Obesity: Health Or Feminist Issue? Analytical Essay Essay Help

Obesity is one of the urgent problems of the modern society. These days, this problem bothers minds of almost all women around the world. There are many issues related to the problem of overweight, the discussions are spreading far behind the health problems related to obesity, they reach cultural, social and psychological dimensions. When it comes to obesity issue, most of us will readily agree that it is rather a female problem than a male one.

In the light of pursuit of modern women to correspond to contemporary ideals of beauty and, at the same time to be independent of the social standards, obesity becomes a feminist issue, as it is widely considered to be a “rebellion against the powerlessness of the woman, against the pressure to look and act in a certain way and against being evaluated on her ability to create an image of herself” (Orbach 204).

There this agreement usually ends, however, on the question of woman’s independence and her health, the issue of obesity provides a topic for further discussions.

Whereas some are convinced that obesity is a rebellion against social standards, others maintain that obesity is entirely a health and psychological problem that cannot be associated with feminism and should be discussed only as a medical issue. I’m of two minds about the issue of obesity. On the one hand, I agree that women should fight with standards of beauty that are laid upon them by means of media and ideal appearance of top models that look at ordinary women from glance magazines and ads.

On the other hand, I’m not sure if overweight can be a good means to fight against sex inequality and means to proclaim woman’s independence. Thus, I argue that obesity is a big problem, but one should not run to extremes and take obesity only as “a response to the inequality of the sexes” (Orbach 204), but it should regard it as a health problem as well.

Indeed, it goes without saying that even in a modern society woman cannot be completely equal to man. This inequality goes much further than social right and other political or social issues. The problem lies much deeper and it deal with stereotypes and psychology of both sexes. Modern media provides two images of a woman, thus dictating priorities for her and dividing her life in two major periods.

The first period is when she is not married and should find a man to create a future family: during this period she should be pretty and sexy. The second period is her family life when she should support her husband and children and be a perfect “mistress”. This woman’s “functions” are not emphasized, but widely provided and create stereotypes. In addition, the relationships between man and women are identified as “man looks at women.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Woman watches themselves being looked at” (Orbach 202). Consequently, this makes a woman to be responsible for her “good look” and emphasizes “presentation as the central aspect of a woman’s existence and makes her extremely self-conscious” (Orbach 202). Such situation can be commented with words by Susie Orbach that “the woman’s body is not her own (203). In their fight against these stereotypes, feminists claim that:

“Being fat represents an attempt to break free of society’s sex stereotype. Getting fat can thus be understood as a definite and purposeful act; it is a direct, conscious or unconscious, challenge to sex-role stereotyping and culturally defined experience of womanhood” (Orbach 201).

In this light, being fat can be considered as an attempt to show one’s individuality and independence. However, is this the only reason why women put weight? Yves Engler claims that “advertising fatty foods and putting delicious looking pictures for all to see is the cause of our fat” (120). Indeed, in some extend we are forced to be dependent on fatty food and fast food which is around us. It can even become a psychological addiction.

Hardly a woman who eats a hamburger is too concerned about her independency and individuality. Randy Balko writes that “the main cause of obesity lies within a person’s own responsibility” (343). Thus, if you are fat, it is all your responsibility. Orbach partially supports these opinions, but she still emphasizes that women eat fat food not because they do not have a willpower, but rather because they want to ruin the social norms and ideals provided by the media industry.

It is obvious that having a perfect body is a mania, rather than a desire to be healthy:

“In the United States, a woman with a lean, strong, and well-sculpted body is the ideal. Many who do not fit the ideal struggle with feelings of guilt and shame. The percentage of women with body image disturbance is alarming and those with overweight and obesity struggle to meet the ideal” (Buxton 285)

In this light, women should deal with pressure to confront to the perfect stereotype from the glance magazine, but as it has already been mentioned, she should not run to extremes. I argue that obesity is an extreme, as it is also associated with health problems.

We will write a custom Essay on Obesity: Health or Feminist Issue? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The health problems related to obesity include “coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon), hypertension (high blood pressure), dyslipidemia, stroke, liver and gallbladder disease, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, gynecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility)” (“Overweight and Obesity” n. p.). Thus, one question arises: “Is it worth being fat, but independent if it impacts your heal so much?”

I support the idea, that obesity is a problem and feminists should not proclaim it as a form of rebellion against social standards. Moreover, “As one talks about the body, in addition to the physical dimensions, one must also consider cultural, political, and symbolic construct. Each of these four dimensions impact the psychological dimension of the body or body image” (Buxton 285). People are different and their bodies are also very different.

Consequently, all people have different attitudes to the way a woman should look like. In fact, tastes differ and it does not mean that all men like only slim women and all girls should be thin or fat to show their individuality. Fat is not good for one’s health. Thus, if feminists use obesity as a form of rebel, it can be said that they use health problem as a form of rebel as well.

Thus, obesity is the issue that should not be taken lightly. It cannot be used for ideological or personal purposes. Whereas obesity breaks social standards, it impacts greatly one’s health. In this light, I strongly support the idea that one should keep within limits and develop wise attitudes towards his/her health, as well as appearance.

Works Cited Barbara K. Buxton. “Body Image and Women: How Does Obesity Fit into the Picture”Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient Care, 3(4): 285-290. Web.

Balko, Radley. “What You Eat Is Your Business”. In They Say I Say, The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing (With Readings). Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Berkenstein, and Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2009.

Engler, Yves. “Obesity: Much of the Responsibility Lies with Corporations.” In They Say I Say, The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing (With Readings). Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Berkenstein, and Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2009.

Orbach, Susie. “Fat as a Feminist Issue.” In They Say I Say, The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing (With Readings). Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Berkenstein, and Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2009.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Obesity: Health or Feminist Issue? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.


Color and Light Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory of Light and Colour

Measuring light wave

Formation of colours

Measure of wavelengths

Perception of Colour

The colour


Works Cited

Introduction How do we see colour? What enables visual perspective? Most people wonder how they experience different colour shades. The exploration of colour and light requires one to understand the concept of waves. Waves have the high and low volts that make up a wavelength. “The length of the wave determines its energy for instance, a long wave has a low energy or frequency, while a short wave has high energy” (Riley, 138).

The visible rainbow colours are therefore wavelengths of different magnitudes. The sun emits/radiates some waves within the visible wave-range and the human eye interprets this range as colours of the rainbow. According to Riley, the wavelength is the distance between the chests of one wave to the other and is denoted by the Greek symbol ‘Lambda’, ‘λ’ (138). The colours are known as visible spectrum of colours namely red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Therefore, the light’s wavelength gradually increases from violet to red.

Theory of Light and Colour History in the physics lesson indicates that Isaac Newton was the inventor of light since 1672; he applied the logic of a prism to discover that the prism could split the sunlight to various colours often referred to as colours of the rainbow. This arrangement of colours was due to difference of the light wavelength (Shapiro, 287).

The signature used to identify colour is therefore its wavelength, measured in nanometre (nm). Later, James Clerk Maxwell advanced Isaac Newton’s discovery by proving that light is a form of electromagnetic emission that contains waves of different magnitudes, mainly the visible light, the radio waves and the X-rays waves (Shapiro, 287).

Considering that light is an electromagnetic wave, then colour exists as part of this wavelength. Human sense of sight enables them to discover colour in the light wave. In line with Gurney, the violet colour has the shortest wavelength within the visible light while red has the longest (37).

According to Gurney, the definition of visible light can therefore be “the range of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum that the eye responds to” (37). However, the human eye fails to respond to the radiation of longer and shorter wavelengths than the visible light segments.

Measuring light wave “The units for measuring the distance in a metric scale is nanometre abbreviated as nm, which is a very small scales since it is equivalent to one millionths of a meter (1 nm = 10-9 m)” (Gibson, 17). The resolution of one nanometre is therefore too minute for clear visibility in an optical microscope.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The micron (µm) is equivalent to 1000 nm and therefore can be resolved on the microscope. Measuring the wavelength in microns makes it to become visible, but in comparison to other objects such as thickness of human hair or paper, the wave is very minute. These objects are hundreds microns bigger than the visible light wave (Gibson, 17).

Formation of colours Light is an electromagnetic spectrum that is easily detectable through naked eye. It is a mixture of various colours split into different lengths depending on their wavelength differences. According to Dixon and Smith, the human eye can see a wavelength of approximately 400-700 nm (9).

The light wave is absorbed, transmitted or reflected. Any of these actions depend on the surfaces since the surface gives the wave its required colour range. If all the colours of the wavelength hit a surface and gets absorbed, then that surface is black, denoting that no light is reflected.

The white light for instance the sunlight is a combination of various colours, and when it falls on an object, the object absorbs all wavelengths that interact with its molecules or electrons and reflects a certain wavelengths to the observer’s eye (Shapiro, 287). In line with Shapiro, the dull object will absorb white light while the bright objects reflect (287). The colour of an object is therefore determined by the specific wavelength of light that the object absorbs.

For instance, an object that absorbs the red wavelength of the white light and reflects all the other lengths is seen as green. An object may appear red because it has absorbed the red colour and reflected all the remaining wavelengths, this is due to the reason that the two colours complement each other in a similar manner as the orange does to blue or yellow to violet. Contrary, the transparent objects transmit white light. The diagram below illustrates the reflection light on a blue surface.

Measure of wavelengths Different wavelengths are compared to a standard measure known as the electromagnetic spectrum. “The infrared and radio waves are often on the extensive wavelengths, thus on the long side of the electromagnetic spectrum, while the wavelength of the x-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet (UV) light are short wavelengths thus falling on the short side” Dixon and Smith (30). According to Dixon and Smith, the wavelengths with shorter than 400nm are not visible to the naked human eye (30).

