New Workplace Designs Essay Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Abstract

Conclusion

References

Abstract This case revolves around the issue of how an organization’s workplace both shapes and is shaped by the information technology choices that the organization makes. The complexity of new office designs and its implications for technology is discussed. The paper evaluates the role which technology plays in the development of new workplace designs. Recommendations for improving the use of technologies and their implications for organizational choices are provided.

That technologies affect the choices organizations make is a well-known fact. There is an emerging consensus that technologies predetermine the quality and efficiency of various workplace designs. Office designs are a product of technological evolution in the workplace.

Unfortunately, not all office designs are successful. Office designs cannot be relevant or efficient, unless companies’ present and future business models are taken into consideration. Managers and employees must be able to think and work differently in different workplace environments.

Also, technologies should not promote inertia in the workplace. The process of creating new office designs is extremely challenging and complex. Office designs can be effective, only if users are involved in the process of designing and implementing computer-based workplace systems.

The past years were marked with the rapid changes in office designs. New technologies impose new requirements on businesses, and only those who can catch up with the technological progress conquer new markets and win new market opportunities.

It goes without saying that the “process of designing new modern workplaces is more challenging than ever” (Johansson et al, 2002, p.162). Technologies cause huge revolutions in office designs, but office design cannot be effective, unless designers and architects take companies’ business decisions, models, and frameworks into consideration.

Technologies and companies create a complex reciprocal link, in which technologies shape and change business models and business models affect the ways, in which technologies and workplace are designed (Wallace, 2000). In this complex network of influences, corporate philosophies and models play an extremely important role and predetermine the quality, scope, and relevance of various technological systems.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unfortunately, not all office designs and technological systems are successful. In most cases, failure to adopt an effective office design is the result of managers’ failure to change and adjust their roles to new technological requirements. In his article about telecommunications and their effects on work in nonprofit organizations, Griscom (2009) writes that managers must be able to work differently in different work environments.

In case of open work environments, employees and managers must adopt democratic workplace values, pursue transparency and dialogue in communication, promote dignity and fairness in relations with employees, and strive to achieve collective goals (Griscom, 2009). Managers and employees should not use technologies and new office designs as the sources of inertia and inactivity. The use of tested success formulas is not always the best way to sustained competitiveness in business (Lagace, 2003).

However, it is through shakes and failures that companies open their eyes and realize the value of change. It is through catastrophes (unfortunately!) and natural disasters that companies realize the need to introduce new, relevant technologies. Inertia is a reliable predictor of the future business failures. The question is what factors and aspects must be taken into consideration by companies, which seek to adopt a new, effective and successful office design.

As previously mentioned, knowledge of business models and frameworks must create a foundation for developing effective workplace designs (Wallace, 2000). Offices and technologies must be designed in ways that reflect the needs of employees and work, in general (Wallace, 2000). The features and characteristics of office designs must fit in the features and characteristics of organizational hierarchies (Wallace, 2000).

For example, organizations with flattened structures must design their offices in ways that give employees greater autonomy and equality, to let them achieve the desired collective performance results (Wallace, 2000). Modern workplace designs are not merely a matter of spatial considerations and architecture but a product of complex interactions between spatial arrangements and technologies (Johansson et al, 2002). The choice and use of technologies must be tied to the specific demands and features of companies’ business models.

Even the best technologies cannot produce successful office designs, unless these designs are participatory. Participatory design is one of the most popular topics in the current technology research. Participatory design is “an evolving practice among design professionals which explores conditions for user participation in the design and introduction of computer-based systems at work” (Kensing

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Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: Is there desensitization? Essay (Article) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents The major concern of the article

Strengths of the study

Limitations of the research design

Conclusion

Reference List

The major concern of the article The article under consideration entitled “Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: Is there desensitization?” investigates the links between the violent content of TV programs, video games and the increase of the aggressive behavior in adolescents. The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationships between the violence exposure in real life, various media sources and games.

It should be noted that desensitization and lower empathy as the results of the violence exposure in media and games have been studied for decades. Nevid (2008) admitted that violent or aggressive behavior in real life can be attributed to TV viewing, while “playing violent videogames is also linked to increased aggressive behavior in young people” (p. 362). Though the research problem is not unique and was explored previously, Funk et al (2004) implemented a new approach in their study.

Investigating the impact of exposure in games and media sources separately and pointing at the differences in these relationships was a valuable contribution of this research. The assumption that the exposure to video games violence is linked to lower empathy, while both video games and media exposure cause stronger proviolence attitudes is rather interesting and fresh and can be regarded as the main strong point of this article.

Strengths of the study It is important that Funk et al (2004) pointed out the differences in the impact of various media sources on the consciousness, attitudes and behavioral patterns in adolescents. The hypothesis of this paper is that exposure to video games violence has the strongest relationship with the decreased empathy and desensitization.

This assumption is explained with the peculiarities of this media source, namely its creative and active nature which requires intense engagement of the players and can be translated into fantasies and behavioral models.

In contrast to Ohman et al (2001) who investigated the well-researched issues of the relationships between the fear-related stimuli and the cognitive abilities and did not make any significant contribution to the existing theoretical data, Funk et al (2004) managed to find the gap in knowledge and selected a new perspective for viewing the issue.

The differentiation between the influence of various media sources upon the attitudes and behavioral patterns in adolescents can be regarded as the main strong point of the study under consideration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Limitations of the research design Though the researchers provide substantial theoretical basis for supporting the assumption of different impact caused by different media sources, Funk et al (2004) recognize that their research has certain limitations. Thus, the sample of 150 elementary school students included 82 boys and 68 girls. It should be noted that there is a relationship between gender and game preferences, for instance. Thus, the prevalence of male participants could have impact upon the findings of this study.

Funk et al (2004) noted that “the sample is somewhat better educated and likely to be of somewhat higher socioeconomic status than the general population” (p. 29). The socioeconomic and cultural characteristics also influence the behavioral patterns, and these peculiarities need to be taken into consideration for evaluating the results of the experiment (Ryan 2011).

Conclusion Though the article under consideration explores the well-researched problem, the scholars managed to detect the gap in prior studies and selected a new approach for investigating the relationship between the violence exposure in real life and media sources. Regardless of certain limitations of the research design, it can be concluded that a new perspective contributed to the existing knowledge.

Reference List Funk, J., Baldacci, H., Pasold, T., and Baumgardner, J. (2004). Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: Is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence, 27: 23- 39.

Nevid, J.S. (2008). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Belmont, CA: CENGAGE Learning.

Ohman, A., Flykt, A.,

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Hobbes and Locke on the Issue of Equality Compare and Contrast Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Hobbes

Locke

Conclusion

Works Cited

The concept of equality is significant in the discussion of liberty, property, and the role of government in the lives of people. This is seen in tribal groups as well as in oppressive societies wherein political leaders treat the people under them as if they were mere objects.

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are two of the best philosophical minds during the Age of Reason and they both had differing opinions with regards to the subject of equality. Hobbes argued that there is no practical application to the concept of equality. He said it can only lead to chaos. Locke on the other hand can only envision a prosperous and stable society when all men are treated equal.

Hobbes Thomas Hobbes was born into continent embroiled in a bloody civil war. The brutality of war led Hobbes to the conclusion that men are like animals that needed to be controlled. Hobbes went even further and said that there was a need for some form of coercive power that should force people to do what is right. Equality according to Hobbes is seein in the equal use of power needed to force men to do the right thing.

Hobbes was clearly bothered and terrified by the prospects of war that he was willing to justify whatever coercive action that a leader needed to impose on people. This is for the simple purpose of creating a stable government and the creation of a prosperous nation under the rule of law. However, the use of a compelling force means that men and women must be prepared for coercion and the loss of freedom.

They have to accept the fact that a superior power has to rule over them. This absolute power has the authority to do what it pleases in terms of deciding the fate of a town, community or individual. In other words the judgement is final. There can be no appeals. It is therefore a system that can easily produce a dictator. Aside from that there is the danger of increasing the power of the dictator and he can no longer remain as the arbiter and guardian of the people. He will become the absolute ruler of his domain.

Hobbes even made a clear argument that the people who are under this regime must not do anything to upset the balance of power. The citizens must learn to submit meekly and without question because this is the only assurance that peace and stability can be achieved. Freedom of expression and creativity is stifled for the greater good.

Equality according to Hobbes is all about the equal distribution of man’s capability and propensity to destroy one another. This form of equality Hobbes accepts to be the main reason why men and women must not be allowed to do as they please.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hobbes equality among men is seen in their common desire for destruction and power and he wrote: “I put forth a general inclination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless desire of power after power that ceaseth only in death” (Hobbes, p.58). In Hobbes’ mind men are equal only in their ability to destroy and subdue one another.

Locke When Locke began to write down his ideas, the world has undergone a tremendous transformation as it tried to break away from its mediaeval past. Locke and his contemporaries are therefore more confident to go against established ideas about politics and social life.

While Hobbes preferred to surrender human rights and offer people freedom under an absolute ruler, Locke on the other hand made his disagreement known. Locke cannot accept the fact that kings and queens are given blanket authority over people’s lives. Locke said it is against the natural order of things that men should become the slave of another.

Locke was one of the first to elucidate that there is no such thing as a divine right to rule, no one was born to be a king and rule over others with an iron hand. Locke could not accept Hobbes proposition that only absolutism can establish a progressive and stable government.

Although Hobbes and Locke differed in their perspective of equality both men are in agreement when it comes to the necessity of a State. They also agree that man should be under the authority of a just ruler. The only difference is that Hobbes did not give provide an avenue to resist against acts of despotism. Locke is in agreement only as long as the government’s role is limited to the management of the collective rights of people for the establishment of an egalitarian society.

Hobbes’ fear of chaos and utter destruction due to incessant warfare is matched by Locke’s fear of dictatorship and abuse of power. Locke also argued that absolutism as a form of government can easily lead to the corruption of the government. It is therefore important that Locke is able to shoot down the argument that monarchs have the divine mandate to rule.

In the 21st century Locke’s view has been proven to be closer to the ideal form of government needed to create a stable and prosperous society. It is therefore interesting to note that when Locke completed his treatise there was no other form of government that he could have used to prove his point.

We will write a custom Essay on Hobbes and Locke on the Issue of Equality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More European societies are only familiar with the monarchical form of governance. Absolutism is the main feature of European governments. It is therefore important to point out the source of knowledge that Locke utilized to help him arrive at his conclusions with regards to equality.

It is not surprising to know that part of his understanding of politics has a theological basis. Locke used the Bible to prove that even in the very beginning there was nothing that could provide any basis to the claim that there are those who are born to subjugate others and that there are those destined to be under the control of another human being.

Locke argued the following points and he wrote: “Adam had not, either by natural right of fatherhood or by positive donation from God, any such authority over his children, nor dominion over the world, as is pretended… That if he had, his heirs yet had no right to it” (Locke, p.1). It was an idea that did not take effect soon enough but later on it became the basis for freedom loving people who found a way to prove that indeed all men and women are created equal (Burke, p.347).

The conceptual framework that Locke presented is easy to grasp. He was referring to the basis of traditional lineal authority and his writing proves that there is none. A present day King does not have the mandate from heaven. He does not have authority to rule over another person.

It must be made clear that Locke did not talk about a leaderless society but a society governed by laws and the King himself is under that law. Locke made a clarification that rules are not changed based on the caprice and whim of the ruler but it is based the rule of law. Everyone is under the law and no one is above it. This is the only way to live under a society with rules and yet never in danger of someday being under the absolute control of a despot.

Conclusion It would be impossible to understand Hobbes’ and Locke’s assertion regarding equality without considering the context of the times. Hobbes was justified in his understanding of equality because he saw people killing each other on a regular basis. The destructive nature of war was so real that Hobbes sought a way out of it.

For him a life under absolutism is better than a life of constant warfare. Locke on the other hand lived in a time when rulers and powerful monarchs are so corrupt that it spurned him to write against their abuses. Locke’s arguments were way ahead of his time because for centuries, absolutism has been accepted as the only method to effectively govern men. Thus, the modern world and democratic governments are indebted to Locke and his treatise.

Works Cited Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hobbes and Locke on the Issue of Equality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1994.

Locke, John. The Second Treatise of Government. New York: Barnes and Noble, 2004.

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Computer and Telecommunication Technologies in the Worlds’ Economy Essay online essay help: online essay help

Computer and telecommunication technologies are on the rise as many people seek to bridge the gap between their knowledge and that of their predecessors. This form of advancement is vital in sustaining the worlds’ economy as used in business enterprises, learning institutions and families among other fields in comparison to usage over the past 20 years.

Since the high competence emerged, some people and countries feel superior and richly supplied with technology advancement than others. Why is this gap widening every single second? Why is there an impression that some countries are closer to the digital world than others are?

It is true that a majority of people lack access to computer and telephone resources, thus they cannot access internet at home, school or work. This makes the societies lack the essential basic skills to boost the economy. According to Ba (1), telecommunication is greatly required for financial stability and success.

There are many factors leading to the widening of the digital divide. They include quality and affordability of the products and services. Many illiterate people prefer to buy cheap products and services in order to save, but in the end end up complaining. These products are inevitable in our day-to-day lifestyles since people are out to make quick money from other’s ignorance. The products cause severe damages even before their due season. This has really diminished the technology sector hindering success to advancement of technology. In addition, the products needed for a people or country to bridge the digital divide may be scarce, limited or unaffordable. Inability to access cheaper rates for quality products depends on financial status of a country or suppler levels of performance (Ba, 1).

How do we then bridge this divide? In order to bring the telecommunication world to the attention of others, some measures needs to be taken. The two main requirements involve:

Government Policy-The government need to ensure that its citizens enjoy the benefits of the technological advancement in bringing them closer to the digital life by structuring a policy that will enable every student to access a computer which is internet enabled. The US government facilitates a program that sees every student has access to a computer in school. The initiative program entitled one laptop per child has encouraged economical growth in schools, as students do not waste time doing research through physical books but prefer the easier and mobile access to virtual libraries available on internet enabled computers. The government also need to come up with policy of assisting students obtain personal computers (notebooks or laptops), through students loans which ought to be repayable upon completion of studies, when one secures a job or I able to earn income. When student are digitally connected, the whole community as well as country gains economically since chances of computer illiteracy are fully eliminated.

The Community policy –The community should initiate program, which will make villagers and other people out of school to access internet as a way of advancing their knowledge. This is possible by forming a community alliance that contributes a certain amount monthly. The contributed amount required to be banked for a couple of months or years and used to purchase digital products including the community-based computers. In line with Burgstahler (1), this initiative would also enable many communities to get assistance from banking organizations, by taking loans for purchase of products. The government ought to work collaboratively with private centers and non-governmental organizations to set-up community based resource/digital centers where people can access the required information.

According to Ba (1), organizations that develop Computer and telecommunication products should design alternative cost-effective products, which favour the economically unstable sectors and provides the community with digital services. Financial support encourages people and motivates them to participate in the required or anticipated change.

The most important benefit of bridging the digital divide is to unite illiterate, different political parties, cultures, gender and people of different ages.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from offering economical growth, Computing and telecommunication services educate and entertain users. The computing world also helps in raising strong leaders and experienced staff. Telecommunication organizations should therefore target the youth and citizens who are willing but lack the facilities or are constrained by accessibility.

In order for nations to bridge the digital divide, there are major obstacles that need to be summoned, which include:

Illiteracy among people in the community

High poverty levels

Inadequate technology infrastructure

Political Instability

Language barrier

In conclusion, the community needs to advance the digital life and bridge the gap by ensuring that majority have access to computing, communication and internet technology. This will see disadvantaged communities rise to higher technology levels against all odds.

Government officials, Community leaders and policy makers should adhere to the importance of bridging the digital divide and make computing and telecommunication services accessible to many marginal groups. If the government would agree to strengthen its links with the private sectors, reducing the digital gap would be easily achievable.

Works Cited Ba, Harouna. What is the Digital Divide? The digital divide. Spring 1 (2). 2001. Web.

Burgstahler, Sheryl. Equal Access: Universal Design of Computer Labs. Washington, WA: University of Washington Post 2010. Web.

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The Natural Resources of the African Community Expository Essay college admission essay help

The write up is on the African community. In Africa, most of the natural resources such as water, forests, soils and many more are on the rapid rate of extinction due to man’s exploitative nature without putting up the right conservation measures. Man exploits these resources in order to get their daily needs. The high population rates and the level of poverty contribute a lot to this kind of behavior.

In this paper, energy, water and forests have been identified as the three main areas that can be improved. There has been a cry in Africa over the shortages on these vital resources whereby the members are forced to acquire them expensively, because of this, measures to ensure their conservation is necessary.

For each of the above mentioned resource, actions can be taken to cut down on their misuse. For water, it is necessary to have the water act that sets regulations and ensures that they are followed to the letter. In the case of energy, it is necessary to look for alternative renewable source of energy that is least costly and is environmental sensitive. In the issue of forests, laws should be enacted to ensure that those who go against them are answerable and pay heavily for their actions.

According to a research done by Mwingi Godfrey on the conservation of water in South Africa, the following is important to ensure a sustainable use; Pressure management, this will control the chances of pipe bursts thus reducing the amount of losses through leakages, and in connection to this is the repairing of the faulty pipes and tapes to reduce the leakages. It is also vital to put up water meters for drafting payment schedules, this reduce the amount of water used for both domestic and commercial purposes.

Water used for washing dishes and in flushing toilets is also a lot; therefore, re-use should be considered as some water can be used twice, this is called grey water. Dual flush system should be adopted because of its minimal water usage. In case of irrigation, conservative measures should be applied such as mulching and watering at the right time to avoid wastage (Water conservation para. 4).

On energy, it is important to consider all the types of renewable energy sources such as wind, tides and waves, solar and biogas energy. If these entire sources are harnessed then the cost on electricity can be greatly reduced.

Solar and biogas are the most efficient sources of energy that can be embraced to ensure a cost effective use. Practices such as putting off lights and all electrical appliances when not in use should be implemented. Use of energy saving bulbs should not be ignored (Fourteenth session of the United Nations commission on sustainable development para. 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In considering forest resources in Africa, it is important to ensure that growing more trees is encouraged by emphasizing on the plant two as you cut down one should be encouraged, looking for alternative sources of energy and construction materials to reduce on logging done daily. Education campaigns on the importance of forests should be carried out.

Conservation of these resources is a long time process which requires a timeframe of not less than five years. For water conservation, all the above mentioned ideas can be implemented in twenty years time, this due to ignorance with the people in Africa and lack of required skills to implement the strategies.

For energy, a period of more than twenty years can be possible considering the lack in technical knowhow, awareness and lack of money to adopt the renewable sources. This case applies to forests because carrying out awareness and huge amount of money is required to carry out a forestation process.

In the process of implementing the earlier mentioned ideas in order to conserve the above resources, many challenges are experienced. These include lack of money for proper funding, ignorance by the people on the importance of the resources and how to conserve them, poverty level and high population growth is also a threat as people have no alternative to get their daily needs apart from exploiting them and others.

In order to counter the challenges mentioned, it is important to seek funds from the developed countries, carry out campaigns to educate the people on the importance of the resources and hoe to use them sustainably and providing an alternative for each of the mentioned resource to ensure its sustainability.

Works Cited Fourteenth session of the United Nations commission on sustainable development, Department of environmental and tourism affairs, SEP 2005. Web.

Water conservation. SAAF Environmental services. 2009. Web.

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Sonny’s Blues by James Baldwin Essay college essay help online

Written by James Baldwin, Sonny’s Blues is a short story found in the novel Going to Meet the Man. The main character is Sonny’s brother; the narrator. The narrator expresses his brother’s suffering as a drug addict. Although the narrator is alienated from his family and neighborhood, he does understand it. Talking of alienation, the narrator has poor family ties especially with his only sibling Sonny; the younger brother.

The narrator discovers from the daily newspaper that his brother, Sonny, is in jail. Sonny is a drug-addict and during one of the police crackdowns, he ends up in jail. When the narrator realizes the trouble his brother is in, he feels guilty and fears for his life and future. He feels as though a cloud of darkness is hovering around his life.

While at school, he is unable to concentrate in class and feels as though his life is tumbling down. He is unable to come to terms with the tragic lifestyle his brother engages in. Although the narrator has a younger brother, he only knows about his fate through the newspaper.

Conventionally, one would expect the family members to be the first to know that Sonny has been arrested; unfortunately, the big chasm that stands between Sonny and the narrator bars any communication and sadly the narrator can only learn of his brother’s fate via the media. What a way of communication! The two live in separate worlds and they care less about the other and this underscores how alienated the narrator is from his brother.

The narrator is also less friendly to his students and in most cases he dismissed them as drug addicts. As the lesson ends, the narrator feels relieved; however, he starts thinking about his life of Sonny’s life only to realize the two live as aliens and there is need to reunite. This realization underlines the fact that the narrator understands the bearing alienation that follows him like a shadow.

As the story unfolds, alienation also unfolds at the same rate; the narrator sees all his students as drug addicts as if he were better than them oblivious of the fact that if one is not ‘infected’ s/he is ‘affected’ and in this case the narrator is affected because his brother is ‘infected’; unfortunately, the narrator is so alienated that he turns apathetic.

He watches children play but does not understands why people associate with children for he is alienated in the first place so he cannot appreciate this kind of an association. Although the children are happy and shout while on the playground, he does not see the reason for their happiness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alienation continues to surface as one of Sonny’s friends comes to the school compound to tell the narrator about his brother’s imprisonment. From the conversation that ensues, it is evident that the narrator hates Sonny’s friend. For instance, although the boy lives in the narrator’s neighborhood, he never associates with him.

He describes him as ‘cunning boy’, and regrets why he always gave the ‘cunning boy’ fifty cents during his borrowing escapades. However, the boy seems friendly and tells him about Sonny but the narrator already knows. He offers the boy a cigarette hence proves that despite condemning the drug addicts he is also a smoker. Sonny’s friend asks the narrator why the police did not get him, which he sarcastically answers, “I wasn’t there.

I stay away from people” (Baldwin 553). Furthermore, the boy asks the narrator what is his next step about his brother’s condition; but he rudely says nothing; if anything the narrator has not seen Sonny for more than a year. The narrator does not even know his brother’s residence before imprisonment. Two forms of alienation come out at this point; first, the narrator is alienated from himself; he does not understand himself.

He smokes yet he condemns addicts as if there were ‘good’ and ‘bad’ addicts. Secondly, he confesses that he ‘stays away from people’ and this remark is enough to suffice hoe deep the narrator is alienated from his surroundings; he doe not even know Sonny’s friend by name yet they live in the same neighborhood. Therefore as expected, he does not plan to visit his brother in prison.

On their way to home, the narrator and the boy enter a bar where the narrator sees a little girl as a barmaid and feels pity for her. However, he dislikes the way of life of people in the bar, their houses, and music. He does not want to associate with them yet they are his neighbors and fellow black men.

The lifestyle of his neighbors seems malevolent to him. On the other hand, he is eager to know about his brother’s fate in the prison but Sonny’s friend reassures him of his release after rehabilitation. The narrator is happy about his brother’s freedom in the future. The two reach at the railway station and part ways. However, the boy has no fare and the narrator gives him some to board the train.

At the end of their interaction, a friendship bond culminates between them and the narrator regrets hating the boy before. Furthermore, he promises to write Sonny as soon as possible. Although the narrator hates his neighbors, he tries hard to connect with them, as it is the case with Sonny’s friend. Therefore, at last the narrator starts to break the chains of alienation that have bound him for ages; at least he starts connecting with people as the journey of cracking alienation starts.

We will write a custom Essay on Sonny’s Blues by James Baldwin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the chains of alienations falls one by one, the narrator manages to scribble a letter to his brother after losing his younger daughter to polio. Luckily, Sonny replies the letter but he rues his brother’s negligence and rudeness. The letter becomes the turning point for the two brothers and they reconnect once again. The letter brings back the lost unity between the two brothers; in fact, the narrator sends his brother some basic things to use while in prison.

After accepting that he has been alienated not only from people, but also to himself, the narrator embarks on a journey to heal those he hurt during his dark past. Sonny is out of prison and the narrator goes to New York to fetch him. He is so happy to see his younger brother but he is bothered about his seemingly bleak future that lurks ahead.

During the encounter, their childhood friendship blossoms again. The narrator reflects his brother’s life when he was a toddler, which attracts him even more. On their way home, they pass through their childhood streets.

He describes the ramshackle houses with poor lighting they lived in, their sex escapades and the stores in which they looted as pats of their escapades. Although it is fifteen years later, the street remains the same save for a few new buildings. The narrator does not want to live in such street. He is proud that he is a schoolteacher and pity’s those who live their; it is important to mention during his past years the narrator was apathetic but now he can afford to sympathize with the poor in society. That is a plus!

At home, there is a family reunion and Sonny gives the narrator’s kids some gifts. The narrator reflects on his family before the death of his parents. He remembers his father’s drunkenness, which was the cause of his death. Additionally, Sonny had a strong relationship with his late father for alcoholism was a common denominator in their lives. The narrator’s mother was always protective and during their last meeting, he had no time for her hence they did not chat at all.

Unfortunately, his mother died when he had gone to war. The narrator had a poor parent to child relationship hence the poor bondage between them. However, the narrator now feels the void that his mother left as she passed on. Finally, the narrator allows his brother to venture into music as a pianist; his passion. During their reunion he meets one of Sonny’s friend whom he works with, he watches as he plays the piano and even buys him a cup of milk, which bonds them again as a family.

In conclusion, the narrator is alienated from his family, friends, neighbors and self. He understands his alienation and it is easy for him to overcome it. After spending a considerable time in self infatuation and self righteousness, he finally starts to appreciate the people around him starting with Sonny’s friend, through the little girl in the bar to Sonny himself. As the story closes, the narrator develops strong relationship with those around him and therefore he manages to overcome his alienation.

Works Cited Baldwin, James. Going to Meet the Man. United States: Dial press, 1965.

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“The Lesson” and “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Differences

Similarity

Insights

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The short stories “The Lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara and “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” by Joyce Carol Oates disclose the sudden realization of facts about life by two young female characters. When people encounter incredibly horrifying or disturbing situations or face facts about their conditions, and especially when the outcomes posed by the sudden realizations are not predictable, they tend to change greatly viewing life from different perspectives.

The paper compares and contrasts the epiphanies of the major characters in the two short stories giving an account of what triggers the epiphanies in each of them and further addressing the insights that the characters arrive at about themselves, human conditions and the world at large.

Differences In Toni Cade Bambara’s “The Lesson”, although she does not admit it, the main character Sylvia, a young girl learns a lesson about how life really is after the trip to the Toy store sponsored by Miss Moore, the young girl’s neighbor. Earlier on in her life, the young girl is just as cheeky as other little girls are and never stops to wonder about her situation.

Her experiences of the trip to Toy store where Miss Moore takes them changes her perception about the society they are living in. Her friend Sugar seems to echo her thoughts when she says, “Imagine for a minute what kind of society it is in which some people can spend on a toy what it would cost to feed a family of six or seven. What do you think?”(Bambara 5). Through this trip, that she realizes that the society is not as fair as she thinks and that something is worth doing as Miss Moore always says.

This shapes her epiphany and motivation to working hard and taking Miss Moore’s advice seriously. The epiphany experienced by the main character Connie in the story “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been” is somehow different from this in that Connie has got no way out, hence the force into giving in to the rapist Arnold Friend’s demands since her fate seems completely determined.

The freedom provided to her by her parents lands her into the hands of the rapist and a potential serial killer. She reflects back on her previous and current living style and wonders whether it will ever take after the life of her dreams. She comes to the realization of declaring the shape of her as determined by the rapist. Her epiphany seems different from that of Sylvia in The “lesson” in that she resigns into her fate by herself face whatever that may happen.

The epiphany of the character Sylvia in “The Lesson” comes because of the challenge that she gets when Miss Moore her neighbor takes her for window-shopping together with kid friends in the neighborhood. This challenge shapes the perception of the kids towards life since they do not put much thinking into it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their childish nature has blocked their sight in that they do not experience things evident in the society such as class differences. After the encounter at the toyshop, the kids come into the realization that life is much more than just kidding around and not taking things seriously.

The epiphany shows the fact that the kids now realize how their lives seem different from that of others that of others and that they should not behave as they do. In the short story ‘Where are you Going and Where Have You been”, Connie’s epiphany is not really an epiphany considering the fact it seems motivated by regrets of the freedom she receives from her parents and which she misuses.

Rather than reciprocating on her parents, trusting effectively and going where she claims: to the movies, she takes the advantage to go to clubs where people like the rapist and the serial killer Arnold’s friend identifies and targets her. She falls prey of her misfortunes because of her deviant behavior and neglect.

One can attribute the conditions that lead to the epiphany of the young character Sylvia in the short story “The Lesson” by Bambara to her behavior and too the manner in which the society organizes itself. Sugar who is her friend echoes her thoughts when she says, “I think… that this is not much of a democracy if you ask me.

Equal chance to pursue happiness means an equal crack at the dough, doesn’t it?”(Bambara 5 ) implying the fact that the kid comes to realize the unfairness of the society after all as she does, though earlier on in her life.

Though she still has four dollars that belongs to Miss Moore, she does not feel good after this realization of how the society seems so unfair. On the other hand, the teenage Connie succumbs to her fate because of her own defiant behavior. Had she taken heed to her mother’s concern, as the case appears with her elder sister, she would have avoided the misfortunes that befall her. Further, should she have gone to the movies avoiding the club, she would have not met Arnold’s friend.

Therefore, on that eventful Sunday, she would have accompanied her parents and sister to the barbecue avoiding the encounter with the rapist. Anyway, experience, as people say, passes for the best teacher and fortune knocks at least once to every person’s door.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Lesson” and “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The seemingly trivial fact of the prize of a toy triggers Sylvia’s epiphany giving her the realization that her freedoms have a limit economic wise and that she cannot get everything that she wishes. Even the cheapest toy in the toy store, which goes for thirty-five dollars is worth the rent that the family pays for the house that they live in.

The realization provokes more thoughts in her head to the extent that she starts experiencing headache. Connie’s world on the other hand seems to flow as she wishes it to until the unexpected happens. A stranger who seems to know everything about her shows up and starts demanding that they go out for a ride. At first, she does not take him seriously until he reminds her that she can do nothing to stop him from doing whatever he wants to do with her.

The realization induces to her a feeling of hopeless that leads Connie to start reflecting upon her life seeing how it has been like and how different it will be after her encounter with Arnold ‘s Friend. The case appears more different considering her lack of certainty of her fate as the case seems with Sylvia in “The Lesson”. The aforementioned epiphanies too feature some striking similarities.

Similarity The two characters from the different stories come to the realization that they have been viewing life differently from how it actually is and that their futures would not be the same again. In addition, the two as portrayed in the stories, have lived a life of carelessness blinded by their youth.

For instance, in the story “The Lesson”, the character Sylvia and her friends never looks at life from the perspective of what it holds for them neither do they consider what their future would be like. Instead, they think that their childish adventures will shape their life. For instance, they never imagine of things such as having a desk for doing homework as important (Bambara 3).

