modern Muslim world is a crisis since reforms are yet to be introduced six-hundred years after the Golden Age that was characterized by modernism, multi-ethnic lenience, and financial success.

Citizens in the Arabic countries rarely enjoy their rights and there is no country in the Islamic world that boosts of true democracy. However, Islam cannot be attributed to the many problems that countries in the Middle East are facing. In fact, the type of Islam practiced in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Malaysia vary in a number of ways

Conclusion The conflicts and lack of development in the Middle East are caused by majestic legacies, repressive regimes, prevalent poverty, illnesses, hostilities, and fight over natural resources. For any modernization efforts to e successful in the Middle East, western policy makers and leaders from the region must resolve the conflicts that are related to oil.

The sharia law should also be developed to reflect the changes that are taking place in the modern society. However, the state should not be separated from religion since Islam is the unifying factor in the region.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Separation of the State and Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the western countries, religious leaders have enormous powers that are used in influencing the government to implement certain policies. Therefore, the relationship between the state and religion is productive and there should be no attempt to revert the situation.

Works Cited Whitman, James. “Separating Church and State: The Atlantic Divide”. Historical Reflections, 34.3 (2008): 86–104.

[supanova_question]

Ritz Carlton Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Company Analysis

Ritz Carlton Experience

Capabilities of Ritz Carlton and Major Strategies

How Ritz Carlton Creates Ladies and Gentlemen

Company Analysis Ritz-Carlton is one of the leading companies in the hospitality industry, with branches across the world. The corporation is an auxiliary of the Ritz-Carlton hotels, which runs over eighty-four sumptuousness hotels and resorts in main cities internationally. The company was formed in 1983 following the merger with another company with similar name that operated in Atlanta Georgia.

Presently, the organization is an ancillary of an international company referred to as Marriott International, which is known for its value and established monetary ability. A brief history of the corporation illustrates that it was created by a Swiss proprietor known as Cesar Ritz, who was an expert in matters related to hospitality, having been named the emperor of the hoteliers following his achievements in the industry.

Through his hospitality managerial skills, Ritz redefined luxury accommodation in various parts of the world that the hotel operated. The company entered into partnerships with several merchants with an aim of increasing the market share and strengthening the financial power. The first branch of the hotel was launched in the US in 1911.

Before the First World War, the company had developed roots in the United States and other parts of the world, particularly Europe, but its operations were greatly hampered by the war. The founder, Ritz, died in 1918 just before the conclusion of the First World War, but his wife took over the management of the organization.

Even though the company went through a number of challenges, such as the interruptions associated with First World War and the Great Depression, it is currently one of the best in the hospitality industry. This paper discusses several aspects of the company, including its interaction with customers, the strategy it employs, and its power to create distinguished ladies and gentlemen only seven days.

Ritz Carlton Experience Recently, Ritz Carlton published a book that outlines some of the strategies that it employs in satisfying its esteemed customers. The book states that the use of Gold Standard is one of the strategies that play a critical role as far as delivery of quality service is concerned. Gold Standard is known to boost staff and customer loyalty, improve customer engagement processes, and development of the brand.

Additionally, the strategy offers customer and non-customer handling employees an opportunity to offer services based on their viewpoints and perspectives. The book shares the wisdom of the leadership of Ritz Carlton Company implying that the experience with the organization is positive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management is always concerned with hiring competent employees through a rigorous recruiting procedure that culminates to an extensive training process that brings out leaders with transformational leadership experience. Since the organization is concerned with excellence, it offers a responsible stewarding icon in the ever-competitive market.

This implies that the organization is quick to adjust its operations based on the changing needs of the customer and the hospitality industry in general. Ritz Carlton has been a market leader for several years owing to its capability to plan, find the best location for business, and enhance quality.

The views of many customers suggest that the experience of the company is characterized by service value implying that the type of products that the company offers to its customers is incomparable.

The organization has established partnerships with other market leaders in related industries, such as the airlines industry whereby it has a strong relationship with the world’s known airline companies, such as the Virgin Atlantic, the Guardian Angel, and Emirates Airlines. The services of the company are based on value addition meaning that the customer must notice the difference once he or she tries the service.

In the modern society, many people do not care about spending their money, as long as they are satisfied with the service offered. Based on this, the company is able to expand to an extent of overthrowing market leaders even in new regions.

One of the Ritz Carlton’s partners, chief marketing officer of community agency Colleen Brinkmann, compares the company with the Lexus since it sets its own standards in the market, which cannot be attained by competitors. In other words, other players in the industry are left imitating what the company does. Based on this, the essence of the experience with the company is personal, genuine, lively, courteous, and congenial.

The organization takes care of its clients and employees knowing that it cannot achieve its desired goals and objectives without them. Ritz Carlton has been engaging in various charitable activities, including promoting the welfare of the community. It played a critical role in shaping the life of a young girl named Natalie who was in need of urgent help to cure her condition.

We will write a custom Essay on Ritz Carlton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is concluded in this section that the experience of Ritz Carlton is based on strong leadership skills and commitment that believes in quality and respect for others. The organization is believed to be a legend in the hospitality industry due to its contribution to boost quality service. The experience of the company generates a luxuries lifestyle that gives opportunities to the hopeless customers.

Capabilities of Ritz Carlton and Major Strategies The company is a multinational organization with various branches worldwide implying that it enjoys the economies of scale. It is able to produce goods and services at low prices given the fact that its financial potential is unmatched in the current hospitality market globally. Recently, it acquired properties worth billions of dollars, which have given it the much-needed financial power to outmuscle its competitors.

An organization operating at a global level has an opportunity of employing technology to boost sales and marketing strategies. The management underscores the fact that technology determines the success of any organization in the digital world. In this regard, technology is used in advertising the organization’s products and services.

For instance, the social media is employed effectively promoting the company’s products and services. Apart from technological and financial capabilities, the company is well endowed with competent staff that is highly trained and equipped with modern managerial skills.

Based on this, the type of leadership applied in the organization is transformation implying that the views and opinions of each employee are incorporated into the major decision-making mechanisms. Each employee is guided by the organization’s principles, which are believed to be strong and constructive when it comes to human resources management.

For instance, the first principle urges the employee to build strong relationships with other organizational members, which is known to attract customers.

Additionally, each employee is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the expressed and unexpressed wishes and desires of the client are met. This means that all workers ought to be responsive to the needs of customers. These principles put the organization in an advantaged position as far as competition is concerned.

Through a well-established social corporate responsibility principle, the community acknowledges the organization for its service. In fact, many organizations have failed to achieve this when engaging with the community. When dealing with clients and the societal members in general, the organization insists on the three steps of service delivery.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ritz Carlton by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first step is welcoming the client with a sincere and warm greeting. In fact, the management maintains that the use of the client’s name in addressing him or her is critical since it develops a rapport. One of the customers who visited hotel’s branches was surprised with the service he received because the crew called his name several times.

Studies show that designing a business strategy is very simple, but the problem lies with its implementation. Therefore, Ritz Carlton is believed to be an able organization as far as policy implementation is concerned. As early noted, the organization executes a policy easily because it does not have a long chain of command, which is usually accused of delaying the implementation process.

An additional strategy is related to fulfilling the needs of the client in the best way possible. Based on this, the employee is urged to anticipate for any eventuality when dealing with the client and come up with the best approach to address the problem. In this case, the employee is expected to ask many questions whereby the response is recorded for future utilization.

Before concluding this action, it is imperative to review some of the Ritz Carlton’s regulations that guide the conduct of employees. The organization is respected for retaining employees since this is a challenge to many organizations. The management appreciates that cleanliness is fundamental in the hospitality industry hence it is the task of each employee to maintain a safe and accident free environment.

Additionally, each employee is expected to protect the privacy and security of clients, colleagues, and the organization in general. However, the organization appreciates cultural diversity, which is indeed an additional strength of the organization that has helped it maintain high standards in the hospitality industry.

Finally, the organization urges each member of staff to be involved in continuous learning process because this plays a role in personal growth.

How Ritz Carlton Creates Ladies and Gentlemen The idea that Ritz Carlton has an ability of creating real women and men in just seven days is true given the fact that it offers matchless service in the current hospitality market. First, the statement can perhaps be viewed from the human resource perspective since the organization offers the type of training that cannot be compared to any other.

The process of recruitment, training, and orienting its staff is of high quality, which aims at producing the complete employee who has the ability to convene the needs of the client. On the other hand, the statement can be analyzed from the client perspective since the satisfied customer will always want to come back. Additionally, people are known to pay for quality services without complaining.

In the modern society, a real man or woman is supposed to behave in a manner suggesting that he or she is well informed, knowledgeable, and educated. With the services offered at Ritz Carlton, the client is likely to behave in a manner suggesting that he or she is well informed and knowledgeable.

[supanova_question]

Work Design and Job Satisfaction at the BBC Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction This paper begins by introducing the issues surrounding work design and job satisfaction and goes on to explore the different theories of work design. It then highlights the disparate approaches to work design, employee-centred work designs, before evaluating which aspects lead to job satisfaction. Ultimately, the paper evaluates work design and job satisfaction at the BBC, and ends with a conclusion, of the main points.

Employee retention is a major challenge facing organisations in the private and public sector. Employees are increasingly seeking jobs that satisfy their career and personal-development goals. For example, employees prefer to join organisations that have incorporated employee training and development in their HR management practices (Adekola 2011, p.111). In recognition of this, organisations have identified job satisfaction as one of the most effective ways in which they can achieve their employee-retention objectives.

Job satisfaction refers to how individuals feel about their work. Additionally, Hernon and Altman (2010, p.92) posit that job satisfaction ‘entails the extent to which individuals like or dislike their work’. An organisation’s performance is improved by a low rate of employee turnover, low rate of absenteeism, and improved employee productivity.

This leads to optimal utilisation of human capital; hence enhancing the organisation’s financial performance. A high degree of organisational identification enables employees to identify with the organisation. This minimises the rate of employee turnover.

Lumley et al. (2011, p. 101) argue that job satisfaction ‘influences people’s attitude towards their jobs ’. Job satisfaction is influenced by various organisational and personal factors. Therefore, organisations have a role to play in nurturing a high level of job satisfaction. Effective job design is one ways through which organisations promote job satisfaction. French (2011, p. 244) defines job design as ‘the process of planning and specification of job tasks and the work setting designated for their accomplishment’.

The British Broadcasting Corporation BBC is one example of public sector organisation, which operates in the mass media industry. The UK government publicly owns the organisation. The firm has a human resource base of over 23,000 employees. This paper is based on the following question: To what extent can managers use work design to improve job satisfaction?

Theories of job design Daft (2008, p. 34) argues that views ‘on how to design jobs in organisations have changed remarkably over the years’. These changes have led to the development of diverse work-design theories. The majority of work-design theories developed focuses on how organisations can improve the level of job satisfaction amongst their employees. Some of the theories are evaluated in this paper.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two-factor theory by Fredrick Herzberg postulates that two main aspects, viz. the job and the work environment, influence the degree of employee satisfaction (Krajewski, Malhotra

[supanova_question]

Violence in the Media Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Positive correlation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Exposing children to aggression in the mass media predisposes them to aggressive behavior. Research shows that this observation emanates from physiological, psychological and situational variables. In order to show that there is a positive correlation between observance of violence in the mass media and aggression in children, one must back the above-mentioned variables with proof from scientific analyses as seen below.

Positive correlation Denny (2011) explains that violent media causes aggression in children by changing their brain patterns. Therefore, the negative effects emanate from physiological changes in the viewer’s body. In an experiment quoted by the latter author, a group of young men were divided into two categories. All participants had minimal exposure to violent video games before the experiment. One group was subjected to violent video games for a period of ten hours a week.

The control group did not play any games within the study period. After exposure to the violent games, all participants’ brain functions were analyzed through magnetic resonance imaging. Researchers compared the findings after the intervention with the results prior to the experiment. In the tests, subjects were required to complete a task in which violent words were mixed with non violent ones. The left frontal lobe of the participants was analyzed and found to be more active in the control group than in the exposed group.

Additionally, the results in the control group were closely tied to the tests done before the experiment. However, the exposed group’s results were quite different from the initial findings. After one week of none exposure, the participants’ brain activities closely mirrored those of the control group.

Findings from this research indicate that exposure to violent videos has significant effects on a person’s ability to maintain functional or emotional control. When the left frontal lobe is less activated, then people tend to report less control of their emotions or their functions. As a result, one is likely to become aggressive. Although this research was carried out among young adults, one can deduce that the same effect would be reported among children who have even less control of their emotions.

Psychological issues also provide a tangible explanation of how aggression can emanate from exposure to violence in the mass media. The social learning theory explains that children learn from their surroundings. They first observe phenomenon around them such as violence. Most of them will eventually mimic this behavior as will be seen in their interactions with other children. After imitation, the children will eventually adopt the behavior, and this is what predisposes them to aggression.

Prolonged exposure to media violence leads to over-learning of aggression-based structures. Some of the structures include having a belief that other individuals are innately aggressive and that violence is the best way to deal with them (Gentile et al. 194). Not all children will respond in a similar manner to violent mass media; some are more inclined to commit aggressive acts than others owing to their psychological profile.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If a child has certain personality traits, then he or she will be severely affected by video games or other similar violent activities. For instance when one is highly neurotic, that is; one who is too emotional, and susceptible to depression, then that child is likely to become violent after watching video games (“Violent video games” 12).

Additionally, a highly disagreeable child also tends to report higher levels of aggression than one who is responsive to others. Minimal conscientiousness also leads to aggression after exposure to violent mass media. A child with such a personality finds it easy to break the rules and act impulsively. If these traits are already present in a child and a parent fails to control exposure to video games, then chances are that the factors will amalgamate and lead to aggression (“Violent video games” 12).

In the psychological context, cognitive distortions also play a vital role in explaining why media violence can lead to aggression in children. Moral standards assist individuals in controlling their aggressive acts. It causes them to think about their actions and refrain from acting inappropriately owing to these tendencies. Sometimes people may abandon their moral standards about aggression when they believe that their actions are justified (Richmond and Wilson 350).

Usually, this occurs through the use of eight mechanisms. They include dehumanization, blame attribution, distortion of consequences, responsibility diffusion, advantageous comparisons, moral justification and the use of sanitizing language. All these processes cause a child or teenager to disengage from moral standards, and this makes it easier to display deviant behavior such as aggression.

A person can dehumanize another by refusing to give another person human qualities. This makes it easy to behave aggressively or violently towards that person because, in the mind of the deviant, he does not deserve pro-social considerations. Conversely, blame attribution occurs by placing the responsibility of the violent act upon the victim or other entities that have nothing to do with the assailant.

Video games tend to distort the consequences of violent behavior; in fact they reward it. They teach children that violence has no negative effects and should thus be pursued. In essence, such individuals can easily behave aggressively because they do not think about the effects of their actions upon others.

Responsibility diffusion ensures that the child has apportioned blame for violence to someone else. Video games and other violent sources of mass media make it easy to push aside one’s personal role in the commission of certain behavior. Advantageous comparison and moral justification occur when the person sees himself or herself as an attacker of another ruthless person.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Violence in the Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The child, therefore, has a justifiable motive which makes it desirable to use aggression against others. Video games often have many brutal adversaries that can only be countered through the use of violence. These justifications may be perpetuated in real life. Sanitizing language refers to the use of favorable words to describe deviant behavior. Such language covers up the intensity and seriousness of aggression among children and causes them to disregard or ignore the consequences of their actions.

Once children are exposed to violence for prolonged periods of time, they will develop an aggressive outlook owing to alterations in their beliefs, attitudes and biases. Gentile et al. (194) explain that all people have cognitive scripts that determine how they behave.

Exposure to media violence activates aggression-related scripts and this makes it more likely for the subject to display aggression in the future. These parties will become morally disengaged through the above mechanism and thus cause persons to justify violent behavior. It eventually leads to greater levels of aggression.

A study carried out by Richmond and Wilson (352) supported these theories and thus illustrated that violent mass media provides the right psychological environment to cause more aggression. The experiment was carried out among 51 males and 35 female subjects between the ages of 20.25 and 21.3. The researchers determined the rate of exposure to violent films, video games and music and then assessed how aggressive these individuals were.

The aggressiveness test involved analyzing participants’ propensity to harm or hurt others. It also entailed an analysis of anger through the emotional and physiological state of arousal within a subject. This test also considered hostility through measurement of ill will or resentment of others. The analysts found that the subjects who had disengaged themselves from moral standards were more susceptible to aggression and violence.

This result confirmed what other authors on the subject have stated before, but it added to the literature by showing how aggression occurs. It was confirmed that violent media facilitates cognitive distortion of moral values and thus perpetuates aggression. The findings were carried out among young adults but can also be applied to children as the same distortions do occur in minors.

In order to settle the debate on violent mass media and aggression in children, one must consider experiments that directly analyzed these variables. Gentile et al. (193) did a research that intended on finding the link between exposure to media violence and the use of aggression among children. 430 children from the third, fourth and fifth grades were selected for the study; therefore, the mean age for the participants was nine years.

The researchers obtained information from the children themselves about their media habits and their hostile attribution biases. They also asked their peers and their teachers to complete a survey on the aggressiveness or the positive behaviors of children in their classes. In this analysis, peers would respond to questions concerning physical aggression such as whether their classmates kicked, punched or pushed others.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Violence in the Media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They responded to questions on relationship-related aggression, such as the spreading of rumors and giving others silent treatment. Teachers and students also rated their peers’ aggression on the basis of their verbal attributes such as insulting or saying mean things about others.

Parents also corroborated information provided by the subjects concerning the media watching habits. The various levels of aggression or pro-social behavior were compared to the media watching habits. The researchers found that there was indeed a positive correlation between exposure to violent mass media among the children and physical, violent and relational aggression (Gnetile et al. 200).

The above study was strong in rigor and validity. Furthermore, many other researches support the same findings in this report. As such, one can state that these scientific methods prove that there is a positive correlation between observing violence in the mass media and aggression in children. Consistency and strong statistical significance testify to the truth behind this claim.

Conclusion Exposure of children to violence in the mass media leads to aggression through physiological alterations. Research findings show that violent video games and other similar media platforms alter the brain’s ability to control emotions and this predisposes children to aggression.

Additionally, media violence exposure also alters subjects’ psychological structures. It causes cognitive distortions and makes it easier for children to justify aggressive behavior. This was supported by measures of moral justification and aggression in research. Observing media violence also increases the aggressive tendencies of children by intensifying the effects of certain personality traits such as neuroticism and disagreeableness.

Works Cited Denny, Dann. “IU Research Links Violent Video Gaming with Brain Changes.” McClatchy – Tribune Business News. 05 Dec 2011: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web.

Gentile, Douglas, Coyne, Sarah and David Walsh. “Media violence, physical aggression adn relations aggression in school age children: a short term longitudinal study.” Aggressive Behavior 37 (2011): 193-206. EBSCOhost. Web.

Richmond, Jill and Clare Wilson. “Are graphic media violence, aggression and moral disengagement related?” Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 15.2 (2008): 350-357. EBSCOhost. Web.

“Violent Video Games and Young People.” Harvard Mental Health Letter. 22 September 2010: n.p. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web.

[supanova_question]

Importance of Counselling Skills Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Essential Counseling Skills

Counseling Skills Scale

References

Introduction Counseling refers to a process that provides direction or advice regarding a decision or course of action. The process involves five crucial stages, which apply in succession. The stages are introduction, information gathering, discussion development, conclusion making, and offering a solution (Maddux, 2010). Counseling involves giving directions or advice on multiple disciplines in life.

It is important to know that a career in counseling does not suit everyone, as there are certain technical and personal skills essential for success in this area of expertise. Successful therapy requires specific individual traits, methodological skills, life experiences, and unremitting specialized development (Maddux, 2010). Counseling is a vocation, which attracts individuals who are highly passionate about helping people.

Essential Counseling Skills A passionate counselor needs to be patient, tactical, welcoming, trustworthy, and understanding. Another important counseling skill is effective communication (McLeod

[supanova_question]

The global oil prices Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The global oil prices have been rising each year, and this has been caused by the diminishing supply compared to the increasing supply. Any political or social disturbance to the countries which supply oil can affect the prices immensely. Syria is one of the oil suppliers to the US. Therefore, the fear of oil disruptions in Syria can send the prices up.

The increase in oil prices has been caused by the increase in the number of people in need of oil. The demand has escalated while the supply has remained constant. In some instances, oil supply has declined, and this has caused the oil prices to increase. Syria is among the oil producing countries, and any disruptions can affect the global prices.

Syria is among the global oil producers, and any political imbalances in the country can affect the global oil prices. On the other hand, the country is not a major oil consumer. Therefore, any crisis affecting the country can cause an increase in oil prices.

This is because other oil producing countries will support in fighting the US. This will cause oil shortage because the major oil producing countries will be affected. The shortage in oil supply will definitely cause an increase in oil prices.

When the US is involved in war, a lot of resources are spent. This increases the expenditure of the countries, and the GDP is affected. This scenario creates inflation in the country, and prices of commodities increase. Therefore, the price of oil, one of the e=basic commodities, is likely to increase. The spill-over effects of inflation in the US will be experienced in other countries due to international trade.

In conclusion, the fear of oil disruptions in Syria can send the prices up because Syria is one of the oil producing countries. The economics of supply and demand have caused the increase in oil prices. Global inflation has also contributed to the increase in global oil prices.

[supanova_question]

The North Face Report college application essay help

The North Face (TNF) was a market leader in the manufacture and marketing of outwear clothing, sleeping bags, and tents. TNF was also one of the major companies that engaged in the manufacture of backpacks. The company had dedicated sales representatives that provided it with a competitive edge over other companies in the industry. In addition, TNF had an efficient distribution network.

The company used a strategy that ensured that it did not compete with the distributors of its products. The market for TNF’s products was maturing. This necessitated the company to devise new strategies. The management of the company identified skiwear as the area that had a huge growth potential.

The company already commanded a significant market share despite the fact that its products did not specifically target this market. However, diversification into this market may pose several challenges that may derail the company’s efforts on its existing products.

The existence of an efficient distribution network chain is one of the major factors that guarantees the ultimate success of a company. The distribution network ensures the effective movement of finished products to the consumers. Companies strive to ensure that they have a lean supply chain management. This reduces the costs of supply chain management (Lambert, 2008, p. 224).

The large network of wholesalers who stock TNF’s products is one of the major strengths of the company. The wholesalers enable customers in a large geographical to access the company’s products. The company’s policies ensure that it does not compete with the wholesalers. This was one of the major factors that led to the closure of TNF’s mail order business.

Employees of a company are the major stakeholders of any company. Companies strive to improve the motivation of employees. Improved motivation guarantees improved productivity of the employees (Pride, Hughes

[supanova_question]

Amazon E-business Model Essay (Article) essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Criteria of Success for Internet-based business models

Amazon.com E-business Model

Technology allows limitless inventory

Technology enhances customer experience

Technologies allows high margins and low prices

Innovation

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction This article explores the most successful Internet business model with specific reference to Amazon e-business model. The concept of ‘business model’ entails all fundamental components of a given business (Hedman and Kalling, 2003). The term has gained popularity mainly in e-businesses and among scholars in e-business studies (Afuah and Tucci, 2001; Cheng, Heng, Love and Irani, 2001).

Zott, Amit, and Massa (2010) have identified common grounds with regard to the concept of a business model. They note that business models have “new units of analysis, a holistic perspective on how firms do business, an emphasis on activities, and an acknowledgement of the importance of value creation” (Zott et al., 2010).

A number of giant corporations have evolved because of the growth in Internet technologies and associated business models. Some of the touted successful Internet business models include Yahoo!, Cisco, Amazon.com, Oracle, E-Bay, DoubleClick.com, Facebook, and HomeStore.com among others.

This decade has been the era of Internet-based business models. Yet, the Internet growth is not over. Scholars and professionals believe that the Internet has entrenched itself in the modern business. It has provided several ways through which businesses have risen above obstacles associated with distance and time (Tassabehji, 2003). The Internet is here to thrive and drive businesses.

Criteria of Success for Internet-based business models One can rate a successful business model by using several criteria. A successful e-business model should display several elements of these criteria. Clear signs of a robust business model include:

Growth in revenues

Growth in profits

Global presence and expansion into new markets

Successful acquisitions and alliances

Differentiation abilities

In addition to these characteristics of successful business models, successful e-business models have identified also other critical areas. These include:

Creating unique Web site with user-friendly attributes

Controlling unique product line

Continuous innovation on products and services

Use of reliable and easy Internet-based payment models or credit card methods

On time delivery

Use of effective marketing strategies

Adopting best practices in the industry

E-businesses must also keep their promises

E-business must meet specific needs of customers because competition has become fierce as new models emerge on a daily basis. Thus, customers may find it easy to conduct business with e-business firms, which are efficient and convenient. E-businesses have thrived on new technologies as ways of delivering services and products to their customers and audience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More E-commerce models aim to automate their business processes and maintain and promote personal interaction with customers simultaneously. Successful e-businesses have exploited conventional principles in technology implementation and maintenance. Internet-based business models have thrived in various areas (Applegate, 2001), which include:

Customer services

Direct marketing and banners

Information and content sales

Product sales

Subscription services

Generally, successful e-businesses have used many related but different models of e-commerce together. These businesses have gone beyond simple categorisation and have diversified their products and services in order to create several streams for revenues and run hybrid models in cost-effective manner.

Weill and Vitale identified eight areas of e-business models, which included “direct customer, full-service provider, intermediary, whole of enterprise, shared infrastructure, virtual community, value net integrator, and content provider” (Weill and Vitale, 2001).

These authors based their classification of e-business models on a thorough review of several studies. They identify how each model operates, its strategies for revenue generation, including core competencies and critical factors for success.

Amazon.com E-business Model Most people think and relate e-commerce to Amazon. One may wonder how a small firm that started as an online book retailer dominated the global e-commerce business (Marcus, 2004). A focus on Amazon’s business model and strategies reveal simple facts. First, the Internet does not restrict what Amazon can sale online anytime and anywhere.

Second, Amazon has unique customer experience, and it controls customers’ accounts and wins customers loyalty. Third, Amazon has diversified into other digital goods beyond books. It is amazing to recognise how Amazon has grown in terms of services and products beyond books, movies, and music.

Moreover, it is in records that between 1995 and 2003, Amazon incurred losses of up to three billion USD. However, this has changed today because Amazon has over $34 billion in revenues and over one billion USD in profits annually.

We will write a custom Article on Amazon E-business Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Amazon focuses on three areas in its e-business model, which include “online retail, internet services, and the Kindle ecosystem” (Noren, 2013).

Figure 1: Amazon leads all other e-business models

From the definition of Weill and Vitale (2001), one can observe “roles and relations among a firm’s consumers, allies, and suppliers that identifies the major flows of product, information, and money, and the major benefits to participants” (Weill and Vitale, 2001). Still, Amit and Zott capture three critical aspects of e-business strategies, such as context, structure, and governance of transactions (Amit and Zott, 2001).

In this context, the content element involves exchange of goods and information, structure indicates the association between stakeholders while governance of transactions entails oversight on information, services, and resources. From Amazon e-business model, one can observe various aspects of e-commerce. For instance, Amazon has created value for customers through distinctively low costs.

Customers can choose varieties of services and products. In addition, the online retailer has diversified to products and revenue sources in order to keep high returns at low costs. Still, Amazon has the required skills for the business sustainability (Afuah and Tucci, 2001). Other traditional brick-and-mortar retailers may also apply these concepts.

According to Applegate, an online business model has three important elements, which consist of “concept, capabilities, and value” (Applegate, 2001).

Amazon’s e-business model has defined products and services available, global market opportunities, competitive abilities, effective strategy for dominating the e-retail sector, and strategic option for transforming the business as new products come into the market (Johnson, 2010).

Amazon has created its business capabilities and delivered them through its employees, affiliates, culture, internal structure, development strategies, infrastructure, sales and marketing, advertisement, and effective management strategies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Amazon E-business Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One can understand the success of Amazon by looking at its “profits margins, shareholders’ returns, return on investments, and the brand, its reputation among customers, the global market share, and financial performance” (Hedman and Kalling, 2003).

A clear distinction between ‘the Internet Age’ business model and the traditional business model lies in the way both parties conduct their businesses.

Figure 2: Amazon business model (Noren, 2013)

Technology allows limitless inventory Amazon.com wants to be the most customer-oriented online retailer where consumers can find and discover any product or service they might be interested in online. Moreover, Amazon seeks to provide the lowest prices to its customers.

Amazon started as an online book retailer. Today, the e-retailer has diversified into other areas like movies, DVDs, apparel, toys, jewellery, used and refurbished items, home and garden equipment, electronic products, and sports equipment among others.

While Amazon established e-book as its main product and business strategy, today one can find several items and services on Amazon. This implies that Amazon will no longer lose revenues as it did in the past. Instead, the company has created several sources of constant revenues.

Amazon e-business model and Ebay.com strategies are the same. However, Amazon has learned to create unique edge among its competitors through innovation and technologies.

For instance, Amazon creates a long list of all available products and services, which become live for customers on the Amazon Website. These products and services will last on the Web site as long as it takes them to sell, or until the owners decide to remove them from the list.

Amazon managed to emerge from the dot-com era because of its feasible and innovative e-business strategy. The company focused on dynamics of the market, customer experience, value, and a radical profit approach that changed the book industry. Today, Amazon wants to upset the print media industry through Washing Post by using the same strategy.

The company rose beyond digitalised products to include other shippable products. In addition, Amazon established several warehouses and it did not stop there. It continues to revolutionise e-commerce through new technologies and innovative solutions.

Technology enhances customer experience Amazon was the pioneer of unmatched customer service since the early days of the Internet business. As a result, Amazon has created a Web site that ensures that all customers have a positive experience throughout their navigation of the site. The Web site is user-friendly. For instance, the firm has eliminated customer anxiety through its online shipping system.

Amazon treats its customers as kings. The company has been able to develop a relationship with its customers, which leads to trust and long-lasting relationships. This takes place in product shipping.

Therefore, the kind of customer experience that Amazon creates usually exceeds sole reliance on technologies. The company has thrived on one-on-one strategies and personal touch when handling customers from all over the world through technologies (Ives and Mason, 1990).

Amazon has a large volume of products, which it sells throughout the year. It maintains several warehouses and other centres in strategic locations around the globe.

Amazon offers best selections to customers because of technology (Porter, 2001). In addition, consumers can save lots money by purchasing other used products available at Amazon, including books. Customers also make frequent visits to the Web site to check new free offers on shipping, discounts, promotion, cash back guarantees, rebates, and other instant off deals. Amazon has something special each day for its consumers.

For instance, Amazon has a Gold Box, which has a special promotion every hour. The company limits the duration for such deals so that customers can respond rapidly to them. Customers can track all their deals through the available shopping list on the site.

Amazon allows customers to make special wishes through the Wish List, own Auctions account, Member Page, and become associates. Still, customers can also terminate their relationships with company by closing the account if they wish to do so.

A successful e-business model must focus on delivering values to the customer before profits. The process requires effective identification of unexploited or underserved markets and then formulating a clear value proposition to address customers’ needs even if such needs are foreign to the business. Amazon has continued to revitalise its services to customers in order to move beyond what it has achieved.

This process involves constant interactions with customers in order to identify what they need and then developing solutions to them no matter how difficult such solutions could be. Overall, business leaders can utilise a clearly defined customer value proposition, which serves clear functions to formulate a suitable profit approach, required resources, and processes that a firm requires in order to thrive.

Technologies allows high margins and low prices Many people are yet to understand how Amazon generates large revenues from low prices. This has been the major strength of the e-business model and strategy of Amazon (Shin, 2001). The company gets revenues by deducting a little percentage on the sales price for every product and service it sells. This is like a commission. Hence, associates only pay Amazon when they sell their products or services through the Web site.

