Abstract The research paper explores the application new Technology training (or e-training/e-learning) in Hospitality Industry. It also looks on the advantages, drawbacks, opportunities, and challenges facing its application. Because of its adaptability, low cost, flexibility, modularity, and time saving, e-learning has been adopted by many companies largely in part due to its cost effectiveness.
The application of e-learning in training employees encourages productivity as it increase the performance levels of employees. The hospitality industry is able to enjoy the numerous benefits associated with the adoption of this cost effective training method.
Introduction The emergence of new technologies in the hospitality industry has made it possible to enhance training and learning among the employees and the management team. Although the installation of the technological infrastructure is expensive and costly, it remains one of the most cost effective means of reaching the diverse workforce in the hospitality industry (Poulos, Tenut,
Growth of China’s Economy Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
It is obvious that within the past two decades China’s economy has grown. It has become the second largest economy in the world which was because of government initiatives into encouraging foreign direct investment, local entrepreneurship and real estate development within the country.
Also, the outsourcing industry has helped in improving the Chinese economy within the past 20 years causing rapid development and expansion of cities and factory complexes in China.
It was seen though in the study of Country Report (2011 ) which looked at the 70 million housing surplus units within China showed that most if not all if these units had price schemes well above what an average Chinese worker would be capable of affording (Economic forecast, 2011: 7).
In looking at the case of Country Report (2011) the rapid economic growth and development within China came also with an equally good expansion of China’s real estate with hundreds of thousands of construction projects expected to reach their completion periods by the end of 2012 – 2015.
The problem as explained by Country Report (2011) is that while there is a high rate of property development that is happening within Chinese cities there is a lot of housing surplus within the country with well over 70 million surplus housing units at the present.
The problem when looking at this situation based on the findings of Country Report (2011) is that while having housing surplus would be fine if such housing were created in order to meet expected demand within the near future the problem is that what is being made is not housing or subsidized housing schemes which are in great demand within China due to a lot of urban poor and urban workers but what is being made is high end property development which few people can afford.
Another way of looking at this issue is through the article of Lan (2011) which looked at changes in China’s social development. Lan (2011) points out that within recent years, as result of China’s increasing manufacturing industry, a relatively new segment of the population developed as a direct result of China’s progressive economic growth and development over the past 20 years and as such has come to become an influential factor in the local economy (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem as indicated by Lan (2011) is that this relatively new upper class is unfamiliar with the concept of wealth and privilege and as such have actually modeled their spending habits on that of the western world. It was seen in various instances that they spent a lot of money recklessly, lavishly and usually concentrated these purchases on high end real estate.
Data released by the Boston Consulting Group has estimated that the number of affluent/ middle class households within China will reach roughly 130 million by the end of 2020 (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).
What is seen though in the case of China, as explained by Lan (2011) is that real estate development within the country has been that same as that of the affluent/middle class population growth but instead has gone past it with nearly 70 million homes/apartments meant for that particular population segment already having been built.
In the case of tier 2 cities Bennet (2002) explains that “the housing backlog (referring to the amount of unsold surplus units within buildings) was set for 1 year as determined by the developers during the initial phases of construction however in cities similar to Qingdao such as Dalian and Wuhan the housing backlog has reached 7.5 years to 8 years” (Bennet: 2002: 1).
A clarification of this particular statement by Zhang (2011) is that during project planning and construction developers thought that the apartments units that they had built would have been sold out within one year of construction yet the end result was that 2 to 3 years after construction barely 20% of units within apartment complexes in cities such as Qingdao were sold resulting in an excess in the amount of products present.
This particular problem is which is further worsened by the fact that even more properties are continuing to be built which few people can afford (Zhang, 2011: 514).
The problem with this is that there are too many homes versus too few people willing to buy which creates a potentially bad situation for China since up till this day construction projects of new homes continue to increase despite no one buying or too few people with money able to actually afford such places.
We will write a custom Essay on Growth of China’s Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shedding more light on this situation is the study by Wang et al. (2011) which looked at average home prices within China’s cities and the average salaries of workers within China.