Similarly, in the story “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been” Connie’s life is never inclusive of any serious considerations prior to the appearance of the rapist Arnold Friend. Life seems characterized by girlish adventures, boys, clothes, as well as her looks. She really portrays so little sense such that she only values her deviance. Therefore, her encounter opens her eyes about the other things that can happen to her despite the tragic and suspended ending of the story without hinting on what happens to her next.

Insights The two girls come to the realization that what has earlier on formed their world is a mirage. What they cared for was themselves and nothing more. Sylvia in “The Lesson” has never thought of the existence of any limits to her freedom since that is the level of her exposure before Miss Moore takes her out, together with her friends. Certain realities such as the existence of social classes seemed unclear to her before.

She says, “So we heading down the street and she’s boring us silly about what things cost and what our parents make and how much goes for rent and how money…the part about we all poor and live in the slums, which I don’t feature”(Bambara 2). Connie on the other hand never thought of the existence of any bad people in her world. She had trusted any one to the extent that the night when she first encounters Arnold’s Friend, she never considers seriously the threats that he issues to her.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Lesson” and “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The epiphanies of the two characters in the short stories have more differences than similarities because the short story by Joyce Carol Oates lacks a proper ending leaving the reader to speculate on what happens next to the character Connie who falls in the hands of a rapist and a potential serial killer. There is no clarity whether Connie survives the encounter to experience the change as per the epiphany.

Works Cited Bambara, Tony. Black Woman: An Anthology. Washington: Washington Square Press, 2005.

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No One Must Be Left Behind: The Policy of Humanity Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents A Long Journey to the School Reform

Test My Knowledge: The Pros and Cons of the New Testing System

Getting Any Better? The Changes in the Educational System

Works Cited

A Long Journey to the School Reform Although the school system is supposed to take into account the needs and wants of each of the students and guide them to the academic top of their education, in practice public school consider mostly the issues concerning the advantaged pupils, omitting the problems of the disadvantaged ones.

To fight the injustice which such situation poses, the No Child Left Behind, or NCLB system was designed; introduced to the public education quite recently, it has already influenced the way in which disadvantaged children are treated in public schools. However, only once all issues concerning the disadvantaged students learning are solved, the public school system will provide the necessary knowledge base for such students, though the first and the hardest steps have already been made.

Due to its specifics and its unusual ideas, the NCLB system of school education has a long and tangled history. In spite of the fact that the founders of the new educational system were aiming to improve the existing public school system and enhance the care of the disadvantaged students, the NCLB system had a long way to go before it became dominant in most of the American schools.

Beginning with the definition of the notion, it would be reasonable to quote Yell: “The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is a complex, sweeping, and controversial law that was passed as a reaction to the low academic achievement exhibited by so many public school students in the United States.” (130) Thus, the NCBL Act was designed to improve the score of the disadvantaged students studying on public schools.

However, it would be better to specify that the entire system were aimed rather at the proper evaluation of such students’ knowledge. Since disadvantaged students are different from the rest of the class, they require specific approach in teaching, which the NCLB Act was supposed to provide.

Tracking the history of the Act, one must note that it was first suggested by George Bush, who further on put it into practice. Aiming at closing the gap between the scores of the students in public schools, this act meant that another kind of discrimination – namely the one concerning the disadvantaged students – ceased to exist.

Scheduled on March 3, the new approach to teaching students was supposed to bring certain changes in the system of education and level the gap between the advantaged and the disadvantaged students so that the progress of the latter could be evaluated according to their own peculiarities, but not to the standard accepted for the advantaged ones. As Olivert mentioned, “States were required to begin reporting annually to ED on progress toward new assessment and related requirements under the NCLBA” (34).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the new act was aiming at providing the disadvantaged students with new learning opportunities and the chances to make their way in the academic learning. Those who used to be outrun by the students with more opportunities now had the chance to prove that they can contribute to the world of science.

In addition, the new act can also be considered a manifestation of humanity in the modern educational system, for the disadvantaged students could feel discriminated no longer. Relieved and obtaining psychological support from the government, these students could finally enter the sphere of science and enjoy their research without being bound by the peculiarities of their health state.

Test My Knowledge: The Pros and Cons of the New Testing System Once the mew ideas of NCLB Act were introduced to the modern system of education, it became clear that these students need specific evaluation system. Thus, the ED came to the idea of standardized testing which could assess each student’s knowledge minding the challenges which disadvantaged students might face and helping the latter overcome these difficulties, providing the most convenient and comfortable way of testing. This was how the idea of the new testing system appeared.

If one tracks the history of standardized tests, a number of peculiar issues will be found. Thus, it is obvious that the idea of standardized testing was not created by the current ED – in fact, the first tests were suggested by Samuel W. King in 1874! Designed to make the testing process easier and more objective, these tests were designed to “determine students’ promotion” (Alexander 1).

However, as this idea failed, causing decrease in students’ progress and their parents’ negative feedbacks, the system of tests was long forgotten until recently. As it has turned out, improving the test system and adjusting it to the new ideas of education and the aims of the teachers, it will be possible to use it as a means to evaluate the school progress of the modern students as well, which the American schools do each year.

However, at the current moment, the use of tests raises certain questions. Considered to be utilized as the accountability of the students’ early progress, standardized tests tend to evaluate the students’ knowledge in the way different from the one that was expected:

Proponents of this “effective schools” approach to educational reform have asserted that it makes more sense to focus on the quality of production process than to use standardized achievement test results that capture mostly student’s experience outside of the production process. (Albernathy 31)

We will write a custom Research Paper on No One Must Be Left Behind: The Policy of Humanity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the method suggested by the ED has to take considerable time testing before the new means of assessing students’ progress is accepted. Although the new approach has not been proved inefficient yet, there are numerous concerns about its efficiency. It must be noticed that at present there is certain apprehension that the standardized testing system might hinder the progress of school students in general.

In spite of the fact that the standardized testing system is supposed to offer the most efficient way of calculating students’ annual progress, there is a threat that teachers might misuse the new system. Depending mostly on the subjective evaluation of the tests result, such attitude might lead to serious problems. A good example of what wrong assessment of the tests result can lead to was demonstrated by Callahan:

Ms. Henry recommends that Susie be held back a year because she performed poorly on the standardized tests, despite the strong grades on daily assignments, homeworks, and class tests (4)

Thus, despite their initial goal of closing the gap between the disadvantaged students and their classmates, standardized tests prove insufficient for helping the disabled to study efficiently. Thus, most people argue that these tests do not take into account various health issues and are designed to fit only a particular group of students, disregarding all those who do not belong to the average student type.

Peterson explained that the so-called standardized tests test students not on their knowledge but on their ability to answer certain questions, thus narrowing their specialization to the size of a chestnut:

For instance, Public Agenda has reported that roughly eight in ten Americans believe it wrong to base grade promotion or graduation on standardized tests. This hesitance stems from the fact that two-thirds or more of Americans express concern that some students do not test well, that testing cannot measure all the skills children should learn, and that too much reliance on testing will cause teachers to focus too heavily on tested material. (76)

Considering the abovementioned, it must be admitted that the current system of testing has to be reconsidered. Narrowing and often running at counter to the school curriculum, these tests make teachers adjust the school program to the issues which are going to be raised in tests; in addition, the tests do not contribute to objective evaluation of both students’ progress and teachers’ skills.

Despite the fact that the developers of the tests were guided by the best intentions, this is the case when the result did not meet the expectations of the ED. There is no doubt that standardized tests evaluate not the knowledge of students, but their ability to answer certain questions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on No One Must Be Left Behind: The Policy of Humanity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Getting Any Better? The Changes in the Educational System Designed to create a better environment for disadvantaged students at public schools and give them opportunity to compete with the advantaged students, the NCLB Act presupposes that certain changes are bound to happen in the nearest future. With help of the NCLB Act the government and the ED hope to estimate the progress of college students in a more effective and objective way.

Splitting the key goal into several steps, the ED is going to change the educational system gradually to help both students and teachers to adjust to the changes and the new school environment.

It is well worth mentioning that most schools’ teaching staff perceived the new system of assessment rather reluctantly. Explaining deep concern about the results which the new system will cause in colleges, teachers were unwilling to accept the new idea of testing. Because of the complexities which such changes dragged, teachers considered that the idea was not worth implementing:

Teachers we surveyed accepted the idea of accountability but believed it has been pushed too far and is being used in a counterproductive way that narrows education and is unfairly burdens schools serving very poorly prepared students without requiring any changes in the conditions that make some schools profoundly unequal. (Sunderman 103)

Requiring time and consideration, the school reform undertaken too soon might seem somewhat half-baked and not properly adjusted to the existing system of education. Indeed, there is certain threat that some students can use this as an opportunity to improve their score without doing anything, merely on the account of the NCLB Act.

It cannot be denied that these fears have certain ground to base on. One of the faults of the new reform is that once suggesting the most efficient way of assessing the disadvantaged students and creating the pattern of education suitable for them, it has now gone too far and is currently taking dangerous shapes.

As long as the reform process is carried out under the control of the Educational Department, the reform proves efficient and valuable for the disadvantaged students, yet when the process becomes uncontrollable, which has already been predicted by some college teachers, the problem of the unequal assessment will emerge again – yet this time it will concern the excessive advantages given to the disabled students and the fact that the advantaged students are left outboard.

Moreover, the new reform seems to have restricted the abilities of school principals in establishing the curriculum. The latter feared that, instead of making the process of shaping the curriculum easier, the reforms which the NCLB Act presupposed created additional obstacles for compiling school curriculums. As Abernathy claims,

In addition, a significant percentage of principals believed that NCLB would facilitate their ability to establish a curriculum. From this perspective, the law might allow principals to push for standards and curricular reform, since they would now be able to argue that the la was forcing these changes. (86)

Observing the current situation in the educational sphere, one can claim that the NCLB Act has already given certain positive results. Meaning to improve the existing system of education so that it could fit the needs and specific features of the disadvantaged children, the NCLB Act has made colleges reconsider the existing scheme of evaluation and adjust it to the needs of disabled students.

However, there is still much to be done. In spite of the fact that the NCLB Act has helped the disadvantaged to be educated on the same level as the rest of students and be accessed according to the peculiarities of their health, the act requires certain improvements.

On the one hand, it is desirable that the act considered the problems of the disabled students; on the other hand, the interests of the advantaged students must not be infringed either. Therefore, the current system of education is bound to face further reforms and changes which will make it even more democratic.

Works Cited Abernathy, Scott F. No Child Left Behind and the Public Schools. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 2007. Print.

Alexander, Kern and David M. Alexander. American Public School Law. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2005. Print.

Callahan, Chris, et al. Get Ready! For Standardized Tests: Reading Grade 4. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001. Print.

Hayes, William. No Child Left Behind: Past, Present and Future. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2008. Print.

Olivert, Damian P. No Child Left Behind Act: Text, Interpretation and Changes. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers, 2007. Print.

Peterson, Paul E. and Martin R. West. No Child Left Behind? The Politics and Practice of School Accountability. Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003. Print.

Sunderman, Gail L., et al. NCLB Meets School Realities: Lessons from the Field. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2005. Print.

Yell, Mitchell L., Erik Drasgow, and K. Alisa Lowrey. “No Child Left Behind and Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders.” Focus on Autism

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Watts, James Washington. Ritual and Rhetoric in Leviticus: From Sacrifice to Scripture Report college essay help online: college essay help online

The book by James Watts reveals an in-depth analysis of one of the six biblical books, Leviticus. Watts tries to find rhetorical meaning of the rituals depicted in this biblical book. The major concern of the present study is to answer the following question: “Who was trying to persuade whom of what by writing these texts?” (Watts xv).

It is possible to divide the book into three parts. The first part is Chapter 1 which is Introduction where Watts outlines the scope of his research and provides his major claim. The next part consists of chapters 2-6 where thorough analysis is revealed. Here Watts provides explanation and justification of his theory. The third part includes chapters 7-9 where the author focuses on the rhetorical meaning of the text and its impact on sacrificial rituals and priesthood.

In the first Chapter of his book Watts introduces the major of the research. He defines the importance of rituals which are depicted in Leviticus. Watts provides analysis of the literature on Leviticus concentrating on the works by Mary Douglas and Jacob Milgrom. For instance, Watts points out that Milgrom has demonstrated that “biblical ritual can be interpreted rationally and realistically” (Watts 10). Watts provides major theories as for the role of rituals and their meaning.

However, the author also states that there is still no substantial and precise analysis of the symbolic value of the rituals. He stresses that when analyzing these texts it is essential to pay much attention or rather focus on their rhetoric. Besides, in this chapter Watts answers the question he pt earlier and notes that rituals are usually described to persuade people to perform them, or to perform them in this particular way, or to accept the text and/or its author’s authority to mandate the rituals and, perhaps, to officiate over it. (34)

In the following chapters 2-6 Watts provides definite explanations and evidence for his claim about the importance of rhetoric analysis of the text and its major ides. Thus, Watts provides in-depth analysis of the text. It is important to note that the author stresses that Leviticus was “shaped not only to instruct” people how to carry out rituals, but to “persuade them to do exactly as these texts stipulate” and “to accept these texts as the ultimate authority for such ritual performances” (Watts 38).

To illustrate and prove the text major of persuasion Watts analyzes genre, content, style. For instance, the use of second person in the text emphasizes the idea of instruction. The texts are addressed to people reading it (or listening to it). The specific style of the text transforms mere instruction into a persuasive writing which motivates people to carry out rituals in the appropriate way and to accept the authority of those who conduct the rituals.

In Chapter 2 Watts points out that the recurrence of such words as “as YHWH commanded” and phrases which have the same meaning reveals persuasive character of the text (103). People are taught that priest will save them from many misfortunes by carrying out rituals in the appropriate way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third chapter is concerned with the “rhetoric of burnt offerings” (Watts 63). The author states that the major idea of the “burnt offerings” depicted in Leviticus is to promote selflessness of sacrifice. This kind of rituals, according to Watts, is also aimed at distracting attention from other types of sacrifice which were usually used by priests.

In Chapter 4 Watts is concentrated on the rhetoric of “sin, guilt, and ritual offerings” (79). The author claims that the use of jargon and specific terms emphasizes the idea that rituals are saving remedy for all believers (Watts 86). According to Watts, the texts of Leviticus promote this idea explicitly via specific vocabulary.

In Chapter 5 Watts considers the rhetoric of “ritual narrative” (97). He also comes to the conclusion that Leviticus narrative promotes the idea that rituals depicted are based on customs, whereas Nadab and Abihu made many mistakes and wrongful rituals since they did “what had not been commanded” (Watts 106).

The sixth chapter dwells upon the meaning of the term “kipper” (Watts 130). Watts considers existing theories concerning the term and draws a conclusion that the term is used to emphasize the idea of purification and achieve the major of the text, i.e. to persuade people.

In Chapter 7 Watts is concerned with rhetoric of ritual writings and the way it was perceived from ancient times up to modernity. The eighth chapter deals with the essence of sacrifice and its meaning in Leviticus and other ritual texts. Finally, Chapter 9 is concerned with the role of ritual text for establishment of priests’ authority.

In one of his works Watts pointed out that “Western culture has traditionally drawn a dichotomy between rituals and texts, usually favoring texts over rituals” (“Ritual Legitimacy” 401). His book Ritual and Rhetoric in Leviticus: From Sacrifice to Scripture provides a thorough analysis of rituals one th ebasis of Leviticus, and successfully draws a link between the two parts of the “dichotomy”.

It is necessary to point out that the author explicitly formulates hs statement and provides a detailed explanation of his theory. Watts does not only present his assumptions, but proves that his theory is truthful illustating his ideas by passages from Leviticus. For instance, the entire Chapter 6 is concerned with a single word analysis. Interestingly, this single word enables the author illustrate his major claim that ritual texts are aimed at persuasion rather than mere instruction.

We will write a custom Report on Watts, James Washington. Ritual and Rhetoric in Leviticus: From Sacrifice to Scripture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, Watts considers existing theories in the field and points out their strenghths and weaknesses. He does not only claims that the theories are based on insufficiant analysis, but provides precise examples of his arguments. It is also important to state that though the author is concentrated on Leviticus he pays much attention to other ritual writings. For instance, in the seventh chapter of his book he considers the whole scope of ritual writing from antiquity up to modern times. This enables the reader to have more complete picture.

Thus, the books is a valuable source of data for those interested in rhetoric analysis of ritual texts since it is based on profound research, many serious works were included in the book to support or refute this or that argument. Apart from precision of the author’s analysis it is necessary to point out that the book is written in simple language.

Therefore, it can be useful for a wide range of readers. Watts’ specific approach enables the reader to consider the rhetoric meaning of ritual texts. This leads to better understanding of the meaning and role of rituals which are regarded as significant part of any religion.

Works Cited Watts, James Washington. Ritual and Rhetoric in Leviticus: From Sacrifice to Scripture. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

“Ritual Legitimacy and Scriptural Authority.” Journal of Biblical Literature 124.3 (2005): 401-417.

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The Roaring 1920s Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Icons of the Roaring Twenties

The Mob in the United States

Stock Market Crash of 1929

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The roaring 1920’s describes a period in the American history after World War I distinguished by significant socio-cultural changes, organized crimes and the great economic depression. Fashion entered the modern era with the trendy flipper fashion making a significant impression.

The film and music industry underwent a transformation with the introduction of sound featured films. The dance clubs gained popularity during this epoch often christened ‘the Jazz age.’ The 1920s period was marked with breaking away from traditions caused by the introduction of new fashion and dance.

At the same time, the 1920s era was marked by rise in the level of organized crime including the Mob who had much influence in the American society and government coupled with speculative investment that led to decline in stock prices causing a major economic depression.

The Icons of the Roaring Twenties The 1920s epoch was characterized by a flourishing nightlife in cities such as Chicago with many nightlife establishments hosting popular dance bands, dancing contests and life radiobroadcasts for the audience (Kyvig 2001, 234).

However, social evils such as prostitution and gambling flourished at the same time leading to prohibitive drinking laws in major cities. Dancing boomed in the 1920s with many social and ethnic groups attending nightly recreational dance halls popularly known as cabarets. The cabarets were influential to the majority of fashionable middle class.

The nightclubs combined fashionable jazz music, public dance halls that hosted dancing competitions, and beer gardens for drinking. The nightlife flourished despite prohibition from the council authorities regulating drinking. Prostitution and gambling arose with the active nightlife

The entertainment industry including the film industry flourished in the 1920’s with a rise of music stars and motion picture production (O’Neal 2005, 58). The film industry’s relocation to Los Angeles facilitated the rise of Hollywood movie stars who lived luxurious lifestyles and had a lot of fanatical support.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This marked the Golden era of Hollywood. Silent films were predominant in the early twenties but all this changed in 1927 with the introduction of the jazz singer, Al Jolsen. Before then, stars of silent films like Greta Garbo and Charlie Chaplin were the only brilliant entertainers of the early 1920s.

Buster Keaton is another comedian star of the silent films before the invention of the talkies that transformed the film industry. The genres of the films included war, romance, biblical stories performed by Cecil Demille and silent comedies.

The fashion of the 1920s was marked by the introduction of the flipper fashions, new hairstyles that were a breakaway from the traditional past and the jazz music. The flapper fashion and hairstyles faced resistance from older generation up to 1925 when the new fashion was embraced contributing to significant transformation of the 1920s. The flapper dresses were short, unlike the traditional long Victoria-like dresses. The flappers also wore stockings and makeup unlike the traditional mode of dressing.

The Mob in the United States The 1920s saw the rise of organized criminal gangs in the American Society. ‘The American Mafia’, also called the ‘Mob’ arose with the aim of offering protection to the immigrant community without the involvement of the police or local authorities (Dickie 2004, 125).

The 1920s National prohibition to regulate drinking gave rise to organized gangs with national and international connections. Enforcement of the prohibition legislation faced opposition from notorious gangs such as the Al Capone’s mob of Chicago. The efforts to stop drug smuggling were deterred by organized smugglers with support from corrupt government officials and other international gangs.

Stock Market Crash of 1929 The roaring 1920s decade was a period of wealth and economic prosperity especially in the manufacturing industry; for instance, “the automobile output increased exponentially between 1925 and 1929 period” (Henretta and Brody 2010, 67).

Business earnings also increased sharply during this period and the middle-class became wealthier investing in residential homes especially in Florida. However, towards the end of this decade, “a slump in share prices in New York Stock Exchange led to a major financial crisis that halted the flourishing economy” (Lange 2007, 81).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Roaring 1920s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This crash is the infamous 1929 ‘Great Depression’ which led to business uncertainty affecting job security of American workers. Because of decline in stock prices, many investors faced financial difficulties that led to shut down of many businesses and resultant mass unemployment. This affected all industries including the then booming film industry.

New economic policies developed by the new administration helped to overcome the effects of the great depression. The economic recovery programs; known as the New Deal, allowed the federal government participation in social and economic projects of the citizens.

The New Deal led to the establishment of democratic governance that enhanced support for individual and community rights for all citizens. Before the 1929 stock market slump, the stock prices were rising which attracted huge investments. However, speculations over instability of the stock market led to panic selling of the shares causing the prices to go down.

Conclusion The decade of 1920s was an era of break away from traditional lifestyles into modernity. Introduction of trendy fashions like flappers, jazz music and musical bands were popular in this era. The film industry underwent a major transformation with the relocation of the movie industry to Hollywood and the innovation of ‘talkies’ in sound films.

However, the roaring era faced threats from organized criminal gangs like the Mafia that increased insecurity in cities. In addition, the stock market slumping of 1929 affected the flourishing investment industry affecting the lives of many Americans.

Reference List Dickie, John. 2004. Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Henretta, James, and Brody, David. 2010. America: A Concise History, Volume ll: Since1877. Fourth Edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Kyvig, David E. 2001. Daily Life in the United States, 1920-1939: Decades of Promise

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The Renaissance Era Research Paper custom essay help

Introduction The renaissance era refers to the period between the fourteenth century and the seventeenth century when a transformational wave moved across Europe. This paper seeks to discuss the history of the renaissance period. The paper will look at the history of some people and events that took place during the period.

King Arthur’s Biography King Arthur was born in Britain in the region of Tintagel. Information about his time of birth is not clearly defined. It is however agreed that Arthur was the only son to Uther Pendrago and Igraine.

With his birth coming at a time when magic was a much developed practice, Arthur’s birth is believed to have been prophesied and a product of magic which was enlisted by his father. Arthur was upon his birth taken away from his parents, subject to the agreement that his father, Uther, made with Merlin the magician, that Arthur would grow as Merlin wanted.

Arthur was therefore taken care of Sir Ector who nourished the boy (Cutler, 2009). Even though Arthur was raised away from his farther, nature also later dictated this as his farther died, in a battle when Arthur was still a child. Arthur received the help of Merlin to reclaim the kinship of his father.

Using his magic, marline had “set a sword in a stone” and made a contest out of it from the contenders of the kinship (Caerleon, n.d.). The person who withdrew the sword would become the king. It was Arthur who managed to by chance withdraw the sword thus becoming king after his father.

On taking the throne, King Arthur organized his group and fought Saxons who had been advancing to take over the country. King Arthur then built a strong emperor at Camelot where with his knights (Caerleon, n.d.). Arthur also led the search for the Holy Grail, which they believed would help cure all diseases. A civil war, however, broke in the territory and Arthur was critically wounded. He was sneaked away from the battle and treated though his body is then believed to have mysteriously disappeared (Caerleon, n.d.).

Queen Mary (Bloody Mary)’s Biography Queen Mary, also known as Mary Tudor was born in the year 1516 to king Henry the eighth and Catherine Aragon. She was the only child who managed to survive past child hood. Mary was accorded a superior education under which she learnt many languages among them: Latin, French, Spanish, and Italian among others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She was also talented in arts and had passion in music apart from embroidery. Mary was forced to live separately from her parents who were to be divorced due to domestic wrangles. Her mother had not been able to give birth to a boy, an issue that did not please the king. The life of Mary changed for worse as the differences between her parents spilled over to her.

She became a victim of her father’s harsh treatments. She was for example forbidden from communicating with her mother. The turn of events saw Mary loose her status as a princes and value and respect that was accorded to her reduced. She was later ordered out of her special residence and taken into her step mother’s house where she was highly humiliated. In the new residence, Mary’s jewelry was taken from her and her servants withdrawn.

A series of events, including her mother’s death, occurred before she could be allowed back into the king’s court. At the age of thirty seven, Mary was crowned the queen of England. After being crowned, Mary repealed of her parents’ divorce through parliament.

Her marriage to Philip, a Spaniard, however shadowed her throne as her subjects never trusted strangers and feared being ruled by external forces. Mary also moved to restore papal supremacy in England. However, there existed resentments and rebellion from protestant churches leading to her move to order the burning of protestant church leaders who led the opposing moves. She later died and was replaced by her half-sister (Home, 2011).

Why King Arthur was Instrumental to Change King Arthur is credited for peace that was realized in England during his reign. At the time of his rule and even prior, the territory was under constant attacks from enemies. Arthur undertook missions of war in his steps to defend the British territory from its enemies.

Arthur subdued his enemies through the battles using his mysterious sword that he had received from a hand that had come from under water in a lake. It is upon the establishment of his power to crush enemies that Britain enjoyed “a long period of peace and security” (Lacy, 2001). King Arthur was therefore instrumental in the transformation of security and peace that was later experienced in the territory after he instilled fear upon his enemies (Lacy, 2001).

Why Queen Mary was Instrumental to Change Mary is significantly recognized to have brought about religious changes in England during her time as the queen. Being a strong catholic faithful, Mary took it as her responsibility to restore the position of the Catholic Church which had been over time eroded. Among the changes realized at the time was the restoration of pope as the head of the church in England.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Renaissance Era specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authority of the pope and the Catholic Church had been compromised by Mary’s father and her half brother that was aligned to the protestant churches. Mary reversed the changes that had been done by her father and half brother to favor the protestant churches by reestablishing the catholic mass and banning practices like the holly communion. Those who protested Mary’s changes were burned in an act that killed about three hundred people (History, 2011).

The Black Plague The black plague, also referred to as bubonic plague was caused by a type of fleas that inhabits rat’s bodies. When bitten by the fleas, a deadly disease would be injected into a person’s body. The disease originated from China through trade interaction, the plague widely spread in Europe and killed many people.

In England alone, and in a span of two years, the plague killed about one and a half million people out of the then four million population of England. Since the plague had no cure, people were grounded with starvation as outsiders were also afraid to interact with the plagued community. After the plague, the demand for laborers to work in farms was high and the local rulers encouraged movement of peasants from their homes into the lord’s fields to provide labor in their farms.

Movements of people were by then restricted by feudal laws which provided that peasants were to move from their homes only on permissions from their lords. The movements were further restricted after the plague to enable the lords control the peasants who were their source of labor. The statute of laborers which were introduced to control the movements of people resulted to a revolution by the peasants. The plague is for this reason perceived to have been instrumental in the revolution (History, 2011).

Battle of Agincourt The battle of Agincourt was a war fought between the English and the French in the year 1415. The number of the French army was so high compared to the English force. However, the French were not as organized as the English and the abrupt raid by the English gave the French a surprising defeat.

The result of the battle was the mass destruction of the French troops who were either killed or held captives by the English. The war left France a weak territory as most of its royal leaders died in the battle. France then broke into civil war that further weakened it. As a result, a treaty was later signed that recognized Henry, the English king as the heir of the French kinship. There was therefore a change in the French leadership (Gumm, n.d.).

Impacts of the Invention Of the Printing Press and Telescope The printing press was invented in the fifteenth century as a result of numerous developments that ranged from trade to other printing elements such as block printing and developments in inks. One of the impacts of the press was the improved communications that enhanced the spread of information among people and places.

The effects of the invention of the printing press were the spread of religious views among European religious activists in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The establishment of the printing press helped to a great extent in facilitating religious revolutions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Renaissance Era by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Europe was predominantly made up of Roman Catholic religion and a small percentage of Jewish religion by the time of the invention. There was however protestant developments that were fueled by the press and this yielded a number of divisions in the religion arena. By the sixteenth century, more faiths such as the Lutheran, Calvinist among others had spread throughout Europe by the aid of the printing press.

The discovery therefore had impacts in the religious developments. The development of the printing press also facilitated the development in science. It enhanced communications of scientific discoveries for comparisons and as well improved the studies in science just like in other academic fields (Crompton, 2004).

The invention of the telescope also had positive impacts on the study of science in astronomy. Before the invention of the telescope, scientists relied on the naked eye to make observations into the space. This put limitations regarding what could be observed. Upon its discovery, the telescope facilitated a number of discoveries into the space. Telescopes have aided research into the universe revealing properties such as the dark matter. It has therefore had a significant impact in research science (Melville, 2006).

Biography of Leonardo Da Vinci Leonardo Da Vinci was born in April 1452 in the Italian town of Vinci. Da Vinci was a key figure in the revolutionary renaissance in Italy. He was actively involved in a variety of fields such as “architect, music, anatomy, inventions, engineering, sculptor and painting” (Italian, n.d.). Leonardo was born to parents with a humble background. He spent his early live staying with his father. His drawings captivated his father who then showed them to a painter by the name Andrea.

Leonardo was then taken by Andrea into school to study painting. Leonardo was later employed in a workshop where he helped develop weapons for a Milan war. He also served as a “military architect and engineer” (Italian, n.d., p. 1) in Florence under the rule of Borgia (Italian, n.d.). Leonardo made landmarks in many places and fields in his lifetime. He later died in the year 1519 in France (Italian, n.d.).

Techniques used in Mona Lisa Painting One of the painting techniques used in the Mona Lisa painting is referred to as sfumato which was used to develop “translucent brush strokes” (Davis, 2009). Da Vinci also employed a number of other techniques such as oil layering. The sfumato technique was used to create the smiling expression and brush strokes. The techniques have helped in the preservation of the picture over a long period of time.

Essence of the Mona Lisa Work The Mona Lisa picture is a reflection of the fashion that was encountered in Florence at the time. The dressing style given to the portrait is a characteristic of the then style in that particular town (Gombrish, n.d).

The Mona Lisa painting has also been described as that of a woman who is “simply and conservatively dressed” (Benson, 2001, p. 1). The woman in the figure appears to be “chaste, reserved, restrained and almost otherworldly” (Benson, 2001, p. 1).

In view of Benson’s (2001) description of the painting, the Mona Lisa picture is a reflection of the ancient woman before the liberalization and empowerment of women. The picture described a woman who is not independent but rather submissive to some forces that she allows to control her life (Benson, 2001).

The painting at the same time communicates a forecast in to the current time in which women are more confident of their stature. With “nothing to hide and a direct gaze” (Benson, 2001, p. 1), Mona Lisa is a representation of a confident woman who is a characteristic of the present woman. It can therefore be concluded that the Mona Lisa painting was an integrated art that represented the society as at that time as well as a projection of the society in later centuries in relation to the affairs of women in the society (Benson, 2001).