Amazon seeks to establish price control over its contents. However, this has been a major challenge as it strives to pursue e-retailer strategy. Retailers offer distribution channels at no charge, but they get revenues from the sales of items. Amazon has perfected this through shipping products and other online products available through Kindles.

Customers have often considered Amazon because of best prices and excellent customer services.

Innovation Amazon Web site Services and Kindle are two big clean sheet models that have worked exceptionally well for the company. Amazon believes in incremental and low risk innovative models. The company takes time to initiate a new project and product categories. Amazon explores new geographies into details. However, this does not guarantee that all its ideas will work.

Instead, the company relies on its expertise and knowledge to execute innovative strategies. Amazon knows “how to open new fulfilment centres, whether to open one, where to locate it and how big to make it” (Cook, 2011). Amazon can analyse all its business models quantitatively in order to draw intuitive judgements (Cook, 2011).

The company took innovation further when it introduced a new value proposition based on a commission system. Customers and brokerage services would receive commissions on used books sold on the Amazon Web site. Further, Amazon introduced a new business model in which it would only serve its third-party sellers.

This allowed Amazon to introduce other retailers, who were initially rivals into its circle of affiliates. Under this model, Amazon changed its e-business model from “direct sales to a sales-and-service model, aggregating many sellers under one virtual roof and receiving commissions from the other companies’ sales” (Johnson, 2010).

Innovation at Amazon did not stop there, but rather the company went ahead and identified a new business opportunity from the IT community. Amazon realised that serving the IT community would require diverse approaches, resources, and a new profit strategy. This was a new e-business model based on innovation. In the year 2002, the company introduced its new Web services platform.

This was the time when Amazon had reached profitability. Many critics considered it risky to invest in a new business model at the time (Johnson, 2010). However, within five years, Amazon Web services had grown considerably. Innovation at Amazon became obvious when the company introduced Kindle e-book reader. This product was completely new to Amazon and disrupted the entire print media industry (Wheeler, 2011).

Kindle product transformed “Amazon to an original equipment manufacturer” (Johnson, 2010). Amazon “wrapped this technology in a seamlessly integrated iTunes-type digital media platform that combined both transaction and subscription-based content delivery” (Johnson, 2010).

The company managed to collaborate with content developers in an innovative approach in order to develop an open back-end system, which could allow its associates to create new materials for the Kindle. The Kindle business model proved successful when Amazon managed to sale over 500,000 Kindle contents in the first year.

This innovative model has allowed Amazon to develop and expand the e-book market. In addition, Amazon has positioned itself as the next big company in the newspaper and periodical distribution by acquiring a stake at Washington Post.

What Amazon sells on Kindle and Apple sells on iTunes shows a difference in prices. Amazon has slightly cheaper contents relative to iTunes products. This is also the case for physical products between these two companies. Gans notes that this is Jeff Bezos’ approach of competing with Apple (Gans, 2012). Amazon has discounts on all its digital contents, but the company makes revenues from the large volumes it sells.

However, this is a business model and not a price war between Amazon and Apple (Gans, 2012). In a price war, only one company may win and dominate the market. According to Gans, when business models compete, it implies that the two can coexist in the same market.

However, every model will win customers based on its strengths. For instance, Apple would get customers who want performance and reliability. These could be high-end consumers and perhaps institutional or commercial establishments. On the other hand, Amazon would appeal to low-end consumers who want cheap products fast. Overall, what each business model does affect the other model.

From the Amazon model, one must recognise that any business model can only grow in a culture where leadership fosters a culture of inquiry, new value propositions, new approaches to profit generation, and in situations where leadership encourages developments of new business models with interests (Austin, Nolan and O’Donnell, 2009).

Johnson notes that “in built-to-transforms companies, managers recognise that becoming is a part of being, and that the road to the next big thing can be travelled only by those with open minds” (Johnson, 2010).

Amazon e-business model shows that management discipline and leadership abilities that can steer a firm through constant processes of transformation and growth, which are mandatory for success (Kagermann, Osterle and Jordan, 2010).

Jeff noted that survival in dynamic and technological oriented business environments required a business model that could easily allow the company to transform its processes (Johnson, 2010; Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010). Hence, he based the model on constant transformation.

Whenever Amazon finds a new chance to serve a new market or its existing markets, “it develops a new business model to use in such circumstances” (Johnson, 2010). Johnson notes that Amazon has “the unique ability to launch and run entirely new types of businesses while simultaneously extracting value from existing businesses” (Johnson, 2010).

Hence, the company’s growth will significantly depend on a series of changes, as it focuses on its vision. Johnson refers to Amazon’s success as the company’s “willingness to pursue growth in its “white spaces”—the range of potential activities not defined or addressed by the company’s current business model” (Johnson, 2010).

Porter presented the most important text on business strategies, but professionals have not exploited Porters’ texts (Porter, 1991). Porter asserts that the “low-cost and differentiation advantages that firms enjoy on the product market ultimately stem from initial conditions and managerial choices” (Porter, 1991).

Porter notes that management decisions have significant impacts in drivers of business, which are mainly resources that employers must work on in order to create low costs and establish differentiation among competitors. As a result, Amazon has been able to develop specific strategic positions in the e-business industry, which has allowed it to succeed and continue to forge new relations.

While this may not be a business model, it entails several aspects that are common in all business models. It is important to note that Porter does not specifically identify the possible models of the business. However, one can draw a conclusion from his focus on managerial decisions and organisational success.

An effective e-business model entails a strategy (McKeen and Smith, 2011). For instance, managerial decisions depend on the longitudinal aspects and are responses from criticisms that organisations get from critics.

However, the fundamental concepts of these business models entail resource-based views (RBV) (Barney, 1991). Amazon has effectively used its resources to create competitive advantages in the e-retailer business (Wünsche, 2012; Bharadwaj, 2000; Kalling, 1999).

A further review also highlights forces, which have driven Amazon to success. For instance, external environments of e-business became competitive as other players like EBay and Apple introduced their models. Hence, Amazon had to review its needs and values with regard to what it could offer the market under such circumstances (Weill and Ross, 2009; Ginsberg, 1994).

Amazon also had to take account of its internal structures, resources, expertise, knowledge, system capabilities, and the organisational values. These are systemic processes, which must also relate with external environments, the firm’s position, and its internal factors.

Current research on e-businesses has not focused much on the concept of resource-based view. Instead, studies have concentrated on different changes in business processes, which they refer to as business models. McGrath

[supanova_question]

Cloud Computing: Data Confidentiality, Privacy and Thefts Proposal cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Cloud computing is among the fastest growing sectors of information technology. In fact, organizations are rapidly using the concept in business circles. Currently, it has become a key part of the information technology industry.

However, a majority of organizations are faced with the chief decision on whether or not it is advisable to embrace the technology and move their data as well as that of their customers to a specialized cloud organization to host and handle the information (Gold 2012, p. 23).

Indeed, a majority of innovative companies have embraced the concept motivated by the savings inherent in storing information in a cloud. Cloud computing like any other online undertaking comprises of a range of risks, which are significant to the companies (Rizwana

[supanova_question]

The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War Critical Essay best college essay help

Following the publication of the scholarly works such as the Great War and Women’s Consciousness by Claire Tylee’s, other feminist scholars such as Angela K. Smith emerged to provide an expanded investigation and a critical assessment of various writings on the roles of women in the First World War authored by women scholars.

While Women Writings on The First World War provide an anthology of manuscripts, which are not published addressing various political voices of women struggling to live in a society dominated by male chauvinism, the book The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War evaluates and/or assesses various terrains that women walked through during the First World War.

This assessment helps in laying a theoretical background on the contributions that are made by women in the development of literature on war history. The evaluation and assessment are conducted in relation to the stingy and scholarly troublesome concept of modernism.

In The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War, Smith develops various themes related to women’s contributions in war with particular reference to the First World War.

The first theme is the connection of writings of women on the subject of the First World War and the modernism theoretical constructs. Another important theme is the need for placing emphasis on gender issues that are prevalent in the modern world upon drawing from the role of women in the social developments showcased during the First World War.

Development of the two themes is supported by information drawn from a myriad of letters coupled with unpublished diaries. The selection of sources to support scholarly arguments introduces major weaknesses in terms of reliability of sources to give credible information to the arguments in a bid to provide solid scholarly evidence supporting the claims advanced by Smith.

However, thematic issues developed in the book are essential in helping to evaluate the roles played by women since the First World War in shaping the world order in the context of modernist theoretical paradigms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This way, the book aids in triggering different paradigms for searching new mechanisms of women’s expression in a free and transparent society prescribed by the theories of modernism. This gives the book the strength of contributing to scholarly development of women’s contribution in modernism.

In the development of the first theme, Smith depicts the First World War as the foundation of the development of feminism. She is quick to point out her inclination on feminist arguments by subscribing to the school of thought of equal social economic and political rights of women, which were brought into societal limelight during and after the First World War.

She views various writings on the roles of women in the First World War as essentially reflecting and supporting the concepts of female modernism. This assertion is evident based on her argument that war experiences “influenced the development of female modernist practice, opening up a pathway for a diverse range of different experimental discourses1.

This case implies that, through the First World War experiences, women recognized that they had equal abilities tantamount to men. This line of argument may be challenged. History has records of women playing behind-war-scene roles during wars. Such roles include the provision of nursing services to wounded soldiers.

However, this counter argument does not imply that women were not engaged in direct combats during the First World War. The dispute is that, for Angela K. Smith’s argument that First World War laid crucial backgrounds to the development of modern feminist theoretical constructs advocating for equality of men and women to be factual, it is important to provide statistical and quantitative data.

This provides evidence for an equal ability of women and men to participate in war with specific reference to First World War beyond any doubt.

Smith sees women’s writings during and soon after the First World War as significant contributors to the bridging of the realist school of thought of the nineteenth century and the experimental and practical works of the 1920s. This perhaps reveals why she relies on diaries and epistles as her sources.

We will write a custom Book Review on The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She claims that such sources “contain within them elements of stylistic change as their writers strive to find ways to articulate an experience, which cannot be easily condensed into convectional language”2. This belief is simplistic and one that is anchored on weak evidential foundations.

It suggests that the First World War led to the emergence of formal innovation, which facilitated the cognition of women’s abilities that had long been shrouded. For instance, she sees the work of women writers such as La Motte together with the work of Borden as portraying concepts of modernism accidentally3.

In particular, she argues that the work of Borden reflects high self-consciousness, a literary realization, which requires scholarly credit4. However, this perception does not consider the familiarity of women with experimentalist works advanced by Gertrude Stein together with Amy Lowell. Hence, she fails to accord justice to their works, which displayed incredible writing brilliance.

Amid the criticisms for development of the first theme, Smith writes from safer grounds by choosing to analyze the various themes reflected in the women’s writings on the First World War to unveil the concepts of modernism. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the evaluation of diverse women authors portraying their roles in the First World War. This creates various juxtapositions.

For instance, the works of May Sinclaire are not sufficiently addressed, yet she was a significant contributor of modernism that is celebrated today. Her focus is on developing arguments on the roles of women during the First World War.

Therefore, in the effort to advance the argument on the development of modernism school of thought, an intensive error is created in presenting May Sinclaire as a modernist writer whose roles and heroism in the First World War era were only recognized just before she died. In chapter 6, she explores the work of Katherine Mansfield and others presenting the theme of domestic imagery.

This capacity to run through a range of works developed by eloquently known women writers and feminists is non-canonical and unproductive. However, it is through deployment of this strategy that she is able to explore and provide expansive parameters for evaluation of various approaches to female modernism.

This way, readers are able to traverse various writings of women during the First World War to determine how they link up with the concepts of modernism as they relate to feminism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second theme developed by The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War is the need for placing central emphasis on gender issues that are prevalent in the modern world upon drawing from the historical roles of women in First World War together with social developments.

In this quest, she emphasizes her orthodox approach to the selection of her various materials reflecting this theme in the effort to exhibit the largest possible degree of experience of women in contributing to social progression of the society5. This position is a major strength in her work to address the prevalent modern issues in the advancement of modernism issues.

Her work captures texts that are representative of the broad class boundaries. This means that the work of Smith passes the test for representation of the overall arguments on the development of women since the First World War amid cultural and geographical divides. This position is an essential characteristic for reliability and validity of a scholarly historical piece of work.

In the selection of the texts investigated by Smith, a major weakness is introduced. In her arguments against the segregation and perception of gender roles, not all women amid their class status are given sufficient attention. For instance, in chapter 4, Smith argues that women believed that, when the war broke, their only role was to oppose it since they had no other role to engage in the frontlines.

This was men’s responsibility, but not women who were also not recognized in the systems of governance. Indeed, according to Smith, women were life creators as opposed to destroyers6. The perception of life destruction was far removed from their nature. However, she claims that women who took part in the front lines during the First World War altered the traditional belief.

She further adds that such women wrote letters and diaries from which she draws her evidence of the development of perspectives of modernism during the First World War. Such women were literate. Literacy was a reserve for middle and upper- middle class group of women in 1910s and 1920s.

This raises the question on the roles of illiterate women in setting the background for addressing gender-related issues prevalent in the modernist theoretical constructs.

Women writers reflected in the book are essentially drawn from the upper-middle-class and the middle class in some instances. Many are also highly reputable in the historical writing profession. This raises the scholarly question of whether only women belonging to this societal class had the capacity to disapprove the fallacy of segregation and division of gender roles.

Did the low-class women have the ability to perform equally or out perform some men in some gender-centered roles? In the development of the argument in the text, Smith has emphasized feminist topics together with the styles of writing, which reflect the development of modernism during and after the First World War.

While this emphasis is crucial in enhancing the provision of a feminist text, which is highly informative, such emphasis acts also as a weakness. The selections are highly abbreviated. This makes them not useful for scholarly research.

Smith’s book The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War is one of the books that reflect the theme of modernism. Such themes include the roles played by women in the First World War.

People interested in studies of history of the evaluation of women gender roles and/or how the subjects that have taken immense attention in the modern approaches to feminism relate to modernism will find the book worth reading.

Bibliography Smith, Angela. The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War. New York: Manchester University Press, 2000.

Footnotes 1 Angela Smith, The Second Battlefield: Women, Modernism, and the First World War. (New York: Manchester University Press, 2000), 197.

2 Smith, The Second Battlefield, 6.

3 Smith, The Second Battlefield, 8.

4 Smith, The Second Battlefield, 97.

5 Smith, The Second Battlefield, 5.

6Smith, The Second Battlefield, 9.

[supanova_question]

Plagiarism is Morally Reprehensible Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

People interact with each other sharing ideas and opinions, and it can be rather difficult to determine the origin of the concrete idea or vision. However, in the context of the academic discourse, all the used ideas taken from the academic or digital sources should be cited appropriately in order to protect the intellectual property rights of the person who has originated the idea.

The act of violating these rights and stealing someone’s words and ideas is known as plagiarism. Thus, to discuss the ethical component of plagiarism, it is necessary to pay attention to the definition of the concept and its meaning in relation to the idea of academic integrity. Plagiarism is often defined as the act of copying the other persons’ ideas and words without referencing.

Those persons who are inclined to plagiarize use the easiest way to cope with the academic tasks while presenting the other people’s ideas as their own. In reality, these persons steal the other people’s intellectual property (Park 479).

From this point, plagiarism is a kind of theft which can result in significant negative consequences for the representatives of the academic community because of the strict institutional policies according to which intellectual property is protected in spite of the fact that the legal aspects of the plagiarism question are not developed appropriately.

That is why, plagiarism is the important ethical issue which should be discussed as the morally reprehensible act because plagiarism is the direct theft based on dishonesty in relation to the students and scholars sharing their ideas and relying on the intellectual property rights.

Although the institutional policies are developed to prevent plagiarism as the act of the specific literary theft realized by students and scholars, plagiarism remains to be the controversial and rather urgent problem in the academic sphere because persons find more variants to use the other people’s ideas without citing and referencing.

The progress of the Internet contributes to this process because of the possibilities to access to the open and available documents written by different persons. It is possible to avoid plagiarism if a person cites the used sources appropriately (Park 479). Nevertheless, many people choose to ignore the ethical aspects of academic writing and focus on violating the idea of academic integrity while plagiarizing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, it is possible to state that many people choose to steal instead of following the norms and rules. Focusing on plagiarism as the opportunity to complete an assignment or write an article without any efforts, people violate not only institutional policies but also break ethical norms, supporting the idea that plagiarism is the academic sin as it is presented by many researchers (Park 474).

Those people who provide the copied or paraphrased words as their own ones can be discussed as liars because they do not state the information about the source of the ideas or thoughts. Moreover, definite benefits from presenting the certain ideas as original can be shared by persons who performed morally wrong.

Plagiarism is one of the main problems related to the aspect of academic etiquette. The acts of plagiarizing are morally reprehensible because the norms of ethical codes for students, academicians, writers, and scholars are violated intentionally.

In this case, it is important to note that the majority of cases in which the act of plagiarizing was determined can be discussed as intentional because persons choose copying the material as the quickest way to cope with the task. As a result of such activities, the idea of intellectual freedom is also taken into account.

Persons have the ethical rights to share their ideas openly, and they have the right to protect their thoughts as a kind of intellectual property. From this perspective, the ethical approach to the issue is closely associated with the definite intellectual liberty (Park 482). That is why, it is possible to pay attention to the reasons for discussing the acts of stealing the other persons’ words and ideas as morally wrong.

Plagiarism is the morally wrong act based on the concept of the writer’s guilt because the notion of academic integrity is learnt by people early before starting their writing activities. Furthermore, this concept is connected with cheating at the examinations and any other prohibited activities (Sutherland-Smith 84).

Thus, while plagiarizing, people perform inadequately in relating to the fact that they were informed earlier about the risks of plagiarism. Thus, any intentional activity or choice to act wrongly and unethically should be punished in relation to the concrete context. In the sphere of education and academic discourse, the authorities in different educational institutions are responsible for determining the norms of non-plagiarism policies.

We will write a custom Essay on Plagiarism is Morally Reprehensible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, there are visions that today plagiarism cannot be discussed as the controlled issue because of the increasing role of the Internet and other digital sources which can be used for writing and searching for interesting thoughts. As a result, the issue of cyberplagiarism is the new controversial question in the field of academic writing and in the sphere of intellectual property in general (Park 481).

The sources which are available through the Internet resources and services are not protected with the intellectual property rights appropriately, and it is the question of the people’s morality to use or not these sources effectively to avoid plagiarism and other ethical and legal issues. One more problem is the control over sharing and using the other people’s ideas.

If the use of the other authors’ words can be checked with the help of different plagiarism detectors, the theft of ideas is the more complex procedure which cannot be determined successfully in all the cases. Plagiarizing ideas, writers demonstrate their dishonesty and support the vision of plagiarism as the morally wrong act.

Moreover, during the centuries, imitation of words and ideas was discussed as the act to demonstrate the respect for the other author (Park 481-482; Sutherland-Smith 85). Today, this act can be discussed as plagiarism if the writer does not provide the necessary citation.

Thus, plagiarism can be considered as the severe academic disease which develops in the sphere of academic discourse and which needs the effective prevention means. Plagiarism as the ethically wrong procedure which includes the act of stealing the other persons’ ideas, views, and words that is why this activity should be punished.

In spite of the fact that plagiarism contributes to violating the intellectual property rights and copyright laws, this act is also harmful for the development of the academic world’s principles because the uncertainties in relation to the non-plagiarism policies can lead to the uncertainties regarding the intellectual liberty and academic etiquette. Plagiarism is morally reprehensible without references to the ways of its realization.

Works Cited Park, Chris. “In Other (People’s) Words: Plagiarism by University Students – Literature and Lessons”. Assessment

[supanova_question]

Wal-Mart Strategic Plan Coursework essay help free: essay help free

Organizational strategic plan Wal-Mart is one of the largest multinational retail firms. The firm’s success originates from adoption of optimal business, functional, and corporate level strategies. One of the corporate level strategies that the firm has continuously implemented relates to expansion strategies.

Wal-Mart started its market expansion efforts in the early 1990s. The firm has adopted different market expansion strategies such as acquiring local firms, joint ventures, and organic expansion. The firm’s decision to adopt the market expansion strategy hinged on the desire to maximize its economic gains by exploiting market opportunities (Sims, 2007).

Over the years, the firm has managed to enter and position itself in the international market. Currently, the firm is targeting emerging markets in Asia and Africa. However, the firm’s success in the two regions will face various challenges. This paper identifies and describes the organizational issues that the firm may face in its quest to expand into the international market.

The organizational issues discussed relate to cultural differences, inability to develop a strong brand, human capital challenges, and difficulties in understanding the local consumer patterns. Moreover, this paper outlines the strategies that Wal-Mart should implement in order to address the organizational issues identified.

Organizational issues faced Culture differences

According to Menipaz and Menipaz (2011), cultural difference is one of the major issues that multinational companies face. Wal-Mart’s international market expansion effort will be subject to differences in national and organizational culture between the US and the target foreign market in a number of ways.

First, the firm will experience a challenge in its quest to communicate and create market awareness regarding its products and services.

Some governments such as Zimbabwe have instituted strict legal regulations that limit entry of multinational companies. In a bid to enter these markets, Wal-Mart will be required to partner with local firms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the firm will not market its products directly. Such legal regulations may affect the firm’s ability to penetrate the target market. However, partnering with local firms might not succeed due to corporate culture clash between Wal-Mart and the local firms.

The two firms might not possess similar cultures with regard to the norms, attitudes, and beliefs. Moreover, their organizational culture may vary based on the firm’s mission, vision, and philosophies. This aspect will limit the effectiveness with which the two firms implement business and operational strategies (Carleton

[supanova_question]

Control of Tuberculosis in Swaziland Analytical Essay cheap essay help

A Programme Plan for the Control of Tuberculosis in Swaziland TB Problem Tuberculosis (TB) is potentially dangerous infectious disease caused by different strains of mycobacterium, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In most cases, TB affects the lungs. Infected people may spread TB bacteria to others through spitting, sneezing, and coughing respiratory tiny droplets. Most TB infections do not have obvious symptoms and tend to be latent. However, asymptomatic TB may progress to an active status over time and cause death if not treated.

People with strong immunity systems may have bacteria that cause TB, but they may not display symptoms. Hence, there are latent TB and active TB infections. Latent TB infection is inactive, and it does not cause any observable symptoms. Active TB is contagious and dangerous.

Today, there are several strains of TB, which are drug resistance and difficult to treat. People infected with TB require a combination of medications for a given period (usually up to eight months) in order to destroy TB bacteria and eliminate possibilities of developing drug resistance cases.

TB was rare in developed countries. However, after the HIV/AID epidemic, it became rampant among people with HIV/AID because of the weakened immunity system of the body. As a result, TB and HIV have remained major concerns for many countries, particularly developing countries. This is a programme plan for controlling the TB epidemic in Swaziland as one of the developing countries with highest prevalence of TB infections in the world.

TB Problem in Swaziland The Government of the tiny Kingdom of Swaziland declared that TB as a national emergency as it intensified the fight not only against the ancient disease of TB, but also against the now well established link between TB and HIV (2). The kingdom faces a health emergency crisis in large proportions.

The United Nations Swaziland observes that the country has the highest TB incidence in the world (1198 per 100,000 population), and it has the highest TB/HIV co-infection rates where 80% of incident TB cases are already HIV positive (2). TB kills more than 2,780 people in the country every year.

This number consists of the most productive population in Swaziland. Swaziland’s prevalence of MDR TB is at the rate of 7.7 percent as new cases while 33 percent represents past cases. The country has recorded increasing cases of drug-resistant TB strains (nearly ten percent of diagnosed cases are resistant to TB medication). As a result, life expectancy in Swaziland has dropped from 60 years to 41 years today.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are ongoing efforts to control the spread of TB in Swaziland. For instance, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare works together with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) implemented an integrated model of HIV/TB in different locations.

Many factors could be responsible for the rise of TB cases in Swaziland. The emergence of the drug-resistant TB has created treatment challenges for many TB patients. The National TB Control Programme of Swaziland noted that health care facilities have reported poor success rates in treatment.

Moreover, in 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) observed that failure rates were high with up to seven percent in new cases and 11 percent in retreated cases (3). Still, Swaziland borders South Africa at the Province of KwaZulu-Natal where majorities cross the border to mining zones. In 2005, an outbreak of TB was reported with high numbers of HIV infections. This is where many miners work. There are common cases of occurrences of TB and HIV infection among the most susceptible populations.

High HIV rates in Swaziland have also played a role in the increasing number of TB infections. In most cases, people living with HIV (co-infection) also have TB infections. However, any association between the drug-resistant TB infection and HIV infection has remained controversial (2). Some studies have indicated that malabsorption outcomes of anti-TB drugs have association with HIV-positive patients. This situation increases the risk for acquired rifampin resistance.

Many scholars have linked HIV and TB infections with high socioeconomic challenges in Swaziland. This state of poverty has contributed to patients’ vulnerability, poor treatment adherence, and lack of access to proper treatment, which result in the development of drug resistance cases among TB patients. People with HIV/AIDS may also interact with others who have MBR TB infections.

People who have MDR TB conditions require several visits to health care facilities for effective management of the condition. These frequent visits may expose and increase chances of people with HIV getting TB bacteria from TB patients. This is nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant TB strain to other patients, who may be vulnerable to TB bacteria, especially HIV patients (1). TB infections in people with HIV progress fast. This is most likely to lead to other infections due to reduced immunity of the body.

Swaziland’s national TB control programme developed the Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) in order to curb the rapid spread of TB infections. However, high prevalence of HIV infections in Swaziland has undermined the DOTS programme. Moreover, few health care outlets, lack of proper equipment, MDR TB and Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR TB) have also hampered the fight against TB in Swaziland.

We will write a custom Essay on Control of Tuberculosis in Swaziland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All TB initiatives and programmes in Swaziland require consistent supports in order to ensure that such initiatives are successful. Any programme should focus on delivering effective DOTS, combating TB/HIV infections, and MDR TB cases in Swaziland.

Given the escalating cases of new TB and HIV infections, Swaziland requires urgent interventions in several ways.

The country needs sustained prevention, treatment, and care to TB and HIV patients. There is a need to introduce effective integrated programmes for managing both HIV and TB infections. These programmes should also focus on prevention of malaria and effective support to malaria patients because malaria kills many pregnant women and children fast.

Swaziland TB prevention programmes require a special attention to MDR TB, XDR TB, HIV, and TB infections. Such programmes should emphasise the need to ensure equitable distribution of essential drugs and reasonable use by patients.

TB and HIV infections require continued monitoring and evaluation in order to determine outcomes. Monitoring and evaluation programmes should also focus on observed changes in drug resistant TB, malaria, and HIV.

Swaziland government is an important stakeholder in fighting TB epidemic in the country. As a result, the government should mobilise resources, show political commitment, and form partnership with other stakeholders to develop programmes that could effectively fight TB and HIV infections at all levels of the country.

It is also important to focus on knowledge and attitudes of TB patients in order understand their views. This process requires a well-designed study that can identify various causes and outcome of TB infections in Swaziland.

Studies from other regions of the world have shown that effective and sustained approaches to TB treatment and management have led to decline in cases of TB infections. Moreover, there are high success rates in treatment.

Unfortunately, Swaziland has registered high rates of defaulters, death rates, and transfer rates among HIV and TB patients (2). These situations have led to unfavourable outcomes in TB and HIV treatment and management. Hence, all stakeholders in fighting TB infections in Swaziland must improve their efforts and conduct follow-ups to evaluate patients after treatment.

TB Decentralisation and Integration in the Health System of Swaziland Decentralisation and integration of TB management in Swaziland have taken some approaches to ensure that treatments are effective and successful.

Community-Based and Home-Based Approaches Majorities of TB patients in Swaziland live in rural areas in small isolated villages. Normally, many TB patients cannot afford costs of travelling and long journeys to health care facilities.

As a result, health care service providers, such as MSF (Doctors without Borders), have developed decentralised and community-based programmes in order to combat TB and HIV infections. The MSF has trained some people in the community to take the roles of counsellors, who can also test both HIV and TB infections. The decentralisation effort aims to increase the number of people being tested for HIV and TB in Swaziland.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Control of Tuberculosis in Swaziland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is an initiative to start early treatment of both infections. In addition, decentralisation efforts would ensure that few people default treatment, improve their health, and ensure high success rates. Decentralisation aims to support local clinics in poor, remote locations of Swaziland. As a result, these clinics are able to offer integrated programmes to treat both HIV and TB. They have increased the rate of testing patients every month. Moreover, patients on antiretroviral (ARV) have increased significantly.

This is also the case with TB treatments where many patients have registered for medication, including patients with multidrug resistant conditions. Many patients have regarded TB treatments as long and complex process, but decentralisation has ensured sustained treatments for these patients.

Swaziland has recognised that managing drug resistant TB strain is a major challenge in the health sector. In this context, MSF has provided support to decentralisation efforts in several health care centres in different parts of the country as a way of improving accessibility to health care services. In fact, MSF now constructs modern laboratories in such locations.

Decentralisation efforts require collaborative approaches with the Ministry of Health. In addition, this approach also aims to integrate both HIV and TB treatments in various parts of the country. The Ministry of Health alongside other stakeholders have rolled out national TB decentralisation programmes to focus on drug resistant strain of TB.

Decentralisation and integration efforts have also focused on patients who live in towns. Specifically, these approaches target people working in industries.

Research indicates that such programmes were effective in rural Swaziland. TB detection through intensified case finding (ICF) was feasible and aided in TB and HIV integrated care. The programme enhanced accessibility to underserved, rural TB patients. However, home-based care is effective in rural areas because patients lack adequate space in health care facilities as cases of TB increase and overwhelm care providers.

Staffing Crisis Swaziland desperately needs adequate health care providers and physicians. Inadequate training facilities have led to low number of nurses in the country. In this regard, it would be effective to train many nurses and allow them to tackle simple cases of TB infections, prescribe drugs, and provide required support.

Many patients have lived with HIV and TB for long in Swaziland. According the MSF, these are ‘expert patients’, who play critical roles in screening, advising, and informing new patients about HIV and TB medications. Moreover, these patients also conduct awareness campaigns in their communities.

The MSF has also organised several workshops in order to discuss the problem of increasing cases of new infections in Swaziland. The major aims of such workshops are to search for alternative and innovative method of offering effective treatments and supports to people infected and affected with HIV and TB in Swaziland. The country lacks health care professionals. On this note, workshop participants have developed health care programmes, which have provided care to patients at the village and local levels.

Despite these efforts to combat the spread of TB infections in Swaziland, there are new cases of infections. Swaziland tries to use integrated programmes to combat TB infections, which affect people with HIV/AIDS. This process requires a partnership with external professionals and other stakeholders.

The situation challenges the goals of eradicating TB as a communicable health problem globally by 2050. Cases of TB infections are rampant in people living with HIV/AIDS (2). This explains why most integrated intervention programmes focus on these two diseases together. Most TB patients are in Africa, and the WHO has attributed this state to high prevalence of HIV infections in the continent.

Stakeholders in the fight against HIV and TB have noted that people with HIV are prone to TB infections. As a result, these stakeholders have noted that it is effective to provide HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC) in TB clinics. These programmes also integrate TB-HIV services to the community.

According to the group of researchers (2), in Swaziland, about eight in ten individuals who have TB are HIV positive. However, URC launched an integrated strategy with TB clinics that offered HTC care to patients, but few patients received these services. Many TB centres referred TB patients to VCT centres to know their status. Swaziland has few centres, which implies that all VCT centres receive a large number of patients, which they cannot manage. Patients often face challenges in such overburdened facilities.

