Introduction Nursing shortage is a problem that is encountered by most of the healthcare providing institutions in many nations. It refers to a state where nursing professionals’ demand is higher than the number that is supplied to an institution. The role of nurses in health institutions is vital and cannot be assumed. This is because of crucial services they offer to patients.
It is through nurses that clients gain or lose trust of health services provided by any health institution. This means that the services of nurses is so crucial that anything that may hinder or make them compromise safety of patients should be eradicated. However, it is equally important to ensure that nurses’ workload is not too much for them to bear.
This is to mean that for delivery of effective health care to patients, the right number of nurses should always be maintained in an organization. Just like in many countries, in United States, only the registered and licensed nurses can offer health care services in healthcare institutions. Currently the State is facing a problem of nursing shortage.
There is a rising demand for nurses in many health institutions in United State, an issue that require to be addressed. Failure to address this issue in time may make nurses to compromise health status of patients in many hospitals. Several factors have led to shortage of nurses across nations. These factors include education systems that do not favor enrollment of nursing as a career and governmental or organization’s policy among others.
Method of Obtaining Necessary Approval The organization’ leadership
To win approval of organization’s leadership in addressing the issue require presentation of health facts related to nursing shortage in the institution. The statistics of health status and provision and its relationship of nursing shortage in the organization can provide a valid basis for the management to raise concern and approve the proposal.
These statistics will provide the recommended workforce for each nurse. It will equally show the effects of shortage of nurses in this organization in relation to the workload of each nurse. This information will convince the organization’s leadership as to why they need to approve the proposal.
Fellow staff members
One of the best ways to get support and approval from fellow staff member is by unveiling the truth of the matter in this organization. This can be done by asking them some relevant questions concerning their workload in general and the effectiveness of the services they render to patients. By doing so, the staff will be a position to get the facts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization may for example reflect on the ratio of patients that die to the ratio of those that survive in every 500 patients. In 2005, out of every 500 patients, only five would die and 495 patients would survive in this firm. Since the shortage of nurses’ problem arose, the healthcare is deteriorating each year. In the year 2010, out of every 500 patients, statistics show that 10 patients died and 490 survived.
It also shows that the workload for each nurse has tremendously increased with the increase of overtime working hours and the quality of services provided has generally decreased to a point of making many clients to lose trust with the services rendered by this firm. This is a clear indicator of how nursing shortage problem has affected the institution and why there is a need of fellow staff members to approve and provide necessary support towards the proposal.
Description of Current Problem, Issue, or Deficit Requiring a Change
The policy of every health care organization should be drawn with a lot of consideration on issues that arise on daily basis and several other possible factors should as well be keenly considered. According to the policy of this organization, it is stated that a specific number of new nurses should be employed every financial year.
However, this policy did not consider cases that arise and cause shortage of nurses in the institution, hence, affects the quality of health provision in this institution. Some of these cases include death of some of the nurses, transfers, firing and aging cases of others.
All these cases constantly occur in this institution with no replacement of such nurses until another financial year. This leads to continuous shortage of nurses in this organization, a deficit that is not covered even by the subsequent employment of nurses, as the number employed does not include those fired, dead, transferred, or aged.
Detailed Explanation of Proposed Solution To solve the problem of shortage of nurses in this institution, there is a need for leadership management to revise the policy and make any necessary adjustments. In this policy, the recommended workload for each nurse should be clearly defined and followed strictly.
The issue of employing nurses at the end of every financial year also requires some adjustments. It should allow a room for frequent replacement of the nurses that die, those transferred, aging and those that are fired within the course of the year. This way, the organization will be in a position to solve the problem of shortage of nurses and avoid overworking them for provision of quality healthcare services to its clients.
We will write a custom Essay on Nursing Shortage Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having enough nurses will also help the management monitor carefully the work of every nurse. This is because the management can be able to assign nurses to various and specific wards or other areas for easy monitoring.
Rationale for Selecting Proposed Solution Selecting the proposed solution was because it is the only way to provide a lasting solution to nursing shortage, improve the deteriorating healthcare in this institution, and hence restore the lost trust of clients with the organization. It will also reduce relieve nurses from being overworked to enable them deliver efficient and effective healthcare services to the patients.
By so doing, health safety of patients will not be compromised. Mortality rate will reduce greatly as nurses will be enough to attend to every patient at a convenient time and in an effective manner. The module clearly describes the problem of nursing shortage. It states how this problem affects the general population in United States.
It explains some of the factors that lead to nursing shortage that needs to be addressed to solve this problem. In addition to enhancing favorable education system to nursing, the module states what nursing administration and policy makers have to do in addressing the issue of nursing shortage in United States.
The article explains that that the aging nurses reduces the total workforce each year. This means that there is need for an organization to replace constantly the aging nurses to avoid insufficiency of nurses in a medical institution.
Description of Implementation Logistics The implementation of the change and its integration to the organizational structure should be implemented as soon as the report is approved. The integration can be done by making necessary amendments to the organizational structure and hiring the needed number of nurses to meet the demanded number. Both the top management and the middle level management will spearhead the whole implementation process.
They are in the best position of initiating change in this organization, train the incoming and the continuing nursing staff and to ensure that the implementation process is has taken place successfully and suits well in the culture and workflow of the organization. It is also important for the management of this organization to collaborate with policy makers and other health providers in amendment of any unfavorable nursing policies.
Resources Required for Implementation The main resources in the implementation of this proposal are finances and the human resource. Funds will aid in publishing the materials for advertisement on recruitment of nurses. These materials may include posters, pamphlets among others. Finances will also help the organization to use like television media for wide spread of the information on the same in order to have many nurses getting the information for application.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nursing Shortage Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Human resource is needed in the form of the interviewing panel to choose the most qualified and competent team for nursing positions. In carrying out the interview, funds will be required in providing the necessary materials for the same. Funds will also be needed to print and make copies to enhance the training sessions for the successfully recruited nurses and for other necessities in incorporation of the change in the work structure of this organization.
Civil Movements: Discrimination and Its Consequences Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Synopsis of the Problem
Achievements of Civil Movements
Introduction Since time in memorial, different groups of people in human history have received varied treatment based on their gender, race and ethnicity. This means that some injustices and inequalities exist in various parts of the world. In this regard, human rights groups and civil movements have emerged to challenge the existing social structure and social arrangements that segregate some members of society.
By definition, civil liberties are those rights that a person should be allowed to exercise without restriction. In other words, they are natural and granted naturally. The UN charter states that individuals must exercise their rights without state intervention.
Conversely, state sovereignty is incompatible with individual freedoms and rights. In the United States, the constitution allows people to participate in public activities without discrimination based on either race or gender.