References Benson, J. (2001). The renaissance and Barogue. Web.

Caerleon. King Arthur- the legend. Web.

Crompton, W. (2004). The printing press. New York, NY: Infobase.

Cutler, W. (2009). The birth of king Arthur. Web.

Gombrish, E. Mona Lisa. Web.

Gumm, I. The battle of Agincourt-25th October 1415. Web.

History. (2011). Mary I. Web.

Home. (2011). Mary Tudor. Web.

Italian. Leonardo Da Vinci. Web.

Lacy, J. (2001). King Arthur. Web.

Melville, A. (2006). The impacts of the invention and development of the telescope on astronomy. Web.

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Gender, Economy, Politics and Family Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

The Social Costs

What the government does, not how many people do it

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Costs incurred in reducing or eliminating services provided by the government depend largely on the functional level of the government. In the US, there are three government levels, the federal government, state government, and local government. Costs also depend on the type of services given, these can be defensive, entitlement, and educational.

They also depend on time; there are times that they can be reduced or totally eliminated, time here means, times of war and times of peace; cost tend to be high in times of war and lower when there is peace (Henderson 71).

The Social Costs When reading about Huffington’s debate “Guns vs. Butter” 2010, one gets the impression that reducing costs on defensive services when there is a prevailing period of calmness and peace, and then this will greatly favor the interests of the country. If this happens, then there will be little social costs incurred.

From this debate, it is clear that the social costs realized when trying to reduce defense services have little or no effect on the country. This is elaborated by Henderson’s data. This data proposes that if the nation actively seeks diplomacy in an effort to prevent any war, then it will have a better chance of providing butter to its people (Huffington 1).

Reducing or completely doing away with entitlement programs such as social security as highlighted in the production of “butter” will see the country face immediate social costs. This is shown by Carl when he explains about the social class in the US. He indicates that a bigger proportion of the US population will at some point, need assistance from the government.

This implies that eliminating social security services will increase the country’s social costs. This means that marginalized groups, which include, the poor, the disabled, and the elderly, will be required to find alternative means of earning a living. The minorities, those in the lower social class and surviving on meager incomes will feel the greatest impact (Huffington 1).

When you consider education, a socialized service in the US where it is compulsory for kids in grades K-12, its reduction or elimination will bring about significant social costs. At present, many parents rely on the socialized education system to provide their kids with the basic education.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that most of them do not depend on the private learning institutions for K-12 education. One can easily predict what would happen in case K-12 education was eliminated. Such a move will force parents to look for private education for their kids. This is not an education system that they are used to; this system will produce a totally different generation of young people with no basic educational skills.

Absence of basic skills will mean that this group of Americans will miss out on the opportunities for living decent lives. Such a situation will relegate America to the social class of third world countries. This also means that current students would not be in college now, neither would their professors be teaching them now if the education system is eliminated (Huffington 1).

What the government does, not how many people do it People have argued that the most important issue about the big government is what it does rather than the number of people doing it. This can elicit different views and feelings from different people depending on how their respective governments serve them. However, according to me, I feel that only asking about “what the government does, not how many people do it” can not tackle the many issues that people have to contend with in their respective countries.

But because this question is about American, one can understand where it is coming from. Such an argument is made because the United States has a two party political system. It therefore, follows that statement also has two sides to address the political structure in this nation. The two parties in the US, the democrats and the republicans, have their respective answers to this statement. This means that they only give two answers to this statement. But as you and I know, an argument usually has more than just two sides to it.

Currently, health care is the most debated issue in the United States. This is the best example of what the American government can give its citizens as a service. If a national health care system is put in place, then there will develop a vacuum in positions that have a relationship with health care. However, at this time there is no threat because this system is not yet in place. However, if by any chance this system is implemented, then a way of filling the above mentioned positions will have to be sought by any means.

This move will compromise the existing health care institutions both public and private in terms of increasing their workforce. In a way, the created positions will help in reducing the unemployment rate that currently stands just above ten percent in the United States. Of course this can only happen if the government takes an initiative of filling these positions (Torrey 1).

During President Bush’s reign, telephone conversations were wiretapped by NSA; this is what the government does. NSA needs employees for the government to carry out its duties. It is therefore, clear that both what the government does and the number of those doing it are important.

We will write a custom Essay on Gender, Economy, Politics and Family specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, dealing with what the government does alone will be belittling the powers of the government because the government is structured into programs, tasks, order, all of which should be addressed. Such as statement will therefore, not conclusively answer all the issues that the government deals with.

Conclusion Basing on the above suggestion, then one can comfortably ask what the government does, and not how many people do it? Many questions can then arise. For instance, in doing so, is the government in any way helping its people? The answer to this will address what the government does.

One can also look at how health care is provided to the American people. Here, one will look at how many people are providing these services. Looking at these two positions, one can then know if the argument given by either side is good or bad. But, according to my understanding, I think that both statements are valid. One should look at what the government does and the number of people doing it. This question should also address how the people are affected at all times, be it during war or in peace.

Works Cited Henderson, Anthony. Democracy and war: the end of an illusion? New York: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002. Print.

Huffington, Arianna. Guns vs. Butter. HuffingtonPost, 2010. Web.

Torrey, Trish. Understanding Healthcare Reform. Patients, 2010. Web.

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Achilles as a Classical Hero Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Achilles Heroic Characteristics

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Under classical mythology, one can define a hero as a courageous individual with great strength, widely known and celebrated by his society for his actions which portray exceptional boldness.

In literature, a hero simply means a person with a character that people need to admire or emulate. S/he therefore possesses all the ideals celebrated, valued and articulated by his/her culture. Heroes exist in all fields; for example, in politics, sports, and struggle for freedom among others. Be it in classical mythology, ordinary literature, or any other field, a hero must possess ordinary characteristics that no other person possesses.

Since the judgment of heroic deeds lies in the culture that shapes an individual, different cultures value different traits in their heroes. In literature circles, heroism emanates from both the culture of the author and the culture to which the hero belongs. Heroism not only focuses on the actions of an individual, but also the reasons behind their actions.

According to the Greek culture, a hero must be a man with exceptional warrior characteristics; he should stand above other warriors in the society in all aspects; he must not only show warrior characteristics, but should also be intelligent and good in speech; he should endeavor to shun anything that intends to spoil his repute as a good warrior and finally he should have greater strength and courage than his fellow warriors who should freely acknowledge that he is the best warrior amongst them. These exceptional qualities make him legible for crowning as a leader.

In the Greek history, a story is told of a man, Achilles, who possessed characteristics that the Greek culture reserved to heroes. A study of the Greek culture and its comparison to Achilles gives an important revelation: Achilles is a classical hero. This essay focuses on Achilles’ deeds and how they contributed towards his heroism.

Achilles Heroic Characteristics Achilles is a swift runner. According to Lowrey, this character of swiftness comes out when “epithets referred to him as a man who was swift footed” (2). Swiftness is an important characteristic for individuals with the desire to excel in war or any other form of physical confrontation.

With swiftness, one is able to easily capture or flee from an enemy during war. Besides, such people are able to perform better during competitions aimed at searching for true heroes of a given society. As a result, warriors all over the world cherish this trait and it is through it that Achilles gets crowned as a hero.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides swiftness, Achilles possesses the characteristics of courage. Courage, as a trait enables an individual to do what the ordinary person cannot do on the grounds that, it has negative possible consequences or evokes fear of injury or death (Anderson, 12). As a result, one can take up any challenge regardless of any negative impeding consequences of such actions.

The spirit of courageousness enabled Achilles to fight his enemies without fear of possible injury or death. This character trait as a courageous man also enabled him to storm out twelve cities of men both by sea through his ships and by land. Honestly, this is not an easy task! No wonder some of his people describe him as a lion-hearted man.

According to Redfield, it is Achilles’ courage “that made him face any body in battle without fear” (39). In some instances, it is evident that people knew him as a man who ruthlessly and courageously tore his opponents in battle. This task cannot be possible for a timid individual; therefore, because of his courageous nature, Achilles passes for a hero.

Achilles’ heroic deeds made people revere him so much that they gave him godly characteristics. They regarded him as a man who commanded fear all over because his actions evoked feelings of fear and terror (Jaeger, 35). This attitude of people towards Achilles portrays him as a special man deserving a special kind of treatment.

His ability to break his opponents when at war and his physical superiority over all other warriors paints a picture of someone who elicits fear at his appearance. The fact that all other warriors fear and consider him as the best warrior explains why the society treats him with much reverence; he is a classical hero.

Besides the reverence that people have towards him, Achilles has always been a source of fear before his enemies. This trait has always made him scary before his opponents. One of the goddesses in the Greek culture, goddess Hera reveals that the Trojans, who are rivals to Achilles’ community, tremble at the mention of Achilles. In yet another instance Patrocus refers to Achilles as a man “who is by far greater than the Achileans” (Lowrey, 2).

As such, Patrocus says that none of the Achileans can surmount any kind of physical challenge to him. Such a statement not only cements the godly character of Achilles, but also confirms people’s belief in him as a man with significant superiority over his peers and opponents where it really matters. Based on these two instances it is quite clear that Achilles is a hero.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Achilles as a Classical Hero specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The experience that Achilles undergoes while in Combat clearly brings out his heroic characteristics. As Achilles describes his combat experiences, the audience feels how he was “devoted to his people, fighting on their behalf to ensure that they enjoy their lives” (Lowrey, 3).

In his explanation, it is evident that Achilles spent so many sleepless nights throughout the time of war. He even loses his own blood during the war on behalf of his people; however, this damaging event or his weariness could not discourage him from fighting for the wellbeing of his people; a true character of a hero. He instead, continues to fight on without any fear of injury or death till the end of the war. From these actions, it is vivid that Achilles was a man with exceptional character and deserved to be honored as a hero.

While in Combat, Achilles also reveals that all his selflessness and determination in war have seen him through difficulties. Selfness as a character trait refers to the ability of an individual to care not only about his own welfare, but also the welfare of others who are bound to benefit from his/her efforts no matter how small they may be.

From the way Achilles describes his life during the war, one can tell that he possessed a selfless character. This selfless character clearly comes out during the war period. Referring to this period, Achilles says that he put “everything aside and struggled with other warriors during the battle only for the sake of the women of his fellow men” (Seamus, 1883).

The move by Achilles to consider the wellbeing of women belonging to other men exposes him as somebody who does not think of self gain out of his struggle. In addition, the fact that he is not married at the time of battle further proves that indeed, he is a selfless character. According to the Greek culture, selflessness is a trait of heroes; therefore, Achilles’ selflessness qualifies him to be a classical hero.

Besides selflessness, Achilles possesses an enduring character. Endurance refers to the ability of an individual to persevere pain or suffering with the hope of achieving success in the end of the struggle. Achilles’ ability to endure comes out when he talks about the experience he had in Combat during the war time.

During this trying period, he says that he spent sleepless nights for many days. This was because of his alertness against potential attack by their opponents and only endurance can help an individual to ward off sleep. Besides his sleeplessness, Achilles lost his own blood, not mentioning the pain he underwent through when he sustained the bloody injuries.

Despite these sufferings in sleeplessness and loss of blood through injury, Achilles continued to fight on for the welfare of his people and in the end, he won the battle. It is this relentless spirit that enabled Achilles to emerge victorious in many wars against their enemies and therefore, his perseverance during war portrays him as a classical hero.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Achilles as a Classical Hero by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, the case of Achilles and Agamemnon also proves Achilles’ heroic characteristics. Achilles’ acts of heroism had earlier won him a much coveted prize. It however emerges that Agamemnon tried to take this prize away from Achilles in exchange of expensive gifts; seven strongholds and a daughter of as wife.

Conventionally, these attractive offers by Agamemnon would obviously compel Achilles to consider taking the gifts in lieu of the coveted prize. However, to the surprise of many, Achilles handles this situation in the most rational manner; using his intelligence, he discovers that accepting these gifts would serve to show his acceptance of Agamemnon’s superior status; therefore, he refuses to take the gifts and the bride offer and instead decides to protect his higher status of heroism.

To Achilles, heroism consists not in the abundance of material things or wives per se, but in character; enduring character. Very few people can readily make such an informed decision. This intelligent move by Achilles is in line with what the Greece culture expects from heroes like him. Consequently, these adherences to the Greek cultural values that govern heroism help bring out Achilles status as a genuine hero.

Conclusion Heroism is a highly coveted trait in all the cultures across the continents. Before the relevant authorities crown an individual as a hero, they consider his/her achievements which should be extraordinary.

In one such culture, the Greek, heroism is a function of an individual’s intelligence, physical appearances, physical capability and his contribution as a warrior in the battlefield. The Greek culture also requires that as a hero, one should always be ready to guard his superior status no matter the consequences or benefits that one would gain by conceding his superiority.

Achilles is a classical hero according to the Greek culture mainly because he possesses all the characteristics needed to qualify an individual as a true hero. Achilles has physical superiority, has outstanding warrior characteristics that his fellow warriors readily acknowledge and he is not ready to relinquish his superior status; not even with a promise of expensive gifts and a bewitching bride.

Works Cited Anderson, William S. The Art of the Aeneid. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969.

Jaeger, Werner. Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1939.

Lowrey, Belen. “The Hero as a Reflection of Culture.” Journal of Ancient Spartan and Greek History 23.9 (2005): 1-12.

Redfield, James. Nature and Culture in the Iliad. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1975.

Seamus, Heaney. The Norton Anthology of Western Literature. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2006. 1880- 1903.

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Lantern Festival and Rice Ball Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Rice balls

Significance of the rice balls

Stories associated with the lantern festival

Lanterns

Significance of the lanterns

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Lantern festival that is also known as Shangyuan Festival. A celebration takes place on the 15th of the first month in the Chinese lunar calendar. The festival is celebrated to mark the first full moon night in the lunar year and it symbolizes the return of spring. The festival brings together family members. During the festival the people light up fancy lanterns and eat rice balls to mark the celebrations.

The celebration is very colorful as the people enjoy family reunions and the return of full moon. There are various activities during the festival however, the most important event during the Lantern festival is watching the lanterns and eating rice balls.

Rice balls The main food eaten at the Lantern festival is the rice ball. In North China the rice balls are called Yuanxiao while in the South they are called Tangyuan. The rice balls have been eaten by the Chinese people for a long time from the time of the Han and Song dynasties. The rice balls are made from rice flour and can have other ingredients added too. For instance, sugar, nut lets, sesame, walnuts and meat are used to stuff the rice balls. The ingredients are sweetened because they symbolize happy futures for the people.

Significance of the rice balls The rice balls are shaped into round shapes or ball shapes hence their name. they are made round in the shape of the full moon. They are made from rice flour, which is stuffed with various fillings. There are different ways of making the rice balls, which differ with regions and the fillings, used.

hus, some rice balls have fillings while others do not furthermore different cooking methods are used such as frying, boiling or steaming and each of the cooking methods used gives the rice balls unique tastes. Eating rice balls is an essential part of the Lantern festival.

The rice balls are made in round shapes, which symbolize happiness, reunion and harmony. Family members gather to eat the rice balls on the night of the celebration as they appreciate the full moon (Simonds, Swartz and Children’s Museum of Boston 27). During the making of the rice balls, the women involved in the process engage in positive talk and good things. They did so to ensure that “only good luck would go into making the balls and anyone who ate them would have prosperity” (Podhaski 107).

Stories associated with the lantern festival Moreover, the rice balls are an essential component of the Lantern festival because they are the reason why the fire goddess spared the city of Chang’an. The city had a minister called Dongfang Shuo who was an extra ordinary man and could foretell the future. His subjects admired him greatly. He predicted that the city would be destroyed on the sixteenth day of the first lunar month through a terrible fire. Being an extra ordinary man, he devised a plan to try to save his city from destruction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the set day, the fire goddess arrived on a donkey back to accomplish her mission as per the orders of the Jade Emperor. Dongfang had sent old men to persuade the Fire goddess to change her mind but even though she was touched by the wailings of the old men, she could not go against her Emperor. However, she gave copies of the order to the Emperor so that he could try to save the city.

The emperor consulted Dongfang who suggested that they prepare rice balls as he had heard that the fire goddess loved the sweet rice powder. He suggested that everyone prepare the rice balls, light lanterns throughout the city, and prays for the salvation of the city. Moreover, fireworks were to be lit so that they could fool the Jade Emperor that the city had been set on fire.

People made rice balls lit lanterns and fireworks as the courts maid, Yuan Xiao who was very good in making rice balls made some very sweet ones for the fire goddess. She presented the rice balls personally to the fire goddess who loved them very much. The fire goddess rewarded Yuan Xiao by reuniting her with her long lost family. The Jade emperor saw the fireworks and he was pleased to see that his orders had been obeyed. It was a successful conclusion for the city of Chang’an as it was saved (Simonds et al 27).

The other story associated with the lantern festival was that it originated from the worship of Buddha. Buddhism flourished during the Han dynasty 206 BC and 220 BC in china, emperor Mingdi gave an order that lanterns were to be lit in order to show respect for the Buddha during the 15th day of the first month in the lunar calendar, and hence the lantern festival was born. Moreover, Buddha was believed to have the ability to dispel darkness.

The other legend regarding the lantern festival involves Taoism. Tainguan a Taoist god is associated with good luck and has his birthday on the 15th of the first lunar month. The people would celebrate his birthday with all sorts of entertainment because he loved entertainment and during the celebrations, the people would pray to be awarded with good fortune (Lantern Festival 1).

Lanterns The lanterns have evolved over turn in terms of their shape and materials used to make them. Earlier there were silk lanterns, sheepskin lanterns and orange lanterns. Today there are sophisticated lanterns with the advancement in technology.

The lanterns are made into various shapes such as animal shapes such as rabbits and dragon some of the lanterns are electronically powered. The lanterns are inscribed with messages of god will. The lanterns are also used for riddle games in which papers with riddles are hung on the lanterns and people take turns to try to solve the riddles.

We will write a custom Essay on Lantern Festival and Rice Ball specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Significance of the lanterns The lanterns are lit to guide the ancestors’ spirits to come home and later go back to the beyond after the celebrations are over. During the festival ordinary people would be invited to come and watch the display of fireworks and lanterns. The period of the festival was also a holiday hence people could enjoy coming together without worrying about going to work.

Children who dress up and go around singing and dancing carry the lanterns. They also take the lanterns made by their parents to school to their teachers who lights the candle inside the lanterns. Lighting the candle in the lanterns is very important as it symbolizes that the students will shine in their studies just as the lanterns shine (Roy 243).

Conclusion Finally, the lantern festival has continued to grow in leaps and bounds since its inception thousands of years ago. The festival is popular with the Chinese people living in china and those abroad. The festival displays the Chinese tradition and culture, as people get busy with festivities during the day.

Works Cited Lantern Festival. n.d. Web. http://en.people.cn/features/festivals/yuanxiaoR.htm

Podhaski, Anna. White Jade: A Novel. Indiana: iUniverse, 2010.

Roy, Christian. Traditional festivals: a multicultural encyclopedia, Volume 2. California: ABC-CLIO, 2005.

Simonds, Nina, Leslie Swartz, Children’s Museum of Boston. Moonbeams, dumplings

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Preparing an International Marketing Plan Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Marketing Strategy

Product

Price

Promotion

Place

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction International marketing is an opportunity to meet the needs of people in different countries. Being the basis of the marketing, which denotes the needs and desires of customers, identifies the methods aimed at satisfying those needs and meets the organizational objectives, the international marketing performs the same actions, but on the global arena.

In other words, international marketing “involves the firm in establishing manufacturing/processing facilities around the world and coordinating marketing strategies across the globe” (Doole and Lowe 6).

To prepare a successful international marketing plan, it is important to consider the 4 P’s and their role in marketing strategy. Chevy Camaro made in Oshawa, Canada is chosen as a product which is going to be exported to the USA for selling. We are going to consider the main marketing strategies which include product description, price and place peculiarities, and promotion specifics of the product along with other aspects which should be covered while creating an international marketing plan.

Marketing Strategy It is important to note that 2011 Chevy Camaro is the most expensive car in the family, and at the same time the most comfortable and best in use. Keeping in mind that we are going to sell the models produced in other years, income level of the consumers may vary. Moreover, the target market of the product is absolutely different, both men and women of different age may be our customers. The citizens of the USA are going to see our product.

Chevrolet is a recognizable brand and Chevy Camaro is a family which has been produces since 1966 up to now. Cost leadership also influences the international marketing we are going to lead. We are going to focus on customization, as our clients can choose the options they want to have in their cars and build their personal variants of Chevy Camaro (Chevrolet Camaro).

Product Considering the product adaptation to the American needs, it is important to understand that no specific changes are going to be made. Being produced in Canada, the instructions are written in English, the main laws are met, so the product is ready to the consumption.

In addition, having a customization marketing strategy, the American citizens have an opportunity to adjust the product qualities to their needs by means of choosing the items they need. The variety of different models should be also taken into account. The customers have an opportunity to choose the cars of the previous years of production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Price The price is going to be higher in the USA than in Canada due to a number of different reasons. Thus, to offer Americans a car which costs $28,585 in Canada, the company should set the price at least $1,000-$2,000 higher as the transportation costs should be taken into account and warehousing.

Still, the built your car option makes it possible to eliminate the warehousing costs. The insurance and bank fees are already included in the price. So, to buy a car which costs $28,585 in Canada, an American is going to pay about $30,000. Having compared and contrasted the car prices from other automakers, it can be concluded that people are ready to buy Chevy Camaro by minimum $30,000.

Promotion Mass media remains the best promotion means. Still, the raise of the Internet users creates an opportunity for different kinds of ads. The Internet advertising, email newsletters, and mobile marketing strategies may be used for product promotion. The social media network should be used as a means of promotion. For example, it is possible to create an account on Facebook with the detailed information about dealers and options each customer in the USA has.

Place Being created in Canada, the cars should be delivered to the USA dealers. The customization principle of work does not exclude the presence of Chevy Camaro models in the country. The train transportation of the Canadian product to the USA is the best choice when too many cars should be delivered. Still, if time is crucial and the cars should be delivered fast, the auto transportation should be used. The train should deliver the cars to the central office of Chevrolet dealers and then the cars should be conveyed to the city dealers.

Conclusion In conclusion, it should be stated that Chevy Camaro is a product which can be successfully sold in the USA. The brand name plays important role, and the price which is going to be put on the cars is suitable for consumers. The company should use appropriate promotional strategies and implement the marketing strategies which are going to attract the consumers.

The correct choice of the product, place, promotion and price are the main factors which influence the sales rate. We have chosen the USA which is ready to buy Canadian cars by the price the states and via the promotion it applies. The company has a high experience in the international marketing, so, we do not expect many problems. Moreover, the perfectly chosen place, affordable prices, high-quality product and professional promotion are the guarantees of successful results.

Works Cited Chevrolet Camaro, 2011. Web. https://www.chevrolet.com/performance/camaro-sports-car

We will write a custom Research Paper on Preparing an International Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Doole, Isobel and Robin Lowe. International marketing strategy: Analysis, development and implementation. London: Cengage Learning EMEA. Web.

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Is University Education Necessary for Success? Term Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

The mistakes that university graduates make

Why some people believe university education is worthless

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction A lot has been said in the debate on whether education is necessary for success. However the truth remains that education is not necessary for success. Many of the proponents of education as a necessity for success seem to miss the real meaning of success. These people tend to define success as the acquisition of knowledge that will help a person work well for others and that will also help him/her to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities as they arise.

However, this is not the correct meaning of success. Success is holistic, and thus it includes material wealth, a strong personality, good spirituality, and even having many genuine friends, and admirers/supporters. With this definition, it is evident that education is not necessary for success. This paper examines the debate of whether education is necessary for success, and establishes the truth behind it.

The mistakes that university graduates make One of the greatest limitations of university education, which is also the main defense for critics of university education, is the fact that university education equips graduates with problem solving skills. This implies that after graduation, most university graduates are employed by other people. This is as contrasted to the kind of life that a wise investor or proprietor lives.

The latter takes risks in investments, and when he/she emerges successful in those risks, he/she may be able to employ many graduates to work for him/her. This is the main reason why university education cannot be regarded as a prerequisite to success. University graduates who have been successful in life are the ones who appreciate that being employed is a hindrance to success. This is because an employed person does not come across many opportunities, and his/her income is limited.

An employed person will also lack time to adequately socialize with others, and form important networks. In fact, most of the networks that an employed person is likely to make will benefit the employer. University graduates should thus use employment as an avenue to self-reliance, and proprietorship. With savings from their employment, graduates can have a better opportunity to succeed than their uneducated counterparts (Cawley, 2007).

Also, from the discussion above, it has been highlighted that success has many components. However, university graduates get out of school with a misguided opinion of what success really is. Many of the university graduates normally believe that success means being able to help the community in solving its problems, or even getting educational titles, with or without money and social wealth.

This can be seen as one of the reasons why university graduates depend on employment as discussed in the paragraph above. However, as discussed above, success is holistic per se, and thus it should include both tangible and intangible wealth (Shayan, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why some people believe university education is worthless As mentioned above, university education is not a prerequisite for success. However, some people who do not identify themselves with university education seem to believe that it is worthless. Their argument is that most wealthy people are not university graduates, and that, if you compare the income of an employed university graduate and that of a self-employed person, who has never been to the university, the latter seems to have higher income.

However, this argument is baseless as it is based on isolated evidence, and not statistical reasoning. While it is true that some self-employed people who have never been to the university may have more money than some university graduates, a statistical study would produce interesting results.

The truth is that most of the wealthy people are university graduates, but the wealth of most of these graduates goes unnoticed since they are expected to be financially stable anyway. On the other hand, if an uneducated person is lucky to become a multi-millionaire or a billionaire, he/she becomes very famous since he/she is not expected to accumulate a lot of wealth.

After the fame people start comparing the person with other people who are viewed to have achieved in other areas, especially in academics (Shayan, 2008). When the latter appear to have less wealth than the single person, or a couple of uneducated people, critics of university education argue that university education is worthless, and that it serves to make its pursuant poor and dependent on employment.

Despite the criticism that is directed at university education, the latter is very important because it equips one with a number of skills. In the university, students learn many things, in and out of class. These include academic skills, practical workplace skills through internships, social skills, recreation skills etcetera.

This goes a long way in making their lives better. University graduates also get better salaries than other uneducated people, and thus they can use this to their advantage. This will especially be useful if the graduate is willing to take an entrepreneurial path. Additionally, the talk about university graduates only seeking employment is also based on mere observations and not statistical evidence.

There are a myriad of university graduates who are self-employed, and who do not wish to become anybody’s employee. It is this of essence that critics of university education avoid generalizing this issue by basing their arguments on observations, or worse still, stereotypes. Degree holders also have a special advantage that if their entrepreneurial engagements happen to fail they have something to go back to.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Is University Education Necessary for Success? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is, they can get jobs and earn salaries while preparing for another try at self-employment. This is as contracted with the uneducated people, who are forced to take a long period of time before recovering from losses or failed investment plans (Cawley, 2007). The only problem with university education can thus be identified as the fact that university graduates are often compared with other people who have never been to the University.

Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that university education is not necessary for success in life. However, arguments that university education is worthless can be said to be groundless and false, since there are numerous benefits associated with university education.

It is, in fact, suspected that the larger proportion of successful people all over the world is composed of university graduates. However, this has not been proved statistically/empirically. The negative things that are said about university education are as a result of some university graduates who fail to explore their potential by being employed all their lives.

This locks out opportunities and makes them dependent on a limited source of income. Since being employed comes with tight schedules, the graduates also lack the time for procreation, and social activities. This makes the graduate live a less successful life than an uneducated person who takes risks in business and succeeds. It is thus of essence that graduates use their knowledge to their benefit, rather than struggling to benefit others with their knowledge while getting meager salaries.

Reference List Cawley, V. (2007). Is education necessary for success? Retrieved from http://scientific-child-prodigy.blogspot.com/2007/01/is-education-necessary-for-success.html

Shayan, J. (2008). The True Path to Success. Web.

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The side effects of drinking alcohol Cause and Effect Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of drinking addiction

Side effects of drinking alcohol

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Although the health effects of drinking have been a subject of great controversy, a keen examination of the issue reveals that alcohol consumption has more negative effects on health than it can possibly be beneficial to human health.

Drinking of alcohol has been proven to have adverse effects on the health of people with certain health conditions like the IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease), liver problems, and even problems with digestion. That notwithstanding, excessive drinking can lead to development of a myriad of health complications (Tresca 1).

However, the side effects associated with alcohol normally vary from one person to another. These effects can either be short-lived or long-term. Some of these effects are reversible in cases where the person stops taking alcohol. However, continued consumption of alcohol leads to permanent health complications, or death. This paper is an in-depth exploration of the health effects that are associated with drinking alcohol.

Causes of drinking addiction Research has shown that people who are not addicted to alcohol may be lucky to escape health complications. On the other hand, alcohol seems to have more devastating effects on people who are addicted to alcohol. It is thus of essence that before a discussion of the side effects of alcohol consumption, a detailed analysis of the causes of addiction to alcohol be conducted.

One of the leading causes of addiction to alcohol is peer pressure. Social drinkers find themselves being addicted to alcohol due to the pressure that is characteristic of this kind of drinking. A social drinker may decide that he/she will never take alcohol again, but he/she may later be influenced by his/her friends to take alcohol.

Other causes of addiction to alcohol include psychological disorders like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. This is because psychological disorders like the stated PTSD make their victim to live in distress, and thus the victim may result to substance abuse in a bid to escape the depression associated with these disorders. Let us now have a look at the side effects of drinking alcohol.

Side effects of drinking alcohol Drinking little amount of alcohol has been associated with a couple of health benefits like the lowering of the probability of heart diseases. However, the side effects of drinking beat such benefits. Drinking is associated with a number of side effects affecting mental health. Some of these side effects include insomnia, depression, and even amnesia. Drinking alcohol is also associated with a number of short term side effects that depend on how much a person has taken.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These side effects include unconsciousness, vomiting and dizziness. Among the long-term effects of alcohol consumption, which are the most serious side effects of consuming alcohol, is depression, heart diseases, liver disease and diabetes. Alcohol addiction is also associated with increased risk of developing cancer in a variety of tissues in the body. Some of the tissues that are prone to cancerous growth after consumption of large amounts of alcohol include the throat, the liver, the esophagus, the mouth etcetera.

Alcohol abuse is also associated with a number of neurological effects on its victim. It normally leads to extreme numbness, dementia, twitching of muscles, and other neurological disorders. The neurological disorders are caused by the fact that alcohol interferes with the nervous system, and thus its continued intake may ultimately lead to the aforementioned disorders of the nervous system (Lietz 1). These are very serious conditions that every person who consumes alcohol should be aware of.

Alcohol is also known to have adverse effects on the intestinal lining of the alimentary canal. When a person drinks too much alcohol, the latter irritates the lining of the gastro-intestinal tract. This is the cause of the aforementioned vomiting, and other effects like nausea and even diarrhea.