Hence, the quality of treatments and counselling may not meet the minimum threshold required. Given such conditions, health care providers have recognised the need to address TB and HIV infections collectively and focus on underserved and underreported areas. Decentralised and integrated TB and HIV programmes work collaboratively with the National TB Control Programme alongside other stakeholders. These programmes aim to increase the number of TB and HIV clinics at the local levels.

Important Stakeholders of TB Problem Swaziland has several stakeholders because of the unique nature of the problem. It is important to engage all stakeholders when developing an intervention programme for controlling and evaluating TB infections. Stakeholders are important for the day-to-day implementation of the TB control programmes, advocate for the programme, and support or authorise funding of the programme. There are three main groups of stakeholders in this programme.

People involved in the programme operations These include programme managers, administrators, staff, outreach staff, nurses, clinicians, and government health agencies

People affected by the programme These include patients, community members, families, visitors, and community planning boards

Intended users of the evaluation outcomes These include policymakers, health care providers, health educators, researchers, business communities, funding groups, and others.

The level of involvement among these stakeholders will differ considerably based on their roles in the project. Generally, there are priority stakeholders who will give the programme its credibility, implement it, and advocate for its improvement and funding. The Approach for TB Problem and Evidence for Effective Strategies

The goals of this TB control programme in Swaziland are to break off and eliminate TB transmission, reduce cases of drug-resistant TB, lower death rates from TB complications, HIV-TB complication, and reduce challenges related to TB trauma, emotional trauma, social stigma, and TB ill health.

The control programme notes that TB is potentially dangerous, but preventable and treatable disease. The programme will focus on the most vulnerable members of the community, such pregnant women, children, older people, and HIV-positive patients.

This is a collaborative programme, which would include other stakeholders, such as health care providers, government agencies, research institutions, and funding organisations. TB surveillance would involve treatment, identification of latent and active TB infections, and managing existing conditions.

Swaziland TB Control Programme Activities Creating awareness about TB and identifying all people, who have TB or suspected of having TB at the community levels. They should report to TB clinics and laboratories at community levels.

Gathering and analysing TB risk factors in Swaziland

TB testing

Monitoring prescriptions and patients’ adherence to medication

Offering DOTS and directly observed preventive therapy (DOPT)

Analysing people exposed to TB and ensuring their protection through TB therapies

Providing TB and HIV tests and conducting evaluation among vulnerable groups to prevent active TB

The programme will work collaboratively with the local government health agencies, home-based programmes, and prison services.

How the Impact of the Programme will be Measured Evaluation of the programme would focus on its effectiveness, assessment of the progress, identify optimal performing initiatives for replication, and help in redistribution of TB resources.

The process shall involve conducting surveys by gathering data from all stakeholders involved in the TB control programme in Swaziland. Data shall then be analysed and outcomes disseminated to interested stakeholders.

The programme outcomes would show the intended activities of the programme. However, the programme notes that it may or may not be possible to realise all its goals. The programme shall measure the desired changes in TB and HIV-TB patients, health care providers, and the community. The programme has short-term, mid-term, and long-term outcomes for evaluation. The focus of the programme would be on measuring:

Changes in knowledge and attitudes of TB patients

TB patients adherence to treatment

The success of identifying patients contacts

Patients use recommended drugs

Patients complete treatments as scheduled

Local cases of readmission

Reduced cases of defaulting rates

Low TB transmission

Patients facilitate identification of contacts

Reduced stigma

Improved quality of TB-HIV patients lives

Building trust

General health of patients The programme measures shall indicate whether the programme would realise these outcomes. Stakeholders shall suggest various methods of evaluating and measuring these goals. For instance, open discussions with community members may indicate that stakeholders have built trust with other stakeholders. An outcome on stigma may indicate open discussions with friends and other contacts about the disease.

References Crudu V, Merker M, Lange C, et al. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2015;19(12):1520-1523.

Mchunu G; van Griensven J, Hinderaker S, et al. High mortality in tuberculosis patients despite HIV interventions in Swaziland. Public Health Action. 2016;6(2):105-110.

World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control 2010. [Geneva, Switzerland: WHO]; 2010 [cited 2020 Feb 11].

[supanova_question]

Automobile Industry in Australia Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Background The automotive industry is one of the major industries in Australia. Australia is capable of designing and making automobiles. The isolation of Australia necessitated the local production of cars. This was more economical than importing cars from distant locations. Holden and Ford Australia are the major automobile manufacturers. Holden is a subsidiary of General Motors. In addition, Toyota Australia also manufactures various models in the country.

The Camry is one of the major models that Toyota Australia manufactures. Ford Australia was the first automobile company to manufacture automobiles in Australia. However, Holden was the first company to engage in mass production of cars designed in Australia.

Australian automobile companies generally specialise in the production of ‘large’ passenger vehicles. However, there has been a steady decline in the market of cars in this category. This has resulted in cutbacks and shutdown of various plants that used design and manufacture cars in this category.

Closure of the Mitsubishi Motors plant in Australia is a clear illustration of the dwindling fortunes of companies that manufactured cars in this category. Currently, most Australia imports most of its cars from Europe and Asia.

The global automotive industry is one of the most complex global industries. There is a high likelihood that the complexity of the industry would increase in the future. The complexity of the global automotive industry makes it difficult to predict the future changes in its structure.

Government policy is one the variables that determines the structure of the global automotive industry. However, it may not be one of the major variables. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the future changes in the industry with a high degree of certainty.

Increased globalisation has several effects on the Australian automotive industry. The presence of excess capacity globally necessitates the Australian automotive companies to improve their performance. In addition, increased competition in the domestic market also necessitates the companies to improve their performance. The government’s assistance program is one of the major factors that has helped in sustaining the industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the government is reducing the assistance that it offers various companies in the industry. The level of intervention of the government is one of the critical factors that helps in shaping the industry. The decision of the governments of other countries also helps in shaping the industry.

There are a few dominant companies in the global automotive industry. However, overseas operations of these companies accounts for a sizeable percentage of their revenue. These companies usually strive to ensure the sustainability of their overseas operations.

Ford and General Motors are the parent companies of the automobile companies that are dominant in the Australian market. Therefore, the pressure that these parent companies exert on the Australian subsidiaries is one of the major factors that helps in shaping the industry.

Passenger motor vehicle (PMV) is one of the major market segments in the Australian automobile industry. Australian automobile companies that manufacture PMVs usually compete with their parent companies. Parent companies usually have several options to supply a certain region with a certain model. They may source the model from various locations. This creates competition between the parent company and the subsidiary.

Changes in the global automotive industry have led to several changes in the Australian automotive industry. In the past decade Australian automotive industry has experienced significant changes. The automotive manufacturing industry has been under intense pressure to improve its performance. Reducing costs and increasing productivity are the major factors that enable automotive manufacturers to improve their productivity.

Government Policy Tariffs

The government plays a major role in shaping the Australian automotive industry. Tariffs and subsidies are the major tools that the government uses to safeguard the industry. However, various parties claim that there is no justification for the use of these measures to safeguard the automotive industry. They claim that it is wrong for the government to use tariffs to safeguard an industry that’s is destined to fail.

The Australian government uses tariffs to protect the domestic automotive industry. Previously, the government imposed a tariff of 10% on all imported vehicles. This reduced the ability of imported vehicles to compete with locally manufactured vehicles. However, from 1st January 2010, the government reduced the tariff from 10% to 5%. The 5% tariff is applicable to all PMVs and light commercial vehicles.

We will write a custom Essay on Automobile Industry in Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the tariff is also applicable to the components of these vehicles. A tariff of $12,000 per vehicle is also applicable to all second-hand vehicles imports. This measure is aimed at reducing the attractiveness of buying imported second-hand vehicles.

Reduction in tariffs led to a significant reduction in the price of imported vehicles. This enabled them to compete with locally manufactured vehicles.

Figure 2.1 effect of tariffs on price of imported vehicles

Significant reduction in the price of imported vehicles increased their demand in the local market. Customers were willing to buy more imported vehicles. In addition, increased demand of imported motor vehicles had a flow-on effect on the entire industry. It increased the demand for components of the imported vehicles. This had a detrimental effect on the local parts manufacturers.

Figure 2.2. Effects of tariffs on demand of imported vehicles

Increased demand of imported vehicles reduced the demand of locally manufactured vehicles.

Figure 2.3 effects of tariffs on demand of locally manufactured vehicles

Australian imports usually attract a sales tax of 22%. Imported vehicles also attract this tax. Imported goods also attract a tariff o between 3% and 5%. However, motor vehicles attracted a tariff of 10%. This was significantly higher that the tariff of other products. The tariffs increased the price of imported motor vehicles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Automobile Industry in Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This reduced their ability to compete effectively with the locally manufactured vehicles. However, tariffs reduced the affordability of motor vehicles. This had a detrimental effect on the economy. Therefore, it was vital for the government to reduce the tariff on imported motor vehicles. This increased the affordability of motor vehicles.

Tariffs helped in insulation local automobile manufacturers from competition by importers. However, it led to complacency in the costs and quality of motor vehicles. This made customers not to get value for their money. Therefore, it was vital for the government to reduce the tariffs. This would increase competition in the automotive industry. Increased competition would lead to a significant improvement in the affordability and quality of motor vehicles.

The government also reduced the tariffs on imported motor vehicles since they had a negative effect on the economy. The tariffs distort the manufacture and consumption of motor vehicles in the Australian market. This makes them to lead to more economic losses. Spreading the indirect tax across all goods and services would reduce the economic losses due to the tariffs on imported motor vehicles.

Subsidies The Australian government provides subsidies to safeguard the automotive industry. In the last 13 years the government has provided more than $ 6 billion in assistance to the industry. The government provides production subsidies to encourage Australian automotive companies to increase their production. The government also provides capital subsidies to companies in the automotive industry. Research and development subsidies facilitate innovation in the industry.

Parties that support the government subsidies usually claim that for every dollar that the government provides in subsidies, the companies give back at least $5 to the economy. On the other hand, failure to provide subsidies may lead to the ultimate collapse of the industry. It would make the industry be less competitive. However, over the past few decades, the government has reduced the amount of subsidies it provides to the industry considerably.

Subsidies reduce the operating costs of companies in the automotive industry. The government covers some of the costs associated with the production of motor vehicles. Reduced costs of production enables companies in the automotive industry to increase their production capacity. Therefore, increase in the subsidies that the government provides leads to a corresponding increase in the production capacity of companies in the automotive industry.

Figure 2.4. Effects of subsidies on number of vehicles produced locally

Reduction in the operating costs enables the automotive manufacturers to pass the reduced costs to their customers. The subsidies cover some of the operating costs of that the manufacturers would incur in the production of the vehicles. Therefore, increase in subsidies would lead to a corresponding reduction in the price of motor vehicles.

Figure 2.5. Effects of subsidies on price of locally manufactured vehicles

Reduction in the price of vehicles due to the increase subsidies that the government provides to companies in the automotive industry increases the affordability of the vehicles. Increased affordability enables customers to purchase more vehicles. Increased sales of vehicles increases the profitability of companies in the industry.

Figure 2.6. Effects of subsidies on number of locally manufactured vehicles purchased

The government may also provide subsidies to the buyers of motor vehicles. Provision of subsidies to the buyers of motor vehicles would increase their purchasing power. This would enable them to buy more vehicles.

Figure 2.7. Effects of subsidies on price of locally manufactured vehicles bought

However, provision of subsidies to customers would have limited effect on the price of motor vehicles. It is a fact that increase in subsidies would lead to increased demand for motor vehicles. This would necessitate the automotive companies to increase their production capacity. This would enable the companies to benefit from economies of scale. However, the automotive companies are less likely to reduce the prices of vehicles due to the economies of scale.

Figure 2.8. Effects of subsidies on price of vehicles

Subsidies help in supporting the automotive industry. They enable companies in the industry to increase their production capacities. In addition, they facilitate quality improvements in the industry. Failure to provide subsidies would reduce the attractiveness of the industry. It would also make it hard for local manufacturers to compete effect with imported motor vehicles.

The government also provides subsidies to prevent collapse of the industry. The automotive industry employs a sizeable percentage of Australians. Therefore, its collapse would have detrimental effects on the economy. In addition, export of motor vehicles enables the government to earn valuable foreign currency.

Australian Market Trends

Key

Months 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Mar 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 Jun 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 Sep 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 Dec 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 Figure 3.1. Quarterly sales of motor vehicles from 1994-2009

From the graph it is clear that the demand for motor vehicles is seasonal. The demand is highest during the second quarter of the year. Summer is usually the month when most people travel around the country. Australia has conducive weather for travelling during the summer.

This increases the demand for motor vehicles during the summer. The graph shows that the demand of motor vehicles has been increasing steadily. During the 1990s the demand for various motor vehicles was very low. Passenger motor vehicle is the category that has the highest demand.

From the graph it is clear that between June and September 2008 had the highest demand of motor vehicles. During this period, the Australian economy had unprecedented economic growth. This increased the purchasing power of most Australians. During this period, imported vehicles still attracted a 10% tariff. This reduced the ability of imported vehicles to compete with locally manufactured vehicles.

The global financial crisis was detrimental to the economic well-being of the Australian economy. It reduced the purchasing power of consumers. Therefore, it led to a significant reduction in the number of vehicles sold. From the graph it is clear that the first quarter of 2009 had one of the lowest sales motor vehicles. During this period, the Australian economy faced several problems. This necessitated the government to reduce the subsidies that it offered various companies in the automotive industry.

The graph shows the sales of motor vehicle prior to the reduction of the tariff on imported motor vehicles. It does not capture the effect the reduction on tariff on imported motor vehicles on the sale of locally manufactured vehicles. The graph that there were signs of recovery of the Australian automotive industry.

Therefore, the reduction of the tariff on imported motor vehicles may have prevented the full recovery of the local Australian automotive industry. The effects of the global financial crisis is one of the major factors that led to the collapse of the Australian Mitsubishi plant in 2008.

The Australian automotive industry has been unable to fully recover from the effects of the global financial crisis. Analysts expect the gloom outlook of the Australian automotive industry to persist. Currently, Toyota, Holden and Ford Australia are the major automotive companies in the Australian markets. However, Ford Australia faces imminent collapse. The company has reduced its output and employees significantly since the reduction of the tariffs on imported motor vehicles.

Marketing Power of the Australian Motor Vehicles Industry The Australian automotive industry is worth more than $100 billion. It provides employment to more than 50,000 Australians. Therefore, it is vital for the government to support this industry. Collapse of the automotive industry would have detrimental effects on the Australian economy. The Australian government supports the automotive industry using subsidies and tariffs. Australian automotive manufacturers usually export motor vehicles to nearby countries.

This makes the Australian automotive companies to compete with their parent companies. However, Australian automotive companies are usually disadvantaged. The cost of production of the vehicles is usually than in other countries. This reduces the profit margin of Australian automotive companies.

Australian automotive companies face stiff competition from imported motor vehicles. Tariffs on imported motor vehicles increase their costs. This reduces the ability of the motor vehicles to compete effectively with Australian automotive companies. The government skews the competitive forces of the market to favour the Australian automotive companies.

In addition, the government restricts the importation of used motor vehicles. In a perfect competition, the government does not interfere with the market forces to make them favour a certain party. The market forces are the major factors that determine the price of various products.

Therefore, interference of the Australian government makes it not to be perfectly competitive. Tariffs increase the price of imported motor vehicles. This reduces the ability of the motor vehicles to compete with locally manufactured vehicles. This measure helps in safeguarding the industry. The government also provides subsidies to Australian automotive companies. The subsidies increase the competitiveness of Australian automotive companies.

Subsidies on research and development enable Australian automotive companies to develop high quality products. In addition, subsidies on acquisition of assets enable the automotive companies to acquire assets that are vital to their activities. Therefore, the subsidies violate the perfect competition in the automotive industry.

However, the major assumption is that the governments of the companies that manufacture the imported motor vehicles do not provide them with subsidies or other incentives. Provision of incentives would provide the companies with an unfavourable advantage over other companies. However, it is a fact that most governments provide subsidies local automotive industries. The subsidies facilitate the development of the industries.

The government can increase the power of the Australian automotive industry by putting more emphasis on investments in research and development. This would facilitate the development of innovations that would improve the competitiveness of the Australian automotive companies. This would enable them to compete effectively with imported motor vehicles. The automotive industry is a technology intensive industry.

It is vital for Australian automotive companies to ensure that they adopt new technologies at an early stage. This would enable the companies to compete effectively with companies that use the advanced technologies. However, the Australian automotive companies should ensure that they do not violate the patents of companies that developed the new technologies. Patent violation may lead to costly litigation. In addition, it may reduce the image and reputation of the Australian automotive companies.

In addition, consolidation of the supply chain would help in improving the power of Australian automotive companies. Consolidation would enable them to achieve a global scale. However, it is vital for the supply chain to retain its core capabilities after consolidation.

Improvement of the supply chain would help in reducing some of the inefficiencies that are inherent in the current supply chain. Inefficiencies in the supply chain reduce the competitiveness of Australian automotive companies in the global market. Therefore, improvements of the supply chain would enable Australian automotive companies to venture into the global market successfully.

Future Prospects The Australian automotive industry has a shaky future. In the past, government subsidies and tariffs have helped in sustaining the industry. However, the government is reducing the subsidies and tariffs slowly. In addition, there has been a significant reduction in the number of consumers who are willing to buy locally manufactured vehicles. Consumers are opting to buy smaller imported cars. This has forced local manufacturers to cut their output and jobs.

This is in line with the significant reduction in the demand of the locally manufactured vehicles. Various parties that federal support also delay the inevitable collapse of the automotive industry. They claim that local manufacturers should strive to find new buyers of their vehicles. Unless they do so, the industry would collapse within 5 to 10 years.

Technological innovation is one of the major factors that would guarantee the future growth and profitability of the Australian automotive industry. Ford Australia is one of the leading companies in technological innovation in the industry. Technological innovation would enable companies in the industry to build vehicles from the ‘ground up.’

However, technological innovation may also be the subject of criticism from parties that advocate for ‘human centred’ approach to production. Currently, there have been more innovations among blue collar-employees of the automotive industry. There has been a shift towards the implementation of lean production systems in the Australian automotive industry. The Toyota plant is a clear illustration of the lean production systems.

The Australian automotive industry is not sustainable. Tariffs and subsidies have helped in sustaining the industry. The operational costs of Australian automotive companies is twice that of companies in Europe. In addition, it is four times the operational costs of companies in Asia. Tariffs and subsidies have helped in reducing the operational costs. Therefore, if the government did not provide the subsidies, the automotive industry would have collapsed many decades ago.

However, despite the provision of subsidies, Australian automotive companies have collapsed one after another. Currently, there are only 3 major automotive companies in the Australian market. These include Ford Australia, Holden, and Toyota. In the next 3 years analysis expect only two companies to be in existence in the Australian market due to the imminent collapse of Ford. Analysts claim that the continued support of the automotive companies has made them be addicted to subsidies.

This has reduced the sustainability of companies in the industry. The closure of the Mitsubishi firm is 200 is a clear illustration of the lack of sustainability of sustainability of the industry. Therefore, it is vital for the government to reduce the support that it offers these companies. This would necessitate the companies to formulate strategies that would enable them to increase their sustainability.

The end of the government support on the automotive industry would cause a seismic shift in the industry. It would necessitate industries to formulate innovative strategies that would help in increasing their productivity.

The government would divert the funds to other major infrastructural projects. This would help in improving the Australian economy. It is a fact that it is better to end the support on an industry that is not sustainable. The support siphons billions of tax payers’ money from the government’s coffers.

[supanova_question]

Three perspectives in the organisational theory Evaluation Essay college essay help near me

Introduction There are three perspectives that are instrumental in the analysis of organisational theory, viz. the modernist, symbolic interpretive, and the post-modernist perspectives. The focus of this paper is the decision by McDonalds to open a new station at Tecoma Victoria, which has been met by opposition and hostility by the limited populace (2085 residents) of this small village located in the Dandenong Ranges.

The primary objection launched by the villagers is the threat to the ranges’ tourism industry and the anticipated pollution that shall result from having such an outlet as the various customers litter the streets and pollute the environment with such waste. On the other hand, McDonalds is pushing for the establishment at Tecoma, most likely because of the hundreds of thousands of tourists that visit the area during peak seasons.

Modernist Analysis Environment

Modernist theorists construe the environment as an external element of the organisation so that in diagrammatic expression it would resemble the figure below:

Figure 1

However, this external entity imposes constraints and restrictions on the performance of the organisation and requires compliance. Nevertheless, in most cases, scholars argue that what happens within an organisation carries more weight compared to what happens outside the same. This assertion might be true to some extent, but external environment to an organisation cannot be overlooked and thus failure to comply usually results in the risk of failure to survive.

Additionally, the organisation’s structure is influenced by these external pressures, which are not usually fully understood by the organisation’s leaders albeit forming a significant motivation for the organisation’s policies (Scott 2007).

Therefore, the decision by McDonald’s to open an outlet in Tecoma indicates one such reaction to environmental factors. The possible factor in question is the lack of an avid competitor in the region especially in light of the fact that during peak seasons, hundreds of tourists flock the ranges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The three elements of modernist organisational environment include the inter-organisational network, the general environment, and the international or global environment. The inter-organisational network entails employees, suppliers, distributers, customers, and special interest groups. In the case of the Tecoma outlet decision, McDonald’s has already burnt several bridges with the local residents, who would usually form the bulk of employees and consumers.

This aspect is hazardous and unwise and some major damage control is necessary for the McDonald’s quest to materialise (Greenwood et al. 2008). In a bid to ensure better relations, it is necessary for the McDonald’s organisation to readjust its entrance strategy into the Tecoma market. Without the goodwill of the target market segment, it would be almost impossible for McDonald’s to make a successful entry into the region.

One of the possible ways it can undertake this venture is by ensuring that it regulates its pollution policy to align it with the standards established by the Tecoma residents.

Since one of the primary reasons why the Tecoma residents feel that they should not have a McDonald’s restaurant in the neighbourhood is the littering that usually accompanies the organisation’s outlet locations, one way to resolve these concerns would be for McDonald’s to go green with its packaging at Tecoma (Oltedal et al. 2004).

It is imperative that if they resolve the public outrage by assuring the residents of a green packaging policy, they should ensure that they maintain the green packaging throughout their stay at Tecoma, even and especially during peak seasons when there is high demand.

Additionally, McDonald’s has a Ronald McDonald’s charity program that it could use to assuage the irate citizens of Tecoma. Jones (2012) notes that corporate social responsibility programs can assuage the target population and the aforementioned charity program can play this part to the benefit of McDonald’s entry in Tecoma. Part of how it could use this strategy would be identifying the areas that Tecoma has weaknesses at and improving on the same.

One such way is by providing the kindergarten, which is located on the opposite of the site that McDonald’s is proposing to have its outlet constructed, with nutritional meals as well as lessons. The parents of the children who attend the kindergarten are understandably concerned that a fast food restaurant is setting up shop opposite their children’s school.

We will write a custom Essay on Three perspectives in the organisational theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This concern is in light of the worrying statistics regarding obesity rates in children, especially viewed against the backdrop of the very sustainable environment at Tecoma as well as the apparently organic lifestyle that the residents there enjoy, which is the primary attraction of tourists to the area.

Perhaps one way that McDonald’s could restore public trust would be to suggest to the council a proposal for having the local community establish a nutritional as well as ‘sustainability’ committee, whose primary purpose shall be oversight and coordination with the McDonald’s outlet in the area. This assertion holds because the community is clearly afraid of losing its grasp over the indigenous composition of Tecoma.

On the other hand, McDonald’s has some very healthy packages that the members of this healthy community could easily embrace and accept. Adam et al. (2000) note that giving people what they need is the backbone of any successful business venture. What is lacking is an open channel of communication between McDonald’s and the opinion setters in the community.

However, it is important to mend the relations between these two entities, as there shall be constant interactions between the two in the process of business operations in the region.

Culture

The second aspect of modernist perspective that has a bearing on McDonald’s decision to set up an outlet at Tecoma has to do with culture. The Tecoma residents manifest a native spirit that is devoid of the city influence. They are homemakers and families that enjoy the native landscape instead of suburbia, which is also the primary reason why those residing in the city enjoy visits to this peaceful and serene neighbourhood.

McDonald’s decision to set up an outlet in the neighbourhood is not utterly repulsive if closely analysed especially in light of McDonald’s history. For instance, when McDonald’s set up base in Asia for the first time, it shifted its focus to fishy foods including fish burgers because the oriental people prefer fish to meat (McDonald’s Corporation, 2008). The same is the case with the Tecoma area.

It would suit McDonalds nicely if it came up with a strategy that matched the Tecoma kind of lifestyle and one that was a reflection of the spirit of the area. As aforementioned, connecting with and meeting the clients’ tastes and preferences form the backbone of any successful business venture.

In short, it would not be beneficial to set up a shop that looks or operates in a manner that is clearly out of place (Hoffman

[supanova_question]

Global Business Cultural Analysis Taiwan Report a level english language essay help

Major elements and cultural dimensions in Taiwan Elements of culture

According to Huang and Mutjaba (2009), culture influences one’s behavior, and thus it is an essential aspect in the global workplace. Cultural awareness influences the success of firms in the international market; hence, it is imperative for the firms’ management teams to be conscious of cross-cultural variations in the international market.

According to Cheng and Seeger (2012), culture is comprised of a number of elements, which include values and attitudes, religion, language, communication, transparency, ethics, and social organization. This report evaluates the cultural variation between Taiwan and the US.

Values and attitude

Based on the Hofstede’s dimension, Taiwanese culture can be characterized as collectivist (Kelly, MacNab,

[supanova_question]

Learning to Look Explicatory Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Source

Formal Analysis

Interpretation

Evaluation

Works Cited

Source The chosen advert is a funny one by the Beijing times published in July of 2009. The product being advertised is the Ephone 900 that is an internet mobile device made by the Ephone company- a Chinese mobile phone maker. The advert was also published in a number of magazines and newspapers including the Monthly Magazines and brochures produced by the company. However, the source of the advert referenced in this article is the Beijing Times.

Formal Analysis In the advert, the artist uses the element of space to illustrate the background thus indicating to the viewer the probable setting of the image. The space in the middle ground is used to show the item being advertised. It contains the main message of the advert. The use of color is remarkable in the advert. However, the creator uses analogous colors to create an impression of the jungle. The texture implied in the advert is mainly rough thus emphasizing the jungle.

The use of lines in the advert is to bring out the product being advertised, the jungle, and the snake, which are supposed to make the advert hilarious and easy to understand. The artist uses the element of value to create an interphase between light and bright background of the image, which represents the jungle to the black foreground where the product is located. This strategy creates a transition in the image from threat to the product.

The element of shape is utilized in the advert. In fact, it can be described as realistic and biomorphic. In the advert, the elements described are used in different ways in an attempt to depict a number of principles utilized by the artist. Formal balance of the elements is prominent in the advert. To indicate the size of the snake and therefore the danger, the artist uses the principle of pattern where he repeats the markings on the snake. Another principle is emphasis, which is also used to emphasize the potential danger and the speed feature of phone model.

Interpretation The advert was commonly known as the Ephone900 (snakebite advertisement) that features the hand of an individual who is supposedly in a jungle in danger of being bitten by a dangerous looking snake. The person chooses to search the internet for help on how to dodge the snakebite. This strategy is supposed to imply the speed of the internet phone. The target audience is the youth.

Consequently, the internet savvy individuals who use the internet more frequently based on their desire to have a faster working one. The text on the advert indicates the brand name and hence a component of the main message. The text corresponds to the image in that it emphasizes the message. Besides, it is necessary in the completeness of the information to be shared. The image characterizes the mobile device as an exceptionally fast gadget in terms of internet access.

Evaluation The main goal of the advert is to market the mobile device by the company as the fastest internet phone available, as it is depicted to be instant in web access and hence the achievement of its goal. The main audiences who are the internet users are effectively reached through the advert, as it is easy for them to associate with it. The humor works for the advert though the unrealistic nature it suggests may not work for it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source: (Nalwalker Para. 1)

Works Cited Nalwalker, Michael. Ephone v900 Mobile Telephone. Fast Internet Access when and Where you need it, 2009. Web. https://www.adsoftheworld.com/media/print/ephone_snakebite

[supanova_question]

The Aggranoff’s Version of Federalist No. 44 Essay essay help

Using expertise in the policy arena of homeland security, the Aggranoff’s appended version of Federalist No. 44 is a proper guide to action. The community safety calls for implementation of prevention programs that are community-based while educating citizens to cut down on violent behavior and bullying. Federalist No.44 encourages mentoring programs, which aim at supporting all aspects of young people’s lives.

Through it, young people will interact with adults in a one on one relationship. There will be making and supervising of matches by leaders to ensure the program is effective. Though programs may differ by location, provisions in the federation ensure that there is maintenance of integrity and program principles through the state organizations that oversee recruitment, screening, and matching of groups (Madison, 2010).

It also has provisions for the supervision and support to mentors. This is possible because there are restrictions to enter into treaties, alliances and confederations. Certain paragraphs of the federal (the second and third paragraph) also emphasize on the liberty of the nation’s citizens. Therefore, all citizens will work towards the success of the nation and not for individual benefits. Federalist No.44 also involves the provision of therapeutic foster care that is substantial for the lives of chronically delinquent citizens.

Restricting foreign trade in the country is vital for the economy’s development; else, every citizen will want to work towards benefitting himself/herself. Additionally, if the nation’s citizens interact freely with the outside nations, there will be non-adherence to the policies and citizens will be addressing individual issues, which are a threat for the state’s development (Madison, 2010).

Collaboration works in making inter-governmental relations (IGR) connected and knowledge oriented by controlling all activities of the nation. This is possible because it connects the dealings of the nation with the other local governments and federal state dealings. This implies that there will be links between the nations with other entities, which ensure that collaboration is possible. Leaders get information on inter-governmental issues and assist in presenting the nation’s interests in the matter. Additionally, collaboration works by addressing the multiple determinants of antisocial behavior in citizens that might cost the nation. The citizen will behave in a manner that is acceptable, and this enhances collaboration (Holloway, 1972).

Necessary leadership and administrative support are provided by resolving citizens’ complaints regarding the nation’s policies and procedures. Providing citizens with guidance on how to handle complex problems and resolving complaints is vital. Provision of the relevant leadership and administrative is by implementing policies and procedures that are standard in relation with what the nation anticipates. There is also discussion of citizens’ performance problems with them to establish causes in order to ascertain solutions.

There should also be training of citizens on what to do in order to improve a nation’s economy. Additionally, evaluation of citizens’ performance in the work field and confirming whether there is adherence to the regulations is vital. Taking appropriate actions against any citizen who does not adhere to the policies and procedures is substantial. Finally, it is vital to review the policies and procedures to ensure that they are fair and to date with the nation’s expectations at all time (Holloway, 1972).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Holloway, W. V. (1972). Intergovernmental Relations in the United States. New York: ACM Press.

Madison, J. (2010). The Federalist Papers. Chicago: Yale University Press.

[supanova_question]

Developing Industrial Policy Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Methodology and data

Analysis and results

Discussion and conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction According to Dani Rodrick, the author of the article, “Industrial Policy for the Twenty-First Century”, conventional economists held the view that developing economies are characterized by numerous market failures. Additionally, economists were of the view that it was only through government interventions that poverty level in such societies could be reduced1. Some of the interventions considered relate to state ownership, import substitution and planning. However, this view was short-lived due to the extensive government failures and crises experienced, which led to increased consideration of market forces as an important factor in a country’s economic development.

Adoption of economic liberalization and open trade policy led to economies experiencing a number of benefits. Some of the benefits include increment in the volume of exports, development in quality of human capital by gaining new skills and knowledge, and improvement in financial interests. One of the elements of economic development that the author has cited to be enhanced by market forces relates to the existence of entrepreneurship.

