Table of Contents Introduction
The Chronology of environmentalist NGO’s
Suitability of NGO’s in environmental politics
Introduction Generally, human beings attach great importance to the environment since their means of living and quality of life rely on it. As the environmental threats increases, so do the attempts to safeguard environmental values.
Environmental politics are interested in the manner in which individuals arrange themselves systematically and configure activities to defend their interest in the environment. It takes into account the vibrancy of social movements, organizations and state machineries, and how they work together.
The subject of environmental conservation poses an exceptional test to politics. Among them is the transnational nature of the ecological trend. In other words, environmental processes go beyond national boundaries. For example, countries along the coastal line share the same waters and fish stocks.
Conflicts and apathy have often emerged due to disparities in regional or international environmental concerns and the current political structures and boundaries (Walters, 2004, p. 2).
The gains of economic development characteristically accrue to one country or region, yet the negative environmental impact of such development is normally transferred to another country or region, in terms of polluted air and water. This provides less motivation to control pollution from its origin. In addition, the administration may be less obliged to impose penalties on the industries concerned when it is clear that the pollution takes place outside their jurisdiction.
History has shown that political engagements in ecological affairs are capricious and diminishes with time, and development varies from additional to groundbreaking depending on the background and prospect. One analyst once described the history of global environmental action as a target that appears impossible to achieve at the moment. For the above reasons, environmental politics have always relied strongly on chronological and case study analysis.
This research paper will explore the role played by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) in environmental matters and explain why they are the best to deal with global environmental challenges. First, the study will start by examining the chronology of NGO’s in matters of environmental politics. The research will be based on different premises and concepts and key arguments between different authors and their academic positions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Chronology of environmentalist NGO’s In order to acknowledge the significance of NGO in global environmental actions it is important to understand what an NGO is because a wide range of entities exist. According to Hrabanski and others, organizations vary in accordance with the size, composition, sources of funds, beliefs, goals, operational scope and activities.
Dolšak defines an NGO as private, non profit-making, professional entity with a characteristic official character, concerned with the general well being of the people and societal goals. Societal goal in this case relates to issues of environment, whereas characteristic official character relates refers to official registration.
The history of NGOs is somehow ambiguous. The first NGOs were created by elite conservationist in U.S and Europe to prevent extinction of certain animal species and to idealize environment. They assumed an ethical politics of environmental change by emphasizing on how the environment is supposed to look like through art and literature and advocating for the conservation of natural ecosystem.
For example, Sutter shows in his description of the wilderness movement how the Americans in the early 20th century feared the use of automobiles in wilderness excursion. In other words, they feared that the use of automobiles will lead to exploration of remote areas and degradation of the forest. In addition, the creation of conservation NGOs reflected the societal response towards ecological destruction under the capitalism.
In the mid 20th century, the ecological concerns together with the emerging generational activists transformed the movement, thus providing a fresh meaning to NGOs. The new NGOs became green thinkers, which was ostensibly the organizational expression of political progress. Many literatures tended to analyze this new thinking in terms of green philosophy and often in a principled manner.
This is because NGO’s formed during this era had to confront numerous environmental challenges. For example, Greenpeace (established in 1971 in Toronto, Canada) and Friends of the Earth (established in the late 1960s in U.S) captured the world attention in their campaigns to stop Whaling and proliferation of nuclear weapons respectively. In addition, those who were involved in such campaigns were very youthful, energetic and confrontational.
Generally, the new NGO’s were viewed as an embodiment of radical forms of environmentalism. They started as small groups of protesters to become colossal global entities that fought nearly all environmental challenges. A number of authors catalogued how these NGO’s had transformed into international protest organizations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on NGOs and Environmental politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many academicians shun such literatures; yet they often share the fundamental assumption regarding the dogmatic significance of these organizations as the foundation of contemporary environmentalism. Some of the writers have explained the growth in NGO’s on political movements and demonstration influenced by models egalitarianism, mobilization of resources and traits of a social pressure group.
Nowadays, NGO’s have changed in structure and practice. Most of their activities are currently centred on people’s means of living and acknowledging the linkage between people and the environment. The model examples are Philippine Non-Governmental Organizations which have been vocal on matters pertaining to sustainable development. In addition, the current NGOs have usually played the role of civil society. For this reason, NGOs have become ideological actors that promote social justice and democracy.
A number of authors have probed the political innovativeness and vibrancy of the NGO-led civil society that advances novel forms of interaction between communities and the environment. Their studies acknowledge the significant role played by the NGO in the conservation and protection of international priceless ecological public goods. In addition, they recognize the role played by NGO’s in the transformation of transnational relations through civil action and global environmental treaties.
Suitability of NGO’s in environmental politics Even though the arguments that the nation states are slowly losing their significance are impulsive, the influence of NGO’s in the global arena is growing at an alarming rate. There is no other field of politics that NGOs have gained more influence than in the field of environmental politics. Many NGOs nowadays command huge amounts of resources and have a large pool of knowledgeable and very much trained professional staff. In addition, they have a huge network across the globe.
These NGO’s wield massive influence on matters of public policy both locally and internationally. Whether these policies are in the form of the provision of clean water to local communities, investigating the environmental activities of large transnational corporations, or representing the interest of the underprivileged at major conferences, the role of the NGOs can no longer be ignored.
As a matter of fact, NGOs are exhibiting a growing eagerness to circumvent state structures to represent matters of great concern. They normally pick up where state actors have failed or are still hesitant.
Political and environmental experts foresee the role of NGOs in environmental politics increasing in the future. In the last four decades, the world has witnessed an unprecedented increase in unconditional trade and in some cases the economic size of transnational corporations has surpassed the GDP of foreign countries in which they operate.
In the current competitive global market, some governments have appeared to bend investment laws to attract foreign investment, that is, they often embrace market-based and non-mandatory approaches. At the same time, external pressures to match the domestic standards and regulations with the international policies are increasing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on NGOs and Environmental politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result, the reconciliation of these standards and regulations with environmental matters has become a major challenge for national government. Particularly, the management of the effects of trade and investment on the environment has become very challenging for less industrialized nations. This necessitates the role of NGOs in the global environmental protection.
Additionally, less developed economies are justifiably keen to attract foreign investors in their country, but feeble institutions and lack of political good will mean that environmental standards and regulations will not be strictly enforced. On a positive note, transnational corporations normally bring with them state of the art technologies which are more environmentally friendly than the local ones.
However, the tempo of economic transformation in the less developed economies is shocking and devastating in its effects. Furthermore, environmental and development challenges facing the emerging economic powers like India and China is worrying the international community. At the moment, the Western nations are not certain of their future without the involvement of these countries in the global environmental protection and conservation.
The local and international courts have become a battleground between the NGOs and the government on environmental matters. Irritated over alleged backtracking by the regimes on environmental obligations, NGOs have often used the legal channel to pressurize the government to apply the current laws on environmental protection and more uncompromisingly take legal action against the lawbreakers. In addition, they have been using the courts as an arbitrator of crucial constitutional matters, for instance, the rights of citizens to clean environment.
According to Dobson, the government has taken several actions to tackle the current environmental challenges. In the 60s and 70s, the strategy used was based on stringent regulatory measures, where standards are set and implementation is backed by stern warnings. This approach proved to be successful and mainly relied on the use of eco-friendly technologies. However, with the competitive pressure of liberalization, governments were forced to come up with strategies that are bendable and less costly.
This is why the NGOs have recently become more popular since they make sure that the governments do not go to an extreme level in trying to woo the investors at the expense of environmental protection and conservation. Last but not least, NGOs have recently adopted consumer boycotts as a strategy to amend organizational and statutory policies and some, for instance, Greenpeace, have set their own standards for certain products.
To sum up, the research paper was to a certain extent selective in its coverage-after all, environmental politics is a new but broad and complex subject. At the risk of trying to be as simple as possible, the study explored the NGO as an actor in environmental politics and their growing popularity in the environmental matters.
Nonetheless, NGOs also have a couple of flaws. A number of them have often used the public to attain cheap publicity. In addition, NGO’s have been used to siphon money from foreign donors by corrupt individuals and terrorist organizations. All in all, the role played by the NGOs in socioeconomic, environmental, and political matters cannot be underestimated.
Conclusion Over the last 50 years, environmental subjects have been in the central state of major discussions. This is attributed to the fact that human beings attach great importance to the environment since their means of living and quality of life rely on it. In addition, conflicts and apathy have often emerged due to disparities in regional or international environmental concerns and the current political structures and boundaries. As a result, attempts to safeguard environmental values have been on the increase.
There are numerous actors in the field of environmental politics; however, NGOs have become the most prominent. This is because they command huge amounts of resources, have a large pool of knowledgeable and well trained professional staff, and have a huge network across the globe. In addition, the NGOs normally represent the poor and underprivileged at the global arena.
Locally, the NGOs have gained popularity because they have taken the role of the civil society and currently acting as government watchdogs in socioeconomic, political, and environmental matters. In the current competitive global market, some governments tend to bend investment laws to attract foreign investment, that is, they often embrace market-based and non-mandatory approaches.
The NGOs make sure that the governments do not go to an extreme level trying to woo the investors at the expense of environmental protection and conservation. They have been driving their agenda in the street, in the forums and in the court of law. Even though they have been criticized from different quotas for a number of vices, the role played by NGOs in both local and global environmental politics cannot be underestimated.
Bibliography Adams, W M
Providing a Financial Aid to the Developing Countries Research Paper cheap essay help
1. Nowadays, it became quite clear to just about anyone that the idea that, by providing a financial aid to the so-called ‘developing’ countries, Western nations would be able to help these countries to get out of poverty, has been deprived of the remains of its former legitimacy.
This could not be otherwise, because ever since the ‘aid’ paradigm has attained the status of the UN official policy, in regards to the Third World countries, there has been not even a single instance reported of the policy’s implementation having produced a positive outcome.
Quite on the contrary – the more this ‘aid’ has been pumped into the concerned countries’ economy, the faster they grew detached from the notions of progress and development, in the first place. In its turn, this leaves very little doubt that the assumption that aid can serve as the tool of development, is conceptually fallacious. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above-stated thesis at length.
2. One of the reasons why, during the course of the late 20th century, it became a commonplace practice among ‘progressive’ politicians in the West to advocate the idea of aid, is that during this time it used to be fashionable to assess the essence of the ongoing developments on the international arena within the conceptual framework of political Constructivism. According to the paradigm’s foremost provision, as time goes on, the very purpose of the independent states’ continual existence undergoes a qualitative transformation. 
In its turn, this was supposed to justify the idea that rich countries should preoccupy themselves with trying to improve living standards in the Third World. Nevertheless, as time goes on, it becomes increasingly clear to more and more people that, discursively speaking, political Constructivism is nothing by the instrument that allows Western countries to conceal their actual (Realist) agenda, concerned with: a) political/economic expansion, b) maintenance of a political stability within, c) destabilization of competing states.
What it means is that Western countries cannot be genuinely interested in having aid, which they provide to the ‘developing’ countries, to prove effective, by definition. After all, the fact that people in the West enjoy the world’s highest standards of living is the direct consequence of the Western countries’ existential mode remaining largely ‘parasitic’.
The validity of this statement can be well illustrated, in regards to the FRS’s practice of emitting billions and billions of dollars, without bothering to ensure that the money in question does reflect the value of any material assets. As a result, the US currency had ceased to represent any objective value, whatsoever, while being turned into essentially the tons of a valueless green paper (nowadays, it is rather the bunch of digital zeroes in the FRS’s main computer).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, it is specifically this currency (the US dollar), with which the Western world pays ‘developing’ countries, in exchange for their natural and human resources. In the similar manner, Spanish and later British colonists used to buy land from the American Natives, in exchange for glass-beads. Therefore, the Western practice of providing the Third World countries with aid, while these countries are being robbed clean by the very same ‘aid-providers’, is a hypocrisy of the worst kind.
Being strongly hypocritical, this practice cannot possibly result in the improvement of living standards among the world’s most impoverished people. Quite on the contrary – it prompts aid-recipients to adopt the mentality of beggars, which are doomed to rely on others, while trying to meet the ends. In its turn, this causes the ‘poor and needy’ to become resentful of their moralistically minded ‘beneficiaries’.
In this respect, it would prove quite impossible to disagree with Bindra, who suggested that: “Far from being productive or necessary, the donor-dependant relationship most often ends in mutual hatred. And amid the final acrimony, one crucial fact is forgotten: the longer the relationship has carried on, the less capable the dependant of reducing his dependence”.
This explains the phenomenon of legal and illegal immigrants from the Third world continuing to arrive to the Western shores in big numbers, despite remaining deeply resentful of the so-called ‘Western values’. These people are perfectly aware that in their own countries, they do not have even a slight chance of a social advancement, by definition, which in turn is the direct consequence of the West’s ‘well-meaning’ geopolitical arrogance, reflected by the euro-centric belief that aid can indeed serve as the tool of development.
This, of course, once again exposes the sheer fallaciousness of the assumption that by throwing ‘crumbs’ from their richly served tables to those people that have to struggle with hunger on a daily basis, philanthropically-minded Westerners would be able to make a difference.
There is another reason why there can be no rationale, whatsoever, in thinking that there may be any objective benefits to the policy of providing aid to the ‘developing’ countries – especially if the latter happened to be situated in Africa. This reason has to do with the fact that, in the evolutionary sense of this word, these countries’ citizens cannot be considered equal with their Western or South-Asian counterparts.
After all, it does not represent much of a secret that the average rate of IQ among citizens of the world’s most impoverished countries, such as Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Ethiopia, amounts to as low as 50-60. What it means is that the very assumption that aid can trigger the process of the evolutionary underdeveloped individuals being set on the path of progress, does not stand much of a discursive ground.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Providing a Financial Aid to the Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason for this is apparent – it is only those individuals that are capable of operating with highly abstract subject matters, which in turn is being reflected by the rate of their IQ, who have what it takes to be able to enforce the virtues of a rationale-based (and consequentially prosperous) living.
After all, it is specifically one’s ability to understand the meaning of abstractly sounding terms/definitions, which creates objective preconditions for the individual in question to be capable of exercising a rational control over its animalistic urges.
One of these urges is concerned with the intellectually underdeveloped people’s tendency to remain tribally minded, throughout the course of their lives. In its turn, this can be discussed in terms of a metaphysical ground, out of which these people’s taste for corruption actually stems.
This helps us to understand why, as practice indicates, at least 60% of a financial/material aid that is being provided to the ‘developing’ countries annually, on the part of the West, ends up being stolen by the local officials, in charge of distributing this aid among the most socially disadvantaged citizens. 
Yet, it is not only that this does not cause aid-providing Western countries to reconsider the legitimacy of the policy in question, but it in fact appears to provide aid-donors with an additional incentive to keep on throwing money into the bottomless pit of the Third World. Such a seeming illogicality, however, can be well explained once we realize that, in the geopolitical sense of this word, the term ‘aid’ is nothing but the well-sounding euphemism to the term ‘extortion’.
The rationale behind this suggestion is as follows: By providing aid to the Third World countries, Westerners contribute to the maintenance of the situation when the representatives of the corrupted ruling elites in these countries, are able to remain in the position of power, while continuing to lead a parasitic existence. The price of this is that the rest of ordinary citizens are being kept in the state of an extreme poverty.
After all, the more impoverished citizens are, the easier it is to provide them with the incentives to participate in elections/publicly held mass-rallies, which in turn legitimize the earlier mentioned state of affairs. This is because the cost of the impoverished citizens’ active participation in the earlier mentioned activities is comparatively cheap.
For example, it represents a common practice, on the part of politicians in many ‘developing’ countries, to hire people to participate in the mass-rallies (staged to prove that these politicians indeed enjoy much of a public support), by paying every individual ‘supporter’ as little, as $1 per day. This partially explains the reason why, while pumping finances into the economies of the Third World countries, the UN bureaucrats never cease stressing out that the provided financial assistance is also meant to promote the values of democracy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Providing a Financial Aid to the Developing Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While knowing perfectly well that, within the Third World settings, democracy necessarily breeds corruption, the earlier mentioned bureaucrats simply strive to maintain the present status quo in the ‘developing’ countries, concerned with the situation when the small minority of these countries’ richest citizens continues to subject their less fortunate countrymen to the most extreme forms of an economic exploitation.
Therefore, the democracy-rhetoric, on the part of those Western politicians who popularize the idea that aid can indeed be considered the tool of development, indicates that, despite having condemned the legacy of colonialism formally, Western countries nevertheless continue to remain essentially colonial – although this time, their colonial aspirations are concealed with the politically correct wrapper of ‘aid’.
Finally, the idea that aid may serve as the instrument of development cannot be considered thoroughly valid, because it is nothing but the byproduct of White people’s endowment with the sense of a perceptual euro-centrism.
That is, the concerned idea appears to be consistent with solely the Western outlook on what the notion of development stands for, because it reflects While people’s tendency to associate this particular notion with the notion of quality. What it means that there are no good reasons to consider this idea applicable, within the context of how people in non-Western countries go about addressing their evolutionary agenda of securing and expanding the affiliated environmental niche on the planet.
The reason for this is apparent – even though that, regardless of what happened to be the particulars of their ethno-cultural affiliation, all people are similar, in respect of being ‘programmed’ to seek domination, the strategies that they deploy during the course of the process, reflect the measure of the concerned individuals’ existential complexity.
Whereas, some people strive to maintain their evolutionary fitness by the mean of contributing to the pace of the technological/cultural progress (quality), the others pursue the same agenda by the mean of making babies on an industrial scale. In the eyes of evolution, neither of the mentioned strategies can be deemed ‘superior’ – all that matters, is that the chosen strategy ensures the eventual survival/dominance, on the part of its affiliates. 
In its turn, this implies that, despite the fact that many citizens in the Third World countries do suffer from undernourishment; ‘aid’ (in the Western sense of this word) is the last thing they need.
For example, within the matter of forty years, the population of Ethiopia has tripled – despite the fact that, throughout this time, Ethiopians continued to suffer from the never-ending civil war and famine. Perceptually ‘feminized’ Westerners, on the other hand, grow ever more incapable of addressing even the most basic life-challenges – despite enjoying the world’s highest standards of living.
As opposed to the Western societies of whining degenerates, which have effectively ceased evolving, the Ethiopian society is blessed with the Darwinian vitality, which in turn allows its members to successfully deal even with the most unimaginable hardships – without needing to be ‘aided’ by those who cause these hardships, in the first place.
3. I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that the notions of ‘aid’ and ‘development’ are mutually inconsistent, fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis. Apparently, aid cannot lead to development, by definition.
Bibliography Bebler, Anton. “Self-Assertion in the Third World.” International Political Science Review 1, no. 3 (1980): 369-380.
Bindra, Sunny. “Men Behaving Badly.” In Missionaries, Mercenaries and Misfits: An Anthology, edited by Rasna Warah, 147-155. London: AuthorHouse, 2008.
Ghosh, Arun. “Self-Reliance, Recent Economic Policies and Neo-Colonialism.” Economic and Political Weekly 27, no. 17 (1992): 865-868.
Hodgson, Geoffrey. “Darwinism and Institutional Economics.” Journal of Economic Issues 37, no. 1 (2003): 85-97.
Jones, Jack. “Social Darwinism Reconsidered.” Political Psychology 3, no. ½ (1981): 239-266.
Lynn, Richard, and Tatu Vanhanen. IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
O’Higgins, Eleanor. “Corruption, Underdevelopment, and Extractive Resource Industries: Addressing the Vicious Cycle.” Business Ethics Quarterly 16, no. 2 (2006): 235-254.
Olssen, Mark. “Radical Constructivism and its Failings: Anti-Realism and Individualism.” British Journal of Educational Studies 44, no. 3 (1996): 275-295.
Szeftel, Morris. “Misunderstanding African Politics: Corruption
Living in the Tenth Century: Essay (Book Review) essay help: essay help
Living in the Tenth Century, a book by Heinrich Fithtenau, presents an interesting view of life in Europe in the tenth century. Fithtenau takes the audience to a journey through the second millennium in Medieval Europe. The book is voluminous and challenging for those with no scholarly interest in History.
For Historians, it offers enlightenment and deeper understanding on how life has changed from medieval period to now. Fithtenau delves into all facets of life in Medieval Europe. The book digs into the interplay between rural schooling and religion. Additionally, it focuses on social order and the tenth century economy. This book review will demonstrate that Fithtenau’s book has well developed and credible arguments. It will also show that the book is resourceful but challenging to undergraduate students.
Fithtenau extrapolates the life in the tenth century Europe from the Carolingian age. He then ventures into emerging states like France and Germany. The tenth century experienced several changes in religion, economy, and education. In religion, the hypocrisy in Roman Catholic Church had led to disenchantment within a cross section of Christians.
There was incessant clamor for church reform from many quarters. Religious movements opposed to the Roman Catholic were gaining momentum day by day. What makes Fithtenau compelling as a writer is his style of themes presentation. On religion for instance, the book has pages with accounts of renowned clergy and bishops.
The book also focuses on population growth and urbanization. Increased food production led to better health and higher population. Additionally, people could sell surplus agricultural products or exchange them for things they did not have. The places that people met to trade became urban centers.
The book details accounts of rich land owners who cultivated corn. This era also witnessed the rise of different professions. These include architecture, engineering, and insurance. Trade led to emergence of brokers and intermediaries. In the new economic order, these intermediaries became merchants. The rich carved more land for themselves and hired poor people as laborers in vast cornfields.
Fithtenau book is unique because of the author’s dexterity in showing how different spheres of life connected and interplayed in the tenth century. The book delves into the notion of social order and shows how the societies organized themselves along schemes of order. The church exploited this order to teach subservience to those in low schemes. The elites exploited the notion of social order for social preservation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fithtenau uses this notion of social order to penetrate and understand the tenth century Europe. The medieval society was conducting rituals as a means of perpetuating and preserving schemes of order. However, Fithtenau suggests that order was elusive as people sought more participation in church reform and governance issues. This often led to conflicts.
The book caricatures the world around six basic notions. The first part of the book, titled Ordo, shows how social class determined access to the leadership and god. The society venerated the rich and lavished them with gifts and kind gestures. The second part of the book, titled Familia, captures family relations.
Fithtenau explores the subordinate status of women in the society. The book reveals the family as a unit organized around a woman in spite of her subjugated status. It also portrays the tensions that persisted in the royal family especially when it was time for succession. In the third section, titled Nobolitas, the book explores the administrative powers of the nobility.
In the book, Fithtenau captures human struggles to impose social order on the society. The society was also witnessing a conflict between Christian and pagan belief. This conflict is believed to emanate from the bumper harvest of 1033.There were those who attributed the harvest to God’s powers.
Others attributed it to magic. More than religion, people were also obsessed with proximity to power. Those close to power attracted respect and attention from those who were far from it. To get closer to those in power, those far from it offered gifts and praises. Women for instance addressed powerful men as “my lord”.
Living in the tenth Century also captures the debates on social thoughts that prevailed in Medieval Europe. The ecclesiastical nobility had outraged the secular nobility by using religion rather than economic status as a route to nobility. Fithtenau subverts the ecclesiastical nobility and upholds the secular nobility.
This shows that medieval Europe valued and esteemed secular clergies more. In the section titled religio, Fithtenau does not discuss ecclesiastical clergy, as the audience would expect. Instead, the section discusses reformers who were dissatisfied with the monastic. Interestingly, Fithtenau discusses bishops and clergy under the section of his book titled nobilitas. This shows that he considered their social status higher than their religious position.
We will write a custom Book Review on Living in the Tenth Century: specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another conspicuous aspect of the tenth century Europe as presented by Fithtenau is veneration of ranks and social status. The society expected people of the higher rank to behave and dress in a certain way. The ruling class lost personal identity because it had to conform to predetermined models. This class had a standing army for self-preservation. The army ensured that the peasants did not jeopardize the safety or status of the ruling class.
Fithtenau not only presents his argument but also provides logical reasoning to back it. In the original German version of the book, the author provides appendix and footnotes detailing accounts of the clergy, the ruling class, and the emerging intellectuals. This enhances credibility of the book.
Fithtenau portrays historical events correctly and factually. For instance, other Historians corroborate the loss in distinction between the clergy and ruling class. The increasing disenchantment with the clergy and ruling class appears in many other texts as Fithtenau captures it in his book.
