Introduction Firms are established with the goal of maximizing the level of their profitability. However, the attainment of this goal might be subject to diverse macro environmental changes. For example, the intensity of competition may shrink a firm’s profitability potential. Additionally, changes in the economic environment may affect the consumers’ purchasing power.
Despite these market dynamics, managers should have an obligation to ensure that their businesses attain an optimal market position, which highlights the significance of adopting effective strategic management practice.
One of the aspects that managers should consider in an effort to promote their firms’ competitive advantage relates to pricing. Caplin and Leahy (80) argue that a significant proportion of firms have not incorporated pricing in their strategic framework. Therefore, the prices of their products are based on naive pricing rules.
Price is a critical component that organizational managers should consider in their effort to influence the consumers’ decision-making process. Choi, Kiljae, and Yong-Yeon (603) emphasize that consumers are very sensitive to price. Despite their level of sensitivity, the consumers’ purchasing decision is motivated by the need to maximize their level of utility.
This aspect underscores why firms should adopt an optimal pricing format in order to attract and retain customers, hence increasing the profit maximization potential. This paper evaluates the concept of pricing format by focusing on the odd and even pricing formats.
Moreover, the relevant theories that support the two pricing formats are also assessed. In this study, it is assumed that the price ending strategy does not communicate the quality of the product.
Literature review Analysis
Previous studies have led to the development of different theories in an effort to explain consumer behaviors. Some of these theories include the prospect, expected utility, and the cumulative prospect theories.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The expected utility theory
This theory postulates that consumers face risky prospects and uncertainties in their purchasing decision-making process. The risky outcomes emanate from the view that they are faced by a wide range bundles of goods and services from which they are required to select. Thus, their decision-making process is undertaken by assessing the expected utility values, which refers to the degree of consumer preference.
Consequently, if the utility of product A is greater than that of product B [U (A)>U (B)], then the consumer will prefer product A to B. Under conditions of uncertainty, the consumers’ choice is based on the expected utility, which is a summation of all possible (n) utilities with regard to the various outcomes (Oi).The model below illustrates the formula of the expected utilities.
Source: (Caplin and Leahy 65).
The prospect theory
This theory emphasizes the psychological component of consumer choice. The theory is based on the element of uncertainity in the consumers’ purchasing process. The theory contends that consumers follow two main stages in making decisions involving risky options. The first phase is characterized by editing or simplification of the situation faced by assesing the associated gains and losses.
For example, the decision to purchase a car worth $ 20,000 may be simplified into gaining the automobile and losing the $ 20,000. However, the process of simplifying the purchase decision varies from one situation to another. This aspect means that the prospect is influenced by the situational circumstances.
Caplin and Leahy (63) assert that the consumers’ purchasing decision is based the edited prospects. Subsquently, the process followed in editing the prospects is fundamental in determining the consumers’ purchasing decision.
The second phase entails making a choice on the most effective options available. The choice of the edited options is influenced by the weight and the apparent value of the options.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Odd and Even Pricing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consumers select the option that has the highest combined value. Therefore, the prospect theory emphasizes the importance of establishing a reference point. According to the prospect theory, the value of a particular product is determined by comparing with that of another.
The cumulative prospect theory
This theory is an improvement of the expected utility theory. Nielson and Stowe (31) assert that this theory is comprized of three critical components. The first component entails the value function, which takes into account the gains associated with selecting a particular product. The second component entails the loss aversion function.
Nielson and Stowe assert that the loss aversion function “tranforms utilities over gains into utilities over corresponding losses” (32). Under this function, consumers are risk seeking over losses and risk averse over gains. The third component entails the weighing function. According to the cumulative prospect theory, consumers are more concerned about losses than gains associated with purchasing a particular product.
Furthermore, the cumulative prospective theory asserts that consumers have diverse risk attitude. The following model describes the cumulative prospect theory of a risky outcome, where p= probability, v= the value function, w= weighing function, and F (x) is the cumulative probabilities all values up to x.
Source: (Caplin and Leahy 65)
Pricing formats Marketers are cognizant of the view that effective product pricing plays a fundamental role in maximizing revenue, and hence the level of profitability. Furthermore, marketers have the capacity to influence the consumers’ purchasing decision by adopting effective pricing strategies. One of the marketing strategies that have extensively been utilized by marketers is psychological pricing strategy.
The decision to adopt this pricing strategy arises from the need to “appeal the consumers’ emotions and perceptions in their purchase decision-making process” (Chovancova 29). In addition, Chovancova asserts that the consumers’ decision to buy a “particular product is based on the perception of the price point set by marketers rather than the actual money price” (29).
Chovancova further emphasizes that customers “react diffently if the price is broken into parts or the product or service is bundled with other items” (29). Therefore, it is imperative for marketers to take into account the consumers’ perceptions in setting the price point.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Odd and Even Pricing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Odd and even pricing formats Choi, Li, Priyamvadha, Promothesh, and Surendra (1) define odd-end pricing as a price setting strategy whereby the price of a product is set a few cents below the rounding end counterpart. Examples of odd-end pricing include $3.99 and $3.95, which is just below $4.00. On the other hand, even pricing strategy, refers to a pricing strategy whereby the price point of a product is set at a whole number, for example $4.
Even-end pricing strategy is not as attractive amongst retailers as compared to odd-end pricing. This assertion arises from the view that even-end pricing is not effective in enhancing market communication, hence its ineffectiveness in influencing the consumers’ purchasing decision (Choi, Li, Priyamvadha, Promothesh, and Surendra 2).
Odd-end pricing is one of the most common psychological pricing strategies amongst marketers. Findings of previous studies show that the probability of consumers purchasing products whose prices end with a 9 is higher as compared to products whose prices end with 0, for example $ 99.99 versus $ 100.00 (Choi, Li, Priyamvadha, Promothesh, and Surendra 1).
However, the effectiveness of odd-end pricing varies between utilitarian and hedonic produts. Hedonic products mainly incude luxuries while utilitarian products refer to the necesities.
Choi, Li, Priyamvadha, Promothesh, and Surendra (1) are of the opinion that odd-ending pricing is more effective in influencing the consumers’ decision to purchase hedonic products as compared to utilitarian products. Consumers consider odd-end pricing as a way of communicating the price discount being offered.
Consumers develop the perception that purchasing a product whose price is set using odd-end pricing is equivalent to recieving a price discount of the amount subtracted from the nearest whole number. Thus, odd-end pricing is effective in communicating the unexpected gains associated with purchasing the product.
Choi, Li, Priyamvadha, Promothesh, and Surendra assert that odd-end pricing “is characterized by a high degree of pursuasiveness of gain-framed versus loss-framed messages” (3). Additionally, Choi, Li, Priyamvadha, Promothesh, and Surendra (2) assert that odd-end pricing plays a fundamental role in stimulating the demand for a product.
According to Schindler (Relative price level 245), odd-end pricing communicates low price to consumers. Retailers are increasingly exploiting rightmost digits in an effort to indicate the competitiveness of their products to consumers.
Schindler (The 99 price ending 74) is of the opinion that odd-end pricing has a positive effect on a firm’s revenue. The effectiveness of odd-end pricing arises from the view that this pricing strategy is effective in communicating a positive image regarding the price of the product to consumers.
Schindler and Kibarian (95) are of the view that using odd-end pricing is likeliy to minimize price sensitivity amongst consumers.
Furthermore, odd-end pricing communicates that consumers are not likely to find the product being sold at another outlet at a price lower than the price being offered. Therefore, the 99 ending pricing strategy is the most effective in communicatig the strongest expectations of recieving a product at a low price.
Relationship between price ending and consumer choice theory
According to the prospect theory, the consumers’ choice of a product is based on a reference point. This assertion means that consumers are faced by a bundle of goods from which they are required to select the product that will result in utility maximization. Despite the view that consumers aim at maximizing utility, they are constrained by their budget.
Consequently, they tend to select a bundle of goods that results in maximum utility. The use of odd-end pricing such as the 9-ending communicates that the retailer is issuing a discount to the consumer. Therefore, the consumer develops the perception that purchasing a product with odd-end pricing will enhance the likelihood of achieving the expected level of utility.
One of the core components of the prospect theory is the value function. Using odd-end pricing as opposed to 0-ending plays a fundamental role in communicating the gains associated with purchasing a given product.
The expectation of recieving a gain from purchasing a product ending with 9 improves the consumers’ perception of the product, which is referred to as the percieved-gain effect. However, the gain recieved is disproportionate to the percieved discount (Schindler and Kirby 193).
Conclusion Consumers are price-sensitive in the thier purchasing process. Therefore, price is one of factors that they evaluate before making a purchasing decision. Despite this aspect, retailers have an opportunity to influence the consumers’ purchasing decision-making process. This goal can be achieved by adopting effecitve pricing strategies. Retailers should consider pricing as a critical aspect in thier strategic framework.
Psychological pricing is one of the most effective strategies that retailers can adopt in thier quest to influence the consumers’ purchasing decision. The effectiveness of psychological pricing strategy arises from its ability to influence the consumers’ perception on the price point. Odd-end pricing strategy has extensively been used by marketers in an effort to influence the consumers’ purchase decizion.
The above analysis shows that odd end pricing is effective in communicating value and expected gains to customers, which underscores the principles of the expected utility theory. Through odd-end pricing, consumers develop the perception that the set price has taken into account the discount.
Thus, consumers assume that the difference between the price point and the nearest roundoff figure is equal to the price discount offered. Furthermore, odd-end pricing is aligned with the prospect theory, which argues that consumers are required to select the products that will result in utility maximization. However, the consumers’ choice of the bundle of goods is influenced by the price of the product.
Therefore, consumers select a particular product based on the price, which acts as the reference point. The analysis above shows that pricing is an important element that retailers should consider in their strategic management practices. The pricing strategy adopted determines the extent to which the firm influences the consumers’ purchasing decision, and hence the likelihood of achieving the profit maximization objective.
Works Cited Caplin, Andrew, and John Leahy. “Psychological expected utility theory and anticipatory feelings.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 2.2(2001): 59-80. Print.
Choi, Jungsil, Lee Kiljae, and Ji Yong-Yeon. “What type of framing message is more appropriate with nine-ending pricing.” Mark Lett 23.1 (2013): 603-614. Print.