The constitution was amended to suit the desires and wishes of the majority. After the American Civil War, the US government came up with laws that would bar some states from exercising political injustices as regards to voting and electioneering process in general. Various groups have stood up firmly to demand for their rights, including the 1960s civil groups.
Even though the US constitution and various acts of congress condemn discrimination and injustice, various groups are still faced with a problem of domination and sub-ordination in key sectors of the economy. Few people control the means of production while men own the majority of societal wealth. Some groups such as women and the youths are not incorporated in political processes as equal partners.
Their roles are not clearly defined, which leaves something to be desired. This article addresses the problem of discrimination and its consequences. This would be an attempt to explain the existing injustices in various sectors of the economy and in the society generally.
Synopsis of the Problem The main problems that breed injustices in the American society are male patriarchy, unequal economic relations (capitalism), political participation and racial discrimination. The three problems are closely related in that one affects the other. The black race and women are more affected because their culture is never respected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, they are the proletariat meaning that the bourgeoisie uses them in acquiring power and material possessions. Women are always relegated to the private domain of the home while the black race is forced to work for the white race in order to make a living (Azevedo 54). The unequal relation between men and women and between the blacks and whites is a major problem that concerns the civil movements.
In fact, the majority of civil groups are formed to address the problem of unequal distribution of wealth and the position of women and the blacks in society. It is noted that the blacks were shipped from Africa in the 16th to 19th centuries to work for the white race. This implies that they were treated in the same way as stocks.
Human beings were elements that could be used in trade, just as gold, silver and coffee. Slaves went through unpalatable conditions while in the hands of white masters. They could be beaten, overworked, harassed sexually and in extreme cases, exterminated.
Africans could not tolerate these conditions, which forced them to engage whites and the government in conflicts in order to free themselves. They formed various civil groups that would liberate them from the house of bondage. The civil movements were formed in various places within the country but the major ones were created in 1960s. The civil groups gave Africans and other neglected groups a chance to articulate their issues.
Through the groups, various reforms were made, including constitutional amendments. The civil organizations were first controlled by the government but were later on allowed to operate as private entities. Most groups were controlled by religious organizations and faiths.
Maulana Karenga observes that the major aim of civil groups was to break down impediments that affected socio-political and economic participation within the US society (185). The organizations intended to remove penalties and societal barriers that segregated people based on race and gender. Africans in America had tried to gain political and economic freedom for over a century, being traced back to the Civil War.
This means that in American history, blacks have never enjoyed their freedoms as regards to political participation such as voting for preferred candidates, being voted for, being appointed to key government positions and being involved in governmental decision-making. In the economic front, they were included in the financial system as underdogs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Civil Movements: Discrimination and Its Consequences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though Africans were making some progress pertaining to their rights and freedoms, the southerners had formulated stricter rules and regulations that could not allow blacks to interact freely in society. The southerners perpetually subjugated and oppressed the civil society. This means that people were not allowed to assemble or move freely.
In the south, Africans could not access equal opportunities in terms of education and social interaction. Public services such as schools, hospitals and other recreational facilities were not available to Africans. Racial discrimination was practiced in all parts of the country. For instance, those individuals who escaped from the south encountered similar problems elsewhere.
The society had an issue with the black race because no one appreciated the fact that each person has an equal opportunity in life. The south implemented unpopular laws, which were oppressive in nature. They were referred to as Crow’s laws. It is evident that the society disliked the black race. The police implemented the law separately. Strict measures were applied to Africans while the whites were favored in many occasions.
In the labor market, blacks never feared any better. They were allocated inferior jobs and were subjected to poor working conditions, without proper housing policies. White citizens harassed blacks but the law enforcement agencies never acted to avert the situation. Blacks were subjected to public beating or were arrested without proper reason in case found intermingling with the whites.
Achievements of Civil Movements Africans in America managed to change some policies that infringed on their rights and freedoms. Unity is one of the factors that helped Africans since they would act as an entity but not as individuals. This ensured that they were not victimized and harassed. The first break through was witnessed in 1909 when the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed.
The organization was formed in response to the 1908 riots that occurred in Illinois State. The organization aimed at improving the lifestyles of Africans by condemning racial segregation. However, as Maulana Karenga puts it, the movement was ineffective because it was controlled by the white race. This means that it could not apply techniques such as violent rioting meaning that it was not militant.
To some extent, the movement managed to put off repressive Crow’s laws that permitted the lynching of Africans in public places. The activities of blacks were boosted in 1950s when the high court decided that laws discriminating blacks be put off.
In the education front, the court rejected the south’s move to have a separate educational curriculum for white and black students. It can be concluded that NAACP managed to convince the government to allow Africans to vote. This played a key role in abolishing segregation and racial violence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Civil Movements: Discrimination and Its Consequences by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another important achievement was witnessed in 1956 when rioters stormed the streets demanding for equal representation and freedom of movement. The protests took place at Montgomery Bus station where the blacks decided to change the seating arrangements, which was also racially segregated. For a long time, the rights of blacks had been infringed because they were not allowed to decide where to seat when travelling.
Africans decided not to use bus services and opted for other means of transportation for over a year. This was a blow to the whites. Whites had no option but to grant independence to black passengers. The achievements at Montgomery encouraged other blacks to take part in the same inconsistencies hence granting Africans more powers all over the country.
Civil movements were transformed with the emergency of leaders such as Martin Luther king Jr. The leader was very dynamic as regards to political activities in the entire US. Luther King ensured that blacks made a progress in the political field. The activist was involved in the Montgomery bus strike and other important activities that followed. In particular, he contributed in the establishment of the southern Christian Leadership.
In 1963, he participated in a peaceful demonstration that serves as an icon to the activities of the civil groups. It was at the same time that he gave a famous speech titled ‘I have a dream’. The contents of the speech inspired so many people in the entire US. Luther King was one of the best orators since he commanded a high respect among both whites and blacks.
During the Washington demonstration, he led a group that consisted of over 250, 0000 people. The 1963 demonstration wanted the government to check on police brutality, segregation in public schools and provision of an effective job program.
Africans had no jobs, apart from being harassed by the police. It is unfair to mention civil movements in the US without describing the efforts of Martin Luther King Jr. He was rewarded with a noble peace prize due to his incomparable contributions to the activities of civil organizations. Martin Luther King ensured that each person was allowed to exercise his or her right without state intervention.
Problems Encountered One of the major problems was resistance from whites and government. The activities of blacks were interpreted as a direct violation of law. The police could frequently corner African leaders and harass them thoroughly. Whites ridiculed Africans, terming them as failures. It was very difficult for Africans to convince other races that each person had a right and a role to play in society.
During the development of the movement, Africans were perpetually denied services such as shopping. This implies that whites could not sell anything to Africans. In other words, the civil movements had no government support. They had to fight it alone, which proved to be tricky.