Fithtenau’s Living in the Tenth Century is voluminous and very detailed. It is thus appropriate for Historians and anthropologists who wish to advance in their discipline. However, the book is complex and advanced for undergraduates. Fithtenau’s command on the subject and narrative style makes the book a compelling read. It is an incomparable resource book in spite of Lexical complexity. I would therefore recommend it to anyone interested in the History of medieval Europe.
Divine Comedy and the Odyssey as Epics Compare and Contrast Essay online essay help
The poems ‘Divine Comedy’ and ‘The Odyssey’ have characteristics of an epic piece of literature. Epic poems have distinct features that separate them from other poems. To start with, they are lengthy and usually in a narrative style. Their themes are grand and the main characters are heroic figures. The protagonists face many challenges in the course of the poems, culminating into victory or failure. Some epics have supernatural figures or powers, while others have physical combats exemplary displayed by one or two characters.
Moreover, epics tackle the daily routine of life not just entertaining or glorifying some characters. Instead, they capture events that transpired in a given period. This paper will demonstrate that ‘Divine Comedy’ and ‘The Odyssey’ are classic epics depicting the events happening in their respective periods. It will also compare and contrast the two poems under consideration.
In ‘The Odyssey’, by Homer, Odysseus is the heroic figure, who has fought in the Trojan War and achieved victory. He struggles to get back to his homeland, Ithaca, but his journey is full of tribulations. Odysseus is constantly under the danger of attack and dodging death, giving him ample time to think about his life, in particular, the spiritual life. However, he has to go home to Ithaca and save his people. The fact that Odysseus is a hero in a mission to save his nation distinguishes the poem as an epic.
‘Divine Comedy’ by Dante Alighieri reflects on life after death. The poet pens down his imagination of how hell would look like. It is a poem about the supernatural more than about a hero, which is the first difference between the current poem and ‘The Odyssey’. ‘Divine Comedy’ has 14, 233 lines, the number that is almost equal to ‘The Odyssey’ (Dante 43).
Dante makes himself the main character in the work that can be viewed as an aspect that distinguishes it from other epics. In spite of these differences in main characters, the two poems fit perfectly within the definition of an epic.
The beginning and setting of the two poems epitomize the writings as well. ‘The Odyssey’ starts by invoking a muse. Then, Homer follows this by extrapolating on the themes in the poem, which is a characteristic of an epic.
The setting covers a vast distance as Odysseus travels back to Ithaca across the Mediterranean Sea after the Trojan War. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ also begins in medias res. There are three different settings in the poem: the inferno, purgatorio, and paradise. The many settings afford epic poets an opportunity to develop their themes without space constraints.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It should be outlined that a major characteristic of epics is the use of heroic figures. Odysseus is the hero in Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’, who is venerated and fondly sobriquet the “Odyssey, master mariner and solder” (Homer 436). Odysseus undergoes numerous trials and tribulations but he emerges stronger each time. In the poem, the main hero and his men run into Cyclops. Facing imminent defeat, the brave leader intelligently fools Cyclops and blindfolds him.
Thus, Odysseus secures his men’s safety. In another episode, the king of Ithaca encounters Circle, the Greek goddess with powers to turn men into animals. Again, he secures the safety of his men by defeating the mighty woman. In the third encounter, visiting the underworld and meets his mother and other fallen heroes. Notably, the interaction between dead and living men is a distinct feature of epics.
‘Divine Comedy’ is different because it does not have a human hero who excels in war. Instead, the author enters into the afterlife and presents it to his audience. Thirty-five-year-old Dante makes entrance into a dark forest where he sees a light from a distance and attempts to reach it. However, a ferocious and angry lion stands on his way.
A spirit comes to rescue him but not without a price. The main character will have to go through hell, purgatory, and then get his way to heaven. Dante is ready to take the journey because of his desire to escape from a sinful world. In this poem, the author makes extensive use of supernatural beings, animals, and dead people, which can qualify the writing piece as an epic poem.
Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’ extensively applies supernatural forces, an aspect of an epic. Gods and goddess appear in the poem in many instances. Some of the supernatural forces help the hero while others are viewed as a hindrance to the hero’s progress. Poseidon hinders Odysseus’ progress by putting him through Calypso, a very dangerous island. Goddess Circle opposes Oedipus’ trespass and threatens to kill his men.
More about This Topic Who is Tiresias in the Odyssey? 5 75 Who are the suitors in the Odyssey? What is their fate? 5 45 Who is Hermes in the Odyssey? 5 109 Which part of the Odyssey is about learning patience and humility? 5 210 Which excerpt from part 2 of the Odyssey best supports the conclusion that Odysseus is clever? 5 230 Which excerpt from the Odyssey demonstrates the importance of hospitality in Greek society? 5 139 However, other gods and goddess facilitate Oedipus’ journey back to Ithaca. Athena, for instance, helps Oedipus escape from goddess Circle in Calypso. Hermes too facilitates Oedipus’ sojourn by offering protection against Calypso. As mentioned earlier, the use of superpowers is one characteristic of epics. Calypso, Hermes, Poseidon, and Circle elevate Homer’s poem epic stature.
Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ uses supernatural powers and unreal settings extensively. As mentioned before, Dante makes his poem unique by presenting himself as the main character. In his epic, he narrates his afterlife in hell and finally the journey to heaven. He also describes Virgil as the other main character in his poem, who was a Roman poet widely acclaimed for his Christian ways and moral rectitude. Capturing war escapades of the man who founded Rome, Virgil redeems Dante by offering him the way to heaven.
We will write a custom Essay on Divine Comedy and the Odyssey as Epics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other deceased character in Dante’s poem is Beatrice, the author’s first love, who guides him in heaven. There are other mythological personages and creatures in the poem, including Arachne and Harpies, supernatural figures like demons, angels, and the devil. Just like in Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’, the use of mythological and supernatural figures enhances the poem’s epic nature.
One should bear in mind that the epic poems do not merely entertain or detail lives of heroes for their own sake. Instead, they pass across a message that resonates with what was happening at the particular period. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ captures the materialism and moral decadence that plagued his society. The poem employs deep allegory to depict the consequences of sin. Thus, it begins on the eve of Good Friday with the setting in the thick of dark woodland.
On the opposite side, allure of the sun beckons but a ferocious lion stands on the way. It could be considered that the dark forest symbolizes sin. The sun, however, represents salvation. The lion embodies all the things that hold human beings back from heaven. By timing his death on a Good Friday, Dante captures how Jesus died to save humanity. He argues that peoples’ greed and self-seeking pursuit set them apart from God.
Homer’s ‘ The Odyssey’ captures Odysseus’ trials and challenges as he attempts to get back to his people. The theme of homecoming runs through the poem. Temptation as a theme is also recurrent. Thus, Odysseus resists numerous temptations as he makes his way to Ithaca.
However, some of his solders suffer psychological peril because of falling into temptations. At a symbolic level, the poem shows how weakness makes human beings vulnerable. Identity and exile also run through the poem where Odysseus is in a foreign country to fight for his homeland. After winning the war, he has to go through hostile land to his people back at home that also need him. At a symbolic level, this journey represents human pursuit of identity.
In conclusion, the paper has extrapolated some characteristics of epics that are genres of long poetry, often classical. They are narratives with the elevated themes usually focusing on success and failures of heroes. Additionally, they may have supernatural characters that interact with mortals.
The poems ‘Divine Comedy’ by Dante and Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’ are epics. They start in medias res and invoke a muse in the beginning. Homer’s poem concentrates on extraordinary acts of king of Ithaca who is returning home after a successful war in a foreign land.
Throughout his journey, he encounters stiff resistance from some gods and goddess but manages to arrive home at the end. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ focuses on afterlife where the author imagines the life after death and commits himself to investigate it for the audience. His poem is a protestation against materialism and decadence that rocked his society. The two poems fit perfectly within the characteristics of an epic.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Divine Comedy and the Odyssey as Epics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Dante, Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. London: Laurence King, 2010. Print.
Homer. The Odyssey. London: Penguin Classics, 2009. Print.
Twelve Years a Slave Essay (Book Review) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The author of this book was born in 1808. He was raised in Minerva, New York. There is scanty information about his mother, and her name is not mentioned in the book. He is the son of Mintus, who was a slave under the Northup family. However, his father was freed from slavery after the family relocated to New York.
During his younger years, Solomon Northup assisted his father with the daily farming chores. Occasionally, he would also work as a rafts man. Northup got married to Anne Hampton. She had a background of mixed ancestry. Their wedding took place during the Christmas celebrations of 1829. They were blessed with three children during their marriage.
The author also became famous during the 1830s due to his skills in playing the fiddle. In 1841, Northup received a generous offer to join a group of performing artists on a tour of various states. However, just after accepting the offer, he was kidnapped and auctioned into slavery in the southern states.
During his time in slavery, Northup had several masters some of whom were brutal, and others that he deeply acknowledges as being kind and generous. The author was freed from slavery by an official of the state of Louisiana. After being released he filed kidnapping charges against his abductors, but the case was thrown away on technical grounds.
This book was recorded by a European lawyer acknowledging that it was the true account of the recollections of Solomon Northup. The book was subsequently published in 1853; barely a year after Solomon was freed from slavery. The initial chapters of this publication discuss the history of the Northup’s and the author’s marriage to Anne.
It also looks at his occupation as a farmer and rafts man. It further narrates about his life as a fiddle player and his kidnapping. Northup was promised hefty wages, $1 for a day and $3 for each show he performed. However, after arriving in Washington D.C., Northup was drugged causing him to fall asleep. When he finally woke up, he found himself “alone, in utter darkness, and in chains” (Northup 38). He was astonished to realize that a slave pen existed within Washington D.C.
The author was sold to a ruthless slave dealer who constantly whipped him for claiming that he was a free individual. During his stay at the slave pen, he met Eliza. The sad story of this lady is narrated by Northup in the subsequent pages of the book (Northup 50-54). During their transportation to New Orleans, the slaves plotted a mutiny.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this plan is abandoned after one of them succumbs to a smallpox infection (Northup 69-72). They are finally sold to Theophilus Freeman. Northup and Eliza who were lucky not to succumb to the infection are later bought by a clergy-man named William Ford. The author states that the preacher was moved by the cries of Eliza to purchase her younger sibling, but the trader refused. Northup describes the preacher as a kind individual (Northup 90).
Northup is later sold to a carpenter to whom Ford owed a lot of money because of his skills and hard work. He is a victim of brutal treatment at the hands of Tibeats. When his master attempted to assault him for a mistake, Northup fought back and snatched the whip. He later whips Tibeats before he could be rescued. Out of anger his master attempted to lynch him.
However, Northup is rescued by an observer who felt compassion (Northup 107-111). Later, Tibeats attempts to kill Northup with a hatchet, but again he cannot match the strength of the slave. After brutally assaulting his master, Northup is forced to escape and seek refuge in Ford’s farm where he is provided with protection (Northup 139).
The second part of the book provides a description of Northup’s life in the cotton plantations. He also talks of his escaped when hired out to the sugar cane plantations. He also provides a detailed account of the lives of other slaves particularly the harsh treatment they get from their masters (Northup 179-180).
The authors attempt to send communication back home thwarted by the Edwin with whom he had shared his secret. However, Northup was cunning enough to request the favor without showing Edwin the letter. Since there is no evidence, he easily refutes the accusations leveled against him. The author later met Mr. Bass who was a Canadian specializing in carpentry.
The carpenter agrees to help Northup send some letters home. They both recognize the significance of the act. The author notes that the experience he got from the first attempt made him extra cautious when dealing with Mr. Bass. The carpenter also re-affirmed the need for utmost secrecy (Northup 269-271). After a long delay which made Northup despair, he is finally rescued by a member of the family which his father served as a slave.
The final chapters of the book describe the legal proceedings which ensued after the release of Solomon Northup. The author through the help of Henry filed charges of abduction against his captors (Northup 315-319). The book ends on a happy note when the author is reunited with his wife and family. Northup is also gets to meet his grandson named after him.
We will write a custom Book Review on Twelve Years a Slave specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853, from a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River, in Louisiana, New York: Miller, Orton
Church versus State: Antigone and Modern States Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Sophocles’ Greek play ‘Antigone’ presents a conflict between the god and man’s law. Antigone, the protagonist, believes that one’s conscience and divine law should prevail over the human’s one. She is proud and stubborn, qualities that make her uncompromising even in the face of adversity. Yet, others view her as an embodiment of resistance against unjust laws (Humphrey and Edith 23). Creon, the king of Thebes and Antigone’s uncle, has the duty to protect and enforce the state laws.
Their blood relationship notwithstanding, Creon and Antigone are involved in a protracted conflict over the burial of Polyneices, Antigone’s brother (Sophocles 12). As this paper will demonstrate, the tension between Antigone and Creon symbolizes a higher conflict between the state and god laws. Additionally, this paper will delve into the modern day conflict between the church and the state as seen in contentious issues such as abortion and same sex marriage.
Sophocles’ Antigone starts with an intense argument between Antigone and her sister, Ismene, over the burial of their brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices. Eteocles dies a hero fighting for his kingdom. Polyneices, on the other hand, is seen as a traitor because he dies fighting against Thebes. According to the laws of the land, Eteocles deserves an honorable burial while his brother should rot unburied on the spot where he has died.
Those who go against this law risk death by mob justice. Antigone, however, is ready to violate the law and bury her slain brother. This sets the first stage for a conflict with her uncle. Religion decrees that a dead man ought to be buried in order to save the society against a bad omen. In spite of this, Antigone decides to take this path. Creon insists on enforcing the laws of the land that prohibit the burial of traitors. Sophocles maintains his play by escalating the tension between the king and his niece.
A fear of reprisal, or a promise of reward, underpins the choice to obey or disobey a law (Phoebe 23). In Sophocles’ Antigone, Ismene is afraid to participate in her brother’s burial for fear of death by mob justice. Antigone, on the other hand, is driven by love for her slain brother.
She also wants to uphold the laws of gods, as she fears that failure to do so will attract their wrath against the people. Creon shares Antigone’s stubbornness and hubris. He is afraid that such acts of impunity, as demonstrated by Antigone, will hurt his legacy. Besides, it is the fear that forces him to seek counsel from Teiresias, the blind village priest, on the controversy surrounding the burial of his nephew.
Ultimately, the king succumbs to gods’ laws and ignores the human law. He decides to follow the law of gods albeit too late because he had already lost his son. Eventually, Antigone commits suicide. By the tragedy between Creon and Antigone, Sophocles suggests that the practice of religion should be tempered by reason (Spender 23). It is foolhardy to follow laws blindly without being mindful of realities of the world. Antigone demonstrates that should tyrannical laws conflict with divine law, it is more prudent to follow the latter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflicts between the church and a state are not confined to Sophocles’ era. In the modern world, the church is at loggerheads with the state on many issues. These conflicts sometimes escalate to full blown wars. In the interest of stability and fair treatment before the law, many states have legal provisions separating the church from the state.
Humphrey and Edith, however, argue that such separations are theoretical and hardly realizable (34). During the civil rights protests in the United States of America, Martin Luther King Junior, a clergy and young leader, lambasted the church for its silence and indifference in times of oppression.
In Britain, the church played a leading role in abolition of the slave trade. In South Africa, Bishop Desmond Tutu led his followers to demonstrate against the state perpetrated apartheid. History is replete with many conflicts involving the church and the state. This section will discuss some of these conflicts vis-à-vis the conflict between Antigone and Creon in Sophocles’ Antigone.
The first area of the conflict between the church and the state is on the issue of abortion. The Bible categorically forbids termination of pregnancy. Many states, however, have realized the inevitability of abortion in some situations. The pro-life argument is deeply rooted in biblical and other religious texts.
To most Christians, life begins at conception and only God has the right to take it away. However, logic and science dictate that in the best interest of the mother, it is sometimes necessary to terminate a pregnancy. In cases of pregnancy through an incest, for instance, such a child, if born, will be a constant source of shame to the mother. The same case applies to a pregnancy from rape.
In some cases, doctors may prescribe an abortion if the birth of a child will put the mother’s life at risk. According to the United States laws and laws of many other liberal nations of the world, abortion is allowed if it is in the best interest of the mother and the child. This is a classic case where the church conflicts with the state. Some fundamental Christians are strongly against the termination of pregnancies irrespective of the circumstances. In some Northern states of the USA, Christian fundamentalists ostracize and kill the women who abort.
The other conflict area between the church and the state is the same sex marriage. God created the Universe and a man and then created a woman to give the man company. The Bible is emphatic that a man should marry only a woman. Same sex marriages are, however, becoming common in the modern times. In the UK and USA, the members of the same sex marry publicly with blessings from their parents.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Church versus State: Antigone and Modern States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As much as it is against Christianity, many states in the United States of America have legalized gay marriages. The first amendment of the U.S. constitution allows for liberty and pursuit of happiness without undue restriction. The government role is to protect and enforce this law. Through its bodies and agencies, the government must protect the rights of gay people to marry without any discrimination. In the USA, President Obama has come under a scathing attack from the church for endorsing same sex marriages, especially in the military.
The tension between the church and the state in the modern times evokes the irreconcilable conflict between Antigone and Creon. Phoebe claims that personal traits, rather than the interpretation of the law and Bible, fuel most of church versus state conflicts (11). In Sophocles’ Antigone, the protagonists are too proud and stubborn to reconsider their positions and make a compromise. In the modern times, the church listens to the state to respond, not to understand (Spender 23). This explains why the church and the state will conflict even when they agree fundamentally. Even in absence of any ground for discord, the church and the state will perpetually be in conflict.
Works Cited Humphrey, D., and Edith, H. Antigone: Book review, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2008. Print.
Phoebe, P. “On Poetry: Rebels with a Cause.” The New Leader 2.1 (2004): 1-4. Print.
Sophocles. Antigone, Arlington: Richer Resources Publications, 2007. Print.
Spender, Stephen. “Desperately Seeking Sophocles: Oedipus Trilogy.” The New Republic 2.1 (2006): 1-5. Print.
Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture Research Paper essay help
Abstract Each and every organization aims at ensuring that it has in place the best practices in the market. Dignity and reputation of a firm depends on interrelations not only amongst staff, but also with customers and suppliers. As a result, having a code of ethics which defines the ethical actions that one can take in any given scenario has become the order of the day.
Codes of ethics help in enhancing consistence of behavior among employees, orientation of new employees as well as communicating expectations of the company to all stakeholders. While having a code of ethics is vital in creation of ethical corporate culture, there are people who have a contrary view. The paper enumerates the various benefits of code of ethics thus outlining its importance in creation of a working corporate culture.
Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture The main aim of any business entity is to make as much profit as possible. Employees are therefore encouraged use their inputs in a manner that will maximize income of the organization. However, if pushed too much by the need to make more money, many people are bound to engage in certain behaviors that might not be in tandem with the visions of the organization. As a result, many organizations and professions have come up with regulations limiting the behavior that is allowed.
These codes of ethics define what employees as well as people in a given profession can or cannot do. The process of carrying out a given activity is fully outlined and deviance from these may lead to punishment. Though many people have applauded these codes of ethics due to the benefits that they have to organizations, there are those who do not see the importance of ethical codes conduct to corporate cultures.
To begin with, it should be noted that almost every organization has in place a code of ethics which regulates the behavior of its members. The main aim of having ethical code of ethics in place is not necessarily to increase output but rather to enhance correct behavior among people in the organization. As a matter of fact, good behavior among employees of a given company is known as one of the factors that attract customers and enhances customer retention (Shaw, 2010).
In this regard, ethical codes of conduct are vital in providing the proper way of handling various issues especially if the course of action is not immediately clear. It is important to note that there are scenarios whose mode of action is not defined in the rules and regulations of a company. Situations like these require a defined way of handling them to avoid conflicts.
On the same note, ethical codes of conduct are used to socialize new employees when they join an organization. It is important to note that new employees will need to be guided on how to behave while working in an organization. If they find that everybody is supposed to use his or her own means in solving a problem, they will also start using their own ways in addressing various issues. However, people have diverse ways of approaching issues in life and leaving them free to act how they want will lead to conflicts (Mika, 2011). Codes of ethics are therefore essential in enhancing values and principles of organizations among employees whether new or old.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, codes of ethics are usually written in a manner that fosters what the company expects from each and every stakeholder. Codes of ethics define the expected behavior of every person in any given scenario.
In this regard, organizations are able to clearly communicate their expectations not only to staff, but also customers (Wulf, 2011). After understanding organizational code of ethics, people are able to streamline their actions as required. Moreover, ethical codes of conduct help in promoting honesty and free communication in an organization.
Among the issues outlined in the ethical code of ethics is how people should be treated within an organization. The rights and privileges of each and every employee are clearly explained. Additionally, each member’s responsibilities are highlighted and procedures to be followed for promotions or demotions are laid down.
As a result, favors or unequal treatment can be avoided (Wulf, 2011). Knowledge of one’s rights is very crucial in enabling a person to avoid mistreatment. Therefore, outlining the rights of employees and other important procedures in ethical codes of conduct helps in eliminating unprofessional behaviors especially among managers. As a result, a culture of adhering to company policies is propagated which in the end enhances the sense of belonging.
It should be noted that there are regulations that are put in place by governments of various countries on what is expected from business organizations. However, not all these requirements can be captured in organizations’ rules and regulations.
As a result, codes of ethics help in ensuring that various governmental regulations are adhered to. As a matter of fact, it is a governmental requirement that each organization should have in place an ethical code of conduct (Bacher, 2007). This ensures that people in the organization develop a culture of respecting and adhering to governmental regulations.
Ethical code of conduct highlights how business transactions should be handled and how problems from customers and suppliers will be addressed. Besides ensuring consistence in the way that customer issues and business activities are handled, ethical code of ethics make sure that the best practices are used in executing duties.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This ensures that customers are satisfactorily served and that the reputation of a firm is upheld (Wulf, 2011). This is crucial in securing public trust in the company thus increasing its market share. Notably, daily actions of people end up being their behavior in the end.
Loyalty of employees is highly dependent on whether the organization handles them well or not. Buy having a good and sound code of ethics in place, a firm ensures that subjective treatment of employees by management is eliminated. Moreover, sound ethical code of conduct elevates public opinion regarding a firm.
This is quite essential in enhancing employee morale and pride thus enhancing not only their behavior, but also their productivity. Arguably, employees are motivated to behave in a given manner by the social status of the firm they work for. Most importantly, corporate culture is supposed to be effective and positive devoid of the governmental policies in place. In areas where there are weak governmental policies, ethical code of conduct is very essential in ensuring that high degree of professionalism is maintained.
Some actions may seem negligible to an individual but they can lead to legal actions against an organization (Shaw, 2010). Employees should be made to avoid these actions thereby saving the firm from unnecessary legal tussles. Ethical code of conduct defines all procedures that should be followed in executing any duty thus helping in reducing legal risks.
Additionally, ethical codes of conduct form the basis on which employee training and development is based. When an employee is unable to fully adhere to the laid down code of ethics, it sends a message to the management that the employee requires training in the given area. This helps in enhancing good behavior among employee and aligning the behavior of all employees.
On the same note, ethical code of conduct is part of the requirements that are supposed to be met by new employees. As a result, having a sound code of ethics in place ensures that only the best employees are recruited thus fostering organizational culture (Mika, 2011). It, therefore, goes without saying that ethical code of conduct is a very important ingredient in generating organizational culture.
However, this beautiful ideology has its own drawbacks which have made some people skeptical about its advantages to organizations. Firstly, evidence has depicted that though codes of conduct are designed with the aim of enhancing equality among employees of an organization, this is not always the case.
High ranking employees and managers are always exempted from some requirements that are outlined in the codes of ethics. For example, top-level managers are not so much monitored on the time that they report to work as is the case for junior employees. All this does not go unnoticed by the other members of staff (Bacher, 2007). As a result, instead of the codes of conduct boosting compliance and positive organizational culture, the reverse might be the case.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, success of ethical codes of conduct depends on their enforceability. Moreover, the willingness of employees and other concerned parties in ensuring that the ethical code of conduct is implemented is vital. However, people will only be willing to implement regulations that do not seem to limit their freedom. Unfortunately, some ethical codes of conduct have been drafted in a mechanical way and they have too many explanations which sometimes go too far regarding what is demanded from each employ.
These codes of conduct become complicated and thus difficult to implement. On the other hand, some ethical codes of conduct make employees fell like they are being micromanaged (Wulf, 2011). As a result, rebellious tendencies are generated within the organization making implementation of ethical codes of conduct impossible.