Worse still, the lining of the gastro-intestinal layer may be irritated to an extent that the victim starts to bleed. The information on this paragraph is particularly useful for people suffering from IBD (Inflammatory Bowel Disease). This is because people suffering from this disease experience the worst relative irritation of the GI tract by alcohol (Lietz 1). The latter even worsens the condition.

The aforementioned effect of alcohol consumption on the liver is exhibited by liver diseases like liver cirrhosis. When a person consumes alcohol excessively, he/she may develop alcoholic hepatitis. This is the condition that causes liver cirrhosis after an extended period of consuming alcohol. Cirrhosis is characterized by scarring of the liver due to constant healing, which eventually destroys the tissues of the liver.

Cirrhosis, caused by drinking of alcohol, has claimed a myriad of lives since time immemorial. Drinking too much alcohol is also associated with worsening of liver diseases that may exist before the victim starts abusing alcohol. This is caused by the fact that the liver is the organ responsible for removing toxic materials from the body, and also the fact that when a person is intoxicated with alcohol, the liver concentrates on removing alcohol from the body.

This leads to a build-up of undesirable materials like fatty acids in the liver, causing existing diseases to worsen. The liver can also get damaged by alcohol because alcohol can potentially alter or damage the cells of the liver. As stated above, a number of the medications prescribed for GI (Gastro-Intestinal) problems may react badly with alcohol (Marsh 1). This may make the liver unable to function properly in its role of removing toxins from the body.

We will write a custom Essay on The side effects of drinking alcohol specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women who consume alcohol during their pregnancy make their babies develop a condition known as fetal alcohol syndrome, which is a serious combination of physical and mental disorders. Some of the disorders that such babies develop include birth defects, heart problems, eye defects, small heads, and the like (Lietz 1). These disorders make the child live a stressful life.

Conclusion Making the personal choice to drink should be based on a clear understanding of the side effects of drinking. It is thus important for any person wishing to start drinking to evaluate the effects of drinking on the stomach, the liver and other body organs, and weigh these effects against the possible benefits that he/she may derive from drinking. However, many people get addicted to drinking even without knowing that they are becoming addicts.

What starts as social drinking or even occasional drinking may result to very serious repercussions like chronic conditions, or even death. Although there has been substantial controversy over this issue, with some people arguing that drinking has some health benefits, research has proven that in most cases, alcohol is harmful to human health. This is especially the case with people who have certain conditions like liver disease, or people who are taking medication that can negatively react with alcohol.

Works Cited Lietz, Jessica. “Side effects of drinking alcohol”. 1999. Web.

Marsh, Jennifer. “Alcohol addiction and its side effects”. 2009. Web.

Tresca, Amber. “Effects of drinking alcohol on IBD”. 2009. Web.

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Electronic cigarette health risks Expository Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

An electronic cigarette is basically a battery-charged device that produces inhaled shots of nicotine through vaporized solutions. It looks like a real cigarette in all aspect except for its non tobacco burning feature. By virtue of being non-flammable and non-tobacco commodity it is deem to have none of the detrimental effects pose by it traditional counterpart (What Is Electronic Cigarette par 1).

Although the electronic cigarette has been associated with various benefits on the side of the smoker, this innovation poses certain hidden adverse effects to the smoker and the general public. This paper seeks to examine the popular held misconceptions about the e-cigarette, and expose its negative aspect to the uninformed public.

What are the commonly held misconceptions about the electronic cigarettes? E-cigarettes are acceptable for kids. This is not true because most dealers handle the sale of electronic cigarettes like they do the traditional tobacco cigarettes. There are a few e- cigarettes that are candy flavored thereby making numerous critics argue that they are meant for kids.

Majority of the companies supplying the e-cigarette were developed by smokers who know well that the e-cigarettes are not meant for children. The notion to incorporate flavors such as menthol and tobacco are marketing approach aimed at grown-ups instead of children (electroniccigaretteusa.info par. 1).

Also, the misconception that electronic cigarettes are banned is untrue. This misinformation can be attributed to the antismoking crusade by certain groups opposed to the e-cigarette smoking. Critics may capitalize on the idea that when the public is convinced about the illegality of the commodity, they may shy away from buying them (electroniccigaretteusa.info par 2).

Electroniccigaretteusa (par. 3) further argue that certain critics suppose that the content of the e-cigarette is unknown. However, each electronic cigarette kit has a literature on what precisely is being presented. Any procurement of ingredients is undertaken with credible manufacturers fully with lab testimonies to include an array of ingredients.

Nevertheless, there are those who swear not to know the content s of the vapor. Vapor assessment has been undertaken and the outcomes have been very desirable. The content is purely water still many are adamant to accept that such assessment has been performed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other misconception is that e-cigarettes aid a person to quit smoking. This is not true since smoking is a habit which incorporates other actions besides the mere burning of tobacco, including hand to mouth gesture, inhalation, as well as the exhalation. The electronic cigarette eliminates only tobacco combustion. Thus the smokers observes that they can really switch from the traditional; cigarettes to electronic cigarettes, and then back to the traditional tobacco cigarettes without any difficulty (electroniccigaretteusa.info par 4).

Do the electronic cigarettes pose any health implications to the consumer as well as the general public? Few studies have been undertaken to establish the health implication of the e-cigarettes. Thus little is known about the health risks of electronic cigarettes. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has liaison with other health specialist to caution consumers concerning the health risk associated with-cigarettes (Food Drug Admniistartion [FDA] 1).

The FDA deals with the safety of these commodities and the manner they are presented to the public. Particularly, the agency approaches this concerned from three perspectives, including;

electronic cigarettes may aggravate nicotine addiction in youth and may lure kids to experience with other tobacco commodities, including traditional cigarettes, which are associated with fatal diseases and lead to early death;

the commodity may have ingredients that are proven to be detrimental to human health being;

since the research on the safety and usefulness of the named products for their anticipated utility have not been presented to the FDA, users apparently do not have a means for establishing the safety of this product for the intended use, and the type or concentration of harmful substance, or what amount of nicotine they inhale with the every use of this products.

The prospective health implications posed by the consumption of electronic cigarettes were addressed in a teleconference at national Center for Disease Control and prevention, on July 22, 2009 between the representatives of various expert organizations including, FDA, American Academy of Pediatrics Tobacco Consortium, University of Southern California’s Institute for Global Health, and Office on Smoking and Health.

The conference members emphasized the significance of the parents in being conscious of the safety and marketing issues surrounding the e-cigarettes. It was highlighted that parents may desire to inform their children and adolescent about the uncertainty of using this product.

Of particular interest for the parents is the fact that e-cigarettes are introduced into the market devoid of any lawful age limitations, and come in varied flavors including mint, strawberry, and chocolate, which may appeal to children and teenagers. Also, the commodity does not carry any health cautions found in their FDA-approved nicotine substitute commodities or traditional cigarettes (FDA 2).

Further, the author affirms that in the course of the phone forum, which involved the news media, FDA proclaimed the outcomes from a laboratory assessment that portrays that e-cigarette expose consumers to detrimental chemical constituents.

We will write a custom Essay on Electronic cigarette health risks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More FDA’s Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis analyzed the constituents in a petite sample of cartridges from two big brands of electronic cigarettes samples. A unit sample was discovered to include diethylene glycol, which is a lethal substance used in antifreeze. Various other samples were discovered to include carcinogens such as nitrosamines.

FDA (2) argues that it has been inspecting and arresting shipments of electronic cigarettes entering the border and has realized that the product it has inspected satisfies the definition of a mixture drug commodity in terms of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. However, the agency has encountered problems with respect to its rule over specific e-cigarettes in a case in a federal district court.

The prerequisite for further studies into the long-term health implications of e-cigarettes has been underscored by researchers in the British Medical Journal. Many expert organizations have expressed their dissatisfaction with the amount of research on the safety of these products (Cancer Research UK par. 2).

Nevertheless, minimal researches have been conducted into the health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes and those that have been documented have arrived at discordant conclusions. For example, one research by the FDA of the United States, revealed that the content of nicotine present in each puff often contrast the amount indicated in the label, requiring the agency to take drastic measures against the product.

Inversely, Health New Zealand (HNZ) discovered that the labeling on electronic cigarettes were consistent with their actual nicotine concentration. Therefore the FDA proposed that e-cigarettes can actually be detrimental, although the HNZ maintained that their use is relatively safer than the traditional tobacco cigarettes (cancer research UK par 11).

Borrowing from the words of Jean king (cancer research UK director), there has been limited research documentation on the safety of e-cigarettes. Also, there is limited regulation to control e-cigarettes or their marketing. Thus the only means to ascertain the usefulness or harmfulness of this product is by conducting comprehensive studies on the product.

Works Cited Cancer Research UK. Long-term health effects of e-cigarettes: more research needed. News-Medical. January, 2010. Web.

Electroniccigaretteusa.info. Common misconception of e-cigarettes, 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Electronic cigarette health risks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Food and Drug Administration. FDA Warns of Health Risks Posed by E-Cigarettes. FDA Consumer Health Information. July, 2009. Print.

WhatIsElectronic Cigarette.org. What is an electronic cigarette? 2009. Web.

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Financial Statement Analysis Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Trend Analysis

Scrutiny of Directors’ Remuneration

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

Introduction It is without doubt that the global financial crisis rattled the financial positions of most firms all over the world. This report studies the effects of the global financial crisis on Westfarmers Ltd, a listed Australian company. Using a pre and post GFC approach, a critical analysis of the company’s financial ratios between the years 2007 to 2010 sheds more light on the effect the GFC had on this particular firm (Maslow, 2000).

The company’s financial statements over the years also provide more insight of the financial health of the firm. The global financial crisis hit the world in 2008 and consequently posed many questions over the viability of corporations across the world.

A lot of strategizing and realignments have taken place after the crisis and Westfarmers is not an exception. A trend analysis shall provide us with information over whether Westfarmers is on its road to recovery or not. The directors’ salaries are also scrutinized to determine whether they need to be reviewed as part of the recovery program.

Trend Analysis In order to put into perspective the effect of the GFC, we shall study the profitability of the firm from 2007 to 2010. Ratios computed from the firm’s financial statement shall provide us with an overall direction (Helfert, 2007).

As is the case for many firms, the net profit margin of Westfarmers decreased from 0.114 in 2007 to 0.039 in 2009. This may be attributed to the fact that the level of disposable income of consumers during the GFC decreased tremendously. However, a slight increase to 0.043 in 2009 may be an indicator that business has started to look up for Westfarmers. Decrease in disposable income is an external factor that Westfarmers has very little control on whatsoever. Dwindling sales is therefore not of Westfarmers making.

A decrease in the asset turnover in 2008 is also proof that business was low for the firm. We however notice a gradual rise from 2009 onwards, which may be an indicator that this company is on the path to recovery. The increase in the weighted average ordinary shares can explain the gradual drops in the debt to equity ratio and the leverage ratio. The company is using more equity than debt to finance its operations. This move should be highly lauded, as it would be catastrophic for the firm to continue accumulating debt.

Increase in equity finance as opposed to debt finance also boosts investor confidence and speaks volumes of the company’s credit ratings. Despite the persistent drop in EPS from 1.9 in 2007 to 1.3 in 2010, it would be wrong to conclude that the firm has been posting poor results. Increase in the weighted average ordinary shares is the main reason why shareholders earnings have been on the decline and not profitability. Due to this, the debt to assets ratio has decreased tremendously from 0.7 in 2008 to 0.3 in 2010 (Friedlob, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The steady rise in the current ratio from 0.5 in 2007 to 1.3 in 2009 allays any fears of incapability to meet maturing obligations. Due to the use of more equity capital, GFC has strengthened its current ratio thus a clear indicator that the firm is not under any kind of financial crisis.

The balance sheet also provides evidence of the company’s liquidity as can be noted from the increase in cash and its equivalents over the years. The company did not invest any funds in associate companies in 2009 and this was a good move since this was the post GFC era and it was important to direct all energy and resources towards survival and not growth.

Scrutiny of Directors’ Remuneration Reducing salaries is one of the most effective ways of bringing down the cost of production. The salaries of directors however always tend to be sticky despite the prevailing financial conditions. The remuneration of Westfarmers directors must be scrutinized to establish whether there is need for review or not.

According to the director’s report concerning remuneration, the salaries of Westfarmers senior executives are based on the market rates of the top 25 listed Australian companies. The wage rate is also pegged to the performance of the directors. There is a remuneration committee charged with the duty of structuring the salaries of directors. The work of this committee is not final, as it has to be approved by the board of governance. This provides sufficient checks and balances to ensure that the company’s senior management does not award them excessively.

From the report provided, it is quite clear that the directors have no influence whatsoever on their remuneration. Salaries are structured by an independent committee and vetted by the board in accordance to company law concerning remuneration. Remuneration structures and clearly laid out payment plans ensure that the salaries paid to the directors is not arbitrary. Everything is done according to a well laid out legal framework hence we can conclude that the amounts paid are fair.

Conclusion The objective of this report is to establish whether Westfarmers ltd is a viable investment or not. From the trend analysis of the company’s financial ratios, we can deduce that Westfarmers is on its path to recovery from the global financial crisis. Profitability ratios such as the net profit margin and the asset turnover ratio indicate some slight fall in performance in the year 2008. However, the same ratios show tremendous improvement in the post GFC years of 2009 and 2010.

On the other hand, liquidity ratios such as the current ratio continue to strengthen in the years 2009 and 2010 indicating that the company’s is not in any danger of going into receivership. The company has enough financial resources to cater for its maturing obligations.

We will write a custom Report on Financial Statement Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Increase in equity financing as opposed to debt financing is a good move and will go a long way towards helping Westfarmers recover from the GFC. It can also be seen from the financial statements that in the post GFC era, focus shifted from investments as no associates were acquired, this is good for stabilization of the firm. This was well informed as acquiring more associates might have drained the company’s resources and caused more problems in the short run.

Being a company with associates there is diversity of risk as losses in the parent company can be offset by gains in its subsidiary and vice versa. This is evident in the income statements of 2008 and 2009. Despite there being a decrease in sales In the parent company, there was a general increase in the consolidated sales. Such kind of buffering secures Westfarmers from any sudden changes in economic conditions as was witnessed during the global financial crisis.

Recommendation From the financial statement, it can be seen that during the post GFC era, the company preferred equity financing to debt financing. Although this is good for survival and stabilization of the firm in the short run, it could be expensive in the long run. Equity capital is more costly due to the floatation costs and other costs involved in acquiring equity finance (White, 2004). These costs inflate the expenses in the income statement and consequently eat into the company’s profits.

References Friedlob, G. (2010). Essentials of Financial Analysis. New Jersey: John Wiley

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Future of Religion: A Review of Ongoing Literature Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The debate surrounding the future of religion has occupied academic discourse in religion, philosophy, sociology and other sciences within the context of post modernism for sometime. The question that dominates the debate is whether the world is becoming more religious or more secular, or is intertwined in both.

The other tenet is to be seen in the mutation of religion in a post-modem society and the influence that religion espouses on other sectors of the society (Ott 8). Indeed, whereas some debaters are of the view of disbanding religious belief altogether, others imagine that religion is so ingrained in human history that it must thus be understood within the context of modernity as a mutating phenomenon (Ott 8).

This paper seeks to explore these debates within the wider context of what modern religion entails and illuminates further on the influence that it has on other areas in the modern world. In a way, it predicts the future of religion in an increasingly ‘secularized’ world dominated by ‘reasoning’, globalization, and democratization.

In doing so, it also takes accounts of what these phenomena have on mainstream religion. It also explores other important issues in religion seen in the light of the west and East as a fundamental contrast and agreement in the future of religion for humankind. Also viewed is the gender issue in religion, both in the past, present and future perspectives. Specifically it discusses the following areas.

Religion in Relation to the Environment Debates concerning the relationship between religion and future ecological concerns have been on the rise, with the views that religion is and will continue to play a fundamental role in aiding human beings to sustainably regulate the natural environment (Taylor 12).

Whereas a number of scholars have associated religions with environmental conservation, other thinkers and scholars alike have blamed some religions and sometimes religion as a whole for precipitating environmental degradation (Taylor, 2009). Broadly, however, religion has been largely viewed as a significant factor in environmental protection now and in the future.

Taylor (12) notes that, with the advent of debates regarding the correlationship between culture, religion and the natural environment, with the analysis, assumption is based on the notion that, ‘the diversity of life came to exist through biological evolution’, and that ‘environmental degradation is becoming increasingly obvious’ (Taylor 12). This is the basis upon which he lays the question, ’Will the future of religion be green?’ (Taylor 12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To answer this question, he posits that the response to this question should lie in the meaning of the term religion, as well as what it means to say ‘green religion’. Citing David Chidester’s definition of religion as ‘the dimension of human experience engaged with sacred norms’, Taylor (18) attempts to assemble what green religion means by making reference to Religion and Ecology as a field that emerged as a discipline (Taylor 18).

This field, according to him, emerged with the broad lens of the impediments that world religions posit as an impediment to environmental conservations, and eventually as the acumen that religions may posses for advocating for environmental sustainability patterns of behavior among humans. These two standpoints have been anchored with singling out religious practices that promote ecological conservation (Taylor 20).

Green Religious future in the context of Mother Nature This is definitely related to the first point discussed but has an interesting twist especially in exposing sacred association to the expression ‘mother nature’. Taylor (2009) notes that increasing environmental degradation has awaken the religion outlook, both in the sense of world religions and the evolutionary theory as a ’religion’.

These are largely tied to fear of divinities, natural disasters, and environmental science, with some taken the issue of supernaturalism. However, the notion should be that all these might be driven with the evolutionary science, and slightly on natural religion. This will happen in two ways (Taylor 23).

Evolutionary Science as a religion is becoming increasingly influential and it has gained tolerance among many people across the world. It is today taught in many schools and universities, however the cultural resistance that has come with it. Further, semi-illiterate, and less educated individuals are also gaining acceptance of evolutionary science. Two is that, Supernaturalism certainly will continue to play its inherent role grounded on the fact that those who destroy Mother Nature will be punished (Taylor 23).

Growing Diversity in Religious Beliefs The world will continue to grow in respect to religious affiliations. Buddhism, for instance, is slowly getting back into India, after several decades of increasingly diminishing. In America, fifty years ago, most people were practicing Protestants, Catholics, and Judaists. Diane Eck has suggested America will be religiously more diversified in the years to come.

This belief is that, this new religious diversity will be instrumental on communities. James, as cited by Taylor, notes that today, for instance, Buddhism, which was categorized as world religion in America, is now placed as an American Religion in school discourses (Taylor 24).

We will write a custom Essay on Future of Religion: A Review of Ongoing Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So what are the connotations of these developments? These have and continue to have impact on how business is conducted in America and the world over. Today, Hanukah, Ramadan, Christmas, and other religious celebration connoting different affiliations are celebrated in America.

Studies have revealed that there is growing diversity indeed. The typical protestant’s today church service is more restructured to meet the demands of modernity and to capture the notion of diversity. This is exemplified in the worship and praise styles in the church, and employing their use of technology in worship and preaching such as use of power-point presentation in preaching.

In fact, incorporation of contemporary styles of worship is in the increase in America. Churches are taking on this seemingly future route because of the need to outpace others who are still stuck in the traditional methodologies of worship.

The use of electronic media is so much used in church worship today. Indeed, a greater percentage of churches are employing the use of movie clips, music videos, and computer graphics (Ott 17).

The End of Metaphysics and the Death of God Bainbridge and Rodney (14) note that, with secularization and the age reasoning coming to the fore, more intellectual activity is increasingly not so based on truth in the supernatural, but ‘conservation’ where all standpoints have the capacity to find accord. The space is thus increasingly being left by metaphysics and being filled up by new ideologies.

The authors argue that for the major part, this will result to self ‘edification’ rather than generation of knowledge. Today, the post-modern man is increasingly becoming less and less in need of the ‘miracles’, magical assurance, in relation to God’s provision, and the notion that he gives happiness (Bainbridge and Rodney 14).

The Rise of Hermeneutics Coleman (2005) sees hermeneutics, the science of interpretation, as the friendly future of religion. This is grounded on the critique that this anchors on the idea of truth. In his view, hermeneutics sees truth with confines of objects and propositions. Further, hermeneutics arguably does show that the path to salvation is not through acquaintance or narrative, but through interpretation.

Secularization of the modern world Coleman (16) argues that phenomenon such as “urbanization, industrialization, methodological-rationality, radical cultural pluralism” in the modern and the post modern world lead to loss of religiosity, leading to what German Sociologist, Max Weber, called loss of charisma. Secularization, according to Bryan Wilson, is the ideology that “in essence relates to a process of transfer of property, power, activities and both manifests and latent functions from institutions with super naturalist frame of reference to new institutions operating according to empirical, rationality” (Coleman 16). According to Coleman (16), secularism in the postmodern society and arguably the future can be examined under three subset directions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Future of Religion: A Review of Ongoing Literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An increasing Pluralism in World views and Canopies

According to Robert Bella, the modern pluralism entails the belief that life cannot be constructed one way and end at that, but that life has endless possibilities (Coleman 21). In fact, for churches, strict adherence to fundamental doctrines is becoming a challenge.

The loss of monopoly control by the churches over official models of religion in Society and even the individual religious impulse

Again, Bellah notes that this would mean that no single religious organization is claiming monopoly that it is the answer to supernatural ultimate conditions. Instead, it can only be seen as one entity of spirituality just like other autonomous units (Coleman 47).

The rise of individual autonomy in religious matters

This means that people are becoming selective on what they believe in and what they do not as far as different religious doctrines go. They choose some dogmas and reject others. This means, for example, that in the postmodern society, it becomes difficult for the churches to maintain discipline especially in the era of globalization and democratization. A case in point is how some priests are choosing to marry increasingly and wanting to be accepted in the Catholic Church still (Coleman 19).

The privatization of Religion

Many sociologists and philosophers alike contend that religion is increasingly becoming more private and therefore not functionally available to order societal life structures like the state, and education among others. However, some scholars argue that privatization of religion is to be seen in the context of globalization as a strong force. This is because religion is increasingly being seen as a fundamental explanation for globalization (Coleman 47).

Greater Institutional Autonomy of Non-Religious domains

Bellah notes that ‘what is generally called secularization and the decline of religion would appear as the decline of the external control system of religion would appear as the decline of the external control system of religion and the decline of the traditional belief’ (Coleman, 47). The argument here is that religion is increasingly becoming more important for some societal sector than others are. For instance, Coleman notes that this is more so in conceptualization of tribal identities.

Battle of the Sexes in Religion In the past, the earliest set of myths and religion were associated to both male and female. Both sexes were seen to contribute to religion and these were ‘intimately tied together’ in human psyche during the prehistoric time, medieval times and in the modern society.

However, one thing that has remained clear is that leadership in religious matters was seen as reserve for men over the years in the world’s major religions – Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, traditional belief systems, among others. Today, many women are taking seats in church leadership, both as preachers and pastors in many facets. This is likely to continue flourishing with emergence and continued fight for gender parity in all spheres of life (Coleman 19).

The contrast between the West and the East This is a fundamental contrast in conceptualizing the future of religion. The future in view of the East, for example, in Buddhism and Hinduism is seen as the ‘ascension to the higher real of reality’ (Bainbridge and Rodney, 1986, p.44). However, in the west, the future is seen as within the understanding on the conflict between the struggles of good against the evil, with the good eventually winning.

Thus, for the west, the fight of the good and the evil and the ultimate winner defines their future; that is, if the good wins against the evil, their ascension to the higher level of reality is assured; for instance, inheriting the kingdom of God by Christians (Bainbridge and Rodney 44).

Broadly, the east does not seem to have an ultimate sense of conflict between the forces of darkness and those of light. For instance, the Hindu Religion posits the world may come to an end when the Great Shiva destroys it, yet the notion of the evil being trounced by the good is not clear (Oxtoby and Segal 2009).

Another fundamental difference is that the West is seen as more ‘war-like’ religiously than the East, in terms of its militancy antagonism. However, the point of convergence between the two is that they see the future as being in the realization and the peak of a ‘higher level of reality’. The difference in this however is that, the west religious psyche is ingrained in the phobia of death and the notion of a continuation of individual soul in Heaven promised in Christianity (Bainbridge and Rodney 37).

Generally speaking, all the aforementioned seem to contend to a consciousness of a belief system of a belief configured about the Supernatural as addressing the origin of things, both religious and secular, concerning the destiny of human beings.

Conclusion It goes without saying that religion and the future remain tied. It is clear from the paper that religion will not die in the near future. Instead, forms and ways of belief is what is changing and will continue to change. Religion will be influenced by a number of factors and it still has the power to influence a number of issues.

Indeed, the future of religion and mythological thinking must be conceptualized in a wider sense encompassing all the elements. Religion will continue as it has done in explaining reality in a structural way. This it must do in the scope of visions, stories, theories and the character of the future, the past, and the present.

Works Cited Bainbridge, William and Rodney, Stark. The future of religion: secularization, revival, and cult formation. Los Angeles. California University Press. 1986.

Colmen, John. The Secular: A Sociological View. 2005. Web.

Ott, Michael. The Future of Religion: Toward a Reconciled Society. MA: Brill Koninklijke. 2007.

Oxtoby Willard and Segal, Alan F. A Concise Introduction to World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2009.

Taylor, Bron. “A Green Future for Religion.” Futures, Vol. 16. University of Florida. 2004.

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Leisure and consumption Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Over the years, there have been changes in the way different classes of people view both leisure and consumption based on their income as well as their lifestyle.

Human beings aspire to be recognized by others and to form part of the most respected groups in society. There is therefore a struggle as people aspire to attain higher status and be among the upper class. This paper is going to look at the differences in the two aspects; leisure and consumption among the upper and middle class Americans during the late 19th century and the last part of the 20th century.

Discussion There are a number of factors that have made the institution of leisure different among the different classes of people. Key among them is the fact that various forms of employment have been a preserve of the upper class, for instance, they have specifically been excluded from industrial occupations and they take up those occupations within which more honor is attached such as the priestly office.

The church has been used as a way of expressing social status with the clergy being paid well without necessarily having to do much work. Conspicuous leisure is where people take up leisure activities that show off social status. This has taken different forms with time. An example may be taking long holidays to exotic destinations and getting souvenirs while at it.

The aspect of conspicuous leisure was first introduced by an American economist- Thorstein Veblen. During the 19th century, the upper class would own property such as land but would not take part in manual labor. They spent much of their time on leisure activities. As industrialization took place, the upper class became more useless in society as they mainly consumed but did not take part in the production of goods and services (Veblen, 23).

Conspicuous consumption on the other hand takes place among the upper class where they spend money on goods and services that display their wealth or income. The goods are not consumed for their specific utility but rather as a form of attaining status. The status was and continues to be viewed not only through the ownership of property but also through the ownership of persons specifically women.

The use of slaves was a form of power and any kind of manual labor was a preserve of the poor in society. The upper class affected various aspects of life. For instance, women were used as trophies and this has continued to happen in modern society where women are used to show a man’s success. Sports such as football have continued to grow only as a result of conspicuous leisure and consumption of the upper class (Veblen, 44).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vicarious leisure and consumption on the other hand are the types of leisure and consumption that developed over the 20th century where masters used their servants to show off their wealth. The masters give their servants the time and opportunity to take part in leisure activities as a means of showing off their status.

The upper class also portrayed vicarious leisure by having non productive labor performed by servants at a fee. Personal services are therefore performed by employees instead of a member of the household (Veblen, 49).

Old money was the wealth that the very rich acquired through inheritance. This form of wealth was passed down from generation to generation. In the 1930’s there was a division of the upper class in the United States. There were the upper-upper class, whose families had inherited their wealth and the lower-upper class who had attained their wealth through investments as opposed to inheritance (Aldrich, 31).

Old moneyhad one major advantage; it gave the young people who had inherited it a platform on which to develop themselves without having to worry about basic need such as housing and food. They would therefore be able to develop faster than those who did not have any inheritance.

Families that were rich would command respect than those which did not which meant that old money was important in society and as a form of acquiring status. The inherited wealth may be in the form of either property such as land, businesses or slaves (Aldrich, 31).

The leisure class composed of the elite in society who operated in circles and they spent a lot having other people attend to what they required. Over the years however, these circles have been broken or at least weakened as more people are able to afford leisure activities that were previously a preserve of the leisure class. In the past, some of the leisure activities included going to the theatre, playing polo and fox hunting.

Leisure resources have however increased for instance sports teams and community centers therefore the activities that previously symbolized luxury have become affordable to many. The upper class is therefore forced to keep looking for new activities that are not taken up by people from lower social classes (Ruskin, 22).

We will write a custom Essay on Leisure and consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the post war era, the middle class in many states like Florida were able to get into jobs that were well paying. This therefore meant that they had high wages and would in turn be able to take part in leisure activities. They stopped viewing leisure as well as conspicuous consumption as only for the upper class but as something they could as well afford.

In an attempt to raise ranks from the middle to the upper class, the middle class emulated the activities and consumption patterns of the upper class. The difference between the upper and the middle class was that while the upper class stayed away from work, the middle class put a lot of effort in their work so that they may be able to afford the leisure activities.

The middle class would wish accumulate wealth by being very producing in their early years and then staying away from such work after the wealth had been attained. Society was of the view that staying away from labor was a way of showing one’s level of wealth (Mormino, 223).

The definition of high status has continued to change as the world becomes more dominated by celebrities. The upper class now comprises of famous people who define the trends such as fashion. As young people grow they emulate those people who are able to attract media attention. Both consumption and leisure have continued to be affected by celebrities.

Companies have even used celebrities in their marketing strategy in an attempt to increase profits. With the help of the media, celebrities have been able to influence the way people think and behave (Veblen, 225).

Conclusion As all Americans wished to form part of the upper class in America which was signified by both consumption behavior and leisure activities, the definitions of both leisure and consumption changed between the 19th and 20th century.

One major difference is that the middle class in the late 20th century were in a position to engage in the activities that were a preserve of the upper class during the 19th century. It is also clear that as the media exposes more and more celebrities, the definition of high status has changed. Celebrity status has become the way in which status is portrayed in contemporary society.

Works Cited Aldrich, Nelson. Old money: the mythology of wealth in America. New York: Allworth Communications, 1997. Print

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leisure and consumption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mormino, Gary. Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida. Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Ruskin, John. The stones of Venice: The Savageness of Gothic Architecture. Bavaria: the Bavarian State Library, 2008

Veblen, Thorstein. The theory of the leisure class. New York: Forgotten Books, 1965

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Successful Careers in Culinary Arts Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Who is a “hot line” cook?

Advantages of the career

Disadvantages of the career

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Admittedly, the vast majority of people spend hours, days or months trying to decide what career to choose. Some of the major factors which influence the choice are salary, schedule and self-realization and the image of the career. If a person likes cooking he or she may consider culinary arts career. One of the most fascinating careers in this area is hot line.