Furthermore, Africans had no resources to be utilized in coordinating their activities. Calling for mass action demands capital. However, Africans soldiered on with their efforts despite lacking enough capital (Jacob 90).
For feminist civil movements, the major problem was unity. Women were not united because their objectives were not uniform. Black women were much concerned about living standards and improvement of social services such as healthcare, medication, childcare services and food security. On the other hand, academic feminists wanted the state to recognize academic literature formulated by women.
They proposed that feminist courses should be incorporated in the national curricula. In this field, feminine courses are currently offered in various institutions of higher learning. White feminism wanted the government to institute laws that could provide them with equal opportunities.
They were also concerned about domestic violence where women were forced to have sex with their male counterparts. Conflict of interests could be singled out as the major problem encountered by women in their quest to freedom (McPherson 89).
Conclusion Overall, the civil rights movements have helped black people and other minorities achieve their dreams and goals. The civil groups insist that an individual has the right to do as he or she wishes as long as he or she does not violate the law. In this regard, each person has the potential to fulfill his or her wishes. The state should only act as a means to individual fulfillment. This has seen many blacks participate in elections actively.
It is not surprising that the current US president is a black. This is highly attributable to the activities of civil movements since independence. However, racial and gender discrimination is still eminent in society. However, more needs to be done to eliminate the problem.
Works Cited Azevedo, Joaquim. Africana studies: a survey of Africa and the African Diaspora. 3rd ed. Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 2005. Web.
Jacob, Harriet. Incidents in the life of a slave girl. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print.
Karenga, Maulana. Introduction to Black studies. 2nd ed. Michigan: University of Sankore Press, 2010. Web.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford: Pulitzer Prize, 2003. Print.
Electronic Cigarettes: Could they Help University Students Give Smoking Up? Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help
The Habit of Smoking Reasons why University Students Smoke
University students use smoking to alleviate stress from constant studying and the constant pressures in their social lives. Others start smoking due to the peer pressure from their friends. Students, especially those who suffer from low self esteem, are the most likely to start smoking in an effort to blend in with “the crowd”, who in this case are their peers (Zachary
1.Compare and contrast those ways of knowing with the methodology of early pioneers of psychology as a science: Wundt and Essay college essay help near me
1.Compare and contrast those ways of knowing with the methodology of early pioneers of psychology as a science: Wundt and James. How are they similar and how are they different? 2.What are at least two concepts from this week’s lecture that were new to you and changed the way you thought about academic and scientific research? 3.What are some early ideas that you have for your research paper topics and how do you imagine that this week’s lecture might help you to study those topics? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7DExxLBelk this is the lecture video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-3vY9xjElM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g66pX_-Q9kU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0B3Gjlu-1o research paper video topics
Language Intervention – Accents and Dialects Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Dialects and accents
Factors that influence the emergence of new dialects
Importance of dialects and accents in society
Introduction Language of any culture has over the year’s undergone changes in varying degrees. This is due to the change in lifestyles that has seen new vocabularies introduced into the existing language. Such alterations have contributed to the rise of dialects in the respective languages used across the world. While most people believe that an accent is something that other people have, the reality is that everyone has an accent.
Accents allow us to make a distinction between people from different regions. A dialect and an accent can be differentiated by listening to the changes in vocabulary and the changes in the sound of a speaker. This paper will look at the role of regional accents and dialects in the modern society, highlighting their contribution in our lives.
Dialects and accents An accent is socially distinct. It affects the way we interact with other people. According to Wells, people rely on a speaker’s speech to try and identify where the person grew up and the region you come from1. This is because a persons accent is a powerful indicator of his/her geographical identity.
An accent according to most people is a pronunciation that is different from their own. The accent may be considered as inferior or superior by other people, but it may be socially distinct.
An accent is also geographically distinct; this could be endorsed by the use of words such as “a Scottish accent” or a “British accent” while referring to other peoples accents. These tags have various meanings and vary depending on where we live.
Most linguists share the point of view that every speaker of a language speaks it with an accent. The accent acquired is highly influenced by the persons geographical location. After studying the geographical patterns of different countries in Europe, Wells, notes that it is possible to plot a map showing the geographical patters of people, using their geographical distribution.2
Over the years though, it has become increasingly difficult to link the various accents used with certain geographical locations. This is due to the geographical mobility of the population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The result is that we can no longer use the geographical distribution model to pin point the language distribution across the different regions. Wells notes that people are moving from place to place diluting the geographical distribution that existed. We are more likely to make generalization about which regions an accent belongs.3 The model tends to fail due to the lack of local geographical variation within each country.
Countries around the world have quite a high degree of social variation in accent attributed among other factors, the increased mobility. Among the countries with such social variation include: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. It is important to note that the characteristics thought to be ethnic are in fact geographical.
Factors that influence the emergence of new dialects Community practice has contributed to the emergence of new dialects. Denham
Causes of Civil War in America Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
The source of Civil War in America could have resulted from various reasons. For instance, slavery in the U.S greatly triggered the eruption of Civil War in America. It started in Virginia as early as 1619. Before the Civil War, the conflict between the northern and southern American States revolved around the issue of slavery.
The southern politicians managed to maintain the control of the federal government throughout the first half of the 19th century by assuring the southerners to defend the abolition of the slavery in those states that supported the use of slave labor in the American cotton plantations.
Despite the fact that most presidents from the United States of America came from the south, the southern politicians were generally concerned about maintaining a balance of power within the senate. The balance was important to them to maintain the use of slave labor.
However, the challenge to maintain a balance between those states that supported the liberty of slaves as well as those that supported slavery heightened as more states were included into the union. In 1820, Maine joined the union as a free state, while Missouri joined the union as a slave trade.
The balance between those states that supported the use of slave labor in American plantations and those that opposed it was compromised in 1850 when the union allowed California to join it as a free state in exchange of laws that were meant to enforce slavery. The balance was further worsened when Minnesota and Oregon states that supported liberty of slaves joined the union later on (Hickman 4).
The diverse views that existed between the northern and southern states about slavery symbolized the philosophical as well as economical differences that existed between the northern and southern states.
Whereas the northern states believed in industrialization, infrastructural growth, influx of Europeans immigrations, high birth rates as well as urbanization, the southern states embraced agrarian plantations economy that was sparsely populated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The high boost in northern population together with the incorporation of more free states in the union increased the chances of an election of a northern president who was anti-slavery (Hickman 4).
There was a lot of anxiety in the elections held on1860 which resulted from the division of the democrats. The absence of a candidate with a national appeal signaled an impending change. Abraham Lincoln was the candidate who was vying for the presidency as a republican, while Stephen Douglas was for the northern Democrats.