On the same note, some ethical codes of conduct limit what employees can talk and what they cannot say. Furthermore, some processes outlined by ethical codes of conduct are just ethical from the outside but nobody usually follows them. Similarly, there is no serious action that is taken against those who do not follow the ethical codes of conduct in some instances (Shaw, 2010).
Having rules in place which nobody cares whether they are implemented or not encourages deviant behaviors. As a result, instead of ethical codes of conduct propelling positive organizational culture among staff of an organization, they will be leading to increased unethical actions.
Notably, nothing legal or otherwise compels a firm to implement its own ethical code of conduct. The legal requirement is just aimed at ensuring that every organization drafts ethical code of conduct. No mechanisms are put in place to ensure that these ethical codes of conduct are implemented.
Management of any organization has the option of either implementing their ethical code of conduct or not. Moreover, ethical codes of conduct are prone to manipulation (Shaw, 2010). As a result, directors and managers of firms can change them to fit their ambitions which can easily lead to conflict of interest.
Clearly, the benefits of a having a code of ethics in place are far too many compared to the disadvantages. It is what people do each day that determines their behavior. Not everybody will do the right thing at any given point in time. Human beings are used to having rules that guide what can or cannot be done.
In this regard, a code of ethics is a very crucial document for any organization. It will be practically impossible to achieve long term goals at once (Wulf, 2011). They need to be broken down into short term manageable goals. This is exactly what codes of ethics do. They take into consideration organizational vision and mission, break them down into every day activities and then ensure that the short term goals are met.
By ensuring that nobody goes against what is required by the firm, ethical codes of conduct help in propagating organizational culture. Moreover, through defining the correct behavior of staff and other stakeholders, ethical code of conduct enhances company values.
As a matter of fact, organizational culture comprises of the behavior among employees and the behavior of the staff to the outside world. This is what is defined by the ethical code of conduct. Therefore, ethical code of conduct helps in making employees develop the required characters.
Nonetheless, ethical code of conduct per se cannot bring about positive organizational culture. Employees must be willing and ready to follow and live by the regulations outlined in the ethical codes of conduct (Mika, 2011). Rules only do not change the behavior of a person. People can easily pretend to be following the ethical codes of conduct just because they want to secure their jobs while in reality what they are doing is the opposite. Change of behavior begins with the internal willingness of a person and not by the presence of regulations.
Having appositive organizational culture is the aim of every business entity. These will not only enhance their customer retention ability, but also their income levels. Positive and professional behavior will also reduce mistakes that can lead to legal actions. Certainly, codes of ethics are inevitable in the quest to formulate standard organizational culture. However, it should be noted that formulation of non biased codes of ethics and ensuring that they are fully implemented is as vital as having a code of ethics in place.
References Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Codes of Ethics. Munchen: GRIN Verlag.
Mika, A. (2011). The Importance of Codes of Ethics: Examination of the Ned of Business Ethics and the Efficient Usage of Codes of Ethics for Good Corporate Governance. Hamburg: Diplomarbeiten Angentur.
Shaw, W. H. (2010). Business Ethics: A Text Book with Cases. Stanford: Cengage Learning.
Wulf, K. (2011). From Codes of Conduct to Ethics and Compliance Programs: Recent Developments in the United States. Berlin: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH.
Globalization and Security Environment: Visions of Prosperity and Peace Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Abstract The three main resources in the UAE are water, oil and human capital. The economic dominance of the UAE in the Arabian Peninsula makes it vulnerable to resource-based conflicts. Such conflicts can affect the regional security of the Middle East. The policy initiatives needed to ensure that the country remains stable are as follows. On water, the country needs to match its groundwater consumption to the replenishment rate of its aquifers. Secondly, the country needs policies that will help to increase water production through desalination.
Thirdly, the country needs policies that will enforce water conservation initiatives. On oil, the country needs policies to govern oil exploitation. These policies should favour longevity of oil reserves over short-term benefits of high production. Secondly, the country needs to pursue economic policies favouring further diversification of its economy. Thirdly, the country needs to develop policies to govern human capital. The policy areas in this regard include citizenship, social stability, and immigration.
The UAE is a modern miracle in economic development terms. The country was insignificant in any regard until the middle of the twentieth century when it struck oil. The country has since shown that it is possible to transform any country regardless of its past. The discovery of oil in the UAE made it a country of interest in regards to the global oil supply chain.
Apart from oil, the country has limited natural resources. However, it has used its resources to market itself as a business hub in the Arabian Peninsula. This paper explores policies regarding water and other resources that will best serve the interests of the UAE and the surrounding region.
Resources in the UAE Besides oil, the UAE and the surrounding region does not have significant quantities of other natural resources. The most precious resources in the region are water, oil and human capital.
The water situation in the UAE is one of the main concerns of the government. The country has very little fresh water within its borders. The country receives about 120 mm of rain annually (Zenter, 2011). This quantity of rainfall cannot meet its recurrent water needs. Therefore, the country relies on groundwater for most of its fresh water supplies.
The challenge the country needs to address urgently is how best to manage the dwindling resource. The country’s water table has been falling by 1 meter each year since 1980 (Zenter, 2011). The country has access to plenty of sea water. However, it must desalinise the water before using it. The current desalination capacity can only supply 36% of the country’s fresh water needs (Abdellatif
Writers who predicted the future Essay (Article) college admission essay help
Table of Contents America’s story-teller – a bit off-kilter:
The Armchair Soldier: Virtual Bootcamp
Oldies but Goodies in Prescient Fiction:
“Hello, HAL. Do you read me, HAL?”:
Call for Mr. Cthulhu…:
The Three Laws of Robotics, and more:
Science fiction is often also known as ‘speculative fiction’, and, accordingly, it gives authors free rein to imagine anything they choose. While a gripping science fiction yarn needs plausible, complex, three-dimensional characters, a tight and well-structured plot, and a smooth narrative arc, it also needs sound science underpinning it.
Years ago, in a meeting of the Philadelphia Science Fiction Society, George Scithers, the longtime editor of Asimov’s Magazine, and grand old man of SF editing generally, gave a most reassuring piece of advice to the assembled authors, fans, and wanna-bes.
He said (more or less – this was back in the 1970s) that if there was sound science at the base of a story, then almost any sort of superstructure, consisting of proposed extensions to that science, would seem believable.
It has been in the extension of existing science that SF authors have managed to occasionally hit on a prediction that actually comes to pass. In some cases, the hits seem to have outnumbered the misses. Let’s look at a highly selective sampling of these prescient authors and the inventions, trends, and events they predicted.
America’s story-teller – a bit off-kilter: Ray Bradbury never even thought of himself as primarily a science fiction author, preferring to consider himself a commentator on the world around him. This fine raconteur has mined the rich vein of his childhood memories to create evocatively lovely images of the American landscape. Along the way, in amongst goose-pimpling stories like The Martian Chronicles, and Something Wicked This Way Comes, he envisioned seductive virtual reality environments.
The privileged children in The Veldt inhabit a room that generates a 360 degree, full-sensory world, complete with patricidal lions. While we are a few years away from virtual large carnivores capable of eliminating inconvenient parents, just yet, how many kids are currently submerged in Saint’s Row, or Assassin’s Creed? They are enjoying a virtual reality, for the maximum time between bathroom visits!
A slightly different sort of immersion in media appears in Fare height 451. The hero’s wife longs for a wall screen to allow full participation in the daily soap operas. Full wall screens are entirely possible now – they are just a bit expensive, thus far. She also wants to have them personalized by including her name. With a cable subscription or online streaming, such personalization would be possible even now, given that viewers register with identifying information.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Armchair Soldier: Virtual Bootcamp The virtual training of soldiers is the subject of Ender’s Game, by Orson Scott Card, and has recently been made into a movie, to mixed reviews. Returning to the novel after several decades away, this reader cannot avoid a frisson of apprehension at how current training for drone flying parallels the video game style exercises that prepare the young (very young – think tweens) in Card’s future Earth to remotely control weapons and vessels in outer space.
A former national security employee noted recently the phenomenon of video game creators whose products are nowhere to be found on the commercial market, but who are nonetheless making income from somewhere – unspecified. The implication is pretty clear. Some other interested entity, probably governmental, is buying their services and output. (Cue a sound effect of spooky music!)
Oldies but Goodies in Prescient Fiction: The ability to synthesize predictions from what is already known and mastered is particularly striking in some of the older authors. Jules Verne’s submarine, the Nautilus, captained by the mysterious Captain Nemo in the 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, is a wonderful example. It foreshadows both the positive possibilities of underwater vessels, and their frightening potential to violently disrupt shipping, and other activities.
Verne, of course, also predicted moon launches in From the Earth to the Moon, as most people know. However, the subtlety that such launches might not occur under the auspices of national governments, but instead, with the sponsorship of commercial or affinity groups is sometimes forgotten. Commercial enterprises are currently busily planning ways to get to space, just as Verne predicted.
The story and characters are about as wooden can be imagined in Hugo Gernsback’s novel Ralph 124C41 , but the number of suggestive and eerily accurate predictions is astounding. The most hopeful is Gernsback’s prediction of efficient conversion of solar energy.
Black Galaxy, a 1949 pulp novel by Murray Leinster, is now, happily, available in reprint and on Kindle. The notions of parallel universes and dark matter are central to the story, and are the current darlings of the scientific press. The love story is incidental, but sweet.
“Hello, HAL. Do you read me, HAL?”: The plot element of a beacon, located off-planet, and designed to trigger a signal to extraterrestrials that Earth has developed space travel, is also central Black Galaxy’s story. This may have inspired Arthur C. Clarke’s mechanism for alien contact in his influential 2001 series. Clarke himself, famous for asserting that sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, predicted the establishment of a space station in geosynchronous orbit (now called a Clarke orbit). This prediction, among others, including regarding artificial intelligences like the super-computer HAL, has been partially fulfilled.
We will write a custom Article on Writers who predicted the future specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Call for Mr. Cthulhu…: The master of cosmic horror, H.P. Lovecraft, tended to exploit then-current discoveries in his weird works. However, the novella At the Mountains of Madness correctly predicts that Antarctica would provide a rich yield of paleontological material, although has turned out to consist of intriguing dinosaurs rather than the remains oif extraterrestrial and star-born Elder Ones.
The Three Laws of Robotics, and more: While we have not yet achieved an artificial intelligence that moves independently, many of the ethical and design issues that Isaac Asimov articulated are being addressed by current researchers. Asimov’s I, Robot series explores the implications of robot use and misuse comprehensively.
This is a personal list, and not exhaustive. SF authors articulate our fears for the future and point the way to both warnings and solutions to the problems we will encounter.
The Problem of Online Gaming in Modern Society Research Paper college essay help
Online gaming is the bane of parents worried about video addiction and adults fearful that their bosses will figure out why they are so unproductive so much of the time. The games that are designed to sell are specifically crafted with all the intellectual resources available, to make people stay with them.
They often provide, if one looks carefully, intermittent positive reinforcement, which, Psychology 101 taught us, is very powerful. They are an addictive substance, and custom-built to be exactly that. So, why in the whacky world would we want to encourage people of any age to go check out more online games?
Because, dear reader, the very addictiveness – the compelling nature of well-constructed online interactive games and activities are a fabulous advantage when we are trying to learn something. How can we best exploit this resource?
Think about what you want from the experience of playing a game online, because there as many different opportunities as there gaming fanatics and designers itching to get you onto their sites. You may want to learn something, or sharpen cognitive skills, or hand/eye coordination, or memory, or practice specific math techniques. There is something out there for every one of these goals. Look at these wonderful websites.
The most visually arresting is the National Geographic. This venerable organization has always had a tradition of providing beautiful images of the natural world and its people to inspire and inform. Did you know that the magazine used to insist that every photograph, of whatever untamed landscape or scene, should include a human figure somewhere in it?
This was probably intended to reinforce the connection between people and nature. This tradition is maintained in the National Geographic website, where games are flanked by gorgeous pictures of animals, people, and vistas. The games are simple but provide a sound ecological message. The ones available at the time of this writing are aimed at the very young.
If you want some of the feel of the aforementioned and decried Grand Theft Auto, but without the drugs, bad language, and violence, try, as an example, the Neon Racer game at Learn4Good. This particular game is reminiscent of the movie Tron, in its earlier incarnation, with light-outlined-motorcycles speeding down a virtual racecourse. This little game, so basic in design, offers a fast, dangerous driving experience. It is not entirely clear what academic content is being conveyed, but it does keep one’s attention focused.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There a bunch of other options listed, including one that offers a swords and castles sort of game. Again, the educational content is a bit obscure, but having free access to a game that avoids desensitizing a generation of young people to interpersonal violence seems worthwhile. Each game is on its own webpage, which means that the design varies widely.
Quite sophisticated games are on the SheppardSoftware site. They are listed as being for kids, however, be assured, many adults will be challenged. For example, the 600 history questions in the history trivia game includes some rather obscure facts! The visuals are almost entirely absent, but this is free, as a compensatory factor. The mathematics practice games go up to Algebra 2. They are planning to offer Pre-Calculus soon, which will make this useful for nearly everyone through high school, at the least.
If you want to aim for a Nobel Prize, or launch your offspring towards becoming a laureate, try out NobelPrize.org. In addition to comprehensive information about the winners and their accomplishments, this site offers games that provide a taste of the actual science that such luminaries engage in on a daily basis. As one example, visitors to the site can try out the skill of finding out blood type.
This is certainly a useful skill in the real world. The hope of any parent would be for this to inspire a child to enter the health sciences after playing this game, but most of us would be happy just to have a rest from Assassin’s Creed.
Ok, this next one is not strictly speaking educational. One could play it without learning a blessed thing. However, it is this writer’s favorite game of any variety or medium, and this writer has shameless decided to exploit the situation. Scrabble for iPad is just a great way to play with words.
There are other versions for regular computers. If you have never played this game, then you should start. If you take the simple step of trying to use words that are unfamiliar to you, employing an online dictionary to do so, you will learn some new vocabulary. If you are already a fan, this allows you to take it with you wherever you roam.
There is no reason to avoid gaming if you are using any of the many educational games that are available online. You can have all the fun of the commercial games, with almost none of the cost, and, happily, none of the detractions that make violent games so disturbing. Go play a game!
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Bioremediation Technology Essay (Article) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The breakdown decomposition degradation or removal of toxic contaminants from the environment is called bioremediation (Aislabie, 2012). Microorganisms are introduced into the contaminated soil to carry out normal functions (Nester, 2001). Microorganisms act on the contaminated soils to neutralize the contaminants. The organisms include bacteria, fungi, and plants to mention a few (Perfumo, 2007).
The organisms alter the composition of the contaminants by carryout their normal life activities. The waste management technique can be done on the site of contamination or on a neutral waste disposal site. Advanced technologies are employed in the treatment of contaminants (Walworth, 2007). The techniques include bioventing, bioaugmentation, and bioleaching to mention a few. The organisms utilized during bioremediation are called bioremediators.
The organisms are introduced on the site of contamination to degrade the contaminants. Waste management is a necessity because of the effect of the contaminants to human health. These contaminants pose health risk to humans and the environment. A study conducted by Simon revealed that waste managements could reduce the effect of toxic spills by 13 percent (2010).
Reasons for the technology Environmental studies suggest that oil contaminant causes severe health challenges. This accounts for the rise in toxic related diseases and infant mortality. Bioremediation technology mitigates these contaminants (Walworth, 2007). Observations are ongoing to ascertain the effects of bioremediation on the soil and its effect on human health.
Human beings and Plants suffer similar risk to contamination of the soil. The polluted soil makes it difficult to cultivate crops and grow animals. Contaminants block the passage of soil nutrients and the blockage affects the circulation of soil nutrients. Such situations make the soil infertile and toxic for agriculture.
The contaminants reduce the fertility of the soil. Three important agents are present during bioremediation processes. The agents are; the contaminant, the electron acceptor and a suitable microorganism. The degraded material adds nutrients to the environment. For example, degraded hydrocarbons react with oxygen to cause aerobic respiration. Although these microorganisms have their limits, they combine well under favorable conditions to influence the degradation of various contaminants (Swannell, 2010).
Industrial waste constitutes 65 percent of the world’s toxic materials. The emergence of bioremediation technology is a positive development in curbing the effects of the contaminants. Sveum suggested the use of five microorganisms to reduce the toxicity of industrial contaminants (2008). These microorganisms include; Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Aspergillus, Bacillus cereus and aeruginosa. These organisms combine to reduce the toxicity of industrial contaminants.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effects of industrial waste are so severe that chief executives have careful minimize oil spills. Industrial waste can be recycled using bioremediation to reduce the effect on the environment. Mass protests and demonstrations occur daily because of industrial spillage and soil contamination. A proper management system is the only way of reducing the effects of industrial contamination (Swannell, 2010).
Factors of bioremediation Bioremediation is a complex process which is controlled by different factors (Walworth, 2007). The factors include: the presence of a suitable organism, the presence of the contaminants, favourable environmental conditions suitable for microbial growth to mention a few.
Microbial populations in bioremediation process
The presence of microorganisms in the contaminants influences bioremediation. The organisms can survive in extreme conditions. The nature of their growth makes them suitable for bioremediation. The organisms can be categorized into four groups.
a. Anaerobic organisms: Anaerobic organisms survive without oxygen. This makes them suitable in the control of biphenyls contaminants and the compounds of chloroform. Composting and land farming techniques favors anaerobic organisms. The compost stimulated the growth of the organisms in extreme temperature.
b. Aerobic organism: They function with oxygen. The microbes include Alcaligenes and Rhodococcus to mention a few.
Methylotrophs microbes: The microbes grow with oxygen and little methane.
Ligninolytic fungi: This group of microorganism can be used to degrade hazardous waste.
We will write a custom Article on Bioremediation Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental factors affecting bioremediation
Microorganisms are the principal agents in the bioremediation process. To degrade much contaminant, the population of a suitable microorganism must be balanced (Aislabie, 2012). Thus, microorganisms suitable for bioremediation require favourable environmental conditions to boost their growth.
The nutrients must be available in equal proportions suitable for microbial growth. Microbial organisms require carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, sodium, calcium, chloride to mention a few. Microbial growth and degradation is influenced by the conditions suitable for microbial development.
Bioremediation is influenced by soil moisture, temperature, pH, oxygen level, and temperature, nature of the contaminants, soil type and the nature of heavy metals. The nature of the soil influences the rate of degradation and microbial growth. The presence or absence of oxygen is influenced by the contaminants. The presence of oxygen requires aerobic microorganisms while the absence of oxygen in the soil will require anaerobic bacterial to complete the degradation processes.
The population of the microbes can be simulated by biostimulation techniques (Perfumo, 2007). The addition of oxygen and other favourable nutrients suitable for microbial growth is called biostimulation. The presence of heavy metals affects the growth of microorganisms.
In extreme cases, soil nutrients are introduced in the soil to boost microbial growth. Aerobic organisms will require aerated soils and this can be achieved thorough soil tillage. This will allow easy passage of nutrients suitable for the development of the microorganism.
Bioremediation techniques The nature of the contaminants determines the technique used on the site of contamination. Bioremediation strategies require two broad procedures. In-situ and Ex-situ are two major techniques employed in bioremediation processes. In-situ bioremediation is used when the contaminants are degraded on the contaminated soil.
Microorganisms are introduced at the site of contamination (Swannell, 2010). Large contaminations will require excavation of the contaminants to another site for treatment, which is called Ex-situ bioremediation. The introduction of suitable microorganisms in the soil is called bioaugmentation. Bioaugmentation is affected by two factors.
a. The introduced organism may not adapt with the indigenous microbes in the soil. Thus, population growth may be limited.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bioremediation Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More b. Indigenous microbes have potentials to carry out bioremediation processes.
The degradation of contaminants at the site of contamination is called In-situ bioremediation. It is a cheap technique compared to the excavation of contaminated soil to a new facility. Its disadvantage is caused by the soil type. The soil type influences the level of degradation. Aerated soils degrade faster and biostimulation is easy. In-situ bioremediation can be achieved in different ways.
Bioventing: It involves the supply of nutrients and oxygen in equal amounts through wells. The quantity of oxygen is controlled to produce stable growth of the microorganism.
Biodegradation: Gaseous solutions are supplied on the site of contamination to circulate the nutrient requirements suitable for microbial growth. The procedure requires the use of groundwater to distribute oxygen and microbial nutrients on the contaminated site.
Bioaugmentation: The supply of internal or external microorganisms into the site of contamination is called bioaugmentation. One disadvantage of exogenous microbe is the performance ratio. Exogenous microorganisms may not grow in extreme temperature. Extreme temperature will limit the population of the microorganism.
Biosparging: The site of contamination is pressurized to induce the availability of oxygen. The injection of pressurized air alters the concentration of groundwater at the contaminated site.
The techniques include land farming, composting, biopiles and bioreactors.
Land farming: The process requires the excavation of the contaminated soil to a prepared facility suitable for degradation. The microbes are stimulated with oxygen and microbial nutrients to increase its population (Walworth, 2007).
Compost: The combination of the contaminated soil with manure or agricultural products is called composting. The manure stimulates microbial growth and facilitates the development of ingenious microorganisms. The temperature of the soil is controlled to influence the production of anaerobic organisms.
Biopiles: The combination of land farming and compost is called biopiles. Engineered organisms are used to degrade contaminants. The technique is suitable for aerobic and anaerobic microbes.
Bioreactors: The use of treated vessels to decontaminate the soil is another bioremediation technique. The contaminants are transported to an engineered facility. The process is monitored under a controlled temperature (Nester, 2001).
Advantages of bioremediation
1. Bioremediation is a natural process and the residues do not pose a health risk.
2. Bioremediation is useful in the degradation of heavy metals and other toxic waste.
3. Contaminants can be destroyed or neutralized at the site of contamination. The procedure reduces the risk of transporting hazardous waste from the site of contamination to a free zone.
4. Except in extreme cases, the process of bioremediation does not disrupt the ecological system of the contaminated site.
5. Bioremediation is a cheap method of decontamination compared with various decontamination techniques.
Disadvantages of bioremediation
1. The decontamination of the soil is a limited process. Most contaminations cannot be degraded by microorganisms.
2. The introduction of microorganisms may cause severe damage to the ecological system.
3. The chances of success are slim because of the absence of microbial population. It is difficult to estimate the quantity of microbial organisms required for the decontamination process.
4. The process requires time. The evacuation and transportation of the contaminated soil to the treated facility lengthens the time of biodegradation.
5. The processes of bioremediation cannot be justified. The extent of damage cannot be determined.
Conclusion The treatment of industrial waste requires bioremediation. Unlike other methods of waste managements, bioremediation mitigates these contaminants. Bioremediation benefits man and the environment. Oil spills and heavy metals, which are major soil contaminants are treated with suitable microorganisms.
A combination of two or more microorganisms can create an atmosphere suitable for the degradation of contaminants. Although the treatment is cost-effective, it reduces the effects of toxic wastes on the environment. A practical approach must be used to degrade contaminants in large quantity.
Recommendations The process is suitable for degradation of contaminated sites. The cost of the procedure makes it suitable for large decontamination. The risk associated with the process cannot be ascertained; however the process provides the best technique for decontamination.
Future study I will recommend further studies to determine the extent of damage during the cleanup. Regulatory agencies must reduce the occurrence of oil spillage and soil contamination.
References Aislabie, J. (2012). Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nester, E. (2001). Microbiology: A human perspective and approach. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Perfumo, A. (2007). Thermal enhanced approaches for bioremediation of hydrocarbons. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Simon, M. (2010). Evaluation of bioaugmentation for remediation of petroleum in a wetland. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sveum, P. (2008). Hydrocarbon bioremediation and its benefits. Sydney, Australia: Ibex Press.
Swannell, R. (2010). The use of bioremediation to treat an oiled shoreline. Sydney, Australia: Maxon Press.
Walworth, J. (2010). Fine tuning soil nitrogen to maximize petroleum bioremediation. South Melbourne, Australia: Maxon Press.
Social Networking and Depression Argumentative Essay cheap essay help
Studies show that social networking has a potential of causing depression and the more individuals use social sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, the more they are filled with anxiety leading to depression. In the University of Michigan, a study was conducted with a sample of eighty-two Facebook users in a period of two weeks.