Wang et al. (2011) showed that the average median home price within the country is equivalent to $114,900 while an average worker earns 2,000 to 4,000 Yuan per month and within an average year they could earn 24,000 to 48,000 Yuan.
Using XE.com to examine the current exchange rate it was seen that $114,900 is equivalent to 734,170 Yuan, as of the November 2011 exchange rate. When deducting the average cost of expenses that an ordinary Chinese worker has it can be seen taht it would take them a very very long time to earn even half of what is needed to buy even an average home with China’s current cities.
The underlying theme of Country Report (2011), Lan (2011) and Wang et al. (2011) is that there are too many surplus housing units within China since they focus too much on catering to the upper class instead of the lower class and the lower class is unable to buy because of the high prices.
This is connected to China’s current position in the multilateral trading system since as seen in the work of Zhang (2011) China has been using its current construction boom in order to artificially increase its GDP. The problem with this situation as explained by Zhang (2011) is that there is a limit to how much artificial GDP increase can be done which China has already clearly exceeded.
This leaves the country at the threshold of a possible real estate bubble burst which the Chinese economy must fix before things get much worse within the immediate future. The problem with China becoming a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system is that it would have to impose certain reforms in order to be considered “responsible”.
First and foremost among these possible reforms are issues regarding its manufacturing industry and its devaluation of its current currency.
Consumer Reports (2008) examined the spread of copied goods coming from China, it showed that the spread was a direct result of the outsourcing industry that China’s manufacturing industry was able to grow as fast as it did compared to other countries since China didn’t need to wait for technologies to develop within the country but rather copied the necessary technologies and processes needed to market their own goods (Real or FAKE, 2008: 12).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth of China’s Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What must also be taken into consideration is the fact that due to the low cost of doing business in China local manufacturers that copied the technologies and processes of companies that had outsourced to China were able to undercut prices resulting in situation where more international consumers chose to buy from these new companies due to the relatively lower prices for the same product.
It must also be considered that China’s manufacturing infrastructure as well as the various manufacturing technologies and processes that were brought into China by various multinational companies that were copied by local manufacturers enabled them to produce the same type of product at a lower cost.
The Economist (2010) states “it was the culmination of these events that brought about the development of a new Chinese upper class composed of businessmen and entrepreneurs that increased local demand for high end real estate development as well as high class foreign goods” (Safe as houses, 2004: 41).
One of the current negative issues regarding China has been the issue of technology stealing, undercutting prices and the cheap labor in order to overwhelm markets. Based on the facts presented so far it can be seen that such practices have actually greatly benefitted China.
If China were to become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system it would need to implement reforms in order to ensure such practices are either abolished or limited in some way. The problem with doing so is that this would affect China’s local economy which is dependent upon the manufacturing industry to continuously churn out large amounts of goods.
Any slow down in the manufacturing industry would affect the current real estate market thus bringing about a housing bubble burst that would negatively affect China’s economy.
The same can also be said of China’s currency, if China were to correct it’s obviously undervalued currency the result would also create negative effects in the manufacturing industry which will also trigger another housing bubble from collapsing.
Becoming a “responsible stakeholder” in the current multilateral system involves having to conform to distinct guidelines, trade rules, international agreements as well as a variety of other possible regulations that would definitely affect China’s local economy.
You have to question whether a country would intentionally cause a widespread economic collapse within its borders all for the sake of “playing nice”. Another way of looking at this is by examining China’s previous course of actions over the past 50 years.
It can be seen that even in terms of being a “responsible state” it has considerably diverged from that due to reports of humans rights abuses, the limitations of human rights as well as an assortment of other questionable activities.
Even when China became a manufacturing hub for a large percentage of man-made products it as continued to disregard rules regarding the proper disposal of industrial waste as well as limiting the amount of C02 being released into the atmosphere.
Overall the country has continue to flagrantly disregard a lot of international rules all for the sake of continuing its activities. Now when taking into consideration the facts presented by the three articles presented in this paper it can be seen that not only has China not been a “responsible stakeholder” in a large percentage of its international actions but it seemingly only pursues actions which are to its benefit.