The southerners nominated John C.Breckinridge and the Border States formed a new party referred to as the Constitutional party and nominated John C. Bell as their own candidate. After the elections Abraham Lincoln was declared the winner of the north, while Breckinridge won in the south, Bell the winner of the Border States, while Douglas won the Missouri and New Jersey states.
Because of the high population that existed in the northern states as a result of their well formulated policies that encouraged urbanization, high birth rate as well as high influx of European immigrations, Abraham Lincoln managed to lead all the candidates in votes. The victory of Lincoln brought a lot of apprehension in the union since he was anti-slavery.
The southerners had always feared any probability of the union government being under the control of anti-slavery. The victory of Abraham Lincoln resulted to secession of those states that supported slavery from the union. Those states that declared a downturn from the union included states such as Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Louisiana as well as Georgia (Kidport.com par.3).
The splitting of the union resulted to an eruption of a Civil War in America. It is believed to be the bitterest conflict that has ever occurred in the United States of America. The cause of the Civil War in the United States of America was highly attributed to the election of Abraham Lincoln and in particular as a result of the significant lifestyle difference that existed between the northern and the southern states.
The northern states of America were heavily industrialized with factories and manufacturing was their main occupation. Conversely, the southern states relied heavily on agriculture. They had established big cotton plantations that demanded large number of workers to provide labor when planting as well as while harvesting the cotton (Hickman 5).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Causes of Civil War in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While slave trade was declared illegal as early as 1800, the slaves that were working on American cotton plantations were not freed. The Northern states pushed for complete abolishment of slavery since they did not require slaves to work in their industries.
The northern states were accommodative and had assimilated the concept of industrialization from the European nations as well as from those Europeans who had migrated in the states. On the other hand, the southerners were conservative and greatly opposed the influx immigration of the Europeans in their states.
Their rigidity and inability to accommodate new people and new ideas developed the southerners into conservative people who lacked a vision of the impending change that was sure to come in the near future. Therefore, the southerners can be highly blamed to be the cause of Civil War in America (Enotes.com par.5).
The southern states continued to use slaves to provide free and compulsory labor in their plantations despite the abolition of slavery as early as 1800. They feared that the ban of slave labor will result to severe economic impacts on them, since they greatly relied on slaves to provide labor in their plantations. On the other hand, the southerners should have accepted the abolition of slave trade early enough to avoid such incidents.
They should have been aware that the use of free and compulsory labor could not last forever. In addition, they had enough time to strategize on how to adapt alternative methods to provide labor in their plantations.
Sixty years after the abolition of slavery was enough time for the southerners to transform their farming methodologies. For instance, they could have negotiated with the slaves on how to compensate them after working in their farms, instead of pressurizing them to work in their plantations for free. The election of Abraham Lincoln meant doom to the southerners. This was because he was opposed to the concept of slavery.
Thus, that is the reason that prompted those states that supported slave trade to opt to break away from supporting him. After receding, they formed the Confederate States of America. Subsequently, this resulted to the eruption of the civil war that lasted for approximately 4 years. The War consisted of more than 50 main battles and over 5000 minor combats. The battles resulted to over 600,000 deaths.
Nevertheless, the union soldiers were more powerful and possessed more resources. For this reason, they eventually defeated the Confederate soldiers. On April 9, 1865 General Lee who was the commander leading the Confederate troops surrendered and thus the war came to an end. Five days after the end of the War, a treaty was signed and President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by southerner sympathizers (Hoemann par. 5).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes of Civil War in America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Enotes.com. “U.S. Civil War.” 2011. Web.
Hickman, Kennedy. “American Civil War: Causes.” 2011.Web.
Hoemann, George. “American Civil War.” 2011. Web.
Kidport.com. “The American Civil War.” 2011. Web.
Ethical Relativism in Human Rights Analytical Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Nature of the Human Society
Human Rights Progress
Contemporary ethical relativism can be traced to Edward Westermarck’s work in the book, “Ethical relativity and the development of Ethical ideas” (MacKinnon 230). Relativism defines the variations in levels of truth or principles.
This is a philosophical concept that acknowledges varied levels of human rights, depending on the situation or circumstance. Proponents of subjectivism have voiced several arguments against ethical relativism because relativism is associated with the denial of objectivity (Frederick 187).
Human right arguments against relativism are supported by the fact that human rights are normally perceived to be universal. From this understanding, people who voice the opinion that different degrees of human rights should be acknowledged often support the ethical relativism concept.
The ethical relativism debate is revolutionary because most of our global principles and ideas about human rights keep changing by the day. For instance, modern-day human rights principles are more sophisticated than conventional human rights principles.
For instance, sexuality has consistently changed across human generations. Currently, there are gay rights, homosexual rights and such like issues, which were never present before. Our ideas and values as a society have therefore changed over the years.
The fragmentation of the society is also another important issue to be understood in the study of ethical relativism. In fact, the fragmentation of the society is at the center of this debate because our beliefs, values and ideals are different. For instance, what may be perceived to be normal in Asia may not be normal in America. Similarly, what may be perceived to be normal in Africa may not be normal in Europe.
For example, certain cultural practices in Africa and Asia (such as female genital mutilation) is perceived to be a normal cultural practice in some parts of Africa and Asia but the same practice may be termed a violation of human rights in Europe or America. The ethical relativism debate is therefore a dicey issue in today’s society and the entire controversy is getting more complicated with the evolution of human ideals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on this understanding, this paper argues against the fact that contemporary ethical relativism should be included in modern-day human right movements. To support this point of view, the nature of human society, the standardization of human rights and the progress of human rights will be analyzed.
Nature of the Human Society Proponents of contemporary ethical relativism argue that the human society is inherently divided and independent. In this regard, they propose that human rights should acknowledge these distinctions and apply a fragmented application of human rights principles.
This argument is flawed because when studying the human society, the society is not perceived to be dotted with racial, gender, cultural and such like distinctions (Raven 3). Therefore, the society is not defined by these elements.
In the evolution of the human right movement, the society is not perceived from its “fragmented” point of view. Essentially, human rights tend to refer to all human beings because there is no person who is better or less human than the other is. People live in one society and encounter almost the same experiences in life.
For instance, the same reasons that a society may perceive a cultural practice to be unethical is the same reason another society may see the same practice to be unethical. For instance, some societies are known to preserve life more than others do.
However, other societies may perceive death to be a normal occurrence and therefore, there is a possibility that human rights implementation may not be as effective as societies that have a high regard for human life. Nonetheless, though there may be variations in perception, the same principle of life remains the same.
Life is precious for every human being. It would be a misconceived idea to believe that life is important for one group in the society, while it is not important for another group. The idea of ethical relativism therefore stands to be reviewed because human rights are not relative; they are the same across all divisions of the society (Raven 3).