The findings of the study confirmed that once an individual engages in social networking, his or her feeling of safety goes down and depression mood emerges meaning that a correlation between depression and social networking exists (Harris 81). Unlike other forms of social networking, such as chatting with friends, social sites offer invaluable data that are incapable of fulfilling an individual needs, such as security and safety.
If an individual spends more time on Facebook, he or she might end up depressed the whole day because of anxiety (Myers 17). Apart from causing depression, social networking may cause the fear of missing out because an individual feels rejected and neglected once his or her message or information is not taken positively. Some users may criticize the views of an individual, yet no chance is given to defend the idea.
While on Facebook or Twitter, an individual feels inadequate or insufficient because one person might post a good picture showing magnificent vacation, luxurious purchases, and gorgeous children. In case an individual does not have the means to achieve his or her ambitions, he or she might be jealous and might be resentful since good things are happening in the lives of others while suffering might be the characteristic of his or her life.
In a different study conducted in Sweden at the University of Gothenburg that interviewed 111 Facebook users, it was established that internet networking has an effect on the self-esteem of an individual, as well as his relationships with others (Noor and Hendricks 64). Individuals spending more time on Facebook and other social sites have low sense of worth.
Additionally, social networking causes narcissism because users spend too much time and resources for decoration of their pictures and modifying their profiles in order to gain approval and praise. If an individual posts a status update on Facebook or Twitter and no person is interested in commenting, there would be a high likelihood that an individual will be worried because he will not understand some of the reasons why others are reluctant to respond.
Scholars, artists, politicians, and other professionals might be tempted to post something related to their achievements, such as published works or won award. Such individuals would be affected greatly in case someone decides to post something negative (Noor and Hendricks 67). Many people end up spending sleepless nights because of a negative comment that someone posted on Facebook or Twitter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Continued usage of the social media contributes to the erosion of true relationships because it is difficult for individuals to interact face-to-face, as the traditional form of interaction is being replaced by shallow and meaningless online connections. Studies show that this is damaging the well-being of society since human need for true relationship is difficult to find (Myers 48).
Since individuals are incapable of finding authentic relationships and love, they tend to turn to the social sites for consolation. Instead of being comforted, the social media only serves one purpose that is related to depression and mental illnesses. In the modern society, it is common to find an idle person on Fcaebook or Twitter since it is believed to keep a person active.
The modern society is characterized by uncertainties and disappointments and people report all these in the social sites. For instance, of all the internet users, one or two people will report losing a job or breaking up a relationship. Again, the death of an individual will always be noticed, particularly when the person is famous.
Through the social sites, an individual realizes that it is so easy to lose a job or break up in a relationship, something that brings about anxiety. If the death of a famous person is reported, sadness mood comes in because there would be a feeling of loss. Some internet users develop a culture of judging others, irrespective of whether their post is accurate or not. In other words, they simply spread propaganda and falsehood once they realize that their ambition cannot be realized (Myers 75).
For instance, one person might fail to convince another to enter into a deal or relationship. Instead of accepting the outcome and moving on, he or she would go a notch higher to comment negatively on the social media, something that might attract a penalty or revenge. In many parts of the world, online wars are widespread whereby individuals are unwilling to concede defeat and continue with lives.
This has brought about many challenges because a negative comment is given to an individual with children and a stable family. Recently, a picture of a famous politician engaging extra marital relationships was posted on the social media, yet the leader has children and a good family (Kaplan and Haenlein 68). This causes depression to many people who feel disappointed and cheated. Even though the information posted might be inaccurate, it would be difficult for other users to change their minds once they have the picture.
In order to network with a friend, a social media user must send a friend request and wait for a response. An individual will definitely be depressed in case a response is not sent in time. Social networking isolates an individual from the rest of the community because most of the time is spent chatting with online friends who might have nothing to add to an individual’s life. Many young people are simply interested with popularity and they believe that having many friends in Facebook or Twitter makes them more famous.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Networking and Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In reality, this does not add any value to life because friendship has to be of high quality meaning that adequate assistance can be offered when necessary. An individual with many friends on Twitter or Facebook tends to believe that he or she is illustrious, but most likely will be disappointed in a time of need because not all online friends will ever care about what is happening to the life of one member (Harris 101).
They will simply express their sadness, which might not be genuine, yet the individual would be in need of emotional and psychological support. Therefore, social networking is believed to be harmful to the well-being of the individual in society because it does not add value to life (Myers 88). Additionally, it is established that a strong correlation between social networking and depression exists and it is upon the individual to control internet usage.
Works Cited Harris, Kandace. “Using Social Networking Sites as Student Engagement Tools.” Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 25.18 (2008): 88-112. Print.
Kaplan, Andreas, and Haenlein, Michael. “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media”. Business Horizons, 53.1 (2010): 61-98. Print.
Myers, David. Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2012. Print.
Noor, Al-Deen, and Hendricks, John. Social Media: Usage and Impact. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012. Print.
How Did the French Revolution Impacted the Issue of Slavery and the History of Santo Domingo? Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
The French Revolution Slaves learned about the French Revolution and decided to discuss their rights and future. As a result, they started to hold mass meetings in order to prepare for resistance. Slaves had already started to organize themselves into small groups of rebels in different isolated plantations.
Santo Domingo became a critical center for insurrection as slaves organized themselves. Slave masters terribly repressed their slaves. The French Revolution led to the spread of revolutionary ideas. French soldiers who visited the France colony of Santo Domingo also spread the idea of revolution among blacks. French soldiers also informed black slaves and mulattoes that the French legislatures had acknowledged that all humans were same and liberated.
Black rebels used the Island of Santo Domingo as their base during 1791 resistance. Most rebels were blacks who were working in sugar plantations. In addition, other oppressed workers also joined the revolution with the aim of eliminating their masters. Black revolters established bases in all locations they had destroyed.
Most blacks identified with the revolution movement. Consequently, slaves made their interests strategic objectives during their struggle. Cooper focused on the relationship between the French Revolution and its impacts on French colonies, particularly in the island. The author noted that slavery was a critical matter during the French Revolution. Blacks struggled for their freedom as the French Revolution provided them with new ideas. According to Cooper, one can comprehend the French Revolution alongside the question of race (Cooper 83).
Blacks struggled for total abolishment of slavery. Rebel leaders and soldiers worked together to ensure that the Port of Santo Domingo was safe. Toussaint became the most important leader during 1800 in Santo Domingo as he organized the island into a strong economy and established a military autocracy. Toussaint became authoritative and autonomous as he led rebels and French soldiers. This organization scared Napoleon as Toussaint led the slave revolution in Santo Domingo.
The cruelty of slave masters, who were owners of plantations, led to a deep-rooted feeling of suffering and rebellion as slaves started to demand for their rights. However, one must recognize that slave rebellion and revolution started long before the French Revolution emerged. Slaves conducted secret meetings, used language, and religion to resist their masters.
After the French Revolution, the law prohibited slavery and abolished in Santo Domingo. Rebels in the island understood the confusion and division among their white masters. As a result, they led the Haitian Revolution with a specific objective of ensuring that slavery ended. In order to realize this object, blacks were willing to take any challenge to achieve their goal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Island became a critical location for insurrection as many black slaves turned against their white masters and plantation owners in quest for freedom. The Haitian Revolution started in 1791. Initially, the Revolution was in a single location of the Island in the northern plain, but it later spread to other areas as other slaves joined the fight against oppression.
This was an issue of race struggle. While scholars have provided accounts of historical events at Santo Domingo, many white authors did not present actual events but rather portrayed the black revolution as a series of disorganized, unsystematic actions. However, the Haitian Revolution was organized, had leadership, and a sense of unity. This was a triumphant rebellion of against white plantation owners in history.
Works Cited Cooper, Anna Julia. Slavery And The French And Haitian Revolutionists 2nd ed. Lanham: Rowman
Pruitt Igoe as a Part of the Urban Renewal Act Essay (Movie Review) essay help free: essay help free
St. Louis was transformed by the processes of concentration and deconcentration which related to the times and people’s social status. Concentration was evident through the distribution of the population. The lower and middle class people were placed into one area, close to the city and their workplaces. This was a form of exclusion of a part of the population from the rest of the city. Deconcentration took place in a type of urbanization.
People were moving away from the city to have their own home with a backyard and a front lawn which provided for space and light. At the same time, people who gained some resources were moving away from the city, thus causing a deconcentration of the work force and the general population. As the amount of people was decreasing, social programs and housing projects started to get abandoned and forgotten.
Pruitt Igoe was a part of the Urban Renewal Act which is evident through the examination of several factors. The primary one was to rebuild the slums and make sure that people had proper living conditions. Previously, the environment was very unsafe and unsanitary for people. Children had no place to play and spend time at.
The project was meant to enable people to have proper housing and playgrounds. The fact that the buildings were located close to the center of the city provided for easy access to factories, stores and social services. As the society and the government of a nation have a key role in a city, the general values of a large group of people are aligned with those of individuals and communities. Physical features of the housing play a significant role in the environment and the movement of people.
Pruitt Igoe failed for several reasons; the two major ones are the isolation of the location, and the second one is people losing jobs, and the city becoming demographically unstable. Isolation happened due to the decentralization of the building and architectural flaws. People became secluded from the rest of the population and as such, the area started to receive bad reputation within the city.
The level of security started to go down which resulted in people moving out and abandoning the projects. The second reason was related to people losing jobs and being unable to pay for rent. This led to the worsening of conditions, deterioration of basic services and general living conditions. Plumbing and fires became a common occurrence, and people were forced to leave.
The movie is titled “The Pruitt Igoe Myth” where “myth” relates to the unresolved problems, and people’s inability to clearly identify the factors that led to the deterioration. In the beginning of the construction, people have dreamt that it will be a perfect place to live. After the buildings were complete, it did become a dream life for many, but it did not last very long. Even though it was meant to provide a better life for people, it turned out to be a myth because a building alone cannot make sure that people have a better existence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The housing was only a framework, but many conditions that were necessary in the support of the environment depended on the people and the city. As such, the population and the government could not manage the worsening state of affairs, and the project became a myth.
The play “Waiting for Godot” Essay college admissions essay help
The theatre is always about the play, the characters and the drama. The three questions that the theatre asks are: what the play is, why it is the way it is and what the characters learn during the play?
The play “Waiting for Godot” is about two people who are waiting for a person named Godot. In reality, Godot never comes and the two characters, Vladimir and Estragon, spend much time waiting for this individual. They talk about all kinds of things. Their wait seems to be eternal which is representative of life. The play is both a comedy and a tragedy. It is a comedy because it seems impossible and comical how these two characters are waiting for another one for so long.
They also have a special relationship with each other which is rather humorous. The unexpected things that happen throughout the play add to the humor of the wait. But at the same time, it is a tragedy because Godot never comes, and it is devastating to Estragon and Vladimir. They are frustrated that they have to wait for so long, and they even think of killing themselves several times during the play.
The tree is an important representation, and it stands for several things, as there are a few references by the characters to kill themselves, the tree could be seen as a tool for that. Estragon and Vladimir talk about hanging themselves from it. It could be a direct reference to Jesus and the crucifixion because Jesus was said to be crucified on a wooden cross (Feitsch, 2008).
The visitors, Pozzo and Lucky represent a duality. It seems impossible how these two characters who are so different can stay together. Another line that can be drawn is the connection between mind and body. It is a constant battle between the two forces in the struggle for what each wants and needs. It could also be said that Vladimir is the mind of the two, as he is the one coming up with ideas and concepts, and Estragon is the body, and this can be seen in his naps, the want to sleep and complaints.
The names of the characters represent another duality. The name “Lucky” in no way represents the fate of the person, as it is illustrated in the play. It shows how the obvious can oppose the hidden. And there is the contrast between the reason of the wait and the wait itself. The main goal is to wait for Godot but while they wait, there are things that happen to the characters, which display different aspects of life and its turns.
The wait is aligned with the grim reality of life, when a person waits for something to happen and it never does. The tree also represents the divinity of heavens, as the characters wanted to hang themselves on it and the theme of morals, which are high above, and the material needs of the human body (Patkovszky, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both acts describe the same place. It is a lonely tree by the road. This represents the theme that time stood still for these two characters. The only difference is that in the second act there are some leaves on the tree (Beckett, 2011). The mystery of Godot stays unsolved until the end. It is unclear who it is or why they wait for him, but it seems to be the point of their existence.
References Beckett, S. (2011). Waiting for Godot. New York, United States: Grove Press.
Feitsch, V. (2008). Waiting for Godot – a cultural approach. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag.
“Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” Essay essay help free: essay help free
“Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” are two plays. There is a definite connection between them, but it goes beyond the mere obvious drama of death. Both plays have a common theme of a surreal world where people are objects ruled by a higher and unknown force. Even though these works of art were created in a deem and distant past, they still can be attributed to the modern times.
The link of “Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” to the present days can be seen in the lost characters. People are often unaware of their point in life and how to define own goals and dreams. Just like Rosencrantz and Guildenstern feel lost and are unaware of their purpose, so do people in the modern society. With such a vast amount of information people begin doing something, only to realize that their actions were pointless and unclear, so they begin doing something else.
The same is seen in the characters from the play, as they are not sure of why or where they are going. Several times, they thought about working out their destination, deciding to change the course of their lives, only to later give up and say that there is no point in life. They choose a path that forcefully takes them there, and they have neither strength nor want to decide anything for themselves (Shakespeare, 1987).
The two plays have a lot of parallels, but they are different kinds of tragedy. “Hamlet” is based on the feud within a family. Hamlet is torn apart by the recent events, and everything that follows springs from his anger and the need for revenge. Most of the time, the mood of the play is depressing and sad, as people become marionettes of greed and other people’s selfishness. “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” is a much different type of tragedy, as these two individuals are very sneaky, fake, seemingly kind and understanding.
Hamlet realizes the fact that his two “friends” act out of someone else’s will and he treats the situation accordingly. Two of his oldest friends cannot even begin to understand the reasons for Hamlet’s feelings because they themselves are not sure what is going on in their lives and minds (Shakespeare, 1987).
In the closing scenes, both Rosencrantz and Guildenstern end up unhappy and unlucky. The whole play they are unhappy, as events seem to collide, they cause them great confusion and grief. In the course of the play, they become more miserable with each act, so they reach the finish completely in loss of control over their lives and their individualities.
They are unlucky because every time they want to make something out of the situation, they appear as losers and are left with less than they had before. The drama of their fate is their absence from reality. They do not know what is going on, even when they directly participate in an event. They are unlucky because they do not know any of Hamlet’s secrets and plans. The fact that the letters got switched up, makes them even more unlucky and more unhappy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two plays have been intertwined in an interesting and provocative way. The message of both masterpieces is clear, as people must learn about themselves before going out into the big word and influencing or manipulating others.
Reference Shakespeare, W. (1987). Hamlet. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes.
More about Hamlet Do you think Hamlet is a problem play or a tragedy? Why? 5 851 What does the first soliloquy reveal about Hamlet? 5 27 How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 165 What Does the Ghost Tell Hamlet? 5 58 Which Details in Hamlet Reflect Elizabethan Society? 5 228 What Incident Serves to Initiate the Conflict in Hamlet? 5 70
Countryside in Shen Congwen’s Xiaxiao, Border Town and Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum Term Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Countryside is a rich aspect that has been incorporated in literature by most Chinese scholars. Despite the fact that there are variations in manner of countryside representation based on period of literature, there are common patterns adopted. Some patterns raise concerns while others are uncontroversial.
The essay will highlight ways that countryside has been represented in Chinese literature. Two novels by Shen Congwen and one by Mo Yan will be discussed. Countryside is ideal home that should be reverenced and not modified. Novels to be discussed are Xiaxiao, Border Town and Red Sorghum.
Background Information Writers are influenced by social structures that they operate in. Mon Yan and Shen Congwen are examples of writers who sought to represent aspect of countryside in their literature. Both of them identified with countryside and sought to represent it as an ideal place. Ideal quality was based on purity of nature that was associated with productivity and fertility.
Despite the fact that both writers sought to connect with their homelands, they did so in different ways. The essay will expound on how countryside is represented in the three pieces of literature.
Xiaxiao Shen Congwen is one of Chinese scholars who have been accredited for use of countryside setup in literature. He contrasts countryside with city, in his novel named Xiaoxiao. He represents countryside as a place with utmost freedom evidenced by his statement that there are many rules in the city even for the beggars. In this regard, countryside is represented as a very attractive place. He highlights degree of hostility in the city and blames it on rules.
Despite the fact that he represents the countryside as a place of freedom, there are many barriers based on tradition that contradict Congwen’s perceptions. The countryside is however better since there are no rules and people find ways to deal with traditions. For instance, Xiaoxiao’s uncle’s is not influenced by existing “mies” that are meant to govern the people, as he makes his own decision. In this regard, people in the countryside have more strength than those in the city, because they can make their own decisions.
Xiaoxiao is carried by wave of nature and puts no effort or intention. In this regard, countryside should remain unchanged and purity of nature should be emphasized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The narrative represents countryside that assumes purity and innocence, with no form of manipulation in her growth. Notably, justice is realized effortlessly. Despite the fact that traditional aspects can be repressive, residents of countryside always find a way to cope. For instance, villagers have a choice of opposing established laws so as to ensure that certain aspects are incorporated.
Border Town In Shen Congwen’s Border Town, controversial aspects in element of countryside are represented. For instance, prostitutes and sailors encounter many challenges and disaster in the countryside. Predicament can be interpreted as a way of getting even with those who attempt to destroy countryside’s environment.
People in the countryside are aware of the fact that the river drowns those who are wicked and immoral. In this regard, water is perceived to have ultimate power, and people do not complain even in events of calamities. During floods, victims remain silent and do not complain. The river had a function of supporting the living as well as the dead. Tragedies or suffering caused by natural disasters were perceived as fate that could not be changed. Countryside is thus an ideal home, since spirits of ancestors stay with the living.
The narrative emphasizes on need to reside in countryside, since it cleanses land off evil and immorality. Countryside is a place where immorality is not tolerated. Cuicui is significantly influenced by countryside, according to the novel. She lived in a ferry boat with his grandfather and was named after bamboo bushes that surrounded the river.
Countryside shapes her love life as she identifies the river with his grandfather and her lover. Storm, which was an element of nature, revealed to Cuicui that her mother had also been buried in the river. Her lover uses the river as a bridge to reach other parts of the region. The more Cuicui learns the more she assumes an adult approach. In this regard, the countryside not only shapes her life, but also gives her a sense of identity and belonging.
Red Sorghum Mo Yan demonstrates high degree of countryside’s productivity in his novel called Red Sorghum. The novel depicts a grandchild who wants to restructure his grandparents’ lives.
Mo Yan highlights absence of child’s father to represent a traditional gap. In this regard, the child can only comprehend history of his people by identifying with the countryside. The narrative focuses on grandparents of the narrator as well as countryside. Mo Yan uses countryside to symbolize unity or oneness since it is shared by the narrator and his grandparents.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Countryside in Shen Congwen’s Xiaxiao, Border Town and Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mo Yan compares blood relation with that of land people reside in. As a matter of fact, the narrator relates better with second wife of his grandfather because they have shared land with her more than his father. Despite the fact that narrator’s second grandmother is not related to the family by blood, she is assigned role of a spokes person for Red Sorghum family. The family identifies with red sorghum in the countryside.
Restructuring process of narrator’s grandparents is accorded much respect and importance. As a matter of fact, it is done in honor of the land. Gaomi’s black soil is associated with fertility and success in countryside. The narrator attempts to illustrate a connection between countryside and lives of individuals.
Countryside is used to highlight theme of romance especially that of narrator’s grandparents. The narrator is sensitive to land in his process of reconstructing lives of his grandparents. For instance, he also emphasizes on reviving red sorghum so as to have a fertile land, a distinct feature of the countryside.
Mo Yan highlights emotional connection that exists between residents of countryside and their land. Further, countryside is represented as a place of abundance. In this regard, legendary attributes of narrator’s grandparents is closely linked with countryside’s abundances. Countryside’s fertility is associated with great acts of narrator’s grandparents, while black soil is associated with spirit of success.
The narrator mentioned that the land was fertile and farmers exhibited great decency and ambition. The narrative highlights the situation in Chinese rural setups. Just like most artists, he highlights abundance of the land so as to represent countryside as the ideal home. Prosperity and success is associated with countryside, so as to make it best place to be.
Comparison Both Shen Congwen and Mo Yan associate countryside with abundance and prosperity. Mo Yan associates blood with land in a unique way and attributes success of people to nature of their homeland. According to him, time or distance cannot reduce abundance of countryside. Both authors align attraction and beauty of countryside with purity of nature. They highlight virtues and romance is well entangled with spirit in the land.
Despite the fact that there are certain issues of differences in approaches used by both authors, negative aspects associated with nature are hidden. The scholars represent countryside as pure due to natural aspect. However they fail to give explanation in instances of natural calamities. Natural calamities are interpreted as fate and destiny. For instance, Shen Congwen fails to question people after they associate calamities with destiny.
As a matter of fact, he seems to commend them for their ability to discern nature from fate. According to him, calamities are beyond human description and can only be defined as manipulations of fate. For instance, in Border Town Cuicui awakes to adult’s world that is very complicated after death of his grandfather. Calamities are used to signify limitation of human beings and how they are manipulated by fate.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Countryside in Shen Congwen’s Xiaxiao, Border Town and Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mo Yan describes his countryside as caring in contrast to political situation in urbanities that limits lives of people. He acknowledges the fact that human activities have brought adverse effects on the land. His fiction narrative of Red Sorghum advocates for ultimate respect for the land just like his grandparents reverenced their countryside.
Both writers incorporate theme of love in their depiction of countryside. Just like countryside is associated with nature, spontaneous love is also encouraged. For instance marriage in the countryside is not inclined to laws but love. As a matter fact, it is immoral for a relationship to exist without love.
Love is significant in countryside and it is to some extent more important than life. Shen Congwen highlights unplanned love that he compares with love between children, among people in the countryside. Personas are used by both authors as a way of representing their connectedness with countryside. It should be noted that, use of persona was in accordance to existing literature rules in China.
As opposed to fourth generation writers who felt frustrated about their homelands, writers in mid 1980’s sought to identify and reconnect with countryside. In both accounts personas seek their identity in their homelands and perceive them as their world. For instance, Shen Congwen compares water in the countryside with his own behavior. Mo Yan on the other hand, builds on land sensitivity to develop theme of romance in Red sorghum.
Shen Congwen, uses youth to highlight deviation from tradition reverence. He however bridges gap between youth and elderly using life in countryside. Mo Yan illustrates blood relations and highlight normal life that people lead in countryside based on morals and prosperity.
Reconstruction is meant to restore initial situation in the countryside that involved fantasy and romance. Focus is on achieving freedom by disintegrating official rules that tend to make lives of people unbearable. Similarly, Shen Congwen contrasts the unbearable rules in the city that have no aspect of humanity with free people in the countryside who make their own choices.
In Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum, peasantry is associated with interruption of the original landscape that was fertile and large. Focus is on replacement of hybrid sorghum with red sorghum. He believes that spirit of success that was once associated with his countryside still exists.
Despite the fact that red sorghum has been replaced by hybrid sorghum, it still exists in the soils. He will structure lives of his grandparents by recovering spirit of red sorghum that has been destroyed by politics. Mo Yan revealed that black soils were responsible for productivity of countryside and ensured healthy lives for residents. Soil of his countryside plays a crucial role in reconnection process between narrator and his family.
Theme of romance in the countryside is meant to depict attraction in the land as well as comprehend present scenario. In this regard, memory of narrator’s countryside aids in history identification. Despite the fact that red sorghum has been replaced with hybrid sorghum, its strength remains enshrined in the black soils. In this regard, abundance of countryside is only identified and enjoyed by those who identify with it. Countryside is the ideal home as nothing can deprive it off its strength.
Conclusion Countryside has been adopted as a rich pattern to connect past with present. The three pieces of works demonstrate that countryside is ideal place that requires reverence and not modification. Residents are expected to embrace countryside and refrain from modifying or interfering with it.
Modifications or interferences are seen to bring about failure and limit efficiency of countryside. Focus is on acceptance of natural aspects whether they bring benefits or harm to human beings. Further, countryside is only beneficial to those who relate with it. It defines history and identity of residents. Countryside is associated with abundance and fertility, thus an ideal place. Original homelands feed residents effectively.