Human beings can therefore not sense wavelengths of measures greater than seven hundred nm. The white light is made of various protons that differ depending on the colour they represent due to energy differences. These protons create various pulsating turbulence on the wavelength, which determines the colour of an object ranging from red to violet. The diagram below illustrates the light wave spectrum.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Color and Light specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perception of Colour The definition of colour is consequently the spectrum of energy that enters the human eyes. Human eyes have cells called rods and cones on the retina that absorb light and assist in distinguishing between various colours (Dixon and Smith, 30). The rods assist in diffusing light and therefore support in sensing differences of reflections and in determining differences in light intensity. In dim lighting people perceive coloured objects as grey shades, therefore the retina has three sets of cones, which are all good receptors of light.

The colour of an object depends on the light wave sent to the eye from all the possible variations of colours in the sunlight. Every human being sees different variations of colours, thus different shades due to uniqueness of the cells, mainly the rods and cones. The colour pigments are different from light waves since they are made of various colours.

Pigments are made of mainly three primary colours; red, blue and yellow, three secondary colours; violet, orange and green and six tertiary colours made by mixing a primary and a secondary colour. The pigments are materials that either let colours to pass through or absorb them (Gurney, 38).

On the other hand, the primary light colours are blue, red and green and secondary light colours are magenta, cyan and yellow. Mixing of light colours causes formation of an additive that eventually leads to formation of white light. The splitting of light can also be addressed as a subtractive procedure since some of the light wavelengths are absorbed and the only visible wavelengths are those that are carefully given off during the process. The three colour codes of the white light enhance perception of other colours (Gurney, 38).

The colour Colour is made of three main factors namely hue, luminance and saturation. Type of colour depends on these three factors for instance, hue is the shade of a colour and saturation is the pureness of the hue. Luminance is the description given when defining a colour as either light or dark.

People who have difficulties of perceiving the red and green pigments suffer from a problem associable to colour blindness since they lack the red and green colour pigments. According to Gurney, the difficulties of making out the green to red ratio are a defect mainly associable to X-chromosomes and therefore affect men more than women (139).

Conclusion Some colours have negative effects for instance those on a bright light waves that reflect more light. They may cause eye irritation or cause headaches for instance the bright yellows on surfaces or on computer washouts. The bright colours are thus able to reflect more light waves into the eye and cause irritation or straining.

The bright colours are thus used to attract people attention for instance on posters of road signs. Colours also influence moods, for instance the blue colour can rein in the appetite for food since food do not naturally exist in blue. There are colours that comfort the sense of sight for instance green, which is known to sooth and comfort. The colour may therefore be perfect for a work scenario to curb possible work-related signs of fatigue.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Color and Light by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Dixon, Malcolm. and Smith Karen. Light and colour: Young Scientists Investigate Series. London, UK: Evans Brothers, 2005. Print.

Gibson, Gary. Light and Colour: Fun Science Projects Series. Franklin Watts Books. 2009. Print.

Gurney, James. Colour and Light: A Guide for the Realist Painter. Missouri, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2010. Print.

Riley, Peter. Light and Colour: Making Sense of Science Series. Franklin Watts Books. 2008. Print.

Shapiro, Alan E. Fits, Passions and Paroxysms: Physics, Method and Chemistry and

Newton’s Theories of Coloured Bodies and Fits of Easy Reflection. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2009. Print.


How Theater was used in the Soviet Union Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Theater in the Soviet Union

Problems facing theatre in the Soviet Union




Introduction The Soviet Union included the modern day Russian Federation and other states around that include Ukraine, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Kazakhstan among others. During the time, Soviet Union was the most powerful world’s power. Its might can be traced back in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. It remained powerful until 1992 when it collapsed.

Over the past, the Soviet Union has been in conflict with the United States. This led to cold war between these leading powers. In the Soviet Union, theater played a major role in the state since it was used as a major tool in promoting individual interests.

The formation of the Soviet Union can be traced back in 1917 when the people got tired of the monarchy system which, was led by Czar Nicholas II. [1] In those times, most people in the Russia supported the socialism system, a form of production where the means of production are owned communally by the society. In 1922, the revolutionary regime got victory where it succeeded in forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[2]. The main goals of the union were formation of a powerfully economic base.

As already noted, theater played a significant role in the Soviet Union. The industry attracted the attention of many people for entertainment as well as informing purposes. Theater in the Soviet Union was to some extent controlled by the government. This was in an attempt to protect their interests.

For instance, the leaders did not condone plays which reflected negative acts in the leadership. For instance, leaders seriously opposed performances which displayed corruption in the government. Theatre was a major tool which was used during the early revolution. This is due to influence it has on people.

Theater in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union has a very interesting cultural heritage in theatre. One of these theaters is the Leningrad’s Theatre and Moscow’s Bolshoi Theater.[3] These attracted many people across the globe who visited the Soviet Union to be entertained. These performances were performed in huge festive halls which accommodated a large number of audiences.[4]

The Soviet Union recognized the contributions by the performers who performed on the Soviet Theater arenas. In connection to this, the performers were given certain benefits which encouraged them to put more efforts in their performances. For instance, the performers enjoyed world wide travel, state honors and luxurious apartment as rewards for their contributions in terms of arts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, these performers were encouraged due to the recognition of their efforts by the state. They shared more time rehearsing which maintain high level performances in the Soviet Union theatre. However their performances were to be directed by the needs of the leaders. Otherwise they were not entertained.

In the Soviet Union Theater, the artists who followed the regime’s theatre guidelines were accorded special recognition for their artistic performances. However, those artists who deviated away from the regimes or who demonstrated views which were never reflected by the regime’s artistic standards faced a lot of shame.[5] However, their performances still entertained their audience. They fulfilled partial part of the requirements but failed to meet the cultural needs.

Between 1930 and 1941, there was cinema of Stalinism. This was during Salin’s regime who was a dictator of the time in the Soviet Union. During this period, Stalinist communism party decided to make transformations in cultural and economic perspectives. In this period, the economy was transformed from the market based system to the central planning system.[6]

This was followed by a declaration which insisted on the Cultural Revolution. Under this revolution, the party was over the control of the cultural changes. During this period, another bureaucratic entity known as Soyuzkino was created in 1930,[7] Through these revolutions, all the studios’ in the Soviet Union were to be coordinated by the planning agency under Salin’s leadership.

Therefore, this revolution meant that the studios were no longer going to be independent. They will now be under Salin’s leadership who was a dictator. He therefore controlled what was to be produced and what did not deserve production. Consequently, he used this opportunity to advance his powers. He only allowed production of materials which promoted his regime. He did not entertain any criticism of the prevailing arrangements.

Under this system, the process of developing script became complicated, torturous and unnecessarily too long. This was due to the complexities which were associated with the bureaucratic system. Before the scripts could be accepted, they had to pass through a number of committee members to be reviewed.[8]

The composers were sometimes forced to make changes on their drafts. They had to cut some parts or revise on others accordingly. Consequently, film projects were critically affected which led to poor quality production. Script writers were not free to express their minds freely. Sometimes they were forced to erase some critical points in the scripts which may be carrying influential impact on the entire production.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How Theater was used in the Soviet Union specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the artists were forced to erase some parts which represented the theme of their work. This curtails their creativity. For instance, productivity levels declined sharply from 1930’s. For instance, the production of the industry fell to only forty five per year in 1934 from one hundred features in the early 1930’s.[9] This directly reveals the negative impact of the centralized regime in the cinema industry.

During the same time, USSR illegalized any contacts between the region and the West through the exchange of films. Importation of films from West was banned with the fear that they will contaminate the natives with the capitalist ideologies. This implies that theater played a significant role in driving the people’s emotions. It can easily influence the audience to change their stands. Therefore, theatre was a significant tool which was used by the leaders in maintaining order in the society.

For instance, by restricting the types of film reaching the people, the leadership prevents any resistance to the prevailing arrangements. The prevailing system in the Soviet Union was communism while capitalism was prevalent in the West. Therefore, the Western films reflected capitalism while the Soviet Union films reflected socialism. Therefore, any interaction may lead to a rise in revolutions to reject the communism regime.

In the Soviet Union, theater was also used in terms of Social Realism. Social Realism played a pivotal role in promoting socialism. Social realism played a major role in promoting the goals communism and socialism. In other words, this type of realistic art was used by the leadership in attaining their goals. It was used in promoting the importance of having society organized as a communist rather than capitalism. As already noted, these films were used like tools by the leaders in order to avoid resistance of the prevailing system.

During Salin’s regime, formulaic and doctrinaire films ended up being formed due to the restrictive measures imposed in the theatre industry. Some of the cinema which succeeded in attracting the attention of the masses was Chapayev. It received great support from the majority of the people. This film reflected socialism and involved Red Army commander where Chapayev fought for revolutionary cause.

In the Soviet Union, one of the famous artists was Vladimir. Although he did not live long, he attracted a big crowd of people who were interest need in his performances. This artist died of heart attack as a result of excessive alcoholism.[10] These artists have attracted the attention of his fans long after his death. His memory has not yet dissolved as most of his fans have been crowding over his burial place in his memory.

Vladimir played major parts as Hamlet in tutelage of Tagaka. He attracted many followers through his performances which criticized the failures of the leadership in the time. In fact, his music and poetry was once banned in the Soviet Union for exposing the poverty, corruption, and elitism in the prevailing regime. Later in 1980’s, Liubimov, who was Vladimir’s guide in his performance continued to make contributions in theater even some time after his exile. While abroad, he continued to produce theatric materials like masterpieces.

In 1980’s, theatre received a major boost after receiving a high degree of liberalization. Performers free to conduct independent work in literature as well as cinemas. There were little interventions by the leadership.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Theater was used in the Soviet Union by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The artists could then select the plays of their interests without restrictions on the regimes and other requirements. Different artists could also organize themselves in groups which improved on their performance. Another development which took place during this period was the replacement of the old directors with younger directors.

This also encouraged changes in performances as the leadership was now diversified. That is, both and young people had a say liberalization was followed by a series of plays which reflected the current political regime. For instance, Shatrov produced neo-Leninist work called Dictatorship of Conscience which criticized unfaithful communists in the time. In other words, this liberalization significantly boosted the performance in the theater during this period as it allowed free creativity in presentations.