Choi, Jungsil, Yexin Li, Rangan Priyamvadha, Rangan Promothesh, and Singh Surendra. “The odd-ending price justification effect: the influence of price ending on hedonic and utilitarian consumption.” Journal of the Academic Marketing Science 2.2(2014): 1-13. Print.
Chovancova, Asamoah. “The influence of price endings on consumer behaviour; an application of the psychology of perception.” Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 59.7(2011): 29-39. Print.
Nielson, William, and Jill Stowe. “A further examination of cummulative prospect theory parameterizations.” The Journal of Risk and Uncertainity 24.1(2002): 31-46. Print.
Schindler, Robert. “Relative price level of 99-ending prices: image versus reality.” Marketing Letters 12.3 (2001): 239-247. Print.
—. “The 99 price ending as a signnal of a low price appeal.” Journal of Retailing 82.1 (2006): 71-77. Print.
Schindler, Robert, and Patrick Kirby. “Patterns of rightmost digits used in advertized prices: implications for nine-ending effects.” Journal of Consumer Research 24.2 (2003): 192-202. Print.
Schindler, Robert, and Thomas Kibarian. “Image communicated by the use of 99 ending in advertized.” Journal of Advertizing 30.4(2001): 96-112. Print.
Natural Catastrophes and Environmental Justice Essay writing essay help
Although natural catastrophes cannot be avoided, it is still possible to effectively manage the negative effects associated with such calamities in order to minimize human suffering and promote environmental justice. When all people are meaningfully involved and fairly treated in regards to catastrophes that impact the environment, it amounts to environmental justice.
The development of any nation or state should not merely focus on the educational level of individuals, national origin, income, ethnicity, or race.
To a large extent, every individual can proactively add value to environmental protection. In other words, the existing policies, regulations and environmental laws can be swiftly enforced and implemented when both citizens and non-citizens are indiscriminately involved in the process (Bardsley and Sweeney 1133).
Disempowerment in terms of policy or economic wellbeing might lead to unfair treatment of the undeserving population. Hence, the disadvantaged segment of the population may eventually bear the immense burden of dealing with negative repercussion of pollution to the environment. Environmental pollution emanates from the skewed and tribal policies executed by the local, state and federal authorities.
Commercial operations as well as municipal and industrial wastes also contribute towards degradation of the immediate environment. As it stands now, most natural catastrophes are being aggravated by human activities that pollute the environment. For instance, there is an increased build-up of aerosols and Green House Gases in the atmosphere to an extent that the shortwave radiation from the sun cannot be radiated back.
Consequently, the earth has become warmer than it used to be some decades ago. The latter has significantly contributed to global warming and the much-taunted climate change. In any case, the extreme weather events (drought, floods) have been occasioned by human population to the immediate environment. Unless human management of the environment is improved, environmental justice will hardly be realized.
A robust environmental justice framework should be put in place in order to minimize the negative impacts of natural catastrophes to certain segments of the population. Exposure to harmful wastes alongside natural calamities can be reduced if appropriate justice is awarded to the environment (Bardsley and Sweeney 1130).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of underlying assumptions that have continually generated various unequal protections and exposure to natural disasters that are also man-made. Environmental justice cannot be attained unless certain political and ethical queries are asked. Needless to say, every individual has a basic right of protection from the harmful effects of natural calamities.
When we degrade our environment, we fail to execute any justice to it. However, protection should still be granted to the vulnerable populations by the concerned government authorities owing to poor legislative or environmental protection agenda in place.
The negative impacts posed to populations by natural catastrophes such as hurricanes may be eliminated if not reduced when proper environmental justice is exercised (Brown 112). This form of justice should be a priority area not just in regions prone to natural disasters. It should be a bi-partisan engagement between the public and policy makers.
Environmental polluters should also be held accountable for their actions as part and parcel of environmental justice. Pollution of the environment is definitely a major cause of concern in the 21st century. Since climate change is closely associated with drastic alteration of weather parameters, there is urgent need for a strong public voice and environmental protection advocacy programs against pollution (Brown 109).
Works Cited Bardsley, Douglas and Susan, Sweeney. “Guiding Climate Change Adaptation within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems.” Environmental management 45.5 (2010): 1127-1141. Print.
Brown, Katrina. “Global Environmental Change I: A Social Turn for Resilience?” Progress in Human Geography 38.1 (2014): 107-117. Print.
The Kyoto Protocol Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Formation of the Kyoto Protocol
The Objective of the Kyoto Protocol
The Role of the United States of America in the Kyoto Protocol
Introduction Today, one of the major threats to humanity is global warming. This has been attributed to the increased emission of greenhouse gases into the earth’s atmosphere. The industrialized countries of the West are mainly responsible for the current high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Therefore, “the Kyoto Protocol was formulated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in order to set binding obligations on industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions”. Currently, a number of the industrialized countries have signed and ratified the Protocol. This paper examines the Kyoto Protocol as well as the role of the United States of America in it.
Formation of the Kyoto Protocol A number of international conferences on climate change laid the foundation for the formation of the Kyoto Protocol. For instance, in 1992, the United Nations held a conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, which led to various outcomes. One of the major outcomes of the conference was the formation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The mandate of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was to reduce any form of human activities that would threaten international climate. In 1995, parties to the Convention met in Berlin in order to develop specific targets that would reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
This marked the beginning of major negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol. Consequently, the negotiations on the Protocol were concluded on December 11, 1997. “Due to a complex ratification process, the Protocol entered into force on February 16, 2005”.
The Objective of the Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was formed in order to stabilize the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by the developed countries. It is based on the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Thus, it seeks to operationalize the principles of the Convention. The Protocol has set binding obligations on the developed countries because they are the major emitters of greenhouse gases.
Therefore, the developing countries are not bound by its obligations. However, “countries that are bound by the Protocol are those that have approved it”. In its first commitment period, 35 developed countries signed and ratified it. This target aimed at reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by five percent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Role of the United States of America in the Kyoto Protocol The United States of America is partly responsible for the increased levels of greenhouse gases. It accounts for twenty five percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. It is also one of the countries, which participated in the negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol.
Thus, during President Clinton’s administration, the United States signed the Protocol. However, “President Clinton did not submit it to the Senate for advice and consent”. His major concern was that the Protocol exempted the developing countries from its binding obligations. Consequently, in 2001, the United States withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol.
Conclusion The Kyoto Protocol is one of the major international strategies that seek to curb climate change by stabilizing the greenhouse effect. However, its success highly depends on the cooperation among developed and developing countries. Furthermore, the withdrawal of major states like the United States of America may jeopardize its future effectiveness.
Works Cited Saundry, Peter. The Kyoto Protocol and the United States. 25 December 2006. Web. .
UNFCCC. An Introduction to the Kyoto Protocal. 10 June 2011. Web.
Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Report a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Human Resources and Job Design
Introduction Management is an important part of any organization. All successful organizations employ successful management procedures in all their functions. The application of operations management in the areas of quality control, human resource, and supply chain is an important practice in management.
According to Mentzer, the control of quality in an organization is influenced by the existing structures that are intended at serving these functions (9). The quality of products and services produced in an organization dictates the success that the organization enjoys in comparison with its competitors.
Areas such as human resource and job design management constitute other aspects of an organization that determine the level of organizational success. Human resource management ensures that an organization has employees who are devoted to the aims of the organization. Such employees have the skills that are necessary for operating in the respective industry (Mentzer 21).
The third area of management that contributes significantly in determining success in an organization is supply chain management. The distribution of goods and services to and from organizations should be managed efficiently.
One of the organizations that enjoy success in management of the above areas is the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). This essay looks at the operations management in the areas of managing quality, human resources and job design, and the supply chain.
Managing Quality Management of quality contributes to the output of organizations. The output is only significant when the quality control and management are utilized. ADNOC is located in the mining and distribution industry of petroleum in Abu Dhabi. It is considered one of the global leaders in the petroleum technology.
This company is a leader in the provision of petroleum services, with quality control being key in its operations. According to Gitlow, quality control entails putting in place measures that are aimed at enhancing the output in organizations (23). This process begins with setting up a department that is charged with the mandate of overseeing the success of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ADNOC has a quality control department whose objective involves the provision of standard petroleum products and/or the provision of services along these lines. ADNOC has branches and subsidiaries in different parts of the country.
The ancillaries keep the necessary quality control procedures written in the policy statement of the company. After its establishment in 1971, ADNOC set out to establish many companies, affiliates, and subsidiaries, all of which have quality control departments.
ADNOC has branches in the oil industry. These branches stretch in the areas of exploration, refining, gas production, and transportation of products. The company also distributes crude oil, gas, and refined products to overseas markets, with local distribution forming a significant part in its operations.
The management of quality in production, distribution, and storage of products from this organization requires a dedicated workforce with the ability to handle quality control functions of this organization.
Quality control in the production of the organization’s chief products is indicated by the organization’s position on the global and local markets. This organization is among the most successful of its kind. ADNOC has a quality control representative in each of its subsidiaries, including the main company.
The quality control representative is in charge of the quality control program in each of these subsidiaries. The quality control representative who is responsible for control of the company’s output coordinates activities under the quality control department.
Aside from the management of these activities directly in the organization, ADNOC’s quality control representatives and departments have additional functions.
We will write a custom Report on Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization requires the quality control and management department to provide information on the latest requirements for suppliers, relevant government affiliates, investors, and other organizational affiliates. The other function of quality control representatives is the provision of modifications in the processes in ADNOC to ensure that the outputs are according to the international standards.
Top managers and quality control bosses hold frequent meetings to ensure that the department is operating as it should in terms of making the right decisions. The quality control department is required to provide its findings to the senior management, which makes its adjustments to the organization as deemed possible.
Gitlow states that quality control should be focused on ensuring that the output is above or equivalent to the global standards (24). Organizations should seek not only to achieve quality control targets but also to set targets for other organizations in the industry. This function of quality control departments is one that ADNOC has carried out over the last few years.
Employees in the organization are part of the quality control management process. Therefore, the organization has developed and implemented training and education programs for its employees who are required to provide feedback to the different departments of the organization.
This information contributes to the development of standards in the organization. Quality control managers and representatives in this organization also follow up with the findings of quality control department in the organization.
Aside from the quality control department in the organization, ADNOC outsources quality control services from third parties. The program in the organization is successful with the combination of internal and external quality control parties.
The work of quality check programs in ADNOC is to ensure that the output is acceptable and up to the necessary standards. ADNOC has a dedicated management team that takes value as an important part of the production process.