Blogging Tips Guru Essay (Article) argumentative essay help
For those who write facilely and joyfully, the appeal of earning money from doing what comes naturally is nearly irresistible. Even for those for whom writing is a chore, the lure of getting paid to share hard-won insights, innovative ideas, and whatever else populates their mind, is hard to refuse.
Bloggers have a number of ways to make an income from blogging, some of them arising from displaying ads in the web page. However, this is a big step, and should be undertaken only when you are ready for it. Let’s look at some of the considerations needed in the decision process.
Some blogging advisors recommend starting the effort to make a blog earn some money, even if the amount is miniscule, right from the start. Their view is that your readers need to get used to paying for your fabulous content, even if only by putting up with ads on your blog page.
This makes a good deal of sense, given the kicking and moaning that has results when bigger scale webpages have begun adding paid promotional material, or charging a fee to readers. Another intriguing advantage that could accrue from having paying ads right from the start is that the income, no matter how tiny, represents a source of inspiration and motivation to keep up the good work and stay on a tight schedule of writing output.
The downside of starting out as a blog with ads is two-fold. You probably already know that an advertising network such as AdSense, from Google, will not even approve you for ads unless you are fully functioning as a website – you need to have your page fully set up. Once you are posting regularly, it is more challenging to attract ads on your page if you do not have masses of traffic yet.
This obstacle cannot be overcome except by getting and keeping reader traffic. The other problem is credibility. Your freedom from sponsorship gives you an air of independence from outside pressure in expressing your untrammeled opinion. Readers like this sort of apparent freedom from external influence on the part of writers.
However, if you can get ads, and want to, for example, through AdSense , or BuySellAds.com , this can be a blessing or a burden. The blessing part is easy to comprehend. Of course, we all would like to have someone paying us. However, keep in mind that advertisers want their ads seen by lots of eyes. You have to prove to them that you can assure that they will get access to those eyes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Then your blog has to come through consistently with the numbers of visitors that will justify advertisers’ paying for the privilege of appearing on your page.
Making this happen can be a challenge and a stress on you the blogger. You need to be prepared to produce – or acquire – content every day, week, or month, to keep your readers coming back. If you are not up to this task, then you are probably not ready to monetize your blog.
Perhaps one compromise is to announce to your readers early on that this could be in the offing, to alert them that some sort of monetization will be part of their reading experience at some point in the future. Your readers will not feel that you have hoodwinked them if you are successful in attracting ads, obtaining a partner organization in order to publicize their product or service, or begin selling your own product or service.
Some pundits in the blogosphere name the figure 300 as a target for a daily number of visitors to your blog. At three hundred unique visitors a day, your blog is reaching more than your mom, your grandparents, your kids, and your BFFs. This makes some sense. You have traction at that point.
However, note the mention of unique visitors. The raw number of visitors is but one important factor. The type of visitors, and what they do, and where they come from, are also important factors. There are many ways to find out who your readers are.
These include analytics, such as information on your site rankings, and information on where your readers are and what time they are accessing your webpage. but they also include the far more in-depth information that you can obtain about your readers via your interactions with them on social media.
Have you not noticed how much more lively a blog page seems when there is a substantial list of comments and responses from the blogger? It creates a community for the sharing of ideas and innovation, support and encouragement, and inspiration. This sort of interaction is where a blogger finds out what sorts of content will meet the needs of the readers, however few or many. You want to know what interests them, what sites they visit regularly, and how they found out about your blog, for example.
We will write a custom Article on Blogging Tips Guru specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The needs your readers express in your communication with them via social media can inform your choice of websites on which you might consider trying to be a guest blogger. Writing guest blog posts in other people’s webpages and including links to your blog page is a rather subtle and non-intrusive way of obtaining more visitors.
You can return the favor by hosting some guest blog posts on your own blog page. This is also a way of testing the waters regarding your audience’s willingness to support you even if you display ads, or promote an affiliate product or service.
Thus, you can look for the following markers to signal your readiness to monetize your blog:
A working blog page
Good content that bring readers back for more
Your own preparation to produce original content on a regular basis
Absolute numbers of at least 300 unique visitors daily
An emerging pattern of readers referring other people to your blog
Active engagement between you and your readers
A clear sense of who your readers are and what they want to see in your blog and perhaps in products you promote
Lay the groundwork early, but hold off until you can be sure of giving both your readers and your advertisers what they want.
Decision Making and Problem Solving Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Steps in Decision Making Decisions can be made at an individual or organizational level. Individual decisions may affect the decision maker, the people who look up to them or the organization they serve. Similarly, organizational decisions may affect individuals or groups associated with the entity. In this respect, different factors affect the process of decision making.
Experiences, the level of information, the uniqueness of the situation and urgency of the matter are some of the factors that influence decision making (Dietrich 1). Having decided on whether the decision is individual or collective, the following guidelines are vital.
First, one must identify the problem that requires a decision. In the second step, one ought to generate possible solutions to the problem. The third step evaluates the consequences of each of the decisions that are to be taken. The fourth step involves choosing the measure you have decided to undertake about the problem. The fifth step is implementation. Implementation may take place at once or may be done in bits depending with the situation. The sixth step involves evaluation of the degree of success of the decision (Lunenburg 3; Anderson 9).
Making decision in the light of Ian Robertson, “Religion and Social Change”and Nicols Fox, “What are Our Real Values” Determining whether affective domains of mankind determine culture and social change or whether social and cultural changes determine the affective domains is highly contested. In this regard, affective domains refer to the human beliefs, attitudes, social philosophies, ethics, norms and ideals. Karl Marx held the opinion that culture is made of material and nonmaterial constructs.
On the other hand, Max Weber agreed with the approach by Marx on material and nonmaterial constructs, but he held the opinion that the affective domains influenced social changes. According to him, the concept and principles of capitalism emanated from beliefs and other normative aspects (Robertson 10).
A further synthesis of the material and non material paradigms reveal that as much as the positions held by Max and Marx were based on correct constructs, they were relative and contextual. The growth of England as a capitalist over Scotland is a case at hand (Robertson 11).
The emerging modern economies in the East, especially China, complicate further, the view of Weber. Setting the ideals, believing in them and passing them on to the next generation is fast becoming an illusion. The ideals on the value of family, humanity and moral consciousness have become subject to media and celebrities (Fox 122).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lilian Smith: When I was a child The article is a classical analogy of racial discrimination in the south of the U.S. The parents talk of the goodness of God, of the virtue of their society, and of the value of life while at the same time they segregate against the people with the colored skin. As a little child, the author wonders why the family treated Janie without regard although she had showed good manners (Smith 36-37).
The white skinned society in the south denies children a chance to demonstrate hospitality, goodness and kindness to their colored skin friends. The only frame of reference in determining civility was in keeping slaves and disregarding them.
Plato: the parable of the cave The article is about prisoners who perceive the objects of the world in form of shadows. One of the prisoners is freed and told to give his view of the world; the impact of the light hurts him. The cave has conditioned the prisoners into understanding the shadows as the true and real objects (Plato 80). The article is an insight on enlightenment. It advises one on viewing a situation in a new paradigm that is held as the true and real. It is relativistic.
Henry Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience The article systemizes the tenets of social organization. It observes the existence of individual human beings, property and the laws that govern their interaction, appropriation and increase. The society in collective terms, contract a few of its own to oversee the social order. In times of inefficiency and misappropriation of the stewardship of power, the citizens opt for disorder. They become disgruntled by oppression, slavery and short-change their trust in the elected few to oversee social order.
This is the beginning of revolutions (Thoreau 194). The article’s advice for the current situation is that it is not absolute for the collective responsibility to be undertaken directly. Social order is already contracted to the government by the way of election. Furthermore, one continues to contribute to the stewardship of the law and order by way of taxation and service to the government.
E.E Cummings: LIV The poem is a presentation of the concept of reductionism. Although we are independent as individuals, many factors unite us. The poem states the importance and the reality of unity. The imageries given on tree, leaf, and on the growth of buds is an indication of the society comprised of many components yet united by the virtue of love and co-existence.
A show of love explains who we are (Cummings 181). The poem advises the situation on the value of compassion. The poem completely ignored the personal dreams, economic value and responsibility of provision on the east coast.
We will write a custom Essay on Decision Making and Problem Solving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Martin Luther king, Jr, “Letters from a Birmingham Jail” The letter speaks of the issues on racism in the south of the United States. As indicated, the racial discrimination anywhere had effect everywhere. Luther wondered what response he could give to a five year old if they wanted to know causes of segregation. Children understand that all mankind deserves good treatment. The section of the letter that touches on children is especially critical in deciding whether to go to Boston or remain in Iowa with the family (King 77-100).
Albert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus The myth is anchored on the condemnation of Sisyphus to roll the rock up the cliff and just before it topples over to the other side, it falls back to the foot of the cliff and he has to repeat. The punishment is given after the accusation of his role when Jupiter stole Aegina who was the daughter to Aesopus (Camus 237).
The myth is a demonstration of the power of divine creatures over the beings on the earth. Sisyphus suffers from labor in futility. The mythology informs the decision to remain in Iowa or leave to the east coast. The decision that violates the will of the divine power comes with adverse consequences.
Auden: the unknown Citizen The Bureau of Statistics considered the unknown citizen as one with good conduct. He was on the good side of demography according to the Eugenist, he had modest interaction with colleagues, and he was in good health. He also had a reasonable material fortune of radio, automobile, fridge and phonograph. He was well informed from the media and his level of education was apt. (Auden 98).
The unknown citizen is the ideal representation of the decisions that ought to be made in the described situation. He can meet the expectation of serving his community and undertake his employer’s assignment. The decision should strive to meet the ideals posed in the case of the unknown citizen.
Precepts from the living quotations The message in the quotations is derived from the scripture. It emphasizes on service to humanity through the lessons drawn from the stories of the Biblical personalities. The quotations reveal the benefits of working together as a community and treating each other with kindness (Bacote 155). The message in the nuggets informs the process of making decision in the present scenario by a historical and transcendent understanding.
Conclusion The decision must strive to meet the ideals observed by the unknown citizen meaning it must be conscious of the family. The decision should also note that the current is an act of nature. The emerging obligations need character, strong will and decisiveness. The economic and social family obligations must be met despite the desire to offer a helping hand in the aftermath of the disaster (Adair 10
Edward William Lane’s Views on the Orients Term Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lane’s views on the Orient
The orient’s culture, traditions and beliefs
The People of Egypt
Introduction Edward William Lane was born on September 1801 in Hereford, England. He was a British national popularly known for his massive contribution in the research about the people of ancient Near East. He was an excellent lexicographer and a translator. Lane’s father, Dr. Theusand Lane, died when Edward Lane was still a young boy.
He was left an orphan at a tender age of 13 years, and his uncle, Gainsborough took care of him. The uncle sent him to a school at Bath to learn grammar. He was later transferred to Hereford which was considered a better school. At this early stage of learning, Lane showed a strong interest in Mathematics.
Although the teachers ignored this talent as just a normal case of a genius student, his uncle was convinced that he had some special academic capacity that put him above any other average learner. When he completed his elementary learning, Lane visited Cambridge. The uncle wanted him to continue with his education at this school which then had a good reputation. However, he did not join Cambridge. Instead, he decided to join his brother in London (Lane 26).
While in London, Lane started developing a special interest in Arabic. He thought that there was something unique about the Arabs, making them have their own unique cultural practices. Through his own initiatives, he started learning Arabic. It was not easy for him to learn Arabic because he did not have a teacher to guide him. However, he was able to learn this language. He went to Alexandria in Egypt in 1825 aged 24 years.
He then moved to Cairo later in the same year. It was while staying in Cairo that he developed a strong interest in studying way of life of people in this region. He started by translating books and other works of literature in this society from Arabic to English. From 1960, he started publishing several books, most of which were based on the lifestyle of the people of Egypt. This research will focus on Edward Lanes work in order determine his view on the orients as demonstrated in his book, ‘Description of Egypt.’
Lane’s views on the Orient As a young scholar, Lane had developed a strong interest in understanding the orients. As Lane (90) notes, his scholarly work about the orients made him one of the most successful Arab scholars of his time. He dedicated his time in analyzing people, customs, traditions, manners, and other practices of the orients in order to eliminate what he believed was a misconception about these people by the Western society.
Lane was convinced that there had been an unfair prejudice against the orient by the Western powers, and for this reason, he believed that the best he could do would be to offer an insight into the actual practices of these people. As Said (67) says, the West viewed the orients from two main perspectives. The orients were known for their production of oil and for terrorism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Western society, especially in his home country England and also in the United States, the orients were either terrorists or suppliers of oil. Lane believed that this was a misguided conception of an otherwise sober people who were determined to lead a peaceful life with their neighbors and other people around the world. He dug into the culture, traditions, and manners of the orients in order to dispel some of the long held myths about the orients.
The orient’s culture, traditions and beliefs When Lane entered Cairo, he was convinced that the orients were not as bad people as they had been depicted by the Western society. He believed that they were just as good as people from the West. His affection for the orients was demonstrated when he changed his dressing code from what he used to wear, to a new attire that was common in this region.
During this time, the orients were known for their unique dressing code. The dressing code itself was a source of prejudice from the Western culture. As a man who had grown up in a Western culture, Lane knew all the criticism that the society in the West had towards the orients.
However, he had a different view of these people. He believed in them, and that is why he changed his dress-code to reflect the lifestyle of these people. As demonstrated in his book, ‘Description of Egypt’, Lane shows a strong desire to give a true analysis of the orients in order to dispel some of the beliefs that the society had associated them with over the years.
As a man who had been raised in a British society, Lane decided to change his lifestyle and become an orient, from speech, dress code, practices, and in language. He notes that when he changed his mannerism to reflect that of the oriental, these people easily accepted him as part of their members of the society. He noted that the orients, just like people from the West, had normal beliefs and practices that were based on environmental factors.
Just like the Western societies, the orients had developed mistrust with the people of the West. He had to disguise himself as part of the orients in order be accepted in this society. He notes that the orients were even more tolerant in their mannerism than the Western societies. In the United States and Europe, Lane explains that the mistrust that they had towards the orients was deeply rooted and it would not be able to convince them otherwise.
However, the orients were warm and welcoming. They easily accepted him as part of them when he adopted their culture. In explaining the mannerism of the orients, Lane says that they had been subject of prejudice from the Western societies. This lack of trust by the West, and constant prejudice made them develop some form of defense mechanism that made them mistrust the West in equal measures.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Edward William Lane’s Views on the Orients specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The People of Egypt Most of Lane’s work was based on the people of Egypt. He was trying to reconstruct the ancient Near East cultural practices in order to determine any relationship it had with the terrorism tag that the modern generation had earned. The more he studied the Egyptian culture, language, dress-code, and mannerism, the more he came to approve of them over other Western cultural practices.
In fact he was keen to dissociate himself from the Europeans in Cairo who insisted on retaining the Western mannerisms. He argued that the Egyptian attire, just like that of many other orients in the Middle East, was full of respect as opposed to that of people from the Western culture. In his book, Lane was more sympathetic of the people of Egypt than being a defender of their culture.
Although he did all he could to identify himself with them, deep within himself he still believed that he was not part of them. He believed that he was from the West, but had a calling to defend the people from the East. He praised the communal structure of the people of Egypt. He was also pleased by the willingness of members of this society to offer help to other members of the society who were facing varying problems. This was very rare in the Western society where people were preoccupied with personal gains.
Conclusion Edward Lane was one of the most accomplished British oriental scholars of his time. He did extensive analysis of the orients to determine their cultural practices, beliefs, and general way of life. He concluded that the orients were not as bad as the West was trying to portray them to be.
Lane’s view of the orients is closely shared by Edward Said who believed that the orients were people of good ethics as opposed to what the West were trying to depict of them. Just like Lane, Said was critical of the West’s perception that the orients were either terrorists or suppliers of oil. Said noted that this was a narrow thinking, which lacked facts that could be used to support it. Instead, Said says that orients are normal people with ethics just like the people of the West. This is an opinion strongly held by Lane in most of his books.
Works Cited Lane, Edward. Description of Egypt: Notes and Views in Egypt and Nubia, Made During the Years 1825, 26, 27, and 28; Chiefly Consisting of a Series of Descriptions and Delineations of the Monuments, Scenery
Equal Pay Policies Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Occupational segregation by gender remains one of the brightest features of labor markets in the developed world. Much has been written and said about the ways, in which gender is shaping occupational policies and organizational decisions. Despite the growing number of legislative acts and equity regulations, gender is still one of the main factors of wage decisions in modern organizations. At the same time, organizations and countries develop policies to strengthen the atmosphere of fairness in the workplace.
Equal pay policies have a long history that dates back to the nineteenth century. The goal of equal pay policies is to address the differences in wages paid to women and men, who fulfill the same amount of work. Unfortunately, many equal pay policies do not lead to any positive results, and the goal of this paper is to see how equal pay policies work in a number of countries and why they do not help to reduce the existing gender pay gap.
Equal Pay Policies – Meaning, Significance, and Current Situation Equal pay legislation is one of the most popular topics in literature. The drive for gender equality in the workplace justifies the growing importance of equal pay policies in countries and organizations.
Fitzpatrick, Kwon, Manning, and Pascall describe three important elements of equal pay policies: equal wages for the equal amount of work; equal wages for the work that is similar or substantially similar; and equal pay for comparable work (414). As of today, most industrialized countries offer equal wages for the work that is similar or substantially similar, and only now they realize the importance of comparable worth policies in reducing gender gaps in wages.
The history of equal pay policies dates back to the nineteenth century, with Great Britain being the first industrialized society to recognize the problem of gender pay gaps (Fitzpatrick et al. 414). In 1888, the British Trades Union Congress passed new legislation to promote equal pay for equal amounts of work (Fitzpatrick et al. 414).
At that time, many trade unions were not confident that equal pay policies were important, but the growing number of women in the workforce pushed organizations and business owners to review their approaches to wages. In 1914, Canada became the second country in the world to vote against the exclusion of women from the workforce and for the provision of equal pay for women and men (Fitzpatrick et al. 414).
Women entered trade unions, thus getting stronger in their demands for equal pay. After the end of the Second World War, North America saw thousands of women participate in equal pay campaigns (Fitzpatrick et al. 414). The movement towards equal pay in the civil service was faster than in private organizations (Fitzpatrick et al. 414).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the post-war period, many countries decided to adopt equal pay policies. In 1963, the United States passed its first equal pay laws, followed by Great Britain in 1970 (Fitzpatrick et al. 415). The Equal Pay Act in Great Britain came in force later in 1975 (Fitzpatrick et al. 415). Internationally, equal pay policies became a top priority at the beginning of the 1950s.
The International Labor Organization turned equal pay into one of its primary conventions in 1951 (Fitzpatrick et al. 415). The principles of equal pay were also included in the European Union’s Treaty of Rome of 1957. Today, both the United States and the United Kingdom have a broad range of legislative acts, laws and regulations that have to reduce and eliminate gender gaps in wages.
In the United States, the Equal Pay Act requires that all employers pay their employees equal wages for equal work (Inc.). The Equal Pay Act is an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act passed in 1963.
The Act was passed to protect women and men from the negative impacts of gender on their wages and, at the same time, eliminate the notion of sex discrimination in the workplace. Today, the Act covers all employees, as well as managers, executives, administrators, and elementary and secondary school teachers. At the same time, the philosophy of equal pay policies in the United Kingdom is based on the principles of equality in labor and wages adopted by the European Union.
The U.K. is facing unique gender discrimination challenges, which make it different from other European countries and the U.S. At present, the UK has one of the largest gender pay gaps in Europe, mostly because of the lack of collective bargaining and historically high levels of wage inequality (Rubery). Additionally, the United Kingdom has a higher share of women working in part-time jobs, and the differences in wages across full-time and part-time jobs in the U.K. are the highest in Europe (Rubery).
As a result, despite the years devoted to equal pay polices in the United States and Great Britain, the gender pay gap continues to persist. In 2009, gender wage gaps were one of the strongest features of labor markets in the U.S. (Hegewisch, Liepmann, Hayes
7 Deadly Sins of Meetings Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Meetings are very important in a day to day running of any organization. Managers have to gather meetings once in a while to discuss various issues that may affect their organization and come up with possible solutions to these issues (Henkel 2007). It is important to make sure that these meetings are interesting. It is, therefore, important that people who are tasked with the responsibility of organizing meetings are able to avoid the seven deadly sins of meetings.
I have recently attended a meeting in my neighborhood that was address the rising cases of insecurity and how well the problem should be solved. The organizers of the meeting simply went from door to door informing people of where the meeting would take place, the agenda of the meeting and the time the meeting would start. Since we are all affected by the issue of insecurity, I decided to attend the meeting alongside my parents.
However, the organizers of the meeting committed one of the seven deadly sins of meeting. The meeting took too long. People became restless and one by one they began leaving the venue. The organizers had not taken into account the fact that people had other important matters to attend too.
There were too many speakers in the meeting. As a result, it was a total failure as the earlier set objectives were not met. This is because by the time the organizers had been concluding the meeting, most of the people had already left. It was impossible to make a binding decision in the absence of most residents of the neighborhood.
Still, it would have been possible for the organizers of the meeting to avoid committing the sin had they considered the following factors.
Good time management
The meeting should have taken a maximum of 90 minutes. This is because the meeting comprised of different people who had various commitments elsewhere. Each section of the meeting would have been allocated some definite period of time (Henkel 71). This is important in order to ensure that all the objectives that had been set would be met. This was failed because people spent more time discussing the issues and in the end did not have enough time to come up with solutions to the problem that had been raised.
Proper use of technology
The use of technology would have also helped a great deal. The organizers of the meeting should have hired a sound system assistant and acquire the appropriate technology to make sure that everyone was able to hear what was being discussed. I think it would have also helped a lot by using a projector to help highlight some of the main points that were being discussed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Limiting the number of speakers
The organizers should have also ensured that hey limited the number of people to address the meeting. Most of the people who addressed the meeting kept on repeating some of the things that the speakers had already addressed earlier. This would have saved on time as well as help avoid repetitions (Henkel 91).
Conclusion It is important that meetings are planned well in advance. The people tasked with the responsibility of planning the meetings should ensure that they do not commit any of the seven deadly sins of meetings. It is important to meet the set objectives while also ensure that meetings are interesting and do not consume much time.
Reference Henkel, S. L. (2007). Successful meetings: how to plan, prepare, and execute top- notch business meetings. Ocala, Fla.: Atlantic Pub. Group.
Re-Examining Business Ethics Essay best college essay help
When we hear the term “business ethics”, what is the first idea that enters our minds? Some people will say that business ethics is “acting in accordance with the ethical principles and theories applied in our society”. However, “business ethics” is one of the best “ideas” that can make businesses successful and profitable. In my speech today, I am going to “re-examine” the idea of business ethics in order to help entrepreneurs and corporations understand the importance of embracing the concept towards a successful corporate culture.
Business ethics is a term used to describe the behavior of business organizations. Business ethics examines the actions of leaders and stakeholders in any given organization. Although “ethics” focuses mainly on performance, actions, and activities of business organizations, there is need to embrace the idea of “business ethics” in order to make businesses successful and responsible. Business organizations should apply the idea of “business ethics” to its activities including leadership, service delivery, and product development.
With such an approach, organizational leaders will make accurate and ethical decisions in order to promote a positive business culture. Business managers and leaders are also expected to behave in an ethical manner. Business organizations and entrepreneurs should always encourage their employees to make ethical decisions. This approach will ensure business organizations promote the best ethical practices. Most of the successful companies today have always embraced the idea of business ethics.
It is also necessary for organizations to practice Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The idea of Corporate Social Responsibility and proper ethical behaviors can bring numerous gains to a company or business organizations.
Any company that fails to act ethically loses its business and eventually become unprofitable. As well, ethical behaviors are necessary because they help businesses attract new customers. This will definitely boost their profits and sales. This explains why business leaders should embrace the idea of “ethical behaviors” and proper leadership strategies in order to make their companies successful.
It is also agreeable that the question of “labor” continues to affect many companies today. For instance, most of the companies that do not embrace the best ethical practices tend to fail in their businesses. The companies are unable to attract new employees. On the other hand, “ethical companies” will always attract new employees thus reducing their business costs. As well, an ethical company will find it easier to attract new investors and eventually become profitable.