The Bolshevik Revolution had a significant impact on theatre and was seen as a major potential tool for reproduction of socialist ideas.[11] During this time, many theater directors supported the revolution which significantly promoted its success. For instance, Meierkhol’d who presented pre-revolutionary productions which were totally dedicated to the revolution.[12] In other words, theater was also used in promoting revolutions. Theatre was very powerful tool in the time as it cultivated support from the masses.[13]

Meanwhile, Meierkhol’d demanded for the changes in the existing traditions in theater industry. For instance, he demanded for independence of theatre industry that was free from being used by the state as a tool of the state or party propaganda. Theater had for long been used by parties a tool for spreading propaganda. Art was completely politicized and every script reflected political affiliation.

Theatre in the Soviet Union reflected the cultural backgrounds. The images presented reflected the cultural patterns in the region.[14] Although the artists were driven by the needs of the politicians, they integrated cultural aspects in their work.

Problems facing theatre in the Soviet Union Theatre in the Soviet Union experienced a number of problems. One of the major problems was related to the states. In most cases, artists used their performances and literature to criticize unjust practices in the government. This involved dirty politics which entertained corruption, poverty, war and other vices. On the other hand, the leadership did not welcome such critics, this created led to loggerheads between the leadership and the artists.

One of the main problems which faced theatre in the Soviet Union was restrictions posed by them by the government. Liubimov was forced to go in exile for his productions which criticized the negative government practices like wars, corruption and the poverty this had engulfed some fraction of the population.

Later, he was forced to move to abroad due to threats by the government. These practices significantly affected the performance of the artists in the Soviet Union. Some artists were intimidated by the government who were forced to produce and act accordingly.

However, their performance rarely reflected the society; it rather presented the needs of the leaders. As already noted, artistic performances must reflect the society in which it is directed. However, political interference led to loss of meaning due to the interventions by the leaders. The performance rarely reflected the real life in the society. It was a mare reflection of an ideal society directed by the leaders in order to protect their own interests.

These restrictions negatively affected the creativity of the artists. Their ability to come up with creative playwrights was significantly affected. Their talents were somehow restricted to some extent.

This led to stagnation of the theater performances in the Soviet Union. However, some of the artists like Liubimov who managed to go to abroad continued with their work uninterrupted. For those who remained, they were forced to conform to the policies from the prevailing regime. However, these restrictions were softened in 1985 after liberalization which created freer theatre environment.

The artists faced a lot of brutality in because of demonstrating ideas differing from the leadership. For instance, Meierkhol’d and his wife who was also an actress was killed in 1940.[15] All this resulted from the views they expressed through their work. Many other directors in the theatre industry in the Soviet Union were also killed over similar allegations.

In 1930’s, dramatic writing was dominated by the Socialist realism. Most of the work which was produced during the time promoted the realization of the communism goals. That is, the goals of the collective society needs rather than individual goals.

Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that theater was very important in the Soviet Union. It was used to reflect the prevailing regime. The artists were expected to conform to the prevailing regime. Those artists who conformed were highly rewarded and give state honor.

Those who didn’t were ashamed due to lack of adherence. Leaders used their leadership powers to control theatre in the Soviet Union. For instance, plays which criticized the prevailing leadership were restricted. In fact, some artists who failed to adhere to these directions were forced to go to exile while others were killed. In other words, the leaders in the Soviet Union used theatre to meet their interests.

Bibliography Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema of Stalinism: 1930–1941. Web.

Cornwell, N. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001.

Croft, C. Ballet Nations: The New York City Ballet’s 1962 US State Department–Sponsored Tour of the Soviet Union. Theatre Journal. Volume 61, Number 3, October 2009, pp. 421-442

Tsivian, Y. and Taylor, R. Early Cinema in Russia and Its Cultural Reception. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Veidlinger, J. The Moscow State Yiddish Theater: Jewish Culture On The Soviet Stage. U.S.A.: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Wisegeek. What is the Soviet Union? 2003. Web.

Zickel, R. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989. Web.

Footnotes Wisegeek. What is the Soviet Union? 2003.

Wisegeek. Par 3.

Raymond E. Zickel. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989.

Clare Croft. Ballet Nations: The New York City Ballet’s 1962 US State Department–Sponsored Tour of the Soviet Union. Theatre Journal. Volume 61, Number 3, October 2009, pp. 421-442. p.30

Raymond E. Zickel. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989.

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Anonymous. Russia and Soviet Union: The Cinema Of Stalinism: 1930–1941

Raymond E. Zickel. Soviet Union; Theater. 1989.

Neil Cornwell. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 209.

Neil Cornwell. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 209.

Jeffrey Veidlinger. The Moscow State Yiddish Theater: Jewish culture on the Soviet stage. U.S.A.: Indiana University Press, 2000. p.207.

Yuri Tsivian and Richard Taylor. Early cinema in Russia and its cultural reception. New York: Routledge, 1994. p.3.

Neil Cornwell. The Routledge companion to Russian literature, New York: Routledge, 2001. p. 211.


Reflection and Refraction of Light: Examples Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Light can be regarded as a complex phenomenon due to the fact that it is intangible, and its uses in day-to-day life are innumerable. However, the properties and behaviors of light have been extensively studied by the use of simplified models of light constructed using wave fronts and rays.

A wave front can be defined as a surface that connects light that is produced from a source simultaneously. A ray, on the other hand, is “a thin beam of light that travels in a straight line” (“The Reflection of Light”, 2000, p. 1). By using the stated models, the properties of light can be effectively studied. Some of these properties include the refraction of light and the reflection of light. This paper is an in-depth analysis of the facts surrounding the reflection and refraction of light.

Reflection “Reflection refers to the bouncing of light off a smooth surface.” (Fellers, 2010, p. 1). An example of a common occurrence of light reflection, and that which can easily be seen is the reflection of light off a smooth pool of water. In this case, the environment around the water can be seen in the water because the reflection on the water captures its image.

If the surface f the water is perturbed, waves are formed, which scatter reflected rays, and hence disrupt the reflection (Fellers, 2010). “The angle between the perpendicular line, (the normal), and the incident ray is known as the angle of incidence or the incident angle” (Fellers, 2010, p. 1). On the other hand, “the angle between the normal and the reflected ray is called the angle of reflection” (Fellers, 2010, p. 1).

Laws of reflection

Reflection is governed by one law: “the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection”. (“The Reflection of Light”, 2000, p. 1). Plane mirrors and other objects whose irregularities are so small that the wavelength of light is larger; light is reflected in only one direction. This phenomenon is termed as specular reflection. However, if a surface is so irregular that light wavelength is smaller than its irregularity, it reflects light in all directions.

This phenomenon is termed as diffuse reflection. Regardless of whether light is reflected in specular reflection or diffuse reflection, the law of reflection is observed for each light ray (on a microscopic scale). There is also another law of reflection that states “the incident ray, the reflected ray and the perpendicular line of impact all fall on the same plane” (Kosman, 2007, p. 1). This is mainly applied in forming geometric optics for curved surfaces like concave and convex mirrors.

Applications of reflection

One of the greatest applications of reflection is the fact that we are able to see objects due to their ability to reflect light off their surfaces. The only exception to this principle is objects that are able to emit light. These are very rare. Reflection is also applied in a number of ways by the use of spherical mirrors. These are used in surveillance, in automobiles, etcetera. Movie screens and projectors are made possible by the phenomenon of reflection. The study of the universe is made possible by the fact that the bodies in our universe reflect some light from the sun (Fellers, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Refraction All of us have at one point experienced refraction of light. When a stick, pencil, straw, and the like are immersed in water, soda, or any other transparent liquid, it is noticeable that the former bends at the exact point where it gets into the liquid. This is an effect of refraction. Refraction can thus be defined as the “bending of light as it enters a denser medium from a less dense medium or as it enters a less dense medium from a denser medium” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

This bending of light is due to the change in the speed at which the light travels in a certain medium due to a higher or lower refractive index. Just like in reflection, the respective angles separated by the normal are called “the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

As light moves to a medium which is less dense, it will be appropriately refracted away from the perpendicular line “The maximum incident angle possible in the denser medium, in order for the refracted ray to just emerge out into the less dense medium is called the critical angle” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 2).

Laws of refraction

The laws of refraction are as follows:

“The incident ray and the refracted ray lie on either side of the normal to the boundary of separation” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

“The incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray lie on the same plane, which is called the plane of incidence” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

“The angle of incidence is greater than the angle of refraction when light enters a denser medium from a less dense medium and vice versa” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1).

“The sine of the angle of incidence bears a constant ratio to the sine of the angle of refraction for a given pair. This constant is called the refractive index of the first medium with respect to the second medium” (Fitzpatrick, 2007, p. 1). This is what led t Snell’s law, commonly used in refraction, which is as follows n1sin (angle of incidence) = n2sin (angle of refraction) (Reed, 2009, p. 1)

Applications of refraction

Among the main applications of refraction is the use of refraction in the manufacture of optical lens. These are used for correcting defects in sight like myopia and hyperopia. Refraction is also applied in ophthalmology, in which it is appropriately used to determine if an eye has a refractive error.

In this case, it is also used to determine the best corrective measures for the eye. Refraction is also commonly applied in underwater acoustics and magnifying apparatus like the microscope and the telescope. There is also the common use of the ideas of refraction in the manufacture of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens.

Refraction is also commonly applied in the study of colors. This is enabled by the use of prisms. Refraction is also applied in cameras and magnifying glasses. The twinkling and shimmering of stars is due to the changes in the density of the atmosphere, which make light from the stars to be refracted (Reed, 2009). There is also the phenomenon of mirage which is also an effect of refraction.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Reflection and Refraction of Light: Examples specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Differences between Reflection and refraction Reflection and refraction have a number of differences. One of the main differences between reflection and refraction is the fact that, while refraction can be described as the bending of light, reflection can be described as the bouncing of light. Secondly, in reflection, the incident angle is equal to reflected angle while in refraction; the incident angle is not necessarily equal to the refracted angle.