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Relativism in Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Standardization Ethical relativism is normally considered a philosophy that emanates from the concept of circumstance. For instance, ethical thoughts are borne from a predetermined way of doing things (which may vary across circumstances and societies). As a result, ethical relativism is a concept that depends on the actions of others.
Considering people have different perceptions and actions, there is no standard way of perceiving ethical actions. In other words, there is no single measure of comparison to understand one ethical practice viz-a-viz another (Globe Ethics 1). For instance, on the political front, China and the US have adopted different perspectives of democracy and its gains.
With the growing emergence of China as a world super power, there have been growing ideas that democracy does not entirely amount to economic prosperity. A comparison is hereby made between China and the US because China does not practice democracy in the same way the US does. Conversely, there is no standardized measure of determining success.
Human rights tend to instill a sense of standardization across societies because it is universal (Donnelly 1). The concept of ethical relativism fails the standardization benchmark because we cannot determine what a human right is and what is not.
In fact, if the same concept of ethical relativism were left to infiltrate the human rights movement, the entire concept of human rights would fade. Instead, there would be a fragmented application of human rights, where societies violate the rights of individuals and hide behind the fact that human rights are relative.
There have been many occasions where several governments have committed human right violations in the world. Such crimes have been witnessed in Yugoslavia, Darfur (Sudan), Liberia among other places. A lack of standardization (like the ethical relativism concept suggests) would mean that such human rights violations will be unpunished.
For instance, the establishment of the international criminal court is the embodiment of universal human rights, which offers a benchmark for standardization. Therefore, regardless of their locality, people can still be held accountable for human right violations.
For instance, in the recent past, the world has been treated to episodes of former presidents (such as Charles Taylor) being taken to the international criminal court to answer against charges of human rights. Even though the ICC court is based in Hague, leaders all over the world have to answer to it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Relativism in Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The universality of the human right applications has therefore brought accountability in the world. If ethical relativism were left to infiltrate the human rights movement, human right violators would not be held accountable for their actions.
Human Rights Progress The concept of ethical relativism not only stipulates that we cannot make comparisons regarding different ethical principles; it also stipulates that we cannot make comparisons regarding human right progress across time (Donnelly 1). In this situation, it is difficult to establish if the world is making progress regarding human rights or not.
In a world of relativism, it would almost be impossible to establish if there is societal development, or not. In fact, the entire concept of civilization would disappear because civilization is the growth in societal ideals and values across time (Donnelly 15). Moreover, civilization is a common benchmark of the society where different societies evaluate their progress across time.
The same principle is applicable in human rights because the concept of human right is progressive. In fact, the essence of this paper is to evaluate the influence of ethical relativism on the human rights movement.
In a world of ethical relativism, there would be no human right movement because the concept of time would be eliminated. Comprehensively, it would be correct to note that ethical relativism does not make sense of human rights progress.
Conclusion Weighing the arguments on ethical relativism, this paper notes that the concept of ethical relativism should have no place in human rights movements. Ethical relativism misrepresents the very nature of the human society because it introduces a fragmented nature in our human form, which does not exist.
In addition, contemporary ethical relativism introduces the element of variation in the application of human rights, thereby alienating the concept of accountability in the human society. In such a situation, it would be difficult to hold people accountable for their actions.
Lastly, this paper explains that, contemporary ethical relativism is insensitive to the philosophy of human rights progress. A sense of stagnancy is therefore likely to be experienced in such a case. Comprehensively, factoring the above arguments, contemporary ethical relativism should have no place in modern-day human rights movement.
Works Cited Donnelly, Jack. Universal Human Rights In Theory And Practice. Cornell: Cornell University Press, 2003. Print.
Frederick, Robert. A Companion To Business Ethics. London: John Wiley
Economy of United Arab Emirates Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Oil and Gas in the UAE
Current and future of UAE
Introduction United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federal state located in the Middle East region. It is precisely found in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf and it borders Oman and Saudi Arabia (USA International Publications, 2007).
Moreover, the federal neighbors Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran. UAE became a federal in 1971, and the states that make up UAE federal state include Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Furairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain (USA International Publications, 2007). Today, UAE has its capital in Abu Dhabi, which also acts as the political, economic, and social administrative center of the federal state.
The official language of the federal is Arabic, while Islam is the official religion. The form of government is a constitutional monarchy, where the current president is Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan, while the prime minister is known as Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (USA International Publications, 2007).
UAE’s per capita GDP is estimated to be at par with those of leading West European nations, while the growth of economy has largely been associated with oil revenue and increasing service sector economy.
Socio-Economic Background Before the formation of the federal states and the discovery of oil within the UAE federal, the country’s economy depended largely on subsistence agriculture, nomadic animal husbandry, extraction of pearls and the trade in pearls, fishing, and seafaring (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
During this period, the country was ‘unaware’ of oil resources and therefore, what was witnessed was limited exploitation of natural resources in the country, which later resulted into emergence and continued exercise of simple subsistence economy (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Economic development for the country is traced to the formulation of The UAE First Development Decade, which was formulated in 1970, prior to the formation of the federal states on 2 December 1971 (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was the moment the federal established roadmap for the development of its formal economic, social, and political institutions and coincided with massive increase in extraction and production of oil resources. The economic growth of the country was to be boosted in 1973 when the world witnessed massive increase in oil prices, a situation that led to increased oil export by the federal state (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Since its formation, UAE has enjoyed relative political stability, where political structures in the country appear to resonate well among the different ethnic groups in the country.
Moreover, the country’s political class has constantly tried to enhance equitable distribution of oil resources and this has led to development and high performance of social and economic infrastructure, high salaries for workers, and high standard of social services such as health and education (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
This has raised living standards in the country and effectively reducing the likelihood of internal political and social unrest. Moreover, the government of the federal since its formation has continuously promoted aspects of human rights, and this, in essence, has led to promotion and maintenance of political and social stability (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Since its formation, UAE Federal State has been trying to promote and develop key economic sectors in the country. However, the dominant economic sector, from which the federal continues to generate high revenues, is oil, gas and mineral economy (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). The country is perceived to contain vast reserves of oil, both offshore and onshore.
At the moment, UAE is believed to be drilling and producing about 2 million barrels of oil daily, although with enhanced technology, the country can produced up to 3 million barrels of oil a day (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
According to 2000 estimates, it was established that UAE has in possession around 98.8 billion barrels of oil which makes the country as the third largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Iraq (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Economy of United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, UAE’s oil reserves are estimated to constitute 10% of overall global oil reserves as per 2000 estimates (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). Given its daily production of oil, UAE’s oil reserves have been estimated to have a lifespan of around 123 years before they can be depleted.