Thus, when presented with a situation such as a potential housing bubble burst should anything happen to its local economy it is can be stated that based on its previous history alone of non-compliance it is obvious that China will not be a responsible stakeholder in the near future.
One way in which China has been attempting to fix this issue is to implement stricter building policies however this has yet to actually affect the sheer amount of excess housing units within China.
In order for this to actually be resolved China needs time in order for either the units to get cheaper or for the government to come up with a way to fix the current housing problem.
As such it is very unlikely that China will seek to become a responsible stakeholder in the current international system but rather will continue along a route of destabilization since this is the only way it can prevent its local economy from collapsing under the weight of so many excess housing units.
Conclusion Based on an examination of the articles published in 2011 as well as the various articles utilized in supporting their arguments it can be seen that their underlying theme has been China’s overexpansion into high end property development within its local real estate market despite a majority of the demand being in affordable housing settlements.
While this particular action was in part precipitated by assumptions that China’s growing elite would buy the new properties the fact remains that estimates show that too many projects were built too quickly which many experts now agree could result in the worst real estate collapse in history.
Furthermore, due to the fact that any subsequent interference in China’s local economy would cause the housing bubble to burst it is unlikely that China would proactively become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system since this would result in a devastating blow to its local economy which China doesn’t want.
Reference List Bennett, JT 2002, ‘The Minimum Wage: Some New Evidence’, Journal of Labor Research, 23, 1, pp. 1-2, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost.
‘Economic forecast’ 2011, Country Report. China, 5, p. 7, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.
‘Home truths’ 2010, Economist, 395, 8684, pp. 73-75, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.
LAN, X 2011, ‘China’s West: Generating Change’, China Today, 60, 4, pp. 47-49, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.
‘Real or FAKE?’ 2008, Consumer Reports, 73, 1, p. 12, MasterFILE Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 ‘Safe as houses’ 2004, Economist, 371, 8377, p. 41, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.September 2011.
Wang, S, Yang, Z,
Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks Essay online essay help
Pre-historic Greek artworks have influenced cultures and arts in many countries around the globe, especially in the sculptural and architectural arts. Right from the Roman Empire in the West to the Far East including Japan, ancient Greek artworks are a source of inspiration (O’Kelly 1982, p. 88).
The Greek architecture left a lasting impression in the architectural design of public buildings. Contemporary buildings and the ancient Roman arts copied a lot of things from the Greek. This paper compares the Parthenon, a well known surviving building of ancient Greek with the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, which is a piece of contemporary architectural artwork.
The Parthenon building on the Acropolis, in 5th BC to replace an old temple destroyed during an invasion (Beard 2010, p.12). The temple building in Athens and it acted as a sign of Athenian dominance in the Greek Peninsula.
The War Memorial Opera House located in San Francisco on Van Ness Avenue opposite the City Hall opened its gate to the public in 1932 (Couret 1998, para. 2). The building was among the last main American building built in the Beaux-arts style. This style of art borrowed a lot from the ancient Greek and Roman architectures.
The Parthenon (Neils 2005, p. 3)
The War Memorial Opera House (SFWMPAC Online n.d, n.p)
The Parthenon building to served as a temple for one of the goddesses of Athens. It was built to offer thanks to Athena the goddess for their success and victory in the war. In fact, the name originated from a cultic statue housed in one of the rooms, in the temple.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The building later invaded and turned into a church in honor of the Virgin Mary. On the other hand, the War Memorial Opera House was built to commemorate the people who died during the World War I. It also served to host the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center since 1932 when it opened its doors (‘Parthenon, Lovell Minnick and Fisher Lynch Conclude Acquisition of H.D. Vest Financial Services’ 2011, para. 2).
Classical Doric order or style, which, is normally calm and sturdy was used in building both buildings (Michos 2002, para. 7). The Parthenon, credited as one of the perfect Doric temple ever built in the world while the War memorial Opera House constructed using paired columns, an application of Doric order (‘The Webby Awards 2001(R) Will Take the Stage at San Francisco’s War Memorial Opera House’ 2001, n.p).