Most of the applications of reflection are based on the idea of light travelling in air, and being reflected off a surface while most applications of refraction are based on the idea of light travelling within the media refracting the light. Thus in reflection, light travels through air while in refraction, light travels through different media.

Another difference between the two is the fact that reflection is commonly associated with mirrors while its counterpart, refraction, is commonly associated with lens. Another difference between reflection and refraction is the fact that in reflection, light travels in uniform speed, i.e. frequency and wavelength, while in refraction, the frequency and wavelength of light changes, and thus its speed also changes.

Conclusion Light is a very important part of life. Although sometimes the study of the dynamics of light may seem to be confusing, refraction and reflection aspects of light are quite simple, and they have a myriad of applications. As evidenced in the discussion above, refraction and reflection have a number of differences that distinguish them.

However, these two phenomena of light also have a number of similarities. First of all, they are applicable in all kinds of waves, including light waves. They are also help to make bodies in the universe visible since some bodies reflect light from the sun, while others twinkle due to the difference in the densities of layers of the atmosphere.

Reference List Fellers, T.,


Group Analysis: Formation and Management of Groups Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Table of Contents Group’s Emergent System Characteristics

How the Characteristics Emerged


When one is at the university, it is advisable to form a study group early enough so that he/she can have people to exchange ideas with. It is said that no one knows everything, and because this implies that we all have our strengths and weaknesses, we should identify people to utilize our strengths and help us correct our weaknesses.

I therefore decided to look around for individuals who share the same thoughts with me among the few friends that I had already managed to mingle with. One of the challenges in finding reliable members was the fact that most of the people that I came across were very negative about the whole issue. Therefore, this paper will focus on my group with regard to how it was formed and how it operates, and the hurdles that it had to go through.

Group’s Emergent System Characteristics If you asked how my group was formed, the memories are still fresh because I remember it like it was yesterday. It was on a chilly afternoon during one of my management classes that the lecturer asked us to form study groups because he intended to give us assignments that were to be tackled collectively in small groups.

The groups were formed at random and luckily for our group, we were all serious people, unlike most of the groups that were comprised of active members and jokers. In this regard, the group has five members: three boys and two girls.

The objectives of our group include identifying the abilities of every individual member and using them to achieve excellence in academics. Besides, we exchange ideas on a personal level and thus we provide a shoulder to lean on to one another during difficult times. This means that we provide emotional support to all our members when they are facing challenges in other areas.

At times we offer material support when we feel it is necessary. We value the participation of our members and since we are aware that their productivity can be impacted negatively by the problems they are facing in other areas such as illness and loss of a family member, we are under obligation to provide assistance as much as we can.

The mission of the group is what keeps the group intact. Our mission is to achieve academic excellence in all areas of our study, and to support one another in achieving individual goals. We have also addressed issues that can create divisions in the group by establishing rules that govern how we relate with one another. This is very important considering that this group is made up of young boys and girls, and if we are not careful they can ruin the ideas of the entire group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because it is normal for boys and girls to establish romantic relationships within the group, and if there are no clear rules about such issues, their personal disputes can affect the performance of the group because they would not communicate as required, which is one of the crucial principles of group work.

We therefore agreed that people are free to get into relationships at their own will, but they should never bring their individual flaws into the group. Hence, if they have any issues to sort out they should attend to them in other places, but not during group meetings.

We also value respect for one another because we identified it as one major reason why groups fail to remain intact until they accomplish their mission. All the members are expected to exercise respect in how they address one another, regardless of gender or age.

This is because the group is made of boys and girls who will some day be men and women, and if they are not taught to respect people early enough, they may not fit into the society. It therefore goes without saying that abusive language or suggestive remarks are not allowed in this group. Although the members of this group are not of the same age, because some are older than others, they handle one another with respect.

Punctuality is another norm that is greatly emphasized in this group because time management is important to all, and considering that time waits for no one, the group utilizes the time that is available so that there is enough time for carrying out the tasks before them.

In addition, group members have other things to do apart from group work and thus, it is important to have specific time that is dedicated to group work so that members do not encounter a clash in time allocations. Members are expected to arrive on time to group meetings that normally take place after classes in the evenings, and those that report late are penalized.

Likewise, honesty is highly valued because when a member is given a task such as gathering information, he/she is expected to deliver information that is sound instead of providing information that is misleading to the group.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Group Analysis: Formation and Management of Groups specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also against the rules of the group for a member to fake or lie about something such as faking an illness as an excuse of not completing the task assigned. Any one who does not abide to these rules is ejected from the group because it is better to have a small group that is active than to have a big group that is ineffective.

Usually, roles are allocated according to an individual’s abilities and experience. This is because one can deliver satisfactory results if he/she is assigned the roles that he/she is knowledgeable in. Manual tasks that are tiring are assigned to boys because they are stronger compared to girls and hence, they are able to tolerate the challenges that may come their way. The tasks that involve gathering information are allocated at random and there are deadlines for accomplishing every task.

Furthermore, the group does not have a leader because every member is expected to be responsible hence there is no need of someone to oversee the operations of the group. Decisions are made through consultations and thus, one cannot make a decision without involving the other group members.

However, the group has a spokesperson who was assigned that position due to his strong communication skills. This person is the one who communicates with the other entities in the college when the need arises. The decisions of the group are made collectively and they include disciplinary and rewarding issues.

If a group member is to be disciplined for failing to adhere to the rules and regulations, the verdict rests on the other group members and their decision cannot be recalled. If there are any disagreements among the members during decision making process, the members sit in a round table meeting and engage in dialogue until the issue is resolved; each side is given an opportunity to give their story so that the mistake can be identified.

Consequently, the group has a rewarding system that is meant to motivate members to work harder. Rewarding takes place at the end of the semester and it is allocated to the member who has tackled the most challenging task. In addition, the group acknowledges members who excel elsewhere, such as in extracurricular activities and in academics.

During such sessions, members gather in a designated food joint and have lunch together. The rewards are meant to make members feel appreciated and thus, work harder. The group members emphasize on the success of the group because they think that this success will eventually be reflected in individual members in other areas.

Members are also expected to communicate on regular basis with each other so that they can share ideas. Members are under obligation to express their views where they feel they are not satisfied with the explanation provided by a group member. The decisions of this group are made through brainstorming sessions; everyone’s argument is equally important. Besides, when members are out in the field they communicate through the phones or the Internet, thus improving group cohesiveness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Group Analysis: Formation and Management of Groups by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How the Characteristics Emerged The mentioned characteristics were addressed because members of this group come from different cultural and family backgrounds. If the diversity in our backgrounds was allowed to manipulate us then the group would not achieve its goals. This means that members had to put their differences aside for the sake of the group. Communication was found to be essential because it would help the members to understand one another. This is because it would be difficult for the group to move ahead when they barely understand one another.

The decisions of the group are made collectively so that every member can have a strong sense of belonging and perform like the group depends on his/her efforts. If members were left to make decisions individually, their decisions would clash with the interests of the group.

Involving the group members in decision making provides a window of opportunity to criticize and improve the solutions provided. Besides, if the role of making decisions was left to one member, that person would probably make wrong decisions because his/her thinking is not broad compared to the combined efforts of members.

Having strict deadlines was important because it ensured that members delivered their findings right on time. If the issue of time management was not addressed, I am sure some people would complete their tasks late, which is not beneficial to the group. This is because management as a course has many areas that have to be covered and if members are not punctual, members would not have their own time to study for other subjects.

For instance, last semester we were behind schedule due to some delays caused by two members for failing to complete their tasks before the deadline. They were in deed experiencing some problems, but then they did not communicate about these problems early enough because if they had done so the other members would have come up with other alternatives of achieving the same results.

In this light, group work requires a lot of collaboration hence team work is very important because it makes tasks that are difficult to be easier as the members share the efforts that are required. Studying alone has many shortcomings because every individual has weaknesses and besides that, there is no one to correct him/her hence when he/she is headed in the wrong direction, it would be difficult to get assistance.

In the management course outline, students are expected to handle some assignments collectively and make their presentations to the rest of their class once the assignment is finished. This is why a spokesperson was put in place to carry out this task.

Everyone cannot speak before people because some are shy or do not speak fluently. This is because the person who is presenting the findings of the group should speak boldly to imply that he/she is sure of what he/she saying. The group assignments are allocated points that are included in the final exams hence this is a serious issue.

Consequences There are various achievements that have been made by our group, both collectively and at personal level. First, the group was able to achieve its mission, owing to the high level of discipline among the members. Each member has appreciated the importance of being disciplined and they are committed to applying the same trait in other areas. Group members are now excelling in their studies because of the group’s cooperation and hard work.

Being in this group has made the members to know one another better and establish strong bonds. One thing that will continue to be remembered is how the members put their differences aside to focus on the goals of the group. This would not have happened before because there was no need of coming together. So far, most members have managed to furnish their interpersonal skills owing to the exposure they have had in this group.

Personally, I have learnt that everyone sees things differently and therefore I have learned to respect the opinions of other people. Besides, it has come to my knowledge that I have to give more of what I want so that I can get it back in plenty. For instance, I have learned that if I want to be respected by my peers, I have to respect them more and in the final end all of them will appreciate me and cannot despise me in any way.

I am an outspoken person, and prior to joining this group I had many ideas that were laying idle in my mind because I was afraid of putting them to test, but today when I look back at how far I have come, I do not fear putting my thoughts into tasks. This is because being part of this group has helped me overcome fear and instead earn self-esteem through my achievements.

Through the exposure I have had in this group, I am now able to mingle with people from diverse backgrounds. I know this is just the beginning because more challenges are yet to come, but then the experiences I have encountered in this group have prepared me for other challenges in future, possibly in the working environment.