Natural gases constitute another resource that UAE economy depends on. For example, in 2000, it was estimated that UAE has an approximately 6 trillion cubic meters of proven gas (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). At the same time, it was established that the country possess about 4% of total gas reserves. As a result, UAE is ranked at position four in the entire world as far as gas production and reserves are concerned.
Daily production of gas in the country is estimated to be about 2940 million cubic feet, where if the current daily gas production is maintained, the reserves of gas the country holds will last for around 60 years (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Other natural minerals that are vital to the economy of the country can be subdivided into three categories: rocks, sand and soils, and metals. Rocks and sand have been exploited where they are widely used in the construction industry.
Although still poorly performing, agriculture constitutes another sector to the economy, which contributes about 4% to the GDO (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001).
Agriculture development in the country has largely been limited with scarcity of land, harsh environmental conditions, and limited water resources (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). However, the government for the last 30 years has been increasing efforts to develop agriculture sector through numerous incentives and support programmes.
Service sector is also growing as one avenue contributing to the growth of UAE economy.
Today, the country GDP has been boosted by service sector economy elements like: commerce; hospitality industry, comprising restaurants and hotels; transport sector; storage sector; communications; finance and insurance; real estates and related government services (Al-Abed and Hellyer, 2001). At the moment, it is estimated that the service sector contribute about 40% to the GDP of the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economy of United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oil and Gas in the UAE In 1981, there was the establishment of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which brought together six countries of Middle East involved in the production of hydrocarbons resources (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003). The six countries that make up the GCC block include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
The countries came together with the aim of helping each other grow and progress economically. In order to achieve these economic goals, the GCC Block aimed at coordinating country members’ financial, monetary, and banking policies that was aimed at establishing a common monetary union (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
The countries came together largely given their commonality in aspects of politics, cultural, language, economic background, and religious aspects. Involved countries entered into agreement that aimed at cooperating in matters of economy.
One of the major achievements of the GCC Block has been realized through introduction of single currency in the GCC member states based on the commonality aspects member countries share.
The major objective for this initiative is to see member countries build on a considerable degree of monetary convergence in about ten years to come that is characterized by high degree of exchange rate stability, general low inflation rates, and co-moving interest rates (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
At the same time, GCC Countries as part of their cooperation set plans to integrate their stock markets, where already some attempts have been made towards this goal.
Initially, two plans were available for implementation and they included merging all the stock markets into a regional bourse and also connecting them and establishing common unified rules and regulations.
Member countries were to operate within the regulations in their individual stock exchange and this in turn was to make it possible for the citizens of the member countries to trade in stocks under similar rules (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
The role of this regional block to member countries can be perceived within the purviews the countries have made as far as economic integration is concerned. The preoccupations among member countries have been premised on the need to achieve economic and financial integration.
Numerous efforts have been made by member countries and such efforts include lifting formal impediments that earlier restricted free movement of national goods, labor, and capital across the countries. Subsequently, the countries have been able to develop similar policy preferences in key areas of concern.
For example, the countries have been successful in maintaining price and nominal exchange rate stability, together with an open trade regime and liberal capital flows. Moreover, the countries of GCC have been able to initiate in place an open-border foreign labor policy that aims to ensure there is sufficient supply of labor across the countries.
It should be remembered that, activities carried out by GCC countries has not just concentrated at seeing growth in hydrocarbons sector but has also accelerated efforts at initiating structural and institutional reforms aimed at encouraging diversification, enhancing non-oil growth, and also developing human capital (Fasano-Filho and Schaechter, 2003).
As a result of these efforts to promote common economic goals among the GCC Countries, the member countries have been able to increase their GDP per capita by about 32% especially from 2002-2007 (Saif, 2009).
Oil producing countries across the world have for a long time operated under the umbrella of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which in its entity is a permanent, intergovernmental organization (OPEC, N.d).
It was established in 1960 at conference held in Baghdad where the pioneer countries of the organization included: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela (OPEC, N.d).
Later on, these countries were joined by other oil producing countries such as Libya, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and Gabon (OPEC, N.d). Each of these countries joined at its own specific year with the earliest being Libya in 1962 while the latest to join being Angola in 2007 (OPEC, N.d).
Furthermore, countries like Indonesia and Gabon have since suspended their membership in the organization. OPEC mission is integrated in its broad objective, which is aimed at; co-coordinating and unifying petroleum policies among the member countries with sole goal of enabling the members secure fair and stable prices for their petroleum products (OPEC, N.d).
Moreover, the organization works to enhance members achieve an efficient, economic, and regular supply of petroleum to the consuming nations through the established policies to enhance efficient oil production. The policies adopted are largely aimed at ensuring the countries receive fair return on capital they have invested in the industry (OPEC, N.d).
OPEC operations and mandate in the wider environment of ‘petro-politics’ and ‘petro-economies’ has been to see oil producing countries receive benefit is for their hydrocarbons resources. In this way, OPEC has been at the forefront in advocating and leading the pace in setting oil prices at international level aimed at benefiting member countries.
Moreover, the organization is actively involved in regulating oil production among member countries through quotas and this is precisely aimed at ensuring members reap maximum benefits from their oil resources.
OPEC activities in the wider perspective have been viewed to constitute those of cartel tendencies, where the organization has actively participated in activities such as initiating pricing system for crude oil in the global market, introducing group production ceiling, initiating reference basket pricing, enhancing dialogue and cooperation between OPEC and non-OPEC countries, and ensuring oil market stability is realized (OPEC, N.d).
UAE being one of the members of OPEC has operated under the regulation of OPEC whereby the organization sets quotas for the member countries as far as oil production is concerned. Oil quotas operate as limits within which member states have to produce oil and not exceed the level or amount accepted.
Every year, OPEC reviews the oil quotas for each member state and as a regulation, each member is supposed to adhere to the set regulations.
The OPEC quotas aim at regulating oil production among member states with strength of ensuring fair competition prevail and that, members are able to receive benefits for the oil they produce. Nevertheless, in recent times, there have been concerns especially in UAE with regard to OPEC quotas where UAE believe that OPEC quota for the country has failed to reflect the size of its resources (Ayalon, 1992).
Moreover, the country believes that, concessions to other producers within the cartel were being made at its expense.
Advantages of OPEC quotas have been largely reflected in the manner member countries like UAE have been able to realize genuine revenue generated through oil production and international price stabilization but disadvantages on the other hand have effectively been manifested through limit countries have been made to operate within (Ayalon, 1992).
Non-Oil Sectors Economic diversification in the UAE started in 1970s, specifically after the discovery that Dubai had no enough oil resources. The government therefore set in motion to diversify the economy of the federation from over-dependence on oil.
Today, UAE diversified economy is booming to an extent that average annual non-oil growth rates in the country witnessed progress from initial 3.6% between 1981 and 1990 to 7.3% between 1991 to 2000 (USA International Publications, 2007).