Doric style applied the directly standing columns on flat pavements known as stylobates and alternated metopes a feature common with the two architectural works under consideration. Ionic columns were also clearly used in both buildings.
The materials used to make the two pieces of architecture were different mainly because of the different in their respective location. Wooden roofs, marble tiles and marble statues made up the Parthenon’s interior. Other materials used in the building were ivory and gold, and it stood on a limestone rock.
Coffered ceiling; large aluminum and glass paneled chandelier made up the War Memorial Opera house’s interior. Sculptures are a common occurrence in the two buildings despite the difference in age (Clark 1997, para 5).
An explosion destroyed the Parthenon, but the War Memorial Opera house in San Francisco continues to stand. It maintains a lasting impression of the ancient Greek architectural designs, and buildings (Kaldor 2010, p 23). Technologically, the building has advanced, but it refuses to let go of its ancient world’s ‘theater feeling’.
Until late 20th century, the Parthenon laid destroyed, but the Greek government set out to revive the ancient building. Now it is meant to become a museum, but unfortunately, the original design cannot be recovered. Only an impression of it is possible.
We will write a custom Essay on Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Beard, M., 2010. The Parthenon, Profile Books.
Clark, A., 1997. After the quake: Andrew Clark attends the re-opening of San Francisco’s refurbished War Memorial Opera House Financial Times, pp. 08-08.
Couret, C., 1998. San Francisco’s historic opera house re-opens, The American City
Innovations in Payment Systems: Square Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Description of company
Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints
Analysis of possible solutions
Recommendation that need to be adopted
Description of company Square Inc is an innovative company that was launched in December 2009. Its president and the co-founder, Jack Dorsey, is also the co-founder of Twitter, a social network platform. The logic behind Square Inc. is to use paperless money as a mode of payment and transaction where every tweet would be a transaction.
The company is on the verge of changing the mode of payment in the U.S to ensure that payment is carried out through the use of smartphones (Romo 2). However, the president of Square Inc. has recently admitted that the company entered in the market prematurely.
Square Inc will ensure that payments are transacted everywhere since they are supported by android phones, iPads, and iPhones. According to the company’s president, the goal of Square is to enable customers accept payments instantly, everywhere.
Nonetheless, the company is wary of the anticipated competition from other emerging players like PayPal, Apple, and Google. The company has also devised a method of using the smartphones as cash registers whereby a squared credit card reader is connected to the Smartphone and transactions carried out easily (MacMillan 44).
Lastly, the innovative payment system of Square Inc. does not require fixed costs, hardware costs, and credit check like other credit payment systems. This makes it unique and competitive as people are on the lookout for the best mode of payment that is up to the current recession and changing market trends.
Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints The problem is to determine whether Square Inc. is wary of, and ready to accept and face competition from other emerging companies that have adopted new modes of payments in the industry.
Square Inc. has to make sure that its new payment transaction system has no loopholes that could be used by other companies as a competitive advantage. However, their goal is to “enable people to accept payments immediately, everywhere” (Siegler 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, this has not been achieved yet since the company is facing hardware shortages, although it has ordered for the parts. Another constraint facing the company is the inability to carry out transactions in the quickest time possible as some incidents of delay have already been reported to the Square management team. This problem could have resulted from its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities (Siegler 4).
The company is also faced with the fear of customers caught up in fraud cases in the course of carrying out their payment transactions as this could dent their image. Although Square Inc wishes to execute a modern method of carrying out transactions through mobile phone innovations, the mode of payment faces a major blow if cheques re-emerge as a mode of payment.
The company also faces stiff competition from emerging competitors like, PayPal, Google, and Apple who could offer better modes of transactions and services than Square Inc.
Lastly, the company is constrained by its inability to handle risks associated with charge backs by determining the transactions limits (Siegler 4. This could lead to incidents of fraud and other malicious issues on the part of the users.
Analysis of possible solutions For Square Inc. to remain relevant and competitive in the market, it has to devise solutions that will help the company to address the current problem and constraints facing it.
