Network Security And Its Importance In Computer Networks Report Custom Essay Help

Introduction Network security is an intricate topic traditionally handled only by professionally trained and experienced persons. Yet, as more and more individuals become connected through computer networks, a rising number of people need to comprehend the fundamentals of security in a networked environment.

In the domain of networking, network security comprises of provisions and guidelines established by the network administrator to curb and monitor illegal or unauthorized access, misuse, alteration, or denial of the computer network and other network-based resources (Stallings 2010).

Network security comprises of a range of computer networks, both private and public, that are employed in day-to-day tasks such as carrying out business transactions and communication among firms, public and private institutions, enterprises, and persons. Network security does just as its name goes, protects the network and manages all processes being done on the network.

Objective The objective of the paper is to expound on network security and its importance in computer networks. Background information on computer networks will also be provided as well as risk management, network threats, firewalls, and hardware and software devices that can be used to improve the security of a computer network.

Introduction to Computer Networks An elementary comprehension of computer networks is essential in order to understand the codes of network security. A network is any set of interconnected lines, basing this definition on the current topic, a computer network is basically a set of linked computers. Networks enable users to share resources and information, and are classified base on a variety of protocols (Network Security Threats 2011).

For instance, a classification based on the connection manner focuses on the hardware and software systems used to link the individual computer units, such as optical fiber, wireless connection, or coaxial cable communication. Networks can also be categorized on scale, this gives Local Area Network (LAN), wide area Network, virtual Private Network (VPN), among others (Stallings 2010).

Networks are made up of ‘nodes’, which are the individual computers in the network, and at least one server and/or ‘host’ computers. The nodes are linked together by communication systems, which may be private, such as that within an institution, or can be accessed by the public, such as the internet. Several private networks also use the internet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The moment a computer network is instituted, it immediately becomes vulnerable to network security threats such as viruses and bugs that may affect the normal functioning of a computer. Besides, the personal information such as usernames, passwords, credit card numbers and other critical information may be at risk if the computer does not have adequate security measures. There are very many threats in a network, some of which are so severe and can bring down a large network consisting of thousands of computers.

Virus In the domain of computer networks, a virus refers to a computer program that can replicate itself, similar to the biological virus. A computer virus spreads from one computer to another through an executable program that attaches itself on programs, files and folders.

It can spread through various means, for example, if one computer in a network becomes ‘infected’ with a virus, the rest of the computers in the network may become infected too if the security features are inadequate.

It can also be spread through USB devices, CD, DVD, or portable had drives. A computer virus may also spread by mailing a web address link to all addresses so that when a person clicks on the message to go the website, the virus enters this new computer.

Certain viruses are less harmful, however, some are very harmful and can infect a computer in the network through various ways (Simmonds 2004). A virus can corrupt the files or software in a computer. Others may attack the computer hardware and bring the whole computer down.

Yet, some viruses may allow a person to have partial control of a computer, this allows for unauthorized access to files and critical information stored in the computer’s hard drive. Although the Windows platform is by far the most vulnerable, other operating systems can also be attacked by viruses.

Network threats arising from viruses can be managed through various ways, however, the most common technique is to install an antivirus software. UNIX-based systems such as Mac OS and Linux are far more secure than Windows. Some anti-virus programs can scan file contents and even zipped folders while some can also scan sent and received mails, a practice known as ‘on-access scanning’ (Simmonds 2004).

We will write a custom Report on Network Security and Its Importance in Computer Networks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vulnerability to viruses can also be reduced by carrying out data backups regularly on storage media that are not connected to the network or computer. Security patches availed by software manufacturers can also assist in reducing attacks by viruses. Secondary storage media must be scanned before opening in the host computer.

Malware Malware, short form of malicious software, is a program created to interrupt normal computer operations or deny a user network or computer resources, gain partial control of the computer, access files stored in the computer, gather network-based information such as passwords, and other cruel or dishonest behavior (Curtin 1997).