The mining part of the company is an important one. The quality assurance role in this area includes the promotion of safe mining activities. The company has engaged on a campaign to reduce pollution along the process of oil drilling and mining and in the transfer of this product to the local and international markets.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations Management in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization has a crisis and emergency division that is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the activities that the organization undertakes are safe for the local environment. An oil spill is one of the major disasters that the organizations can face. The prevention of this disaster is a priority of its crisis and emergency management team.
The other activity in the management of quality at ADNOC is the frequent surveys that the organization undertakes. According to Ayish, organizations should participate in feedback activities that allow them improve on their service provision or quality of goods and services (33). ADNOC participates in the provision of feedback to promote the provision of better products and services.
Surveys are sent to the other companies that interact with the organization. Individuals and organizations that are affiliated to the origination add to the employee feedback, which is used to improve the quality of goods and services in the organization.
Gitlow states that employees are important in quality assurance and that organizations should ensure that they participate in the process (29). Some of the ways that organizations may improve the quality of their goods and services is through the promotion of better terms for their employees in terms of providing motivational activities and/or offering the best financial terms.
ADNOC has thousands of employees in the many subsidiaries and groups of companies that it operates. These workers are guaranteed good employment terms. This plan has led to the high quality of output.
The reduction of flaring on the organization is another achievement that adequate quality control has implemented. Flaring is a big contributor to environmental pollution. Initially, the organization had a significant flaring, which led to significant pollution.
Measures to reduce pollution that is related to flaring have been effective for this business and its affiliated organizations. Gitlow states that environmental protection for major organizations is an important part in the assessment of their quality control measures (29). Therefore, ADNOC is well placed to achieve quality control and management targets that make it an international company.
Human Resources and Job Design Human resource management is an important part of organizations. Many institutions are dedicated to the provision of adequate human resource management practices. According to Mentzer, an organization is as good as the human resource that it recruits and manages (19).
The job design for any organization should correspond to the needs of the employees. Job design management in an organization consists of a team of employees and managers who are dedicated to the fulfillment of organizational goals in terms of production.
Human resource management entails the recruitment, training, motivation remuneration, and other services that are related to employees. Organizations that recognize their employees as the most important stakeholders often have significant levels of success.
These organizations also have significant levels of competitiveness. Organizations that wish to succeed in their respective industries should have a human resource department that has human resource managers who are charged with the assurance of employee needs and rights.
ADNOC has a human resource sector in place that takes charge of employee needs in this organization. The department plays the role of recruitment of employees, training, motivation, and promotion of employee rights. The organization recruits employees that are highly trained and experienced.
These workers proceed with training while still at the organization. ADNOC offers training for internship students who wish to join the organization in pursuit of employment. Some of these students are absorbed into the organization where they get a chance to bring their experience and training to the organization.
Experienced individuals who include human resource managers should run human resource management. ADNOC is one of the organizations with an experienced team of human resource managers who serve different functions in this department. The senior human resource manager is involved in policy formulation, including the determination of individuals who the organization can recruit and employ.
Employee remuneration is a significant part of human resource management. It ensures motivation within an organization (Mentzer 17). ADNOC offers competitive remuneration for its employees, with this strategies being one of the reasons for its success in the respective industry.
The human resource department within the organization or its subsidiaries is charged with the promotion of employee rights and the provision of services. The department ensures that the employees constantly get their remuneration, which has been reviewed in their favor.
An organization with the desire to succeed in its respective industry should respect the rights of its employees whilst ensuring that their salaries are competitive in the industry (Ermida 271). The organization with the best employee policies usually enjoys success in the industry and market within which it is located.
ADNOC is located in an industry that is considered risky for any employee. Job design in this organization ensures employee safety. The company considers fatality of one of its employees an urgent matter that needs attention. The company has previously had accidents at its places of work, with seven employees dying in 2009 because of work-related accidents.
The company investigated these incidents as a way of assuring its employees of future safety at the organization and its affiliate companies. The measures put in place at the organization have ensured that no accident is reported since the death of these employees.
ADNOC considers its employees one of their important stakeholders alongside its customers, government organizations, suppliers, and the public. These stakeholders enjoy a variety of engagements with the organization.
Employees get team meetings where they contribute to the development of the organization. As a result, they feel motivated. According to Mentzer, these team meetings are important in communicating the organization’s goals and objectives whilst motivating employees towards the achievement of these goals and targets (19).
The other way that ADNOC engages its employees is in employee appraisals. The organization carries out frequent employee appraisals that are aimed at improving the performance of these employees in the various areas of work.
Employee appraisal is important in the determination of employee output. It works through the improvement of their terms and services. The company also has a suggestion scheme in place for its employees, with this plan helping them attain organizational goals. The scheme is run in all affiliate companies of the organization. The intention is to improve the services of the employees and their total output.
An organization that embraces technology in its human resource management is often successful in its venture (Mentzer 12). ADNOC is one of the organizations with extensive use of technology in its human resource management. The organization runs online surveys for its employees.
It has personalized e-mail accounts for workers (Mentzer 13). Aside from the personalized email services, this organization has an intranet that ensures that the digital platform is fully utilized and exploited in the organization.
Employees have access to newsletters and company magazines that it produces. These resources contain the description of the job design of the organization. The newsletters provide information to employees on how they should run different parts of the organization.
According to Mentzer, organizations should provide continuous education and training for their employees to ensure that they give their best to the business (14). ADNOC has training programs in place for its employees. The human resource department in the organization coordinates these programs. The training is carried out in the form of seminars and workshops alongside other training activities.
The other aspect of human resource management that is prominent in ADNOC is the promotion of social and environmental activities. The organization is located in an industry that interacts heavily with the environment in the process of mining. Industries in the mining industry particularly have their employees participate in the environmental sustainability and protection.
Job design in this organization entails ensuring the most output with the least destruction of the environment. The promotion of social and environmental activities in the workforce ensures that they maintain a safe operating environment and protection of the environment in general.
ADNOC is a key player in environmental protection, which leads to its prevention of environmental degradation. Some of the risks include the spillage of oil, which may lead to destruction of marine life.
Job design management in the organization is a function of the executive management. It entails a description of the various jobs and slots in the organization. The human resource department also plays part in the job design management, which determines employee numbers and their respective areas.
Mentzer states that the job design determines the success that organizations enjoy in their respective industries (17). Organizations that have effective job design management have a better output. ADNOC is a leader in its respective industry, with the products and services in their output being the best in its class.
Supply Chain Supply chain management is another vital part of an organization. Companies are currently recognizing the need for this new aspect of competitive advantage (Mentzer 72). Supply chain management consists of processes and activities that contribute towards the provision of the products to the end users (Mentzer 72).
The most vital area in supply chain management includes purchasing, manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and warehousing (Mentzer 78). Supply chain is an aggregate of all these functions that lead to the provision of products and services to the end user. The management of all processes in the supply chain is what encompasses supply chain management.
Supply chain management at ADNOC is carried out in a professional manner, with the main method used being the fragmentation of the different functions. The different organizations that constitute ADNOC operate at different levels in the supply chain of the organization.
The organization is involved in mining oil and gas in the many oil and gas fields in Abu Dhabi while these products are transported to the refineries by a different section of the organization. The company is involved in the management of processes that occur upstream and downstream in the industry.
ADNOC has separate groups of companies within it in addition to a host of independent operators that run different parts of its supply chain. This form of supply chain management has worked towards the organization’s advantage, thus ensuring that it distributes petroleum and gas to the readily available markets.
Companies that are mainly involved in the exploration and production include the Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO), Abu Dhabi Gas Development Company Ltd, Abu Dhabi Gas Liquefaction Company Ltd. (ADGAS), Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMA-OPCO), Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO), and ELIXIER.
The other constituent companies that are involved in mining and exploration include the National Drilling Company (NDC) and the Zakum Development Company (ZADCO).
The other part of ADNOC’s supply chain that is also managed by constituent companies and affiliates is the marketing and refining part.
Companies that are involved in the marketing and refining of petroleum products for ADNOC include ADNOC Distribution, Distribution, the Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company (TAKREER), and the Abu Dhabi National Tanker Company and National Gas Shipping Company (ADNATCO-NGSCO) (Mezher, Dawelbait, and Abbas 319). These companies are involved in the refining of oil from the oil fields.
Companies in the UAE and other parts of the world run the petrochemical directorate at ADNOC. They include companies such as Borouge whose affiliate businesses include Petrochemicals Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Ltd and Borouge PTE Ltd.
The other company in the petrochemical directorate is the Ruwais Fertilizer Industry (FERTIL). Apart from the mining and distribution of petrochemicals, other companies such as ESNAAD and the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Operating Company (IRSHAD) are involved in the shared services directorate.
Some companies have teamed up with ADNOC in its supply chain. These companies are found at different areas in the supply chain. Examples of these independent operators that are affiliated to ADNOC include Abu Dhabi Oil Company (Japan) Ltd. (ADOC), BUNDUQ, and Total Abu Al Bukhoosh (TOTAL ABK).
The above institutions are involved in the supply chain for ADNOC. The organization also runs training services through the numerous academic institutions that it has established or is involved in their support.
The presence of different companies along ADNOC’s supply chain ensures that the company’s functions are carried out in an effective manner. According to Mentzer, diversification of the supply chain may be achieved through the involvement of many companies in the process (72). The supply chain with different players often requires efficient management to ensure that they interact in a positive manner.
The existence of many organizations as intermediaries in the supply chain often results in reduced efficiency. If unchecked, it may lead to a reduction in the organization’s output (Morsi and Key 23). There is a loss of time and resources in the increased number of intermediaries.
Hence, organizations should target to reduce the number of intermediaries. ADNOC is successful in its supply chain management because all organizations within this supply chain are affiliates or part of the larger organization.
Automation is another part of the supply chain that contributes to the evident success in organizations. Organizations that apply technology in their supply chain often end up being successful (Abdelal 31). ADNOC has extensively applied technology in its supply chain, with transportation of petroleum products and crude oil being carried out through advanced methods.
The company has extensive use of modernized fleets in the transportation of its products to their markets, especially in the shipping of oil to the international markets. The management of any supply chain requires a dedicated workforce and the utilization of all cadres of employees. These measures are practiced in the ADNOC’s supply chain management.
The other aspect of the supply chain management in relation to ADNOC is the cost of managing this supply chain. ADNOC is one of the global organizations that invest significantly in their supply chain management.