The constraints act as impediments in realizing the company’s goal, which is to enable payments anywhere immediately. The solutions that follow would enable Square Inc. to solve the current problems as well as allowing the company to compete favorably and effectively in the market.
Square Inc needs to develop strong encryption software that would address the risks of fraud thus promoting security (Romo, 2011). This would ensure that crime cyberspace is reduced since hackers or fraudsters cannot access credit cards in the process of carrying out transactions.
We will write a custom Case Study on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also supposed to create awareness to its customers on the need to secure their phones and passwords as fraudsters could take advantage of their carelessness to commit frauds. The company has to address the issue of the hardware shortages by importing or finding a reliable supplier who will address the increased demand by Smartphone users.
This would ensure that customers are not swayed away by other payments providers like the NFCs system of Goggle or PayPal.
Customers have already filed complaints, and the President of the Square Inc has also acknowledged that there have been delays in carrying out transactions. The company needs to view the causes for delays during transactions immediately before consumers lose their loyalty towards the brand and adopt other modes of payments.
Square Inc needs to improve its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities to a competitive edge. This will increase its competence and the speed required in financial transactions. Technology improvement is the core solution to the problems facing Square Inc. Therefore, the company needs to address its problems before entering the market with full force.
Lastly, the looming problem facing Square Inc. is the emergence of other rival companies who are bound to introduce competitive rivalry through perfect substitute products. The company can operate at low costs by minimizing the transactional costs.
This would create a competitive advantage to the company, thereby increasing its profits margins. Through marketing methods and structures, Square Inc. can make the new mode of transactions acceptable by its customers and other people who posses Smartphones or are willing to adopt one. This would ensure that it gains adequate market share, making it competitive.
Recommendation that need to be adopted Based on the analysis of the problems, constraints, and the available solutions, it is recommended that Square Inc. adopts all the solutions because they address all the issues currently being experienced. No problem should be taken for granted as a single mistake would affect the customers affecting their loyalty.
Other than solving the problems, it is recommended that the company adopts a more efficient and the latest technology accessible to all customers. With competition increasing in the industry, Square Inc could operate under economies of a scale after reducing the transactional costs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would ensure that the company remains relevant and that it realizes its competitive edge. Square Inc has the capability of turning the whole industry into a technological hub. To retain its capabilities, the company needs to devise a means of improving its software and hardware to meet the changing consumers’ demands and the markets trends caused by technological advancements.
In conclusion, although Square Inc seems to be the latest option that will change payment transactions, the company needs to address all its problems in advance. This will ensure that it remains relevant in the market as it competes favorably and effectively.
Works Cited MacMillan, Douglas. Turning Smartphones into Cash Registers. Bloomberg Businessweek, February 2011. Web.
Romo, Venessa. Square Businesses ‘Square’Away Client Bill Pay. January 2011. Web.
Siegler, Michael. “Square Delays Mass Roll-Out, Admits They Began Before Things Were “Fully Baked””. June 2010. Web.
The concept of space and time Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Over the years, individuals have been baffled by the nature of both time and space. Kant was the first philosopher to doubt the existence of both space and time. He conceptualized that they (time and space) were mere ‘intuitions’ or perceptions invented by our own minds.
Later, in 1900s, Minkowski and Einstein were back at it again and found that time and space can be interchanged. For painstaking systematic reasons, they swapped time with ‘spacetime’.
In 1986, Szamosi delved into the subject again this time round detailing how the perceptions of space and time developed from earlier attempts of primitive life forms to understand their world to become the modern impression we have of space and time.
In this paper, I will show that dominant conceptualizations of Time and Space do not just exist, but are produced; I will base my arguments on 2 articles and two films which will be relevant to the understanding of space and time perceptions.
Everydayness The “Mystery of the Everyday”: Everydayness in History is an article build around an object of modern intellectual history. Harry Harootunian’s work on “the everyday” presents the reader with a strict definition of concept of time and space. Harootunian’s work is a critique of everyday life.
He wonders how people situate and frame the everyday as something to be experimented, thought, and to be analyzed critically. Lefebvre views modern artwork as not just obscure objects desiring explanation but rather as explanations. Under capitalism, modern artwork is nothing but multiple responses to the condition of everyday life.