Who is a “hot line” cook? Hot line includes all cooks participating in preparing hot foods – “soups, appetizers, entrées, vegetables”, etc (Donovan 18). The term “hot line” was coined since in the majority of kitchens hot food was prepared on the stoves arranged in a single line (Donovan 18).

The qualities which any hot line cook should possess are expertise in a variety of dishes, “split-second timing, excellent memory skills, and the ability to keep a variety of dishes in production at one time” (Donovan 19). These people create gorgeous dishes which are artworks. Here cooks can use their creativity and even obtain worldwide popularity.

Advantages of the career In the first place, it is necessary to point out that culinary is one of the most ancient and well-developed industries. It originates from “the taverns of ancient Rome” (Mondschein and Matters xii). Nowadays it is a very profitable industry.

For instance, National Restaurant Association stated that it was “$558 billion industry” and calculated that “each American eats out an average of 230 times per year” (Mondschein and Matters xii). It goes without saying that such profitable industry presupposes quite high salaries. For example, in 2006 US head chefs and cooks working in “fancy restaurants” made about $60,730. At present the salaries increased.

Apart from good salaries career in culinary art can bring satisfaction. Creative people are able to realize their ideas. Reputedly, cook was always a very important profession since no place (restaurants, taverns, homes) or event (conferences, and even wars) could do without cooks. More so, among the first Europeans who set foot on American land there were cooks.

At present the profession did not lose its significance and even became “glamorous” (Mondschein and Matters xiii). Thus, the career of hot food cook is very attractive for creative people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disadvantages of the career Admittedly, this career can have drawbacks, as any other. However, it is important to state that these shortcomings are insignificant (especially in comparison with other professions). First, working at a hot line is “physically demanding” since the cook has to spend hours on his/her feet (Career as a Chef). However, there are many people who cannot just sit, they are very active. Thus, if a person active he/she will become a good cook.

Some claim that salaries are not high, especially salaries of novice cooks. Nevertheless, t is but natural since in any sphere novice workers do not get much since they are first tried. Finally, many people claim that cooks have too little time for their families or just recreation since they often have to work on weekends and in the nighttime. However, it is possible to mange one’s time irrespective of any schedule.

Conclusion On balance, the career of a hot line cook is an exciting opportunity to self-realize for active and creative people. Moreover, this can be a successful career which will bring a lot of profits and even worldwide popularity.

Works Cited Career as a Chef. Chicago: Institute For Career Research, 2007.

Donovan, Mary Deirdre. Opportunities in Culinary Careers. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003.

Mondschein, Ken and Print Matters. Food and Culinary Arts. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2009.

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Business Communication Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Summarry Business Communication is described as the dissemination of information that is done primarily for the benefit of an organization. Business communication is accomplished by relaying information in different ways to various people who make up the organization.

The communication also includes relaying information about the business s to suppliers, consumers and other stakeholders in the organization. Effective business communication has the advantage of increasing productivity and profitability of the organization (Guffey and Almonte, 2010).

To adequately illustrate the concept of business communication, it would be useful to attempt a scholarly critique of two articles from scholarly journals. The critique shall involve a brief summary of the article focused mainly on the data used and the methods employed in formulating the research questions.

Additionally, the scholarly critique shall attempt to identify the goals of the article and the key theories and concepts used and whether are not these theories and concepts achieved the goals of the article. Finally, the conclusion seeks to establish whether or not the article was worth writing.

The Use of Strategic Metaphors in Intercultural Business Communication The article seeks to categorically establish that strategic metaphors can be used to help achieve effective intercultural business communication that is a prerequisite for the profitability and productivity of any given organization.

The article uses data from a case study of the alliance between Renault and Nissan to illustrate the fact that the use of a suitable metaphor can adequately capture an organization’s essence in terms of its activities, strategic intents and its global and national cultures. The strategic metaphor also details the ethical and business position of the company.

The article highlights how the use of effective metaphor enabled the stakeholders in the alliance to work towards a common goal by employing the ambiguity and the diversity of meaning of the metaphor to surmount the Western and Asian intercultural differences (Cacciaguidi-Fahy and Cunningham, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The goal of the article is to illustrate how the use of a strategic metaphor can benefit intercultural business communication. In my view, the theory and concepts used adequately accomplished the stated goals of the article.

In conclusion, the article was definitely worth writing, this is because it makes substantial and theoretical contributions to our knowledge of communication, especially in the multi-cultural and global business environment. The implications of the article are fostering a sense of shared identity and goal congruence in a multi-cultural business setting.

Language and Culture in International Legal Communication The article proposes that in the contemporary global business setting that is characterized by involvement of people from different cultures and nationalities, it is imperative to develop communication competence in terms of language skills.

The article highlights the importance of considering intercultural differences in translation particularly with regard to the legal systems of both the target and the source. The article uses data from company law to draw the conclusion that there are certain cultural and linguistic implications of using English as the legal lingua franca in addition to its influence on learning and teaching practice (Kocbek, 2006).

The goal of the article is to highlight the importance of language and culture in international legal communication. The key theory and concept successfully used the examination of company law to illustrate how cultural and linguistic differences affect legal undertakings.

In my considered view, the article was worth writing as it makes a significant contribution to the methodological and theoretical understanding of communication in the business environment. The article has the implication of underlining the importance of considering the impact of cultural and linguistic differences in legal matters.

In conclusion, a critical analysis of the two articles has enhanced my understanding of business communication, particularly in the global arena.

We will write a custom Essay on Business Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Cacciaguidi-Fahy, S and Cunningham, J. (2007). The Use of Strategic Metaphors in Intercultural Business Communication. Managing Global Transitions. 133-155. Web.

Guffey, M. and Almonte, E. R. (2010). Essentials of Business Communication. USA: Nelson Education Publishing Inc Kocbek, A. (2006). Language and Culture in International Legal Communication. Managing Global Transition. 231-247. Web.

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“Why I Went to the Woods” Summary scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Background

We Should Live a Simplistic Life

Conclusion

Work Cited

Background “Why I Went to the Woods” was written by Henry David Thoreau as a part of the book “Walden” and was inspired by an ‘experiment’ in which he constructed a small house in the woods near his residence in Massachusetts. He stayed in the little house for two years, two days, and two months, and while living in the woods, he wrote an article about the ordeal.

Nearly half of the article is made up of Thoreau’s reflection on human nature and society. He mentions that nobody can be an unbiased commentator on these two things unless he eliminates himself from them and exists in what he calls “voluntary poverty.” Thoreau has much to talk about concerning society. In this paper, the analysis and summary of “Why I went to the Woods” shall be provided.

He writes that men labor their lives away, toiling and paying their expenses with no knowledge on what it means to be human, he continues to write that “The mass of men live lives of quiet desperation” (Thoreau, pp. 283). In this chapter, Thoreau encourages us to become independent and to have a purposeful life. The second half of the article delves on Thoreau’s day-to-day activities in the house in the woods, his experiences during trips to the town and the people he encounters.

Moreover, the meaning of “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately” is of great significance.Above all, Thoreau tries to explain why he opted to get away from society and move into the woods, just as the article’s title. This is evident in the first paragraph, he writes “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived” (Thoreau, p. 278).

We Should Live a Simplistic Life The central idea that Thoreau tries to convey in the article is that life should be taken in the simplest of forms, evidenced by opting to live in a cabin in the woods at Walden Pond for more than two years. “What news! How much more important to know what that is, which was never old!” (Thoreau, pp. 280), this is just one of the several lines in which he attempts to convince society to adopt his simplistic lifestyle.

He writes that we should live a simple life with only the essential needs, he urges his audience “Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of a million count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumbnail” (Thoreau, 278).

To ensure that his message reaches the intended audience in a deliberate manner, Thoreau incorporates several rhetorical tools. For example, he chooses words that bring out his confidence, in one instance he writes “And we are enabled to apprehend at all what is sublime and noble only by the perpetual instilling and drenching of the reality that surrounds us” (Thoreau, pp. 281) instead of writing “We understand unique stuff by looking at what is real”. He chooses his words carefully.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thoreau also uses imagery and metaphor in Why I Went to the Woods to add meaning and develop his stance. He calls life the “chopping sea of civilized life” (Thoreau 278) to stress on the labors of life. This harsh comparison of civilized life to a chopping sea demonstrates Thoreau’s rejection of a flowery and worthless lifestyle. It also plainly pushes on simplification to avoid the challenges that most people come across if they opt to choose a complicated lifestyle.

As is clear from “Why I Went to the Woods” analysis,Thoreau makes use of rhetorical questions in the article. He uses several of these questions, the one that struck me most was, “Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life?” (Thoreau, pp. 279). This single line brings out the central theme of the article: that of simplicity.

It projects humans’ as blatantly stupid enough to waste away their lives. Another important use of rhetoric language is a synecdoche, he writes about an “overgrown establishment, cluttered with furniture” (Thoreau, 279). Here, the clutter of furniture symbolizes all facets of life, forced together into the tiny brain of man. Thoreau makes a convincing point here. Mostly, the mind resembles an attic.

Many people opt to fill up their attics with the old property as they are fed up with it, or purely yearn for more than they have already. However, after some time, the space in the attic is used up, and we become overpowered. Thoreau advises us to throw out the old stuff that is filling up the attic. As the summary of “Why I Went to the Woods” evidences, his escape to the woods was a way of clearing out his “attic.”

Conclusion In Why I Went to the Woods, Thoreau conveys his views about the simplicity of life. Every word inside the article points to this theme. To begin with, he uses a scholarly tone, and this brings out his message in an intended manner. However, he balances the mood and even gives his personal outlook.

He also uses rhetorical tools such as imagery, metaphors, and rhetorical questions to stress on the importance of adopting a simple life, and the risks of failing to the same. All of these language tools add up to bringing out the central theme of the article.

Work Cited Thoreau, Henry David. Why I Went to the Woods. In Walden; or, Life in the Woods. Devon: Dover Publications, Inc, 1995.

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New York: “The Symbolic City of Symbolic Statements and the Everyday City of Necessities” Critical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

“The City and The Pillars” by Adam Gopnik was written after the 11th September terrorist attack on The World Trade Center. It is a description of the New York after the catastrophe. A motionless and descriptive narration about the city and aftermath of the events express fear and anxiety that captured it peoples’ minds and changed their attitude to the city itself.

The author focuses on the subject of the New York appeal before and after the attack, and describes a real and symbolic New York. Through the article, the author makes use of various devices to provide the reader with the in-depth analysis and understanding of the real NYC and a symbolic one that was created during ages of its development. Thus, the author builds his narration on two extremes.

As it has already been mentioned, the author uses various stylistic and literary devices in order to describe the city. The article begins with the description of an ordinary day in the New York City:

“On the morning of the day they did it, the city was as beautiful as it had ever been. Central Park had never seemed so gleaming and luxuriant—the leaves just beginning to fall, and the light on the leaves left on the trees somehow making them at once golden and bright green” (Gopnik 411)

Broad use of epithets and comparisons creates the image of a beautiful day and beautiful city. People live their ordinary day and in seems that nothing pointed to the catastrophe. But there was something in the air that worried everyone…

The author compares the safety which people thought was surrounding them with the “protective bubble” that “had settled over the city, with a bubble’s transparency and bright highlights, still seemed to be in place above us” (Gopnik 411). One day, on September 11, this “bubble” burst. The author describes this event metaphorically, which produces the effect of suspense.

With the help of the metaphors, epithets, metaphoric descriptions and comparisons, the other explores the themes of the New York life, real and symbolic city and vision of attack from the point of view of people who live in the city and out of it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The real New York appears as a busy city. Gopnik describes it as:

“In the uptown supermarkets, people began to shop. It was a hoarding instinct, of course, though oddly not brought on by any sense of panic; certainly no one on television or radio was suggesting that people needed to hoard. Yet people had the instinct to do it” (Gopnik 411).

It is a real life, and a real city that people got used to see. And even after the attack, when their image of the town had changed, they tried to live an ordinary life, but there was something unusual and extraordinary in their behavior that made them value “the real city” more that its “fashionable image”, “we will probably never be able to regard the city with quite the same exasperated, ironic affection we had for it before” (Gopnik 415).

The symbolic city appears as a world of tourism, attraction and fan. The author presents it through the bright description of the famous places, such as Central Park, SoHo, the 7th Avenue, Times Square, and of course, The World Trade Center. But the image of the symbolic city was erased after the attack.

Gopnik says that the advantage of living in New York was that it provided the opportunity of living in both real and symbolic city, “the symbolic city of symbolic statements (this is big, I am rich, get me) and the everyday city of necessities” (Gopnik 414). But one day, the symbolic city was attacked by terrorists and people understood that the real city was important and necessary and it is the city that will go on because, “we now know what it would be like to lose it, and it feels like losing life itself” (Gopnik 415).

Another theme explored by the author is the impact of the attack on The World Trade Center which was not so important before it was ruined. It became a “symbol of America” due to the media and journalists. This exemplifies how the social consciousness changed and how people reevaluated their vision of the New York City.

The author does not provide actual details of the attack and does not show any dates. In fact, he reveals the memories and describes how the disaster influenced all people and each one separately. He writes, “people in Europe say “America attacked” and people in America say “New York attacked” and people in New York think, Downtown attacked.) For the financial community, this was the Somme” (Gopnik 412).

We will write a custom Essay on New York: “The Symbolic City of Symbolic Statements and the Everyday City of Necessities” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, “The City and The Pillars” is a profound analysis of the New York society and the impact of the 9/11 attack on the people’s lives. The other provides the images of the real and symbolic New York though the social references, stylistic devices and metaphoric descriptions of the terrorist attack. Gopnik provides the idea that the image of the symbolic city was changed forever that influenced the “world image of the city”, as well as the way New Yorkers regarded it.

Works Cited Gopnik, Adam. “The City and the Pillars” in The Conscious Reader. Eds. Caroline Shrodes, Michael Shugrue, Marc Dipaolo, and Christian Matuschek. Pearson Education Canada, 2008. 411 – 415. Print.

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Recruitment Techniques in HRM Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Executive Summary Recruitment techniques enable organizations to find the right employees based on their human resources requirements and policies. The use of the right recruitment technique enables an organization to reduce recruitment costs, find the best talent and reduce the time needed to hire new employees (El-Kot 2008, vol. 1, pp. 200-212). Thus it aims at improving the competitiveness of the organization by enabling its owners to hire the best talent in the labor market.

Currently, the main recruitment techniques used by organizations include referrals, adverts in both print and electronic media and career fairs (Piostrowski

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Ethics Analysis of the New York Times Company Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Accusations of Ethical Misconduct

NYTC Policy on Ethics in Journalism

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The New York Times Company (NYTC) is an American media company headquartered in New York City. The company’s main product is The New York Times daily newspaper. NYTC was founded in 1851 and its paper was initially referred to as The New-York Daily, the name was changed to The New York Times in 1857.

The founders of NYTC stressed on the company’s mission of being “Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good;—and we shall be Radical in everything which may seem to us to require radical treatment and radical reform” (Mott, pp. 621).

The NYTC, through the New York Times, has continued on the founding father’s mission of serving the interests of the citizens while observing corporate ethical behaviors. However, this does not imply that the company has not been involved in unethical conduct, but such instances are so few, especially from a company with such a long and rich history.

Accusations of Ethical Misconduct While it is true that no company can be absolutely clean of any wrong doing regarding ethical conduct, this fact should not be a leeway to engage in such activity. Since its inception, the NYTC has been mentioned in some high profile cases of misconduct centering on its main product, The New York Times.

For example, a former reporter with the company, Judith Miller, resigned after accusations that her reports prior to the Iraq War plainly supported the Bush administration’s position towards the war. The company was forced to apologize. However, it was found out one of Miller’s main sources of information was Ahmed Chalabi, a senior member of the Iraq government.

The paper has also been accused for years of taking sides in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Some people have said that the paper is pro-Israel while others maintain that it is pro-Palestine, these accusations have been termed as untrue by the company. The company’s public editor, Clark Hoyt, wrote in 2009 that

Though the most vociferous supporters of Israel and the Palestinians do not agree, I think The New York Times, largely barred from the battlefield and reporting amid the chaos of war, has tried its best to do a fair, balanced and complete job — and has largely succeeded (Hoyt, para. 20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In May 2003, the newspaper’s reporter, Jayson Blair, was accused of plagiarism and fabrication of news articles. Consequently, he was fired by the company due to non-tolerance of unethical conduct.

In March 2011, the company was criticized for publishing a report on the gang rape of an 11-year-old Hispanic girl by 18 African Americans. The article was said to have carried quotes from persons who sympathized with the girl, and the use of passive that heavily implicated the 18 black men in the offence.

NYTC Policy on Ethics in Journalism Despite the several accusations leveled against NYTC, the company has a policy on ethical guidelines for all of its employees. The guidelines require that journalists divulge the sources of their news and identify themselves while on duty.

The company informs its staff to be neutral in their news coverage and reporting, embrace fair competition practices, avoid plagiarism, and, generally, “treat our readers, viewers, listeners and online users as fairly and openly as possible” (NYTC, line 17). Any employee who goes against these rules receives discipline measures as is evidenced in Blair’s case.

Conclusion Even though NYTC has been accused of involving in unethical behavior, most of these accusations are never proven and mostly originate from individuals or groups seeking publicity. NYTC is an ethical company and this has been evidenced over the years; the company has fired numerous errant employees who could not adhere to its policies on ethics, and apologized whenever it was on the wrong.

Works Cited Hoyt, Clark. Standing Between Enemies. The New York Times, January 2009. Web.

Mott, Frank Luther. American journalism: 1690-1940, Vol. 2. London: Routledge/ Thoemmes Press, 2000.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethics Analysis of the New York Times Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More NYTC (The New York Times Company). The New York Times Company Policy on Ethics in Journalism. 2005. Web.

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Trade Liberalization Effects on Latin America Essay (Article) essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Theoretical approach

Literature Review

References

Introduction Economic growth of any country depends on how good that country allocates and utilizes its scarce resources, the rate at which the population is growing as well as the technological and institutional organizations of that country. Different countries vary in their resource endowments and this brings out the different trade relationships.

The issue of diversity in economic growth performance has attracted arguments among the economics scholars with some indicating that aspects of government economic policies, particularly the trading policies generate the growth rate dispersion.

Trade liberalization is the free movement of goods and services between countries. It refers to lifting of market barriers and opening up to free flows of goods and services across borders. Most proponents of trade liberalization argue that opening up of industries and markets will enhance economic growth of developing economies through export demand; also produce positive effects on domestic employment.

Critics against trade liberalization, on the other hand, argue that it serves to the advantage of the developed economies while the less developed economies continue to suffer as they are likely to lose out in global market competition. There is a third side to the debate; those who argue that free trade might be beneficial for developing economies if the opening up is well-managed and strategized by the developing economy’s government policies.

The protectionist years, historically known as the ‘lost decade’, were characterized by deficit in budgetary allocation, which was aggravated by the high level of inflation. This hard economic time adversely impacted the Latin American citizens both in terms of political stability and standards of living.

Therefore, it was only a matter of time, before responsible politicians in Latin American countries would realize that, unless the functioning of regional economies was adjusted to correspond to the notion of sanity, these countries would soon be facing utterly realistic prospect of an economic collapse. This was the actual reason why, throughout nineties, most Latin American countries had set themselves on the path of trade liberalization.

The critics of free trade suggest that while high performing economies benefit from liberalization of trade, countries which are import oriented have been trapped in the cycle of inflation, stagnant exports, slowdown in productivity growth and unemployment. This is due to the fact that the developed economies can most of the time flood the market with cheap products and services, which has been enabled by their superior technologies, which aids them in achieving economies of scale faster than the less developed economies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the factors which have been attributed to criticizing liberalization of trade is the fact that with removal of trade barriers, unemployment occurs, because in the long run most people lose their jobs since most of the industries in the less developed economies are unable to compete with similar industries in developed economies especially those found in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

Liberalization of trade also leads to overdependence on international markets. As a result, this makes businesses and employees of the industries in Latin America and other less developed economies become more vulnerable to downturn of the trading partners. In contrast to how the proponents argue, trade liberalization does not offer a level playing ground between the developed and the less developed economies.

This is due to the fact that most developed countries produce in excess due to their advance technologies and thus, most of the time they tend to dump their surplus productions in world markets at very low prices and this leads to losses for the home industries.

In this paper I shall explore how trade liberalization has changed business opportunities and affected economic development and growth in Latin America. With barriers of trade having been reduced as a result of trade liberalization, the less developed economies within Latin America region have struggled to stay afloat.

Theoretical approach When evaluating the impact of trade liberalization in LAC region, there are three important approaches that are worth considering. Firstly, assessing the competitiveness of the region is significant. Secondly, using a partial equilibrium approach and finally applying the GCE models. The application of the first approach entails identification of threats and opportunities that accompany trade liberalization in the LAC region.

When threats and opportunities are clearly identified, it becomes possible to assess the comparative advantage of each country participating in the trade. Trade liberalization would only be beneficial to a region if a strong comparative advantage exists. Additionally, market growth and protectionist policies in place should be assessed to determine if the recipient country is benefiting from the liberalization process or not.

The second most important variable worth considering is competitiveness of the trading partners. Hence, a country will only experience economic growth resulting from trade liberalization if the respective trade partners are competitive enough. This can be categorized as either low, medium or high. Some of the variables that can be considered include but not limited to use of latest technology, nature of the workforce, access to trade incentives as well as human capital.

We will write a custom Article on Trade Liberalization Effects on Latin America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, it has been found that although USA and Ecuador exercise trade liberalization, equilibrium analysis between the two countries reveal that the latter does not accrue the full benefits of this bilateral trade relationship in spite of the fact that it has experienced economic growth largely occasioned by the comparative advantage that exists between the two countries (Cypher

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Religions as a Prime Root of Conflicts Essay online essay help

Religion, though neglected in political circles plays a significant role in the eliciting conflicts and bringing peace in the world. Powerful countries have been continually undermining the role of religion in bringing a lasting peace in the world especially in issues related to terrorism and stability of governments because they perceive that religions are prime root of conflicts.

Such perceptions emanate from the fact that wars in Nigeria, Sudan, Somalia, Palestine, Israel, Iraq and Afghanistan have religious dimensions and orientations. “All of these cases demonstrate that while religion is an important factor in conflict, often marking identity differences, motivating conflict, and justifying violence, religion is not usually the sole or primary cause of conflict” (Smock 3).

Religion integrates into political, economic and social spheres that are determinants of the nature and extent conflicts, thus perceived as sole cause of conflict. This implies that religion plays a significant role in the international conflict and peace, hence need special consideration in resolution of conflicts that threatens stability of nations and entire world. For instance, how do Jewish and Islamic religions contribute to conflict and peace in the world?

The difference in religion between Israelites and Palestinians is the main factor that causes conflict in Gaza Strip and West Bank while continually threatening to trigger conflict between Christians and Muslim in the world.

Although there are economic, ethnic, political and social aspects concerning the Israeli and Palestinian conflict; lasting peace can occur in Gaza Strip and West Bank if Jews and Muslims engage in dialogue. The peace meeting between Muslim and Jewish leaders has demonstrated that religion play a significant role in the resolution of the conflict in Israel and Palestine

The religious conflict between the Jews and Palestinians is volatile issue that may lead to international conflicts because Christians led by Western countries and Muslims in Arabs countries have great interests in this conflict. Wolf observes that proper dialogue among Jews, Christians and Muslims leaders would help ease interreligious tension and intolerance that exist all over the world (160). Since the major religions of the world are Islam and Christianity, the solution of religious conflicts lies in the relationship of the two religions.

World’s political leaders need to realize the potential of religions in uniting people and encouraging tolerance since people attach much importance to their respective religions. If Muslims and Jews should respect each other and let tolerance dominate their relations, then there would be peace in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. Mutual tolerance and respect between Christians and Muslims would ease religious tensions in various parts of the world like Nigeria, Sudan and Middle East.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The religious conflict between Muslims and Jews has far-reaching effects as far as international peace and stability takes precedence. Realizing that the conflict may take centuries to resolve, Jewish, Christian and Muslim leaders agreed on religious mediation and facilitation aimed at creating peace in Palestine and Israel.

The leaders signed Alexandria Declaration that has significantly promoted interfaith dialogue and relationship between the Muslims, Christians and Jews in the Middle East and particularly in Israel and Palestine.

Smock asserts that, “…a new interfaith organization has been launched with a similar mission to that the Alexandria process, namely, to provide a religious track to what hopefully will be a political track to promote peace in the Middle East” (4). Therefore, both Palestine and Israel religious leaders have agreed to commit themselves to prevent religious conflicts and promote lasting peace and reconciliation.

Works Cited Smock, David. “Religion in the World Affairs: Its Role in the Conflict and Peace.” United States Institute of Peace: Special Report 201, 2008. Web.

Wolf, Miroslav. “The Social Meaning of Reconciliation.” Interpretation 54.2 (2000): 158-73.

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Capitalism: A Love Story: A Reflective Paper Response Essay essay help online

The paper will start by giving an overall impression of the documentary, followed by an examination of what the documentary meant to me. This will be followed by an analysis of whether I agree with Moore’s message in the movie or not, and why. The conclusion will be a discussion on whether the movie has in any way changed my perception on capitalism. There will be included a bibliography page citing the resources used in the paper.

If you cut out the drama, the people-bashing and the over-simplification of complex economic systems in Michael Moore’s documentary movie ‘Capitalism: a Love Story’, you can still find substance in there. Having had reviews to both extremes; with others claiming that Moore should have stopped making movies at ‘Roger and Me’, and the other half exclaiming that it was an eye-opener, it was with mixed expectations that I watched the documentary.

I admit it was at first difficult to follow the storyline, but by the middle of the movie, I could see clearly the point that Moore was trying to put across. Moore was presenting the social and economic inequalities that have been the result of decades of capitalism. He pointed out at institutions such as Wall Street and Goldman Sachs as being the major culprits (Dargis n.p).

He argued that politics and the corporate world are too closely tied in America, and this undermines democratic practice. Who suffers for this? It is the small people, who, ironically make up 99% of the population and only own 5% of America’s wealth (Dargis n.p).

A broad definition of capitalism is an economic system where business enterprises are privately owned while the rules and policies that run market conditions are determined by a central government (Bowles 5). After watching Moore’s movie, I had to rethink my understanding on the benefits of capitalism.

Capitalism, as it was argued for by its earliest advocates: Max, Smith and others in their league, is that it stimulates economic growth. This is generally accepted as fact to date. A more important but less considered question, is, who does the economic growth benefit. Or rather, what percentage of a population does capitalism benefit?

Moore’s movie provides a clear answer for that; in America, which is considered one of the wealthiest nations in the world, 1% of the population own 95% of country’s resources (Gritten n.p). Is that not shocking? In a country that preaches constantly freedom, equality, democracy and human rights, something close to neo-slavery is being practiced. For in this materialistic age, are you not owned by the person who owns the material resources?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Democracy is hampered, as Moore illustrates, because the process of elections and voting has become compromised; the corporations contribute to the campaigns for those candidates who they feel will best serve their needs, the candidate with the biggest campaign stash wins the election (Dargis n.p). And the 1% remain at the top of the game, getting off lightly for crimes such as the ‘pheasant insurance’ or the 700 billion dollar tax write off awarded to sustain failing financial institutions after the most recent economic downturn (Dargis n.p).

I agree with the movie to a large extent.The facts may be presented with some pomp and circumstance but they are still facts. Just because there are myriad facts involved in the foreclosure does not change the fact that a home in America is foreclosed every seven minutes (Gritten n.p).

There are still thousands of people losing their jobs monthly, there are thousands more who cannot afford insurance cover. Moore is right in his message; there are a select few who have abused the American capitalistic system and made a ‘plutonomy’ out of the system (Dargis n.p).

Conclusion The movie changes my view of capitalism in the sense of ‘unregulated capitalism’. Every social theory has its time, Karl Max evolved capitalism because the time was right for it, and the people, at that point in time, were ripe for the capitalistic revolution. But for every period in history there are systems that work, as well as others that simply do not.

From Moore’s movie, I see that perhaps it is time that not only the U.S, but also the rest of the world, reviewed how capitalism is put to work. With or without the blaster in Moore’s movie, the cold, hard facts do not change that there is a gross imbalance in the distribution of resources, as was intended in the first place, and that perhaps, it is about time there was a post-capitalism revolution.

Works Cited Bowles, Paul. Capitalism. London: Pearson

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Women in Leadership Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Synopsis

Women and Leadership

Reactions and Observations

Conclusion

References

When Hillary Clinton went head-to-head with Barrack Obama for the right to represent the Democrats in the previous presidential elections, she did something that no other American woman was able to do before.

She wanted to be the next president of the United States. It was unprecedented in this country but not in the world. However, in the modern age when it was expected that women should rise up and be treated the same as men, few dared to do so. There were some who succeeded and yet many failed. And yet women can do so much.

There are things that they alone can accomplish with great results. With issues like reconciliation and social justice they can contribute greatly. Nevertheless, there are challenges up ahead and the report on PBS, as narrated by Maria Hinojosa, speaks about the reality and the difficulties faced by women leaders who believe that they can indeed make a difference if only the citizens of their nation will give them that chance.

Synopsis Senior Correspondent Maria Hinojosa begins by talking about women in politics and the failed bid of Hillary Rodham Clinton to earn the right to be the most powerful leader in the United States and the most influential leader in the free world. She then went on to say that the United States ranks 69th in the world when it comes to women holding national political office (PBS, 2010, p.1).

This prompted her to investigate even further and in the course of her investigation she realized that while it is extremely difficult for a woman to get elected she also found out that women leaders may be the solution to many of the problems that plague society that for many decades was never resolved by men in power. There is a certain talent, skill and insight that women bring to politics.

In many countries around the world, its citizens are aware of the importance of women in politics. Citizens of Chile and Rwanda knew why there must be women in politics but it seems that in the United States not everyone is convinced that women, politics, and power can be placed in the same sentence. Hinojosa tried to explain this by taking a closer look at the lives of world leaders and why they succeeded and what were the challenges that they had to deal with in order to reach the top.

Aside from that she also studied the behavior and aspirations of up and coming leaders of American society, the next generation of women leaders, and for that she went to where young women leaders tend to meet – in a debate contest. At the end Hinojosa had to admit that much work needs to be done in order for women to be at par with men in terms of nationally elected offices but she had to admit that women, power, and politics is a rising tide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women and Leadership Hinojosa chose to follow Jeanne Shaheen to start her report. The reason for doing so is that Shaheen had the right combination of achievements and attributes that would make her a suitable example to show what Hinojosa had in mind. Shaheen was a former school teacher who at first glance was suited to work as a housewife and not a politician.

However, Shaheen was the first woman to be elected as governor of New Hampshire and afterwards decided to run for the U.S. Senate (PBS, 2010, p.1). Hinojosa considers her as a prime example of the possibilities that women bring to U.S. politics. Nevertheless, the correspondent had to concede that compared to the rest of the world America is a few steps behind when it comes to electing women to national office.