The author asserts that entrepreneurship encourages diversification of productive structures. However, the resulting economic growth rates were lower than what had previously been experienced under the old policies. Thus, market forces were not free of failures. In light of this, this paper illustrates the importance collaboration between the private and public sectors in formulating policies. Additionally, market forces are also cited as an important consideration in the policy formulation process.

Literature review The author notes that both the developed and the developing economies have a responsibility to ensure that they develop a high comparative advantage. A strong relationship exists between development of a high rate of economic growth and nurturing the competitive advantage. Incorporation of a governed-market model is one of the elements cited by various scholars to contribute to high economic development2.

Development of a market-oriented economy is an important tool in attaining a high rate economic growth. Integration of growth-oriented entrepreneurship is regard as one of the avenues through which economies can stimulate industrial growth. The author hypothesizes that it is critical for the private sector and the government to collaborate in formulating policies that culminate in development of a market-oriented economy.

Entrepreneurship is regarded as one of the essential elements of economic organization3. Entrepreneurship is an important component in developing a market economy. In spite of its importance, both traditional and modern economists have continuously neglected the subject.

Different economists are of the opinion that industrial policies should be formulated in such a manner that they enhance productivity. Additionally, investment in research and development should be taken into consideration in country’s quest to attain a high level of economic development. The policy formulated should ensure that they result in the creation of an optimal economic environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Upon instituting an environment that fosters research and development, it is paramount for stakeholders in the private and the public sector to institute effective protection mechanism. One of the ways through which this can be attained is by recognizing and implementing intellectual property rights. This will stimulate innovation across the various sectors. Specialization has also been cited as a major factor in enhancing a countries’ comparative advantage.

Methodology and data In a bid to illustrate the need for governments and private sector collaborating in the development of entrepreneurship and market-oriented economy through effective policy formulation, the author has integrated qualitative research design. Decision to incorporate this research design was informed by the need to impart a comprehensive understanding on the hypothesis under investigation. Additionally, the design was selected in order to give the study a wide scope, as illustrated by the fact that the author evaluates the hypothesis by considering different developing economies around the world.

The author appreciates the importance of effective data collection in order to improve the credibility of the study. Consequently, secondary method of data collection has been used. The data used in conducting the study is collected by reviewing the literature from credible published materials.

Analysis and results The author cites entrepreneurship as one of the most important aspects in developing policies that can culminate in the creation of a market-oriented economy. However, existence of high-cost discovery has been cited as one of the major factors that has continuously hindered its development. Another major challenge that limits the effectiveness and efficiency of entrepreneurs in their quest to stimulate economic development by introducing new products and services arises from the existence of information externalities.

Information externalities in developing countries are relatively high as compared to the developed economies. Information and knowledge externalities limit entrepreneurship in developing countries through two main ways. Firstly, they limit the effectiveness of entrepreneurs by identifying what to produce. Secondly, they negatively affect the production processes and technology. Discovery costs in developing economies are increased by the existence of information failures4. Subsidizing investments in new and non-traditional industries is one of the best policies that should be incorporated in pursuit of lowering information externalities.

The existence of coordination externalities is also another major challenge that hinders entrepreneurship. For example, implementing a particular project requires an entrepreneur to take into consideration more than one aspect. Thus, a high level of coordination is an essential. Nonetheless, entrepreneurs may not be able in a position to coordinate the project effectively, hence its failure.

In a bid to deal with coordination and information externalities, it is paramount for governments to provide the necessary support to investors in both the public and the private sector, which will culminate in lowering the probability of a project or investment failure. In the process of formulating policies, it is fundamental for the involved parties to ensure that the interventions considered in countering coordination and information externalities target specific activities effectively, such as the training to be offered and the new technology to be incorporated. Thus, the policies should not only focus on the sectors per se.

We will write a custom Essay on Developing Industrial Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to government interventions, economists are of the opinion that it is essential to incorporate private initiative. The private sector plays a pivotal role in stirring economic development. Firstly, the private sector contributes significantly with regard to provision information. This aspect emanates from the fact that the public sector may not have access to a wide range of information compared to the private sector.

Accordingly, one can assert that the private sector aids in reducing information externalities that might be experienced in the public sector. The development of effective industrial policies is an important consideration in a country’s quest to attain a high rate of economic development in the 21st century. Thus, it is essential for the public sector to consider eliminating bureaucracies that might limit interaction of the private and the public sector.

Discussion and conclusion Despite the existence of government failure in stimulating economic development, public investments are essential driving force in economic development5. Additionally, integrating private and public initiatives would result in increased encouragement of technological dynamism and diversification, which are fundamental forces in driving economic development. Therefore, public and private sectors in both developed and developing economies should collaborate in order to improve their country’s economic growth. Neither of the two sectors can succeed by operating autonomously of each other.

The author is of the opinion that the most effective model that should be adopted in the process of designing industrial policy entails strategic collaboration between governments and the private sector. Through collaboration, the probability of identifying possible obstacles that would hinder policy formulation is increased. Thus, effective restructuring is undertaken. Additionally, the policy designing process should not only focus on attainment of the right policy outcome but also on ensuring that the right policy process is followed.

Considering the hindrance to entrepreneurship by the high cost of discovery, it is imperative for industrial policymakers to concentrate on the discovery process. Stakeholders in private and the public sector should focus on developing a comprehensive understanding on the underlying costs and opportunities. This will significantly result in improvement in the establishment of a market-oriented economy in addition to stimulating growth-oriented entrepreneurship.

In spite of the importance of the two sectors interacting in developing industrial policy, the policy developed should be shielded against being used by either private or public parties for self-interests. Establishing an intermediate position whereby the private and public parties can effectively utilize the formulated policy is necessary. Therefore, custodians of industrial policies should ensure that a transitional position between full embeddedness and autonomy is established.

The analysis illustrates that market failure can occur in the event of intense or minimal government interference6. Over the past two decades, most development policies formulated focused on how to deal with the error of commission by governments. Consequently, the policies have greatly emphasized on getting rid of trade restrictions, public ownership, regulations, and financial repression. The importance of government involvement in the process of undertaking industrial restructuring has been highlighted. One of the major challenges faced by industrial policies in developing countries arises from the fact that they are prone to corruption and political capture. However, the success of a particular industrial policy is dependent on the extent of political support provided.

Sufficient coordination and deliberation should be incorporated in order to nurture effective flow of information amongst the involved parties. The importance of coordination and deliberation arises from the fact that it enhances integration of requests and opinions of the various parties. A mechanism to enhance transparency and accountability of the formulated industrial policies is necessary in order to increase their implementation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Developing Industrial Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When formulating industrial policies, it is necessary for parties to consider a number of principles. Industrial policies aim at increasing a country’s comparative advantage. Consequently, it is fundamental to include incentives that would culminate in development of new areas, which enhances development of comparative advantage. Subsidizing the cost of discovery is one of the incentives that should be considered coupled with the development of a mechanism to deal with financing risks.

Secondly, a benchmark to assess the success or failure of the formulated policy should be instituted on top of setting a timeframe within which support for publicly policy should be withdrawn. This aspect will aid in ensuring that resources do not remain tied to a particular project. The support provided during the policy formulation process should focus on the activities rather than the sector, which will play an important role in correcting possible market failures. In addition to the above principles, it is important to ensure that subsidization is undertaken on activities characterized by a high potential of demonstration and spillover effects.

This aspect means that a crowding-out effect should be taken into consideration. The responsibility to formulate and implement industrial policies should rest on agencies that have previously demonstrated a high degree of competence. Continuous and effective monitoring of the implementing agency or agencies should be conducted. In a bid to improve awareness of industrial policies by the target audience, a comprehensive promotion strategy should be designed to enhance the decision-making process of private and public entities.

In summary, developing industrial policy plays an important role in the 21st century with regard to the provision of public goods. Therefore, industrial policies are an important factor to take into consideration because they stimulate economic development. To achieve a high rate of economic development, both the private and the private sector should collaborate in the formulation of industrial policies.

Bibliography Acs, Zoltan, and David Audretsch. Handbook of entrepreneurship research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction. New York: Springer, 2010.

Bianchi, Patrizio, and Labroy Sandrine. Industrial policy after the crisis: seizing the future. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011.

Blakely, Edward, and Nancey Leigh. Planning local economic development: theory and practice. London: Sage, 2009.

Szirmai, Adam. Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Smith, Heather. Industry policy in Taiwan and Korea in the 1980s: winning the market. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar, 2000.

Tucker, Irvin. Macroeconomics today. Mason, OH: Cengage, 2011.

Footnotes 1 Patrizio Bianchi and Labroy Sandrine, Industrial policy after the crisis: seizing the future (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2011), 36.

2 Heather Smith, Industry policy in Taiwan and Korea in the 1980s: winning the market (Cheltenham, UK: Elgar, 2000), 65.

3 Adam Szirmai, Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic development (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 87.

4 Zoltan Acs and David Audretsch, Handbook of entrepreneurship research: an interdisciplinary survey and introduction (New York: Springer, 2010), 89.

5 Edward Blakely and Nancey Leigh, Planning local economic development: theory and practice (London: Sage, 2009), 43.

6 Irvin Tucker, Macroeconomics today (Mason, OH: Cengage, 2011), 55.

[supanova_question]

Dolce and Gabbana’s Fingerprint Evaluation Essay essay help: essay help

Dolce and Gabbana’s market section entails customers above the age of twenty-five coming from a stable and preferably strong financial background (Vivanco 15). Dolce and Gabbana’s target market is the top and wealthy class of societies from across the globe interested in stylish, classy, and fashionable commodities. Dolce and Gabbana’s positioning involves stylish, contemporary, distinctive, and creative luxuries with class.

The luxury cursor as applied to Dolce and Gabbana Social motion pictures are a more popular strategy amongst luxury organizations today than they have ever been. However, it might be hard to steer transactions solely based on social motion pictures (Vivanco 40). In addition, contributing an economic option to a YouTube channel is a simple method of bringing customers to a website and purchase apparel and accessories that they recently viewed in the social video.

This is Dolce and Gabbana’s luxury cursor (Vivanco 41). Dolce and Gabbana branded a YouTube channel that permits a video-instilled experience that incorporates rich factors of narration, appropriateness, and marketing for ecommerce through elegant banners.

Contemporary society thrives in an era of multiplatform utility and Dolce and Gabbana makes a stylish editorial the same as the likes of Vogue, W, V, and interview magazine (Vivanco 77). Consecutively, clicking on other parts of Dolce and Gabbana’s YouTube channel highlights thumbnail still pictures from every video. Browsing through these videos with a cursor also highlights the video title and other information.

Dolce and Gabbana’s used to employ digital efforts with a range of objectives in mind in the course of the second quarter of 2012. Nonetheless, it is definite that email, site, and social media are more overbearing to a contemporary promotion plan in 2013 than 2012 (Vivanco 107). Eventually, these efforts can make a 360-degree brand message stronger than other brands.

Italian fashion brand Dolce and Gabbana recently retooled its YouTube channel to give the appearance and experience a lift of the brand world. The organization managed to make these changes by applying stylish artistic and clear journalistic lines, per Dolce and Gabbana (Vivanco 109). The Dolce and Gabbana YouTube channel runs on featured motion pictures, collections, movements, splendor, friends and occasions, visions and accessories.

The channel enables users to browse through each highlighted video using the arrows on the section (Roberts 2013). On the other hand, clicking on other sections highlights thumbnail unmoving images from every video. Browsing over the motion pictures using a cursor highlights the title and also provides other information about the video (Vivanco 110). For example, the ecommerce section of Dolce and Gabbana youtube channel attracts buyers straight to the Dolce and Gabbana site.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From here, the buyers can peruse through various drifts. Dolce and Gabbana appears to be trailblazing this marvel that is on the verge of raising ecommerce dealings, particularly when buyers simply watched a motion picture that gets them in the spending frame of mind.

SWOT Analysis Strengths

Dolce and Gabbana is a robust brand status. Dolce and Gabbana’s biggest market section comprises of loyal customers. Dolce and Gabbana has creative and exclusive commodities appropriate for people’s preference for change and quality launched often (Vivanco 158). Dolce and Gabbana has a huge collection of brands.

Weaknesses

All of Dolce and Gabbana commodities are costly, which limits its consumer base to the wealthy and classy group of society. Dolce and Gabbana’s operations are highly dependent on economic fluctuations. As a result, Dolce and Gabbana has greater sales when the market settings are improved and vice versa than when the market is in turmoil (Vivanco 161). Dolce and Gabbana faces strong rivalry from other luxury brands such as Louie Vuitton and Gucci.

Opportunities

Dolce and Gabbana has an expanding market in the luxury section in financial systems such as India and China (Vivanco 166). Dolce and Gabbana has commodity and services growth across the globe. Dolce and Gabbana has a high innovation rate in commodities.

Threats

Dolce and Gabbana faces a lot of robust rivals competing in terms of creativity, elegance, and stylishness. Dolce and Gabbana finds it hard to break the loyalty of consumers from other brands (Vivanco 169). Dolce and Gabbana makes large investments in marketing of its brands.

Dolce and Gabbana Future The designers of Dolce and Gabbana may have to reduce their anger when it comes to dealing with rivalry and media controversies (Roberts 2013). This is because Dolce and Gabbana has a record of poor public relations, which is a disadvantage for a company trying to penetrate new markets (Vivanco 185).

Dolce and Gabbana has a record of poor public relations because the organization was forced to close stores in Milan in july 2013 because of public criticism (Roberts 2013). The organization was compelled to put up signs of “closed for indignation,” which escalated the problem of public criticism instead of solving it.

We will write a custom Essay on Dolce and Gabbana’s Fingerprint specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to prevent future exhibition signs of indignation shutdowns, Dolce and Gabbana may have to avoid any other form of confrontation with rival organizations apart from demand and supply. Dolce and Gabbana may also become reluctant out of all proportion of suffering the allegations of the tax organizations and the Italian income returns authorities (Roberts 2013).

For instance, Dolce and Gabbana’s owners were convicted of more than £860 million of tax avoidance (Roberts 2013). Dolce and Gabbana may not succeed penetrating new markets if it does not stop these convictions from public figures and the ongoing media humiliation.

Works Cited Roberts, Hannah. Dolce

[supanova_question]

Amazon Web Services Report best essay help

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is the brainchild of Amazon.com which is currently the world’s leading online retail sales platform which sells millions of items to consumers all across America, Europe and several parts of Asia (Amazon adds supercomputing service to its cloud 2011, p. 8). AWS was conceived as a means of providing services to other websites and consumers based on the company’s already extensive experience in building, managing and operating its own digital infrastructure.

The company in effect leveraged its considerable financial portfolio in order to open 9 data centers around world, specifically one site in the Eastern U.S., two sites in the Western U.S., and 1 each in Brazil, Ireland, Japan, Singapore and Australia (Amazon adds supercomputing service to its cloud 2011, p. 8).

By spreading out its data centers into multiple locations, this enabled the company to provide services to consumers in multiple locations as well as ensures that the entirety of the service will not go down should a storm or a similar natural disaster impact one of its datacenters (Venkatraman 2013, p. 19).

Studies such as those by Evani et al. (2012) state that one of the advantages Amazon Web Services (AWS) has over other similar providers is the sheer level of brand recognition which, when combined with its online retail sales experience, makes it one of the most versatile and popular services currently available.

Evidence of this claim can be seen in the fact that after the service started in 2006, by 2007 nearly 330,000 developers joined the company with thousands more being added on a yearly basis (Garg et al. 2013, pp. 1012-1023). The success of this service can be seen through its revenue streams wherein it is estimated that AWS made $1.5 billion in revenue in 2012 alone.

AWS is an interesting service to examine given the fact that it did not start off as a technology service provider and was instead a retailer (Garg et al. 2013, pp. 1012-1023). This differs greatly from Microsoft, Google and other cloud service providers which were primarily technology service providers from their inception and, as such, this may result in AWS having a different means by which it approaches the provision of cloud based services.

Cloud Services Provided Computing

under the computing category, AWS has two distinct services:

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) – this service is a type of scalable virtual private service that utilizes Xen architecture (i.e. multiple virtual operating systems can work off the same computer hardware).

Amazon Elastic Map Reduce (EMR) – this particular system enables the clients of the company to process large amounts of data quickly and efficiently.

Networking

Amazon Route 53 – this service provides a scalable domain system for a company’s website.

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud – this enables the creation of an isolated cloud service for a company that can be connected to another pre-existing network.

AWS Direct Connect Content Delivery

Amazon Cloud Front – this service utilizes Amazon’s wide array of datacenters to enable faster and easier access to users located within particular regions.

Storage

[supanova_question]

Le Moulin Blanc Hotel Human Resource Management Evaluation Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Achieving sustainability is one of the critical human resource management principles to firms in the hospitality industry (Hollingworth 2012). There are various levels of sustainability, which include economic, socio-cultural, and environmental sustainability. In the course of their operation, firms are increasingly focusing at achieving various forms of sustainability.

It is vital for hotel managers to ensure that guests are satisfied, as a high level of guest satisfaction is likely to increase a hotel’s customer base, hence achieving financial or economic sustainability. However, achieving economic sustainability cannot be achieved if an organisation does not have a strong human resource base.

Integrating optimal human resource management strategies and practices can increase the likelihood of achieving the desired level of sustainability. According Redman and Wilkinson (2009), HRM functions play an essential role in firms’ effort to attain sustainability. The two main categories of HRM functions include the operative functions and the managerial functions. The managerial functions relate to planning, controlling, directing, staffing, and organising.

Planning entails formulating goals and objectives coupled with formulating rules and procedures to achieve the predetermined objectives. Organising entails establishing structures and allocating duties and responsibilities, delegating authority, establishing the channel of communication, and coordinating employees. On the other hand, directing is comprised of various activities such as communication, employee motivation, and leadership.

Controlling refers to the process of assessing the employees’ performance while staffing relates to various activities that are undertaken in order to retain employees (Redman

[supanova_question]

International Business in Emerging Economies Report college application essay help

Introduction Business environment is becoming competitive due to globalization caused by technological inventions. Firms have come to realize that in order to become competitive in the market they need to go beyond the local markets. This is one fact that management of Haier is well aware of and is planning on how to expand the market share for its refrigerators. There is need to enter into the emerging markets with this product.

One of the most attractive destinations for this product is in South Africa (Pitt 2001, p. 58). This is not only because of the large size of the country, but also because of the massive growth of its economy. South Africa is one of the emerging economies, and the average purchasing power of the people of this country is relatively high as compared to other neighboring countries in the region.

The emergence of the middle class in South Africa means that Haier refrigerators can easily find a huge market in this country. This is especially so in the major cities such as Cape Town and Johannesburg. However, this firm can only succeed in this market if it understands the external environmental forces that will affect its operations while in this country.

The management should also be aware of the internal strengths and weaknesses in order to devise ways of managing the external market forces. This research will analyze the South African market environment.

External Business Environment of South Africa Cultural, political, economic, and legal aspects of a country make up the external environment of a business. External business environment is very important because it will always determine success or failure of a firm. A business unit cannot survive in a hostile business environment.

According to Cooper (2009, p. 78), external business environment always dictates growth and development of a business. In order to understand business environment of South Africa, PESTEL analysis will be important. This economic analysis tool will help us understand South Africa as a business region, and its viability in supporting growth and development of this firm.

PESTEL Analysis of South African Business Environment Political Aspects

South Africa is one of the leading democracies in this region. This country became a republic in 1994 from the Dutch. The president is the head of state and government. Politically, South Africa has a very stable government. The country has experienced a long period of political stability that has made it conducive for business. It has a very stable government that is supportive of business operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Coulter (2009, p. 89), the political environment of South Africa has been very supportive of business operations. This scholar says that the political class has created a clear distinction between politics and business environments. The transitions from one regime to another have been very peaceful, and none has ever had a serious negative effect on the business fraternity since its independence.

Economic Aspects

As was stated above, South Africa has the largest economy in Africa based on Gross Domestic Product. Although the GDP is always very important when analyzing the attractiveness of a country in sustaining a business, the most important factor is always the wealth held by individual citizens. This country is one of the wealthiest nations in Africa in average household wealth. This means that its citizens have strong purchasing power.

This makes the country a very attractive market for firms interested in venturing into it. The report by Davida (2008, p. 78) also shows that this country is rated favorably in purchasing power parity by GDP in this region. This means that wealth of the nation is fairly spread. This increases the purchasing power of the country.

South Africans do appreciate the need to save, but they also spend a good part of their income. It is important though, to understand the fact that this country has also been experiencing economic recession that has been affecting the world from time to time.

The country was affected by the 2009 economic recession that hit the United States and other regions of the world. The South African government came up with various policies immediately the 2008/2009 economic recession ended. The government has endeavored to ensure that the economy of the country do not experience difficulties it faced.

The Socio-Cultural Environment

South Africa has one of the richest socio-cultural environments in the world. Devellis (2001, p. 69) says that South Africa has a very rich cultural heritage that makes it stand out among many other countries. The socio-cultural environment of this country is diversified. This is because this country has people from all over the world. The people of South Africa cherish equality, and women have equal economic strength just as men. In this country, this firm should not segment the market based on gender.

The country has been known for its ideals and declarations of rights of women. Based on religion, this country has several believers who are from different religions. The leading religion is Christianity. However, there are Muslims, Jews, Hindus, and Pagans among other African religions. All these religions have been co-existing peacefully and without any form of friction.

We will write a custom Report on International Business in Emerging Economies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, each group has its own beliefs that make them unique in the market (Letavec 2006, p. 57). For instance, Muslims do not eat pork. Although their population is not very high in this country, they have an impact in the market. The management of Haier must therefore, be careful when segmenting the market.

According to Clark (2000, p. 650), there is a unique character that makes the South African market different from others. The South Africans generally love leisure. They also like attractive products that symbolize love for life and for others. This is the reason why it is one of the leading markets for flowers in Africa. The country is also very sensitive when it comes to issues about colors. They have cultural beliefs about some specific colors.

Each color has a specific attachment, and is therefore, suitable for different occasions. The Management of Haier must take a keen consideration when choosing colors for its products. This society is also very careful about diction. Every word has a special meaning. As a marketer of Haier, one would need to be very careful with the choice of word used during the promotional campaigns (Nagarajan 2005, p. 29). Any wrong usage of word may cost a firm its market share.

The technological environment in this country is very dynamic. Technological inventions and innovations, especially in the field of communication have been the main challenge and strength of various firms at the same time.

While some firms are left with nightmares of trying to guess what their competitors in the market are going to come up with overnight, some have used this technology to emerge as the leaders in the market. Technological changes are so unpredictable and firms are struggling to come terms with these changes. The dynamism of technology in this sector has forced some firms out of the market.

Legal Aspects

According to Goolnik (2006, p. 56), no firm can operate in an industry that has no clear laws and regulations to help in general governance. Laws and regulations are always enacted to help define the relationship between a firm and the government, a firm and the public, and a firm with other firms.

This law should be clear on various operational issues in order to ensure that operations of one firm do not affect that of another firm. Some governments always enact laws that may motivate growth of one industry, while impeding the growth of another country. Other laws may also be enacted to discourage foreign firms from investing in the country.

The government of South Africa has enacted laws that liberalize the economy. The laws have encouraged growth of the private sector through public-private partnership (Kanda 2011, p. 84). Legally, most firms have not faced major challenges. The laws that govern trade in South Africa have been very favorable to most firms. However, some firms have faced serious litigation cases for failure to follow some of the industry rules and regulations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Business in Emerging Economies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Of importance to note is that this country is largely a Christian state. Most of the laws of this land are based on the morals and beliefs of Christianity. For this reason therefore, some businesses practices are not allowed in this country (Binder 2007, p. 84). Failure to follow the industry and national laws and regulation may not only lead to serious fines imposed by the government on the firm, but even a total closure of the firm. Haier should be aware of this.

The government has clearly defined how firms should relate amongst themselves. Such issues as advertisements are closely regulated, with various agencies keenly monitoring content of the adverts. This is specifically so due to two main reasons. The first reason is to ensure that an advert for company A does not have a direct negative effect on products for company B. This is to create a healthy competitive environment where firms have respect for one another.

Another reason for this regulation is viewers of the adverts who are below the age of majority. A standard language should be used when advertising in order to ensure that children’s mind is not polluted with contents meant for adults.

However, given the nature of the product Haier is taking to this market, it may not face any serious challenge from this perspective of the law (Murch 2004, p. 48). The management of Haier only needs to understand how it needs to relate to the government, the public and other firms in this country.

There are some environmental concerns that have legal implications. South Africa is one of the emerging economies in the world. There are environmental agencies that have come out strongly to defend nature from any form of pollution. When operating in this country, the management of Haier should be aware of the laws that are enacted to protect the environment (Barker 2003, p. 89). Contravening these laws may result in litigation against the firm. This can cause serious financial consequences.

Internal analysis of Haier Using SWOT Model SWOT analysis is always a very important tool that helps in determining the internal ability and weaknesses of the firm, and the opportunities and threats that are available in the external environment. This analysis will help in understanding this firm, and in knowing some of the factors that have propelled it to its current position in the market.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Company

Haier Company has some special abilities that can be considered its main strength in the market. The ability of this firm to develop a variety of refrigerators of different sizes and for different purposes has earned it a massive ability to target various market segments. To help it succeed in this industry, this firm has come up with a quality control unit in all its subsidiaries in order to ensure that it delivers quality products to the customer (Chiou

[supanova_question]

The mass market strategy Case Study essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Market Segmentation

Mass Market Strategy

Concentration Strategy

Multi-segment Strategy

Choice of Approach

Targeting

Positioning

Implementation

Reference List

Market Segmentation When examining the details of the example the following are the 3 possible approaches that Robert Bennett could pursue when it comes to his company:

Mass Market Strategy The mass market strategy primarily focuses on appealing to a wide range of possible consumers within a given market. For example, in the case of appliances such as microwaves, refrigerators or ovens, there is no single specific segment of the population that these appliances attempt to target aside from people that have need for and can afford them. This means that demographics related to age, race, level of education, ethnicity etc. do not factor into the marketing strategy decision.

Instead, when a mass marketing strategy is implemented it is normally the case it attempts to appeal to consumers based on uniqueness, affordability, functionality etc (Develop consumer-relevant positioning, ads with occasion-based segmentation analysis 1982, pp. 8-16).

While such a strategy enables a company to target a broad segment of the population, it is also likely that the lack of an emphasis on a single population could “stretch the company too thing” so to speak making it unable to properly target the segments where it would make the most profit.

This strategy focuses on ordinary consumers that shop at various retail locations such as Wal-Mart, Target, etc. In this particular instance, the appeal of the MicroFridge focuses on the fact that they can get two devices in one instead of having to purchase the devices separately. Not only that, given the new electric circuitry system that Mr. Bennett devised, consumers would be able to save on power costs in the long run as a result of the fridge turning off whenever the microwave was turned on.

Through the analysis of Wright (2008), it was seen that the sale of combined gadgets (i.e. washer-dryers, oven-microwaves, etc.) has actually been increasing within the past few years given the general appeal such items have on budget conscious consumers. They view multipurpose gadgets as being far more cost effective and appealing since it saves them money as well as space.

The disadvantage though of utilizing retail sales channels is increase in the overall price that will undoubtedly occur by selling it through retailers as well as the fact that the MicroFridge would be competing directly against other well known brands.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While it may be true that the available appliances in the same product category do not have the versatility of the MicroFridge, the fact remains that brand recognition goes a long way towards creating consumer patronage which the MicroFridge unfortunately does not have since it is a new product on the market.

Concentration Strategy The concentration strategy normally focuses on appealing to a specific segment of the population that would be more likely to purchase a particular set of products or services (Ostasevičiūtė

[supanova_question]

Development of the theory of public administration Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

The Theorists and Their Contribution

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The fifties (and especially late fifties) of the twentieth century were marked by certain shift in public administration theory in the USA. Theorists in this field focused on human resources and people’s behavior within organizations. Leadership and decision-making were regarded as some of the most important components of public administrators’ functioning (Cox et al., 2010).

Some of the most prominent public administration theorists of that period were Philip Selznick, Douglas McGregor and Charles E. Lindblom. These theorists contributed greatly to the field of public administration as they developed certain approaches which became the basis for further research.

The Theorists and Their Contribution Selznick was one of the proponents of organizational approach. One of his major contributions was his attention to the goals set by the organization and employees’ goals (Shafritz

[supanova_question]

Post-war public administration theorists Critical Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Theorists and Their Contribution

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Post-war period can be regarded as the time when theorists of public administration rejected scientific methods and strategies to enhance effectiveness of the US government. This period is marked by such concepts as democratic values, positivism, behavioral theory and business management. Noteworthy, this period is also characterized by criticism of scientific method in public administration. Some of the most influential theorists of this period are Paul Appleby, Herbert Simon and Dwight Waldo.

The Theorists and Their Contribution Paul Appleby is one of the most influential theorists of post-war period. He heavily criticized scientific method as the theorist asserted that public administration cannot be separated from politics (Shafritz

[supanova_question]

Manzanita Brewery Company Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Manzanita Brewery Company has been at the forefront in implementing its strategic objectives in order to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors in the beverage industry. As a way of attracting and retaining its customers, the San Diego Company has set-up key strategic objectives and a clear-cut path on how to implement the objectives. With its large customer base, Manzanita Brewery has opened its outlets in seven other branches, developed an organizational mission, values statement, and vision statement that incorporates the needs and tastes of the larger population.

With the outlined background and mission statements, the strategic plan will build on the moves and values, which the firm has developed in the past by using the past shortcomings to design the future prospects. Manzanita Brewery’s production of quality products and promotion of responsible relationship with its key stakeholders, as well as reliance on innovation and creativity have been the main development strategy. The company operates on a no long-term debt strategy to enable the management focus on internal aspects of the firm, as the move limits instances of operations on deficits.

Moreover, the company’s strategic plan touches on projections or forecasting what the firm intends to achieve, as well as how it plans to navigate the dynamic and global market. A well-conducted internal and external analysis will bring out the nature of the operational environment that the company is targeting. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the company will reveal the exact position or capabilities that the company can adopt.

A clear strategic plan for Manzanita Brewery will use the SWOT analysis, as well as the internal and external analysis to propose several recommendations the company intends to achieve within a fixed period. Armed with great expertise, the company will be in the best position to employ product differentiation and cost-cutting strategies in order to remain relevant in the competitive California market. The management will use the company’s weaknesses to devise new plans on how to minimize them by greatly exploiting the available opportunities to their advantage.

The implementation plan targets to have a defined timeline with detailed, clear, measurable, and time-bound objectives on how to ensure that the brands are available in all regions in the US in order to increase profit levels, expand internationally, and minimize expenses on deliveries. The production hub in San Diego will have to coordinate the supplies and stock levels at all store liquors across the 12 key states in the US. In order to remain relevant in the beverage industry, Manzanita Brewery will have to adjust its cultures and operations to accommodate the new targets.

The management will have to incorporate employees and consultants in implementing the strategy; this will require restructuring of the leadership system to monitor help in identifying and allocating resources to cover the expansive targeted regions. In these aspects, the Manzanita Brewery intends to focus on new distribution channels, doubled production, and brand expansion into the new regions. With the plan to cover expansive areas, a risk management committee will assist in overseeing and constructing strategies on how to counter setbacks within the distribution channels, as well as within the firm. The report will discuss the summarized content in detail in order to bring out the main ideas that the Manzanita Brewery plans to introduce in managing its sales.

[supanova_question]

Long Term Investment Decisions Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Abstract Inelastic products are those whose prices are not affected by demand and supply. For companies to ensure that their products are as inelastic as possible, they must differentiate them. The government can intervene in a free market economy through regulation of taxes and establishment of policies which govern such things as minimum wage, licensing of businesses and provision of subsidies for particular products or services. For companies to deal with the complexities of capital projects, they must take insurance cover for their businesses. In order to realize a convergence of the interests of shareholders and managers, companies may come up with a policy to ensure that managers’ pay is based on the profits made by the companies.