It would be necessary for businesses to re-examine their practices and activities in order to remain ethical. There is need for companies to use various ethical principles and theories in order to improve performance. It is agreeable that unethical behaviors will eventually damage the reputation of a firm. This will make it less attractive to its customers and stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Along with other ideas such as proper organizational structures and leadership strategies, businesses should reexamine their ethical practices because this is an integral part of an organization’s culture. There is need for organizations to embrace ethical behaviors and practices in order to make the best decisions and address the needs of their stakeholders.
Business ethics helps companies improve their working conditions and support the needs of their stakeholders. Business ethics is definitely the best concept for firms to realize their potentials and become successful in their respective industries. I will conclude by encouraging business leaders and entrepreneurs to embrace the importance of business ethics. This will be the first step towards a successful business.
The Book “In the Arms of Others” by Peter Filene Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Filene asks an important question that several philosophers are yet to offer an adequate explanation, which relates to the worthiness of life. A debate is ongoing as to whether an individual has the right to withdraw his or her life whenever it is felt that it no longer makes sense.
Some of the concerned parties to the debate include bioethicists, social workers, families of the affected individual, as well as the entire society. The book discusses the historical and cultural aspects of life and death by putting it into the context of the modern society. Some historians view his works as an account of the right to die.
For instance, he presents the views of individuals who have wished to die because of one reason or the other. First, he discusses the role of technology in saving lives. Moreover, he evaluates whether the use of technology would be sustainable in the future because life-support machines are gaining relevancy in many societies, but they are not effective in safeguarding life.
In particular, he gives the case of Karen Ann Quinlan, which served an important purpose of shaping the public opinion as regards to the use of technology in supporting life. Apart from the case, he proves that several individuals have moved to court to determine whether they have the right of terminating their own lives, as well as those of their loved ones.
In his conclusion, he sums up that the issue of life and death is an ethical one, and self-determinism should not be applied in resolving this important issue. He notes that, “as we think about how we hope to die, we need to take into account the perspectives of history and culture.” To him, consideration of cultural and historical events in making ethical decisions helps in understanding the ambiguities that awaits an individual, as well as the options that people take.
Case Studies The first court case to have emerged in the country regarding the right to die was presented in New Jersey when the parents of Karen Ann Quinlan sought an interpretation from the judiciary on whether their daughter would continue to suffer.
Her physical condition was not improving after being kept alive in a respirator for some months, something that made her parents to ask the hospital administration to terminate her life without further delay. The hospital refused, citing several reasons, one of them being the provision in the constitution declaring that life is sacred and should be protected at all times. The court determined that the parents had the right of terminating the life of their daughter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The decision sparked a heated debate, with one group supporting the court’s decision while the other was highly opposed. Each side presented valid reasons as to why their positions had to be adopted. The practice of medicine was particularly affected since the ruling lead to the subsequent amendment of the law to incorporate divergent views. Through the case, each hospital was required to develop an ethics committee whose role would be to analyze each case and offer professional advice.
Ann’s parents defended their position by claiming that they were not pessimistic about the health of their child, but instead they wanted her to be returned to the natural state since they were against the technology employed in keeping her alive. The hospital was concerned with the response from the Morris Country prosecutor since they would be charged with homicide in case they withdraw the ventilator without state approval hence it decided to seek further clarification from courts.
The hospital was granted a court order stopping Quinlan’s family from terminating Ann’s life, but a successful appeal was made in 1976, granting the family its wish. It was surprising to note that Ann did not die as soon as the ventilator was removed because she survived for nine more years, even though the mode of feeding was artificial.
The ruling changed the perception of many, with the Catholic Church being drawn into the debate. The Supreme Court identified that Ann’s father was acting out of good faith. Moreover, the judges relied on letter received from the Pope requesting all doctors to exercise morality whenever dispensing their services. On the issue of withdrawing the life-support machines, the Pope responded by giving five important reasons as to why the family has the right.
The Catholic Church clarified that the doctor has the right to withdraw life support machines, but in extreme cases when it is felt that it is the only remaining option of fulfilling the ethical duty. However, the doctor cannot take this decision without receiving instructions from the patient directly, obliquely, utterly, or openly meaning that the family can represent the patient in making the decision.
The technique is considered an extra-ordinary means of saving life hence the family should never think of using it or instructing the doctor to do so. If it is confirmed that the patient has no hope of recovering and is unconscious, the Catholic Church allows the family to apply any available technique, including removal of life-support machine since it would turn out to be the only solution.
However, it should never be tried because it might end up affecting the condition of the patient. Finally, the Catholic Church is simply against euthanasia and the case of Ann was different because only the ventilator was disconnected and it turned out to be effective because she survived for an additional nine years.
We will write a custom Essay on The Book “In the Arms of Others” by Peter Filene specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the case, it is noted that the Church was simply against the overreliance on technology to save life since the Pope was of the view that God might provide a natural healing and in this case, the patient has to be allowed to survive through the natural means. In order to save life, all available options have to be tried out and withdrawal of machines is just one of the options. The church refers to this as the principle of double effect whereby the outcome might be either positive or negative.
The court supported Ann’s father proposal by considering his faith and the intention of the act since he was optimistic that his child would survive through natural means. The decision and the overturning of events surprised many people because Ann was able to survive for additional days, even though the majority expected her to be pronounced dead upon the withdrawal of the ventilator.
In a different case involving Cruzan and the Director of Missouri Department of Health in 1990, the Supreme Court failed to grant the family its wish of withdrawing the life-support machine because the reason was not convincing. The case was brought to the judges at the time when the health sector had developed laws to deal with issues of medical morality.
The Cruzan family requested the court to instruct the hospital to remove their child from the life support machine. However, the judges failed to pursue a similar path as the New Jersey Supreme Court because it followed the advice of the medics and stated clearly that a competent person has the right to object to the issue of machine withdrawal because he or she has adequate experience and understanding of the case.
Since Nancy Cruzan, the patient, was a minor and did not understand what was fit for her, it was against the law for the family to come up with a unanimous decision without consulting experts. The family appealed the decision and went back to collect enough evidence to prove that withdrawal of the machine was the best option for Nancy. The court heeded to the family’s plea and ruled in its favor leading to the stoppage of the life-support services.
Nancy survived for an additional seven days meaning that life can still go on without the machines. The decision and the preceding events had a greater impact on people’s perceptions on technology because they expected an instant death upon the stoppage of machine services. Even though many people are still of the view that machines have a role to play in preserving life, a majority of individuals have to appreciate the natural process that human beings go through in their lives.
Debate The withdrawal of life support services to allow the patient to use natural means of survival is considered homicide in the United States and it might be punishable by law, but the case is different when the individual or the family requests for the abandonment of the machines.
Filene suggests that those in support of the withdrawal of the machines base their arguments on the principle of self-determination, something he highly contests since life is not an individual affair, but instead a communal concern. For instance, the death of a family member might bring trauma, something that increases suffering instead of solving the problem.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Book “In the Arms of Others” by Peter Filene by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, supporters of mercy killing note that it would be better to allow a subject to die peacefully instead of allowing him or her to go through a lot of pain. Advocates of mercy killing suggest that the use of the term doubt of effect is hypocritical and unrealistic because placing a patient under a life support machine means he or she is unable to use natural means. There would be no any other alternative to improve the situation.
The opponents present strong points as to why the act should never be allowed in the country. One of the arguments is that not all deaths are painful meaning that there is no need of rushing to withdraw the machine without establishing whether the patient is really suffering.
Apart from inducing euthanasia or withdrawing life support machines, other options exist, including cessation of active treatment and inducing pain relievers. In fact, this would be the best option of reducing pain, as the situation is monitored. It is always believed that the patient might be allowed to die today, yet the cure for his or her condition is invented the following day. Some individuals believe that everything is possible in the world of science and technology because inventions are made every minute.
If life support services are to be withdrawn, the status of the patient should be taken into consideration because some patients might be opposed to the idea while the family is concerned with the escalating hospital bills. This would definitely amount to murder because the life of the individual would have been terminated without his or her knowledge. In fact, this should always be investigated and those found guilty must be arraigned in court to face murder charges.
From a legal standpoint, mercy killing, which entails the withdrawal of the life-support machine, is a criminal homicide meaning the intention is always to terminate life, irrespective of the intention. However, the law is clear on homicide because not all of them are illegal. Any homicide that does not attract a criminal punishment is permissible and pardonable. However, withdrawal of life-support machine does not fall under the category that is excusable because it is active euthanasia.
If the physician injects the patient to facilitate death, the law designates this as suicide. The same applies with withdrawing life support machine, even though the practice is allowed in the United States. From the works of Filene, it is observed that several courts have upheld the decision to terminate life through switching off the machines. In the case of Ann, her parents had to make a decision for her, but she survived for nine years, something considered an extra-ordinary case.
For the case of Nancy, she did not survive beyond the eleventh day meaning that machines could be utilized effectively to enhance life. Even though the church is opposed to mercy killing, it permits the family to explore other options believed to be effective in preserving life, including the withdrawal of machines. This means that euthanasia and mercy killing are controversial concepts that cannot be addressed effectively by evaluating the views of one side.
Bibliography Filene, Peter. In the Arms of Others: A Cultural History of the Right-to-Die in America. New York: Diane Publishing, 2003.
Oluyemisi, Bamgbose (2004). “Euthanasia: Another Face of Murder”. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48.1 (2004): 111–121.
Footnotes Peter Filene, In the Arms of Others: A Cultural History of the Right-to-Die in America (New York: Diane Publishing, 2003), p. 65.
Oluyemisi, Bamgbose, “Euthanasia: Another Face of Murder”, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48.1 (2004), p 119.
The Main Objectives of Heifer International Organization Expository Essay scholarship essay help
The main objective of Heifer International is to end poverty and hunger by facilitating programs through which individuals can obtain livestock and tree seedlings.
The organization offers extensional training to members of a community to ensure the success of its programs and encourages beneficiaries of Heifer International to give at least one of the female offspring of the livestock to another member of the community who has undergone training. By embracing the Pass on the Gift strategy, the organization ensures it realizes its initiatives and goals on a large scale and uplifts a significant number of people.
As a nonprofit organization, Heifer International sources for funds from individuals and organizations and may enter into partnerships with foundations, corporations and governments involved in projects to create wealth and opportunities. Apart from training individuals on appropriate animal husbandry, Heifer International incorporates various elements of sustainable development education, which enlightens beneficiaries on the management of the income generated from animal products or plants.
The organization acknowledges the fact that keeping people out of poverty is a complicated process, which requires the adoption of approaches in the social and economic context to ensure the growth of the initial investment. The US Agency for International Aid (USAID) considers aspects of the management of an individual project and the project portfolio in making the decision to fund an organization.
Considerations regarding effective portfolio management entail the cost effectiveness of projects and their impacts on the target population or community. Cost effective projects highlight the likelihood of success of the strategic goals while projects with unclear cost estimates indicate the underlying hurdles and inefficiencies in the implementation process.
To make an appropriate decision regarding the funding of Heifer International programs, the USAID needs to embrace evaluation procedures that will provide rough estimates on the gains of the beneficiaries in terms of the income, nutrition and wealth derived from livestock and seedlings (Hooft and Terry 113). The estimates of the beneficiaries’ gain should indicate a sense of relationship between the expenditures on Heifer International programs and the socioeconomic benefits associated with the programs.
A case study on Heifer International programs in Uganda illustrates the comprehensiveness of the organization’s programs and the viability of USAID funding the projects on livestock and plants. The Uganda project entailed the organization of families into projects based on a variety of animals with each family obtaining a cow, pig, goat or fish.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each family had to meet the conditions set by Heifer International, which included the participation of a member from each family in a series of training sessions, preparation of a shed for the expected animal and planting of appropriate fodder crops. The emphasis on zero grazing eliminated the challenges relating to the ownership of large sizes of land because most of the poor families own small pieces of land.
Heifer International programs thrive on twelve cornerstones, which include sustainability and self-reliance, nutrition and income, training and education, accountability and spirituality (Clements 18). The Uganda families benefitted in other ways such as strategies to improve sanitation, education and gender equality, which are some of the key hurdles to the improvement of the standards of living in developing countries.
Heifer International programs contribute positively to the enhancement of leadership skills by encouraging project groups to elect leaders who oversee the collection of dues and new development activities.
The focus on the long-term goals of Heifer International programs is evident by the decision to employ extension workers with veterinary skills and experience to support farmers in the early stages of their projects. The veterinary workers organize the training of new members from within the project groups to ensure self-reliance within families and the community.
The fact that Heifer International liaises with government agencies within the target country highlight aspects of transparency and openness in the organization’s programs. Heifer International objectives and policies highlight the organization’s desire to cooperate with other entities that are keen on helping impoverished communities in various parts of the world. The cornerstones of the organization’s projects highlight an opportunity that the USAID can exploit in the administration of civilian foreign aid.
Considering that the scope of Heifer International’s activities extends beyond the provision of livestock and seedlings to incorporate various humanitarian activities, the USAID decision to fund the organization would be viable. USAID’s programs on poverty relief, which include assistance to public health and improvement of education, can thrive within the cornerstones of Heifer International programs (Dowling and Chin 78).
Furthermore, the USAID seeks to improve the management of agricultural activities in poor countries and collaborating with Heifer International would enhance the penetration and success of its objectives. Heifer International places great emphasis on practices that facilitate the sustainability of the environment, which has become a global interest among agencies such as the USAID.
We will write a custom Essay on The Main Objectives of Heifer International Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Heifer International meets the demands that programs supported by the USAID must respect the regulations on economic and environmental sustainability and promotes the USAID’s objective of providing environmental assistance to countries facing the threat of declining natural resources.
Works Cited Clements, Paul . “Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Heifer International Country Programs.” Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 8.18 (2012): 16-28. Print.
Dowling, J. Malcolm, and Chin Yap. Happiness and poverty in developing countries: a global perspective. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Print.
Hooft, vant́, and Terry Wollen. Sustainable livestock management for poverty alleviation and food security. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Uk: CABI, 2012. Print.
Nike Company’s Marketing Strategy Case Study essay help
Nike is a very well known company around the world. It is one of the most recognizable brands in any part of the world. This paper analyzes the company to uncover various facets of its operations and to get a glimpse of its overall strategy.
Vision and Mission The vision of Nike is to “bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world” (Ali
Homer, the Iliad Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Historical background
The summary of the book
My perspective and understanding
Recommendations to students
Historical background The Iliad by Homer is more of myth art than factual historical happening. It considered as has a great Greece mythology. It is known to have contributed greatly to the western civilization (Kershaw 34). More often, the Iliad is referred to as the Song of Ilion. It is an ancient Greek poem and its setting is on the Trojan War in which the Troy city was blockaded for 10 years. Troy is a union of several Greeks states. The poem seeks to illustrate on the battles between Agamemnon the King and the warriors Achilles.
The famous Iliad poem is one of the oldest literatures in the western nations. Actually, no one can exactly tell the precise time during which the poem was written. Little is known concerning its author. Some books assert that the composition is dated back to around 8 century BC. However, current statistical models grounded on language evolution indicate that the literature was written between 760 and 710 BC.
The literature is made up of about 15693 verse lines and is written in Homeric, which is a Greek language that emerged from a combination of Greek and other dialects. The Iliad poem only covers a brief final week of the Trojan War. Homer’s works have influenced several poets such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Chaucer over centuries. Over 2700 years the Iliad has remained the greatest war story in the West.
The summary of the book It is notable that Iliad myth has undergone several changes over centuries. The original Homer’s story has been greatly interfered and readers should be careful while reading it. The Iliad story begins at almost the end of the Trojan War during besiege by the Greeks (Fagles
Music in the Ancient Greece Term Paper best college essay help
History This paper is about music in the ancient Greece. The paper opens with a brief overview of music and how it was practiced in ancient Greece. There is also an in-depth observation of how this form of art was perceived by ancient Greeks. There is also a discussion of the various ways through music reflected the cultural aspects of the Greeks at that time.
This paper cannot be complete without a description of some of the musical instruments that were used by different ethnic groups in the ancient Greece. Finally, there is a brief discussion about how the aspects of music in the ancient Greece will tend to differ from those of the ancient China. Without a doubt, music was a common feature in ancient Greek society, where it would serve various purposes in people’s lives.
Music during the Ancient Greece Period The history of music in ancient Greece dates back to the 6th century BCE when the first music lessons were introduced in the learning institutions. Music was held in high regard in the ancient Greece for a number of reasons. First of all, Greeks would see music as a divine form of art that helped to heal the hearts of the listeners.
As a matter of fact, music in ancient Greece was viewed as something that had a magical touch in people’s lives, and not just a system of rhythm and pitch that could be used for entertainment purposes (Norris 78). This form of art did not only inspire people, but it also soothed them in a special manner. In this regard, music would play a very important role in the course of unpleasant moments, thus helping to make common challenges and hardships more tolerable.
Music was also closely associated with some key aspects of education in ancient Greece, and for that reason, it served as a significant subject in Greek learning institutions. Mathematics and philosophy, both of which were significant subjects in the ancient Greece were some of the sciences that would have a close link to this form of art. The connection of music to education can be observed in the view of Plato that, the perfect kind of music is one which helps to discipline the brain and arouse courage and temperance within an individual.
Ancient Greeks held strongly to the belief that music had a direct influence on people’s ethical characters or ‘ethos’. In this regard, music bearing a message of advice was normally sung to people, especially the young ones, as a way of giving them moral lessons in life. This, however, would enable them to gain good characters and behaviors in the society. The Greeks would also view music as an effective mode of communication, thus using it to relay information.
This sense was enhanced through Aristotle’s theory of imitation which observes that, the art of music plays a significant role when it comes to representation of a person’s interests and passions. Another reason why music was highly regarded in the ancient Greece was due to its great contribution in the development of cultural aspects of the Greeks. In fact, Greeks saw music as a gift that had been given to them by the gods, considering the big role it played in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How Music Reflected the Greece Cultural Aspects The art of music played a very important role in the cultures of ancient Greece where it served as a unifying element. In this regard, people from various social backgrounds would play and listen to music as a way of appreciating different cultural aspects associated with their ethnic backgrounds. As it would be observed, music was an integral part of everyday’s life in the ancient Greece. This form of art was apparently used to inform people about early life, psychology, and history of the Greeks in different aspects of life (Anderson 42).
Even though there were other various forms of art that were practiced in Greece at that time, music was a common practice that was universally used to mark different rituals and ceremonies in ancient Greek society. For example, except being a significant element in private and public festival celebrations, music was a common feature in key celebrations such as social meetings, banquets, and rites of passage, among other moments of joy.
The key rites of passage where music was commonly applied included, but were not be limited to, initiation, marriages, and death. Music also served as a form of encouragement and motivation in the ancient Greece. In this case, it was used to accompany people as they performed their daily chores at home, in the fields, or in any other place of work. On the same note, music was also used to cheer up soldiers on their way to battlefields.
More importantly, music in ancient Greece was also closely connected to sports, where it served the role of encouraging athletes to do better in their sporting activities. Music and music practices were also used to accompany processions on important religious activities in some cities and towns in Greece. Some good examples of such religious occasions are the festivals of Great Dionysia and Panathenaia, both of which were commonly practiced in the city of Athens.
Music was also sung during religious rituals such as making of offerings and in the pouring of libation, among other religious practices. The Pan-Hellenic festivals that were conducted in some regions of the ancient Greece were other notable cultural practices where music remained a key activity.
As a matter of fact, a wide range of festivals were held annually in the ancient Greece, and all these featured numerous musical elements. Some of these musical elements would include singing processions, dances, and accompaniment of musical instruments.
Music Instruments used in Ancient Greece In order for music to achieve its full meaning in ancient Greece, instruments had to apply in almost all aspects (Bundrick 55). Ancient Greeks used a wide range of musical accompaniments that would comprise of percussion instruments, wind instruments, and plucked stringed instruments.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Music in the Ancient Greece specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Common percussion instruments would include accompaniments that were identical to snare drum, cymbals, and timpani. Plucked stringed instruments consisted of the harp, the ‘kithara’, the ‘psaltery’, and the ‘lyre’. Finally, there were the wind instruments that comprised of the pan pipes and the ‘aulos’, among other simple instruments. Other instruments that were commonly used by the Greeks would include the guitar, conch and triton shells, bagpipe, ‘maracas’, shallow drum, clappers, harps, and xylophone, to name but a few.
Of all the instruments mentioned above, the most popular ones were the ‘aulos’, the ‘lyre’, and the clappers. The ‘aulos’ was a double-reed instrument that was commonly known as the double reed pipe. The instrument comprised of double tubes connected by a mouthpiece. In order for the most desirable music sounds to be produced, wind was blown through the mouthpiece as a series of holes on each of the two pipes were systematically closed and opened using the fingers.
The ‘lyre’ was another string instrument that comprised of a main body and a pair of protruding arms that would be connected to the body using a crossbar. Thin strings were fastened close to each other around the body and the cross bar. The ‘lyre’ came in many types, ranging from the round-based models to the square-based models.
The ‘clappers’ were the other category of music instruments that were commonly used in the ancient Greece. As it would be observed, humans have always possessed the desire to follow to the natural rhythm or beat of music. This feeling, however, can be expressed through a number of ways such as through stomping of feet, clapping of hands, and slapping of a particular part of the body. This, actually, was the case with the Greeks, who had fully adopted the use of ‘clappers’ as a way of adding rhythm to their music.
The ‘clappers’ used by ancient Greeks were constructed from ranging materials, with the most popular ones comprising of sticks that could be hit using a piece of metal to produce musical sound. This kind of instrument kept on changing over the years, and this would lead to the development of more advanced types of ‘clappers’ that made music in the ancient Greece more entertaining.
Differences between the aspects of music in the Ancient Greece and the Ancient China Even though the aspects of music for both the ancient Greeks and Chinese have a lot in common, there is a number of ways by which these aspects differ in both cultures (Pangle 45). One common difference here is that, both the ancient Greece and the ancient China had varied approaches for music.
For example, while music was an integral part in the lives of ancient Greeks where it was applied in almost every ritual, the Chinese would only use music for some specific events, especially ones that marked events of happiness in the society. Another major difference between the two cultures in regard with the aspect of music was that, music was observed to have had an extreme influence on the Chinese government.
This, however, was not the case with the Greeks, whose music never played any significant role in the government affairs. Another common difference was observed in the symbolic interpretations of music in the two cultures, which varied greatly. The other major difference between the aspects of music in the two cultures was in the music instruments used. It is clear that, the musical instruments and accompaniments used in the ancient Greece were not the ones that were used in the ancient China.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Music in the Ancient Greece by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As has been noted in this paper, music was highly regarded in the Ancient Greece, where it served as an integral part of everyday lives of the Greeks. This form of art had very a meaningful purpose among the people of ancient Greece, and for that reason, it fulfilled a significance role in the entire Greek society.
As it has been shown, Greeks used a wide range of instruments to improve the sound of their music. It is also clear from this paper that, there were some notable differences between the aspects of music of the ancient Greece and those of the ancient china.
Works Cited Anderson, Warren. Music and Musicians in Ancient Greece, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994. Print.
Bundrick, Sheramy. Music and Image in Classical Athens, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.
Norris, Michael. Greek Art from Prehistoric to Classical: A Resource for Educators, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Print.
Pangle, Thomas. The Laws of Plato, Seattle, WA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2010. Print.
HealthSouth: The Rise and Fall of the Scrushy Empire Problem Solution Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
1. Summary: Richard Scrushy founded HealthSouth in 1984 with $50,000. The company was a privately-held health care franchise of clinics dedicated to physical therapy of elderly patients.
Scrushy became CEO of the company. By 1998 the company had experienced tremendous growth with over 1,900 centers in USA, UK and Australia. Scrushy was particularly fond of entertainment industry and he developed road shows for children and a separate communications department in HealthSouth. During his tenure as CEO Scrushy availed huge perks and benefits from the company. His corporate helicopter was primarily used for personal and family engagements.
After the company went public in 1986, Scrushy began to pressurize management to manipulate earnings in order to meet Wall Street’s expectations. His goal was to maximize stock price and his personal wealth since he owned a large stake in the company.
Every quarter, actual earnings were compared with what the market was expecting and any differences were reconciled by wrongly inflating the numbers. These adjustments were made in contractual adjustment account. Moreover, the accountants also misrepresented income statement by not recording expenses less than $5000 which was the threshold materiality level for the auditors.