Lefebvre focuses on political time. For example, he wonders why modernity, tradition, and postcoloniality are labeled as interventions in the field of political time. To him, modernization theory and post-colonial discourse are a group in the historical continuum.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This article, which looks at modernization in Japan, argues that “modernity is a specific cultural form and consciousness of lived historical time that differs according to social forms and practices” (Harootunian 62).
Lefebvre opposes the various descriptions of modernities such as alternative modernities, divergent modernities, competing modernities, and retroactive modernities. According to him, this term is wrongly used to the existence of an “original”.
The terms were mere creation in the “west” but due to a series of “copies” and lesser variations, the terms acquired new meanings. These conceptions of modernities were only built upon transmuting a temporal lag into a qualitative difference.
The idea that Japan and other societies transforming into a modern order at different paces reveals that modernity is an idea of western capital. On the concept of space, Lefebvre refers to a unity called “West”.
To him, space is inexistent. He looks at the dyad term west and non-west and wonder exactly where is west on the world map. This idea invented by western capital tends to determine the geographical location of other places in relation to modernity.
“Split-space” In the article The Discursive Space of Modern Japan by Karatani Kojin, sheds light on how the concept of time and space is produced. His theory of “split-space” emphasizes inflection of certain terms and or concepts that brings the complex relation of philosophy and history into clearer focus.
Kojin argues how periodization and history are inseparable. Societies mark of a period by assigning a beginning and an end so as to understand the importance of events occurring in their life. Kojin begins by demonstrating how the Showa period began.
We will write a custom Essay on The concept of space and time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He says that the word Showa and the dissertation concerning the Showa period began in 1987 during the time of the emperor’s illness. By the start of 1989, the Showa period came to an end. Afterwards, it came to be known that a “Showa period” existed. This is what he calls “periodizing history”.
Karatani in particular criticizes Japan for neglecting the possibilities present during its inception that were instead replaced by modernist ideology and the nation state system. According to Kojin, comparative history is not fit for measuring Japanese historical trajectory against another build upon European-based model of development.
Such a move, he advises, is likely to yield problems as it may endanger productive discussions. The Japanese ‘feudalism’, connected to Tokugawa political system, put Japanese history in a relative framework and pitted Japanese historians with those from medieval Europe.
Such a formulation suggests a comparison without connection; labeling Tokugawa Japan “feudal” imply placing Japanese development with events happening in Europe and in a different era. Terms like “Early Modern Japan” means an entirely different thing.
Karatani points to the Christian calendar and Japanese periodization saying that “both serve to make explicit the fact that each nation’s ‘era/world’ is only a communal, illusory space, and that a plurality of worlds (eras/worlds) exists simultaneously, maintaining relations with one another” (Kojin 77).
To Kojin, history relies on the marking of a period so as to understand the importance of events and occurrences. History is all about the question of periodizing and periodization has the tendency of altering the importance of events!
Kojin’s split-pace theory of reception as it appears tends to suggest that in the future, his own theory will be split and decentered. To kojin, centers and margins are a play of transposition. We cannot entirely argue that margins and centers do not exist.
The center is somehow blind and the peripheral or the margins do not necessarily need to cope with. Kojin fail to understand that the west has been marginal itself. Karatani focuses his theory towards the west rather than being post-colonial. It tends to get lost in concepts of time and space it is supposed to analyze.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of space and time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Three Times Hou Hsiao-hsien’sThree Times is the only of his many movies that delves into historical material. This is a triptych of stories of love that are narrated in different time periods but stared by the same actors.
In this movie, Hou Hsiao-hsien combines the past and the present in a way that he creates free floating narratives that are not tied to any chronological progression.
Hou Hsiao-hsien puts a lot of effort in the development of these semi-related tales and at no one time in the movie does he succumb to straightforward duplication. The film is entangled with its director’s conviction in the powerful influence of history on here and now (Three Times 2007).