As a matter of fact, this was not the first time that Shaheen decided to run for the Senate, in 2002 she ran against John Edward Sununu and she lost. Shaheen explains that it is because the events of September 11 were fresh from the minds of the people. They believe that security is the priority issue and as a result they voted for a man rather than a woman because they also believe that a man would be able to handle those issues much better than a woman (PBS, 2010).

What exactly can women do in order to prove that they can do a better job than men? It is possible for n can do a better job but there are issues and they are problems that can be considered a perfect fit for them and arguably there are others where they are perceive as lacking in capability.

While Clinton made history in the presidential race, another woman took center stage when McCain chose Sarah Palin to run as his vice-president. Immediately the impact of her candidacy was felt and according to Hinojosa her gender was a major factor to consider and that come election time her being a woman affected the way people decided to vote for McCain or not (PBS, 2010). It is clear that in America the people are not yet ready to entrust the highest position in the land to woman no matter how qualified she may be.

Shaheen argued that when people decided to choose their leaders it must not be about gender. She added that it must not be about their soft side that she can be treated like a mother to her constituents but because of her abilities and how she speaks regarding the issues that confront the nation (PBS, 2010).

But when Hinojosa went to Chile and Rwanda she discovered the opposite. Women leaders outside the United States where chosen not simply because they have the same qualifications as men but they were chosen because the people believe that they can resolve the problems that for many years men in their country were unable to solve.

We will write a custom Essay on Women in Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The people of Rwanda and Chile believe that it is the mother instinct present in women candidates that made them effective against issues like health reform, social injustice, and the need to heal the land from strife such as what the Rwandans experienced in the 1994 genocide that killed close to a million people.

The success of foreign leaders like Bachelet and Inyumba is not only attributed to their skills. This is what can be understood from the PBS report. Their success is linked to their womanhood. Their being a woman played a crucial role in their candidacy because they came at the right time and the right place.

In Chile, Bachelet rose to power after her country suffered from a brutal dictatorship and a failed government and the reason why Chile is considered a poor country. The leaders that came before her were all men and they succeeded in bringing the country even lower while the people suffered.

When Bachelet came in she was considered as the best alternative and the citizens were willing to gamble on her. Her being a woman did not come as a liability but it was an asset.

Aside from that one can understand from watching the video that the people of Chile felt that they were neglected by past leaders who were preoccupied only with politics and the need to increase their power so when Bachelet took to the campaign trail and showed her soft side then the people responded positively to her and one person even commented that she was seen as a mother to the nation (PBS, 2010). The same thing can be said about the women politicians of Rwanda who were elected to Parliament.

The Rwandans had to deal with a terrible experience that they went through as a nation. Fifteen years ago genocide left almost a million people dead in racial attack that occurred in one hundred days (PBS, 2010).

One can just imagine the pain and the suffering of the people. This is linked to the fact that they elected women to Parliament, almost half of the lawmakers are women (PBS, 2010) Many believe that women are better at reconciliation, better at maintaining peace and less prone to corruption (PBS, 2010). These are the factors and the circumstances that made women leaders in Chile and Rwanda succeed where their U.S. counterparts failed.

Reactions and Observations It is easy to understand why Hinojosa had to go to Chile and to Rwanda and why she had to spend a few days studying and following an all-women high school debate team. She went abroad to show America that if it is possible to elect a woman as president in an economically challenge country then it is possible to elect one in the United States.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women in Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She went there to show Americans that if it is possible to elect a great number of women lawmakers in a war-torn country then it is possible to also do the same in the United States. She also went to the High School debate team to know the struggles that women face.

But Hinojosa’s travel and other activities failed to produce a solution to the problem why American women failed to secure elected positions especially the highest office in the land (Zeinert, 2002). She also failed to show that there is a reason why Bachelet and Rwandan women were elected to the Parliament and it has something to do with their history and circumstances (Worth, 2008).

If this can be used as a comparison then it can explain why Americans are reluctant to vote for a woman as Senator or as President. First of all American politics is fairly stable compared to that of Chile. Secondly, although there is a need for unity and healing the problem in America never reached a point where 1 million citizens were massacred because of their ethnicity. In other words Americans are happy with the way things are so why would they change it?

Aside from that there are other challenges like finances and how to lead an effective campaign (Carroll, 2003). There is also a problem on how American women can explain what difference will they be able to make if they get elected and can they really do a better job than men (Gelb

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Unethical Organizations Analytical Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Unethical Organizations and Business Practices

Companies Engaged in Unethical Practices

Conclusion

References

Introduction The nature of business and how companies conduct their business today has created a potential for organizational members to engage in unethical conduct or behavior. Unethical behavior is defined as the harmful effect that one’s behavior has on other people. This harmful effect can be either illegal or morally unacceptable by the organization or the general society at large.

Unethical behavior is usually brought about by the social behaviors and relationships that people have within organizations. Unethical behavior in organizations is usually influenced by the individual characteristics, their relationship with other organizations members and how they have embedded themselves into the organization’s system. Many people recognize self-interest as the major reason why individuals or companies engage in unethical conduct.

There has been an increasing concern over the recent past on the business practices of most corporate companies around the world and how these practices might affect the ethical fabric of today’s society. As members of society, we daily face cases of ethics when our moral standards are put to question by purchasing counterfeit goods or engaging in illegal business transactions.

The overall desire for individuals and businesses to be successful as most people engaging in unethical behavior so that they can get ahead. Unethical behavior, in general, is a vice in today’s society that has become limitless and unavoidable. In some cases, unethical practices in organizations might go unnoticed for a long time, but in the event, they are brought to light, the company might face litigation cases or cases of malpractice that might cost the company billions of dollars in lawsuits and settlements.

Unethical Organizations and Business Practices The standards that are used to define what makes up ethical behavior are known as ethical standards. These are the principles that govern the actions or behaviors of every member of an organization or society. The most common ethical standards that are used by organizations today are the codes of ethics which set out the ethical and behavioral standards that employees within an organization are expected to follow.

Codes of ethics are used to define the values and beliefs of a society, an individual or an organization. However, these codes of ethics have some grey areas that make it challenging to provide a clear cut answer for unethical practices that might bring success to a company or business entity. As a result, these grey areas force unethical practices onto an organization (Dellaportas et al. 2005).

Business ethics and practices have been defined as the moral values and principles that are used to determine the conduct of employees within an organization. Business practices are the commercial practices that the company engages to generate an income and make a profit.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the primary goal of most businesses is to make a profit, they forget that they should practice ethical behavior as they search for these profits. Corporate greed has led to the increasing ethical malpractices in the business world with many companies now focused on making a profit while they disregard moral and ethical issues (Dellaportas et al. 2005).

According to Brenkert (2004) companies have found themselves in unethical practices as a result of the falling trade barriers around the world and the increasing international business environment that has created opportunities for organizations to expand their activities to other countries.

The continued globalization of the world’s economy will increase the complexity of organizations to deal with ethical issues because of the different cultural perceptions of ethical conduct.

Managing ethical issues effectively in organizations will continue to present a challenge for organizations as the global economy moves toward the 21st century. Moral pressures occur on different levels which could be from the individual level, societal level, company level or the global level (Brenkert 2004).

The recurring unethical practices that take place in most organizations include lack of managerial transparency, distortion of financial information to mislead stakeholders, invasion of employees privacy, office nepotism and favoritism, corporate greed to gain excessive profits, managers taking credit for their subordinates work, receiving kickbacks or gifts for a business deal, stealing company money, firing an employee for whistleblowing on the company’s unethical conduct, using company property and material for personal use and divulging company secrets and information to the competitors.

The unethical practices that consumers engage in include warranty claims after the claims period, fraudulent return of merchandise after the relapse period, tampering with utility meters, inaccurate claims on credit card applications, false insurance claims (Brenkert 2004).

Companies that have engaged in unethical practices over the years include H.B. Fuller’s glue selling the business in Honduras where homeless children in the country sniffed the glue.

We will write a custom Essay on Unethical Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Beech-Nut Nutrition Company’s unethical practice of selling adulterated apple juice claiming that it is 100 percent fresh juice, Dow Corning selling defective silicone breast implants, Sears Roebuck engaging in unethical business practices by forcing its customers to purchase services that did not require in the first place, the continued production of cigarettes by the tobacco which is seen to be the manufacture of a dangerous product and Enron’s questionable accounting practices and unethical partnerships (Gini and Marcoux 2008).

These examples of organizational and individual unethical practices demonstrate the kinds of ethical concerns that are in the global world today. Although these practices continue to occur around the world, their presence in the corporate or societal environment continues to present a challenge on how to deal with unethical behavior.

The Enron scandal was presented as a classic case of a company engaged in unethical behavior and practices that led to the collapse of the once promising company. Enron was held in high esteem by major industry players in the U.S. with Fortune magazine naming Enron, the most innovative company in America. In 2000, the magazine ranked Enron amongst the 100 best companies to work for in America.

However, when the company’s problems were leaked to the media, Enron’s ranking was downgraded as investors and creditors began to panic. In less than two years, Enron declared the largest corporate bankruptcy in the history of America that saw the company facing legal investigations into its ethical malpractices.

The legal investigations that were conducted into the scandal showed that the company had significantly been mismanaged and its demise had been caused by a combination of unethical business practices and executive authority in the company. The company’s executives created an unhealthy business climate within the organization because they misused their power to take advantage of the loopholes in the company’s code of ethics to justify their unethical behavior.

One of the major ethical practices that led to the company’s downfall included Enron’s executives taking advantage of the knowledge they had of the company’s true financial state and using this information to engage in insider trading so that they could make a profit. What the executives at Enron did was considered as giving in to the greed that was used to keep the wheels of capitalism running smoothly (Gini and Marcoux 2008).

The company executives also engaged in off-balance sheet financing by using subsidiaries to hedge its investments. In the company’s books, this off-balance financing inflated the company’s profits while at the same time reducing its debts. The situation was further compounded when the company’s board of directors put a rubber stamp on the company’s off-balance sheet deals.

Employees within the company spoke of how they logged in transactions that were meant to make the company’s finances look better on paper. Some of Enron’s employees did not know that the practice was now widespread throughout the company because of the complex nature of the transactions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Unethical Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Enron employees also found themselves involved in unethical practices due to the company’s cutthroat and competitive nature. The company was aggressive in the market, and it rewarded its employees for making fast deals that would earn the company big profits. Such a culture taught employees to restructure their business deals so that they could close fast and help the company’s numbers to grow.

The company’s employees noted that teamwork and cooperation within the company began to disappear quickly as workers started to engage in competition and dangerous business practices (Gini and Marcoux 2008).

The most significant aspect of the Enron debacle was that the corruption scandals and the lying done by the executives were hardly notable or unique from other scandals that have affected major corporations around the world. The Enron scandal was simply a case of rich people wanting to get more by doing whatever it took to get more money.

Although the company had a code of ethics, the company executives and their employees ignored it when they performed their business operations. The main goal of Enron became to create money and increase profits even though the company was slowly in debt (Gini and Marcoux 2008).

The lesson to be learned from the Enron scandal is that companies or businesses in the corporate world must change their culture of making profits and forgetting everything else. Companies should understand that achieving high profits with complete disregard to ethical behavior could be a high price to pay.

The culture of achieving profits has to change where employees are made aware of the acceptable levels of ethical practices that should be used to perform these profits. Corporate executives and company managers should be made aware of the consequences that might result from conducting business in an unethical way (Dellaportas et al. 2005).

Part of the general problem of ethical violations by most companies is that they show little concern for the moral fabric that holds the society together. They are usually focused on making a profit and improving their balance sheets so that they can gain more stakeholders and investors.

For codes of ethics to be effective, they should include punishments or penalties that will be used to deal with managers or company employees involved in ethical malpractices. These punishments could be in the form of paying restitution to those who have been affected by the unethical practices and paying out some part of the company’s profits to the society (Dellaportas et al. 2005).

Such punishments are meant to deter the company from engaging in unethical income-generating behavior or conduct. Social responsibility should also be included in the codes of ethics used by most companies as the customers, investors, and stakeholders of a company come from society.

Companies that violate the social code of ethics should be punished in terms of paying out restitution or engaging in community development activities. Fining a company could not be enough as it will offset this amount by downsizing or increasing the prices of its products/services. The most appropriate form of penalty would be to create social initiatives that are equitable to the fine (Dellaportas et al. 2005).

Companies Engaged in Unethical Practices Wal-Mart is considered to be the largest retail market in the United States with many of its stores situated around the world. The company has however not escaped the myriad of ethical problems that affect major corporations around the world. Wal-Mart employs more workers than any other large company in the United States, but its employees have continued to live below the poverty line despite the company raking in billions in profits.

Also, the company portrays itself as a retail store that only sells U.S. manufactured products, but in reality, the company has commodities on its shelves that have been made in foreign countries. As a result of such issues, the retail company faces a certain degree of controversy due to these ethical malpractices (PBS 2005).

Wal-Mart employees earn a meager salary where a middle-level worker earns an average of $12,000 to $17,000 annually. This has forced some of the workers to seek financial assistance from the public coffers and organization of financial aid so that they can get by financially.

The reasons that have been floated as to why Wal-Mart pays its employees such low salaries are that the company wants to cut down on its operating costs thereby ensuring that its products retail at a lower price than those of its competitors. This is seen to be unethical conduct by the company as it pursues high profits by limiting its employees’ pay and benefits. Because of this, the company has gained a reputation that is focused on selling low priced goods instead of increasing its employees’ wages (PBS 2005).

Apart from the low wages, the company’s health insurance is extremely costly it difficult for most average workers to afford it. Wal-Mart employees pay health insurance of 35 percent that is double that of the national average. Those workers who cannot afford the company’s health insurance are forced to use state healthcare which is mostly funded by the American tax payer’s money.

Wal-Mart’s high healthcare insurance is unfair because it has the ethical obligation of giving inexpensive health care to its workers. It should, therefore, increase its employee’s salaries and reduce the health care insurance to ensure its employee’s healthcare costs are not directed towards the American taxpayers (PBS 2005).

At specific periods, Wal-Mart employees worked overtime without receiving any form of compensation. This was seen to be ethical malpractice as Wal-Mart’s policy on overtime stated that Wal-Mart employees were supposed to be paid for every overtime minute they had worked. Floor managers and supervisors engaged in unethical practices that forced employees to work overpaid without being paid.

These workers eventually filed a lawsuit against the company in 2004 that required the company to pay its workers for the overtime hours they had worked. Wal-Mart’s defense was that it had no such policy and that it was against overtime work which was seen to be a misleading statement. The company, however, reacted to the workers’ claims by firing the managers and supervisors that demanded workers work overtime (PBS 2005).

There were allegations made in 2003 that Wal-Mart used illegal immigrants as workers in some of its stores. Federal agents conducted an investigation and found hundreds of illegal immigrants to have been employed as cleaners in most of the retail company’s stores. The company found itself being threatened by a class action lawsuit because it had broken U.S. immigration laws that required all workers to submit social security payments and remit federal income taxes to the state governments which Wal-Mart had failed to do.

The company had also failed to pay the illegal immigrants their wages because they had not registered as legal employees of the company. In its defense to these allegations, Wal-Mart claimed that it had used an outsourcing company for its cleaning activities and it was therefore not at fault. The only mistake it had committed was failing to perform a thorough background check on its employees which would have helped to determine the authenticity and integrity of these employees (PBS 2005).

Wal-Mart’s treatment of its employees is seen to be unacceptable because the retail giant is a non-unionized organization that does not need a third party to intervene in labor issues. It in its place uses open door strategy where employees can take their grievances directly to the management and board of directors. This open door policy does not, however, address the needs of the company’s employees as they are still earning lower salaries than those of their counterparts in other retail stores.

The starting salary of Wal-Mart employees is lower than that of unionized companies which forces some workers to quit by the first year. Since it is not a unionized company, it does not allow its employees to talk to any union organizations. This is seen as unethical as the National Labor Relations Act states that employees have the right to speak to union representatives (PBS 2005).

The company committed ethical malpractice when it bribed some of its employees to find out whether there were any unionized workers in its company. This was also in contradiction to the National Labor Relations Act that prohibited employers from engaging in acts of bribery with their employees.

This moral malpractice saw the UFC Workers raising a grievance with the NLRB against the company citing that Wal-Mart had violated the federal labor laws. Wal-Mart denied the allegations stating it has never bribed any of its employees to report on union activities within the company. The company committed various ethical malpractices as it encouraged dishonest behavior amongst employees who were encouraged to relay information by being bribed.

Another ethical issue that has affected the retail giant is the discrimination the company has against women. According to PBS (2005) women who worked in Wal-Mart had been denied the opportunity to be promoted to a more senior level as well as receive training and development opportunities. The female employees were also underpaid when compared to their male colleagues.

A report published in 2001 showed that six female Wal-Mart employees had filed a sexual discrimination lawsuit against the company because Wal-Mart had blatantly infringed on the equal employment rights that women workers were entitled.

The report showed that the company had a female employee base of 70 percent, but only two out of the fifteen board members were women. Wal-Mart prides itself to be America’s largest employer of women, but this statement becomes untrue when men occupy the majority of management positions, and women in the company are discriminated.

Wal-Mart has also engaged in unethical practices that have seen it desert or abandon stores that underperform. This usually leaves behind large sized properties as most of the retail chain stores are calculated to be the size of four or five football fields. The company has left behind more than 25 million square feet of unoccupied space across various locations in America.

It has been criticized for abandoning underperforming stores and also failing to sell these large properties to suitable buyers. One store in Kentucky had to be torn down after the company was unable to find a buyer for the property which saw billions of taxpayers’ money going to waste (PBS 2005).

Conclusion As highlighted in the essay, ethical conduct in organizations has and will continue being a challenge in the corporate and business world as the global economy continues to undergo globalization. Companies that have been unethical such as Enron have faced closure, bankruptcy, lawsuits and settlements that have amounted to billions of dollars. Companies that have been able to identify ethical malpractices have been able to rectify these issues, therefore, avoiding the problems that befell Enron, Sears, and Beech-Nut.

Such incidences have forced most organizations to perform their business operations with an open eye to avoid ethical issues. Organizations should, therefore, view ethical behavior as more than a statutory obligation to comply with ethical legislation and seek ways of improving the behavior of the organization’s employees, and the society at large.

References Brenkert, G., (Ed) (2004). Corporate integrity and accountability. London: SAGE Publications.

Dellaportas, S., Alagiah, R., Gibson, K., Leung, P., Hutchinson, M., and Van Homrigh,

D., (2005) Ethics, governance, and accountability: a professional perspective. Queensland, Australia: John Wiley and Sons Gini, A., and Marcoux, A.M. (2008) Case Studies in Business Ethics. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

PBS (2005) Store wars: when Wal-Mart comes to town, business practices. Web.

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Euthanasia From a Disciple of Jesus Christ in Today’s World Term Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Euthanasia and Religion

Euthanasia from a disciple of Christ’s in today’s world

Conclusion

Bibliographies

Footnotes

Introduction By definition, Euthanasia refers to the intentional ending by act or omission of a dependent person for their own benefit[1]. In other words, it refers to that process where a terminally ill individual is assisted to die painlessly. Euthanasia can be categorized in a number of ways for instance Non-voluntary euthanasia where a person whose life is ended made no such request or gave no such consent for the process to be carried out[2].

Voluntary euthanasia is the opposite of non-voluntary as in this particular case, the individual specifically requests for his/her life to be ended. Another form of euthanasia is that of Assisted Suicide where the person intending to end his/her life is provided with the necessary guidance, means as well as information as to how to go about the process with the main intention that they will be used for this particular purpose[3].

Assisted suicide can be carried out by family members, relatives, friends or physicians where the individual is admitted. Euthanasia by omission is yet another form where death to a person is intentionally carried out by not providing usual and necessary care or basic needs to him/her[4].

On the other hand, euthanasia by action is where a person’s death is intentionally caused through performance of an action such as giving lethal injections[5]. Some forms of Euthanasia such as euthanasia by omission can be considered quite inhumane regardless of the reasons provided for it to be carried out. Religion itself considers Euthanasia as going against nature and God’s intention for human beings to live their lives fully despite the challenges or illnesses they may face in their lifetime[6].

Euthanasia and Religion Euthanasia is observed to date back as far as 400 BC where Romans as well as ancient Greeks believed that it was not necessary to preserve or prolong someone’s life if he/she was no longer interested in living[7]. They also believed that passage from life to death should be as dignified and serene as possible as compared to experiencing agony.

However, certain specific circumstances were an exception for instance in cases where an individual had been fatally wounded and the only way of relieving his/her suffering was to hasten the end of his/her life[8]. This led voluntary euthanasia to be practiced during these particular eras.

During the Middle Ages euthanasia was greatly criticized as well as greatly defended across Europe. Christianity teaches people that life comes from God and should therefore be considered sacred[9]. Its onset also taught people to respect each other and to consider life as a special gift from God that requires care. In other words, Christianity teaches that each person has the right to live and it is only God who being the Creator of man has a right to life[10].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With this in mind, philosophers during the Middle Ages emphasized that God gives pain in order to pay back people’s sins and therefore the more a person experiences a great deal of pain, the more his/her sins are forgiven[11]. This reason was considered as enough to create fear inside individuals as they believed they were not to interfere with God’s will.

Throughout history, there have also been numerous arguments for and against Euthanasia. According to a few physicians and academics who have in the recent past conducted research as regards Euthanasia, argue that euthanasia should be encouraged as in most cases, the patient may desire to die in order to no longer continue suffering the extreme pain they may be undergoing[12].

Others supporting euthanasia tend to suggest that due to the congestion present in hospitals, it would be more convenient and efficient for doctors as well as hospital beds to be used for people whose lives can be saved as compared to those whose lives are being continued while neglecting their request to die[13]. This may seem somehow harsh and inhumane but on the other hand, hospital waiting lists are in the process greatly minimized and quality of care generally improved when this is done.

Additionally, those proposing for euthanasia argue that the pain that a person with a terminal illness experiences cannot be comprehended by one who has not experienced the same[14]. In such cases, euthanasia is recommended as a means of ending the suffering as pain relievers cannot do so. The right to commit suicide is perhaps one of the reasons as to why individuals opt for euthanasia[15].

Here, this right is granted to the person carrying out the act and not the patient him/herself. In the case if a terminally ill individual, they usually have two choices that is either to allow the illness run its course or wait for the inevitable to happen – death[16]. Euthanasia tends to consider what is best for such a patient. If euthanasia would be legalized, it would permit the introduction of an easy and quick means to ending life when all else, that is medical interventions, have failed and is deemed advantageous to the patient[17].

Euthanasia from a disciple of Christ’s in today’s world Perhaps one of the most common arguments against Euthanasia is the fact that a dying patient is not in a position to make any rational decision and therefore his/her request to end their life should not be considered[18]. Those opposing it also cite that if federal and local governments would consider provision of better facilities meant to care for the dying, euthanasia would no longer be required.

In addition, doctors usually take the Hippocratic Oath where they vow to try preserving human life[19]. By carrying out euthanasia, or through legalization of it, it would mean destruction of trust between patients and doctors following this oath.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Euthanasia From a Disciple of Jesus Christ in Today’s World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Majority of Christians in today’s world are also in opposition of euthanasia arguing that it would be dangerous to legalize it. According to them, human beings have the responsibility of using God’s gifts to the full and not to end it[20]. In other words, Christians are charged with the responsibility of assisting those who are suffering and not ending their lives instead.

Christians perceive suffering as a positive value and carrying out euthanasia would mean that the patient was weak and therefore not able to get in touch with a particular power that draws the individual closer to Jesus Christ, also known as a special grace[21]. According to Christian teachings, suffering can have a place in the plans of God in that through suffering, the individual shares Christ’s agony as well as His redeeming sacrifice[22].

Disciples of Jesus Christ in today’s world perceive dying to be a good thing. There are those individuals who believe that God brought death as a means of testing human beings and their reaction to it portrays what sort of an individual one is and how deep their faith and trust in God runs[23]. In today’s world, majority of individuals especially those aged between 15 and 35 years of age tend to commit suicide at very high rates.

This can be attributed to the fact that such individuals are either experiencing some sort of violence in their families or are drug addicts to an extent of becoming hopelessly depressed with nothing else to live for[24]. Christians suggest that since the option of suicide is not illegal and is freely available to anyone who may choose to take their own lives, legalizing euthanasia will not only be immoral but against nature and God’s will for mankind[25].

Conclusion Euthanasia has since time immemorial been supported and opposed based on religious or moral beliefs where the arguments have been connected to cultural values as well as cultural practices. Whether or not euthanasia can be legalized is usually determined by media reports and public debates in a number of communities.

However, one of the most weighing issues that is currently being debated on by religious as well as political leaders is the community’s obligation to offer a much more easier way of dying as compared to providing means of minimizing suffering and pain among those opting for euthanasia.

Bibliographies Cavan, Seamus, and Dolan, Shean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die. The Rosen Publishing Group. 2000.

Kelly, David F. Medical Care at the End of Life: A Catholic Perspective. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. 2007.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Euthanasia From a Disciple of Jesus Christ in Today’s World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Leies, Louise Mitchell., McCarthy, Donald G., and Bayer, Edward J. Hand book on Critical Life Issues. 3rd edition. New York: National Catholic Bioethic Center. 2004.

Ling, John R. The Edge of Life, Dying, Death and Euthanasia. London: Day One Publications. 2002.

Mattison, William C III. Introduction to Moral Theology. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005.

Footnotes Cavan, S., and Dolan, S., Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000)

Leies, J., McCarthy, D., and Bayer, E., Hand book on Critical Life Issues. 3rd edition (New York: National Catholic Bioethic Center, 2004).

Kelly, David F., Medical Care at the End of Life: A Catholic Perspective (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2007).

Ling, John R., The Edge of Life, Dying, Death and Euthanasia (London: Day One Publications, 2002).

William, C., Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III (Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor, 2005)

Ling, John R., The Edge of Life, Dying, Death and Euthanasia (London: Day One Publications, 2002)

Cavan, S., and Dolan, S., Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000)

Leies, J., McCarthy, D., and Bayer, E., Hand book on Critical Life Issues. 3rd edition (New York: National Catholic Bioethic Center, 2004)

Ling, John R., The Edge of Life, Dying, Death and Euthanasia (London: Day One Publications, 2002)

William, C. Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005

Leies, J., McCarthy, D., and Bayer, E., Hand book on Critical Life Issues. 3rd edition (New York: National Catholic Bioethic Center, 2004)

Cavan, S., and Dolan, S., Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000)

William, C. Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005

Kelly, David F., Medical Care at the End of Life: A Catholic Perspective (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2007)

Cavan, S., and Dolan, S., Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000)

Leies, J., McCarthy, D., and Bayer, E., Hand book on Critical Life Issues. 3rd edition (New York: National Catholic Bioethic Center, 2004)

William, C. Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005

William, C. Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005

Cavan, S., and Dolan, S., Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000)

William, C. Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005

Leies, J., McCarthy, D., and Bayer, E., Hand book on Critical Life Issues. 3rd edition (New York: National Catholic Bioethic Center, 2004).

William, C. Introduction to Moral Theology. Mattison III. Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor. 2005

Kelly, David F., Medical Care at the End of Life: A Catholic Perspective (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2007)

Cavan, S., and Dolan, S., Euthanasia: The Debate over the Right to Die (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000)

Ling, John R., The Edge of Life, Dying, Death and Euthanasia (London: Day One Publications, 2002)

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Homosexuals Should Not Be Allowed to Adopt Children Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why Homosexuals Should Not Be Allowed To Adopt Children

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Due to the increased acceptance and changing societal perceptions towards same sex marriages, many gays and lesbians have opted to become parents through adoption. In addition, with the current legalization of the practice in some global communities, more so in some states in the U.S., for example, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and California, the practice is spreading at a faster rate than many anticipated.

Although the practice has received immense support from a section of the society, adoption bodies, and civil unions, the safety and future wellbeing of children brought up by gays is questionable; same sex relationships or marriages being a practice detested by a bigger section of the contemporary society.

Yes, every citizen has a right to enjoy their democratic freedom and fundamental rights; however, what if such rights infringe innocent children’s rights or jeopardize to a greater extent the security and future wellbeing of children? Further, although homosexuals deserve equal rights to have family, homosexuality goes against the traditional family structure, which brought homosexuals into existence.

Hence, although individuals may give which form of justifications to support the homosexuals’ quest to adopt children, practically, the issue is morally wrong, because as research studies show, the traditional family structure plays a very crucial role in upbringing of children. Considering this, and for the well growth of children, in environment that nurture them to fit properly in the ever-changing societies, societies should completely ban the idea of homosexuals adopting children (Reckers 1).

Why Homosexuals Should Not Be Allowed To Adopt Children Primarily, the process of adoption entails taking responsibility and ensuring that children enjoy their fundamental rights; hence, in formulating any adoption laws, one thing that most legislators assume is that, it is the wellbeing of children that is as stake and not the satisfaction of foster parents’ wants. Yes, no one should be denied the rights to adopt children; however, what if the conditions under which such children will thrive are not conducive for their wellbeing?

Children have a right to grow under good parental care, which should be coupled with environments that encourage development of their personality. Although most supporters of homosexuality may argue that, even gays can be good parents, so long as they have all the supportive resources, most of them rarely take into consideration the degree of acceptability and effects of the practice on the wellbeing of children’s future behavioral orientations.

Psychologically, children learn by coping from their next kin and surroundings; therefore, it is of great significance for parents to expose their children to morally acceptable and cherished values; which, same sex marriages rarely provide. It is very illogical to for parents who are homosexuals to encourage their children to be straight and expect their children to follow such an advice, when the nature of their relationship opposes that.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, as research studies show, as compared to heterosexuals, homosexuals have high suicidal, depression, and violence tendencies. Therefore, considering the significance of the traditional marriages in providing children with the necessary developmental support, it is important for societies to ban the concept of homosexuals adopting children (Scruton Para. 1-4).

Another reason why homosexuals should not adopt children is that, homosexuality exposes children to numerous developmental problems. Most children reared by homosexuals are never proud of their parents, because most of them fear intimidation from their peers. This can be very detrimental to a child’s development of children’s personality and sociability; hence, the tendency of most of these children being gloomy.

Yes, homosexual parents may provide secure environments for leaning to take place; however, can they provide the nature of lessons children learn from their peers? The answer is no, because parental love only sets the foundation for development of good personality traits, whereas the environment shapes any trait developed.

Chances of most children with homosexual parents being bullied in school or being victims of stress are high, because even children know or have been though by their parents that homosexuality is not a morally acceptable practice. Therefore, to facilitate the development of health relationships between children, fro purposes of insightful learning to take place, the society should encourage the adoption of children by traditional types of families (Saletan 1).

In normal societal environments, the main significance of a family is procreation, for purposes of continuation of the human species. This is a concept, which homosexuality does not embrace, because practically, it is impossible for homosexuals to sire.