The balancing entries were made in the assets account by recording fake purchases. In 2002, a former employee Michael Vines notified Ernst
Seminar scholarly reflective report Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact on professional experiences and involvements
Impact of readings on understanding of obligations as a citizen
Enhancement of skills in the course
Introduction Different scholars apply varying definitions to the term “public administration” depending on their use for the same. In essence, the term often describes the various aspects involved in the development and implementation of government policies.
As an academic discipline, public administration refers to the study of the development and implementation of such policies with the aim of enabling scholars to understand and apply such knowledge to their daily undertakings in both their personal and professional undertakings as citizens or public servants.
This paper explores the effect of public administration as an academic discipline from my scholarly experience. It contains a concise description of ways in which readings assist me to understand my professional experiences and involvements, my obligations as a citizen in a free state, and ways in which the course enhances skills such as writing, critical thinking, decision-making, and ethical awareness.
Impact on professional experiences and involvements Readings on public administration, as an academic discipline, have enabled me to understand my professional experiences and professional undertakings and continue to do so in various ways.
Firstly, they have enabled me to understand the processes involved in the creation of policies that affect public administrators and other professionals with links to their offices in different capacities, which is an essential element when applying an analytical outlook to administrative duties (Fredrickson, 2005). It is usually easy for individuals with no knowledge of the creation and implementation processes that public administrators should apply in the fulfillment of their duties to complain and blame the wrong people for failures and delays in certain areas.
Often, such ignorance and misinformation results in delays when procuring assistance on specific issues related to various administrative offices. Information on the duties that each person within the administrative chain performs enables me to obtain help from the right individuals, thus saving me precious time in the resolution of problems linked to the same.
Secondly, readings in the course have so far enabled me to analyze various duties that players in the public administration sector play, which is an essential process when singling out career options.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every year, hoards of scholars study hard with the aim of joining the public administration sector, but they lack concise targets as to which offices they would prefer to join and duties of each office. The readings in this course have enabled me to conduct an analysis on the duties that office holders in the sector perform and single out those that match my preferred skill set.
Such analysis ensures that I do not work too hard to attain skills that I might not need in the performance of a dream career while being careful not to overlook skills that I might need in case the prospects of my dream career do not pan out (Rhodes, 2002). In essence, the readings in this course have broadened my perspective on my career of choice and armed me with skills that I need to make my dream come true.
The third benefit that the readings have for me in terms of understanding my professional experiences is that they enable me to set realistic expectations regarding my career as a public administrator. It is a common occurrence for individuals to experience disappointment and frustration when performing their duties because things sometimes do not turn out as expected.
Through the utilization of the wide variety of reading material that the course offers, I now understand that various bodies in the public administration sector operate as independent entities working towards a common goal for the government and thus they formulate different policies depending on their goal at the time.
I have thus been in a position to adjust my expectations on consistency of operations and standard policy requirements for staff in organizations and keep an open mind on the same. This aspect ensures that I am ready for any eventuality in scenarios where bodies I choose to work for opt for changes in policies (Rhodes, 2002).
Another benefit that the readings afford me, as a scholar with a potential future in the public administration sector, is that they expand my understanding of the impact that policy changes have on public administrators in the performance of their duties. The importance of such knowledge lies mainly in the ability to adapt, whether in a professional capacity as a public administrator or as a professional in another sector of the economy applying such policy changes.
For most businesses, including the government in its financial operations, the ability to adapt to changes in policies ensures that the level of loss remains at its minimum and that the management of such institutions formulates contingency plans to mitigate the effects of such changes just in time (Kozol, 1996).
We will write a custom Report on Seminar scholarly reflective report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, pubic administration is a multifaceted discipline that comprises various other disciplines including human resource management, organizational theory, statistical studies, policy analysis, budgeting, and ethics (Fredrickson, 2005). The breath of the spectrum of information available on the various disciplines enables me to understand circumstances surrounding situations with a view of the bigger picture.
For instance, when analyzing the budgetary requirements of an organization in the public sector, it is easy for an accountant to overlook possible policy changes that may require the provision of a contingency fund. Application of linkages between different sectors in public administration enables such an accountant to foresee possible social changes such as increase in population, which may render the applicability of such a budget impracticable with time.
Impact of readings on understanding of obligations as a citizen Another important advantage of readings in the course relates to my understanding of my obligations as a citizen in a free state. Currently, numerous individuals lack knowledge on aspects that constitute their rights, freedoms, and those that constitute their obligations to their country as citizens.
Ignorance is one of the main reasons why most people find themselves on the wrong side of the law, especially when it comes to the interpretation of public policy regulations.
Often, most people think about what government bodies need to do for them as per the law and ignore the requirements that the same policies have for them in their capacity as citizens. The readings have enlightened me on the existence of such obligations from laws in my capacity as a citizen and an individual living in a free society under the protection of the government.
A good example that helps to explain the effects of ignorance of the obligations of citizens and the remedy that readings in public administration, as an academic discipline, provides concerns protection of property. Most people expect law enforcement agencies to protect their property through whichever means necessary, but they overlook their obligation to report crimes regarding violations concerning the property of other people, as is the case with community policing.
Another scenario similar to the one above is one whereby citizens expect the government to prosecute offenders, but fail to give the same importance to their obligation to testify at trial and bring perpetrators of the said violations to justice. Apart from ignoring obligations such as testifying in court and working with law enforcement bodies to protect property, some individuals misuse their rights under the constitution, thus violating their obligation to obey laws set by the state for their own protection (Jordan, 2012).
For instance, the American constitution, under the fourth amendment, provides for freedom of the press. However, individuals such as the paparazzi often use such freedom to violate the privacy of other citizens for financial gain (Jordan, 2012). Readings on public administration in relation to obligations of citizens have enabled me to relate to such issues and assess situations while taking responsibility for my obligations to the government as part of the same team.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Seminar scholarly reflective report by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Enhancement of skills in the course One of the skills that studying public administration enhances is writing. The course has enabled me to filter information when writing and apply language that is easy to understand, which allows the reader to relate to the material without straining.
With regard to critical thinking, studying material in the course relating to various disciplines has enabled me to develop a mode of thinking that incorporates various aspects linked to the subject matter and come up with solutions that are improvements from the obvious. Thirdly, the course has enabled me to concentrate on problems and keep an open mind when formulating decisions on various issues.
Through skills such as policy analysis and solution assessment, I am in a position to make decisions that incorporate more considerations and work out better in the long-term. Lastly, through studying the materials and awareness of my obligations as a citizen, my level of ethical awareness when dealing with matters of ethical awareness is higher as compared to when I first started the course. I am now in a position to perceive situations for what they are without excluding my own actions from the equation.
References Fredrickson, G. (2005). Public Administration with an Attitude. Washington, D.C: American Society for Public Administration.
Jordan, T. (2012). The U.S Constitution and Fascinating Facts About it. Naperville, IL: Oak Hill Publishing Co.
Kozol, J. (1996). Amazing Grace: The Lives of Children and the Conscience of a Nation. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Publisher.
Rhodes, L. (2002). The Public Manager Case Book: Making Decisions in a Complex World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
How could King be more upset with moderate whites than violent extremists like clansmen? Essay college admissions essay help
According to Martin Luther King Jr., the white moderates are highly irresponsible. Thus, extremists like the KKK are far much better as they take reasonability for their actions and completely express their hatred and racial sentiments for black people. The “white moderates “are impartial, yet claim to be aligned to the woes of the black people in their quest for freedom.
The essay examines the various reasons why King was upset with the white moderates. Considering the events taking place in the United States at the time, as well as how the black people were being treated, Kin could not have phrased his disappointment nay better.
In his letter, King is trying to persuade and win the authority of the white man who in the real sense had acted as a hindrance to the attainment of the various goals of the black people. His greatest displeasure with the white men that he refers to as “white moderates” in the letter is their limited involvement which he terms as lukewarm.
According to King, the greatest stumbling block that black men had towards their quest for justice and freedom was the white men or the white moderates, who were more inclined to ensuring that the country remained orderly, as opposed to ensuring equitable justice. It should, however, be noted that while the KKK were more open with their ethnic preferences and racial segregation in practice, the white moderates were lukewarm, meaning that they did not take a definite stand in the issues that affected the black people.
Based on their conduct, Martin Luther King is forced to state that, “Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection” (Hornsby 39). King further states that white moderates “prefer a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: “I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action” (Hornsby 40). It is this type of reasoning that in every sense overshadows the line of thought of Martin Luther King.
They were additionally marred by the concept of time as they would constantly advice black people to sit and wait for the opportune time to advocate for their rights. While it is easy to understand that the KKK people hated and acted against black people through their racial lines, it is not easy to understand why the white moderates would claim to support black people and still oppose the ways that they approached their quest for freedom.
According to King, “shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will” (Hornsby 41). This means that it is better to outright state opposition for something or someone than to pretend to be with them yet you are far away from them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the statement made by Luther king comes across as radical and ethnic in nature, the main aim was to ensure that freedom to the people was accelerated. It is not that Martin Luther king was not aware of the evil deeds of the clansmen and was talking in oblivion of them, but this was actually a statement that sought to state that the white men could have done better if they so desired to see the black people free.
The phrase as used by Martin Luther king can be termed as an awakening to the white people to do more and act fast. It was not meant to discredit them as a people on tribal lines, but to provoke them to see the need for accelerated freedom for the black people.
Works Cited Hornsby, Alton. “Martin Luther King Jr. ‘Letter from a Birmingham jail.” The Journal of Negro History 71.4(1986): 38-44. Print.
Movie “The Graduate” Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction It is necessary for filmmakers to use the best tools and ideas in order to make their works spectacular. A good work of art such as a film should have a proper theme, clear message, and at the same time entertain the audience. The film “The Graduate” by Mike Nichols narrates the story of a young man who has just completed college.
At the age of 20, the protagonist realizes that everything is complex and hard than he had thought earlier. This essay therefore explains how the film “The Graduate” utilizes the best aspects of art and design to present useful insights that can help young individuals have a better life. The film achieves this using the best editing, “mise-en-scene”, photography, shots, and storyline.
Analysis of the Film “The Graduate” Summary of the Movie
Mike Nichols is the director of the film “The Graduate”. The 1967 film is based on a novel written by Charles Webb in 1963. The name of the novel is also “The Graduate”.
The actor in the film is Benjamin Braddock, a recent graduate who lacks a clear understanding of life. As a graduate without any aim in life, Braddock decides to befriend an older woman by the name Mrs. Robinson. It is also notable from the film that Mrs. Robinson is married and has a daughter be the name Elaine. Benjamin Braddock eventually falls in love with Elaine, Robinson’s daughter.
From an historical perspective, it is agreeable that the film plays a significant role towards boosting the position of folk-rock in the American society. Produced in the 1960s, the film explores most of the issues that affected the society during the time. Historians and researchers have argued that the film presents a major cultural and historical value to the American people. It adds a sense of beauty to American art and film culture.
The use of various technical aspects of film production has made it a spectacular piece of art. For instance, the producers used the best mise-en-scene, close-shots, long shots, sound track, and editing to present quality scenes to the audience. This has made it easier to deliver the targeted message to the audience.
Lawrence Turman and Joseph Levine produced the film in 1967. The producers managed to present various themes that can educate different members in the society. The first theme in the film is the idea of “coming of age”. In the film, Benjamin and Elaine are two youngsters who are unable to make the best decisions in order to address the issues affecting them. This explains why Benjamin encounters various challenges and obstacles because he is “indecisive” and incapable of coming up with the best solutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theme of “rebellion” is also evident in this film by Mike Nichols. The film presents a “radical mood” whereby Benjamin rebels against many things and ideas in the society.
For instance, he appears to ridicule the existing social norms. This occurs when he befriends Mrs. Robinson after finishing school. He also rebels against the social ideas in the society. As well, the movie demonstrates a strong sense of opposition. This is the case because Benjamin rebels against the ideas of the older generation, social conventions, and the upper class in the society.
The theme of “infidelity” is also evident in the film. This occurs when Mrs. Robinson decides to befriend Benjamin while knowing she was already married to Mr. Robinson. Benjamin goes further to date Elaine without considering the issues and consequences that might arise from the decision.
Although the audience is aware of Benjamin’s thoughts and ideas, it becomes evident that he continues to befriend Elaine in an attempt to achieve his dreams. Benjamin also realizes how the relationship might be horrible. This explains why such kind of indulgence by Benjamin is the most scandalous event in ‘The Graduate”.
The film by Mike Nichols is definitely one of the best works of art ever produced. The film presents a wide range of ideas and concepts that can help individuals live a better life. There are certain factors that make the movie admirable. To begin with, the producers have used the best strategies in order to make the film appealing to the audience.
The film embraces the idea of cast combination in order to make it entertaining. The timing of the film is “perfect” because it explores the issues that affected the American society in the 1960s. This explains why the film captures the “true spirit” of its era.
The other reason why this film is admirable is that it relates closely with its time of production. This explains why many people would consider the film as culturally and aesthetically momentous. As well, the film goes further to present some critical themes and lessons that can help the viewers address most of their problems.
We will write a custom Essay on Movie “The Graduate” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The film explains how young individuals can address most of their issues arising from indecisiveness. The film is also a classical work of art. It is admirable because it employs all aspects of film production such as “editing, mise-en-scene, and close-shots”.
I would also say that most of the parts in the film are attractive. For example, the film begins with Benjamin who has graduated from college. His parents and friends are interested in Benjamin’s plans for either a career or joining school for further studies. The unfolding story reveals most of the challenges facing many people at this age. The director has made the best decisions to make the film successful and entertaining to the targeted audience.
The film conforms to the “Classical Hollywood Narrative” style for film production. Movies that use the style tell a story in a “chronological order”. The style follows a “cause-and-effect” approach. By so doing, the producers have used a principle known as “continuity editing”.
The approach requires that the editing and sounds are “invisible” to the audience. That being the case, the producers gave the “desired attention” to the storyline and not to specific elements such as photography, editing, and sounds. The approach helps the producers and the editor present the best film to the targeted viewers.
Conclusion The movie “The Graduate” is definitely one of the best works of art produced in the 20th century. The film narrates a story that is culturally and historically significance. The producers have used the best tools and approaches in order to come up with a classic piece of art.
The film educates people to make appropriate choices in life as they work hard to pursue their dreams. It is agreeable that the film by Mike Nichols presents new ideas, themes, and lessons that can be applied in our lives. Personally, I have found the film meaningful because it combines different aspects of design and production. It also encourages people to make the best decisions and eventually overcome the challenges affecting them.
Personal Information in Social Media Platforms Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Implications
In a modern day world, technology has undeniably become an indispensable tool in the day-to-day operations of the human beings. However, this digital age has come along with its perils that confront millions of people around the globe. One of the threats is privacy.
The internet seems to record everything and forget nothing thus posing a threat to one’s privacy and reputation. Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace collect and share inappropriate and embarrassing personal information to other users, which comes to haunt people thereafter. Online photos, status updates, blogs have completely lost the power of reflecting an individual’s freedom of expression.
Living in an era, in which whatever you say or whatever others say about you is stored in permanent and public digital files, is threatening. The storage of this information does not give one an option to reinvent him or herself to a new beginning and overcome the checkered pasts.
In traditional societies, human beings were given the capacity to learn from the past experiences and adjust their behavior. However, in the modern society missteps are always recorded making them impossible to be forgotten thus offering no room for second chances.
Implications Using social media platforms has both personal and professional implications. There is an emerging trend of the social media platforms shifting from privacy to transparency in what they term as recognition of the social norms (Rosen 4).
The user profiles (user’s friends, relationship status, and family relations) that had previously been private would become public and accessible to other users. Facebook has already ascribed to this recent development. This would inevitably affect marriages, relationships, and family ties. Professionally, the internet have far reaching implications.
For, example majority of the recruiters and human resource professionals do conduct an online search of the candidates by not only scrutinizing the social-networking profiles of the applicants, but also using the search engines, photo- and video-sharing sites, personal web sites, and blogs. Some observers and scholars have argued that it is illegal for employers to fire or refuse hire anyone on the basis of legal off-duty conduct revealed in Facebook postings or Google profiles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Professor Paul Ohm observes that “It is not fair for employers to know what you have put in your Facebook status updates”. Ohm suggests that there should be laws that prohibit employers from refusing to hire people based on Facebook pictures, status updates, and other legal but embarrassing personal information.
Individual dependency In human history, all the activities and endeavors of people were fixed on rigid societal expectations. However, as time went by, people started drifting away from their social roles to become more individualistic. According to Rosen, “people perceived themselves increasingly as individuals, their status becomes a function not of inherited categories but of their own efforts and achievements” (Rosen). This individual dependency has been propagated by the narcissism that redefines the identity of the modern man.
Conclusion From the foregoing discussion, it is evidently clear that as people continue to experience the drawbacks of living in an internet-driven world, they should learn to hesitate before posting information, sharing photos, uploading pictures, joining online groups or blogging as that can drastically affect their personal and professional reputations. As we still wait for the technological, legal, judicial, and ethical solutions, one needs to be very careful to avoid the unforeseen negative impacts.
Works Cited Rosen, Jeffrey. “The Web Means the End of Forgetting.” The New York Times. The New York Times Mag., 21 July 2010. Web.
Diversity in Business Organizations Term Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction If an organization adopts diversity management, the performance and output are bound to increase. Conversely, if an organization doesn’t pay much heed to managing people from diverse cultures and ethnicities, the results can be drastic and appalling. When it comes to relationships, they are mutual (equal response from both sides).
So if employees don’t get proper response and acknowledgement it is quite possible that they too will be indifferent towards their organizations. This particular situation is more relevant in organizations where employees are from different cultures and ethnicities. So if an organization wants to prosper, it should give due importance to the diversity management policies.
Literature review Having diversity in an organization is very beneficial. In today’s business environment, where companies are going global, diversity recruitment becomes all the more crucial. Managers have to tackle their diverse subordinates in a very delicate and professional manner. Companies have to do buying and selling throughout the world.
It is human tendency to favor people of the same ethnicity and culture. In such a scenario, if organizations have employees from various ethnicities and cultures, it will be easy for them to do their business. Suppose if a British Company has business interests in India and has Indian sales personnel, it will be easy to convince the Indian buyers.
Moreover, the Indian sales personnel will have an idea of the mentality of Indians and will have the tactics to convince them. This particular aspect will become all the more important in the ensuing years when companies, due to saturation at home markets, will expand their businesses to other countries.
People from different countries have different perspectives regarding the ethics of work. For instance, the Germans believe that truth is the key to success, according to the Chinese truth is not absolute, and the British don’t want unnecessary trouble (Shakhray, 2009). This aspect should also be considered while making policies pertaining to diversity management.
By creating a harmonious work atmosphere, where diversity is irrelevant, managers can augment their company’s reputation in the placement market. This will help the company in catching the attention of qualified and efficient workers. In the long run such diverse employees may prove to be beneficial for the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the managers are efficient and if they follow the company’s diversity management policy, they can generate such a work atmosphere where all the employees would consider themselves to be important and appreciated. Rewarding the better performers, irrespective of their diversity, will further infuse motivation among the employees and as a result, they will work more enthusiastically and will involve themselves more.
Diverse workforce is an asset to any organization. In absence of workers from around the world, organizations may find it tough to penetrate foreign markets. One of the peculiar aspects of diversity management is that it should be “particular rather than universal” (Dass
The Marriage Traditions of Wolof Culture Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Question for Investigation
Marriage Traditions of Wolof People
Introduction The population of the world is constituted by an array of cultural groupings and ethnicities. The cultures of the different ethnic groupings have been a subject of research for a long time. Scholars carry out these research studies in the quest to trace the historical development of the different cultures because it is believed that humankind descended from a single ancestry, and thus all people must have shared one culture at one time.
However, in the contemporary times, different parts of the world are littered with different cultural groupings. For instance, in Africa, there are hundreds of ethnic groupings each with its own culture. However, scholars and historians have increasingly raised concerns over the authenticity of today’s cultures, for as the world continues to open up due to phenomena such as globalization, many cultures have been waning and becoming a hybrid of several cultures.
Consequently, most cultures exhibit elements of different cultures from other parts of the world. Scholars have thus carried out studies to document the ways of almost all cultural groupings across the world for posterity. This paper seeks to explore the culture of the Wolof people with emphasis on their marriage traditions. The Wolof people are an ethnic grouping in North Eastern part of Senegal, parts of Mauritania, and Gambia.
Question for Investigation The Wolof culture is one of most affected cultures by Western influence in comparison to other cultures in the region (Diop 101). This aspect causes one to want to know the kind of social environment in which this culture is practiced and why it would be subject to more Western influence than other cultures in the region. The Wolof people are the largest ethnic grouping in Senegal as they form about 35% of the Senegalese populace and about 12% of the Gambian populace (Diop 112).
Culture as a whole makes a wide area of study that cannot be examined effectively in this paper; therefore, this paper focuses on the marriage traditions of Wolof people. In a bid to explore the topic exhaustively, the paper poses three fundamental questions that it seeks to address. These include the role that marriage plays in the family formation in the Wolof society, what the economic background of the plural marriages is, and which traditions describe the marriage ceremony of the Wolof culture.
Marriage Traditions of Wolof People The institution of marriage is an intrinsic part of the Wolof culture. This assertion implies that to the Wolof people, a family is an important unit, which forms a building block for other social units into which the Wolof society is organized. In order to form a strong and stable family among the Wolof, it was traditionally believed that cross-cousin marriage (young man marrying a maternal uncle’s daughter) was the best form of marriage (Gamble et al. 31).
This preference hinged on the idea that such arrangements provided the best and most stable marriages. Although it was traditionally permissible for a young man to marry a paternal aunt’s daughter, the importance attached to the stability and success of the family unit among the Wolof ensured that the first priority was given to marriage to a maternal uncle’s daughter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditionally, most marriages among the Wolof emerged from mutual agreements between the parents of the groom and the bride (Gamble et al. 31). Although this scenario has slightly changed with time, this practice is still prevalent in rural areas albeit with some minor adjustments.
Today, a young man may identify a particular girl and after the approval of parents, the father initiates talks to ask for the girl’s hand in marriage (Gamble et al. 31). In some cases, the rigid traditional systems in which the parents make all the decisions concerning matters of marriage are still witnessed (Melching 68). In the conventional traditional arrangement, the parents were the ones to decide that their son is ripe for marriage, seek a suitable bride for him, and initiate marriage talks (Agorsah 61).
Under such marriage arrangements, the bride and the groom did not have much of an influence over what happens. This practice was founded on the idea that parents were more suited to choose what was best for their children due to the accumulated wisdom and experience (Mbaya 226). An intriguing aspect of these arrangements was that the intervention of diviners was sought to determine if the marriage was feasible before marriage actually took place (Gamble et al. 31).
After identifying the right girl, the father of a young would man would enlist the help of a third party to serve as a go-between. The go-between’s main duty was to find out the position of the girl’s family concerning the interest in their daughter (Gamble et al. 32).
The go-between carried kola nuts from the groom’s father during this important errand. If the girl’s family accepted the kola nuts, that was an indicator that they granted the groom permission to court their daughter. At such a point, the boy was expected to furnish the girl and her mother with gifts to win their affection (Gamble et al. 31).
For the girl’s father, the young man was expected to assist in chores such as weeding and harvesting among other masculine endeavors. These acts gave the girl’s family room to assess the character of their prospective in-law. Once it was decided that his character was good, further gifts would be presented to the girl’s family to seal a covenant that left the young man as the sole suitor.
A brief marriage ceremony was then performed by an Imam (the Wolof people are largely Islamic) after the routine Friday prayers at the mosque (Gamble et al. 32). This ceremony demanded the presence of representatives from both families and witnesses.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Marriage Traditions of Wolof Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the ceremony, a small payment consisting of kola nuts and money was made to the bride’s family, thus making the marriage legally binding (Gamble et al. 32). Agreements would then be made on how much further payments (marriage money) needed to be made and when the time for its payment came, other gifts were also given to the bride’s mother, father and peers. Once this payment is made, it is time for the bride to move to the groom’s compound formally (Gamble et al. 32).
This would be accomplished after colorful traditional wedding rituals meant to free the marriage of evil and make it fruitful and successful. The bridal party would then make its way to the groom’s compound. Traditionally, on the morning following the bride’s first night, a blood stained cloth would be displayed to show that the bride was a virgin (Agorsah 80), which was a great source of pride that inspired praise-filled songs for the bride and her mother. Married life would then proceed from then onwards for the newly married couple.