Great Lakes Corporation Report custom essay help

Table of Contents Analysis of external environment

Five forces model analysis

Great Lakes competitors

Capabilities of great lakes


Reference List

Analysis of external environment External environment has a great impact on the operation of any business. This is due to the fact that no business can operate in isolation or can survive without the environment (Michael, 1979). The resources that a business uses in its production also come from the external environment. What needs to be noted is that the external environment is non controllable by the organizations managers. Any business must therefore scan the external environment carefully in order to ensure its survival in the long run (Aguilar, 1967).

The management of great lakes therefore has the important role of critically examining the uncontrollable environment and develops appropriate strategies that will make the business prosper. The external environments consist of the social, technological, economic, environmental and political environment.

Great Lakes Corporation has to examine each of the components of the external environment and anticipate the effects it can have on the business. To begin with, the demographic environment deals with the population and the population’s characteristics. Moreover products that great lakes produce have varying effects on the population.

For instance, the lead gasoline that is produced by great link subsidiary octet had different effects for the different population structures. While it resulted into brain problem to the children, the leaded gasoline also caused respiratory problems to the elderly and the general degradation of the air. The management therefore has to look into ways of mitigating the effect of its products on the different population groups.

The second factor to be considered in the scanning of the external environment is the technological factors. The current business environment is characterized by fast changing technology and if a business fails to adopt the changes in technology, then it has to realize the threat to its going concern concept (Kotler, 2006).

The product, leaded gasoline that is being produced by Great Lakes may be rendered useless if the cars that use the products are faced off with the adoption of modern cars. This is already exhibited by the reduced market of the company’s products in countries with new products and production methods. Again, it has reduced the international perspective of the business. Failure to develop the current technology will further reduce the company’s income.

Another component of the external environment is the economic environment. This environment determines the returns the business will have on its operations. It includes the inflation rates, the economic growth rates and the cost of funds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All forms of business, small or big, international or local are affected by the economic environment (Kozami, 2002). Great Lakes Corporation will have to evaluate the economic environment for the purpose of expanding its activities in other region and terminate its operations in markets that have declining sales and increased level of risk.

The decision makers of great lakes therefore have to make decisions that will reduce the business activities in developed countries that have changed the products and curtailed the demand for the company’s products. In the case study, the economic legislations that were instated e.g. the reduction of the excise tax on ethanol may reduce the costs of substitute products of the Great Lakes Corporation which may as a result reduce the turnover of the company.

In addition the geographical coverage will be a factor to consider in the operations of a business. The company must realize that the wide geographical market in which it operates will determine the operations cost and the strategies in the different region. Wide environment means diverse culture and beliefs that may have an impact on the market of the company’s products. Great Lakes Company has to realize the different needs to their targeted market especially the countries at different level of development (Aguilar, 1967).

The wide geographical operational area as well means that Great Lakes marketing strategies and promotional message have to take note of all their stakeholders. Distribution channel of the corporation will be affected by large environment coverage. The business may be forced to open branches in the different regions to ensure efficiency and effectiveness which will reduce shortages that may arise from longer supply periods.

Finally the political environment must be assessed. Politics determines the rules and regulations that will be formulated to guide the conduct of business. If the laid down regulations are not adhered to, the business may find itself with multiple suit cases that may affect the going concern of the business.

Great lakes will be affected by the political environment majorly on the environmental regulations. From the case study, it is evident that regulations are being formulated to ban the production of lead gasoline due to the adverse environmental impact.

This has already been made possible in the developed nations like the US. However the developing nations still rely on the use of lead gasoline. Great Lakes management must ensure that they move to take steps that will cushion the business from losses should the same regulations be adopted by the developing nations.

We will write a custom Report on Great Lakes Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Great lakes must also realize that the business has a corporate responsibility to the community in which it operates. This implies that the organization should not wait for regulations that prohibit the use of lead gasoline by the developing and under developed countries. Rather, it should move ahead and mitigate the cost of not being environment compliant. It is therefore irrational for the Corporation to go against its own policies on employees and community safety standards for the sake of maximizing returns.

The business needs to move ahead and make the necessary and desired changes without necessarily waiting for set rules. It’s ironical for the company to inform the users of its chemicals the dangers they face and do no more. A trade off must be made on the level of return and the effect of the company’s operation on the community (Porter, 1998).

Five forces model analysis The five forces model developed by Porter can be used to analyze a market with respect to the chances of survival of an individual firm. The model by porter explains the five forces that influence the performance in an industry. These forces include the threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, buyer’s power, threat of substitutes and the rivalry between competitors (Porter, 1998).

The level with which a firms management scans the environment in respect to these factors will influence its long term survival. The management of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation is justified in their aim to scan the industry and increase their market share and control by reducing the competitors’ penetration. Each of these factors is analyzed below.

An analysis of the threat of new entrant is minimal in this market. This can be attributed to the fact that the industry is viewed by investors as being highly risky given the legislation that are being promulgated. Further, the industry may attract few entrants because of the poisonous effects of the leaded additive products getting known to many users (Porter, 1998).

The level of awareness influence the customers purchase option and selection criteria. The likelihood of the adverse effects of lead gasoline being known by the targeted market will thus reduce the possibilities of new entrants.

Secondly, buyer’s power is important in the scanning of competition level in an industry. Buyers are the users of a product and ignorance of the buyers need preference changes is mandatory for a business success.

The level of increased awareness of information, buying volume, sensitivity to prices and the availability of substitutes determines the power of customers (Michael, 1979). In this respect, great lakes has a challenge of ensuring that their products remain in demand considering that the substitutes that are environmental friendly are being introduced.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Great Lakes Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact this has led to the reduced operations and demand in the developing countries. The adoption and passing of regulation that ban the use of lead in the developing countries must then be anticipated and precautionary measures taken to ensure operations. Similarly, buyers are likely to increase their power with the increase in substitutes and differentiated products hence reducing their purchase level and increasing their bargaining power.

The third concept in the porter’s model is the power of suppliers. Supplies are the entities that are charged with the duty of supplying the company with the factors of production. The power of suppliers is enhanced with factors like the number, the demand for their supplies and the possibilities of the firms in the industry switching to other production areas (Porter, 1998). The idea of reduction of number of firms in the lead industry and the size of great lakes will reduce the power of suppliers.

If suppliers have a high bargaining power then they may demand heavy payments for their supplies which will result into the shrinking of the profits. In this area, Great Lakes enjoy the low suppliers’ power which therefore makes it possible to operate in a cost efficient manner. Moreover, the fact that the business is operated and has many suppliers is advantageous to the company. The company as well enjoy the availability of close substitutes that can enable it have a significant influence on the suppliers.

Further the threats of substitute’s product must also be looked into. Substitutes are products that serve the same purpose but are of different qualities. The threat of substitutes depends on the availability of close products that can replace the corporation products (Michael, 1979). In the chemical industry, there are very many substitutes that are likely to cause threat to the company’s products.

The strength that the company still relies on is the fact that the developing countries still lack the capacity of using other non leaded products. The many different types of products that are being produced by the company will assist in the diversification of the risk of dependence on one or few products. Great lakes subsidiaries will also enable it smooth its returns. It can thus be concluded the company does not suffers so much ion the threat of substitutes.

The final concept in the forces model is the rivalry threat. Rivalry threat is affected by the factors as the barrier to exit, growth prospects in the industry, brand identity brand switching cost among others. An industry that exhibit high rivalry is considered volatile and risky. The chemical industry faces a bigger challenge given that more advanced products are being produced and the market for Great Lakes largest product, leaded gasoline, is shrinking.

The prospect of growth is almost zero as most legislation is aimed at banning the use of leaded additive products. Therefore it is necessary for the company managers to incorporate new products and ensure they maintain their competitive advantage in the market characterized by increasing number of competitors.

From the above analysis can be said that the industry is not attractive. An industry is attractive when it has a high profit prospects, manageable level of competition, favorable legislation and market growth ability (Kotler, 2006). The industry is also unattractive given that the level of competition is likely to increase heavily and reduce the turnover. Investors who have the objective of maximizing the shareholders wealth will therefore avoid the lead additive industry.

Great Lakes competitors Great Lakes Corporation was generally considered to have few competitors. This may not reflect the true picture and cannot be a premise used to justify the business continued ability and strength. The current environment is drastically changing and these must be taken into account as there are likely to be invisible and immediate competitors (Kozami, 2002). The immediate competitors of great lakes are the chemical industries that produce substitutes in the developed countries.

The market expansion of these companies into the market dominated by great lakes would mean a reduction of the company’s turnover. The management of Great lakes has to ensure that they increase the loyalty of their customers and make the switch cost high. This would bar the company’s target market from switching into the competitors area. The immediate competitors’ may also be other companies which are also located in other territories of the developing nations providing similar products.

Impending competitors of great lakes are the new firms that are likely to enter into the market and produce substitute products. We can therefore assert that the business might not experience many impending competitors in the lead additive sector. It however faces the competition of other firms which are aiming at entering the industry.

Great Lakes will however stands a better position than those of competitors because the company enjoys economies of scale production. This will thus reduce the overhead cost and make the company to be a low cost producer. Cost is one of the strategies that a business adopts in seeking for competitive advantage.

Another reason as to why Great Lakes Corporation will enjoy market lead is the large market share mainly in the developing countries. Large market enables the company to either segment or standardize their production as a strategic way of gaining competitive advantage (Kotler, 2006). If this is well exploited, great lakes will manage to survive in the market.

The major competitive disadvantage that Great Lakes Corporation is likely to face is in the legislative sector. The fact that the company produces leaded gasoline in its octet subsidiary that accounts for about 50% of the company’s earnings is a great threat to the future returns. The environmental campaigns on the need to ban the lead products due to their nature of causing pollution might likely lead to the termination of some of the operations of the company’s plants.

This might result into reduction of the turnover and result into huge losses. The management of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation must thus have other plans of adopting new products that are ethically desired and that are within the legal framework. If not well incorporated, the competitors will gain a competitive edge and ensure the failure of great lakes.