According to Mentzer, supply chain management should be an integral part of any organization, with adequate funding to ensure a swift flow of goods and services from suppliers to the end consumers (72). ADNOC has a board in place to manage the supply chain. This committee is charged with the investment into the right measures for the maintenance of an intact supply chain.
The global market for ADNOC’s products has a number of competitors, with branches in different parts of the world including Abu Dhabi and the UAE. To ensure that the company is competitive enough, the supply chain management practices include control of pricing and amount of the produced petroleum products. ADNOC is an example of an organization that has effective supply chain management.
Employees in the organization and its affiliate companies are trained on how to manage the supply chain whilst maintaining a constant flow of products produced by this organization. A fully-fledged department is charged with the management of ADNOC’s supply chain. The manager does reporting to the board of the organization.
Conclusion In conclusion, the success of any organization is determined by factors such as the management of human resource, supply chain, and the quality of their output. The paper has confirmed that these areas are crucial in terms of determining whether an organization achieves its goals and objectives. This paper has also looked at one of the most successful companies in the UAE and on the global front.
It has highlighted how it has managed its human resource, quality, and supply chain. ADNOC is one of the most successful energy companies in the world. It has recorded profits in the range of billions of dollars each year. The company has efficient quality control methods in use. Examples include the use of technology and recruitment of experienced and highly trained employees.
The human resource management at ADNOC is run by the human resource department, which ensures that the right employees are selected for the right work. The supply chain is run in a fragmented manner, with a variety of organizations being involved in different parts of the chain. The organization has effective management practices in all areas as discussed in the paper.
Works Cited Abdelal, Rawi. “Sovereign Wealth In Abu Dhabi.” Geopolitics 14.2(2009): 317-327. Print.
Ayish, Muhammad. “Virtual Public Relations In The United Arab Emirates: A Case Study Of 20 UAE Organizations’ Use Of The Internet.” Public Relations Review 31.3(2005): 381-388. Print.
Ermida, Graça. “Analysis: Strategic Decisions Of International Oil Companies: Arctic Versus Other Regions.” Energy Strategy Reviews 2.Sustainable Energy System Changes 1.1(2014): 265-272. Print.
Gitlow, Howard. Quality management. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005. Print.
Mentzer, John. Supply chain management. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001. Print.
Mezher, Toufic, Gihan Dawelbait, and Zeina Abbas. “Renewable Energy Policy Options For Abu Dhabi: Drivers And Barriers.” Energy Policy 42.2(2012): 315-328. Print.
Morsi, Mozzart, and Antonio Key. “Rehabilitation Of Gas Pipelines: The Experience Of ADNOC In Abu Dhabi.” Corros. Prev. Control 1.1(1994): 5. Print.
Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights Analytical Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction The common law canon of land law known as the principle of Aboriginal title is what is referred to as the doctrine of native title in Australia.1 Under this doctrine, the land law of Australia appreciates the fact that there does exist indigenous people in the country who have rights, as well as interests to the country’s land that emanates from history, traditions, and customs.
The concept provides that the indigenous Australians are the original owners of the land because they are the natives of Australia. Consequently, they should benefit from the land and any interest accruing from the land. In addition, the titles issued by the Crown when Australia was granted independence did not take away the Aboriginals rights to the land.2
There has been a protracted struggle for the recognition of these rights and the respect for these interests on land in the legal front since the inception of independence in 1788. The struggle has subsisted up to this day, in spite of the fact that there has been a lasting period exceeding two hundred years of deprivation and displacement.
This shows how the issue of land rights in Australia is of importance, more so to the Aborigines. Over the years, the indigenous citizens of Australia have been at the forefront calling upon successful governments, as well as the wider Australian community to come to terms with their unique status as the native, bonafide, historical, and rightful owners of land in Australia.3
However, this issue has taken different angels over the years, cutting across political divide and the justice system. This essay focuses on the land rights of this indigenous group of people, as well as its effect on the non-indigenous peoples’ land rights.
The Mabo case This is a case that acted as the basis for acknowledging the natives of Australia as the rightful land owners. The case was termed as the Mabo v Queensland case.4
This case saw the plaintiff, Eddie Mabo gain an unexpected level of popularity, especially from persons who believed that they enjoyed native rights over land, when he decided to take initiative to claim the ownership of the native title of Meriam, amongst a couple of other individuals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case was essentially seeking for recognition of the scattered homelands in the Torres Strait region of the country as native land that enabled the locals enjoy unlimited rights over the land as the bonafide landowners. The main reason for this was that the residents of Torres Strait had been annexed from Queensland in 1879. Consequently, they sued the governing authority of Queensland as the defendant to the suit.
The annexation had created a state of uncertainty in terms of the required proper system of land ownership by the plaintiffs and necessitated the suit. The suit against the state of Queensland was to last a total of ten years in the courts before the determining factors were settled. In delivery of the ruling to support the native land rights, Chief Justice Brennan said:
“The fiction by which the rights and interests of indigenous inhabitants of land were treated as non-existent was justified by a policy which has no place in the contemporary law of this country” Mabo v Queensland.5
This effectively settled the matter that had been through a long court battle period. The case overturned the earlier principle of terra nullius that had been set in the case of Milirrpum v Nabalco6, also known as the “Gove land rights case”.
In the Milirrpum case matter that had been brought before the Supreme Court, Justice Richard Blackburn unambiguously rejected the idea of the existence of native title, pronouncing against the plaintiffs on various issues on law and fact. Nonetheless, he rejected the principle of aboriginal title in place of terra nullius, which propounded that land was not owned by anyone at the time of British settlement.
The instant case of Mabo, thus, came to recognize the people of Meriam in the Murray Island in Torres as the native title owners in regard to a section of their traditionally owned land.7
The court ruled that the Crown had no right to the land as earlier granted to the colonialists of European origin when they migrated to Australia. The ruling was based on the fact that the principle of terra nullius lost its significance and could not exist parallel with the right of the Crown to hold title deeds.
We will write a custom Essay on Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, the fact that the instant case of Mabo granted inherent rights of land ownership to the natives consequently meant that the terra nullius principle in the case of Milirrpum8 could not stand, as the land rights that were ruled to be rightly possessed by the natives could not simultaneously be possessed by the Crown.9
It is to be well understood that the declaration of the presence of native land rights in the land in Australia in no way acted to oust the proprietary rights of the non-indigenous groups.10 The court pronouncement was never a suggestion that title to land was to henceforth shift from the non-indigenous groups to the indigenous ones.
As a matter of fact, this would create anarchy and unending conflict as the non-indigenous groups resist being chased from their proprietary owned land. Rather, the court ruling merely meant to provide guidance with respect to the search for truth and justice on a historical perspective.
The court’s declaration in this case was meant in a way to “settle the scores” in as far as discourse concerning the rightful owners of land was concerned.11 Additionally, the judgment meant to be a mere declaration of the place that the native communities of Australia have in regard to ownership of the country, in effect destroying the argument that colonizers were the rightful owners of the nation at the time of colonization.
In effect, the recognition of the rights of these native groups on the land was meant to have no effect on the land rights of non-indigenous groups.
Enactment of the Native Title Act, 1993 A year after the court recognized the native title in the above discussed case, the Keating led government in 1993 acted to formalize the new legal principle by enactment of a piece of legislation that would codify the native entitlement to land, the Native Title Act, 1993.
The Act gave recognition, respect, and protection to the Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander inhabitants and their land because the statute set it straight as to the particular rights that the natives were to enjoy, including the possessed interests and the manner of appropriation.12
This, therefore, meant that the residents of Torres Strait whose interests in the land was shaky before the enactment of this law could now be assured of their interests and use the land to grow themselves economically through the acquisition of credit.13
Not sure if you can write a paper on Indigenous Land Rights vs Non-Indigenous Land Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Act further attempted to bring a clarification on the legitimate position of the process required to bring land under the native ownership under the national land laws, thereby allowing for their claim of title, protection, and recognition through the national courts. By doing this, the court aimed at bringing about precision on the required procedures to acquire title for the land.
Pursuant to this, the Act created the National Native Title Tribunal. The tribunal was tasked with the huge responsibility of deciphering claims to title on native land by finding out the historical ownership of the land, parties that hold interests to the land, the opinion of the elders and neighbours, amongst other things, to decide the allocations of title to the proper owners of the land.14
It is to be well observed that the land that was affected by the new process of acquiring title was land that had been declared as native land and affected the natives and indigenous land owners, rather than the non-indigenous landowners.15
In other words, the enactment of this piece of legislation further proves and points to the fact that the recognition of indigenous land in Australia basically had nothing to do with the non-indigenous land owners, as the laws on the native land, such as the instant statute, did not affect the operations of the non-indigenous land in any way.16
All institutions created by the statute concern, solely, the indigenous land, rather than the non-indigenous one, thereby further proving the point that the recognition of indigenous land rights was totally disassociated from non-indigenous proprietary rights over land.
The landmark case In 1996, there arose a new form of uncertainty over native claims on pastoral areas. In clarification of the issue, the case of Wik Peoples v Queensland17 provided a better understanding. In this case, the High Court, by a slim majority, ruled that native title would not necessarily be extinguished by reason of the pre-existing leases on the pastoral areas.
The leases over these pastoral areas had been granted by the Crown and consequently ran for a long period of time. As a result, the court established that it was possible to have the Aborigines and the lease holders possess rights to the land without conflict.
This case further proved that indigenous land rights from the natives did not affect the rights of the proprietary non-indigenous land holders because of the possibility of co-existence of the separate rights to the land.18
For instance, there is a possibility that land owned under a sub-lease by a non-indigenous holder of such land could consequently be owned by a different person under a native ownership with the sharing of interests and rights thereto. Essentially, this demonstrates the lack of conflict between indigenous ownership of land and non-indigenous ownership.
In line with the above case, the Native Title Amendment, 1998 was passed with the objective of resolving all claims of the native land. The government of Howard also sought to provide security of tenure to the non-Aboriginals for any land that they claimed as provided by the Native Title Act, 1993.
This amendment was basically aimed at bringing statutory law in consonance with case law that had been passed, which allowed contemporaneous possession of interests on land.19
A “bundle of rights” The native rights to land were declared as a “bundle of rights” during a 2002 ruling in the case of Western Australia v Ward20. It was further ruled that the native rights did not violate any other rights.