The typical marriage age for the Wolof was the early twenties for boys and late teens for girls (Gamble et al. 32). This trend was the norm in the rural settings, but there have been adjustments where young people residing in towns marry at later ages.
Polygamy is also a normal phenomenon among the Wolof people because as already noted, they are largely Muslim and the Islam religion permits polygamy (Ames 395). In addition to religion as a causal factor for polygamy, the traditional Wolof culture considered many wives as a sign of wealth and consequently, a source of pride and prestige; consequently, about 45% of Wolof men are polygamous (Ames 396).
Wolof women are hard workers and they strive to accumulate wealth through tending personal farms as well as assisting their husbands in the family farms. This observation implies that in a home with many wives, the man takes the credit for the wealth that belongs to all his wives. As would be expected of any other woman anywhere in the world, Wolof women show jealousy towards their co-wives and rivalry among co-wives is a common sight.
Once a man and woman get married, it is the primary duty of the woman to make her husband happy. She may be forced to go to great depths to ensure that she ensures the happiness of the husband and consequently the stability of her marriage and family.
Married women exist in closely-knit friendship systems, which ensure that it is extremely difficult for a woman to engage in acts of infidelity (Gamble et al. 32). This system together with the teachings before and after the wedding ensures that women place their husbands first and obey them completely.
Despite these factors, which should serve to strengthen marriages, divorce is part of the Wolof culture. If a woman at some point feels that her marriage life is unbearable, she can go back to her kin and refuse to come back. Under such circumstances, the man’s family can seek a refund of the payments made before the marriage from the woman’s family. If the payment is made in full, the couple is considered legally divorced and may remarry without any problems (Gamble et al. 32).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Marriage Traditions of Wolof Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children remain with their mother until they are of age before they can go back to their father. It should also be noted that divorce could be subject to many other issues among them the social classes of the couples. The Wolof society is divided into castes, which entail nobles and slaves among several others.
Marriage between the two groups is generally not permissible. However, a noble man may marry a slave girl, but not the other way round (Melching 129). If a marriage takes place across this social system without the knowledge of those involved and the truth comes out later, a divorce is inevitable.
Conclusion Culture defines people’s lifestyles and it sets the platform upon which people can relate with other cultural groupings in a given place. The marriage traditions of the Wolof people show a clear picture of how the Wolof people regard family relationships and their expected contribution to the wellbeing of society.
It defines their perception of how the world should be inhabited. Clearly, the family unit is a fundamental unit of the Wolof culture, and apart from being a building block for society, it defines the economic status of a man. This aspect makes family a very important dimension in the economic wellbeing of the Wolof people.
Works Cited Agorsah, Koffi. Marry me in Africa: African Foundations, Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2012. Print.
Ames, David. “The Economic Base of Wolof Polygamy.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 11.4 (1955): 391-403. Print.
Diop, Elhadji. Trainee Wolof manual, Dakar: Peace Corps, 2012. Print.
Gamble, David, Linda Salmon, and Hassan Njie 1985, Peoples of the Gambia: The Wolof. PDF file. Web.
Mbaya, Maweja. “Linguistic Taboo in African Marriage Context: A Study of the Oromo Laguu.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 11.2 (2002): 224-235. Print.
Melching, Molly. Ndànk-ndànk: An introduction to Wolof culture, Dakar: Peace Corps, 1981. Print.
Ghost of Civil War Past 1850-1859 Analytical Essay cheap essay help
The United States has gone through several challenges to be what it is currently. The following story shows that the country has come from far as far as political development is concerned. Between 1850 and 1859, compromises were made to prevent secession and subsequent wars that would follow.
Within the period, five bills were enacted, particularly in 1950 leading to the diffusion of the war that had lasted for four years. The period is considered one of the chaotic in the American history since the slave states of the South engaged in confrontations with the Free States of the North. The two regions differed over the ownership of the new states acquired through the Mexican-American War of 1846.
The Whig senator Henry Clay of Kentucky introduced the compromise document while Clay acted as a mediator. The Democrat representative Stephen Douglas participated in drafting the document, which prevented secession and continued conflicts that threatened the peace of the country. The compromise document had several provisions, even though each party had issues with certain clauses. The 1850s compromise pushed the country towards war when Texas was convinced to drop its ambition of acquiring New Mexico.
The key events of 1850s, such as the drafting of the Compromise document and the Kansas-Nebraska Act complicated the security of the country because states were unwilling to drop their ambitions of controlling major resources in the neighboring regions. The Compromise document of 1850 suggested that southern states had to do away with slave trade, but they were allowed to hold slaves. The north was unhappy with the idea of helping the south control slaves.
The south saw it wise to fight for its rightful place instead of relying on the government, which was reluctant to offer any form of help to the region. The sudden death of Taylor complicated the situation further because he had been relied upon to prevent the interests of the south, but the incoming president was opposed to slavery.
The South ensured that the Wilmot Proviso was avoided implying that the New Mexico Territory and Utah had the powers to decide whether to be free states or slave states in the future. The Missouri Compromise Line had banned slavery in the northern territories several years ago implying that there was no way Utah could become a slave state. The land around Utah was unfertile and it could not accommodate any form of agriculture. Additionally, the inhabitants were not southerners hence they were never interested in slavery.
Through the compromise document, the southern states approved the Fugitive Slave Act, which permitted slavery in the region. However, slave trade was proscribed and it could not be one of the forms of business in the country. Based on this, slaves could simply be used in the production process, but not as goods of trade. Finally, the draft document banned slavery in the country’s capital Washington D.C. The implementation of the compromise document was faced with several challenges because the government was reluctant to support it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sudden death of President Zachary Taylor facilitated the application of the compromise document. The president was slave owner, but he never approved slave trade in the country. Henry Clay first tabled the compromise document in 1850, but both the pro-slavery legislators and southern democrats shut it down. The Illinois senator Stephen Douglas took it upon himself to break down the bill into several pieces, which were passed without much opposition
The congress resumed its sessions on 3 December 1849 and the Whig senator Henry Clay delivered a powerful speech urging the house members to compromise in order to prevent the breakage of the union.
The bill could not be adopted right away because of the nature of the document, something that forced the Illinois senator to break it into smaller pieces. Through this, the smaller bills were approved separately. Clay was overpowered and his influence could no longer be felt in the congress, something that forced him to invite the services of Douglas.
The Northern Whigs, including William Seward, had separate views as regards to the compromise document. Seward delivered a speech on the higher law that challenged the credibility of the compromise. His main concern was the fugitive law and the existence of the Wilmot proviso in the west. The president Zachary Taylor kept off from the issue during his 1848 presidential campaigns, but came in strongly to support the admission of California as the Free State.
The president surprised the southerners because they never expected him to support antislavery policies, having been the slave owner for several years. The discussion of the compromise document nearly turned violent in the house when Senator Benton took on the Vice president, accusing him of trying to force the passage of the bill. On his part, the floor leader of the bill Foote of Mississippi threatened to shoot Benton if he continued misbehaving in the house.
At least nine slave-holding states from the south sent a powerful delegation to the Nashville Convention to establish the next course of action in case the compromise document was to be implemented.
Most of these delegates preferred secession because abolition of slave holding was a threat to their survival, but a few of them suggested further compromises. One of the options was to extend the geographic dividing line that Missouri Compromise of 1820 designated. Clay combined several bills into a single omnibus bill, something that his fellow Whigs opposed.
We will write a custom Essay on Ghost of Civil War Past 1850-1859 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He could not continue fronting the bill because of the deteriorating health. With the death of the president and the subsequent accession of Fillmore, the passage and implementation of the compromise bill was inevitable. The new government was in full support of the compromise. The advocates of the bill were able to marshal support by talking to the Northern Democrats and requesting the southern Whigs to vote for the compromise document as soon as it was table in the house.
In the history of the United States, secession has always been prevented by opting for other options. In this case, the Compromise solved many issues that could have to major divisions in the country. For instance, the problems related to boundaries were getting out of hand and the federal government was unable to tackle them effectively.
The compromise played a major role in ironing out some of the issues that could have brought serious conflicts leading to wars and claims of secession. Additionally, the compromise resolved the issue slavery because it allowed the southern states to use slaves in their plantations, but they could not sell them to other regions.
Ghost of Civil War Present (1860-1861) The actions of the southern states were unacceptable upon the election of Lincoln meaning that the 1960 presidential elections triggered the secession movements because several compromise documents never convened their major aims. The southern states ensured that they seceded before Lincoln was sworn in as President because he opposed slavery. One of the Compromise proposals presented after the election of Lincoln as President was the Corwin Amendment.
The amendment was expected to prevent the occurrence of any war and help states achieve their ambitions in order to drop their secession claims. The president was against slavery and he had indicated clearly in his campaign message that slavery was demeaning the status of the United States. Therefore, the southern plantation farmers were convinced that the president would ban slavery leading to its extinction.
To worsen the matter, the slave states had become the minority in the House of Representatives, something that convinced them to seek self-rule through secession. The north had become powerful in both houses. Because of this, seven states withdrew their support from the union and decided to join the Confederacy before the swearing in of Lincoln.
The first state to declare self-rule and secession was South Carolina. The state adopted the statement titled declaration of the immediate causes, which induce and justify the secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union. South Carolina advocated for the rights of the Southern states as regards to ownership of slaves.
Additionally, the secessionist states were against the Fugitive Slave Act, which prevented workers from seeking refuge in the northern states. Based on this, the northern states were accused of not fulfilling their constitutional mandates of helping the south return back fugitive workers. The seven states formed a southern government before Lincoln was sworn in, having seceded from the union to form the Confederate of America on 4 February 1861.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ghost of Civil War Past 1850-1859 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The outgoing president James Buchanan never prevented the secessionist states from taking over the ownership of federal resources in their respective regions. Buchanan was sympathetic to the southern states because he declared that they had no sufficient reason to seceded, but went on to claim that the congress had no power to prevent any state from withdrawing its support to the union.
For instance, the army commander in Texas was forced to hand over the entire garrison to the state government whereby the military leader was convinced to join the Confederacy. All southern legislators in the senate and the house resigned, which gave Republicans from the North an opportunity to pass bills that had been blocked for several years. For instance, changes were brought in to adjust the Morrill Tariff. Furthermore, the Homestead Act was passed and the transcontinental railroad was commissioned.
The southern states expected some form of assistance from Britain because slave owners were mainly from the United Kingdom, but the deal never materialized because the British government never wanted to destabilize the American government. The seven Deep South states that were popularly known for producing cotton seceded in February 1861, including South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
The states formed the Confederate of America, with Jefferson Davis serving as the first head of state. The administrative structure was similar to the one contained in the US constitution. In the same year, Fort Sumter was attacked, something that forced President Lincoln to request the states to volunteer their armies. Towards the end of the year, four southern states seceded to join the Confederacy, including Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
Unfortunately, Virginia encountered internal resistance leading to the formation of another state referred to as West Virginia, which decided to remain in the Union. On the other hand, at least twenty-three states decided to remain in the union, including California and Kentucky. Secession was affecting the fulfillment of the American dream because the south accused the north of trying to interfere with its interests while the north criticized the south for misusing human labor.
This could not be tolerated further because conflicts were witnessed on daily basis, with the president controlling only the states in the union. The Confederate states could engage in unlawful activities, yet the federal government could not intervene to bring sanity. While the union tried as much as possible to convince states to join the federal government, the Confederacy resisted such attempts through military intervention.
Ghost of Civil War-Yet to Come (1861-1865) The North and the South prepared amicably for the war with both the Confederacy and the Union preparing their soldiers and militias to engage in the battle. Governors were instructed to mobilize resources in the north while the south organized their militias. President Lincoln requested the well-wishers in the north to offer their services under the volunteer program.
Many Americans volunteered to offer their services to an extent that both the Confederate and the Union lacked the capacity to train and equip them. All young men and women aged between eighteen were recruited under the compulsory conscription program.
In 862, the Confederacy passed a law that made it compulsory for all men aged 18-35 years to train with the militias. The Civil War attracted foreigners, with over one-seventy thousand Germans and one-forty Irish citizens joining the war. In 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation act was enacted allowing the states to recruit slaves as soldiers. The locals were forced to fund the war through heavy taxation and direct deposits to government covers.
Secession led to Civil Conflicts that cost the lives of many people and loss of property. The government should never allow secession because it does not help any party. Whenever a state feels that its objectives are not being met, it is encouraged that dialogue is embraced because it facilitates compromises instead of rising up to fight one another.
By 1865, the United States was facing serious humanitarian crisis because many people were in need of assistance. The government failed to offer protection to the citizens because of the existence of militias controlled by the secessionist states.
The south lost the battle whereby it was forced to abandon Shiloh, New Orleans, Antietam, and Vicksburg. When it lost the major battlefields, the south had no option, but to stop for the day and surrender to the Union forces. President Lincoln seized the opportunity to draft some of the most important policies that would prevent the civil war in the future.
The president read a Gettysburg address whereby he affirmed that there is no superior race or individual in the country, but instead people had to embrace equality. In this regard, several constitutional amendments had to follow to ensure that slavery is never exercised in the country.
Additionally, strong laws had to be enacted to ensure that peace and security is preserved in the country. The emancipation proclamation freed all slaves in the country and it was declared illegal for any individual to hold another as slave. On 17 June 1865, the last Confederate hanged boots at Trans-Mississippi Theatre and the president appointed Starkey as the governor of Mississippi. In the same year, peace was restored in the state and fire-eater Edmund Ruffin died in his firm.
Physical Therapist Assistant (major) Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
My major is physical therapy. Physical therapist assistants perform their duties under the supervision of physical therapists. Core duties of physical therapist assistant include assisting patients to recover from illnesses, injuries, and surgeries. These are procedures, which help patients to manage pain and regain balance during movement.
In addition, therapies are developed to enhance mobility, reduce permanent physical disability, and improve general conditions and fitness of patients (American Dental Education Association 1). Patients could be persons with short-term or long-term physical disabilities, heart conditions, head injuries, back pain, cerebral palsy, or arthritis.
A number of reasons have influenced me to major as a physical therapy assistant. Physical therapists have high–levels of education in the anatomy, locomotion, and operations of the body. Knowledge gained in physical therapy education helps the therapist to lessen aches, assist patients to move, avert permanent disabilities, and re-establish physical functions.
Hence, a physical therapist is an important part of patient care. Foundations of therapist’s work are practical training and therapeutic activities. Patients have different needs based on their conditions. However, physical therapists aim to initiate movement or operations by activating joints or working on muscles. In addition, physical therapists also apply other methods like ultrasound, hot packs, electrotherapy, and ice to treat their patients (Kilgore College 1).
Career as a physical therapist has great rewards. These specialists make a difference in individuals’ lives. Physical therapists work with patients closely and watch their progress through various stages of treatment. A physical therapist remains a rehabilitation specialist who promotes the patient’s maximal recovery and functions. The job also involves restoring mobility through fitness and wellness therapies, which improve the patient’s overall health and active life.
A career as a physical therapist offers a job security. The job is resilient to economic downturns and struggling job markets. Today, the large number of aging Americans has driven the demand for physical therapists. Specifically, American baby boomers have become prone to chronic conditions and common health problems, which require them to seek services of physical therapists.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that the demand for physical therapists would rise by 46 percent between the year 2010 and 2020 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 1). This rate of growth is faster than the average rate of growth in the job market because of health care needs of the aging population. This is good news for students of physical therapist assistant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The job leads to a feeling of self-fulfillment among practitioners. Physical therapists help others to regain or attain their normal movement abilities and conduct their daily life activities. Surveys have shown that physical therapy job has an overall highest job satisfaction level (American Physical Therapy Association 1). More than a three-quarter of physical therapists who take part in surveys report that they are ‘very satisfied’. Certainly, this is the only best performing health care profession in terms of job satisfaction.
Physical therapists can perform their roles in any location with clients of different ages. As a result, they have a wide range of areas and settings for work, which may include outpatient clinics, private offices, hospitals, schools, sport facilities, health and fitness centers, and home health care facilities among others.
Finally, physical therapy education would elevate me to be my own boss. A large number of physical therapists work as private consultants or own their physical therapy facilities.
Education is necessary for physical therapy assistant. Students should get a CAPTE-accredited two-year associate degree program (American Physical Therapy Association 1). This allows graduates to sit for a national examination for the license and allows them to join the profession of physical therapy with the necessary skill, behaviors, and knowledge. Most states need the certificate or license in order to work as physical therapist assistant.
Education would ensure that a physical therapist assistant is competent, adaptable, knowledgeable, and self-assured to provide physical therapy services.
Physical therapy assistant education ensures that the graduate can perform the job, gather patient’s information, ensure safety, and respond to all instructions as provided by the physical therapist in a manner that that meets legal, ethical, effective, and safe practices of the profession.
Moreover, a physical therapist assistant requires education in order to learn how to communicate with other stakeholders, client’s family, and caregivers, as a team and cooperatively with others in the health care sector.
We will write a custom Essay on Physical Therapist Assistant (major) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The career of a physical therapist assistant is exciting, flexible, and highly rewarding, but students require necessary qualifications to join the profession.
Works Cited American Dental Education Association . Physical Therapist Assistant. 2012. Web.
American Physical Therapy Association. Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) Education: Overview. 2013. Web.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition: Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides. 2012. Web.
Kilgore College. Overview of Physical Therapist Assistant. 2013. Web.
Student development and extra-curricular activities Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction The learning process does not end with the classroom experience. Rather, a complete learning process involves personal development and healthy participation. This analytical treatise attempts to examine the significance of student development and extra-curricular activities on a student’s academic achievements.
Extra-curricular activities and academic performance Extra-curricular activities are vital towards positive academic performance. According to Stephens and Schaben (2002), “a study by the United States Department of Education revealed that students who participate in co-curricular activities are three times more likely to have a grade point average of 3.0 or better” (Stephens
Micro financing your content strategy Essay (Article) essay help
Blogs are proliferating at the astounding rate of over 100,000 per day. They reflect both the both urge to communicate and the changing face of marketing. Funding a blog can be challenging, especially when you are starting out. However, micro-financing web content promotion is possible – so micro that it could be free!
You may be blogging for the sheer joy of sharing your ideas, or to mobilize action on a favorite cause. Alternatively, you could be blogging for pay, promoting something you or someone else sells.
Commercial blog is a growing category. These days, almost any product, service, or cause should probably have an associated website and blog to let prospective customers or supporters know about it.
Such commercial blogging’s growth reflects drastic changes in marketing. Many traditional channels for promotion such as network (and even cable) television, print periodicals, and broadcast radio, are giving way to online alternatives. Even print Yellow Pages effectiveness has fallen prey to the switch away from landlines (up to 75% of some demographic groups).
These factors pose a challenge for you as a blogger. You face a challenge in alerting your target audience that your expertise exists. Your audience also needs to be able to find you from any and all devices.
This, then, is where promoting your website content (as differentiated from promoting your product, idea, service, or cause, which the blog itself accomplishes) becomes crucial. How can you promote your website content cheaply? Some tools cost quite a bit, but others, happily, require no expenditure except of your time, energy, good writing, and marketing acumen.
The most fashionable buzzword in web content promotion right now is ‘native advertising’. No less an eminence than the New York Times has announced native advertising for their online edition. A separate writing and production studio will ensure that only high quality “continuously scrolling multimedia storytelling pages“ will accompany hard news, and look like them too, while promoting the advertiser.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This disturbingly parallels science fiction’s dystopian vision of future ads irritatingly tailored to a reader’s idiosyncratic preferences. Native advertising, however, while definitely cutting edge, still seems a bit high end, and you probably don’t possess a fully equipped studio like the Grey Lady of journalism!
Now, can you accomplish something similar for little or no money? Yes, and here are several rules of thumb to keep your own website busily promoting itself.
You need to generate content that is worth reading:
If your blog promotes without cessation, it will be decidedly unappealing. The challenge is to find new ways – consistently – to discuss topics related to your website content in ways that are useful to your readers. Solve problems, illuminate unanswered questions, untangle unresolved mysteries, amuse, instruct, and point your reader in new and hopeful, helpful directions. A really useful web page, like Thomas the Tank’s ‘really useful engine’, will be a happy place to which a reader will wish to return frequently.
You need to learn what content your readers want so you can promote it better:
This involves using social media to the maximum to connect with your readers. You can talk about your blog on Facebook, LinkedIn, and let your readers talk about it too. Just be careful not to impose on your contacts. This sort of interaction with your audience is termed SMO, or Social Media Optimization.
You need to make yourself findable via SEO The web’s spider bots need your help to find you. Use best SEO techniques to give them ample signals of your presence. Exploit all potential spots in your website to cleverly slide in keywords. Keyword choice is its own science, and it requires that you know what your readers are seeking (see above regarding reader interaction).
We will write a custom Article on Micro financing your content strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opportunities to feature your keywords pop up in a variety of places. These could include:
The META description tag – in the first 150 characters
META keywords tag
In headers and sub headers within the body of the text
Content itself, with a density of no more than 3-5% keywords, with a ratio of one page of content for one keyword.
Any text you have hyperlinked
The ‘breadcrumbs’ you included to remind readers how they got to this page, e.g., writing/editing-> resumes-> prices
Alt attributes – these describe embedded images for those readers who are using accessibility software
Title attributes – These clarify what an HTML element in your webpage does
File names, whether of images or other files embedded in your webpage.
In anything you do using SEO, you need to avoid imposing on your readers with too many keywords to allow for readability. The task of SEO-oriented copy-writing is not, by the way, a universal talent. There is no shame in not being able to create graceful text incorporating keywords attractively and unobtrusively. You can get help on this task from a global pool of talented writers, at shamefully low rates of pay.
The important function of promoting your web content can be micro-financed. If you can afford native advertising on other webpages – wonderful. However, cheaper options exist. You will need to invest some energy and creativity, and exploit all the available SEO and SMO tools, but the result – increasing traffic, should be worth the investment.
Negatives Effects of Social Network Sites Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Whenever social networks are mentioned most people think of social interaction and relationships. Indeed these sites have played a foreground role in facilitating social interaction and relationship between various people around the world.
The sites enabled people to communicate, share ideas, and provide opportunities for learning. Moreover, assessment of social network sites has mainly focused on the positive sides. However, the negative effects of social network sites have been ignored. This study will therefore look at the negative effects of social network sites.
The effects of social network sites have been discussed in various contexts. Moreover, the implications of the effects are also known by most people in the community. Social isolation is one of the serious effects of social networking sites.
Isolation has not only been associated with suicide, but also with other social problems such as mental illnesses, poor development of cognitive skills among the youths, and poor physical health. In this regard, the negative effects of social networking sites should not be trivialized since they can lead to loss of life (Masuda, Kurahashi and Onari 4).
Suicide especially among the youths in the contemporary society has become a serious issue due to the increasing rates of deaths. Individuals who are addicted to social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter have a lower tendency of interacting and associating with others in the physical world.
Interaction with other people in the physical world such as peers and members of the family is important since individuals get the opportunity to share their problems. This also enables individuals to be identified with various social groupings in the society (Elphinston
Factors Influencing Perception on Same-sex marriage in the American Society Essay cheap essay help
Abstract The topic of the same-sex marriage has attracted heated debate over the years in the USA. The protagonists and antagonists of this marriage institution have always clashed over the tenet of the same-sex marriage against the moral standards of the society. This paper supports the argument that marriage of homosexual couples should be allowed holding this view as a dependent variable.
Through case study research, this paper explores the independent variables of gender, ethnicity and religious affiliation and their influence on homosexual marriage. The scope of the research is restricted to perceptions of the participants of the research case studies on homosexual marriage.
Introduction In defining homosexual marriage, anthropologists formulate valid cross-cultural variations of modern and traditional forms. Same-sex marriage, just like any other form of marriage, is a union of two adults, though of the same sex, in a domestic arrangement with each member having defined roles to play. Over the years, homosexual couples have raised debates in the conservative American society (Baker, 2010).
Specifically, religious and conservative groups have been the most active in opposing homosexual couples getting married (Hunter, 2012). Despite these divergent opinions, homosexual couples have spread across several states of the USA and is now legal in the states of Iowa, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Vermont and Massachusetts (Sherkat, Vries