Capabilities of great lakes A look at the operation of the company reveal the potential it has that can be ventured into. The first option that the company can pursue is to start the process of switching to the production of unleaded additives. This is highly possible given the financial resources and the good performance of the company in the precious period. The financial capability can also be deduced from the fact that the company is an international organization and therefore makes high turnover (Aguilar, 1967).

Great Lakes Corporation is as well capable of diversifying its operations to cover for the risk that may arise from the legal and other environmental changes. Diversification reduces the risk of loss and increases the return a business derives from its operation. It increases the customer base of the business.

The large variety of chemicals produced by great lakes will enable it derive its income from different markets. In addition, the diverse use of the company’s products as fire suppressors, household cleaners and water treatment products will enable great lakes Corporation to shift its resources should the octet subsidiary faces operational challenges.

Another option that is available to Great Lakes is to form alliances with other firms if it has to quit from the lead additive products. An alliance enables the parties to share the risks and resources including the quality management and to increase their operation size (Kozami, 2002).

If the company is able to identify capable strategic partners, it will increase its ability to penetrate in the market and reduce the losses likely to be experienced in the event of shuts down of the lead production subsidiaries. It will also be feasible for the firm to reduce the costs required in shifting into new operations and make it produce more advanced products.

Finally, the management of Great Lakes Corporation can decide to dispose off the risky proportion of its business and use the proceeds in new attractive areas. What needs to be considered here is that the acquirer firms may decide to buy the plants at a low cost. A cost return trade off must thus be made for the company to make the required decision (Porter, 1998).

Conclusion In conclusion, it is important for any business that aims at furthering its operation and increasing its market share to continuously scan its environment.

Through environment scanning, a business will be in a position to identify its competitor and develop strategies that ensure better performance (Porter, 1998). An organization that fails to conduct proper scanning of the environment will be make unpopular decisions and lose its grip in the industry. Scanning therefore requires a management with conceptual skills rather than technical skills.

The environmental, technical, legal, economic and demographics scanning is therefore called for. The corporation must also adopt the internal scanning techniques that will enable it scan its internal environment and realize its potential. This will reveal factors like the quality of management, financial capability and motivation of the employees.

Reference List Aguilar, F. J. (1967). Scanning the business environment. Columbia: Macmillan.

Kotler, P. (2006). Marketing Management (2 ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kozami, A. (2002). Business policy and strategic management (2 ed.). India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Michael, P. E. (1979, May). How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review .

Porter, M. E. (1998). Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance : with a new introduction. Havard: Simon and Schuster.


Running to Fat and Back: Health Care System and Obesity Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction: Who’s Fat?! Being obese is a challenge. Since the modern society worships slim built, obese people are bound to be the outcasts of the modern world. However, where being overweight s a norm, another problem appears: the state of people’s health is growing increasingly endangered.

Because of the increase in the obesity rates among the USA population, the health care system has been recently preoccupied with the means to provide a healthier lifestyle for the citizen of the USA. With help of a correct approach, the situation can be somehow tackled, which means that people’s health will be no longer under such risks.

There is no doubt that the concerns about the health of the USA citizens have certain grounds to base on. According to the results of the research conducted by Zoltan (2007), there are certain problems concerning the state of the national health. Since the results of the research emphasize the growing tendency of the USA citizen to “gain weight”, it is necessary to consider the problem as soon as possible to provide the probable solutions.

Going into Details: Where the Problem Stems from As Zoltan (2007) marked, “In the USA, data on obesity is collected regularly through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Services (NHANES”). The most recent NHAVES data, which was collected between 1999 and 2002, indicates that the prevalence of obesity in the USA was 27.6 percent for men and 33.2 percent for women“ (83).

Thus, it cannot be denied that the rates of obesity in the USA have gained threatening scale. Affecting the nation’s health, obesity is likely to result in the overall tendency to consider the problems of health unessential. With such growth of the obesity rates, there might come the time when being overweight will be considered a norm and a social standard, not the dangerous deviation from the norm. Such results must be avoided at all costs.

It is quite peculiar that the state of obesity is considered to be connected with the wages somehow. Surprisingly, scientists have found out recently that excessive weight is interrelated with the salary closely. Thus, another parallel between the personal and even biological problems and the social position has been drawn.

As Zoltan (2007) explained, “Taken together, the results from the outside the USA suggest that the correlation of obesity with wages varies across countries and cultures” (83). Thus, since there is certain connection between the state of obesity and the social status, the problem seems even more complicated: changing the social status in order to change the weight category is quite problematic and even impossible to put into practice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no doubt that once the right approach to the existing problem is found, the society will feel relieved. In spite of the fact that one’s physical state can be compared to a feature that is completely unique and serves as a mark of the given personality, deviating from norm so much can cause certain health problems, such as the heart problems, short breath and the lack of physical strength.

Leaving aside the aspect of esthetics, being overweight is first of all the threat to one’s health. Losing the excessive weight cannot be compared to losing individuality – this is rather getting rid of numerous problems.

Health Care System Network: Big Expectations However, there is no time t fall into despair concerning the deplorable state of the USA citizens. To help the activists promote healthy lifestyle and healthy nutrition, the health care system network has been created. With help of the specific approaches utilized by the members of the organization, it will be possible to obtain the necessary results and convince people to take care of their weight.

Thus, with a reasonable health care system network adopted it will be possible to help the entire nation lose the excessive weight, once people realize their problem. However, the key aim in the given situation is to convince people that they need to get rid of the excessive weight.

According to what Kavaler (2003) says, “At the outset of network negotiations, the need to evaluate the various cultures of the component parts of the integrated health network and their perceptions and expectations of the new organization are important considerations” (405). Thus, it is quite likely that the new health care approach will change the lives of millions of people, yet the system still needs development.

Conclusion: The Sweet Reconciliation

In spite of the fact that at present the problem described above poses a serious threat to the society, there is no doubt that with help of the health care system the ways to help the overweight people will be found. It must be taken into consideration that the main goal of the health care is to make people realize their problem. Since the problem has already been defied, people are already halfway closer to the solution.

Reference List Kavaler, F.,


The iPhones Fourth Generation Analytical Essay custom essay help

Background The iPhone 4 is a smartphone made by the computer software and personal computer maker Apple Inc. It is the fourth generation of the iPhone, having succeeded the iPhone 3GS, the other two previous models are the original iPhone and the iPhone 3G.

The iPhone 4 has been hailed not only as a breakthrough internet communication gadget, but also as a revolutionary touchscreen device and has altered the way people view smartphones. One may ask; why do we refer to the iPhone 4 as revolutionary? How is this smartphone different from the other smartphones out there?

Design and Function The iPhone 4 is a completely new design, combining and improving all technologies from previous iPhone models, and introducing newer ones to improve user experience. To begin with, the exterior design of the device features a metallic back casing unlike the plastic casing in several smartphones currently available in the market.

The casing protects the phone’s delicate components from damage through physical intrusions. The screen is made of glass that Apple says is “chemically strengthened to be 20 times stiffer and 30 times harder than plastic, theoretically allowing it to be more scratch resistant and durable than the previous models” (Diaz, 2010).

Smartphone screens have a tendency to have scratches on their surfaces with time, however, the exceptional treatment of glass used on the iPhone screen ensures it remains scratch-free for a very long time, this is not possible in other smartphones, most of which spot scratches after a few months of usage.

The phone is also slightly slimmer at 0.37 inches as compared to the 0.48-inch thick iPhone 3GS, at the keynote speech, Apple CEO Steve Jobs called the iPhone 4 the “thinnest smartphone on the planet: almost 25 percent thinner than the iPhone 3GS” (Helft


The Cultivation Effects on the Watching Television Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Other Cultivation Effects of Television



Introduction Cultivation effect refers to “the negative effects that watching television has on attitudes of both its heavy and light viewers” (Chandler, 1995). People have come up with many theories to explain the implication behind cultivation effects of television. From his article, CultivationTheory, Gerbner argues that viewers of television tend to cultivate attitudes that exhibit consistence to the television world rather than the actual world.

The cultivation effects of violent television programming are initially minute and have no serious impacts on viewers. However, with repeated viewing, the small effects accumulate to form pronounced implications and this explains why the violent scenes in television are arguably responsible for the violent attitudes that heavy viewers exhibit. Besides violent programming, immorality, substance abuse, gender disparity and petty (bad) politics attitudes hinge on television watching for both light and heavy viewers.

Other Cultivation Effects of Television The cultivation effects of immoral programming affect the viewer in his/her attitude towards true morality. In most television programs, each program has an age bracket to its recommended viewers because of the fear of cultivation effects of immoral programming that the programs might carry.

Heavy viewers of soap operas, for example tend to have different attitudes about relationships than light viewers. Conventionally, premarital sex, adultery and prostitution among other moral decadence elements are wrong. However, television content has been blurring the line between what is moral and immoral over time; actually, when one watches television for the first time the attitude about moral decadence holds the aforementioned conventional perspective.

However, after repeated television watching, the attitude changes slowly because it seems right to cheat on a partner or prostitute according to the televised programs. The scenes in these programs usually cover such scenes and repeated appearance to the viewers makes it a “normal” thing. The time an individual brands such programs “normal” thing, his/her attitude has completely changed and conformed to what s/he sees on the screen from time to time.

Television may also evoke the cultivation effects of drug and substance abuse. Isom (1998) laments, the drug and substance abuse cultivation effects mostly affect the youth because they are the main target audience of such movies. Practices such as smoking, alcoholism and any other kind of drug abuse are against principals that govern morality.

Take for example, the first time an individual watches a program in which one of the characters smokes and finds pleasure it; his attitude towards smoking as a bad habit will not change, but he/she will develop some curiosity towards the act. Repeated scenes and continuous watching of such programs slowly changes the individual’s attitude albeit by a small magnitude until the cumulative effect is big enough to cause a complete attitude change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generally, a heavy viewer gets slowly tuned into initial experimentation of the drugs, followed by attempted use and finally, addiction. The funny thing about cultivation effects, drug and substance abuse included, is that, the affected parties do not realize that the cultivation effects have changed their attitudes. As a result, they live a harmful life they would have never lived.