Much of this growth has been stimulated by a surge in trade and manufacturing as well as the evolution of the UAE finance and insurance sectors (USA International Publications, 2007).
For instance, UAE government continue to promote liberalized trade regime which is further coupled by the country’s favorable geographical location and the country has in turn evolved into a powerful financial center among the GCC Countries (USA International Publications, 2007). At the same time, the backbone of the financial system is the banking sector, which is the second largest in the GCC in terms of total assets.
Apart from the financial sector, the tourism sector in the country is booming and it plays a significant economic role in the country, especially in Dubai. Investment from the government in the last number of years has seen growth and progress of tourism sector in the country and specifically in Dubai.
Investment in the sector has been directed at developing infrastructure and enhancing advertisement and marketing of the sector, and today Dubai is one of growing centers in the world visited by large number of visitors every year.
The developments in this sector and the related sectors have continued to play positive role to the country’s GDP whereby, the overall share of non-oil GDP rose from 35% in 1980 to over 70% in 2002 (USA International Publications, 2007).
Manufacturing industries have also emerged largely sprouting from the hydrocarbon sector. For example, in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, there has been massive establishment of manufacturing industries, which specialize in the production of fertilizers and cement. Furthermore, gas products have been promoted through establishment of various industries.
Market for these products has been both at local and international market where demand has forced the concerned industries to increase and enhance their production capacity. Other areas of specialization with regard to manufacturing industry has been in the limestone and marble mining and processing which again plays critical role to the country’s economy.
Agriculture has also become another area UAE has constantly injected resources and these efforts have bore fruits. For instance, the agricultural although affected largely by poor climatic conditions in the country continue to experience remarkable results where production has continued to increase.
Furthermore, immediately the country gained independence and the first ten years saw an increase of about 200% in food production in the country where also land under cultivation increased by about 500% ().
The federal government commitment to the promotion of the national agriculture of the country can be evident through increased annual budget allotment, which is estimated to be about $ 100 million every year (Peck, 1986). Further, every Emirate has been increasing its budgetary allocation to the agriculture sector a situation that has seen greater expansion and growth of agriculture.
Transport has become the key area the federal state of UAE has tried to open up its economy to local and outsider players. The country’s conviction is that presence of vibrant trade and commerce activities are the key to economic development and growth of the country.
In order to maintain contact and continued interaction with outside and local markets, the country continues to invest heavily in transport sector, which in turn has accelerated the country’s economic base.
For example, UAE has been involved in developing key transportation infrastructure projects that include Port Khalifa and industrial zone at Taweelah. In addition, there has been initiation of a mega-project (Union Railway project) which has an estimate cost of $ 8 billion (Anonymous, 2011).
The Abu Dhabi International Airport is another key project the country has heavily invested in where the cost of this project amounts to about $ 6.7 billion. More transport infrastructure that the country has heavily invested includes the expansion of the Dubai metro and construction of the Abu Dhabi metro and light rail (Anonymous, 2011).
The essence of all these transport projects is to see development of UAE economy especially through increased bilateral and multilateral trade relations. The country envision growth of economy specifically through presence of new systems construction that are largely related to multi-modal freight and intelligent supply chain management which in totality possess the ability to increase trade opportunities.
Current and future of UAE UAE economy as it appears for now seems to be largely diversified and oil economy no longer remains the sole backbone of the country’s economy. Nevertheless, the oil revenues remain the key resources to stimulate economies of other sectors. Together with the oil economy, service economy in UAE has been thriving at a promising rate a situation that has led to growth of UAE economy (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
As more effort remains centered on improving and accelerating the non-oil sector, it can be seen that economic development of the federal is likely to continue on an upward trend. For example, in 2003 and the subsequent four year-periods, the economy of the country oscillated around 10% and Abu Dhabi was the key contributing emirate (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Oil remains the single-most contributor to the GDP of the country, accounting for about 35% of the GDP (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Following the oil sector is the manufacturing sector, which account for about 13% to the GDP of the country.
Trade and repair is at position three where it is perceived to account for about 11% of the GDP to the economy and thereafter, real estate sector contribute about 8% to the country’s GDP (Oxford Business Group, 2008). Predicted economic growth and progress for the country remain live despite impacts of financial crises that took place recently.
The advantage the country has can be exhibited in its strong economic fundamentals, which appear to be solid and steadfast despite the financial challenges. Because of these, in 2008, it was predicted that UAE real GDP growth would accelerate by about 6.5% with potentials of reaching 7% over the next five years despite the impacts of global economic slowdown (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Inflation remains worry- factor in the federation and in the larger GCC Countries block. This aspect has become serious to extend that there was delayed GCC monetary union. The inflation in the region can be explained by the windfall gains from high oil prices, which gave GCC Countries more cash than many of their domestic markets could handle.
As a result, inflation has gradually become the bugbear that follows the successes of every economy in the region. In 2007, UAE surpassed the psychological inflation barrier of 10%, which further translated to an increase of 11.1% rise in the price of goods and services (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Furthermore, in 2008, report by Samba Financial Group indicated that, inflation in the UAE went into double figures that reached 11.1% while it was 11.3% in Dubai and 11.7% in Abu Dhabi, which meant that consumer price index growth could be to something closer to 20% (Oxford Business Group, 2008).
Predicted economic growth
Source: Oxford Business Group, 2008
Conclusion UAE since it got its independence has become an economic hub and its influence within the GCC region countries continue to increase. Today, UAE is one of the leading countries in the world as far as matters of GDP and per capita growth are concerned. Moreover, the country has one of the satisfied citizenry populations in the world and this can be associated to increased equitable distribution of resources in the country.
Oil and gas resources are the key aspects upon which the economy of the country is founded and for a long time, revenues from the hydrocarbons remain the backbone of GDP for the country. Nevertheless, some emirates like Dubai have been found to be less blessed with these vast natural resources and the country has in return increased efforts to diversify its economy.
As a result, today the country has diversified its economy to numerous sectors such as construction and real estate, transport, financing, agriculture, tourism, and the entire service sector. The fruits from these diversifications are numerous, with results being reflected in the continued growth of the country’s GDP.
Furthermore, it has to be noted that, growth and economic progress in the country has come about due to political stability and transparency in the distribution of resources, which in turn has enabled the government to initiate more economic strategic plans and policies.
Therefore, as much as oil and gas resources remain key to economy of UAE, it should be remembered that non-oil sector at the same time is promising and remain quite viable hence numerous investments should be directed at these sectors.
References Al-Abed, I.,
A Brief History of the Conflict between India and Pakistan Essay college admissions essay help
India and Pakistan are listed among countries that have had complicated relationships for a very long time in history. The two countries gained their sovereignty from Britain simultaneously in 1947. This independence marked a separation of the former British India into two major countries, India and Pakistan.