Therefore, the idea of allowing homosexuals to adopt children can greatly jeopardizes the wellbeing of the society, because homosexuality limits people’s ability to procreate. Although most proponents of this idea oppose this notion by arguing that, the society has enough numbers of heterosexual to populate the world, encouraging the idea of homosexuals adopting children can greatly erode this significance of a family unit.

In addition, because in most cases most homosexual relationships lack the concept of procreation, most of their relationships are unstable. Hence, by supporting the homosexuals bid to adopt children, it means that that society has accepted to put more children at a higher risk ending up in foster homes, instead of getting them out of foster homes (Rekers Para. 16-19).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Homosexuals Should Not Be Allowed to Adopt Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, although every individual has a right to adopt a child, it is important for children fostering organizations to not only consider the amount of resources that an individual has to support a child, but also the nature of environment this child will be reared in.

This is due to the fact that, the wellbeing and health growth of a child depends on many factors, for example, environmental influences; hence, if a child is denied this, likelihoods of that child developing psychological, social, mental, and emotional disorders are high. Therefore, considering the numerous negative influences associated with homosexuality on child development, it is important for societies to discourage the idea of allowing homosexuals to adopt children, by banning the practice completely.

Works Cited Reckers, George. Same sex marriage: not in kid’s interest. Zenit-Rome. 2005. Web.

Saletan, William. Adopting premises: the sneaky debate over legalizing adoptions by gay couples. The Washington Post, 7 Feb. 2002. Web.

Scruton, Roger. This “right” fro gays is an injustice to children. The Telegraph, 28 Jan. 2007. Web.

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The Relationship between Decadence and Technology, as Explored in Ray Bradbury’s Stories The Veldt and The Rocket Essay college application essay help

Although, formally speaking, Ray Bradbury’s stories The Veldt and The Rocket belong to the literary genre of sci-fi, they are not as much about exploring the theme of bright technological future as they are about exploring the effects of futuristic technology on one’s consciousness.

The common thing about both stories is the fact that, in them, author strived to exploit the motif of parental/social alienation, which he thought was going to represent one of the most important aspects of futuristic living. At the same time, even though the plots of The Veldt and The Rocket revolve around the theme of how technology might affect the workings of people’s consciousness, they offer diametrically opposite views, in regards to the subject matter.

Whereas; The Veldt implies a counterproductive essence of such an effect, The Rocket promotes an idea that the utilization of technology does not deprive people of their existential vitality, but on the contrary – endows them with it. In other words; whereas, The Veldt is best referred to as the story of ‘degradation through technology’, The Rocket is most appropriately defined as the story about ‘revival through technology’. In our paper, we will aim to explore this thesis at length.

In The Veldt, readers are being exposed to the story of two comparatively well-off but overly decadent parents George and Lydia coming to realization of the fact that their ‘Happylife Home’, which featured visually three-dimensional nursery for kids, was in fact causing more harm to their and kids’ well-being then good: “The more I see of the mess we’ve put ourselves in, the more it sickens me. We’ve been contemplating our mechanical, electronic navels for too long.

My God, how we need a breath of honest air!” (p. 17). As it appears out of story’s context, the reason why George and Lydia were becoming increasingly weary of their house, filled with a variety of different technological gadgets, is that while living there, they felt as if life-force was being gradually sucked out of them – in ‘Happylife Home’, there was nothing for both parents to occupy themselves with.

In fact, house’s nursery had even taken over the upbringing of their children Peter and Wendy. This; however, had proven to be only a half of the problem – as time went by, George and Lydia started to realize that their kids were growing progressively alienated from them, on one hand, and becoming increasingly addicted to spending time in the nursery, on another.

Slowly but surely, the techno-nursery became a surrogate parent for Peter and Wendy. As it was pointed out by story’s another, psychologist David McClean: “You’ve let this room and this house replace you and your wife in your children’s affections. This room is their mother and father, far more important in their lives than their real parents” (p. 16).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that The Veldt was written circa 1951, in this sort story Bradbury was able to prove the strength of his prophetic insights beyond any reasonable doubt – after all, what author contemplated upon in this particular story, had now became a part of objective reality.

Nowadays, the computer had effectively replaced parents for teenagers in many American families. This, however did not make the lives of parents any easier – as McClean had rightly suggested, it is only the matter of time before kids, addicted to playing with hi-tech gadgets, become mentally inadequate: “One of the original uses of these nurseries was so that we could study the patterns left on the walls by the child’s mind, study at our leisure, and help the child.

In this case, however, the room has become a channel toward-destructive thoughts, instead of a release away from them” (p. 16). Therefore, it makes no surprise that The Veldt ends on a tragic note – after having realized that their parents were serious about shutting down the nursery, Wendy and Peter decided to lure George and Lydia into it, in order for them to be eaten by lions.

The morale of this story could be articulated as follows: people who are being deprived of their existential vitality, due to having all of their desires fully satisfied, cannot possibly utilize technology to improve their lives even better – on the contrary, rich but decadent people’s continuous exposal to technology will deprive them of the remains of their liveliness.

Nevertheless, as we have pointed out earlier – in The Rocket, Bradbury discussed the effects of technology on people’s consciousness from an entirely new perspective. In it, story’s main character Fiorello Bodoni, who always dreamt of a space travel but was never able to afford it, decides to spend his lifesavings so that at least one member of his extended family would be able to experience the treat of a lifetime – flying to Mars on rocket, just like rich people do.

He does it despite his friend Baramante’s advise not to act foolish and to remain content with the fact that there are certain things that poor people will never be able to do: “No, Bodoni, buy a new wrecking machine, which you need, and pull your dreams apart with it, and smash them to pieces” (p. 178).

In other words, even at the story’s very beginning, Bradbury provides readers with the good clue as to the main character’s affiliation with the lowest social strata – hence, establishing an entirely new semantic context, within which story’s plot would unravel, as compared to what it was the case with The Veldt.

We will write a custom Essay on The Relationship between Decadence and Technology, as Explored in Ray Bradbury’s Stories The Veldt and The Rocket specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike the characters of George and Lydia from The Veldt, Bodoni is being represented to readers as someone with the strong desire to help his children to be able to attain social prominence in the future, despite the impossible odds. Ironically enough though, it was namely Bodoni’s realization of a sheer preposterousness of such his intention, which only added to the strength of his resolution to step over the limitations of its own social status – he swore to provide a chance to one of his numerous kids to experience space travel.

Nevertheless, it did not take too long for Bodoni to apprehend that if one of the children does fly to Mars, it would make the kid feeling guilty for the rest of his life, on the account that others were denied the same opportunity.

In its turn, this caused story’s main character to spend his hard-earned money to buy the mockup of a rocket, to put it in his backyard, and to install 3D TV screens in place of illuminators, so that all of his kids would be able to ‘travel’ to space and back, without knowing that this ‘travel’ was an illusion: “Let all of space come and go, and red Mars come up under our ship, and the moons of Mars, and let there be no flaws in the color film.

Let there be three dimensions; let nothing go wrong with the hidden mirrors and screens that mold the fine illusion. Let time pass without crisis” (p. 184). After having ‘flown’ to Mars and back with all the children onboard, Bodoni felt if his actual life’s mission has been fulfilled – after having been to ‘space’, his kids will never think that, due to their low social status, there are things in life that they could never even dream of doing.

Even Bodoni’s rather unimaginative wife Maria had grown to appreciate what her husband did: “Very late in the night Bodoni opened his eyes. He sensed that his wife was lying beside him, watching him. She did not move for a very long time, and then suddenly she kissed his cheeks and his forehead. ‘What’s this?’ he cried. ‘You’re the best father in the world,’ she whispered” (p. 185).

The morale of this story is: those with burning desire to fulfill their life-dreams, despite lacking financial means, represent the better part humanity, because it is namely this type of people that make scientific, cultural and social progress possible. When we compare the endings of The Veldt and The Rocket, it will appear that; whereas, Bodoni’s poverty was proven an asset, within the context of how his life was affected by technology, George and Lydia’s prosperity, within the same context, was proven to be the key to their ‘undoing’.

Thus, just as we have stated in the thesis, the reading of Bradbury’s both stories provides us with the insight onto the fact that technology itself can never be referred to as being ‘inheritably wicked’, as decadents do.

Whereas; the utilization of 3D technology by George and Lydia in The Veldt resulted in bringing about their ultimate demise, the utilization of the same technology, on the part of Bodoni, allowed him to endow his children with an acute sense of self-respect and to strengthen the integrity of his marital relationship with Maria. This is exactly the reason why The Rocket is the last story in The Illustrated Man – apparently, Bradbury wanted to emphasize his belief in the beneficence to the mankind of just about any science-based technology.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relationship between Decadence and Technology, as Explored in Ray Bradbury’s Stories The Veldt and The Rocket by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The analysis of motifs, contained in both stories, leaves very few doubts as to the full validity of his prophetic insights – just like the characters in The Veldt, today’s White people in Western countries continue to grow ever more technologically minded. However, this does not make them more ‘alive’ – unlike their ancestors, who used to bring the light of civilization to savages; they now allow these savages to colonize their own countries under disguise of ‘celebration of diversity’.

Alternatively, the continuous utilization of technology by poor but mentally adequate people, unaffected by ideologies that derive out of bellyful idling (neo-Liberalism, New Age, etc.), as Chinese and Russians, had created a situation when it is now only the matter of very short time, before the mission of bearing the light of civilization will be given to them.

In The Veldt and in The Rocket, Bradbury referred to the concept of technology in essentially the same manner that Richard Wagner referred to the concept of ‘gold’ in his operas – just as it was the case with gold in Wagnerian operas, people’s exposal to Bradbury’s ‘technology’ turns weak even weaker and strong even stronger. Therefore, it would not be an exaggeration to suggest that, besides high literary, there is also a high philosophical value to both of Bradbury’s stories.

References Bradbury, Ray “The Illustrated Man”. New York: Bantam Books, 1983. Print.

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Leadership Skills and Development Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Challenges

Solution to the Challenges

Reference List

Introduction Some people say leaders are born while others argue that leaders are made. My opinion stands that leaders can be born and leaders can be made thus everybody is born with a chance of becoming a leader if the desired effort and the required support come into play.

As a manager if you were not born, there are many existing literature that can help you become the leader you want. The process often involves enacting a development framework that involves among others a culture that values learning and development. In the past, our managers have been accused of lacking leadership skills or even developing a leadership that can move a company or organization forward.

Challenges The process of developing leadership skills involves not teaching but being a mentor to others. Most often our managers do not set expectations or goals and when they do, they do not reinforce the goals and rewards and thus they do not instill them as priorities to their staff. Therefore, most of the times they tend to lead a clueless delegation which does not know what is expected of them. Managers who develop internal management strategies have higher chances of succeeding than their counterparts who hire trainees from outside.

When you give a chance to those who are below you to learn from you it gives them an inspiration to act as it is supposed and to them you become a mentor. Most of our managers do not give a performance management program that gives priority to succession as this would also lead towards managers passing their skills to those who are below them in the helm to ensure the organization always succeeds in its endeavors (Brown, 2010).

Some people view coaching as the basic skill to efficient management but giving feed backs is also a major step in ensuring there is leadership development. To understand the development process our managers should be aware of what is expected of them and how they can make others learn from the skills they posses. Most of the times promotion, decisions, and performance rewards are not aligned with the success of the business rather promotions are given according to technical ability but not because of proven leadership.

This reduces chances of major innovators within the organization developing leadership since chances of recognition are very minimal. Another way of improving leadership has been through professional certification meetings. Attending to these meetings enables managers stay current in the field of specialization. It also provides a good place for networking and may also help the manager in learning new things in the market (Brown, 2010).

A development process is necessary when one wants to make a development plan. The plan should have the comparison of competencies being developed and meet the business goals and objectives. The objectives should be measurable and actionable rather than being writings on the paper alone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem with most of the development plans, though feasible, most managers assume they are not actionable and though they may promise to work on them they remains as a dream to many innovators who most of the times do not have influence over the company activities.

Another problem which our manager suffers from is lack of management skills. Instead of creating a comfortable and sound environment for one to air their views, some managers creates an environment full of tension between them and those who are learning and by creating the atmosphere that the manager is always at the top this does not auger well with any development plans.

When developing skills and leadership, management also lacks enough time and to ensure that an activity achieves the desired results, enough time should be given for the involved to learn and internalize the concepts.

Building learning into work is another good strategy since it creates an effective learning experience whereby one learns by doing the real work in this process through observation and practical work skills are passed from the management to the employees (Steeves and Frein, 2010).

Lack of feedback is another major hindrance to leadership development. For good results there should be repeated feedback until the desired level of proficiency is achieved. In ensuring the developed skill works, the manager should assign duties that ensure the learnt skills and knowledge is applied to work.

This involves deciding which projects offer the best opportunities for practice to the learning employee. A safer environment can also be created by which it is okay to make mistakes though not to repeat them as it is often said we learn best from our mistakes. When the risk involved is less there are usually high chances of learning and perfecting new skills. The new skills should be tied to the business needs and competencies related to the job.

Organizations should also change and develop projects that reward management for good leadership skills. As of true nature human beings are selfish and an idea of a reward or a promotion would lead to managers devoting more time and effort in leading and developing their junior employees.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Leadership Skills and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This brings out to the challenge that although many organizations have invested in framework for employee development unless there is something the manager gains from the coaching or mentoring it will remain not being a priority to the managers to pass their skills down the line. For any successful development process, a management team that understands the required skills should be put into work so as to ensure the desired skills are transferred from the leadership to the workforce (Brown, 2010).

Another problem which faces many managers is that most of the times they focus on monitoring individual performance although monitoring tactics could be the most helpful in fighting any crisis in case the results are not as desired. For example, you cannot expect to have the same results between a messenger and a computer scientist. Their skills are different and so should be their performance. Most of the times our managers lack any inspirations when they fail to define the required expectations and what reward will follow the effort invested in the activity.

Risk taking and challenging assumptions helps reinforce innovation in the organization capability which is one of the most important managerial tools to survive a crisis but in most occasions the managers are too risk averse to try any risky or challenging propositions by those below him in management and this leads to less leadership developments in the organization as most people view that their points are not of any importance to the company.

Solution to the Challenges The world seems to be too dominated by the males thus creation of female leaders to increase gender diversity would help very much in diversifying management strategies and line of thoughts. Many firms overlook the workers contribution and rewards are never offered. However, with occasions like economic crisis, most organizations engage the young crop of employees with tedious and unrewarding jobs. Instead they should give their employees the challenges they are seeking and cultivate more trust in them.

Another solution to the failing leadership and leadership development should be developing the do it yourself attitude. This results in accelerated learning and improved leadership and a changed nature of doing work. To achieve success there should also be a feedback process and a changed management process. Instead of creating programs that disengage employees from their actual work, we should help developing leaders do what they are supposed to do (Harris, 2010).

Knowledge sharing breeds leadership; when a trusting environment is created individuals freely collaborate in the process of creating and sharing new knowledge as long as there will be equitable allocations of the innovations many people share their innovative thoughts and this helps in creating a strong leadership.

Managers should know that knowledge is always widely distributed within and across organizational units. When trust and sensitivity are maintained most people benefit from the knowledge shared and are always satisfied as long as equitable distribution of rewards will be forth coming (Miles, 2007).

The main purpose of leadership development strategy is that it enables the efforts of all players in the industry feel appreciated. When the manager supports innovative ideas of their employees for example in exploring new market initiatives or launching of new products it increases the desire of new development of leadership skills within the employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership Skills and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most often the managers do not get involved in any innovations in the company by not investing in it or even being accountable this leads to loss of motivation and it kills any possible leadership skill that may be with in the initiator and thus unless the management becomes responsive to the new innovations, quality leadership will never be felt to be at work.

This acknowledgement enables the initiative be seen as a tool for organizational change. By the manager paying close attention to the project meaning that it is an important initiative and gives the employee the feeling of having a responsibility in the organization’s transformation.

Lastly, another activity which can help in leadership development is through quality improvement in an organization. This gives employees developing skills which make it possible for them to take up positions of influence within the organization they are working in. This involves engaging all the key stakeholders, reaching to agreements on what needs to be changed and which initiatives can bring the desired changes. Those who will take responsibility for leading them and what will be needed from them.

The process of creating a development within a leadership involves having a clear and shared vision among the industry players assessment of local leadership and management capability.

Creation of new interpersonal relationships through which you can create allies to your project is also an important process and understanding the perceptions of trust and risk taking behavior, establishing communication system, and understanding and interacting with the influential parties enables the development process become a success ( Hockey, et al., 2009).

Reference List Brown, P. (2010). Having Their Backs: Improving Managers’ Skills in Developing Others

Harris, P. (2010). Leadership role models earn trust and profits

Hockey, P; Tobin, A; Stanwick, S; Lees, P; Seewell, A; Smith, C; Green, P; Kitsell, F; Kerrigan, J; Kemp, J. (2009). Global health partnerships: leadership development for a purpose. London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Miles, R. (2007). Innovation and Leadership Values. California Management Review Vol. 50, No. 1 fall 2007.

Steeves, R; Frein, M. (2010). Determining what is necessary

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The Relationship between Decadence and Technology, as Explored in Ray Bradbury’s Stories The Veldt and The Rocket Essay college essay help

Although, formally speaking, Ray Bradbury’s stories The Veldt and The Rocket belong to the literary genre of sci-fi, they are not as much about exploring the theme of bright technological future as they are about exploring the effects of futuristic technology on one’s consciousness.

The common thing about both stories is the fact that, in them, author strived to exploit the motif of parental/social alienation, which he thought was going to represent one of the most important aspects of futuristic living. At the same time, even though the plots of The Veldt and The Rocket revolve around the theme of how technology might affect the workings of people’s consciousness, they offer diametrically opposite views, in regards to the subject matter.

Whereas; The Veldt implies a counterproductive essence of such an effect, The Rocket promotes an idea that the utilization of technology does not deprive people of their existential vitality, but on the contrary – endows them with it. In other words; whereas, The Veldt is best referred to as the story of ‘degradation through technology’, The Rocket is most appropriately defined as the story about ‘revival through technology’. In our paper, we will aim to explore this thesis at length.

In The Veldt, readers are being exposed to the story of two comparatively well-off but overly decadent parents George and Lydia coming to realization of the fact that their ‘Happylife Home’, which featured visually three-dimensional nursery for kids, was in fact causing more harm to their and kids’ well-being then good: “The more I see of the mess we’ve put ourselves in, the more it sickens me. We’ve been contemplating our mechanical, electronic navels for too long.

My God, how we need a breath of honest air!” (p. 17). As it appears out of story’s context, the reason why George and Lydia were becoming increasingly weary of their house, filled with a variety of different technological gadgets, is that while living there, they felt as if life-force was being gradually sucked out of them – in ‘Happylife Home’, there was nothing for both parents to occupy themselves with.

In fact, house’s nursery had even taken over the upbringing of their children Peter and Wendy. This; however, had proven to be only a half of the problem – as time went by, George and Lydia started to realize that their kids were growing progressively alienated from them, on one hand, and becoming increasingly addicted to spending time in the nursery, on another.

Slowly but surely, the techno-nursery became a surrogate parent for Peter and Wendy. As it was pointed out by story’s another, psychologist David McClean: “You’ve let this room and this house replace you and your wife in your children’s affections. This room is their mother and father, far more important in their lives than their real parents” (p. 16).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that The Veldt was written circa 1951, in this sort story Bradbury was able to prove the strength of his prophetic insights beyond any reasonable doubt – after all, what author contemplated upon in this particular story, had now became a part of objective reality.

Nowadays, the computer had effectively replaced parents for teenagers in many American families. This, however did not make the lives of parents any easier – as McClean had rightly suggested, it is only the matter of time before kids, addicted to playing with hi-tech gadgets, become mentally inadequate: “One of the original uses of these nurseries was so that we could study the patterns left on the walls by the child’s mind, study at our leisure, and help the child.

In this case, however, the room has become a channel toward-destructive thoughts, instead of a release away from them” (p. 16). Therefore, it makes no surprise that The Veldt ends on a tragic note – after having realized that their parents were serious about shutting down the nursery, Wendy and Peter decided to lure George and Lydia into it, in order for them to be eaten by lions.

The morale of this story could be articulated as follows: people who are being deprived of their existential vitality, due to having all of their desires fully satisfied, cannot possibly utilize technology to improve their lives even better – on the contrary, rich but decadent people’s continuous exposal to technology will deprive them of the remains of their liveliness.

Nevertheless, as we have pointed out earlier – in The Rocket, Bradbury discussed the effects of technology on people’s consciousness from an entirely new perspective. In it, story’s main character Fiorello Bodoni, who always dreamt of a space travel but was never able to afford it, decides to spend his lifesavings so that at least one member of his extended family would be able to experience the treat of a lifetime – flying to Mars on rocket, just like rich people do.

He does it despite his friend Baramante’s advise not to act foolish and to remain content with the fact that there are certain things that poor people will never be able to do: “No, Bodoni, buy a new wrecking machine, which you need, and pull your dreams apart with it, and smash them to pieces” (p. 178).

In other words, even at the story’s very beginning, Bradbury provides readers with the good clue as to the main character’s affiliation with the lowest social strata – hence, establishing an entirely new semantic context, within which story’s plot would unravel, as compared to what it was the case with The Veldt.

We will write a custom Essay on The Relationship between Decadence and Technology, as Explored in Ray Bradbury’s Stories The Veldt and The Rocket specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike the characters of George and Lydia from The Veldt, Bodoni is being represented to readers as someone with the strong desire to help his children to be able to attain social prominence in the future, despite the impossible odds. Ironically enough though, it was namely Bodoni’s realization of a sheer preposterousness of such his intention, which only added to the strength of his resolution to step over the limitations of its own social status – he swore to provide a chance to one of his numerous kids to experience space travel.

Nevertheless, it did not take too long for Bodoni to apprehend that if one of the children does fly to Mars, it would make the kid feeling guilty for the rest of his life, on the account that others were denied the same opportunity.

In its turn, this caused story’s main character to spend his hard-earned money to buy the mockup of a rocket, to put it in his backyard, and to install 3D TV screens in place of illuminators, so that all of his kids would be able to ‘travel’ to space and back, without knowing that this ‘travel’ was an illusion: “Let all of space come and go, and red Mars come up under our ship, and the moons of Mars, and let there be no flaws in the color film.

Let there be three dimensions; let nothing go wrong with the hidden mirrors and screens that mold the fine illusion. Let time pass without crisis” (p. 184). After having ‘flown’ to Mars and back with all the children onboard, Bodoni felt if his actual life’s mission has been fulfilled – after having been to ‘space’, his kids will never think that, due to their low social status, there are things in life that they could never even dream of doing.

Even Bodoni’s rather unimaginative wife Maria had grown to appreciate what her husband did: “Very late in the night Bodoni opened his eyes. He sensed that his wife was lying beside him, watching him. She did not move for a very long time, and then suddenly she kissed his cheeks and his forehead. ‘What’s this?’ he cried. ‘You’re the best father in the world,’ she whispered” (p. 185).

The morale of this story is: those with burning desire to fulfill their life-dreams, despite lacking financial means, represent the better part humanity, because it is namely this type of people that make scientific, cultural and social progress possible. When we compare the endings of The Veldt and The Rocket, it will appear that; whereas, Bodoni’s poverty was proven an asset, within the context of how his life was affected by technology, George and Lydia’s prosperity, within the same context, was proven to be the key to their ‘undoing’.

Thus, just as we have stated in the thesis, the reading of Bradbury’s both stories provides us with the insight onto the fact that technology itself can never be referred to as being ‘inheritably wicked’, as decadents do.

Whereas; the utilization of 3D technology by George and Lydia in The Veldt resulted in bringing about their ultimate demise, the utilization of the same technology, on the part of Bodoni, allowed him to endow his children with an acute sense of self-respect and to strengthen the integrity of his marital relationship with Maria. This is exactly the reason why The Rocket is the last story in The Illustrated Man – apparently, Bradbury wanted to emphasize his belief in the beneficence to the mankind of just about any science-based technology.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Relationship between Decadence and Technology, as Explored in Ray Bradbury’s Stories The Veldt and The Rocket by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The analysis of motifs, contained in both stories, leaves very few doubts as to the full validity of his prophetic insights – just like the characters in The Veldt, today’s White people in Western countries continue to grow ever more technologically minded. However, this does not make them more ‘alive’ – unlike their ancestors, who used to bring the light of civilization to savages; they now allow these savages to colonize their own countries under disguise of ‘celebration of diversity’.

Alternatively, the continuous utilization of technology by poor but mentally adequate people, unaffected by ideologies that derive out of bellyful idling (neo-Liberalism, New Age, etc.), as Chinese and Russians, had created a situation when it is now only the matter of very short time, before the mission of bearing the light of civilization will be given to them.

In The Veldt and in The Rocket, Bradbury referred to the concept of technology in essentially the same manner that Richard Wagner referred to the concept of ‘gold’ in his operas – just as it was the case with gold in Wagnerian operas, people’s exposal to Bradbury’s ‘technology’ turns weak even weaker and strong even stronger. Therefore, it would not be an exaggeration to suggest that, besides high literary, there is also a high philosophical value to both of Bradbury’s stories.

References Bradbury, Ray “The Illustrated Man”. New York: Bantam Books, 1983. Print.

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African American Women and the Struggle for Racial Equality Report best essay help

Table of Contents The main argument of the article

The evidence provided in the article

The major strengthen of the article

The main shortcoming of the article

Conclusion

Reference

The main argument of the article The article under consideration deals with the role played by African American women in the struggle for racial equality. Sanders (2007) claims that although African American women made a great contribution in the movement, historians still do not mention great female fighters for racial equality.

Sanders (2007) also argues that sometimes the impact of these women’s activities was even larger than that of famous male fighters, like Martin Luther King, for instance. The researcher portrays several bright examples of such female fighters which makes her claims valid.

The evidence provided in the article Thus, Sanders (2007) depicts the major activities and achievements of the most influential representatives of female fighters for equality. These activities and therefore the achievements were revealed on different levels, however, all of them contributed to the development of movement and helped to raise “one-third of America’s black population to middle class status” (Sanders, 2007, p. 27). To support her statements Sanders (2007) reveals the activity of one of the most famous African American female fighters Ida B. Wells.

Wells was an activist who fought for equality rights. Her campaign against lynching was very effective and even led to the diminishing of that inhuman tradition. Wells also mobilized other women to participate in the movement, she took an active part in establishing Chicago branch of “the first black trade union” (Sanders, 2007, p.23).

Whereas Wells was rather a local activist, Sanders (2007) depicts another remarkable African American female fighter who played an important role in the movement on the level of the entire country. Thus, Mary McLeod Bethune was one of those who tried to change the situation on the national level. She was president of National Association of Colored Women, and later established National Counsil of Negro Women. She tried to obtain the support in Congress which, she believed, can change the situation dramatically.

Sanders (2007) points out that Bethune became the head of New Deal’s National Youth Administration. This position enabled her to make numerous changes which contributed greatly the movement for equality. Sanders (2007) provides more examples, including Condoleezza Rice, stating that women made a considerable impact in the struggle, which is still not totally completed.

The major strengthen of the article To my mind, the article’s major strengthen is its precision. Sanders precisely states her main objective and then proves it with valid arguments. It is easy to follow the article due to this precision. I would also like to point out that Sanders uses very good examples to prove that women not only took an active part in the struggle but reached definite results.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article portrays the major achievements of African American female fighters which are significant. Thus, Sanders does not contemplate on the unfairness of historian’s attention to different sexes, but provides certain facts to reveal it.

The main shortcoming of the article Of course, apart from great precision and comprehensiveness of the article there is a downside. To my mind, in the very end of the article Sanders is too imprecise. She notes that for the “two-thirds of black women” the equality remains “elusive” (Sanders, 2007, p.27). However, it is not clear what is meant: social status or personal life and rights. To my mind, this part is quite uncertain and should have been more precise, since the ending is one of the strongest parts of an article which should not contain such obscurities.

Conclusion In summary, the article under consideration deals with the importance of African American women in equality struggle and the lack of historians’ attention to it. Sanders is very precise which makes the article valid. However, the weak place of the article is its uncertain ending.

Reference Sanders, V. (2007). African American Women and the Struggle for Racial Equality: Viv Sanders Corrects the Male Bias in the Study of the Civil Rights Movement in the USA. History Review, (58), 22-27.

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Concept of the Fashion Merchandising in Modern Business Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Food industries are major determinants of human health because of the direct impact they have on the environment. Retailers in these industries deal with either the production practices or trade.

Unfair trade has devastating effects on lives and clients way of living. Pollution through poor waste disposal mechanisms, pollution of the soil and toxic pesticides are fallouts of distinctive industries such as the fashion industries. The big brands have ability to influence go-green revolution, but majority are holding back on important initiatives such as the eco-friendliness, sustainability and charity work.

Currently, the campaigns on the need for eco-friendliness have a huge impact on performance. The big retailer companies of renowned brands such as Britain’s Marks and Spencer, Behemoth Nike Company known for their sports ware and H

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American Ethnic Studies Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Human beings have always been enslaved by their fellow men as long as they have lived. All this time what varied were conditions of servitude or slavery. Inequality was employed by the ancient Mesopotamian, Mayan empires among other communities. Even in the Bible it is mentioned with the slavery of Israelites in Egypt (Friedman 3).

America for a long period was characterized by racism and favoritism among people of different skin colors. In fact it was just in the 19th and the early 20th centuries which marked increased efforts among the Americans of all states trying to apply all strategies that could end slavery and secure legal equality across all Americans regardless of their color, gender or race.

The process of achieving or attaining equal civil rights among the African-Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans and Chicanos has been slow but there have been quite a number of gains that have been achieved in the struggle against oppression. All races which were discriminated in one way or the other formed movements through which they fought for their rights (Friedman 8).

The Impacts of the Civil Rights to the: Blacks

Among the most oppressed and discriminated races in America were the Americans of African origin. In most of the places they were seen as servant by the whites and most of them used to work in the plantations of white Americans.

The struggle for equality among the blacks cannot be mentioned without remembering the special contributions of Malcolm. X, Booker. T, Martin Luther and Marcus Garvey among others. These men were the voice of resistance against white supremacy over blacks in the United States of America who fought against racism and white oppression.

It is through the efforts of these people that the whites discovered blacks were equal to whites it was just the color of their skin which differentiated them. Among the impacts of the struggle for civil rights was that there was change of attitude among the whites and while in the past the whites could not serve the blacks in their stores now it was an easy option without thinking of the skin color (Friedman 63).

The struggle for civil rights in America among the blacks also brought along the voting rights for the blacks in that though previously the blacks did not have the power to vote not only did they gain the powers to vote but in populations where the blacks were more than the whites the blacks voted one of their own. The improvements of these civil rights have of late seen blacks becoming mayors of major cities for example in New York. The US has also had a black secretary of state in the name of Collin Powell and Condoleezza Rice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the year 2009, Barrack Obama became the first African American president and that shows some of the impacts of civil rights struggles. Not only in the political arena but there has been dominance in other field such as sports and entertainment with Michael Jordan in the basket ball among other sportsmen and Denzel Washington in the entertainment arena among other greats.