Television also causes cultivation effects of gender disparity. Gender disparity is a sensitive issue and it makes members of one gender feel inferior, unfairly treated, or discriminated against.

If, for example the television broadcasts a program where the acting professionals are only men, the female viewers of this program may start changing their attitudes about gender equality without realizing it. If, in another program, there are acts of violence whereby only a male actor beats up the female actor, the female viewers would also feel that the female gender is weak.

Continuous exposure to such scenes would increase the impact of the cultivation effects on their attitudes (Livingstone, 1990, p.16). Since they do not realize when their attitudes are undergoing such a transition, a complete change of attitude becomes inevitable. As a result, viewers end up having misconstrued attitudes towards men, not knowing that what they watch in television is far from reality.

Finally, television imparts cultivation effects of negative politics in the society. Many at times, politicians appear in news conferences, public meeting or any other functions selling their policies to the multitudes through television.

In news conferences, for example, the people viewing such functions make different interpretations about what the politicians intended to communicate. In other cases, politicians misguide viewers in their speech by making utterances that make them change their (people’s) attitudes towards an individual or a given issue.

The impact is greater when the speaking politicians are favorites or role models of their audiences. In such a case, the people will always take as true what the politicians say and readily discard what they already knew about the same issue. The intense trust that people have for such politicians slowly changes their attitudes concerning a given issue. As a result, they end up treating the same issue differently and wrongly hence losing their moral values.

We will write a custom Essay on The Cultivation Effects on the Watching Television specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Television programs play a major role in shaping people’s attitudes towards different issues in the society. According to Gerbner’s cultivation theory, the attitudes of heavy viewers of television always streamline themselves to what the televisions broadcast. The change in attitude is very slow and unnoticeable by the party involved but the cumulative effect fully changes their attitude. Besides violence, television causes cultivation effects such as immorality, drug and substance abuse, bad politics and gender disparity.

References Chandler, D. (1995). Cultivation theory. Retrieved from

Isom, M. D. (1998). The social learning theory. Retrieved from

Livingstone, S. (1990). Making Sense of Television. London: Pergamon.


Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Rawlings’s The Yearling is A Pulitzer’s price winning novel, one of the most popular works disclosing a challenging and difficult life of the boy called Jody coming of age. At the end of the nineteenth century, the story describes one year from life of a twelve-years-boy and his experience of living in the backwoods with his mother and father. In the novel, the author provides her own view on the problems and challenges of growing up as well as children’s goals and dreams.

Hence, Jody adapts a deer in a hope to find at least one friend and someone who will understand his childish concerns. He feels the necessity to favor someone with warmth, love, and care (Rawlings 22). Therefore, it is not surprising that the novel is often labeled as children or juvenile literature because it sheds light on the problems of adolescence as well as constrains that children face while becoming adults. In this respect, the illustrations presented by N. C. Wyeth only complement the main idea of the story.

They also describe Jody’s adventures and his searching for self-determination. Finally, the pictures also provide the readers with a clearer image of boy’s maturing while encountering challenging situation and making important decisions. This is why the novel appeals greatly to children of the same age who have similar problems and who do not know how to make a right choice.

Wyeth’s illustrations render a patently personal interpretation of a novel, including its mood, aspirations, precipitations, and hopes. His pictures create a strong narrative sequence that modifies readers’ experience in many important ways. Moreover, Wyeth illustrations also enable readers to construct a story obtained from the presented visual performances.

While discussing the illustrations, the artist has provided for other stories, and the ones concerned in particular, Wyeth’s representations of different stories contribute significantly to achieving the fullness and completeness of the narrative (Gannon 92).

With regard to the illustrations provided for Rawlings’s novel, one can notice that both textual information and visual representations are closely intertwined with each other creating a harmonic tandem. It also reflects the interaction between images and the text through enhancing the main protagonists’ experiences and feelings, his primary intentions, and his attitude toward his family and the surrounding world.

According Silvey, Wyeth’s illustrations to The Yearning, “lent glamour to classics that lured even indifferent readers and kept some of the titles in print for generations” (481).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though illustrations deviate from the classical representation of a coming-of-age novel in certain examples, the artist still manages to attract the readers and make them more interested in the story development (Rawlings 12). For example, the title of book mostly renders all information about the boy’s life and his endeavors to find place in life, as well as his desire to have someone he can look after.

Taking a closer look at Wyeth’s other illustrations dedicated to the novel, it is imperative to emphasize the author’s perspicacity and emotional filling under the influence of which all story-related images are created. These illustrations significantly contribute to the recreation of the novel details and the author’s intention to convey ideas and describe specific scenes.

Wyeth’s illustrations significantly enhance the power of narration because each image presented in book discloses the way the artist understands Rawlings’s story. More importantly, the illustrations render Wyeth’s own experience because he carefully considered most of his ideas before presenting them in a particular publication.

Particularly, the illustrator travelled to Florida to study the local peculiarities as well as the landscapes and this exploration greatly contributed to the representation of the main characters of the novel (Luce 77). While evaluating the picture depicting Jody Baxter sitting near the hearth and embracing the fawn, the reader is able to evaluate the realism of the story and imagine the hardships that young people may encounter to make their dreams come true.

The fawn depicted in the picture is also quite realistic and contributes to better understanding of the story (Luce 79). One can also notice a ray of hope in Jody’s eyes and the reader can understand that even without reading the text. Despite the completeness of the image, there is still a necessity to refer to Rawlings’ text to find deeper sense of visual representation.

Wyeth’s accent on realism is also presented in all his illustrations even if some fictional characters are presented in the picture. Such a realistic approach provides the readers with a broader experience while contemplating the historical and social background existing in the end of the nineteenth century.

In addition to realistic emphasis, the artist also introduces a melodrama component being an integral condition for conveying the author’s main idea. Looking at the pictures, one can understand that Wyeth realizes the importance of this component because exaggerated clarity is a priority for illustrative techniques (Nemerov 37).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, Nemerov states that, “Wyeth was an “obvious” or theatrical painter because as an illustrator he is what he was supposed to be” (36). Hence, each scene depicted in the book provides a realistic and vivid picture of all events happened in the story (Nemerov 39). It is not a surprise that this realistic and vivid representation of literary scenes appeals greatly to children because some of the displayed motifs are quite close to the problems that children face in real life.

Reviewing all illustrations to the Rawlings’s book, one can state that N. C. Wyeth’s soft, warm images successfully manage to capture the epoch of sweet survival and rough subsistence. Existential notes expressed through rough strokes in the picture contribute to a realistic representation of the novel (Heller and Arisman 11). The realism is especially seen in the picture describing a boy holding deer near the hearth.

More importantly, the artist also successfully renders the emotional background of the picture when playing with shadows and incorporating specific elements. Despite the dimness and homeliness of the time described in the novel, the author still resorts to a full-color pallet to highlight the most salient episodes of a literary work, which also contributes to better understanding of social and historical underpinnings of the novel (Heller and Arisman 11).

It should also be stressed that N. C. Wyeth’s major goal was storytelling rather than representing images because picture often precedes the text and language, which is the main essence of illustrations (Heller and Arisman 13). While reading Rawlings’s novel and previewing the pictures first, a reader can be immediately introduced to the details that will be further described and explained in the text.

All his childish, exaggerated, and romantic interpretations, therefore, have significantly enhanced the power of classical coming-of-age novel because the majority of the pictures represent maximalist tendencies in depicting landscapes and portraits where the major focus is made on the radical representation of certain episodes that are specifically highlighted by the writer (Silvey 482).

At the same time, Wyeth does not provide some additional elements that distract the viewers from the original content. On the contrary, his images enrich emotional, social, and historical background of the depicted events.

Being absorbed with romantic representation, Wyeth is significantly committed to the hero’s endeavors to overcome the existing adversities. With regard to the above, the mode of representation attracts young readers and makes them more involved into the plot of the story. This is natural because children’s inner world and imagination can be significantly enhanced by the visual representations of the novel characters.

In conclusion, novel’s affiliation to the children’s literature is evident because it represents a classical narration of the boy coming of age and searching for a better life. His dreams and overwhelming expectations are hilariously rendered by Rawlings and significantly enhanced by N. C. Wyeth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wyeth’s Contribution to Rawlings’s winning novel The Yearling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The illustrations also shed light the problem of adolescence that most youngsters experience at the age of twelve. Consequently, the usage of full-color palette, exaggerated clarity of representation enabling the readers to “read” the information contributes to understanding the main idea of the novel.

In addition, the visual information about Jody’s experiences in treating a fawn and the severities the hero confronts when he has to abandon the animal because of famine and lack of means for existence can be more explicitly understood while looking at the illustrations. Furthermore, some of the drawings look quite realistic because of the true scenes and landscapes illustrated.

Work Cited Gannon, Susan. The Illustrator as Interpreter: N. C. Wyeth’s Illustrations for the Adventure Novels of Robert Louis Stevenson (Gannon). Children’s Literature. 19 (1991): 90-106. Print.

Heller, Steven and Marshal Arisman: The Education of an Illustrator. US: Allworth Communications, Inc., 2000. Print.

Luce, Henry, Ed. Childhood Idols: Jack, Jody, Hans, and Heidi. Life. 43.24 (1957): 75-79.

Nemerov, Alexander. N. C. Wyeth’s Theater of Illustration. American Art. 6.2 (1992): 36-57.

Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan. The Yearling. US: Collier MacMillan Publishers, 1988. Print.

Silvey, Anita. The Essential Guide to Children’s Books and Their Creators. US: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002.


Mis-education of the Negro Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Published for the first time in 1933, The Mis-Education of Negro is one of the most successful books written by Carter Woodson. Woodson experience as an African American student armed with the necessary information to write such a compelling masterpiece. He criticizes the American syllabus, which ignores the historical and cultural systems of the Negros.