Although this decision came under major criticism not only from the native owners of land in various parts of Australia, but also from civil society, as well as the legal practitioners, the case clearly identified the place of native land rights in relation to the other existent rights, such as those of non-indigenous Australians.
The case places the rights of native land rights owners juxtaposed with the rights enjoyed by the non-indigenous owners of land, albeit placed at a lower level.
This explains that the rights of indigenous land owners do not affect the rights enjoyed by non-indigenous owners, such as the lessees of land.21 The fact that it was possible for the claimants to walk around the land owned by the native owners showed that the native rights were not entirely exclusive of possession.
In the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia22, a precedent was set in the matter of the existence of native rights over land in a capital city. Justice Wilcox J was of the opinion that native title was still effective in the Perth region, even if it was an urban area.
Urban settings are characteristically owned by a myriad of regimes of land ownership, such as leases, freehold, and so on. Capital cities are strictly managed by local and national authorities, more so in the area of land ownership to reap taxes as benefits.23 Nevertheless, this authority appears to allow native rights to land to be enjoyed in such situations.
This, therefore, points to the contention that native title subsists in various situations that do not act to limit the rights enjoyed in land. Indigenous land rights in Australia, thus, have nothing to do with non-indigenous land rights.24
Conclusion Native land rights exist independent of the other land rights on any land. It is a special form of land ownership as it appears to dig into the facts of the past and establish the proper and bonafide ownership of land, rather than looking at the possession of title to the land.25 The system recognizes past injustices on land and seeks to avert them by creating a better and equitable system of ownership.
In this essay, the focus has been on the effect of indigenous land rights over the non-indigenous ones. As seen in the text, the case of Mabo gave the recognition of indigenous rights to land as the basic formation. The clarity has, however, provided that the intention of this was never meant to oust the rights of others, but to share the interests.
The enactment of the Native Act of 1993 closely followed the delivering of the judgment and the new growth of jurisprudence to codify the principles set thereto. Subsequent amendments since then have helped develop the understanding, working, and implementation of the provisions of the Act to enable a smoother and easier operation.
Therefore, it may generally be said that indigenous rights over land do not clash, nor have any effect over the non-indigenous rights, as the demarcation between the two is clear. As a matter of fact, the law creates a co-existence of the rights shared between the two set of rights.
Hughes Helen, and Warin Jenness, A New Deal for Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in Remote Communities (Centre for Independent Studies, 2005).
Hughes Helen, Lands of Shame: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander” Homelands” in Transition (Centre for Independent Studies, 2007).
Jackson Sue, Michael Storrs, and Joe Morrison, ‘Recognition of Aboriginal rights, interests and values in river research and management: Perspectives from northern Australia’ (2005) 6 Ecological Management
Strategic Development of Apple Corporation Term Paper essay help: essay help
Executive Summary This paper dwells upon strategic development of Apple and contains certain recommendation on implementation of the most appropriate strategy. The company is famous for its innovative approach and high quality of products and services provided.
However, the corporation holds quite a small market share and some researchers note that the company should expand. Researchers refer to growth of such markets as South America and Asia. It is stressed that Apple could benefit from producing products for millions of potential customers at lower prices to make Apple products more available.
Nonetheless, this approach is unlikely to be effective as it may lead to loss of the market share Apple has now. Appearance of Apple in the market of low-priced consumer electronics will make it develop new strategies to remain competitive in the market where Asian (Chinese and Indian) companies produce very cheap products. Therefore, the company has to focus on innovations.
The present evaluation is based on secondary research. Works on Apple’s strategic development are analyzed and certain recommendations on how to improve the strategy used are provided. The present research may lack for data on the company’s expenditures but available information on Apple’s revenues illustrates effectiveness of the strategy employed..
Recommendations provided include the following. The new strategy should be comprehensive and involve research, innovation, quality and social responsibility. The company has to produce really innovative products which would shape and redefine the market. The use of green technology and contributing to development of communities will enable the company maintain its favorable image among its customers.
Introduction Apple is one of the most successful companies and it is famous for its effective strategic development. The corporation managed to remain one of the leading producers of consumer electronics and software even after the recession and financial crisis of 2008. It is necessary to note that the company has to operate in one of the most competitive markets, the market of consumer electronics.
This industry is booming and companies all over the world are trying to enter it and occupy certain niche. It is noteworthy that Apple is facing hard competition on the part of Asian companies that produce cheaper devices with similar options. At present, Apple again has to choose an appropriate strategy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, before going into detail on the strategic development, it is important to mention major peculiarities of the company, its history and market. Apple announced that its revenue for second quarter of 2014 (ended in March) was $45.6 billion (Apple reports, 2014). The company is growing and its profits are increasing accordingly.
Apple is famous for its “impressive” products: iPad, iPod nano, iPhone, Apple TV, iPod touch, MacBook, MacMini and so on (Hitt, Ireland
The Theory of Connectivism Dissertation college application essay help
Educational theory Learning is a crucial activity in the lives of humans and its forms the basis of the educational process (Isman (2011). Consequently, a lot of attention has been paid to the understanding of how learning takes place, leading to the formulation of numerous theories of learning and instruction. These theories have evolved over the years as developments in other areas of education continue to happen.
There is no one theory that can be described as the perfect theory that fits in all learning situations. This means that different theories are applied to different learning situations. The various theories of education and learning describe how learning occurs, the factors that shape learning, the importance of memory in learning, and how knowledge is transferred (Ravenscroft (2011).
Behaviorism is one of well known learning theories. The theory posits that human beings receive a stimulus in the process of learning, which they respond to. According to Isman (2011), this mode of learning is best promoted by task-based learning. Learning under behaviorism is also influenced by the rewards that are obtained from learning, as well as punishment.
Repeated experiences end up establishing memory. Cognitivism is the other theory of learning, which posits that learning occurs in a structured way. Yilmaz (2011) argues that knowledge is transferred by duplicating the knowledge of the instructor in cognitive learning. Consequently, problem solving type of learning highly promotes this mode of learning.
The third most common learning theory is constructivism, which is a theory that proposes that knowledge is passed through socialization. Social and cultural factors seem to influence learning under this theory.
A more recent theory of learning is the connectivism theory, which posits that knowledge is transferred by connecting to the source if knowledge. According to Ravenscroft (2011), connectivism is a complex learning mode where learning is distributed in a web and it is enhanced by technological advancement.
Connectivism According to Thomas (2010), the emergence and development of diverse communication tools and the subsequent deployment of these tools in the discharge of education has resulted in the alteration of the learning environment. What is meant here is that there is a lot of change in the way education is discharged.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This comes from the fact that education is changing from the traditional perspective where it was delivered in specific learning environments that were largely confined in nature to the development of a virtual learning environment where content is not only guided by the teachers, but is also discharged by students who use technology to advance learning between and among themselves.
This literature review contains the discussion of how the theory of connectivism has been applied in the field of education. Siemens (2011) argues that information technology has transformed the traditional learning environment in a significant way that necessitates a new learning theory.
One rationale for the creation of a new theory of learning is that in the digital age, most learning environments are intertwined, technological, and social in nature (Kaufman
Social Media and Its Impacts on Society Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introductory Essay
Criminal Impacts of Social Media
Social Impacts of the Social Media
Effects of Social Media on Economies
Introductory Essay Social media is a communication medium, through which people in different geographical locations can interact freely via the Internet. In the contemporary world, communication technology has grown tremendously with the fast development of the high-speed Internet, high quality mobile phones, and computers that enable people to access the Internet from various parts of the world.
In 2010, the Google search engine registered over one trillion different URLs, which is an indication of the tremendous growth of the global Internet community. By December 2013, Facebook had over 1.11 billion users with active accounts and the number has increased ever since.
People carry out different forms of communications ranging from social interactions to business transactions over the social media. Social media has provided all necessary forms of communication including video conferencing for distance learning and corporate meetings. This development has emerged from the fast growth of communication technology, which transverses different economic levels across the world.
The rise of social media has been facilitated by the emergence of the Internet, which came into existence with the development of the first electronic computer in the 1950s. However, the first computers were designed to serve large corporations, governments, and the military.
Remarkable growth of the Internet was achieved in the early 1970s when email was invented coupled with a social network that linked the Duke University and the University of North Carolina in 1979. However, the growth of social media heightened in the early 21st century with the invention of Facebook, YouTube, Google, and other social media platforms (Boyd
Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management Report argumentative essay help
Executive Summary The Institute for Information Management has been committed to achieving its vision of becoming the leading provider of information to various companies within Australia. However, its system is falling apart because of its inability to address some of the strategic issues affecting various industries.
Not only is it losing the companies that were formerly its members, but also the volunteers who now consider it ineffective in addressing their career development needs. In order to address this problem, the institute will need to apply the concept of knowledge management system.
Introduction Knowledge management system has become very important for organisations in an environment where information is an important tool in achieving success. Both profitable and non-profitable organisations experience some form of challenges that force them to improve their service delivery in order to remain efficient in their operations.
To achieve the desired success, they need to have a proper knowledge management system that will allow all the departments to share relevant information within the shortest period possible. Lambe (2011, p. 185) defines knowledge management system as “A system that helps the organisations in creation, capture, processing, storage, and dissemination of information.”
The system enables organisations to improve their efficiency in processing relevant information and transmitting it to the relevant departments and individuals so that it may define their decisions as a way of improving their efficiency.
Wilson (2002, p. 86) says, “The idea of a knowledge management system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organisation’s documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions.” This way, they will always make informed choices based on the information in the system. It also eliminates bureaucracy that exists in some organisations that limits information sharing.
The Institute for Information Management has remained committed to its aim of becoming the leading source of information management for companies in Australia. However, it has been faced with numerous challenges which make this vision to be elusive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research seeks to find ways though which this institute can use the knowledge management system to promote engagement and collaboration among its members in order to improve its service delivery and attract more volunteers.
The Case Study The Institute for Information Management has worked tirelessly to gain relevance as one of the leading organisations that brings together users of information management systems and the providers of the enabling technologies in a forum where they can share relevant information in this field.
It has massively contributed to the effective development of information management system in this country by disseminating information management industry trends, opportunities, and accomplishments. However, this organisation is currently facing a problem in an industry that it expected to achieve success.
The number of volunteers to the organisation is drastically dropping, and so is the number of those who are regularly using its services. It means that something is wrong with this organisation in terms of the approach it takes in managing its processes.