Keywords: Inelastic, Minimum Wage, Capital Projects.

For managers in the low-calorie microwaveable food company to ensure that their products are as inelastic as possible, they must choose a pricing strategy which keeps their customers attracted to their products. At the same time, the pricing strategy should also discourage the customers from going for substituting products. But before the pricing strategy is put in place, the managers of the company must ensure that their products are highly differentiated or there are very few companies dealing with the same products.

Once the managers succeed in this, they should settle for a price which is commensurate to the levels of the income of the customers. They should also consider the demand of the products as well as the cost of production. Once they have considered all this, they should set a fixed price for the products. This would ensure that the price does not affect the demand of the products. To achieve this, however, the managers must ensure that they have reliable supplies of raw materials so that the company would not face shortage of raw materials for the products at any given time. The company also needs to have a low employee turnover so as to ensure that the cost of production would not increase at any given time due to reliance on part-time labor which is more expensive than permanent labor.

In a free market economy, the government plays very minimal roles. The market is usually left to regulate itself through the forces of demand and supply. This happens mostly in capitalistic economies where economic development is based on the cost of production which constitutes labor, raw materials and time required for the production process. Sometimes, the government may intervene by imposing price controls. However, these may not be attractive to the government because they compel it to cater for some costs in the production of certain products and services.

Another policy, which the government may have in the regulation of a market economy is the regulation of the amount of tax levied on products and services. The government can also have policies on minimum wage, the number of hours which employee should work in a day and the number of days which employees should take off from work. Some governments may propose a 24 hour economy where businesses operate day and night. Others may have policies which require businesses to operate only during the day. Governments can also have policies on provision of goods and services through subsidies which help in reducing the price of some targeted products and services (Rowley

[supanova_question]

Papers Formatting Requirements Essay essay help

Admittedly, every paper should be detailed, innovative and relevant. It should be based on in-depth analysis and provide specific conclusions. Each paper should complete a gap in the study and unveil other possible gaps. However, it is also necessary to remember that a researcher’s attention should not be confined to the paper’s content only. It is important to format the paper accordingly. There are a number of central points to focus on while formatting a manuscript for publication.

In the first place, it is important to know the requirements of the journal where the article is going to be published. Of course, all scholarly journals have quite similar standards, though some of them can differ. Therefore, it is crucial to make sure that the manuscript’s format is consistent with the necessary requirements. The following items need special attention: abstract, word number, formatting graphs and reference style. Noteworthy, abstract should highlight key findings, conclusions of the paper and some introduction of the topic. The researcher should be careful while choosing key words. The researchers should think of the words he/she would use to search for an article on the topic.

It is also important to make sure that all the pivotal data will be provided in the article. Clearly, it is better to include graphs and tables within the article so that the reader could refer to the necessary data while reading about them instead of leafing it through. At the same time, too detailed tables can make it difficult to follow or even include tem within the article. Hence, the researcher should make sure each graph or table appears in the right place.

Apart from specific requirements, the researcher should make sure that his/her article will be read. A catchy and comprehensive title can ensure popularity of the article. Hence, the title should grab the reader’s attention and it should shed light on the content of the article. Some researchers make the title too general, which is one of the most serious mistakes, as the reader can find the article unhelpful or even irrelevant.

Furthermore, the article should have subheadings so that the reader could easily follow. Apart from major parts (such as introduction, methodology, results and so on), it is possible to add other subheadings which would help the reader (as well as researcher) stay focused. It will also help the reader effectively work with the article and it will help the researcher make sure that nothing is missing.

On balance, it is possible to note that formatting an article should start with studying requirements of the journal. The article should not exceed the word limit and should include all the necessary elements. It can be helpful to create a checklist to make sure that everything is covered. It is important to remember that even a creative and innovative article can be put aside if some format requirements are not met. Moreover, the reader can fail to grasp the idea properly when the format of the article is confusing.

[supanova_question]

Fatima Al Jaber Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Fatima Al Jaber’s entrepreneurial history Fatima Al Jaber is one the top most influential women entrepreneurs in United Arab Emirates (Augsburg, 2009). She has stood against the UAE’s unfavourable cultural background for women entrepreneurs and professionals. Al Jaber has been involved in construction and industry business ventures. She is currently the chief operating officer at Al Jaber Group, which is one of the successful companies in United Arab Emirates.

The foundation of her entrepreneurial excellence started back at UAE University, where she graduated in 1987 with a Bachelors Degree in Architectural Engineering. Since 1988, she has worked in Government of Abu Dhabi at both technical and management levels. At one time, she held a position of an assistant technical secretary at public works in the Abu Dhabi Municipality. Al Jaber was later promoted to the Building projects department at Abu Dhabi Municipality. There, she served as an assistant secretary.

Her working history shows that she is an influential person in United Arab Emirates (Augsburg, 2009). In the year 2007, the Arab Forbes voted her the seventh most influential businessperson in the entire Arab region. Subsequently, in 2008 she was voted the most influential woman in UAE by the MEED. During the same year, she doubled as the businessperson of the year according to the Arabian Business. In the year 2009, she was voted as the Industry personality.

Al Jaber serves in various positions such as being a board member in different companies. She is the chairperson of the Abu Dhabi Business women Council that seeks to bring together the women executive in the UAE (Augsburg, 2009). Al Jaber has been involved in business conferences as a speaker across the UAE and the Arab world at large. She encourages women to seize all opportunities in government jobs, education, and the establishment of businesses. In the year 2009, her efforts earned her a prize and she was elected as board of directors for the Abu Dhabi Chambers of Commerce. Based on her life history, it is apparent that Jaber has the best entrepreneurial qualities.

Why I choose Al Jaber Al Jaber like any ordinary woman in UAE faced the challenges of the unfavourable cultures and practices (Augsburg, 2009). She is a great entrepreneur and role model to many in the UAE and around the world. The various positions she has held in different organizations and the successful projects she has been in charge of demonstrate her entrepreneurial skills. She has worked hard from the time she schooled at the University. She managed to accomplish the architectural engineering course.

Normally, such professions belong to the men and the other hindering factor was the negative norms and cultures in the UAE, which discriminates against women. In the UAE, women are not favoured in organization as well as at the workplace. Women find it difficult to be leaders, managers and even attaining high education levels. However, Al Jaber showed that it is possible to overcome all the above challenges. She has managed to hold various management and leadership positions in various organizations. Al Jaber has demonstrated several qualities. The qualities have been illustrated below.

Representative of an organization As an entrepreneur, Al Jaber has shown leadership qualities in the areas she has worked in. While working for her private business, Al Jaber Group, she liaises with partners and government organs on behalf of the company. The way she leads and manages the company determines the success of the company. Notably, other employees rely greatly on the leadership and directions of the manager to achieve the goals of the organization. The personality of Al Jaber helped to maintain good reputations of the Abu Dhabi Municipality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategist and coordinator In her work history, Al Jaber has demonstrated high levels of coordination and strategic planning in the various organizations and companies she has led. She was appointed the chairperson of Abu Dhabi women business council when she was a board of directors at Abu Dhabi chambers of commerce. Similarly, has been promoted to be the assistant secretary of Abu Dhabi Municipality. The numerous positions she has held at workplace shows the quality of coordination and strategist as an entrepreneur.

Solver of conflicts After she took leadership of her father’s construction investment, Al Jaber Group, the company has not encountered any major conflict cases. The company has run smoothly and this is the main reason for its success and growth. If she did not possess the quality of solving conflicts among the employees and clients, the company could not have succeeded. For an entrepreneur, the ability to solve conflicts is essential for one to create a favorable environment for the development of the organization.

Mistakes acknowledgement Usually, all human beings are prone to errors. The company leaders and managers obviously make mistakes in their daily activities and hence the need to accept them. Acknowledging mistakes will create room for improvement and avoidance of the same problems in the future. Men managers find it hard to accept the blunders they are responsible for, but women counterparts have an ease in accepting them. Al Jaber is a woman and she accepts her mistakes as the chief operations officer of Al Jaber Group.

Business venture Al Jaber has been involved in several businesses within the United Arab Emirates (Augsburg, 2009). The major business venture is the Al Jaber Group where she is the chief operations officer. She was appointed into the position 4 years ago. Prior to her appointment, she had been working at Abu Dhabi Municipality as technical and managerial positions. Her father founded Al Jaber Group about 40 years ago and it has about 60,000 employees and is valued at $4.9 billion. The company deals mostly with industrial, logistics, heavy lifting, trading, and construction projects within the UAE. Actually, the company carries out government construction and building projects. The Al Jaber Group aims at meeting the market demands of the changing information technology and engineering designs.

Family background/ role models After graduating from UAE University as architectural Engineer, she has worked in various organizations and companies. She has worked for several years in the Abu Dhabi Municipality at technical and management positions. Her father, who is the founder of Al Jaber Group, has played a great role in Al Jaber’s life of entrepreneurship (Augsburg, 2009). Her appointment as the chief operations officer at Al Jaber Group has promoted her entrepreneurial skills in business. Because managers are required to be hard working and innovative, it can be argued that Al Jaber is hard working and innovative. Her family heritage has created a good environment for the growth of the company. The owners and directors work closely in ensuring a stable teamwork among employees. The Al Jaber Group acknowledges that their employees are the greatest asset and determines the success of the company. All these have influenced the entrepreneurship of Al Jaber in the world of business in UAE.

Critical incidents that influenced her entrepreneurship career The major incidents that determined the entrepreneurial skills of Al Jaber are her profession qualifications (Augsburg, 2009). Al Jaber holds a Bachelor’s degree in Architectural Engineering from the prestigious University of UAE University. This has enabled her to work with numerous organizations. After working for a number of organizations, she has been in a position to nature her entrepreneurship skills. Similarly, her positions as a board of directors and chairperson at various organizations also contributed significantly in nurturing her entrepreneurial skills. In general, the various positions she has served at the workplace, technical, and managerial have enhanced the entrepreneurial skills.The foundation of Al Jaber Group by her father created an opportunity for her where she was appointed as the chief operations officer. The position of chief operations officer entails good qualities of an entrepreneur and Al Jaber has learned and acquired these skills.

Entrepreneurial orientation of Al jabber Group The Al Jaber Group, which is a family owned corporation, is successful because of its diversity and persistent growth (Augsburg, 2009). The company has shown great potentials by utilizing resources and adopting division of tasks. The company has also adopted a strategy of new talents to promote growth while meeting the growing economy in the United Arab Emirates and the neighbouring Arab world. The company has gone a step ahead in training employees resulting in diverse talents. Al Jaber Group has shown a positive attitude towards the workforce as the company has prioritized on their safety.

We will write a custom Case Study on Fatima Al Jaber specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The owners of the company have created enabling environment, which allows collaboration with board of directors. The company has been able to build a strong and stable teamwork among employees. Employees work under directions and guidance of both the owners and directors. In terms of leadership, the company enjoys the able leadership of directors and the chief operations officer Al Jaber. Al Jaber represents the company in terms of liaison, speaking, figurehead, and interactions with all the partners involved.

Al Jaber as the chief operations officer ensures the contracts with the government of UAE are dealt using the right procedures. The Al Jaber Group is on high alert when it comes to risk and uncertainty. Al Jaber advises the corporation accordingly during the hard economic times. During such times, she has been able to stabilize the company letting it focus on its core business. The above is possible due to well-established communication within and outside the company. Proper communication with the financial institutions such as Abu Dhabi commercial banks, Union National Bank, and HSBC, ensures that the company access finance for development.

Business model of Al Jaber Group A business model is a formal stipulation that explains how the business venture is going to generate income and how profit is determined. It includes target customers, strategies, infrastructure of the organization, policies, and trading activities. The Al Jaber Group is an industry and construction oriented business venture (Augsburg, 2009). The company engages in various services, which include heavy Lifting, logistics, trading, and construction and building projects. The Al Jaber Group investment utilizes all these lines of operation to generate income and consequently profit. The company relies on the construction contracts from both government and private sectors.

The other ventures include trading and logistics. By rolling out these services within the UAE and the Arab world, the company creates revenue and thus profit making. The main expense that the company is incurring is the salary payment to employees. The company has around 60,000 employees the salary to workers actually contributes to the expenses of the company. After all the revenue is collected and the expenses factored in, the profit of the company is calculated. The Al Jaber Group is strategic in sourcing finance for investment, the main being loans from banks such as HSBC and Abu Dhabi commercial banks (Augsburg, 2009).

The company management and leadership should clearly stipulate its ways of generating income and this is by stating clearly purposes and goals of the company. The business model of Al Jaber Group is a good model since it has stated vividly ways of earning income. The Al Jaber Group model is sustainable. However, the company should get proper financial advice, especially concerning the loans to avoid the problem of huge debts. In fact, in 2011 the company got into a crisis since it had encountered huge debts from the banks (Augsburg, 2009).

The company considered restructuring hence exposed some of its assets. Thus, any business should appropriately choose a business model for the success of the company. From the lessons of Al Jaber Group business model, the entrepreneurs are able to enhance and improve on their entrepreneurial skills in the future. Equally, from Al Jaber’s history, I have learnt that for the success of any business, its leadership should be focused, creative, and come up with appropriate business model that is well designed to capture all the risks and opportunities.

Reference Augsburg, K. (2009). Leadership and the Emirati woman: breaking the glass ceiling in the Arabian Gulf. Münster: Lit.

[supanova_question]

Agency Theory and Corporate Governance Analytical Essay writing essay help

Introduction Stakeholders, management, and employees are fundamental parties of organizations, who work collectively to achieve the same goals. The shareholders, who are the main owners of organizations, have a working relationship with the managers, as they always urge the management to strive towards achieving the organizations’ goals and objectives. The agency theory elucidates the relationship that exists between the shareholders and the executives of the company. Shareholders and principals are concerned with daily activities of organizations.

Conversely, many shareholders perceive that managers do not work towards achieving the goals of organizations. Instead, shareholders hold that managers use their positions as opportunities of achieving their personal goals. Therefore, a values conflict arises between the owners and the principals of organizations. Consequently, the conflict compels shareholders to control and oversee the operations of organizations through corporate governance. Thus, the purpose of this essay is to analyze the conflict of values between the shareholders and the managers.

The Components of Values Conflict In organizations, conflict of values occurs when shareholders, who are the owners of organizations, develop a feeling that managers, who are responsible for the daily activities of organizations, are using their positions as avenues of achieving their personal objectives. Values conflict is associated with managers who use the organizations to meet their own objectives, instead of the values that shareholders have concerning the organizations. Stakeholders perceive that managers do not invest enough time, money, and efforts in boosting organizations to achieve essential growth and development.

Conversely, some managers perceive that shareholders want the organizations to achieve their own interests at the expense of employees. Protagonists believe that shareholders only think about revenues and profit margins of the organizations, but not the overall welfare of the workforce and sustainability of the organizations. Some components of the values conflict include the perceptions held by shareholders and the management concerning administration of the organizations, the attitudes of the shareholders and managers, the level of suspicion among the parties involved, and the arguments presented by the parties.

The Reasons and Rationalizations that the Protagonist Must Counter From the shareholders’ perspective, managers do not invest enough efforts, money, and time towards organizations’ performance without external control and the application of corporate governance. Instead, managers use their positions to meet their own interests, a behavior deemed as opportunistic by shareholders. Therefore, shareholders observe that devoid of effective corporate governance, managers cannot sustain organizations to survive in the competitive markets.

Shareholders fear that organizations can fail to maintain their market share, and consequently collapse. According to managers, organizations can always succeed through the efforts that employees and the management apply, but not through external incentives such as performance-based pay, which aims at increasing organizational performance. Managers believe that the main goals of the organizations are not profits and revenues, but sustainability and the capacity for delivering the best products that meet the needs of consumers.

According to the protagonists, the reasons and rationalizations that shareholders need to understand are that the nature of competitive organizations is achievable through passion, willingness, and collective cooperation among stakeholders. Thus, protagonists believe that incentives from shareholders are not practical strategies of improving organizational performance in a sustainable manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What Key Parties Will Gain or Lose from Corporate Governance? In successful organizations, shareholders reap benefits, as they receive increased dividends and profits that accrue in these organizations. Consequently, managers and employees experience the accomplishments and receive incentives such as promotions, rewards, and increased remuneration. Among organizations, success transpires when managers and employees work hard, deliver products of the desired quality to consumers, and undertake the right measures geared towards organizational performance.

However, protagonists perceive that incentives proposed by stakeholders to enhance performance will hamper organizational growth and development. Incentive contract dictates that the higher the fixed pay or salary, the lower the performance of managers in achieving organizational goals. From the incentives, managers and employees will only focus on the requirements of the shareholders, who will dictate the organizational development towards their preferred direction.

On the other hand, shareholders stand to benefit from the incentives, since they will have a complete dominance of the organizational operations. Therefore, shareholders will be in a good position to steer organizations to increase performance and consequently generate optimum profits and revenues.

Conclusion Conflict is a common scenario in organizations due to differences in values held by shareholders, managers, and employees. Shareholders believe that organizations need to maximize profits, increase revenues, and enhance performance. On the other hand, managers think that organizations can succeed through innovation, creativity, motivation, and hard work on the part of management and employees.

According to managers, the innovative nature of employees and managers can fail to effect necessary changes, if shareholders impose performance contract incentives on them. The innovative and creative nature of management and employees will not materialize, since the workforce will work hard to achieve the objectives that stakeholders need. Conflict usually arises when shareholders suspect that managers use organizations to meet their personal objectives.

This compels shareholders to initiate a corporate governance, which is a strategy aimed at controlling the operations of managers in organizations without necessitating their actual presence. Managers believe that performance-based on incentive contracts is not effective. Protagonists feel that organizations require some level of independence to capitalize on their efforts, money, and resources in improving organizational performance.

[supanova_question]

Project Management: Project Life Cycle Report college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Definition Phase

Planning Phase

Execution Phase

Delivering Phase

References

Introduction Projects are temporary endeavours. They are constrained by time, scope, and monetary resources. Projects must fulfil specific goals and objectives as explained in various phases that constitute the project life cycle. A project life cycle begins with scope definition followed by planning, execution, and finally delivering (Cadle

[supanova_question]

Carrefour UAE Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History and Background

Market Segments and Target Market

Product Mix and Pricing Strategy

Distribution and Promotional Strategies

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The purpose of this report is to analyze the marketing strategy of Carrefour UAE. The analysis will begin with a brief overview of the company’s history and background. This will be followed by an analysis of the market segments and the target markets that are served by the company. The company’s product mix and pricing strategies will also be analyzed. The report will end with the analysis of the distribution and promotional strategies adopted by the company.

History and Background Carrefour is a leading retailer that was founded in France over 40 years ago (Carrefour UAE). In the last three decades, it has achieved rapid growth by joining several overseas markets such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The company joined the UAE in 1995 where it currently operates under a franchise agreement with the Majid Al-Futtaim Group (Carrefour UAE). The company’s mission is to offer a wide range of low-priced, high quality products, which include food, personal care, and household goods. In order to achieve this mission, the company operates over 20 outlets in the UAE. Carrefour is considered to be the most dynamic and fastest growing retailer in the UAE. The company’s success is mainly attributed to its ability to offer excellent customer service and to align its products to market needs.

Market Segments and Target Market A market segment refers to a distinct group of consumers who share homogeneous characteristics and needs. Generally, Carrefour serves three market segments in the retail industry. These include grocery, personal care products, and household goods market. The grocery market caters for customers who are interested in a variety of foodstuffs such as vegetables, meat, and soft drinks (Carrefour UAE). The personal care market caters for customers who are interested in cosmetics, toiletries, and other beauty products. The household goods market serves customers who are interested in various home appliances.

Carrefour identifies its target customers in the three segments based on geographic, behavioral, and psychological variables. In geographic segmentation, the company focuses on serving the urban population in the UAE (Carrefour UAE). In this case, its target market includes the residents of major cities such as Dubai. In behavioral segmentation, the company focuses on serving customers who are interested in high quality foodstuffs and consumer products. In psychographic segmentation, the company considers consumers’ interests, values, and lifestyles to identify its target market. In this regard, the company targets customers who are interested in shopping in a one-stop store that offers a variety of products.

Product Mix and Pricing Strategy Carrefour’s product mix includes a variety of goods, which include “groceries, manufactured foods, soft drinks, apparel, kitchenware, bakery products, restaurant food, plastic goods, home appliances, and garden equipment” (Carrefour UAE). A diverse product mix enables companies to serve customers with varied tastes and preferences. Thus, Carrefour’s product strategy focuses on differentiation in order to meet the needs of the UAE population that consists of Arabs and expatriates from different cultures. Specifically, the company offers products that are developed according to western cultures and values to cater for the American and European expatriates in the UAE.

The company has also adapted its products to the Islamic culture in order to meet the needs of the Arab population in the UAE. For instance, the Islamic culture prohibits consumption of pork. Thus, the company’s grocery section sells halal-certified food products (foodstuffs that do not contain pork) in order to serve the Arab population (Carrefour UAE). The company also changes its product mix according to the seasons and religious holidays in the UAE. For instance, during festivals such as Eid and Ramadan, the company stocks several gift products that reflect the Arab culture in order to take advantage of the increased spending among Arabs.

Carrefour uses the penetration pricing strategy to gain market share in the UAE. This strategy involves selling products at low prices in order to increase sales by attracting more customers. Carrefour has positioned itself as a discounter that enables customers to save their money. The rationale of adopting the penetration pricing strategy is that the retail industry in the UAE is very competitive and customers are price sensitive. Thus, offering low prices enables the company to overcome competition. Although the company offers low prices, its brand image has not been diluted due to its strong brand name.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Distribution and Promotional Strategies Carrefour uses three main distribution channels to reach its customers in the UAE. These include hypermarkets, supermarkets, and discount stores (Carrefour UAE). These channels are mainly used to sell consumer goods and groceries. The company also uses convenience stores, foodservice stores, and virtual stores to distribute its products. The convenience and foodservice stores are mainly used to distribute food products. The company’s virtual store is an e-commerce platform that enables customers to shop online through the company’s website rather than visiting the physical stores (Carrefour UAE).

The virtual store improves shopping experience by enabling customers to make their purchases at their convenience. Using several distribution channels has two advantages. First, it enables the company to serve particular market segments. For instance, foodservice stores cater exclusively for customers who are interested in purchasing food products. Second, the distribution channels improve the company’s brand visibility by enabling it to serve as many customers as possible. Since the purchasing culture in the UAE promotes shopping within malls, the company has established most of its stores in large malls in order to increase its sales.

The company’s promotional strategy involves using adverts to create awareness about its products. The adverts are placed in print and electronic media, as well as, the company’s stores and website. Given the cultural diversity in the UAE, adverts can only be effective if they are adapted to the needs of the local market. Thus, Carrefour has adapted its adverts in the UAE by writing them in both English and Arabic to overcome language barriers (Carrefour UAE). As a low price retailer, Carrefour uses discounts as a promotional strategy to attract customers. For instance, holders of the company’s Najm card enjoy up to 4% discounts whenever they purchase items at any of the company’s outlets.

Conclusion Carrefour is one of the most successful retailers in the UAE. The company owes its success to its pricing strategy that focuses on expanding its market share by offering low prices. The company offers a variety of products in order to satisfy the diverse tastes and preferences of the customers in the UAE. This strategy is supported by the company’s ability to use several distribution channels to reach its customers.

Works Cited Burrow, James. Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.

Cant, Michael, James Strydom and Charles Jooste. Marketing Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.

Carrefour UAE. About Carrefour. Majid Al-Futtaim-Carrefour, 31 Dec. 2013. Web.

We will write a custom Assessment on Carrefour UAE Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More El-Adly, Mohammed. “Shopping Malls Attractiveness: A Segmentation Approach.” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 35.11 (2007): 936-950. Print.

Jayachandran, Sai. Marketing Management. New Delhi: Excel Books, 2004. Print.

[supanova_question]

3D Printing in UK Report college essay help near me

This study focused on the introduction and aspects of 3D printing in the United Kingdom. The marketing strategies that needed to be implemented in the field of 3D printing were analyzed, and in addition the study focused on the various macro environments affecting the 3D industry. Moreover, this research related the background of Makism 3D Corporation and the future of the 3D industry in the United Kingdom.

The introduction of the 3D printing industry revamped the printing industry in the United Kingdom. The printing needs of government institutions, multinational corporations, institutions of higher learning, public and private companies and private citizens vary, and thus 3D printing presents a viable solution to all stakeholders as it is spectacular and pragmatic in the current scenario in the United Kingdom. Makism 3D Corporation is a company that deals with manufacturing 3D printers and it is located in Cambridge.

The company exhibited high levels of innovation and competence through the introduction of new technology in the printing field. Makism 3D Corporation manufactures various types of 3D printers which include the Wideboy 3D printer models; A4/150, A4/200, A4/250. All these printers vary in terms of the printing volume, extruders, resolution of the layer, the filament size and power supply requirements.

Makism 3D Corporation was incorporated in the year 2010 and the retirement planning group is its main shareholder. The company’s market capital price is about $64 million with the number of outstanding shares being about seventy million. The Wideboy family of printers constitutes the main products available at the company.

The company is currently operating in the United Kingdom, but there are plans to diversify their products and launch new investments in other European countries. The key stakeholders in the information technology industry have been enthusiastic about the 3D printing technology with Microsoft creating an app for 3D printing in the windows 8.1 version, while Hewlett Packard also expressed a lot of interest in implementing the technology. At the moment the Wideboy series of printers still provides the best printing solutions and the expansion of Makism 3D Corporation in the rest of Europe and the rest of the world will definitely be successful.

The sales volume of 3D printers in the United Kingdom was enormous and currently Makism’s 3D printers dominate the UK market and in the year 2012 the expenditure on 3D printing summed up to $288 million and a large portion of the market share was acquired by the company. In 2013 the expenditure on 3D printing increased by about 43 percent to $412 million. The sales forecasts ascertain that in future the expenditure on obtaining 3D printing devices will rise drastically.

Makism 3D Corporation is likely to enjoy a large portion of this market share since the UK market is eager to purchase the Wideboy series of printers which will be availed by the company. The target market in the United Kingdom is comprised of professional companies, higher learning institutions and the UK citizens, and the sales figures associated with 3D printers are high as the technology is applicable in a wide range of situations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The profitability levels at Makism 3D Corporation have generally been high since large companies in the UK and internationally have implemented the 3D printing technology. For example, NASA implemented the printing technology in its rockets while institutions have also utilized the technology in a very massive way. The introduction of the technology in windows 8.1 also increased the use of the technology in universities and other public institutions. There is an extensive use of the technology in several sectors in the United Kingdom this is an assurance that the profit levels of the company will always be high.

The main objective of the company is to implement diversification of its 3D printers. Secondly, Makism 3D Corporation plans to launch investments in the rest of Europe and the world. The company aims to increase its capital market price share in the current accounting period. In addition, the company aims to implement a more interactive interface on their website by availing links to various documentations and reports. Makism 3D Corporation aims to boost the sales figures by implementing these changes on their website.

Analyzing the macro environmental factors in the UK, the government has not exhibited any intention of restricting the 3D printing industry considering the social aspect of the industry is of benefit to the UK citizens as it has provided a viable printing solution to the whole UK community. The 3D printing industry should adapt to the current trends in the market, customer tastes and preferences vary from time to time. Furthermore, Makism 3D Corporation should strive to embrace new technology at all times, this is due to the competitive nature of the information technology industry.

Makism 3D Corporation has to ascertain all the aspects of competition which include; consumer bargaining power, supplier bargaining power, threat posed by substitute products, threat of new entrants and the aspect of rivalry in the industry. The cultural and economic aspects concerning 3D printing industry in the UK are favorable hence the company will thrive. After five years there will be changes in technology and consumer tastes and preferences in the UK. It is imperative for Makism 3D Corporation to adapt to these changes.

[supanova_question]

Social Media Networks’ Impacts on Political Communication Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Social media networks have greatly influenced political communication in modern society. Its impact on political activities and governance is especially profound. In the book, the Internet Imaginaire, Patrice Flichy says the development of the internet (social media) is among the most revolutionary processes in modern society (more specifically because the internet has become a super-highway of information).

From the increasing importance of the internet, today, Flichy argues that most politicians have only joined an ongoing trend of designers, business executives, and individuals (among others) who have resorted to use social media as a technical utopia for advancing their goals.

Since many people have accepted the internet as their main communication paradigm, the internet has become widely successful in changing how politicians interact with their subjects. In sum, Flichy argues that the internet has been widely successful in politics because it transforms the interaction between leaders and their followers.

From an emphasis on the Middle East political space, this paper focuses on explaining the impact of social media in the UAE political life by exploring if social media networks make leaders more visible and transparent. To have a practical understanding of this issue, this paper focuses on the social media activities of UAE’s foreign affairs minister, H.H. Abdulla Bin Zayed Al Nahyan.

Through an analysis of his Twitter account, this paper proposes that social media networks make political accountability easier and friendlier, as it increases the visibility and transparency of political leaders. However, to understand this fact, this study first explains how social media has created a new way to represent political leaders in the UAE.

A New Way to Represent the Political Leader in the UAE Culture The social media presence of Abdulla Bin Zayed draws significant inferences from the works of Louis Marin, in the book, the King’s Portrait. Marin largely borrows from the experiences of King Louis XIV in portraying the image of a politician as an immortal onlooker (through the transformation of politicians from theological bodies to immortal political figures).

Flichy contextualises this transformation through his understanding of the power that most politicians enjoy in transforming themselves to political relevance today (through social media). Marin explains the same situation, although from a historical perspective, by saying that the transformation of politicians to political relevance (through the internet) is a symbol of absolutism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Absolutism represents a political order that redefines the meaning and status of representation by redefining the configurations of power. Broadly, Marin’s work shows how politicians achieve social control through art. The relationship between politics and art is unfamiliar for most political studies, but it symbolises the interaction between aesthetics and kingship.

This relationship also stems from the interaction between state, God, and the truth. A complete symmetry of these three aspects of governance stems from the absolute achievement of sovereignty and power.

Most literature that have explored the impact of social media in the UAE political space have chronologically shown that the growth of social media has led to a shift of its use from a social paradigm to a political and civic paradigm.

Recent events surrounding the Arab spring and the increased influence of civic movements in the Arab world have mainly supported this change. The influence of social media in the UAE political space associates with several political and social factors, like the acceptance of divergent political views, the support of social and political changes, people’s empowerment, and the influence of social media on people’s views of the society.

Across the Arab world, social media use has, however, introduced political change in different measures. Particularly, social media has had a huge impact on how political leaders interact with their followers. A key issue that manifests here is persuasion because it explains how political leaders interact with their followers.

The role of social media in persuading people to follow a leader is a departure from the traditional role of social media as a tool for collecting signatures, or for advocating a social or political cause. Nonetheless, every political leader has a distinct reason for using social media.

An analysis of Sheikh Zayed’s Twitter page shows that the uses of social media are highly dynamic (even though it should primarily increase the level of interaction between political leaders and their followers). Therefore, today, social media serves to provide a more intimate/personal access to political leaders. For example, people know Sheikh Zayed more intimately through random tweets. For example, one tweet (which appears on his Twitter page) says, “Read my piece on how Sheikh Zayed’s childhood and early youth shaped his character as a leader.”

We will write a custom Essay on Social Media Networks’ Impacts on Political Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such tweets offer a personal insight into the life of the political leader. Despite providing a personal touch to political leadership, social media also provides a platform where people can be entertained and informed about political events.