According to the separation agreement, Pakistan was to cover an area occupied by approximately 75% of Muslims while the rest of the population was to occupy the remaining area, currently known as India (Indurthy 2). Nevertheless, the separation was not to be a source of peace as the two countries fought over Kashmir, with history recording three major battles in 1947, 1965 and 1999.
Despite numerous efforts that have been engaged to settle the matter, tension has remained high between the two countries. This fight for territorial occupation can be compared to that between Israel and Palestine, which have continuously fought over Gaza.
This essay gives a brief history of the conflict between India and Pakistan, with special coverage on the genesis of the conflict, historical wars and efforts, which have been witnessed in finding a lasting solution in the region.
The genesis of the India-Pakistan conflict dates back in 1947 when Hari Singh, resisted the decision to have Kashmir join either India or Pakistan with the hope of gaining state independence or recognition from the two nations. In his attempts to waste time, Singh signed two standstill agreements with both sides although they never materialized (Indurthy 2).
There was violence that erupted after India and Pakistan declared their independence. This violence involved Muslims, Sikhs and the Hindus and in September the same year, riots extended to Kashmir as the war was considered to be a resistance against Muslims. As a result, West Kashmir Muslims fell out with Maharaja and formed an independent government of Kashmir.
On October 22, 1979, Kashmir was invaded by Pathan-armed tribes who were mainly from the Northwest Frontier Province, extending beyond fifteen kilometers from the country’s headquarters (Malik et al. 28).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sigh sought the intervention of India, which refused until Maharaja ratified the instrument of occasion which had been signed by other princely states. After a deal was reached, Indian troops responded in Kashmir on 27th October to repel the intruders (Indurthy 3).
The Indian intervention angered General Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who ordered Pakistani regular troops to be dispatched in Kashmir, a command that was resisted by Field Marshall Auchinleck, who persuaded the governor to withdraw the decree (Malik et al. 28).
However, in November, Jinnah agreed to supply the invaders with military equipment before sending ‘volunteer’ troops to Kashmir in 1948. Despite Pakistan’s involvement, Jinnah denied his country’s direct participation in the conflict in Kashmir until mid 1948 (Indurthy 3). Due to this involvement, India considered lodging a complaint with the UN Security Council.
The aim of this complaint was to invoke articles 34 and 35 of the charter which recommended peaceful settlement of the conflict between India and Pakistan.
The UN Security Council responded on January 20, 1948 by establishing a commission that was mandated to investigate the events and situation in Kashmir. This commission was later expanded to have five members in April that year and was given the responsibility of organizing for a plebiscite after the departure of all the tribal troops in the region.
A ceasefire was later agreed upon in July 1948 after which tribal troops left Kashmir. This agreement was effected early January 1949, a time when one-third of the state was still under the control of Pakistan. The Line of Ceasefire was monitored by both India and Pakistan under UN directives.
After the appointment of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz to act as the administrator of the plebiscite, the two sides objected the implementation of the Karachi agreement, based on their different interpretations of the UNCIP on demilitarization. General A. G. L. McNaughton led the demilitarization agreement starting December 1949 even though India objected it after citing legal and moral concerns (Indurthy 4).
We will write a custom Essay on A Brief History of the Conflict between India and Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Between 1951 and 1953, efforts to have the two countries reduce their military presence in Kashmir fell on deaf ears. The two countries withdrew the conflict from UN’s hands and decided to handle it following a meeting between Nehru and Ali Bogra during a Commonwealth conference in June 1953. Nehru’s efforts to conduct plebiscites in Kashmir were thwarted by political interests of General Ayub Khan, who wanted to oust him.
The U.S.-led Baghdad Pact of April 1954 and the SEATO of September 1956 forced Nehru to change his mind arguing that Pakistan’s alliance with the U.S. had nullified the plebiscite agreement (Indurthy 6).
The 1954 States Constituent Assembly’s resolution to recognize the accession of Kashmir to India was final, a stance that was rejected by Pakistan and the UN Security Council, reaffirming its position on a plebiscite in 1957. When a proposal to refer the issue to arbitration was put forward in April 1957, only Pakistan accepted.
After mediation and arbitration efforts by the United Nations had failed, the two countries fought over Kashmir in 1965. It is believed that the war begun after Pakistan became frustrated following continuous integration of Kashmir by India. Having had victory over India before, it planned to launch “Operation Gibraltar”, whose aim was to repossess Kashmir.
The war ended after the intervention of the United Nations, which pushed for peaceful negotiations and ceasefire. The two sides further fought in 1971, an encounter whose main outcome was the birth of Bangladesh, a region that was located to the East of Pakistan (Indurthy 6).
In 1974, India ignited its nuclear device in preparation for fierce protection of its territory. With tension still high in the two regions, separatists begun in Indian Kashmir with Pakistan carrying the blame of providing arms to Islamist militants (Haider 1).
The two countries engaged in a brief battle in 1999 at the Line of Control, before a summit that brought together Vajpayee of India and General Pervez Musharraf in July 2001 failed. In December 2001, Indian parliament was attacked by militants resulting into a harsh blame by India on Pakistan.
Moreover, the two sides started mobilizing more than a million troops, a plan that was drooped in 2002. In an attempt to find a solution to their conflict, India and Pakistan agreed to end fighting on the Line of Control in 2003 before establishing a formal peace finding process in 2004 (Haider 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Brief History of the Conflict between India and Pakistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After an attack by Pakistan’s militants on Mumbai in November 2008 that killed 166 people, India resolved to break the peace talks. Pakistan admitted its involvement in 2009 after an investigation had been carried out (Haider 1).
Consequently, India insisted on removal of militant groups in Pakistan before resuming peace talks. After talks and consultations, Prime Minister Sigh considered the resumption of the “composite dialogue” that had been pushed for by Islamabad.
In January 2010, there were series of fire exchange on the border, raising tension and alarm before India invited Pakistan for fresh peace talks in February, as the duo agreed to conduct them at the high diplomatic level (Haider 1).
From the above summary of historic events between India and Pakistan, clearly the possibility of finding a lifetime solution lies squarely in the hands of Indian and Pakistani leaders. However, the international community through the UN Security Council has a role to play in promoting peace efforts. Nevertheless, nuclear war between the two states cannot be ignored as both sides have tested their devices before.
Works Cited Haider, Zeeshan. “Timeline-Flashpoints and flare-ups in India-Pakistan ties.” Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 2010. Web.
Indurthy, Rathnam. “Kashmir between India and Pakistan: An Intractable Conflict, 1947 to Present.” Appalachian State University, 2011. Web.
Malik et al. Government and politics in South Asia. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2008. Print.