Unfortunately, the blacks do not realize the indoctrination that defines the American schools; however, if they realize the indoctrination, then they simply do not care for they continue to be sold out to ‘whiteness.’ Woodson argues that the long-term effect of mimicry and adaptation of a foreign culture heralded the extinction of the black culture. Although Woodson struggled to wage war against racism and oppression of the Negros, more than 70 years later racial discrimination still prevails.

Review The history and culture of the whites is the center of the American educational system; therefore, the educational curriculum exposes the blacks to a foreign culture forcing them to adapt different lifestyles yet they have their own culture. Surprisingly, the education system forbids the culture and history of the Negros with the primary aim of the whites being to impose inferiority complex in their black counterparts.

Although there are criticisms from the black scholars, the whites carry the day. Most black Americans have acquired the whites speaking accent and they do not take up courses that concentrate on the African culture, politics and/or Negro spiritual life. Therefore, the white education system does not focus on creating an all round citizen rather it controls the thinking and action of the citizens (Negros).

Woodson book seeks a wide audience; teachers, students, scholars and parents of the black society among others. Regrettably, seventy years later after its publication none of the whites administration considers the significance of this chef-d’oeuvre. The book has solution on American politics and policies including the adaptation of the affirmative action. Therefore, if the Negros and Latino-American read the book it would propel them to research and concentrate on their cultural system rather than the whites.

One of the major negatives of the ‘Mis-education of the Negro’ is the inability to live successfully as ‘whites’. Unfortunately, most of the Black Americans who have adapted the whites’ education system become useless, worthless and poor. Although some of them have learned up to the college or university level, nothing good comes out of them.

Additionally, due to the influence of the white culture, most Negros do not appreciate their black skin hence a feeling of inferior before their white counterparts. Similarly, Negros dislikes their fellow black men, despise their culture and love or appreciate the white people. They live in a world of fantasy; however, by so doing the hit the highway of self destruction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Woodson fears that the whites’ knowledge would forever oppress the African Americans. However, the only solution is to identify the enigma that runs deep in the current education curricula and rectify it. The result will not only popularize the African culture, but also promote antiracism and love within the black community.

Conclusion The antisocial and discrimination culture the blacks experience hinges on the misleading whites’ educational system and as Woodson notes, “when you control a man’s thinking you do not have to worry about his actions” (xxix). However, if the Negros and Latino Americans unite, they will change the current situation in the education system and promote their culture and race than chase the golden goose of ‘whiteness’ that has enslaved them for so long.

Works Cited Woodson, Carter. The Mis-Education of the Negro. New Jersey: Africa World Press Inc., 1990.


Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible Essay essay help: essay help

Martin Luther, the once devoted Catholic, one day came across a bible hidden in one of the apartments of Erfurt University library. Upon reading the book keenly, Luther encountered significant differences between what his Catholic Church taught and what the bible said concerning issues like relying on the church fathers for the remission of sins. Since the church teachings were contrary to the bible teachings, he got concerned and protested the issues, hence becoming the father of Protestantism.

As a working criterion of spreading the truth, as it stands in the bible, Luther took the boldest step ever of translating his newly found bible into vernacular languages, German for instance, an issue that angered the Catholic Church as more people left the church to follow Luther’s teachings.

The translation plays a very important role to the German history. Initially, the Germans could not tell lies from the truth based on the then teachings, which were presented in foreign languages other than their understandable vernacular language.

In addition, they had hungered for reformation for long and thus the translation seemed important as it marked the dawn of that awaited reformation. In fact, Shaff points out that “The spread of this version, imperfect as it was, proves the hunger and thirst of the German people for the pure word of God, and prepared the way for the Reformation” (Para. 9).

In addition, the translation was so important in that it solved the problems of the majority of Germans who, despite their little education, wanted to know the truth but could not get it from the former complicated bible. Sanders observes, “…even tailors and shoemakers, yea, even women and ignorant persons…studied it with the greatest avidity as the fountain of all truth” (Para. 2).

Further, the translation assisted the common people who, through the easy reading and understanding of the true word of God, could then make informed decisions concerning the truth. In other words, Luther’s work was no more than a force that fuelled the freedom of the Germans.

The evident Protestant state churches of Germany, initially used by Luther to teach his cohorts, aroused the courage of teaching to the Germans. Besides, the Lutheran bible is of great significance to the German history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Luther’s translation of the bible into German marked the most outstanding revolving point of the Germans’ history. For instance, its high rate of spreading across the Germans stands out as the origin of the advanced German language. Initially, the language featured so many dialects such that the people could neither understand nor unite with one another.

Therefore, Luther, through his works restored this harmony of language and further forming the basis of the contemporary German literature. The translation too fuelled the famous reformation of religion. In fact, it was through the translation that Protestantism emerged, which was otherwise nowhere before.

Further, the Lutheran bible contributed significantly towards “the creation of German nationalism because…his sayings and translation became part of the German national heritage” (Gerhard 216). The translation too contributed towards the reformation of the German education system.

The reformation came as Luther campaigned for the education of every person, which in turn left virtually all Germans in a position of reading and understanding the bible. Internationally, Luther’s translation significantly fuelled the widening of Protestantism as many other people who supported Luther came up with some other translations like the King James Version, the Bishop’s Bible, and the Douay-Rheims Bible among others.

Therefore, as evidenced by the expositions, Luther’s translation of the bible into vernacular German language stands out as both important and significant the Germans history. It marked the dawn of reformation in Germany as people demanded to hear and know the truth, as revealed by the word of God.

Further, it induced the courage of teaching by the Germans and more so teaching the true pure word of God in a language that even the illiterate could understand. As a result, the translation is the root of all the protestant churches, not only in Germany, but also in the world at large.

Works Cited Gerhard, Ritter. Luther: His Life and Work. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1963.

We will write a custom Essay on Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sanders, Ruth. How Martin Luther’s Translation of the Bible Influenced the German Language, 2010. Web. https://liturgical.wordpress.com/2010/09/01/how-martin-luthers-translation-of-the-bible-influenced-the-german-language/

Shaff, Phillip. History of the Christian Church. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910.


Emirates Airlines Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Objectives and methodology

Linkage with the Public Administration Issues


Introduction Emirates airlines is an air services provider based in Dubai. It is ranked as one of the best performing airlines worldwide. This company according to Namaki (2008) “has played a major role in the economic development of the United Arab Emirates by promoting tourism besides the region being the rich in oil deposits” (35).

Before the inception of emirates airlines, the main airline was the Gulf air whose relationship with the leadership of Dubai was faulted by the fact that Dubai had refused to open up its skies for the company’s operations. This prompted the Gulf air to end and withdraw bigger percentage of its operations in Dubai, leading to a partial paralysis of travels in and out of the region.

Emirate airline was incepted to facilitate movement of people and goods in and out of Gulf region. Observations made on the growing trends of Airline companies indicate that, Emirates Airlines is steadily growing, serving more than 100 destinations all over the world. The success of this company is mainly based on strict management practices anchored in the company culture hence guaranteeing a sustainable survival.

Objectives and methodology The study of the management practices in Emirates airlines are meant to ravel the strengths of the company that have ensured its continuity to growth over the years. Middle East is one of the areas despite being endowed with natural resources; it is hard for companies to survive, owing to the political climate of the region.

This region has been facing political instability since civilization existed. It is therefore amazing how this company has managed to survive in this area and rise above many other companies which are operating in the most stable economies (Kuye, 2002).

Research shows that Dubai, the headquarters of emirates airlines, is also the fastest growing tourists’ destination. Perhaps, this may be due to the hostility in the neighboring regions. Many researchers believe that the presence of Emirates airlines has played a major role in development of this city into a leading tourist destination.

Again, this leaves one wondering the reasons behind such credibility to Emirates airline that started with a few numbers of operations in the region. The research questions in this case, therefore include, what is the management structure in the company, how management duties allocated are and how the management team guarantees accountability (Pathi, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The methodology for conducting this research will involve an intensive data collection activity. The main methods to be used in collecting the data will involve using structured questionnaires to obtain information from the Emirates airlines branches, obtaining performance information from airports authorities and researching through the company’s publications.

This will also require data collection from secondary sources which will form the literature review of the study. The data analysis and presentation techniques that will come in handy in this research includes using tables to record the data and coding continuous data to give it discrete values for easy manipulation.

This will be followed by writing a report on the research findings and this report should mainly concentrate on findings related to the management practices that have contributed to the success of Emirates airlines. It should also highlight the weaknesses that need to be addressed in order for the company to maintain the growth prospects in many years to come.

Linkage with the Public Administration Issues This research on the management of Emirates Airlines is related to public administration because; the company is owned and managed by the government of Dubai. The topic of public administration deals with the “implementation of government policies and the administration of government services” (Theaker, 2008, p. 265). Another definition of this is, the study of the decision making strategies applied by the government in policy making and analysis as well as the inputs that led to the development of these policies.

The management of Emirates airlines is done directly from the government offices and any issues affecting the government affects this company as well. Some of these issues include the political instability in the Middle East which has been a hindrance for development in this area for a very long time. The United Arab Emirates is has however never been affected by this political tension directly, but the instability in the neighboring regions in threatening.

Another public administration issue when it comes to the management of public companies is competition from the private sectors (Kuye, 2002). In most cases, the private operations do well compared to the public ones and this can be as a result of the private companies being more innovative hence taking over the market.

In this case for example, Emirates airlines is facing stiff competition from Qatar and Etihad airlines and if the management of emirates does not take protective measures against this competition, they may end up losing their already established market to these new companies. It is hard for an existing company to regain its initial position once its operations begin to decline especially when the cause of the decline it competition from upcoming companies.

We will write a custom Essay on Emirates Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Kuye, J., 2002, Critical Perspectives on Public Administration: Issues for Consideration, Heinemann, Sandown

Namaki, M., 2008, Strategy and Entrepreneurship in Arab Countries, Palgrave Macmillan, London

Pathi, S., 2010, Public Administration Today: Macro and Micro Issues, Dominant Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

Theaker, A., 2008, The Public Relations Handbook, Routledge, New Jersey