For example, in Sheikh Zayed’s Twitter account, there is a lot of information regarding the dangers of driving, the importance of eating healthy, personal inspiration (among other factors). In sum, social media has helped to package political leaders differently by presenting them as multifaceted individuals with a more personal touch (than before). This platform gives them visibility in their public lives.

Too Much Visibility While social media offers immense advantages to businesses, political institutions, individuals, and political leaders, it also has its disadvantages. A common disadvantage is too much visibility. In the past, visibility was mainly limited to the presence of individuals on one location and at a specific time. However, with the development of social media communication, people do not have to be at the same place and at the same time to be visible; online presence gives them this visibility.

This new form of visibility has a huge impact on the relationship between visibility and power because it may destroy or build the reputation of politicians. However, smart political leaders seek the services of third parties, like public relations (PR) firms, to manage this new level of representation and exploit it to their advantage. Usually, such political leaders use this platform to create a strong support base for their political causes.

Relative to the above assertion, Abdulla Bin Zayed uses his visibility on his Twitter page to create a strong support base for his official duties. As the minister of foreign affairs, Abdulla Bin Zayed uses his Twitter account to communicate positive issues about the UAE. For example, his Twitter account has the following tweets, “Abu Dhabi is the world’s fourth favourite city, ranked behind only New York, London, and Paris.”

“American University in Paris receives anonymous donation from UAE in honour of late educator.” These tweets report positive issues (such as security, development, tourism, and charitable matters) about the UAE and some of its cities. A positive portrayal of the UAE also complements his role as an ambassador for the government (especially in his capacity as the minister for foreign affairs).

Depending on the contextual framework, too much visibility may be a positive and negative thing for social media users. For example, for political leaders, too much visibility is a positive thing because political leaders are public figures and the higher their visibility, the better they achieve political effectiveness. Even though some political leaders use social media for the right reasons, the proper management of increased public attention may expose such leaders to new risks.

New risks create new areas of fragility for political leaders because even though the smart ones manage this visibility to their advantage, they cannot have an absolute control over social media issues. Therefore, their efforts to exploit social media may still work to their disadvantage. The public may, however, enjoy increased political transparency through social media.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media Networks’ Impacts on Political Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Increased Transparency in the UAE Political Life – A Social Media Analysis The role of social media in increasing the level of transparency in the political life of the UAE largely stems from its influence in determining how people share information (its implication on governance is usually very profound).

Social media, therefore, introduces new risks and opportunities for the UAE political space because on the one hand, political leaders may use this platform to influence people’s perceptions, but on the other hand, the same platform has greatly empowered the people to question and criticise political activities in the country. Therefore, through an angry blog or tweet, someone can easily tarnish the name of a political leader.

While many political leaders have understood these inherent risks and opportunities, they cannot afford to be complacent. Increased transparency is, therefore, one issue that political leaders cannot wish away.

While traditional communication channels included extreme barriers of bureaucracy and lack of access to political leaders, social media has broken down these barriers and made leaders more accessible to the electorate. This way, the electorate finds it easy to question their leaders. In turn, the leaders have become more accountable and transparent in their political and professional activities.

A tweet from Abdulla Bin Zayed’s account confirms the above assertion because it contains evidence of public complaints and responses to such complaints (increased accountability). For example, one person said, “believe it or not; they called to tell me that they credit the money back based on my complaint.” This tweet shows an interesting dynamic of social media communication in politics because it highlights a seamless communication between the electorate and political leaders.

In the past, this type of communication was one-sided (from the political leaders to the electorate). A transformed communication framework outlines one aspect of Flichy’s argument (in the book, the internet Imaginaire) that captures the essence of this paper – redefining information sources. Through a constructivist model, Flichy says the transformation of communication (through the internet) means that information does not have to originate from only one source.

Instead, people may interact freely without experiencing the traditional communication barriers held by politicians and mainstream media. This assertion largely explains the nature of information in the Twitter account of Abdulla Bin Zayed because most of the content (tweets) appearing in his pages do not necessarily originate from him.

The potentials that social media and other internet platforms hold for politicians create a huge bulk of the arguments presented by Flichy because he says that the internet has helped politicians to transform mask utopia to liberal ideology. This argument mentions the role of social media in transforming the political causes of some US politicians, such as Al Gore, who used the internet to transform mask utopia to liberal ideology.

Nonetheless, evidence of unbiased information sources of interaction also exists between other Middle Eastern leaders and their subjects. In sum, this level of interaction shows that social media has greatly increased the level of transparency in political governance in the Middle East.

Conclusion After weighing the findings of this paper, we can affirm that social media networks increase the level of political accountability and transparency in the Middle East. Evidence from Abdulla Bin Zayed’s Twitter account also shows that social media has helped to package political leaders as more humane, fun, and entertaining. However, the main goal of a political leader, in using social media, is to persuade their followers to be more familiar with their thinking.

As leaders strive to achieve this objective, they should use the increased visibility they get through social media to advance their ideologies and relate better with their followers. Marin says that the proper use of social media may immortalise the relevance of political leaders because they can re-invent themselves this way.

Comprehensively, smart political leaders identify the right types of conversations (that promote their cause) and engage their audiences accordingly. This attempt should be followed with extreme persuasion because the value of social media exists here – persuading the electorate.

[supanova_question]

Major Idea of Teaching Mathematics Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help: best essay help

Upon reading the framework, it is evident that the major idea of teaching mathematics in California public schools revolves around the development of a balanced instructional program that not only provides students with an enabling environment to become proficient in basic computational and procedural skills, but also to continuously develop conceptual understanding of the mathematical concepts and become proficient in problem-solving.

As indicated in the framework, teachers should aim to achieve a balance between these three concepts (proficiency in computational and procedural skills, attainment of conceptual understanding, and proficiency in solving new or perplexing problems) if they expect their students to be competitive in mathematics (California Department of Education, 2006).

The concepts are interrelated; hence, teachers must strive to come up with methodologies and strategies to deliver them to mathematics students according to the standards of a particular grade level.

As indicated in the framework, “when students apply basic computational and procedural skills and understandings to solve new or perplexing problems, their basic skills are strengthened, the challenging problems they encounter can become routine, and their conceptual understanding deepens” (California Department of Education, 2006 p.5).

Consequently, it is suggested that the major idea of teaching mathematics to students in California public schools entails connecting their skills, conceptual understanding, and problem-solving capability to develop a network of mutually reinforcing components in the curriculum that are intrinsically aligned with the standards depending on grade level.

Examples of Teaching Strategies From the framework, it is clear that no single strategy of instruction is the best or most appropriate in all contexts, and that teachers have a wide choice of instructional strategies including “direct instruction, investigation, classroom discussion and drill, small groups, individualized formats, and hands-on materials (California Department of Education, 2006 p.5).

As one of the approaches to teaching, direct instruction is not only skills-oriented, but the teaching practices it adopts are essentially teacher-directed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In teaching algebra and functions to grade six students, for example, a teacher can use small-group, face-to-face instruction to demonstrate to students how to solve linear equations and develop algebraic reasoning at each step of the process by breaking down the instructions into small units, sequencing them deliberately, and teaching them in an explicit manner.

Although teachers can use this strategy to ensure that Grade six students are able to use their computational skills and conceptual understanding to solve problems in algebra through explicit, guided instructions, the strategy nevertheless limits student’s creativity and active exploration.

The other teaching strategy is investigation, whereby teachers play an active role in guiding students to identify a topic of interest, explore the current knowledge on the topic, frame the topic into manageable questions, gather appropriate information, analyze and synthesis the information, take action on the findings, and reflect on the outcomes found.

This strategy could be used to teach geometry to grade six students as it does not only facilitate an explicit understanding of geometric concepts, including raising students’ levels of geometric thinking, but also motivates students by presenting mathematical topics in an enjoyable and interesting manner that challenges their intellectual development.

Reflection Overall, upon reflection, I have learned that

no single method of instruction is the best or most appropriate in all situations,

it is important to balance the concepts of computational and procedural skills, conceptual understanding and problem-solving capability when teaching mathematics,

in mathematics instruction, new skills are developed almost exclusively on previously learned skills,

methods of assessing students for mathematics comprehension should be context-specific.

These learning outcomes can be implemented in real-life classroom situations by coming up with a well-formulated framework that does not necessarily follow a linear order to ensure students benefit from the mathematics lessons taught in class, and also by proactively aligning instruction with assessment.

Reference California Department of Education. (2009). Mathematics framework for California public schools: Kindergarten through grade twelve. Web.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Major Idea of Teaching Mathematics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

[supanova_question]

McSwain Union elementary school District Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help

Table of Contents Basic demographic information

Mathematics and science curriculum guide

Parent’s involvement

Bell schedule

Parent-student handbook

School website

Reference

Basic demographic information McSwain elementary school is located in Marced County, California. It has a population of 836 students including qualified teachers. School also accommodates students from different ethnic backgrounds and offers 27 major academic courses. The population of white students is 49% while blacks make 1% of the total number of students. Moreover, students from Latin America are 39% while Asians make 4% of the total student population.

It also has 1% of the Filipino students and 2% from other countries. According to McSwain Union elementary school District’s mission statement, it is devoted to excellence and training of all the learners through the assistance of the teachers and the community at large. The population of GATE learners in the school is approximately 10% while those students studying English makes 14% of the total number of students. 40 percent of the students are entitled to free lunch.

Mathematics and science curriculum guide McSwain Union elementary school District’s mathematics curriculum is aimed at making students understand that mathematics can be used as a thinking device. Through mathematics, students are not only taught how to effectively communicate with each other, but also solve various problems. Their mathematics curriculum is arranged into five categories. Students will have to first cover topics in number sense and operations.

They will also have to cover topics in algebra, geometry, and measurement. The learners will cover topics in statistics and probability. In science, students will cover topics on earth and physical sciences. They will also be expected to carry out various studies in every science unit. Besides, learners will be expected to create hypothesis and make concrete judgments. Studying science concepts, ethics, and theories will also be part of their science curriculum.

Parent’s involvement According to the McSwain Union elementary school District’s culture, parental support and involvement are highly encouraged. Therefore, they are also considered to be part of the school’s success. Parents and the entire community spend most of their time helping in the study rooms and library.

They also provide assistance with curriculum activities like sports. Parents are members of the McSwain Community Club which provides assistance to the students. They also form part of the School Site Council. Members of this club meet every year to evaluate the school’s progress.

Bell schedule McSwain Union elementary school District’s normal learning starts at 8:10 AM and ends at 2:50 PM. Moreover, teddy bell rings at 9:54 AM where students are expected to stay in their study rooms before going for a 10:10 AM break. Lunchtime bell starts from 11:10 AM to 2:00 PM depending on the level of study. The above bell schedules can only be changes during winter when it is cold.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parent-student handbook Parent-student handbook does not only contain information on school hours, but also visitation programs and rules. It also contains the names of staff members and the school’s mission statement. Moreover, it has information on how parents should take part in various activities within and outside the school. Parent-student handbook contains school’s map, policies, and rules.

School website On the school’s website, there is a three dimensional cover photo indicating the location of the school. Down below the photo, there are two flags on both sides (McSwain School, 2013).

The American flag is on the left hand side and the school’s flag is on the right. Their website is also considered to be complete because it has a lot of information about the school. Some of the features available at the school’s website are: Board calendar, school history, API scores, and parent portal. In conclusion, the school’s website is very instructive and up to date.

Reference McSwain School (Web log post). (2013). McSwain Union Elementary School District. Retrieved from https://www.mcswain.k12.ca.us/

[supanova_question]

Communication and Trust Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

One of the most important aspects of building a strong and effective organizational culture that guarantees success is cultivation of trust. Trust between employees and the management is very important. An environment that lucks trust is characterized by hostility, lack of cooperation between employees, dishonesty, and low productivity (Gilbert, 2002).

The attitudes and interactions of members in such an environment hinder development that would be beneficial to the organization. Encouraging effective communication is one of the ways used by organizations to foster trust between employees and management.

Behaviors that generate trust include confronting reality, keeping commitments, listening keenly to employees’ problems, fostering transparency, demonstrating respect, working hard, delivering results, fulfilling expectations, practicing accountability, taking responsibility, and believing in other people (Gilbert, 2002).

These behaviors develop trust when practiced by both employees and members of the management team. On the other hand, behaviors that destroy trust include disrespecting other members, meanness, dishonoring promises, being pushy and inconsiderate, failing to listen to employees, being vulgar and loud, and dishonoring commitments (Reina, 2009).

Developing proper communication channels is one of the most effective ways of fostering trust in an organization (Russell, 2012).

Communication behaviors that promote trust include fostering dialogue and open communication, ensuring that messages are clear and comprehensible, putting into consideration the feelings and emotions of others, avoiding vulgar or abusive language, soliciting for opinions from employees, giving employees a chance to express themselves, and developing deep listening skills (Reina, 2009).

On the other hand, communication behaviors that destroy trust include insensitiveness during discussions, lack of dialogues, issuing insensitive orders, using vulgar language, denying employees an opportunity to express their opinions, feelings and emotions, using demeaning language, and using complex language that members fail to understand (Russell, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, using hostile word and expressions to address employees also destroys trust. Members deserve respect. Therefore, it is important for management to avoid using words that could annoy or disgust employees in any way in order to cultivate trust.

At my previous place of work, the management destroyed trust by ignoring employees and failing to respond to their grievances. A prolonged standoff that ensued affected the organization adversely. Employees were seeking better pay because the management had increased their workload tremendously. However, their efforts to have their requests considered were turned down. The management claimed that employees were reacting out of greed and sheer insensitiveness.

The management’s response reduced the productivity of the organization significantly because employees were not motivated to work as hard they used to before the incident. Employees lost trust in the management and this led to a strained relationship that affected the organization adversely. During that period, the management declined to negotiate or hold any discussions with employees. Communication was poor and the management distanced itself from employees.

However, after periods of reduced productivity and effectiveness at the workplace, the management decided to consider their plight. It took a lot of discussions and dialogues to restore confidence and trust. The consequences of the incident were severe because it took the organization more than three years to rebuild its employees’ trust and confidence.

Communication and trust are paramount to achievement of success in any organization. In order to foster trust, it is necessary to cultivate good communication behaviors. Commitment, honesty, responsibility, and accountability are examples of behaviors that foster trust. It is important for employees and the management to adopt them in order to develop an organizational culture that encourages cultivation of trust.

References Gilbert, M. (2002). Communication Miracles at Work: Effective Tools and Tips for Getting the Most from Your Work Relationships. New York: Conari Press.

Reina, D. (2009). Trust and Betrayal in the Workplace: Building Effective Relationship in your Organization. New York: Springer.

We will write a custom Essay on Communication and Trust specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Russell, N. (2012). Trust: the New Workplace Currency. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/trust-the-new-workplace-currency/201202/fueling-trust-engagement-five-communication-practices

[supanova_question]

“Eco-Warriors” by Rik Scarce Synthesis Essay best essay help

“Eco-Warriors” is a book that investigates the actions of environmentalists using both historical and philosophical accounts. The author of this book is Rik Scarce a sociologist at Skidmore College and he refers to the several environmental organizations in this book. This paper provides a review of Scarce’s book in the view of the effects that degradation has on the society.

“Eco-Warriors” gives several accounts of how environmental activists act in the course of their spirited defense against the destruction of the earth. In this book’s edition, the author does not add new dimensions to the book but he updated his earlier work on the same topic. The book expounds on the actions of the environmentalists who are not willing to compromise on their philosophy about the need to preserve the environment and the integrity of the ecology. The author hopes to make the actions of the environmental activists who break the law, and are sometimes referred to as domestic terrorists by the government easier to understand.

According to the author, it is easy for onlookers to demonize environmental activists but research indicates that their actions are beneficial to the environment. The available evidence shows that ignoring the effects of the environmental degradation could have devastating effects. Therefore, classifying environmental activists as terrorists is unfortunate. It is also evident that the degradation of the environment could continue to put the environmentalists and governments on a collision path.

Scarce claims that some of the organizations that continue to berate the environmental activists are responsible for degradation themselves. Consequently, if the uninformed criticisms on environmentalists continue, they will only lead to more degradation. It is up to the society to understand the role of the environmental activists as well as their actions. This will ensure that the effects of degradation on the society are checked.

[supanova_question]

Human Resource Management: Training and Development Evaluation Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case study analysis

Lessons from case study

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Every business enterprise aims at making profits by minimising operational costs. Although expenditure is inevitable, every business enterprise, regardless of its size, applies every possible strategy available to ensure maximum returns. Employee training and development is one of the key aspects that most companies factor into their expenditure in the determination of their priority expenses and long-term business development.

Although the choice of strategy mainly depends on the available resources to a company, it may also be a result of the choice of human resource management models. Some companies prefer to hire individuals with the skills that suit the job description while others choose to employ individuals with basic knowledge of the job and conduct private training in order to customise the employees’ skill set to suit their purpose.

While both methods work, they possess different advantages and disadvantages, as well as impacts on the companies and employees. This paper explores a case study of two different companies and provides a concise analysis of their choice of managerial models. It also includes a discussion on some of the lessons that managers can learn from the case study mainly with regard to inter-related human resource policies and practices.

Case study analysis Total Customer Services (TCS), an outsourced group of housing benefits caseworkers, applies the use of contracts that encourage and enforce specialisation among workers. In essence, the management format involves the distribution of specific duties for each worker. The company strictly stipulates the duties in a contract, which means that workers lack any mandate beyond their stipulated duties and only apply the use of specific skills in the accomplishment of such duties.

The contracts also require employees to exercise a huge degree of disclosure to management regarding their actions. The main advantage this arrangement has for the workers is that they can perfect the skill they apply at work, which makes their work easier with time (Leitch 2006). Another advantage is that the disclosure policies allow the management team to detect problems as soon as they arise, thus solving them before they do damage to the business.

However, this management model has several disadvantages. First, the restrictive manner in which the management governs the employees means that the employees lose their autonomy and are unable to make critical decisions in time, as they have to consult the management as the contract stipulates (Goleman 1998). Subsequently, the company suffers undue delays in solving trivial problems that would be better suited to the employees in charge.

For instance, one of the caseworkers mentions that one of their obligations as caseworkers under TCS’s management was to fill out paper work and pass the forms to the local authority for approval instead of providing approval when necessary. A logical assessment of such a situation would indicate that the council lost a lot of valuable time that it would otherwise apply in improving its operations and raising its performance levels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another disadvantage related to lack of autonomy is the lack of innovative solutions to problems. By providing that the employees should not operate outside their contractual duties, the contract and in extension the company, bars the employees from providing different perspectives on issues, which is an advantage they possess owing to their extensive experience dealing with one particular issue.

In the case study, a worker in the company indicates that caseworkers have the advantage of dealing with the same case over a long period and thus know their clients’ names, addresses, and their needs. This aspect is a taxing oversight for the company as it fails to exploit its work force to its full potential. The second major disadvantage of the TCS contract system is that it fosters the decline of valuable skill among the employees (Keep

[supanova_question]

Dorothy Edwards Leadership Styles Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Leadership is very important in every organization in that leaders have the ability to define the destiny of an organization as it strives to achieve success. The issue of leadership has gained popularity among academics and organizations over the last couple of years. It is important to understand the model of leadership applied by various leaders.

Dorothy Edwards is the leader of Helping Hands organization, a charity foundation whose main objective is to help the needy in the society. Her style of leadership has seen the organization succeed in achieving most of its objectives (Winkler, 2010).

Among the theories that she applies include participative leadership theory. This is the type of leadership theory whereby the leader accounts for the input of other members of the group. The leader ensures that all group members are involved in decision making (Coggins, 2009). Group members are encouraged to participate and make contributions freely. This is important in that members feel closer and relevant to the organization, thus their commitment improves greatly.

To involve SWAT Team members, Dorothy allows them to talk about themselves and their reasons behind joining the organization. Team members also talk about the experiences they are intending to gain from the organization and what they have to offer. Dorothy considers all those agendas and takes the responsibility of helping each member meet his or her aspirations.

In helping the members, Dorothy applies the relationship leadership theory, which is also known as the transformational theory (Waite, Waite

[supanova_question]

Leading Learning in the Workplace Analytical Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Trait Leadership Theory

Situational Leadership Theories

Contingency Theories

Conclusion

List of References

Leadership is one of the most important ingredients of a successful workplace. According to Dierendonck and Patterson (2010, p. 41), leading people within a workplace setting requires one to possess leadership qualities that would make one unique among others. A leader must be able to make followers behave in a given desirable way within an organization. It is through this that such a leader would be in a position to bring success within the organization.

Scholars have put forth a number of theories of leadership to explain ways in which a leader can assert his authority and ensure that followers do what he desires.

This may not be an easy task. Different leaders draw their power from different sources. Depending on the source of power and the strength of this source, a leader would be able to sway the thinking of the followers in differing degrees. This research will focus on three leadership theories and explain their relevance in the contemporary workplace.

Trait Leadership Theory According to English (2011, p. 60), trait theory of leadership is one of the most common leadership theories. This theory holds that leaders always have some traits that make them be admired and this earns them leadership within the society. Some traits are admirable. Such traits as courage, self-confidence, ability to listen to people and deliver to them what they expect are some of the traits that a society would admire.

These traits would make one become a leader quite easily because the person would gain trust and admiration from people. People will look at such a person as an individual capable of offering guidance to them within an organization. In the workplace, this trait is very common and admirable because people always want some form of guidance in the workplace setting. They always prefer leaders who can be understanding and offer leadership without putting a lot of pressure on them.

They always need people with good traits of leadership because there is a belief that these people always understand. Business owners also prefer putting people who understand employees into leadership. It is important to ensure that the person being given opportunity to lead others is able to understand how best the followers can deliver good results. Employee motivation is one of the most important factors in the current workplace in ensuring that the desired results are obtained.

This makes trait leadership theory a very important leadership strategy in the current workplace. This is because this leadership is based on those desires that employees would like. This theory has come under criticism from a number of scholars. Golensky (2011, p. 88) says that some people with desirable qualities as courage, confidence and selflessness do not always seek positions of leadership in their entire life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For this reason, the assumption that people with these traits are or should be leaders is a misleading argument. The sentiments of this scholar may be true to some extent. However, he also made some assumptions when describing who a leader is within the society. A leader may not necessarily be someone in direct authority within the society or in an organization. A leader can be someone who takes a very low profile in the society, but people listens to him or her whenever he or she speaks out.

It does not take an office to be considered as a leader. Within the workplace, there are such people who would always be consulted whenever a major decision is needed despite the fact that they are not holding any office.

This is because of the influence they command on people. This means that having these desired traits helps one gain confidence and love from others. This in itself gives this person a sense of authority because he can easily influence the decision of people irrespective of the office he holds in the firm.

There have been some arguments on this theory about the origin of these desirable traits of a leader. According to Nohria and Khurana (2010, p.59), there are those who believe that such good traits as courage, confidence and selflessness come naturally. This argument says that people are born with these traits and they find themselves expressing them in a natural manner in their daily life activities.

This argument compares closely to the argument put forth by Great Man Theory, which holds that great leaders are born. Those who hold this argument says that it is difficult to teach selflessness to a person unless it is something that comes out naturally. If a person has some selfishness in his or her behavior, it can be very difficult to eliminate this trait and replace it with selflessness because naturally the person is selfish.

The only thing that may happen is that the selfishness can be suppressed when the environment is not conducive enough. However, when such a person finds himself in a situation where there is need to act through reflex reaction, the selfishness in him would be clearly demonstrated.

Some scholars have however, argued that traits can be learnt as one develops. Based on the environment and values one is put through during the developmental stage, it is possible to learn some of the traits that are considered desirable.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Leading Learning in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Situational Leadership Theories Situational leadership theories are another very popular theory in the current leadership of organization. According to Donlevy and Walker (2011, p. 47), situational leadership theory holds that a leader should always offer leadership depending on the prevailing situation within an organization.

There are situations where a leader would need to evoke democratic leadership while in some instances, dictatorial leadership would be the most appropriate. For instance, when a leader is more knowledgeable in this field, and the ideas that may come from followers may be misleading, then such a leader should employ dictatorial style of leadership.

This is because such a leader is certain that followers cannot add any meaningful insight into the decision that is to be made. The leader would then be the sole source of power. Issuing instruction to those followers must be observed to the letter in order to achieve the desired success. On the other hand, if followers have as much knowledge as the leaders, then the most appropriate leadership style should be democratic in nature.

Such a leader would need to lead but in a consultative manner. This is because the knowledge of others may be relevant or even better in some areas that need decision making. Being democratic here means bringing on board all members of the organization and making them give their thoughts about how best a given issue can be handled. The idea here is to come up with the best approach through consultation with people who have enough knowledge of what should be done.

Situational leadership is very relevant in the contemporary leadership. The report done by Marquis (2012, p. 24) says that human being is very complex and to successfully manage him, a lot of care and skills will always be needed. For instance, ethics is one of the most important ingredients of a successful organization.

Sometimes a leader finds him in a workplace where people do not practice ethics in their daily activities. Such a leader would choose to either get into the system or conform to the practice that has been embraced, or create a change within the organization. These two situations would need different leadership approach. When one decides to conform to the current practice, then it would be easy because the leader would only need to sit back and watch what others do.

On the other hand, it can be challenging when the leader decides to change what has been entrenched as a common practice. Such a leader would need to bring a new thinking into the organization, and in this regard, some elements of dictatorial leadership would be needed. The leader would need to make followers understand that any form of corruption is not acceptable and can lead to serious consequences.

The leader must be strong-willed in order to achieve the desired goal, especially when the desired goal is not what the norm is in the current practice. Hutchin (2012, p. 67) argues that it is not easy to make a complete change of approach within an organization, especially if it involves fighting vices such as corruption, laziness and unethical behavior. The leader must first determine the kind of situation he finds himself in, and then determine the most appropriate leadership approach.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leading Learning in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Contingency Theories Contingency theories of leadership have very close relations with situational leadership theory. According to Wu (2013, p. 78), contingency theories of leadership holds that there is no single style of leadership that can be considered as being the most appropriate in every situation. This theory has its assumption that different situation will call for different actions in order to achieve the desired result.

The theory also holds that different leaders will use different approaches to ensure that the desired result is achieved. In this theory, the end will always justify the means. What a leader should realize is that some specific targets should be achieved within a particular period. With this knowledge, the leader must be able to determine the best approach of making the employees deliver this desired result.

It would be upon the leader to choose the approach that would work best for him given the prevailing condition of the organization. The choice of leadership in this case will depend on the leader and the followers. Every given leader has his or her unique approach of leadership used when a specific goals is to be met. This theory holds that such a leader would most likely go for the leadership approach he or she is well versed with in order to influence actions of the employees.

It may not be prudent to set rigid structure for such a leader because he or she would have to struggle in order to achieve the desired result. Similarly, the followers will always determine the best approach a leader should take when offering leadership to them. There are followers who work best with as minimal supervision as may be possible.

On the other hand, some followers cannot work without close supervision. Understanding these two opposite groups would be important (Lussier

[supanova_question]

Organizational Diagnosis Evaluation Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organizational change

Absenteeism

Low productivity

Reference List

Introduction Businesses around the globe face numerous challenges on a regular basis. To deal with these issues, the management of an organization must possess the necessary problem solving skills and knowledge. There are a number of issues that plague the world of business; however, some problems seem more prominent and are shared by a number of organizations around the globe.

Organizational change One of the main challenges that organizations face is the resistance of employees during the implementation of any change within the organization. Change is an inevitable phenomenon within the world of business. Organizations that refuse to change their methods with time are bound to fail. Change may create new and better opportunities (Bovey

[supanova_question]

CIA. Operations and Intelligence: A Potential for Conflict? Evaluation Essay online essay help: online essay help

Over the years of its existence, CIA has built a strong and quite threatening reputation. However, because of the clumsy strategies adopted by the Operations Department, the existence of the entire organization can be threatened. As some of the sources claim, the strategies adopted for the CIA operations have, in fact, stayed the same since the times of Eisenhower’s presidency.

Meanwhile, the approaches used in the CIA intelligence department, have been regularly updated and, as a result, are up to the highest standards at present, which stands in high contrast to the standards for the operations of the CIA.

Because of the lack of cohesion between the strategies used by the CIA intelligence and the ones that are adopted by the CIA Operations Department, the CIA is at the brink of a serious crisis, which might lead to drastic effects and, therefore, pose a threat to the U.S. foreign affairs, making the state extremely vulnerable to the actions of the adversaries.

To realize the scale of the threat that the CIA is facing at the moment due to the lack of understanding how covert operations must be carried out in the present-day world, it is necessary to consider some of the examples of how well the modern CIA specialists use coercive methods in the implementations of their strategies.

The latest case on CIA operations is a graphic example of how the lack of cohesion between the actions of the two departments affects the results of the CIA work negatively. Mendez offers a classic case of what can happen once there is a lack of cohesion between the actions of the Operations and the Intelligence. As Mendez1 claims, after carrying out the infamous operation in Iran, the CIA adopt the strategy that allowed it remain “on alert” 24/7, and, despite its numerous controversies, remained efficient till the very end of the operation.

However, because of its success, the framework of the operation was further on used as the pattern for the rest of the operations, which resulted in the CIA being labeled as the organization that prefers rough actions instead of careful and well thought-out steps, which has been dragged into the present day, since CIA was too lazy to change its approach towards its operations.

The given case study shows the effects of poor and, quite honestly, rather dated strategies used by the CIA Operations Department on the overall performance of the organization in general and the quality of Intelligence Department work in particular.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the case study, the covert actions carried out in an awkward manner not only seem quite deplorable compared to the refined work of the Intelligence, but also affect the latter negatively, threatening the success of several months long work due to a single awkwardly carried out operation.

Therefore, things have to be changed in the way that the CIA Operations Department works, and things have to be changed fast; otherwise, the discord between the work of Intelligence and Operations will lead inevitably to the collapse of the CIA.

When considering the improvements that the CIA services could undergo in order to run the operation processes smoother and get rid of the reputation of a “rogue elephant,” the organization should consider such approaches as the creation of another organization that could provide the services for covert operations with the staff that would be trained specifically to meet the latest and the highest standards in the given department.

The given solution has already been suggested for the CIA services as the possible measure to address the critical situation concerning the “rogue elephant” situation. However, in case CIA decides to create a separate agency that is going to supply the CIA Organization with the human resources for covert operations, chances are pretty high that information leakage rates are going to increase.

There is no secret that even with a single headquarters and the old-fashioned strategies, the CIA is suffering from information leaks and the results that it leads to: “Accountability can be damaging by providing a source for possible leaks and by cutting down on the efficiency of the CIA through forcing continuous consultation when speedier action may be needed.”2 Therefore, creating a separate organization, which the CIA will have to share the key information with, is rather risky for the U.S. at present.

Another possible way to address the problem of the gap between the Operations and Intelligence Departments in the CIA is to arrange training courses for the staff specializing in Operations. Thus, the CIA will be able to translate the current practices into a more appropriate and by far more subtle manner of coercive methods implementation without restructuring the whole organization and splitting into the headquarters and its affiliate.

The given method, however, also has problems, since training the staff in order to change the current practices will doubtlessly take much time. Alternatively, the CIA could recruit new staff that could carry out its mission in the new and more appropriate manner.

We will write a custom Essay on CIA. Operations and Intelligence: A Potential for Conflict? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By doing so, the organization would benefit in changing the mindset of the staff so that the new strategies could be used as soon as possible; however, seeing how the new staff will require even more time for training, learning the rules and gaining the experience that the old staff already has, the given step does not seem to be an option either.

Therefore, it goes without saying that the CIA needs an urgent update on its operation strategies. Indeed, seeing how the operations have been molded in accordance with the pattern dating back to the post-WWII era, it becomes obvious that the new principles for the strategies and tactics of the cover operations must be introduced into the present-day CIA services.