It must have failed to appeal to the volunteers, and this explains why their number at this organisation has been declining over the years.
This has largely been blamed on its fundamental model of membership. This organisation needs a model that will enable it to engage its members with the view of promoting collaboration when addressing various tasks. It is necessary to find the best ways of applying knowledge management system in order to address this problem.
Knowledge System behind Micro-Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management According to Serenko and Bontis (2013, p. 310), over 6 million Australians always volunteer to work in different sectors as a way of making a difference in this country. Some people offer to volunteer as a way of meeting new people or trying something new, while others do it as way of improving their careers. Irrespective of the reasons why people volunteer to work in various organisations, the fact is that they always want something new.
We will write a custom Report on Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They want a working environment that would add a difference to their life. This is what is lacking at this institute, making its membership to decline. The Institute for Information Management must realise that its members need a system that will make them aware of the changing industry trends, and other relevant issues that may make them be informed about their respective industries.
The first step that it should take in addressing its current process is to develop a model that will improve its efficiency in collecting data about the changing trends in the relevant industries it has chosen. This will enable it to become a superior platform through which users of information management systems and the providers of the assistive technologies can interact and achieve their respective goals.
According to Dalkir (2011, p. 59), this can be done by developing a knowledge management model that will be beneficial to all the stakeholders. The knowledge management cycle below is one of the most appropriate models that this firm should consider using.
Knowledge Management Cycle
Source: (Walsham 2001, p. 610).
The model will be able to capture, organise and make accessible all the relevant information about various fields for the benefit of the stakeholders. It will also enable the stakeholders use the information to learn through creation and sharing of the relevant data on various fields.
This institute must realise that most of the volunteers’ aim is to improve their capacity to understand the changing trends in various fields so that they can make a positive difference in their companies at a later date. They must feel that this institution is offering them the opportunity to be well informed.
Interventions designed to improve the situation It is clear that the Institute for Information Management needs to find ways of improving its system, especially its capacity to capture the changing trends in various fields in order to attract volunteers and other stakeholders. The users of information need an organisation that has the right information about different industries in which they operate.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Volunteering at the Institute for Information Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They also need to know about various knowledge management products, their superiority over the other existing systems, and the most reliable vendors. The vendors are interested in institutions that can sell them to the information users and give the right knowledge about the products they offer.
The volunteers need to be assured that for the time they will be with the organisation, they will always have the first hand information about the changing trends in the market in their respective industries.
This means that the management at this institution needs to have a top notch system that can enable it to collect, synthesises, and disseminate information to its members within the shortest period possible. The following knowledge management pyramid shows the steps that should be followed.
Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction Insurance Marketing Group [IMG] is a private limited company that specializes in marketing health and life insurance policies. The company mainly targets independent agents distributed in different parts of the United States. The firm’s strategic management practices are undertaken by a qualified management team, which has experience of over 60 years with regard to life and health insurance.
IMG has managed to foster strong and influential relationships over the years, as evidenced by its past success and steady growth. The firm provides agents within the senior and individual health market segments with high quality and competitive products (Insurance Marketing Group, 2014).
The firm’s success and growth are associated with the implementation of effective strategic management practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the organization’s performance with specific reference to organizational behavior.
The paper assesses how the organization’s behavior has been influenced by different components, which include the organization’s culture, internal communication, motivational techniques, nature of authority, areas of emotional quotient embraced by the organization, and the virtual elements adopted by the firm.
Analysis Type of organizational culture; salad bowl culture
IMG has established its operations in different parts of the United States. The firm recognizes the importance of employees in achieving long-term success. Therefore, the firm has integrated the concept of diversity in its operations (Magala, 2006). The organization’s culture can be defined as being a ‘salad bowl’ culture. This status has been achieved by employing workers from different cultural backgrounds.
The firm does not discriminate employees based on their gender, age, race, nationality, and sexual orientation amongst other demographic variables. The development of this culture has arisen from the recognition of diversity as a source of additional knowledge and experience.
Subsequently, the firm’s employees share diverse information based on their cultural backgrounds, which has led to the development of cross-cultural competence. Its adoption of cultural diversity has improved IMG’s attractiveness in the labor market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm has also succeeded in developing good working relationships amongst its employees. The firm’s employees share a small office space with no conflicts, which has led to the development of a friendly working environment. In an effort to foster strong working relationship, IMG has adopted a flat organizational structure, which has been motivated by the need to promote communication amongst employees.
Consequently, the firm’s employees in different levels of management are provided with an opportunity to participate in the firm’s decision-making process. Therefore, the firm has been effective in promoting a collaborative working environment, thus minimizing the rate of employee turnover.
Collaboration amongst employees has led to the development of teamwork culture. This aspect has led to the elimination of negative competition amongst employees. On the contrary, employees support each other in executing their duties, which has led to the development of effective organizational norms and shared values.
The incorporation of cultural diversity has played an essential role in promoting the effectiveness with which IMG markets its health and insurance products to different customer groups in diverse parts of the US considering the country’s multicultural characteristics.
Moreover, the adoption of the ‘salad bowl’ culture has significantly increased the firm’s ability to operate ethically. Ferrell and Fraedrich (2009) are of the opinion that organizational culture is the foundation of ethical business operations.
Mode of communication
Effective internal communication is a critical element in an organization’s efforts to achieve business excellence. The various departments in an organization are supposed to operate as a unit in order to achieve synergy. However, the desired synergy can only be achieved if effective coordination is promoted. Internal communication influences the level of coordination amongst employees in different departments.
IMG appreciates the importance of effective communication. Subsequently, the organization has implemented an open internal communication system. The firm utilizes both verbal and written channels of communication. Written communication is undertaken through digital mediums such as emails, the company’s website, and social media.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Using digital mediums has improved significantly the effectiveness and efficiency with which the firm communicates to employees because they can easily access information on their wireless devices. Moreover, IMG has also established an intra-net system that provides employees with an opportunity to share information.
On the other hand, the firm also undertakes internal communication through print mediums such as internal memos. The memos are strategically located in the company’s notice board in order to ensure that all employees access the intended message.
Considering the small size of the organization, IMG also utilizes verbal communication. The effectiveness of verbal communication is enhanced by the short chain of command within the organization. Consequently, the intended information is not distorted.
In its quest to promote collaboration between IMG’s management team and the lower level employees, the organization has incorporated both top-bottom and bottom-top communication strategies. One of the ways through which this goal is achieved is by conducting regular internal informal meetings and events. This aspect has led to the development of an organizational culture that advocates constant meetings.
During the informal meetings, the lower level employees are in a position to interact with the top management and communicate any issue with ease. This scenario has played a vital role in eliminating bureaucracy in the organization’s communication process. Verbal communication also provides the top management team with an opportunity to assess the firm’s performance.
The effective interaction between the top and lower levels of management has improved learning quotient greatly within the firm. Additionally, the firm’s top management team is in a position to gain intelligence that can be utilized in the strategic management practices.
Employee motivation is a fundamental element in an organization’s pursuit for business excellence. Motivated employees are productive and focused in undertaking their roles and responsibilities. IMG is committed to ensuring that its employees are motivated continuously in executing their duties.
The firm’s commitment to promoting a high degree of employee motivation arises from the need to nurture a high degree of organizational identification. Furthermore, the firm recognizes that motivated employees are less likely to leave it. Despite the cultural diversity in the firm, IMG has managed to sustain the employees’ level of satisfaction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Behavior in Insurance Marketing Group by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More IMG has incorporated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational techniques. The extrinsic techniques entail providing employees with monetary benefits. The firm ensures that employees are compensated equitably and fairly. IMG has formulated a comprehensive employees’ remuneration package.
The firm has adopted job description as the basis of the employees’ remuneration. Subsequently, employees are remunerated based on their skills, level of education, and experience. The employees are awarded bonus compensation for their efforts.
In addition to monetary compensation, IMG has also integrated intrinsic motivational techniques by incorporating non-monetary forms of compensation. Some of the intrinsic methods of compensation adopted include recognizing employees who depict exemplary performance. Recognition is a vital component in ensuring that employees are motivated psychologically.
Furthermore, the firm has adopted the concept of teamwork, which provides the top management team with an opportunity to delegate certain tasks to the lower level employees. Therefore, employees have an opportunity to undertake challenging job tasks, hence providing them with the chance to progress through their career path.
Nature of authority
IMG has adopted a flat organizational structure, which has reduced bureaucracy significantly within the organization. Furthermore, the chain of command amongst employees has been reduced remarkably. IMG is focused at achieving business excellence in its operation. In order to achieve this goal, IMG has integrated teamwork as one of its operational practices.
The top management team delegates tasks to employees in different operational levels. This aspect provides employees with the freedom to make decisions on how the assigned tasks will be executed. Therefore, employees gain an opportunity to explore new dimensions on how to complete the task assigned, which improves their skills.
Subsequently, task delegation has empowered the firm’s employees, and thus they have become highly productive in executing their duties.
Furthermore, delegating tasks to the lower level employees has enabled the firm to reduce task monotony amongst workers. However, the top’s management team has developed a culture whereby the lower level employees are required to be accountable for the assigned tasks (Lussier
Bob Knowlton Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Key Issue or the Major Problem
Sub-Issues and Problems
Bases of Power
Knowlton’s Leadership Style
The Managerial Profile of Bob Knowlton
Effective leadership is an important aspect to speak about the progress of modern organisations. However, there are often cases when weak leaders lose their opportunities to contribute to the organisational development in order to create the effective workplace environment and achieve set goals and objectives. Bob Knowlton was appointed to be the project head in the Si-Tech Laboratories.
Knowlton demonstrated the perfect understanding of the principles of the project development, he could work with the team to achieve the high results, and he was oriented to using the traditional methods in order to reach the set goals. From this perspective, the introduction of Jack Remington as a new leader to work in the project team made Knowlton fear about his position and leadership.
Remington demonstrated the unique approach to solving the project problems in contrast to Knowlton’s traditional approach. Being unable to compete with Remington, Knowlton chose to leave the project and his position in the Si-Tech Laboratories.
As a result, the situation revealed such a problem experienced by Knowlton as the inability to accept his weaknesses and fears and transform the leadership strategy in order to achieve the higher results while leading the team.
Key Issue or the Major Problem Thus, the key issue associated with Knowlton’s case is his ineffective leadership which can be discussed as the leader’s inability to accept the undesirable situation, to face challenges, to work at overcoming the problem and improving the leadership style.