Despite all these advances, a quarter of African-American citizens live in abject poverty and discrimination, though the authorities may not admit, is still rife in many places in the united states of America but nevertheless huge gains have been made since the beginning of the struggle to equal civil rights among the Americans of all states (Anon 4).

Native Americans

When the white Americans came from Europe they met the Native Americans in their country but fought them and grabbed their lands and the Native Americans started living as aliens in their own country. Along with the African-Americans, the Native Americans fought relentlessly against the government plans of relocating them into cities, a move that would see them assimilated. The Native Americans lost their land and among the Red Indians, it was hard for them to adopt in the urban life and this led to abject poverty and deprivation.

After watching the uprising of third world nationalism, the native Americans became even more aggressive and some of their leaders even went to courts to recover their tribal lands, which had been grabbed illegally and in the late 1960s there were many victories which guaranteed them water and land rights (US department of State 1).

Confrontations about their rights continued and the death of an Indian American and wounding of another forced the treaty to be reexamined. The Native Americans were appreciated as American citizens and their rights which they had been denied earlier were granted back. The right to own land anywhere was one of the major impacts and in the political arena the election of Colorado’s Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell in the year 1992 marked the entry of Native Americans into active politics (Perea 53).

Chicanos

Aware of the rise in African-American civil rights movements, Mexican Americans commonly known as Chicanos also struggled against white oppression and segregation (Inda 9). At that time most of Chicanos were excluded from the schools by common practices and were said to be less responsive to education compared to American children.

The Chicanos were also oppressed in the farms they used to work in and the farm worker movement spearheaded by an individual by the name of Cesar Chavez to protect the rights of exploited and brutalized Mexican American and Filipino workers in the state of California brought about the much needed turnaround of how Chicanos were viewed by the other Americans (Perea 54).

We will write a custom Essay on American Ethnic Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Chicanos fought against oppression in the education system where their kids were seen as less able and the less wages paid to them, they implemented a series of mass and direct action campaigns and when the farm workers struck against California farmers in the year 1965, refusing to pick grapes until their union was recognized, the movement was joined by other classes among the Chicanos for example the doctors. Through their national wide strike, the farm workers were recognized and their right to decent wages was also upheld (Inda 8).

The struggle movements taught Chicanos that they did not have to conform to social standards which made them look like a lower class of citizen otherwise the movements were mobilizing masses of people who had been disempowered by instilling confidence in them (Inda 9).

They also helped convince Chicanos that change was not going to come through established channels, but rather through mass action movements. These movements enabled the white Americans recognize the Chicanos as equal citizens and even the education system was changed into a system where the Chicanos and other Americans attended the same classes without segregation and were not seen as being any inferior.

Asian Americans

In the early parts of 20th century Japanese migration to California aroused fears within the United States and as a result the Japanese government was induced to voluntarily limit the emigration of its nationals to the United States in return for the promise of better treatment of those who were already in the country; but this agreement did not prevent California from enacting legislations which barred Japanese from purchasing land in the golden state. Asian immigrants were denied naturalization and also equal protection by laws (Fredrickson 8).

The Asian American movements combined the Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans. They were driven largely by student activists radicalized by the anti Vietnam war and the black power movements. The main aims of these movements were about challenging the stereotypes about Asian passivity and rejecting the exoticism and racism.

They mobilized this new consciousness against racism in the schools, media and residential among other forms of discrimination. Despite the fact that it was largely a representing the youth, this movement changed institutions for the older community into new ones. The movement conducted triumphant crusades in opposition to bills that prohibited interracial marriages (Gregory 1).

As the black movements arose so did the Asian Americans begin to actualize their identity as Americans and they formed groups with multi- ethnic roots. These movements fought against discrimination and their efforts were marked with changed legislation for Asian Americans during which the American government eased laws restricting immigration and opened doors to new Asian migration (Low 10).

The murder of Asian American Vincent Chin by two Americans during the period in which the Americans were blaming the Asians of job loss awakened the Asian community.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American Ethnic Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The shock that swept across the community made the Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, and Korean come together to fight for justice through a law suit and though justice was denied by overturning the sentences through technicalities, it raised the consciousness of hate crimes against Asian Americans it served as a catalyst for Asian Americans to look beyond their individual ethnic communities to organize the movement against anti Asian violence. These movements have enabled recognition of all people living in America as equal American citizens.

Conclusion It is imperative to recognize the African American, Native American, Chicanos and Asian Americans struggles for equality and civil rights. Recognizing the full scope of civil rights struggles is important in understanding the full measure of past injustices experienced in America. This is due to the simple fact that if we underestimate or we deny that there were no human rights violations to the African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Chicanos, then we underestimate the scope and the extent of white racism.

Every struggle against racism and oppression deserves recognition. Though much recognition has been given to the African American movements, it would be unfair to forget the efforts of the other movements as they all fought against oppression and discrimination of the same master. The study shows that everybody is capable of discriminating and discrimination and at least it shows that white Americans are capable of recognizing priorities higher than the maintenance of racial privilege. That may be something we can build upon.

Works Cited Anon. “African Americans.” English online, 2010. Web.

Fredrickson, George. “The Historical Construction of Race and Citizenship in the United States”, United Nations Research for Social Development. 2003. Web.

Friedman, Michael. “Free at last; the US civil rights movement.” Americagov, 2008. Web.

Gregory, James. “Seattle’s Asian American Movement.” University of Washington. Web.

Inda, Juan. “The Development of the East Los Angeles High School Blowouts.” Stanford University, 1990. Web.

Low, Elaine. “An unnoticed struggle, A concise history of Asian American civil rights.” Japanese American Citizen League. 2007. Web.

Perea P. Juan. “An essay on the iconic status of the civil rights movement and its unintended consequences.” Virginia Journal of Social Policy

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How to Become a Registered Nurse Explicatory Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Unfortunately, the role of nurses is often underestimated, despite the fact that these healthcare professionals must have a great number of skills and competences such as excellent knowledge of medicine, ability to communicate with people of various backgrounds, leadership, quick decision-making and, most importantly, compassionate attitude toward the patient.

Without these qualities, one definitely should not start a nursing career, as it will be a disaster both for him and his patients. This paper aims to discuss those standards and expectations that registered nurses (RN) have to meet on a daily basis. Furthermore, it is necessary to show the steps which a person should take, if he/she wants to become an RN.

In order to write this essay, I have interviewed Kathie Shankley, a close friend of mine and a practicing nurse. She agreed to speak about her work in a community hospital. She believes that the most difficult thing for her is the wide scope nurse’s duties. My friend says, “It sometimes seems to me that I must do more than ten things at a time”.

Judging from this statement, one can assume that a registered nurse must be able to prioritize the tasks in terms of their importance and urgency. Moreover, a nurse must be able to keep ones composure in critical moments. In Kathie’s view, a person, who does not have these abilities, “should think twice or even thrice” whether he wants to pursue a career in medicine or not. The thing is that there are moments when you have to act on the spur of the moment, and not everyone can do it.

Another thing, which Kathie finds particularly challenging, is the necessity to find an approach to every patient. She points out that “language barrier can really be a great obstacle sometimes”. According to Kathie, if a person is bilingual, he/she will really have an advantage over others.

Thus, it is quite possible to argue that cross-cultural education is of great importance for all medical workers, not only nurses. This is one of the reasons why medical students should study a foreign language. This is particularly relevant for such country as the United States, where people can speak Spanish, Italian, Russian and so forth. The knowledge of foreign language can be of great avail for an RN, although this is not a must.

Moreover, a registered nurse must be well-aware of the most recent research findings as this knowledge can greatly improve the quality of patient care. The thing is that treatment methods constantly evolve, a healthcare professional must always read books and academic journal in order to “stay in the forefront and be in the know”, as Kathie noted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She also urged future nurses not to overlook their math classes because a RN has to know how to analyze statistical data. This is one of those skills, which one has to acquire, if he/she intends to take this career path. Kathie says that many nurses fail to achieve professional growth, because they do not take much interest in the on-going medical research.

Although, being a registered nurse is very prestigious, one must bear in mind that the responsibilities of these people are much heavier because they work in intensive care units and operation rooms and supervise the activities of other nurses. To become an RN, one should obtain Master’s or at least Bachelor’s degree.

Again, as it has been mentioned before, a nurse must be versed in many areas of study: medicine, psychology, chemistry, pharmacology statistics and so forth. Without appropriate academic background, one can hope of becoming an RN. Kathie believes that the would-be students should carefully evaluate the training programs, offered by various schools of nursing as this choice can greatly impact their professional growth as well as salary.

During our conversation, I have also asked Kathie about the rewards of this profession or those things which bring joy and satisfaction. I intentionally avoided asking questions about monetary compensation, as I was more interested in the reasons why people decide to pursue the career of a nurse.

I am not quite sure that Kathie’s answer was very elaborate; she said, “I just wanted to help people who are ill, and I’m really glad when they recover”. After a moment of hesitation she added “You know, it’s one of those things that are very difficult to explain”. Therefore, we can presume that an RN ought to feel compassion for the patient, and this is one of those in-born qualities which can be neither acquired nor elaborated.

In this paper I have tried to single out those skills, competencies and psychological traits that a student must have in order to become a registered nurse. There are as follows: 1) excellent knowledge of various interrelated disciplines; 2) ability to communicate with people of various cultural and ethnic origins; 3) cool-headedness; 4) willingness to improve one’s professional skills and 4) genuine desire to help other people. One can hardly imagine an RN or other healthcare giver without these properties.

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Sustained organisational performance Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Talent development and sustained organisational performance

Conclusion

References

Introduction Talent management has been cited by a number of firms as the key reason behind their continual success even during tough business times. Prioritising this area cushions organisation against externalities and better prepares them to take on challenges that they will face in the future.

Talent development and sustained organisational performance CIPD (2009) claims that the relevance of training to organisational performance has taken on a totally different meaning; nowadays certain unconventional skills have found relevance in the work environment. For example, an engineer taking a coaching course may learn new skills concerning performance and productivity.

Although this may be difficult to understand at the onset, it does not imply that employees should be undermined in any way for making such choices. In the end, sustained business performance can be achieved if talent development takes on a different and unconventional meaning in a firm. Today’s business environment is rapidly changing. It has become less skill based and more service or knowledge based.

To this end, work has become dynamic and in order to keep up, companies must be ready to engage in continuous learning. In response to this dynamism, firms may ask their employees to think of certain creative courses that they may engage in order to promote creativity. Therefore, continual redefinitions of what learning involves in education will be crucial in ensuring sustainability in performance.

One critical issue that is emerging in the area of talent development is the problem of economic conditions. Given the tough business conditions, companies have started reducing budgets allocated to talent management while others have left out the strategy altogether. In fact it has been shown that the thirty eight point five billion pounds allocated to training in the United Kingdom will reduce in tough times.

However, these organisations need to realise that for economic recovery to occur then there must be a firm commitment to talent development. Furthermore, continual learning will place them at a good position when an upturn occurs. Training organisations are also better equipped in tough times because they have a chance to retain their talent and hence be sustainable in production.

Studies show that the ratio of firms that go bankrupt is 2.5 times more in firms that abandon training than those that do not so it should never be ignored. Companies cannot do without training because this essentially facilitates differentiation from other organisations and provides them with a source of competitive advantage. Some HR professionals are taking the tough times in their stride by now looking for ways of increasing value within the talent development area.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are employing creative ways of doing so. First, some of them are substituting external coaching providers with internal ones and they are also looking for cost effectiveness in present talent development system. What this illustrates is that a high number of well performing firms are placing talent management at the top of their agenda and this translates to high return on investment thus high effectiveness (CIPD, 2008)

Learning and development is critical at the workplace because it allows the utilisation of skills. In essence, this means that a large number of employees will be more productive and this will translate to high performance.

For instance, during tough economic times when budgets are running low, skills utilisation is often done by offering people within the organisation opportunities to grow even though they may not necessarily be the ideal candidates for those positions. These persons may get an opportunity to transfer their skills so that they can do well in their new positions.

Talent management allows companies a chance of building the employees in their organisation. This means that firms need not invest too much time in focusing on recruiting talent from outside. Additionally, companies will get the opportunity to work with what they have but still focus on their business objectives if they prioritise learning and development (Pearson, 2010). It implies that efficiency in talent management translates to efficiency in business processes and hence high productivity.

For example, if a company has been endowed by well performing employees, then talent development will ensure that these individuals are retained and that they continue to contribute towards their organisation’s sustainability. On the other hand, some companies create high performers through talent management. By reviewing how individuals are performing, these organisations can ensure that they get a return on their investments and hence be profitable in tough times as well as simpler times.

Talent management often encourages employees to engage in the right behaviours. Organisations have various approaches to this. Some may carry it out by ensuring that they instate reward based pay such that pay is linked to outcome. Alternatively, some may look for better ways of doing so such as through the use of rewards provided to the stated individuals.

Conclusion Talent management is crucial for survival of companies. By taking training and development needs seriously, firms will build the structures needed in order to get past business obstacles and compete effectively.

We will write a custom Report on Sustained organisational performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References CIPD. (2009). The war on talent? Talent management under threat in uncertain times. Febrary issue, 4685

CIPD. (2008). Time to train: consulting on a new right to request time off to train employees in England. Response to Department for innovation, universities and skills

Pearson Compilation (2010). Perspectives on People at Work. Essex: Custom Publishing

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The Form of a Poem Essay college admissions essay help

There is a reason why there are different types of poems, there is a song, sonnet, villanelle, hymn, ode, elegy, versanelle and many more. The reason for this is the need for different ways to express the longing of the heart and the soul. Sometimes it is better to sing; sometimes it is best to speak of what was hidden and has to be revealed to the light of day.

But even if there are different forms of poetry there are many writers and poets who are not contented with what is available to them and so they took the different forms and experiment on it, one of the best example is E.E. Cummings. Yet even without the experimentations of Cummings there are plenty of examples on how poets use form to convey what they want to say. This paper will take a closer look at how form can impact the message of the poem.

It has been said that Shakespeare, Edna St. Vincent Millay, and Gwendolyn Brooks are some of the writers who were not afraid to bend the rules of poetry. Based on their achievements and their skills one can argue that this has been on purpose. They did not do it just for the sake of experimentation or simply trying to create something new.

They did on purpose to achieve a certain effect (Hirsch, p.311). It can be said that words are not enough to express what they wanted the world to know and so they took what was available for them and then create a masterpiece by changing and even altering the universally accepted forms and rules of how to create poems.

One of the best examples of not only artistic freedom but also the confidence to go against the flow and create original works is E.E. Cummings.

One commentator was able to capture the impact of Cummings poetry and this is what he had to say regarding the author: “Although he says he is far from original, it is agreed by all that he was an innovative poet in many fields, especially form … he attempts to deal with his words visually and this way takes his poem closer to visual arts and painting rather than music” (Korhan, p.1). In other words Cummings wanted his readers not only to hear but to see.

A good way to illustrate this technique is by looking at one of Cummings bizarre output which is entitled “r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r” and it is difficult to say or read it and so it must be seen and this is how it looks:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r who a)s w(e loo)k upnowgath PPEGORHRASS eringint(o- aThe):l eA !p: S a (r rIvInG .gRrEaPsPhOs) to rea(be)rran(com)gi(e)ngly ,grasshopper; (Cummings, p.1).

This is more like code or a riddle rather than a poem. And the only reason why it made sense was the presence of the word “grasshopper” at the very end of the poem. It can be interpreted as a grasshopper that jumps from one place to the next at random without pattern and without explanation. For instance, it is easy to understand the movement of a dog. Its master throws a ball he catches it and brings it back. A dog will jump and bark to get the attention of its master and this is easy to understand but a grasshopper has no logic to its movement.

By writing the poem this way and using this form then the author was able to show the behavior of a grasshopper. Cummings could have said the same thing in a few words but instead of talking about it he simply showed it using poetry but this time not the words that is contained in it but the form.

The form is also part of the message. The form communicates something that cannot be said. In other times it is a way to communicate using a few words, the efficient use of space allows expert lyricists and poets to create something that can create lasting impact in the hearts and minds of their readers.

It can also be said that by bending the rules and experimenting on form the authors are attracting the readers to read their work. It also produces different layers of meaning instead of simply saying it with words there is another tool that can be used to send another message, one that can help the reader get deeper into the poetry. This is the reason why poets like Cummings would not hesitate to go against the conventions of writing poetry.

Aside from the visual aspect of form, there is another why form is used to show the theme of the poem. The form is not only the meter and the rhyme but also the choice of words and even the way it is arranged (Roza, p.7). For instance authors would use repetition and word play such as the use of terms that are related to each other and therefore by placing them in a certain position the author is saying to pay attention to these words. The best example is a poem by Dylan Thomas entitled Do not Gentle into that Good Night.

In Thomas’ masterpiece he used repetition to highlight the most important points. He wanted the readers to understand the desperate cry of a son for his father not to surrender to death that easily. The son knows that his father is about to die and he wanted to prevent it. In other words he wanted to lengthen his life by encouraging him not to give up and this was seen in how the author used repetition.

We will write a custom Essay on The Form of a Poem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By persuading him not to go and using the phrase Do not go four times he is making his desperation felt. And by repeating the word rage and to rage against the dying of light is his solution to the problem which is to say that the father should not only desire to live but to fight for that belief and that right to stay alive.

Aside from repetitions Thomas was also conscious about the way to play with words and he knew that there is going to affect his readers and make them understand what he was trying to say about the pain of death. He did this by using two opposite words and yet he positioned these words so that it will rhyme and therefore the readers will be forced to see the contrast between night and light. It was the son’s warning to his father that darkness awaits him if he will not rage against death.

Conclusion Form is not just there for the sake of order and logic. This is because authors can sometimes bend the rules not to create chaos but to clarify and to improve the communication between author and reader. There are times when words are not enough that a visual representation is needed. Sometimes words describing a feeling or a scene is not enough so that the author will rely on repetition and a careful use of word play to make the readers focus on what they are really trying to say.

The best examples of experimenting with form and the use of repetitions to create an effect are the works of Cummings and Thomas. Cummings did not hesitate to create something that can also be seen not just heard. Thomas on the other hand used repetitions to highlight what he wanted to say and to add urgency to his message which is in fact his theme, to show a son’s desperate attempt to save his father from sure death.

Works Cited Cummings, E.E. “r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r.” Web.

Hirsch, Edward. How to Read a Poem: And Fall in Love with Poetry. Florida: Harcourt, 1999.

Roza, Greg. Patterns in Poetry: Recognizing and Analyzing Poetic Form and Meter. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2005.

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The Concept of Organizational Commitment in Human Resource Management Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Summary of the background to the topic

Discuss Job Turnover

Recommendations and conclusion

Reference List

Introduction There are several factors which influence outcomes in the organization. They range from the financial status of the organization, the business strategies applied by management as well as the environment within which the organization is operating. However it is also true that the performance of the organization is largely attributed to the ability of the employees to effectively undertake their roles.

This brings up issues relating to organizational commitment. Organizational commitment can be defined as the bond which ties the employee to the organization. Ultimately, organizational commitment has a direct effect on organizational behavior (Porter, 1976, p90).

Summary of the background to the topic The most critical areas influenced by organizational commitment among employees include the behavior and performance of the employees; attitudes and other cognitive constructs affecting job satisfaction; responsibility and finally personal traits such as age.

The centrality of this issue in determining organizational outcomes has greatly boosted the concept of organizational commitment in human resource management. This is in line with the fact that human resources management policies must be designed with the aim of ensuring that there is maximum commitment of employees (Porter, 1974, p605).

This commitment is seen in terms of the royalty and attachment employees have towards the organization. It is what gives them the will to always go the extra mile in doing that which benefits organization. At the height of it, employees have been found to fully place the interest of the organization well ahead of their own (Niehoff, 1990, p340).

Discuss Job Turnover One important benefit of organizational commitment is reduction in job turnover. Whenever employees feel detached from the organization, issues of job dissatisfaction tend to increase meaning that more employees are willing to leave the organization. A high employee turnover in an organization can be disastrous. First it significantly pushes up the recruitment costs which have a direct impact financial impact on the organization.

Secondly, the high turnover implies that the more investments in training new recruits will be incurred. These new employees are not only likely to take time adjusting in the system but are more likely to make mistakes in executing their tasks. In this respect then, it is crucial that organizational commitment among employees is achieved as this minimizes the job turnover and consequently reduces these inefficiencies in the organization (O’Reilly, 1986, p495).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations and conclusion There are several policy issues for consideration towards inculcating organizational commitment among employees. First is the unrivalled fact that for employees to remain royal and committed in an organization, they must be made to feel valued and appropriately recognized.

This cuts across several issues but most important is the decision making process. When fully involved in the decision making process, they not only better understand what is expected but also tend to own these decisions giving them the zeal to ensure that they succeed. Again, when these decisions bear fruit a great sense of accomplishment is experienced among employees. Secondly, there should be good communication and feedback channels in the organization.

Employees should always have channels which they can use in communicating their concerns as well as views to the management. This gives them confidence that they will be heard. In addition, feedback is crucial because if communicated effectively, it encourages employees to strive to achieve even better results (Perry, 1997, p190).

In conclusion, the value of organizational commitment is the hallmark of efficient service delivery by employees. In today’s corporate world characterized by stiff competition, the organization with the most committed employees is likely to have better outcomes. However, it is a double win as employees who are better committed tend to be happier with their jobs resulting in a better society.

Reference List Niehoff, B.P., Enz, C.A.,

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Liberia: A country struggling from the effects of civil war Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction – Facts on Liberia

History of the Liberian civil war

Literature review

Possible solutions

Conclusion

References

Introduction – Facts on Liberia Liberia is a country located on the shores North Atlantic Ocean in West Africa. Covering an area of 43,000 sq. miles and having a population of around 3.49 million people, its capital city is Monrovia, which has a population of 1.01 million. In addition, the country’s annual economic growth rate as at 2008 was 2.1%.

Unlike most African countries, Liberia was never officially colonized; it became a republic in 1847, having been established by slaves who had been sent to the country from the US after being set free. Liberia therefore regards the United States of America as its pseudo-colonialist. There are 16 indigenous tribes in Liberia with the most dominant group being the Kpelle accounting for about 20% of the population.

There are also “descendants of freed slaves that arrived in Liberia after 1820, who make up less than 5% of the population” (US Department of State, 2010). The population of Liberia is predominantly Christian (85%) with Muslims forming a sizeable percentage, 12% (US Department of State, 2010). Moreover, the official language of Liberia is English.

Liberia’s mainly depends on agriculture, with rubber being its cash crop. For many years, Liberia was among the stable countries in Africa until the onset of the civil war, which ravaged the country and brought it onto its knees. The country is now trying to recover from the devastating war, with political reforms being put in place. Liberia held its first democratic elections in November 2005, with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf emerging victorious to rule the nation and become the pioneer African woman to head country democratically elected.

History of the Liberian civil war Since the inception of Liberia as a republic, it has been ruled mainly by the Americo-liberians. This is despite the fact that they account for less than 5% of the population. This group created legislation, which ensured that they remain in power. They ensured that the members of indigenous communities could not be allowed to vote until 1946 when the law was repealed.

However, the domination of the americo-liberians continued until “1980 when a group from the indigenous Krahn tribe, led by Samuel Doe, staged a military coup against the government” that was led by William Tolbert, an Americo-liberians (Insight on Conflict, 2010).

In a surprise turn of events, Doe put to death William Tolbert and many other officials of his government who were mainly americo-liberians and aided in the formation of Peoples Redemption Council (PRC), a party of the indigenous Liberians. This party ousted the True Whig Party, which had been in leadership since the inception of the republic (US department of state).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, Doe’s subsequent rule was characterized by very cruel oppression of political opponents and general nepotism towards his ethnic tribe of Krahn. The favoritism of the Krahn tribe created ethnic tensions between them and other ethnic groups.

Doe continued to rule the country until its invasion from Ivory Coast by Charles Taylor, former minister in Doe’s government. By early 1990, Taylor controlled much of Liberia but Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) prevented him from seizing Monrovia. In fact, the power struggle between Taylor and Doe created a very bloody civil war (US department of state, 2010).

ECOWAS facilitated a peace agreement, which led to the formation of a five-man transition government, leading to disarmament and eventually elections on 19th July 1997 (US department of state, 2010). Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Party worn the elections by collecting 75%; however, democracy led to increased ethnic tensions in the groups, which were loyal to the opponents of Charles Taylor.

At the same time, Taylor’s support for a rebel faction involved in the Sierra Leone civil war, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), led to regional tensions. This later led to renewed violence in Liberia. The second civil war was ignited by conflict between the Liberians for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) group and the local community; however, the government could do little to quell the situation as a result of sanctions, a situation that accelerated the spread to the strife in the country killing dozens of citizens.

This culminated in the eventual resignation of Taylor in 2003 after he had lost control of about two thirds of Liberia leading to the arrival of peacekeepers to quell the heavy fighting in the capital Monrovia. Taylor was thereafter put to trial in Sierra Leone due to his support of the RUF, which was involved in the Sierra Leone civil war (Insight on conflict, 2010).

Among the root causes of the first civil war in Liberia was ethnicity between the tribes of Liberia. This problem was first cultivated by the americo-liberians who founded the state of Liberia. They denied the indigenous tribes the right to vote in elections and put in place other legislations, which generally oppressed the indigenous Liberians. This was despite the fact that they were not indigenously Liberians and accounted for a very small percentage of the total Liberian population

Literature review Many different scholars have studied the civil war in Liberia and proposed different causes of the conflict. One such explanation of the Liberian civil war is the ethnic theory. The country was divided into the americo-liberians and 16 indigenous groups. The people who controlled the country both politically and economically were the americo-liberians; and each of the groups had its own institutions, cultures, and values, as well as motives.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Liberia: A country struggling from the effects of civil war specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The americo-liberians wanted total political and economic control of the country despite the fact that they formed less than 5% of the total population of the country. In addition, the americo-liberians dominated the political and economic aspects of Liberia from 1847-1980. However, they were succeeded by another ethnic community, the Krahn, which dominated the country from 1980-1999. Moreover, each of the groups that was in power tried to benefit only people from the same ethnic group (Kieh, 2008, p18).

Another explanation of the causes of civil war in Liberia is known as the settler state theory. This theory classifies the Liberian community into two groups: the settlers and the indigenous group. The settlers, the americo-liberians, came from abroad and their main agenda was to establish domination in the country where they settled.

The settlers saw themselves as superior to the indigenous group. They tried to make the indigenous group conform to their cultures and termed the cultures of the indigenous group as backward. After the indigenous groups accepted the cultures of the settlers, they formulated laws to help them acquire land and have general domination over the indigenous group. The settlers also gradually become autonomous from the mother nation, and then established systems to advance their general agenda (Kieh, 2008 p25).

Both these theories have been used to explain the causes of Liberian civil war. However, these theories are not correct; one important point to note is that in both cases, the theories explain that the civil war is caused by general inequality in the Liberian society with some groups of people being superior to others.

The levels of inequalities between the americo-liberians and the indigenous communities are very high in Liberia. Indeed, the americo-liberians control a large part of the social, economic, and political spheres of the Liberian society.

Possible solutions Many countries in Africa have had civil wars including Angola, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, Sierra Leone, and Ivory Coast, with Angola having had the longest civil war in Africa (Handelman, 2010). However, depending on how a country tackles the challenges posed by civil war, it may be the springboard for a nation’s path to prosperity.

Many countries have emerged even stronger after being on the brink of total collapse due to civil war. For instance, the American civil war helped America to become even stronger politically and economically. Immediately after the war, measures were taken to ensure equality of blacks who were considered inferior to the whites. This was through the enactment of various legislations by the state, with the thirteenth amendment to the constitution (1865) abolishing slavery.

The congress then passed legislation to ensure that the blacks had more freedom (the civil Rights Act). This gave the blacks the freedom to enter into contracts, own property and bear witness in court, as well as giving the blacks more economic and political freedom. These and other legislations allowed the states that had left the Union to come back to the union, the result of which was consolidation of peace and prosperity of the United States of America.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Liberia: A country struggling from the effects of civil war by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To reduce the probabilities of occurrence of civil war the government must be able to fully tackle the underlying problems that led to the civil war so that there may be long-term prosperity. In Liberia, the greatest problem has mainly been lack of ethnic equality and fair distribution of resources.

These are the main factors that led to the first and second Liberian civil wars. However, the government must first tackle the immediate problems that the country faces due to the prolonged civil war. Disarmament of the youth should be among the priorities of the government.

The government must also devise means of integrating these youths into the community to avoid recurrent violence; for instance, the youth must be taught how to coexist peacefully with other members of the community (Youth in Humanitarian Crises, 2010).

The government must also create ways of rebuilding the infrastructure, which was destroyed by the war. These include transport and communication systems, electricity, and improvement in security.

However, the most important measure to guarantee prosperity would be the enactment of legislation, which gives economic and political freedom to the population. This would ensure peace and therefore help in attracting foreign investors into the country, thereby helping in job creation and reduction of other problems caused by the war (Radelet, 2007, p 8).

The government must also ensure that there is peace and security, in addition to revitalization of the economic activity. Primarily, the majority of Liberians are dependent on agriculture for their income, with rubber being the main cash crop. Therefore, the government should move in quickly to restore the agricultural production in the country through subsidies and other viable agricultural policies. This will not only enhance food supply in the country, but also create jobs for ex-fighters, refugees, and youth.

The opening up of the economy through the reduction of barriers to trade will lead attraction of investments in manufacturing and services industries. This will create jobs for both skilled and unskilled people while at the same time enhancing exports, thereby enabling the government get the much-needed foreign exchange.

Finally, the government should strengthen the governance and establish the rule of law in the country, strive to create an efficient civil service and eradicate corruption and impunity. The government should also strengthen the judiciary and parliament so that the two may act as foundation for the rule of law (Radelet, 2007, p 9).

Conclusion Most third world countries have at one time of their existence either had a civil conflict or are still in a state of civil war. Therefore, civil war presents a major setback for most third world countries in achieving economic and political prosperity. These countries must therefore be able to understand the reasons of civil war in order to avoid them at any cost.

Since most third world countries have had the experience of civil war at one time of their existence, how they tackle their post civil war problems determines so much about their future path to prosperity. This will also apply to Liberia, a country that is currently recovering from the pangs of civil war that had significant and adverse effect on its socio-economic and political environments.

References Handelman, H. (2009). The challenge of Third World development: NJ: Prentice Hall – Pearson.

Insight on conflict. (2010). Conflict Profile: Liberia. Web.

Kieh, G. K. (2008). The first Liberian civil war: the crises of underdevelopment. Lang publishing. Web.

Radelet, S. (2007). Reviving Economic Growth in Liberia Working Paper 133. Centre for Global Development. Web.

US Department of State. (2010). Background Note: Liberia. Web.

Youth in humanitarian crises. (2010). Liberian youth and post conflict transition. Web.

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