In addition to their lack of efficiency, outdated techniques can possibly lead to failing the operations, which will most likely lead to serious issues in foreign policy of the U.S. and, as a result, will bring the reputation of the United States among the rest of the world’s most powerful states a few notches down.

It could be argued, though, that the introduction of the new strategies will require additional training of the staff so that the latter could follow the new instructions, which will cost a considerable amount of money; not to mention the fact that the transformations in the CIA services will doubtlessly take much time – weeks, perhaps, months, if not years. Therefore, the idea of adopting new strategies for the actions of the CIA operations to be carried out might seem a failure.

However, the introduction of the new strategies can be enhanced with the help of an efficient leadership strategy and the introduction of the right information and time management. As long as the CIA services allow for shared information and schedule the training sessions so that the staff could learn the basics within the shortest period of time.

With that being said, it must be admitted that the CIA operation strategies can and must be updated in accordance with the newly adopted strategies. As soon as the strategies mentioned above are applied, it can be assumed that each of the elements of the CIA works in chord with its other parts.

Footnotes 1. Antonio J. Mendez, “A Classic Case of Deception” (Central Intelligence Agency, n. d.), Accessed from https://www.cia.gov/resources/csi/studies-in-intelligence/

2. David Canon, “Intelligence and Ethics: The CIA’S Covert Operations,” The Journal of Libertarian Studies 4, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 205.

Not sure if you can write a paper on CIA. Operations and Intelligence: A Potential for Conflict? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

[supanova_question]

Spiritual discernment and vocational counseling Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Personal position

Past and present influences

Practical application

Reference List

Introduction Any person with the zeal to succeed in life has to make sound decisions on issues that concern his or her life. Decision-making is an important process that involves selecting among available alternatives the best factors that will have a great impact in one’s life. People have to face decisions on the careers to pursue, relationships, and work coupled with how they are going to spend their time effectively doing the right thing.

These are just some of the issues that call for decision-making skills. Having emphasized on the importance of the decision making process, a person needs to gather relevant information that will aid in discerning the right path to avoid doing anything absurd or wicked and not pleasing to the eyes of God. The decisions that we make in life should be aimed at deepening our bond with God as this aspect underscores the ultimate goal in life.

At this point, spiritual discernment comes in as it underlines the decision-making process that Christians can use since it helps them to overcome their own personal will in life (Liebert, 2008) and make great decisions that are in line with the will of the almighty God.

Spiritual discernment is the ultimate secret weapon that can be used by Christians who are interested in drawing closer to the Lord as they progress in life as it guides them to make the most informed decisions that align them with the will of God.

Personal position Making a decision on the career that you are going to take is very critical as this move determines the kind of life that you are going to live on earth before going to meet with your maker. Unfortunately, in the society we live in, most people have not been taught on decision making especially on issues concerning vocational calling (Bieber, 2010). From my point of view, when making career decisions, Christians should be guided by certain factors with the main one being prayerful.

In the decision-making process, sparing some time to invite God through prayer affects the outcome of the decisions that you make. By telling God your greatest desires and showing that you need Him in making decisions, He enlightens you on the best decisions that you can make, as the Lord is interested in every aspect of our life. God may not speak to us directly, but through circumstances that will guide us in making good decisions (Horton, 2009).

Praying helps us in getting closer to the Lord, which enables us to discern different ways in which He communicates to us and this aspect is the perfect guide in making the appropriate decision when choosing a career path. The importance of prayer is undisputable as it also helps in defeating the devil that can lure Christians to career choices that will lead them to committing sins which is against the will of God (Wilkie

[supanova_question]

Sustainability program: implementation Evaluation Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The readiness involved in planning and implementing scale and sustainability focuses on the identification of core program elements. The most effective components that have to be sustained and scaled are then determined. First, the program has to serve a particular need and should guarantee market.

All the stakeholders of the change strategy should be made to believe that the program to be scaled and sustained will serve a particular purpose and impact positively to the overall performance of the organization. The change agent has to conduct market surveys to identify whether the need to be addressed by the program is actually existent in the market. Second, the critical non-negotiable elements of the program are identified.

Effective scaling and sustaining of a program require identification of a few essential elements that should be implemented in a manner that coincides to that of the original users of the program. This can be achieved through evaluation since the change agent can easily identify core elements that are significant and need to be sustained and distinguish them from those that are not imperative to the efficient functioning of the organization (Spiro, 2011).

The cost of the program is the last significant element that should be determined by the change agent. The change agent should identify the cost of running the program and all the funding received from various institutions. Program sustainability entails getting sufficient funding to aid in running the project rather than getting more funds from external funding institutions.

The necessity of identifying hard choices concerning the allocation of resources to various programs in an organization is essential for effective program sustainability.

The change agent should ensure that the program receives funding from the resources that had been allocated to less productive programs in the organization so as to increase the productivity of the organization. Scaling and sustaining of a program can also be achieved by incorporating the program into an existing one (Spiro, 2011).

The change agent should ensure that sustaining and scaling processes are planned from the onset of the initiative. This is significant in incorporating new institutions and partners during the course of the program implementation that are vital to the sustaining process. Training future leaders is the fundamental element in the change strategy since it guarantees program sustenance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The transitions and turnover of staff members should also be properly managed since changing key personnel in a program hampers sustainability and scale of the program. Transitions plans should therefore be devised to minimize program disruptions since new employees do not understand the operations of an already existing program. Consequently, they tend to abandon the program thus altering its sustenance and scale (Dede

[supanova_question]

The Retail Grocery Market Structure in Australia Essay custom essay help

The Market Structure of Retail Grocery Market in Australia There are a number of market structures that can be adopted in an industry, depending on the type of products and services offered. The market structure that is in place is shaped by how many and what types of firms make the industry. There are four major market structures: perfect competition, oligopoly, monopoly, and monopolistic competition. A perfectly competitive market structure is one whereby there are many players in the market, as well as many customers (Stackelberg et al., 2011).

The barriers for entering the market are not there, or they are minimal if they are present. In this kind of market structure that is also referred to as pure competition, there are no players who are large such that they dominate and control the market. In other words, there are no organizations that are powerful such that they can set or influence the prices of goods and services.

Some of the characteristics of a perfectly competitive market include unlimited number of buyers and sellers and no barriers for entry or exit to and from the market respectively. In addition, there is perfect information regarding prices, quality as well as production of goods and services. Products are usually homogeneous, there are no transaction costs, and each organization tries to maximize its profitability by incurring the minimum costs possible (Stackelberg et al., 2011).

In an oligopoly market, there are a few firms that are usually strong and tend to influence the market. These firms have the majority share of the market. The organizations tend to compete against each other, while they dominate the rest of the market. These dominant organizations make it difficult for new organizations to join the market by putting barriers. The other major market structure is monopoly. This is a structure whereby there is only one firm that offers certain goods or services.

The firm does not have a competitor. In a monopolistic market structure, the provider organizations have the freedom to control and influence prices since there is no other organization to compete with. Buyers might suffer out of exploitation in such a structure. Finally, there is the monopolistic competition market structure, which is also referred to as a competitive market.

In such a structure, there are a large number of organizations that produce similar goods but the goods are differentiated slightly (Etro, 2009). Each organization tries to differentiate its products a bit to outdo its competitors.

Reasons why the market is not perfectly competitive Retail grocery market in Australia may not be regarded as a perfectly competitive market because the market is seemingly dominated by two major competitor organizations. The two dominant grocery firms in the Australian market are Coles and Woolworths (Food System Research Group, 2009). It is, however, notable that there are other hundreds of grocery firms that operate in the Australian market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the small firms control 20-30% of the grocery market since Coles and Woolworths are said to dominate and control over 70% of the total Australian grocery market. To be precise, Stuart Alexander

[supanova_question]

The change strategy Essay best essay help

Recent researches have confirmed that change is an important factor that an organization cannot afford to ignore if it expects to succeed in the current competitive market. Developing a change strategy that works is one of the most important factors that would determine success or failure of a firm in the market (Reiß, 2012). In this study, the researcher focuses on the small wins that come with development of an effective change strategy.

The change strategy in this case would be simple and straightforward when it comes to its implementation. It will involve use video conferences by top management of the firm as a way of encouraging virtual conferences within this firm.

In this strategy, there will be a shift from traditional style of having conferences in large offices in order to formulate policies for the organization. Top management will use this new strategy in order to ensure that they are able to discuss their strategies and challenges more frequently in order to find solutions and improve performance of the firm.

In this strategy, an IT expert will be stationed in an office to coordinate the communication of the managers whenever they want to meet irrespective of their location on the globe. Each manager will be having all the instruments needed to make the conference a reality. The IT expert will have the responsibility of alerting the concerned officers when there is an online meeting to be held.

This officer will inform these managers of the required time they should meet and the agenda of the meeting. The officer will get this information from the relevant office in the top management. When the meeting starts, the IT expert will ensure that the communication process proceeds without any interruptions as long as the gadgets used by individual conference members are in good condition.

This will bring a ‘small win’ to the organization in several ways. Most managers always spend more time trying to come up with the best approach of how their operational units can perform better. In some of the cases, they are forced to make travels out of their offices in order to facilitate improved services offered by the units they manage.

It is therefore, time consuming to leave their offices and travel to the headquarters for the meetings. Other officers also end up wasting their time waiting for other officers who arrive late at such meetings. This strategy is geared at eliminating this wastage and making this process more efficient and effective to the officers involved.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This win will benefit this organization in various ways. The first benefit that will be generated from this change of strategy will be reduced time wastage. With this new approach to holding conference, officers will not have to move out of their offices when there is a conference needed. This means that if there is any delay in the meeting, other officers can continue with other tasks in their officers other than idling in the conference hall.

This strategy will also eliminate cases of absenteeism from such meetings by some of the members. This is because there will be limited excuse as long as there is goodwill from these members. This will improve the overall performance of the organization because it will be possible to share new ideas as soon as they are hatched.

The departments that are facing difficulties can also share their experience with other departments in case there can be any form of help needed. It is also important to note that there will be no need for a hall where the conference can be held. With the increasingly reduced space being experienced in organizations currently, the current conference hall can be put under a useful project for the organization.

The win in this new strategy will not only be of value to the concerned officers who would use the facilities developed. There will be a shared value to various stakeholders when this strategy is implemented. It is a fact that this strategy will reduce time taken to make decisions. This means that the management will be able to operate more efficiently. This would mean that employees would have the needed attention from their supervisors because of their increased availability.

This would enhance positive relationship between the management and the junior employees of this firm. To the shareholders, it is true that when efficiency is improved, there will be increased productivity, which would translate into increased profitability. This will increase the returns that the shareholders will have on their investment. It will also help in expanding the investment of these stakeholders within this firm (Spiro, 2011).

The customers served by this firm will also share the value of this new strategy. When this firm decides to use this new technology, it would mean that the management would have more time to determine the needs of the customers and discuss among them how best they can create more value to their customers. They will also be able to direct junior employees on the best approach to take when delivering value to customers in order to make the experience to be of more value.

It is important to give data in support of the strategy to be implemented. In this case, time will be considered. It can take 30 minutes for a physical conference to be arranged and started if all the officers are in the same building. It will take the officers about 15 minutes to settle back in their officers.

We will write a custom Essay on The change strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If they are 10 officers, the total time wasted will be 450 minutes, which is 7.5 hours. If six such meetings are held in a month, time wasted will be about 45 hours in a month or 540 hours in a year. This is a massive time that can be used in developing the firm.

In order to make this win a reality, it shall be publicized using direct memos to the relevant officers within the firm. The memos will be physically delivered to their offices to ensure that they get to read it. This will be followed by direct phone call from the enforcing authority.

The next step for making continuous progress will be to purchase the necessary equipments that would be needed to make this project a reality. Then these officers will be trained on how to use these gadgets. Finally, a team of technicians will be responsible for their maintenance.

In conclusion, it is apparent that this new strategy will have a radical shift from the traditional way of having conference. When all the responsible stakeholders commit themselves to this new approach, the overall performance of the organization will be improved.

References Reiß, M. (2012). Change management: A balanced and blended approach. Norderstedt: Books on Demand.

Spiro, J. (2011). Leading change step-by-step: Tactics, tools, and tales. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[supanova_question]

Public Administration between the 1930s and 1950s Critical Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Major Theorists and Their Contribution

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Public administration has developed for many decades. It is necessary to note that the period between the 1930s and 1950s was one of the most remarkable in the history of the field (as well as the history of the USA).

That was the period of a severe economic crisis, called the Great Depression, and the World War II. These two major events shaped the development of the society and brought certain issues to the fore. Major public administration theorists of that period were Luther Gulick, Louis Brownlow, Charles E. Merriam and Chester I. Barnard.

Major Theorists and Their Contribution One of the most significant theorists that contributed greatly to the development of the field of public administration was Luther Gulick. He emphasized that administration was all about human beings cooperating (controlling and assisting) other human beings (Shafritz

[supanova_question]

IBM as a Technology Company Coursework online essay help

My organization, IBM, adopts a contribution compensation philosophy. In particular, IBM considers the actual activities of the employees as the basis for payment, with the decision on pay mainly being owned by line managers. The total cash rewards to an IBM employee constitute two major components; the base pay and the additional pay (McCabe, 2013).

Evaluation of the Philosophy The contribution philosophy of compensation seeks to mainly attract, motivate, as well as retain employees through a reward system that targets the contributors who enable IBM to remain competitive (McCabe, 2013). The basis for determining pay at the company is mainly employee performance, where annual benchmarks are conducted to derive competitive pay.

The job family is relied upon to differentiate between the values of comparable skills. The approach by IBM includes relying on geographic data in order to value the market in terms of geography. A structured framework tracks and measures the performance by employees, giving managers the opportunity to assess relative input by all the employees before undertaking a strong differentiation (McCabe, 2013).

IBM conducts market surveys prior to determining its compensation levels. This practice, which is conducted in partnership with other third party consultants, basically analyzes the compensation rates paid by competitor firms before advising the company on the right rates. This is a good practice because it helps IBM to maintain a highly competitive pay structure that is in tandem with its objective of attracting and maintaining the best skills in the market.

Ways of Revamping IBM’s Compensation Philosophy IBM has only established 10 bands upon which all the job classifications are entailed. Workers’ jobs and skills can only be included in one of the job bands already established. However, IBM is a huge multinational company that has an expansive role.

Fitting these skills and roles into 10 bands only does not effectively provide a chance for equitable compensation basing on the firm’s contribution philosophy of compensation. The bands should be further expanded to make them 15 or 20. This will make the roles grouped together to be close to each other in terms of activity and ensure a more equitable compensation philosophy is attained.

Key Factors within the Internal and External Environments Internal

IBM is a technology company that relies heavily on its technological prowess to outwit its competitors in the highly competitive technology market. Thus, the contribution compensation helps in building greater innovation amongst its workforce in order to remain a market leader.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also has diverse business and it has to maintain greater competition across all the fronts in order to achieve success. This diversity in business also requires a diverse workforce that is highly qualified. Attracting such diversity of skill and maintaining it for longer durations can only be achieved with the company’s contribution compensation policy where individual employees also earn bonuses based on their additional contributions, apart from the basic salary (Wood, 2011).

IBM has succeeded to build a very strong global brand reputation that ensures that the company receives market priority ahead of its other competitors in the market.

Sustaining such strong brand position also requires that the company acquires the best human skills in the market through highly competitive compensation strategies. As the workers are paid highly and competitively, their input also provides the opportunity for more revenues through increased sales and high demand for the IBM brand.

External

With the growing demand for cloud-based services, which is one of IBM’s key areas of operation, the company requires more skills to build on its ability and capacity. Such skills in the market are also limited because other hi-tech companies are seeking to attract and employ the same workers (Wood, 2011).

Thus, IBM assures the skilled workers that they have an unlimited salary rate through the contribution compensation philosophy because the more they shall contribute to the company’s success and innovation the more they shall earn.

The services and software divisions are also experiencing an increase in demand as the IT capabilities are also growing enormously. These areas require great innovation in order for an IT company to manage leadership. Thus, through the contribution compensation philosophy, IBM has created an opening through which all interested developers of software and application services can practice their skills and earn greater returns.

The world economy has experienced slowed growth over the years, with many countries being affected by the crisis. This has seen the level of expenditure in IT drop as the little resources are being budgeted for other basic requirements. In essence, IT companies such as IBM are at a risk of losing business and revenue.

We will write a custom Coursework on IBM as a Technology Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the companies have to device new strategies that would enable them manufacture highly effective devices and develop software using fewer resources to maintain low prices in order to survive. IBM can still attract quality skills and manufacture competitive services and equipment at competitive prices through a contribution compensation philosophy (Wood, 2011).

Expatriate Pay The home-based system of pay provides that the employee operate within his home country where the assignment allowances are based on the home country payroll or the host country payroll. It supports the continuation of benefits, such as pension, through continuous payroll deductions. However, the tax equalization policy does not provide a chance for gaining significant income (Henderson

[supanova_question]

Compensation and Benefits Challenges at McDonald’s Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Literature Review

The History of McDonald’s

Current Compensation Challenges

How Ford Handled Wage Problems

Potential Strategies for Handling Wage Problems

Implications of Literature

Recommendations to the Management

Conclusion

Reference List

One of the main challenges that many companies in America are dealing with is how to handle compensation and benefits. This is not a new challenge. It has been a permanent feature of the American economy. The current struggles have their roots in the financial crisis that hit the American economy in 2009. The financial crisis hit the American economy about a decade after the dotcom bubble. The American economy is currently in recovery after these two major shocks.

However, many people have become impatient with the government for the slow rate of recovery. This is seeping into the national discussion with debates on how the government and employers should handle the tough economic times. Employers are struggling to retain top talent.

In addition, they are struggling to retain low-level workers who are usually hit hard by the negative impacts of economic problems. A movement to change the basis for wage calculations from the federal minimum wage to a living wage is gaining momentum. The reason for this is that the minimum wage in America no longer guarantees workers a decent life.

This paper examines the wage situation at McDonald’s and the attendant crisis. McDonald’s is one of the best-known American brands. The company happens to have a very poor reputation when it comes to employee wages.

In this context, this paper looks at the reasons behind the current push by McDonald’s and other large employers such as Wal-Mart to oppose the enactment of higher minimum wages in America, and the adoption of the living wage as the standard for measuring wages. The analysis will culminate in the development of recommendations for the management of the company on how to handle the current crisis.

Literature Review The starting point for the analysis is the consideration of definitions of compensation and benefits. Compensation refers to the money paid for rendering a service or for supplying goods. Compensation may be given in monetary terms, through access to certain privileges, or by through complementary services. On the other hand, benefits refer to a special class of compensation given to employees over and above the obligatory payment for services rendered.

Employee benefits vary from employer to employer. In some cases, benefits may be regulated by law. Employers use benefits as a means of differentiating themselves in competitive labor markets. One example of the benefits offered to employees to retain them is giving them stock options.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The History of McDonald’s McDonalds begun operations as a single store operated by the Richard McDonald Maurice McDonald. The brothers specialized in making hamburgers and based on their skills, they successfully opened a series of restaurants. The brothers focused on the delivery of fast food as swiftly as possible, as their source of competitive advantage. The restaurants soon differentiated themselves as fast food joints.

Ray Croc joined the company in 1955 as its franchising agent. His work was to sell the McDonald’s franchise to anyone interested in operating a McDonald’s café, provided he/she had the ability to meet all the franchise requirements. Later on Croc bought the business from the brothers and began an aggressive program of expanding the company. Currently the company serves an estimated 70 million clients annually, and has stores in 120 countries.

The company’s food production and service model were based on the production line techniques popularized by the motor industry. This included the use of a standardized model of production and developing the ability to deliver products of uniform quality in all McDonald’s stores.

The use of a mass production system meant that the company needed to employ many employees. The efficiency of the McDonald’s business systems also meant that the company needed only a relatively small number of skilled employees to manage the systems, and the low-level workers. The result was a large number of low skill workers, with the attendant low wages.

Current Compensation Challenges McDonalds has been in the limelight for several decades in regards to its paltry remuneration packages for most of its low-level employees. The term “McJobs” which refers to low paying, repetitive, and unfulfilling work that required no creativity and with very little chances of advancement came up. The employment situation is improving in America. This means that workers who could not find better paying jobs elsewhere can now find better jobs as the economy grows.

This puts McDonald’s at a disadvantage because it relies on low-level workers to meet its business objectives. Apart from this environmental threat, the company is also dealing with pressure from lobbyists who are advocating for the adoption of the living wage as the standard for the minimum wage. The living wage is the money required to support a family of four to meet expenses for food, transport, housing, and other essentials.

In the current economic climate, the living wage is about $13.50 to $15.00 per hour in America. This shows that the legal minimum wage is only about half of the living wage. Projections show that if McDonald’s started paying a living wage, it would need $8 billion to meet its wage obligations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Compensation and Benefits Challenges at McDonald’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This figure is equivalent the net profit the company posted in the last financial year. This shows that McDonald’s has very tough decisions to make in light of the impacts of either increasing or reducing the minimum wages. As long as McDonald’s is unable to match its lowest pay with the living wage, it will be difficult to shed off the reputation that led to the emergence of the term, “McJob”.

How Ford Handled Wage Problems Henry Ford was one in a similar situation to what McDonald’s finds itself today. His company had a very high rate of employee turnover that in order to retain 14,000 workers, he had to hire 50,000 workers. The turnover was due to various reasons. First, the company required the employees to work for nine hours per day. This was unbearable for some workers at a $2.5 hourly pay. Secondly, these workers could do other jobs for better pay or for better conditions.

Therefore, Ford found himself dealing with low employee morale and a very high rate of employee turnover. The problem of the turnover is that each time an employee left, the company needed to hire a replacement and to train him. The cost of training new employees was higher than the cost of maintaining experienced ones. Ford decided to double the minimum wage from $2.5 per hour to $5 per hour.

He pegged the extra $2.5 to certain conditions to ensure he would get full commitment from his remaining employees. The result of the pay hike was that some of the employees were now able to buy the cars, leading to an increase in the sales of the company. The most significant effect was that it led to increased productivity.

Potential Strategies for Handling Wage Problems McDonalds has some options for dealing with the current crisis. The first set of options is compensation based. In order to achieve greater employee motivation and lower turnover, the company must ensure that it has the best terms among its competitors. This means that the company should not struggle to meet the living wage standard if it is impossible to do it and remain profitable. Rather, it should ensure that its employees know that they have the best rates in the market.

There is greater flexibility when it comes to the benefits that the company can offer its employees as a means of dealing with the current crisis. The benefits should be aimed at increasing employee morale and increasing employee retention. One option is to develop in-service programs for its employees.

These programs should be given to employee groups who have the highest flight risk, and who need to further their skills. Other benefits worth considering include giving the employees opportunities to invest in the company, or investing with the help of the company.

Another approach that the company can use based on the human capital theory is to give its employees bonuses as a means of boosting their income, pegged on the performance of the company . This means that the company can institute bonuses tied to longevity of service in the company, as well as performance of an individual employee. This approach will ensure that the employees see the benefits of giving their best efforts to the company as well as staying with the company for a long time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Compensation and Benefits Challenges at McDonald’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, remuneration has a limited effect on employee motivation. Beyond a certain remuneration limit, the company will not achieve commensurate motivational gains. The implication of this situation is that the company needs to find other ways of motivating its workers apart from more pay. Once the pay package is competitive within the industry and the competing industries, then the company should find other ways of motivating the employees.

Implications of Literature The implications that arise from the literature reviewed are as follows. First, the competition for workers is not just within the fast food sub-sector. Low skill workers have a high rate of transferability as long as there are other lucrative openings. This means that the company is not just competing with its business rivals for workers. Its competitors in regards to talent acquisition include all industry segments that have jobs for unskilled or semi-skilled workers.

The company must analyze the competitive climate in employee recruitment in regards to the industries that need the same pool of workers as a basis for determining the pay levels that it should have. In other words, McDonald’s needs to know where its employees go after they leave, and the terms they find attractive. This will help in developing attractive in-house compensation packages.

The second implication that arises from the literature review is that a pay raise for low skilled workers is inevitable. Using the minimum wage as a guide for the lowest wages is unsustainable. The company must look at the options available for raising the pay of its workers. This should guide it in the efforts of developing a proactive plan to implement pay increases in the coming years.

The third implication arising from the literature is that the company needs to prepare itself for more pressure to raise wages. The pressure will come from lobbyists and from the government. Up to 70% of Americans support the call to increase the minimum wage to make it equal to the living wage.

This means that it is only a matter of time before politicians take not of public interest in the matter. With such certainty that the calls to raise the minimum wage are inevitable, the company needs to plan for how to remain ahead of the curve.

The fourth implication of the literature review is that the company has options concerning how to deal with high employee turnover and low morale. The company can increase compensation based on market conditions and based on its financial performance. Secondly, the company has the option increasing and diversifying the benefits that its employees enjoy to ensure that they do not leave.

This includes using in-service training to meet their need to increase their skills. The company can also open up investment opportunities for its employees in either the company, or its interests. The options listed here demonstrate that McDonald’s has many options on how to deal with this crisis.

The fifth implication of the literature review is that the company needs to deal with the reputation associated with the term McJob. This term is degrading to anyone who works for the company, and can be the basis for bad publicity. The McDonald’s brand should be associated with prosperity and a good life.

The term McJob makes it seem as though the company delivers its products at the expense of its employees. Customers can protest at this by avoiding McDonald’s stores because of this association. The company needs to do everything in its power to deal with the reputational risk associated with this term.

The literature reviewed did not reveal the company’s primary competitors for labor. This would have made it easier to develop recommendations in regards to how the company can handle the current crisis.

Recommendations to the Management The recommendations to the McDonald’s company management are as follows.

The company should take a proactive stance in regards to dealing with the issue of wages for its employees. Otherwise, the company will soon find itself under pressure from lobbyists and the government to increase employee wages.

The management of the company should work towards the development of measures to motivate employees in both monetary and non-monetary terms.

The company should not aim at meeting the living wage in the near term, but rather it should try to offer its employees better terms than its current competitors as it works towards meeting the living wage in the long term.

Conclusion The issue of a minimum wage versus a living wage is an interesting dimension in the development of remuneration packages. This case illustrates that the dream of lifting everyone out of poverty and dire economic circumstances is still a work in progress. There is still need to work out a way in which all citizens can enjoy a prosperous life.

Businesses are also in a dilemma between maximizing profits and offering their employees the best remuneration packages. There are answers to this problem. The solutions call for a clear direction in regards to compensation and benefits, followed by decisive action.

Reference List Ab Hamid, R. N. (2008). Consumers’ Behaviour Towards Internet Technology and Internet Marketing Tools. International Journal of Communications , 2 (3), 195-204.

Arson, E. W.,

[supanova_question]

Containerisation, International Transportation and Trade Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Origins and Development of Containerisation

Advantages of Containerisation

Impacts on International Transport and Trade Chains

Conclusion

References

Introduction Transportation has always been regarded as a crucial component of global commerce. For centuries, transportation managers and engineers had to use inefficient and expensive methods of transporting goods from one location to the other. This changed in the mid 1950s when the concept of modern containerisation was successfully implemented by an American entrepreneur. Since then, containerisation has led to a revolutionary change in the history of shipping technologies.

For these reasons, containerisation is hailed by many as the most significant and influential development in international transportation in modern times. This paper will set out to highlight the influences of containerisation with emphasis on the advantages that it has brought to trade. The paper will begin by providing a brief history of containerisation and its development over the years.

Origins and Development of Containerisation While there is no standard definition of containerisation, most definitions embody the idea of efficiency and the use of standard sized containers to carry goods. Strom (1972) defines containerisation as the idea of placing goods in relatively large box containers common to all modes of transportation and therefore increasing the ease of handling between origin and final destination.

Containerisation can trace its origins to the 1800’s when large ship operators used containers to protect cargo from seawater and the weather. Some railroad operators also offered services where wagons could be moved without transferring their contents (Lan

[supanova_question]

Social essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Major Contributors to the Field

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The field of public administration has been developed throughout decades. Various thinkers tried to identify the best structure and the role of public administration. Some of the most influential theorists are William F. Willoughby, Max Weber, Leonard D. White and Mary Parker Follett.

Major Contributors to the Field William F. Willoughby is one of the most prominent theorists who contributed greatly to the development of public administration. He thought that public administration could address all issues related to the government (Shafritz

[supanova_question]

Planning process in organization Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The business environment comprises of complex factors that require scrutiny before a decision is made concerning the environment. An organization must have a clear planning process in order to enhance its decision making. A clear planning process involves having an understanding of interrelated questions within a corporation.

Early organizational planning comprises of strategy drawing, where possible environmental occurrences are considered and an appropriate course of action is determined. Strategic planning seeks to maximize on the return of resources.

There is need to constantly devise a tactical approach through which objectives can be achieved since resources are limited and competition is high. Several theories enhance the decision making process in organizations. The success or failure of decision making either directly affects an organization through improved performance or worsens the overall performance.

Decisions require constant evaluation to enable an accurate and consistent appraisal. It helps in revealing existing gaps and determining their solutions to the benefit of the organization.

The business environment is continuously changing, thus keeping a close check through constant evaluation and re-evaluation provides the opportunity to identify gaps well in advance. An evaluation of decisions over time equally helps in identifying alternatives that enhance the organization’s ability to cushion against performance risks.

The Decision Making Process With the advent of globalization, market integration has been created through internationalization. Organizations, therefore, compete with each other for resources and market across the globe. Market consolidation and optimization must be achieved for organizations to succeed in such operation environments. Strategic flexibility must be created such that the organization can instantly change its course of action to suit an equally complex and fast changing business environment.

This is not an easy task because nobody fully understands what the external business environment will look like in the immediate future. Thus, although strategies may be formulated with the purpose of countering external environment changes, they may end up failing to capture the actual requirement needed to attain goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To build strategic flexibility, a long-term commitment is needed towards developing, as well as nurturing important critical resources. I will struggle to create a learning organization that offers room for development of great skill in creating, acquiring, as well as transferring knowledge. Behavior modification within the organization must be achieved in order to replicate insights and knowledge about its operations and environment.

Particular problems afflicting an organization will remain to be of great concern as a way of integrating the learning process successfully. I will carry out experiments with new approaches with a view of improving the current approach, reflect on history and past experiences in order to learn from them, and be able to quickly transfer knowledge throughout the organization in an easy manner.

Strategic management My strategic management will involve four important elements that include environmental scanning, strategy formulation, evaluation and control, and strategy implementation.

My strategic decisions will focus on the future of the organization, beginning with evaluation of the current performance results, review of the corporate governance, and inspection and review of the external environment. Equally, an internal evaluation and review of the corporate environment are critical before carrying out an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the organization.

After exhausting the above activities, I will generate alternative strategies before evaluating each one of them to come up with the best alternative. This precedes the implementation phase, which is finally followed by the evaluation process. Strategic audit involves a systematic analysis of areas that encounter issues, including a question checklist comprising of the numerous functions and activities of the organization.

Management and the Decision Process My decision making mandate will include executing four major functions. Other than leading the organization, I will lay out plans that will steer the firm ahead. My role will also aim at controlling the firm, as well as playing the role of organizing.

I will continuously undertake the decision making process, where I will evaluate alternatives in order to achieve the set objective. The existing expectations concerning a given course of action will push my decision making into settling for the course of action that would most likely lead to goal attainment.

We will write a custom Report on Planning process in organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I realize that as a manager, I will be operating in a highly uncertain environment that includes fluctuation in currency exchange, change in the political platform, and competitive actions, among many other aspects (De Bruijn, Heuvelhof

[supanova_question]

Issues Facing Trans People In Organizations Problem Solution Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Definition

Current Situation

Discussion and Recommendation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Majority of the people in the world embrace two genders; male and female. However, a small group of people in the society have a different opinion with regard to their gender with some believing themselves to be genderless or not belonging to any of the genders (Iyall, 2008). This is recognised as the third gender in the society. Research has shown that trans people in the society have, higher than average, academic qualifications compared to the rest.