Knowlton did not accept the drawbacks of his leadership style which were revealed to him with references to Remington’s approach. Instead, the leader chose to hide his real attitude to Remington and his concerns associated with the newcomer’s approaches and the whole work of the team.
Sub-Issues and Problems Knowlton chose the ineffective strategy of hiding his real concerns and fears associated with Remington’s introduction to the team. As a result, Knowlton’s behaviour resulted in revealing such additional problems as the following ones:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knowlton failed to communicate openly to Dr. Jerrold about the leader’s concerns because of the fear to demonstrate his incertitude;
Knowlton focused on his fear to be discussed as a weak leader in comparison with Remington instead of addressing the issue directly;
The leader was not able to set the strict rules on the behaviour at meetings, on the order of presenting the ideas, and on the procedure of discussing the changes in the project as the rules could help him to avoid night calls and ineffective discussions during the meetings;
Knowlton became afraid of opposing Remington and admitted his leadership in spite of the team’s attitude and without any discussions of the issue;
Knowlton chose to leave his leadership position to Remington instead of reforming work in the team and stating his leadership as the project head;
The leader became involved in thinking about his fears and his leadership status in spite of communicating to the team.
Ego-Defence Mechanism Knowlton could not cope with the challenges he faced because the leader chose to focus on such an ego-defence mechanism as regression.
Having understood that Remington demonstrates another style of leadership and this approach can seem to be effective for the team, Knowlton chose to hide his ineffectiveness as a leader and leave the position of the project head instead of facing the possible challenge openly or organising the work in order to use Remington’s potential for the benefits of the team.
Bases of Power In spite of the fact that Knowlton could use the legitimate base of power because of his project head position and the expert power because of promoting the development of the photon correlator, the leader failed to draw upon on the referent and reward powers when Remington was introduced to the team.
Knowlton admitted that he cannot be respected in spite of the fact that he is the legitimate leader and failed to use the referent power. Furthermore, Knowlton rejected his expert power while focusing on Remington’s innovative approach to solving problems. The leader also ignored the advantages of the reward power important while working with the team.
Knowlton’s Leadership Style Knowlton’s leadership style can be discussed as democratic at the first stages of working with the team because of the necessity to build and stabilize an effective team. Furthermore, Knowlton has the features of a supporting and delegating leader who can not only support the team members’ positions but also delegate a range of responsibilities to them.
In addition, Knowlton can be discussed as the traditional leader instead of being a transformational leader. That is why, it was rather difficult for Knowlton to accept Remington’s unique approach to discussing the problems of the project.
The Managerial Profile of Bob Knowlton Knowlton’s strengths are the focus on the team members’ opinions and the focus on collaboration. Furthermore, Knowlton can build the effective team which can work to achieve the long-term goals. As a manager, Knowlton is interested in seeking the approval of the team members and Dr. Jerrold.
We will write a custom Case Study on Bob Knowlton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is why, Knowlton can be oriented to achieving the results which address the whole team’s expectations. From this point, Knowlton’s leadership style and approach are effective to work at the long-term projects.
However, there are also weaknesses in Knowlton’s approach which led him to losing his status of the leader. Knowlton is characterised by the low self-esteem which makes him seek the approval of all the co-workers in spite of their status. Furthermore, Knowlton’s self-confidence is also low because the leader became to doubt about his potential after Remington had joined the team.
Knowlton depends on the opinion and respect of other persons. In addition, the leader cannot communicate openly to the team members.
To address the weaknesses, it is important to help Knowlton to understand that his appointment as the project head is not a chance, but the real appreciation of the leader’s skills and competency. Knowlton should be trained to accept the situation and its consequences without focusing on the ineffective ego-defence mechanism.
Knowlton can be discussed as a good leader to work in a small team who respects his potential and perceives him as an expert. However, Knowlton failed to use the opportunity to demonstrate his leadership potential while facing the challenge of introducing a new leadership style into the team.
Thus, Knowlton did not state his leadership position. Bing characterised by the low self-esteem, Knowlton chose to accept the development of events which was not beneficial for him. Furthermore, understanding the team’s dissatisfaction associated with Remington’s leadership style, Knowlton ignored the opportunities to change the situation for better and to state his position of the leader.
Marketing Management: Building Brand Equity Report college essay help
Introduction Male Coffee Shop is one of the many coffee shops in the city of Male that has been in the market for the last eight years. This firm, just like many other coffee shops in this city, has been largely depending on the booming tourism industry in this city to support its operations.
With a total of twenty permanent employees, Male Coffee Shop is one of the leading coffee outlets that have successfully attracted a pool of customers who visit this city regularly. It is worrying that this firm, just like its market rivals, is operating without any a clear brand that can make it stand out as a unique firm.
Other than the name, this firm has made no effort to build a strong brand equity that may help it increase its competitiveness in the market. Brand equity is important for any firm that is operating in a competitive market environment (Keller 2003, p. 28).
Fisher and Vallaster (2008, p. 57) defines brand equity as “A brand’s power derived from the goodwill and name recognition that it has earned over time, which translates into higher sales volume and higher profit margins against competing brands.”
According to this definition, it is clear that brand equity is earned over a period of time, and it gives a firm power to earn higher profit margins over its competitors in case the brand is stronger in the market. In this report, the researcher seeks to develop an appropriate way through which Male Coffee Shop can develop strong brand equity.
Analysis According to Kotler and Keller (2012), it is important to understand the relevance of a brand in the market in order to realize the importance of building one within a particular industry. Male is one of the tourists’ destination cities in this region. Coffee is very popular among the tourists, and for this reason, several coffee shops have sprung up.
The problem that most of these shops face when it comes to attracting and retaining customers is lack of strong brands that can distinguish their products from one another. At the coffee shop where the researcher works, this problem has been persistent, and has limited the ability of the firm to outsmart its competitors despite its superior products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The only solution for this problem will be the development of a superior brand that will make the products of this firm distinguishable from those of other market rivals. The following are some of the general steps that can be followed when developing brand equity.
Choosing brand elements Brand elements refer to trademark devises which are used for the purpose of identification and differentiation of a brand in the market. These elements serve vital role in identifying a given brand in the market in a way that would enable customers to differentiate the existing brands in the market. Brand name is the first element of a brand (Parameswaran, 2006).
It is one of the most important elements of a brand because customers will rely on it when talking about superior brands in the market. The current name used by this firm can appropriately support its branding efforts. This name would help the marketing team of this firm to emphasize to the customers their unique capacity to prepare high quality coffee.
The brand symbol is another important element of brand that should be used to differentiate a firm’s brand from those of competing firms (Bergh
Primark’s Entry into the Brazilian Market Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Brief Synopsis of the Issue This proposal is informed by the expressed need for Primark, a British-owned, Irish clothing retailer, to enter into the Brazilian market as part of the firm’s internalisation orientation.
The strategic proactive decision to compete in the Brazilian market arises out of the firm’s deliberate policy to exploit foreign market potential and growth, diversify markets through opportunistic global market development, and follow customers abroad to entrench customer satisfaction (Agergaard 2010).
Primark stands to gain competitively and strategically through the application of this market entry proposal to market its products in Brazil.
Recommendations Primark should develop and implement a strong brand image to successfully compete with other established apparel stores operating in Brazil, such as Zara and Mango;
Primark should use the vast knowledge and experience gained in expanding its operations into markets considered as physically close (European markets) to successfully internationalise its operations in Brazil;
Primark should consider establishing an apparel factory in Brazil to cut down on logistics costs involved in transporting products from far-away Asian countries into the Brazilian market; and
Primark should enter into the Brazilian market by establishing a wholly owned subsidiary through the acquisition of already existing firms.
Background Although Primark’s main headquarters are in Dublin, Ireland, it is evident that the firm’s entry into other European markets (e.g., Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) has successfully positioned it as a reputable seller of fashionable clothes at the low cost end of the market.
In all these markets, the entry mode has always been through acquisitions or direct foreign investments. However, the Brazilian market presents new challenges that warrant comprehensive analysis, particularly in light of the market’s geographic proximity, cultural and social issues in Brazil, as well as political and regulatory frameworks.
Extant literature demonstrates that although Brazil has one of the largest commodity stocks and a high population with a quickly mounting purchasing power for consumer products and services, it nevertheless has a high tax regime and a bureaucracy that necessitates much patience on the part of firms wishing to enter the country’s markets (Agergaard 2010).
It is important to note that this is Primark’s second attempt to enter international markets outside of the confines of the European Union after successfully entering the United States market, hence the need for careful analysis and evaluation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The remainder of this market entry proposal is organised as follows: first, a concise analysis of market opportunities (country-level analysis) is provided. An analysis of Brazil’s attractiveness (risks, costs, benefits) is then provided, followed by a concise situation analysis of Primark using the SWOT analysis framework. In the following section, an analysis of the firm’s readiness to enter the Brazilian market is undertaken.
Afterwards, issues of global sourcing, production and logistics are assessed, followed by a critical analysis of the firm’s market entry strategy, along with a discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed entry mode.
In the final section, a step-by-step approach to the implementation of the proposed strategy is discussed, followed by an analysis of the benefits and potential barriers to successful implementation and evaluation of the market entry strategy.
Analysis of Market Opportunities in Brazil (Country-Level Analysis) The choice of which country to enter is of immense importance to the internalising firm, and requires considerable deliberation and analysis on the market opportunities existing in the country and if such opportunities will lead to a firm’s competitive advantage (Douglas
Tourism in Shanghai Dissertation writing essay help: writing essay help
Abstract Tourism is one of the largest and major industries in the world. The sector has become a major source of income for numerous economies. Its significance is growing by the day. China, as the most populous country in the world, is projected to become a major market for both inbound and outbound tourists.
Consequently, Chinese authorities in the various provinces are promoting tourism in their regimes to attract both local and foreign visitors. Recently, the number of European tourists travelling to China has increased. The proposed study is an exploration of Shanghai to create a tourism experience for the European traveller.
Various factors leading to this experience are analysed in the study. In addition, the factors that can facilitate more European tourists visiting Shanghai are explored.
Introduction Background Information
One of the major industries in the world today, and which is exhibiting considerable growth in importance, is that of tourism. The industry is a substantial source of income and employment in numerous economies worldwide. In addition, it is of social importance to many people. China currently boasts of the world’s largest population.