The ‘Three times’ has a 1966 introductory segment titled “A time for love”. The plot however shifts backwards in time and tell of an actor named May’s maiden arrival at the pool-hall.
This is a way for Hou Hsiao-hsien to make his audience to revisit and reassess through their memory what led to the current situation. It is worth noting that this is only a primer to the following stories that are full of historical shading.
Part two of the movie-“A time for freedom” is yet another rumination of historical episode. The scene is set in 1911 in Taiwan reflecting the difficulties, and unbalanced realities facing mankind during the start of the century. Qi’s performance in this part reflects Taiwan as she struggled to free herself from imperial Japan rule.
The final episode – “A time for Youth” is a depiction of modern day Taipei youth mixed in the millennium Mambo’s pop music and juvenile aimlessness. When Hou Hsiao-hsien displays a suicide note on the monitor although having said so in narration, he makes his audience revisit the past again. This is a plea to the Taiwanese to embrace their history.
Hou Hsiao-hsien is a puppetmaster. “A time for Love” happens when Hou Hsiao-hsien was about the same age as two of the lovers. This could only be taken to mean that his age may not be the same to that of the youth of the present. However, he is looks more at ease in the future than in the past. With Hou Hsiao-hsien, time and space do not exist – they are notions created in the peoples’ mind.
Sabu’s Monday In Sabu’s ‘Monday (2000), the scene is a hotel room and a man, Takagi, wakes up not knowing how he got there in the first place. Takagi reaches over the table and pick a newspaper, checks the front page and realizes that it’s Monday. The last day he can remember is Saturday.
Takagi has no recollection of what occurred between Saturday and Monday! Sabu leaves the audience to work out the puzzle with him as he leads them through Takagi’s scrappy memory of his missing 48 hours. When a packet of sanitizing salt falls from his pocket, he starts recollecting what occurred.
We are taken back to a funeral scene, a graveside; the conversation turns out to be a shoot-out after Takagi disagrees with his girlfriend. The audience then shifts from the unsteady weekend of Takagi to the hotel scene. This makes flashback gain relevance. Outside the hotel, Takagi learns from a hotel TV that he is surrounded by police (Monday 2000).
From the story, we learn that after the quarrel following the burial, Takagi got angry and armed with a gun from a Yakuza club, he embarks on a vigilante killing orgy. Takagi not only killed the boss of the yakuza gang but also some street punks in the process. Takagi shifts from being sober and at times he becomes murderous.
The goal of Sabu’s movie is to show how the world is capable of drawing out the dark side that each of us possess. The movie lacks the aspect of time. To Sabu, we are capable of traveling anywhere in the notion of time.
Conclusion The four works have demonstrated how time and space are creations of the mind that help mankind understand the world. In the Mystery of everyday: Everydayness in history, Harootunian clearly demonstrates how the west created the term modernity and industrialization in the process of marking Japan and other slowly developing countries as lagging back in time.
He criticizes labeling japan underdeveloped in the sense of time because of its peripheral location on the world map. Karatani Kojin in The Discursive Space of Modern Japan argues that periodization – creation of time – is inherent in history, to mark the beginning and the end of a certain period of interest.
In Three times, directorHou Hsiao-hsien tells a story devoid of both space and time. His film is set in three different times and places.
Hou is capable of making his audiences traverse between different times with ease. He is not in any way restricted by timing in the setting of his movies as both are notions to him. Sabu’s Monday, is similar to Hou Hsiao-hsien’s ‘Three times’. Sabu makes his audience traverse between the past and the present in the process erasing the notion of both time and space.
Works Cited Harootunian, Harry. History’s Disquiet: Modernity, Cultural Practice, and The Question Of Everyday Life. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2000. Print.
Karatani, Kojin. The Discursive Space of Modern Japan. London: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.
Monday. Dir. Hiroyuki Tanaka.Perf.Shin’ichiTsutsumi, Yasuko Matsuyuki, Hijiri Kojima. download, 2000. DVD.
Three Times.Dir. Hsiao-hsienHou.Perf. Qi Shu, Chen Chang, Fang Mei. Ifc, 2007. DVD.