Definition It is important to understand the definition of the several terms used in the description of the trans people in the society. Firstly, trans people defines a category of people who believe in having multiple or no genders (Whittle, 2000). Secondly, the trans people can also be defined as cross dressers as most of them prefer dressing with cloths from the opposite genders (Blackless, 2006).

Current Situation Research findings in the United Kingdom by the Endangered Penalties reveal that between 2009 and 2012, about three to five hundred thousand (300,000 to 500,000) people experienced a degree of gender variance (Gooren, 2008). Out of these, six thousand (6,000) have already undertaken a gender transition (Gooren, 2008).

The low number of individuals opting for reversal of their roles as compared to the high number of individuals with gender variations is attributed to stigmatization and alienation (Baranyi, 2009).

Although organizations have been in the front line in creating non-discriminating policies against sexual orientation, some organizations have not implemented such measures. Exxon Mobil Company is an example of a company that has amended its policies to ensure that none of its employees are trans gender. According to the company’s website, this is to protect its corporate image in the business society, as well as, protect its employees from discrimination.

Discussion and Recommendation Trans people are exposed to personal and sexual harassment in their work place settings. A very common case is where they are not allowed to use restrooms of their preferred gender (Whittle, 2000). They become subjects of discussion and endless gossip from their workmates.

These may wound their self esteem leading to the rise in conflicts cases as the trans people advocate for their rights. In some cases, employers deny the trans people their benefits and promotions on the basis of the gender variations. In addition, some end up losing their jobs after performing the transition surgery or after their bosses discover their condition of gender variation (Baranyi, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An organization that is keen on upholding the rights of trans people should review its employment procedures and policies. During the recruitment process, gender should not be used as a determinant for the candidates as this may have adverse effects on the trans people (Whittle, 2000). Organisations should also amend their policies to recognize the trans people as they too have the right to employment (Whittle, 2000).

Microsoft Corporation is one of the leading companies that has incorporated the Gender Recognition Act of 2004 into its policies. In 2011, Microsoft announced that it had incorporated 1,300 trans gender employees in most of its branches around the world. This prompted other companies to accept the trans gender employees such as Google and Apple, which have also incorporated the Gender Recognition Act of 2004 into their own management policies.

Conclusion Many people take their gender orientation lightly, which is not the case for the trans people who believe in gender sensitivity. When focusing on academic qualification, the trans people are considered to be highly qualified.

However, they suffer from high rates of unemployment that is escalated from stigmatization and alienation from employers and colleagues in work places. To cater for this, organizations should put in place procedures and policies that recognize the trans people; thus giving them equal employment opportunities.

Works Cited Baranyi, Rothenhäusler. “Male-to-female transsexualism. Sex reassignment surgery from a biopsychosocial perspective.” Wien Med Wochenschr 15.9 (2009): 548-557. Print.

Blackless, Sutter. “Atypical Gender Development-A Review.” International Journal of Transgenderism 9.1 (2006): 29-41. Print.

Gooren, Eliasson. “Long-term treatment of transsexuals with cross-sex hormones: extensive personal experience.” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 32.5 (2008): 19-25. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Issues Facing Trans People In Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Iyall, Smith. Hybrid identities: theoretical and empirical examinations, New York, NY: Penguin, 2008. Print.

Whittle, More. Reclaiming Genders: Transsexual Grammars at the Fin de Siecle, London, UK: Cassell, 2000. Print.

[supanova_question]

Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence in Different Areas Analytical Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction: Interest in EI

Defining the Concept

Major Components of EI

EI in Different Fields

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction: Interest in EI Emotional intelligence (EI) has been discussed for two decades so far. Stough et al. (2009) note that the interest in EI has increased recently and the concept of EI has been applied to a variety of fields including workplace, psychiatry, neuroscience, education, health, cross-culture and sport. For instance, Cassady and Boseck (2008) consider a variety of ways to apply the concept in psychology.

Brackett et al. (2011) also stress that researchers exploit the concept of EI in various areas and this usability has created a need in defining the concept. Notably, there are different approaches to defining EI as each definition addresses peculiarities of a particular field. Researchers also focus on different characteristics of EI. Remarkably, the most heated debate is concerned with use of EI in different areas.

Defining the Concept In the first place, it is necessary to note that the definitions provided by the researchers share the idea that EI is associated with people’s cognition and intelligence. Thus, Caruso (2008, p. 2) claims that, in terms of the ability model, EI is “a standard intelligence”, while according to Mayer-Salovey approach it is a form of the intelligence as “reasoning and thinking operate on emotional information”.

Gardenswartz et al. (2010) provide a more complete definition which addresses the issues concerning diversity. The researchers claim that EI is “the ability to feel, understand, articulate, manage, and apply the power of emotions to interactions across lines of difference” (Gardenswartz et al., 2010, p. 76).

Clearly, the definitions focus on the same characteristic of EI, i.e. the ability to perceive certain kind of information. The major distinctive feature of EI is that it is concerned with emotions, unlike the intelligence which is associated with processing facts and stimuli.

Major Components of EI Researchers claim that EI is complex and consists of a number of components. Wharam (2009) stresses that acceptance and awareness are some of the major parts of EI. The researcher emphasises that it is crucial to be able to recognise and accept one’s emotions to be able to control them. Hughes et al. (2011) also point out that acceptance is essential, but the researchers bring to the fore fifteen ‘competencies’ of EI.

Thus, the researchers claim that EI is impossible without self-regard, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, independence, self-actualisation, empathy, social responsibility, interpersonal relationships, stress tolerance, impulse control, reality testing, flexibility, problem solving, optimism and happiness (Hughes et al., 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cleraly, Hughes et al. (2011) and Wharam (2009) share the opinion that awareness and acceptance are central to EI. However, the former provide a more complete set of EI components.

EI in Different Fields As has been mentioned above, EI is rather well-defined and researched. It has also been considered in terms of its usability in various settings. For instance, Barbey et al. (2012) focus on the use of EI in neuroscience. The researchers argue that EI can be measured and studied as any other type of intelligence, e.g. with the help of tests similar to IQ tests. Cassady and Boseck (2008) note that the concept of EI has a variety of implications in psychology.

Numerous researchers focus on development of certain strategies to develop EI in patients. Importantly, the use of EI in education has become a topic of a lasting debate. Thus, Waterhouse (2006) stresses that the theory of EI is still only yet to be researched properly and it can be harmful to implement it in education. The researcher claims that educators are not ready to teach children emotional intelligence as even the theory has far too many gaps.

At the same time, Colverd and Hodgkin (2011) are optimistic about EI and provide a number of strategies to develop emotional intelligence in primary school students. The researchers stress that children should be taught to cope with various situations and well-developed EI will help them do it. The researchers also claim that children should start being aware of their emotions at an early age.

Hughes et al. (2011) also believe that people can and should be taught to develop their EI. The researchers also provide particular strategies to help people develop EI. Notably, the researchers help people apply their skills in a variety of settings (every-day life, workplace, etc.). Brackett et al. (2011) consider the application of EI in workplace and social life. Admittedly, development of EI is now regarded as one of the ways to become a successful member of the society.

Conclusion On balance, it is possible to state that emotional intelligence is one of the most disputed issues in the academic world. Researchers are trying to define, describe and apply EI in various settings. Notably, there are opponents to the extensive use of the theory of EI as some researchers argue that there are too many gaps yet to be filled.

Nonetheless, it is clear that there is already certain understanding of what emotional intelligence is and how to use it in different settings. Admittedly, further research is needed to be sure that the strategies which are being worked out are effective.

We will write a custom Essay on Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence in Different Areas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Barbey, A.k., Colom, R., and Grafman, J. (2012). Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping. Retrieved from https://www.decisionneurosciencelab.org/pdfs/Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci-2012-Barbey-scan_nss124.pdf

Brackett, M.A., Rivers, S.E., and Salovey, P. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Implications for personal, social, academic, and workplace success. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(1), 88-103.

Caruso, D.R. (2008). Emotions and the ability model of emotional intelligence. In Emmerling, R.J., Shanwal, V.K., and Mandal, M.K. (Eds.). Emotional intelligence: Theoretical and cultural perspectives (pp. 1-16). New York, NY: Nova Publishers.

Cassady, J.C., and Boseck, J.J. (2008). Educational psychology and emotional intelligence: Toward a functional model for emotional information processing in schools. In Cassady, J.C., and Eissa, M.A. (Eds.). Emotional intelligence: Perspectives from educational and positive psychology (pp. 3-25). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Colverd, S.,

[supanova_question]

Business Strategy: Clipboard tablet Co. Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Overture The Clipboard tablet Co. has been selling three tablet models namely: X5, X6 and X7 for the past 5 years. The company’s organizational analysis through the use of CVP analysis shows the development of certain strategies aimed at making the company competitive.

As the company moves into the future, there is a need to review strategies deployed in the past to move the company into the future. As a result, this report intends to analyze past strategies used in time warp 4 and 5 to come up with a conclusive strategy for the future.

Analysis Clipboard Tablet Co., in the year 2016, will have two models of tablets for sale in the market. This is because the company will have to come up with a new tablet model, which will most likely be the X8. This tablet model will aim at replacing the X5 and X6 models which will be phased out because of changing market dynamics. Based on the past CVP analysis and strategies deployed within time warp 3, we notice certain aspects of the company that will be greatly affected and reviewed as follows:

Product Development

In the process of undertaking CVP analysis under time warp 3, we notice that sales units of X5 and X6 phones were on the decline since the year 2012. These tablet models were performing dismally compared to the newly introduced tablet model of X7. The CVP analysis results indicated that the sales and popularity of the X5 and X6 models were declining and thus there was a need for development of a new tablet model.

Finances and resources used in the development of the old X5 and X6 models would be channelled into the development of new products. This is because the popularity and demand of the old models have been sluggish. For instance, in SLP 3 during the CVP analysis, we notice that the demand for X6 tablet dropped by 50% from the year 2013 to 2014 (Drury, 2011).

As a result, the company should develop a new clone model or a new tablet in order to recover sales lost through the dwindling sales of the X5 and X6 models. The tablet industry is a highly competitive and technological industry and therefore, trends do change swiftly and easily.

As a result, Clipboard tablet Co. needs to change its product line swiftly to meet with the changes occurring in the industry (Stice, 2010). Product development should be a priority in this industry and the company needs to come up with the new tablets to replace its ageing product line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Revenues

Under SLP 4, the Clipboard Tablet Co.’s major strategy was to increase revenues in order to meet market demand and organizational goals. In terms of revenue increase, the company was advised to reduce expenditure and costs on X5 and X6 models, so as to price the tablets at a lower cost for consumers to purchase it.

Moreover, additional costs and finances should be dedicated to the marketing and sale of the X7 model so that the tablet can contribute significantly to the revenues of the company. Coming up with different pricing models will ensure that the company gets the best price for its tablets. For instance, due to increased demand, the company should increase the sale price for its X7 model and lower the prices for its ageing models of X5 and X6 tablets.

It is imperative that the company is shielded from unnecessary losses that occur due to loss making products (Cafferky, 2010). As a result, the company should cut down on its costs and increase costs only when revenue increases. Under SLP3, we noticed that the company’s revenue were declining at a fast pace compared to expenditure of the company. As a result, the company needs to undertake a lot of cost cutting measures.

For instance, in the year 2012, the company had expenditures to the tune of $ 546mn while revenues were $ 1.32bn. The same trend was witnessed in 2013, when the company spent around $ 664mn while the revenues of the company stood at $ 1.32bn.

Finances

The Company spent a lot of money on the development and production of the three tablets. For instance, in the year 2012, the company spent over $ 700mn as operational costs. The profits for 2012 stood at over $ 400mn and this figure did not change drastically in the year 2013 as profits stood at $ 356mn. The R

[supanova_question]

Analysis of Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops Case Study college application essay help

The industry in which Whole Foods Market operates is very competitive. It is a fact that this firm has managed this competition very well by creating a niche in the market and developing special products for this niche. However, it is important for the management to realize that success is a process that requires an understanding of the prevailing conditions and making relevant changes whenever this is necessary.

The environment has been very dynamic due to various changes brought about by various forces. The market is heavily affected by political, economic, social and technological forces which continue to change quite often. According to Kratschmer (2011), technology has changed various factors in the production process, their transportation and marketing strategies.

There has also been a change in the political leadership in this country. The changing socioeconomic factors in the United States also have direct impact on the operations of this firm. For the firm to be successful, it must find a way through which it can respond to these forces in a way that would help it become stronger than its competitors in the market.

This organization must be able to learn new better ways and identify opportunities in the market by having a system that would relay a feedback about various forces in the market. This paper involves analyzing Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops and organizational learning opportunities. This research study will focus on the reinforcing loop and balancing loop that play off within this firm to enhance its growth.

Reinforcing Loop According to Spulber (2007), reinforcing loop mostly take place without the knowledge of the relevant stakeholders. This scholar says that there are some effects that have a compounding impact when they are allowed to take place. Reinforcing loop can have a positive or negative impact on a firm depending on its nature.

This scholar says that this effect may start mildly that the management may not realize. It may come to their knowledge when it is too late or when the effect has created massive impact. At Whole Foods Market, this has been witnessed. The growth of market share of this firm may be considered as a reinforcing loop. Whole Foods Market was founded in 1980 by John Mackey.

When he started this firm, Mackey did not have a lot of resources to fight the giant firms that had already developed in the market by that time. However, this entrepreneur knew what the market wanted and was determined to offer exactly that. According to Morecroft (2007), it is always more difficult to retain customers than it is to make them have their first purchase.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because there are cases where a customer would be left with no choice but to make a purchase at the store because of limited choices. Other customers would also be interested in making their first purchase on the basis of their curiosity. However, retaining a customer requires a deep understanding of the market, and the ability of the concerned firm to convince the market that what it offers is the best.

The growth of the market share can be attributed to the dedication that the management and employees of this firm had towards satisfying their customers. It was mentioned that a reinforcing loop has a compounding effect. It actually works in the same manner as interest and principal. As the rate of interest increases, so will the principal. The increased interest will be added to the principal who will in turn increase the interest. If this circle is not put to an end, the principal will massively increase.

This is the same thing that has been happening with the market share of this firm. At first, Whole Foods Market did not have a solid customer base that it could consider loyal. However, the management did not focus on growing its market share.

The management and all the employees focused on offering value to the customers whenever they visited their outlet. The management was keen to understand market needs and offer products which meet their needs. As they did this, a virtuous cycle was being created.

A customer who got satisfied with the service of the firm would become a loyal customer of Whole Foods Market. Their loyalty would not stop with making regular purchase at this store. The customers would invite other customers to come and share the thrilling experience at this firm. One of the factors that attracted customers to this firm was their conviction towards delivering products that are healthy to consumers and their insistence on protecting the health of their patients.

One customer would invite another, the invited customer would invite another and the chain would continue. Although the management of this firm used advertising to market their brand and product offering in the market, one of the main factors that propelled this firm towards its current success was the evangelism that its customers involved in after making a purchase from its stores.

This reinforcing loop effect has also enabled this firm expand rapidly in the European market. This is a confirmation to ABC Company that Whole Foods Market is a firm that is destined for more success in future.

We will write a custom Case Study on Analysis of Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Balancing Loop According to Dettmer (2007), balancing loop is always very important towards ensuring that a firm grows in the market. In an organization, growth is only common when the management can set a desired goal that should be achieved within a particular time. Setting a new stated- also referred to as the desired state- involves a number of activities. It always starts by understanding the current state of the organization. It is only possible to set a desired state when the current state is known.

When this is done, it would then need the concerned authority to determine the desired state. This would mean that the management would create a gap between the current state and the desired state. When this is done, then there will be the movement from the current state to the desired state in a bid to eliminate the gap created. Several factors have happened within this organization that can trace their development through balancing loop.

However, one of the striking factors has been goal setting and the behavior that always accompanies this. There has been a massive controversy over the health effects of genetically modified foods. A section of the market believes that genetically modified foods are very safe for consumption, while the other section believes that such foods are very harmful in the long run.

The management of Whole Foods Market has been concerned with this issue. In 2010, the management of this firm started a research into this issue with an aim of coming up with a finding that would help determine the right path that this firm should take. The report was finally compiled on March 2013. In this report, the team tasked with this function first defined the current state of this firm.

The team realized that there are some states where Whole Foods Market was stocking genetically modified foods while in others it did not. It all depended on the laws of that particular state and the general perception of the public towards these foods. The next step was to determine the desired state.

The team realized that the desired state was not to eliminate the genetically modified foods from their stores, but to label them as a way of alerting the customers that what they are buying is genetically modified.

The management realized that for this to be achieved, there had to be a change of attitude of employees towards genetically modified foods. Originally, the firm had created a culture where people within this firm believed that genetically modified food was not good.

This attitude had to change in order to achieve a change of behavior of the employees towards this type of food. To achieve this, the management launched an internal awareness campaign to help employees change their behavior towards genetically modified foods.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The desired state was to change the behavior of the employees towards genetically modified foods in order to convince them that these foods could be sold to customers who considered them good for consumption. The only responsibility of this firm would be to inform its customers that they were genetically modified. This change of attitude of the employees has helped this firm achieve its goals in the market.

References Dettmer, H. (2007). The logical thinking process: A systems approach to complex problem solving. Milwaukee: ASQ Quality Press.

Kratschmer, P. (2011). Organizational Culture is Highly Resistant to Change. New York: GRIN Verlag.

Morecroft, J. (2007). Strategic modeling and business dynamics: A feedback systems approach. Chichester: Wiley

[supanova_question]

Analysis of Whole Foods Market using Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Performance of Whole Foods Market at the Organizational Level

Performance of Whole Foods Market at Group Level

Performance of Whole Foods Market at Individual Level

References

Introduction Whole Foods Markets has been very successful, and the previous analysis has shown that this firm has the capacity to increase its productivity if it continues with its current positive trend. According to Coulter (2009), it is possible to determine if a firm is on the right path by analyzing its current strategies and future plans. It is apparent that Whole Foods Market has a management that has mastered the market trends.

This firm has shown a strong indication that it has a capacity to meet the expectations of the market in a special way, making it one of the most preferred firms in this industry. However, for ABC company to be sure that Whole Foods Market is a firm worth investing in, it must have a detailed analysis of the firm. It must go beyond a simple analysis of the current market share and productivity of the firm.

This is because there are cases where a firm may exaggerate its capacity in order to attract investors. In other cases, management would create a scenario where investors would believe that the firm has a large market share while in real sense that may not be true.

For this reason, it is always important to have a surety of the real capacity of the firm by using all possible tools. In this study, the researcher will continue analyzing Whole Foods Market using Nadler- Tushman Congruence Model. This tool will help in analyzing the output of this firm in the market and the congruence of different performance elements.

Performance of Whole Foods Market at the Organizational Level According to Richardson (2006), when analyzing the performance of an organization, care should always be taken to determine some of the factors that are indicators of performance. For instance, an analysis of performance can be conducted to determine the output of a firm. The output can help determine the performance of an organization.

It is also possible to determine the profitability of the firm without putting emphasis on productivity. Others may also want to determine this performance by analyzing the productivity of factors of production. In this case, the analysis will be done on the output of the organization.

Whole Foods Market is one of the leading grocery outlets and has positioned itself as a provider of healthy foods. The main goal of this firm has been to provide its customers with food considered healthy at reasonable prices and to increase its market share in this niche in the United States and Europe. The management of this firm realized that with the emergent of many diseases associated with unhealthy eating, the middle and upper class members of the society are becoming conscious of what they eat.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These two groups, which make the main market share of this firm, have been looking for foods considered as healthy. This is what this firm has set to deliver in the market. Considering the productivity of this firm, it is true that there is high congruence between the output of this firm and the set goals.

According to Anderson (2012), Whole Foods Market is one of the supermarkets that are trusted in the United States to offer foodstuffs that are recommended by doctors for their health benefits. For instance, some of the leading supermarkets in the United States have been stocking genetically modified foods despite the controversy that surrounds such foods. Whole Foods Market has jeopardized its profitability by avoiding such foods in its stores in most of the states in this country.

For the states that have supported such foods, this supermarket has been keen to label its products in order to make its consumers aware of what it is providing. This has helped the firm develop a strong trust with the customers. It is an assurance that this firm cannot sell products considered harmful to its customers.

The congruency between the output and the goal of the firm can be attributed to the achieved congruency of its culture and structure. The management has created a culture where foods considered as unhealthy are shunned from the stores of this firm. It has made everyone to believe that stocking unhealthy foods is an equivalent to direct attack on their highly valued customers. This culture emphasizes on the long lasting relationship between the firm and its customers.

Selling to them food that may put them at risk would be like sending them away from the firm. This culture is highly congruent with the structure within the firm. The shelves at this firm do not stock food considered unhealthy as they have been struck off from the list of inventories.

The management has also set up a system where all the stocks are tested to determine if they are in the right condition for consumption. This has earned this firm a great admiration in the market because customers have come to believe that Whole Foods Market is not just focused on profit generation, but also on the well-being of its customers.

Performance of Whole Foods Market at Group Level An analysis of Whole Foods Market can be done from a number of fronts. According to Nadler (1977), there are different groups that exist in an organization, and care should always be taken when selecting the groups. This scholar says that within an organization, the groups can be selected based on the managerial level. In this case, there will be three groups which include the top management, middle management and the junior employees.

We will write a custom Case Study on Analysis of Whole Foods Market using Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whole Foods Market has a clear structure of leadership which can be analyzed. Another approach can be on the basis of the departments within the organization. In this case, the departments can be finance, marketing, procurement and logistics, production, research and extension among other departments. For a firm with global coverage, the groups can be considered as the regions in which the firm operates. In the case of Whole Foods Market, this can be the United States and European markets.

In this case, the groups will be taken as the managerial units. As was mentioned earlier, this will give three groups, which are the top management, middle management and junior employees. It is important to analyze the output of these three groups and determine how congruent they are with the organizational goals.

The top management of this firm is responsible for making policies that help in running the organization. Besides making these policies, they have the responsibility to ensure that these policies are applied successfully within the firm in order to yield the desired result. The top management therefore, has the responsibility of making the middle managers understand these policies in order to make their implementation a reality.

The output of the top management can be considered to be highly congruent with the goals of the firm. This is because it has managed to develop policies that would ensure that Whole Foods Market continue to deliver quality healthy products in the market without overemphasizing on instant profitability.

This output is demonstrated in the continuous delivery of healthy food by this firm in a market where other firms are focused on quick profitability.

The second group of middle managers has also managed to give an output that is congruent with the goals of the firm. According to Nadler (1977), the middle managers are always very important in the implementation of policies. They are responsible for making non management employees implement policies that are formulated by the top management.

Their output has been congruent to the goals of this firm to the extent that this group has been able to influence actions of the junior employees towards achieving the objectives of the firm. The middle managers have worked closely with the top managers and junior employees to ensure that there is smooth information flow from top managers to the employees and from employees to the top management.

The third group has been the junior employees. These are the ambassador of Whole Foods Market. When a customer visits an outlet of this firm, it is the junior employees who will serve them. The customers and junior employees are always in constant contact and the impression given by these employees would be taken as a reflection of the entire firm. This group’s output has been marvelous. Junior employees have been working closely to ensure that they meet the set objectives of the firm.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Whole Foods Market using Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They know that the firm is focused on delivering healthy food to the customers. To achieve this, the employees have been keen on inspecting the shelves to ensure that products stocked are in good shape. They have also been very active in various other assignments which have helped this firm attain a positive image in the market.

Performance of Whole Foods Market at Individual Level The output at individual level within this firm has been congruent with the goals of this firm. The firm has employed performance contract at individual level in order to determine the output of the employees. The performance contract has been developed in line with the goals of this firm. This means that every individual within this firm must appreciate the need to achieve a particular goal in order to help the firm achieve its overall goal.

From the top management to the junior most employees, there is a clear task that is assigned to them, and an output set that should be realized after a given period. The performance is always determined at the end of the financial year. This has helped improve the overall performance of this firm because every individual works hard to achieve the set goals.

By developing specific output for every employee, it has become possible for this firm to align the objectives of individual employees to that of the entire organization. Achieving this congruency between goals of individual employees and that of the firm has helped Whole Foods Market meet its objectives in the market with a lot of ease.

References Anderson, D. L. (2012). Organization development: The process of leading organizational change. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Coulter, M. (2009). Strategic Management in Action. New York: Pearson Higher Education.

Nadler, D. (1977). A congruence model for diagnosing organizational behavior. New York: Columbia University, Graduate School of Business.

Richardson, M. E. (2006). Organizational diagnosis: Using the congruence model as the theoretical framework in a complex organization. New York: Wiley

[supanova_question]

Weekly Journal: Public Administration Compare and Contrast Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Major Theorists

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Public administration focuses on the functioning of public service and its relations with people. Numerous theorists analyzed different facets of public administration and contributed greatly to the development of the discipline. Thus, Wilson, Goodnow, Addams and Taylor are some of the most influential theorists who made a profound contribution to the development of the public administration.

Major Theorists Woodrow Wilson is one of the most influential theorists in public administration. He believed it was crucial to divide administration from politics (Shafritz

[supanova_question]

Talent Management Strategy: TriStar Logistics Evaluation Essay essay help

TriStar Logistics distinguishes the need to make appropriate plans in advance its staff and the collective expertise that is involved. The commitment of the company focuses on developing the full potential of individual employees so that they may attain their own career aspirations, while maximizing on the value that TriStar Logistics offers to its clientele.

Objectives of the ‘Talent Management Strategy’ We will see to it that only the very best personnel is employed and retained at Tri-Star Logistics. This will be of great benefit to the company. We also intend to have the guarantee that TriStar Logistics’ clients will receive the greatest benefit out of being served by the top quality skills and talent that can be found in the market.

We intend to enhance the commitment of our employees by availing to them numerous opportunities in order that their own career goals and aspirations can be fulfilled (Armstrong, 2008).

The significant positions and roles in the organization shall be staffed with the necessary staff, and TriStar Logistics shall continuously seek to achieve positive transformation by strictly adhering to the set out employment equity goals. The strategy shall target to offer a channel through which internal skills and talents can be developed such that the future human resource can be achieved by way of internal promotions.

The Key Components of the Talent Management Tri-Star seeks to achieve a strategic recognition as an “Employer of Choice”. The company will achieve this status by undertaking effective branding, remunerating its employees competitively, and achieving leadership in its operations. The company will physically demonstrate this commitment by targeting to list itself among the leading 15 Best Employer Companies competition.

Roles and positions at TriStar Logistics will strictly be filled in a fair and transparent manner, while adhering to the equitable processes of employment set out by the company. A clear success criterion will define the entire mission’s critical positions at the company, on the basis of which decisions on appointment will be made.

Assessing the suitability of people to determine their potential to work in specific roles and positions will rely on much information in order to highlight on our objective measures (Ensley et al, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People having unique and important skills will follow through a career path where technical specialty will be involved. However, decisions on this will be arrived at based on individual employer’s skills and intended aspirations.

Personal learning plans will be established for all the key staff, with the main objective being to facilitate their current performance and increase their ability to handle future obligations (Armstrong, 2008). A formal monitoring mechanism will be established as a way of ensuring full implementation of the decisions.

Key employees who possess critical leadership potential will be offered the opportunity to serve in different roles in order that they may build a broader experience. Consistency will be achieved in potential evaluation by establishing panels that will act as the formal structure (Silzer

[supanova_question]

Fire Safety in the Health Care System Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Abstract It is critical for all healthcare facilities to have in place an intact fire alarm and sprinkler systems. Healthcare facilities are at a greater risk of experiencing fire incidences because of the highly inflammable substances that are used in hospital laboratories. Automatic fire alarm systems have either smoke or heat detectors that sense the presence of the smoke and heat respectively and sound the alarm to alert occupants to evacuate.

They are connected to the fire department, where the alarm signal is simultaneously sent for immediate response. Fire detectors must be located in all the areas of the hospital to enhance their effectiveness. Sirens, bells, or horns can relay the alarm signal, and need to be strategically located in the hospital where the signals can be heard or seen with ease. The sprinkler system should also be automatic in its response to fire outbreaks. The automation is effected by the valve ends at each pipe opening.

The valves are made of heat-sensitive materials. In the presence of heat, the valves expand and the water contained in the pipes is released immediately. Sprinkler systems should at all times have water within the pipe networks. The system is highly effective as only valves near the heat will open up to release water, while the others will remain intact.

The fire safety system should be constantly checked to repair damages and failures. Workers in the healthcare facility must also have appropriate training on how to react in the event of a fire outbreak. Trainings should also involve informing workers on ways of reducing fire accidents within the facility.

Introduction Health care facilities, just like any other institutions and facilities require proper arrangements and systems in place to help cushion them from the threat of fire outbreaks. Healthcare institutions often include laboratory tasks, which involve working with flammable liquids as well as other hazardous substances.

These conditions and substances of operations increase fire threats faced by the institutions. This paper seeks to discuss fire safety within the healthcare system, with particular focus on alarms and sprinkler systems that are used to enhance safety.

Discussion of Subject Fire Alarm System

A fire alarm system installed within a healthcare facility must be able to accomplish the four most important functions or reactions. Firstly, it should be able to detect fire presence. Once the detection is done, it should accomplish the rest of the obligations, which include notifying the occupants, notifying the fire department, as well as be able to perform other safety functions such as releasing the magnetically held smoke doors (Gagnon, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fire detection mechanism of the alarm system mainly uses special smoke or heat detectors. The specially designed heat detector will sense the development almost immediately when the heat within the vicinity of a healthcare facility increases as a result of fire outbreak.

The smoke detectors also operate in the same fashion, whereby they sense when smoke fills the area. Smoke detectors must be placed on some raised location, possibly on the ceiling, to be able to speedily detect smoke in the event of a fire incident.

Fire alarm systems can either be designed using ionization smoke detectors or photoelectric smoke detectors. Healthcare facilities should consider using alarm systems made of both types of detectors because they assure greater safety for the patients (Solomon, 2013). This suggestion is based on the fact that ion detectors have a faster sensing ability of a flaming fire, while photoelectric detectors are highly efficient in detecting smoldering fire.

It is important that both types of detectors are installed to ensure maximum security and safety because a healthcare facility is at risk of facing any of the two fire types (Solomon, 2013). The location of the fire detectors on the healthcare facility should be done such that a greater area is covered in order to increase their efficiency in operations.

Notifying Occupants

Once the effective heat and smoke detectors sense the presence of a fire, the fire alarm system should produce enough sound as a means of attracting the attention of occupants. This signals the fact that an evacuation mission is necessary. Several apparatus can be used to relay the alarm situation, either simultaneously or separately.

These apparatus include sirens, horns, bells, as well as stroboscopic lights together with speakers. The sound and visual alert appliances are equally of great importance as the fire detectors. In essence, their location should also be as strategic as possible in order for everyone within the facility, and in some instances even those in the vicinity, to be alerted of the impending danger.

The system also automatically notifies the fire department. This should be done as speedily as possible in order to minimize any damages or losses that may result from the fire (Mills

[supanova_question]

Sport Governance Issue Report (Assessment) cheap essay help

Professional sports and the use of performance enhancing substances has been a matter of the more recent times. A larger number of major events have special committees that check for any illegal drugs taken by athletes, but sometimes, there are controversies that require a much closer look.

Even though it might seem that it is players or athlete’s personal decision to intake any illegal substance, the case of Essendon illustrates that players are not always directly involved or motivated to break regulations.

Essendon and its players are one example of a case where many factors have played a role in the matter. The ASADA has started an investigation of an intake of illegal substance by the coach and the football team. The primary issue pertains to the laws and regulations in accordance with other teams and organizations (Glory

[supanova_question]