It is predicted that the country is going to become a major source of global tourists in the 21st century. On the other hand, the country is also becoming a major tourist attraction. China’s opening up to the world in the last few decades has greatly enhanced its image as a popular tourist destination.
Various Chinese cities are competing to become number one foreign tourist destinations. To this end, these cities are coming up with measures to woo more tourists. Some of these popular destinations include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Chengdu.
In the recent past, diplomatic relations between the European states (EU) and China have improved. For instance, more than 50 dialogues are currently taking place between the two sides through annual summits (Pantucci 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The dialogues focus on three major pillars. The three are economic and sectoral, strategic, and people-to-people relations between the two economies (Pantucci 2012). Tourism between the two regions falls under the people-to-people diplomatic concerns. China is undertaking considerable measures to make its cities major tourist destinations for the Europeans.
Shanghai, as one of the large metropolitans in China, is a very popular tourist destination for both locals and foreigners. The various sites of attraction in the city create a unique tourism experience, giving the metropolis a major ranking globally. The authorities are putting in place measures to woo large numbers of tourists from Europe.
According to Bayes (2004), Shanghai is a Chinese city with an allure of its own. It is characterised by a combination of western and local cultures. The city is sophisticated and cultured. In addition, it is emerging as a major economic powerhouse in China. Western visitors are usually amazed by its air of mystery.
Some recent developments, however, threaten to jeopardise the standing of this region on the global tourist market. For example, in the recent past, China had not been very open to the world, and especially to the western countries.
According to Lew and Yu (1995), before the 1970’s economic reforms, the country shunned external relations with other countries. Instead, the country focused on domestic industries, suppressing major economic relations with foreigners, including tourism engagements.
The post 1978 economic reforms in China led to an open door policy, which has been a significant driver to the rapid development in the country. For instance, China has made considerable progress in foreign investments. The country has invested in more than 5973 enterprises outside its territories, with tourism being one of them (Lew 2001; Zhang 1995).
Prior to the reforms, the country had very restrictive policies determining who entered as a tourist (Gareth
“Why I Don’t Do Crossfit” by Erin Simmons Analytical Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Fallacy of Hasty Generalization
Issue of Insufficient Logical Connection
Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance
Introduction The article “Why I Don’t Do Crossfit” by Erin Simmons, the author writes about her perception regarding the training regimen associated with Crossfit (a popular fitness craze in the U.S.) and how it is supposedly a bad form of exercise to do.
Fallacy of Hasty Generalization One of the first indicators that this is a bad argument is the hasty generalization the author makes regarding Crossfit. She states that the high rates of injury along with bad form and flawed exercise routines are a constant throughout all Crossfit gyms. This is a hasty generalization since the author herself has not attended every single Crossfit gym and underwent their various training regimens.
Thus, attributing the problems associated with some of the gyms to all of the gyms is a fallacy since there is no direct evidence to support that all Crossfit gyms have the same negligent practices.
This is not to say though that Crossfit is not to blame due to the lack of sufficient oversight regarding the training practices its various gyms employ, however, when taking into consideration the fact some gyms actually have competent trainers shows how what applies to a few gyms does not necessarily apply to all of them.
Issue of Insufficient Logical Connection The second indicator of the argument showcasing a flawed position is its analysis of the injury rate of Crossfit and how it immediately equates into the activity being bad for you. Utilizing logical thinking to analyze such a position, it initially seems that the author does have a good point. Getting injured does not contribute towards a person’s well being, as such, Crossfit must be bad then.
However, when delving deeper into logical reasoning, you must take into consideration the fact that there are other forms of physical activity that people enjoy that also cause them to be injured. Sports such as football, soccer, basketball, skateboarding and bike riding also have prodigious amounts of injuries associated with them.
Do note though that even if these activities do have their share of injuries, people do not immediately stop doing them. The same logical conclusion can also be applied to Crossfit wherein just because people are getting injured does not mean that this form of physical activity is detrimental or dangerous when other physical activities have similar or even higher rates of injury.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fallacy of Appealing to Ignorance The third indicator of why this is a bad argument is how the author is guilty of a second fallacy (appealing to ignorance) wherein they connote their personal experience as applying to what other people must also be experiencing. In the article, the author states that as an athlete, they have experienced a plethora of training regimens that focused on developing them into a better, stronger and faster competitor.
The intensely vetted and scientific process behind each and every single range of motion exercise she went through was done in order to limit injury and maximize strength. She then concludes that based on her own personal experience and her observations regarding the differences in the Crossfit routines from what she did; Crossfit from her own perspective must be bad.
The main issue with this type of argument is that it ignores the fact that what applies to one person may not necessarily apply to another.
While her training regimen was effective for her, it may not apply to someone who is not as athletically gifted as her or on the other end of the spectrum would be insufficient for a person that is more athletically gifted. Not only that, the training regimen she underwent when she tested Crossfit could be far different than what is given to other people at different Crossfit affiliates.
Conclusion Overall, while the author does present a good case as to why a person should not join a Crossfit gym, there are numerous problems with her given argument that detract from the viability of her statements.
Organisational Change at HBSC Report best essay help: best essay help
Abstract HSBC recognises the capacity of an organisation to achieve the needs of its owners and other interest groups depending on their ability to maintain a competitive advantage. Human resource comprises one of the important resources at the disposal of the organisation, which while utilised appropriately, help in terms of maintaining and increasing the organisation’s competitive advantage.
The organisation faced a situation, which prompted the adoption of change to enhance its effectiveness in executing its HR functions. It implemented an organisational change plan that led to moving all HR-related employee queries into online web-based systems.
Previously all employees addressed their queries directly to the HR department. The current paper analyses this change situation and its implementation in the context of literature in organisational change management.
Introduction Organisations that endeavour to acquire long-term success keep on changing their ways of executing business. The most appropriate changes ensure that organisations become more profitable. Geopolitical, demographic, and technological changes in conjunction with the intense pressure on physical environments pose the need for organisational change.
Such changes also need to be combined with various security concerns and governance issues that help generate pressures that drive organisational change (Burke 2014).
Development of consciousness for scientific, opinionated, sociological, and financial characteristics of the exterior operational atmosphere of an organisation is crucial in the effort to drive strategic initiatives for its success. Change may involve proactive and reactive approaches.
While change in most cases is adopted when a new way of serving clients or a need in the market arises, it may also be adopted when a crisis occurs. Indeed, organisations, which have the capacity to identify the need for change before factors that prompt its necessity interfere negatively with their operations, stand better competitive advantage compared to those that adopt reactive approaches to implement change (Burke 2014).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Change that is implemented upon the occurrence of crisis translates to high organisational costs and a lower probability recovery from the lost competitive advantage. As revealed in the paper, this situation was avoided in case of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited.
Background to the Case of HSBC Bank Middle East Limited HSBC bank Middle East Limited has its headquarters situated in Jersey. It comprises the biggest bank that operates in the Middle East region and in more than 70 others places across the globe. This stretch makes HSBC a global and regional product that is managed through several networks across the Middle East.
In particular, the bank has operations in Lebanon, Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan (HSBC 2014). The size of an organisation correlates with its ability to employ a large number of people from diverse backgrounds, and hence the higher the number of employees that the HR arm has to handle.
In the effort to create a culture that encourages work-life balance for employees, the speed and efficiency in the expedition of strategies for addressing employee human resource-related issues became an important problem that HSBC Bank Middle East Limited needed to address.
Corporations across different industries are interested in maintaining their levels of competitiveness for continued delivery of value to their owners or shareholders. In fact, Van de and Poole (2005, p.395) reckon, ‘any organisation in today’s fast moving environment that is looking for the pace of change to slow is likely to be sorely disappointed’.
This claim suggests that organisations must welcome and embrace change that will increase their performance. Zhou and Tse (2006) support this line of argument by claiming that organisations, which reluctantly embrace change risk losing their competitive edge. Therefore, they suffer the capacity to realise the need of their clients.
HSBC Bank Middle East Limited understood that while operating in an environment of technological change, increasing its speed of expedition of the employee human resource-related issue was the key to resolving challenges, which may result in with employee conflict.
We will write a custom Report on Organisational Change at HBSC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of waiting for crisis to occur, the management resolved to implement online web-based system to resolve employee HR-related queries. The next sections analyse this situation from the paradigm of organisational theories of change.
Diagnosing and Planning Change HSBC Bank Middle East Limited sought to implement HRIS (Human Resource Information System) to facilitate the execution of its HR activities electronically. The system provided several applications, including payroll management application, recruitment management application, and leave attendance and performance management application among others.
Via the system, employees could also have access to any information on their employment status, including changes in rewards system among other information of individual interest.
Web 2.0 technologies were utilised to provide employee accessibility to the system through internet at all times. It had a capability of producing customised information. This flexibility solved many of the problems as it made it easy for employees to acquire individualised responses from the HR.
The organisation’s move to adopt the change was to boost the ability of resolution of employee issues via two-way online-based communication mechanisms. This change was to enable the organisation raise its interactive capability with a large number of employees to minimise the probability of occurrence of organisational conflicts. HSBC Bank Middle East implemented the system before any conflicts were registered.
In this extent, the change that was implemented at the organisation was passive in nature. Change management theory suggests that organisations incredibly benefit by implementing a change that leads to the creation of new mechanisms of addressing customer needs (Oxtoby, McGuiness
Role of Organizational Culture Research Paper college essay help near me
Role of Organizational Culture in Change management The role of organizational culture as a factor influencing successful change in organization becomes apparent when two organizations with different culture or organizations from two different national cultures are merged together. Organizational culture influences various phases of change and most importantly the implementation process of change.
Culture becomes an important factor that influences change when organizational, rather than individual, change is brought into effect. However, in the 1980s emphasis was laid on the importance of culture as a change management agent, but recently researchers have branded culture as an obsolete tool for change management.
This paper will discuss literature that demonstrates the role of organizational or corporate culture on the change management. The literature review is divided into sections dealing with theories of organizational culture, the impact of culture on change management, how culture can be an impediment to change, and the recent literatures that shows the effect culture has on change management.
Organizational culture and Adaptability Culture has been a strong influence in the functioning of the social organization. Social scientists have often produced annals of work relating the relative effectiveness of culture on the functioning of organization. Denison and Mishra (1995) studied organizational culture and demonstrated the organizational effectiveness of culture.
Organizational culture is defined as a “clan” that can effectively motivate the functioning of the organization (Denison