Malware consists of a large number of malicious programs that includes viruses, Trojans horses, worms, spyware, false adware, rootkits and other malicious programs. In 2009, malware was listed as the second most dangerous threat to computer networks. Today, millions of malware are created daily to exploit networks with weak security features.

Threats arising from malware can be removed using antivirus programs. Most antivirus have an added feature of removing various malwares from the network of individual PCs. Besides, anti-spyware software can be used to prevent spyware threats.

Denial-of-Service Attacks A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is a practice aimed at making network resources unavailable to some users. This vice entails the resolute efforts of a person or group of persons to prevent an internet site or service functioning normally or bringing it down altogether. This network threat is commonly committed against websites or services hosted on high profile internet servers such as financial institutions and credit card payment services (Stallings 2010).

One mode of attack involves flooding a web server with requests in such a way that it cannot respond to legitimate communication requests, or responds in a sluggish manner that virtually renders it unusable. In general, DoS attacks are executed by either compelling the targeted systems to reset, or using up its resources so that it is unable to offer the intended services.

DoS attacks are perhaps the most malicious and hardest to prevent or manage. They are the most malicious due to the ease with which they can be launched and the difficulty of tracing their origins, and it is difficult to deny the requests of the attacker without also blocking out genuine requests for service.

DoS attacks can be prevented through various ways. The first technique is to use firewalls. Firewalls have simple instructions of blocking or allowing certain IP addresses, or ports, however, firewall are not very effective in some DoS attacks as they cannot distinguish legitimate traffic from DoS traffic. Switches and routers can also be used to prevent these attacks (Kizza 2006). Intrusion-prevention systems (IPS) have been successfully used to halt DoS attacks that have signatures attached to them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Network Security and Its Importance in Computer Networks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unauthorized Access This is a very wide terminology as it can refer to various types of attacks, however, the objective of these attacks is to access some information that the computer or server is not supposed to reveal. Unauthorized access to a computer or server can be achieved by using viruses, malware and other malicious programs.

This form of threat can be waded off by using antivirus programs and security patches. Another strategy used by intruders to access a computer on a network is a technique known as packet sniffers. Packet sniffers can be used on a vulnerable network and they just ‘listen’ on the server for words such as password or login in the packet stream, then sends the information thereafter to the perpetrator.

This way, an intruder is able to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card information and other critical information from unsuspecting users (Bragg et al 2010). This type of threat can be prevented by using clear-text passwords, besides, data encryption can help divert such attacks.

When using a wireless network, it is advisable that one should use a long or complicated password, also, it is advisable that the strongest security supported by the wireless connection hardware should be used, such as encryption tools. Passwords can also be changed regularly.

General Methods for Preventing Network Attacks and Reducing Vulnerability on Networks The most commonly used technique for reducing network threats is the installation of antivirus programs. These programs must be regularly updated and security patches and updates installed. Improving the security of the network infrastructure can also involve switching on features that enhance network security on switches, routers, and other hardware (Fadia 2006).

These security features ensure a secure connection, enhance perimeter security, prevents intrusion, protects identity services, and general security management. Fixing intrusion detection systems and firewalls offers protection for most areas of the network and allows for a safe connection. Working on a virtual private network (VPN) can also enhance security. VPNs provide network access control and encryption services.

Network security can also be improved by undertaking regular network security audits. A network security audit simply means that an expert comes and examines the security of the network, he also checks for loopholes that may be used attack the system and fixes them.

The audit can go beyond an inspection of the computers in the network and may comprise a site assessment of the physical security of the organization. A network security audit fixes an organization security flaws in the network and makes it difficult for perpetrators to attack the network (Network Security Threats 2011).

Since network threats come in a variety of forms and cannot be totally eliminated, it is advisable that secure updated data backups should be kept on systems that are detached from the network. None of these strategies will singly eliminate the threats arising from a network connection, but when they are used together, they can be exceedingly effectual at keeping a network safe. Besides, well –thought-out organizational policies can be effective at preventing unauthorized access to critical and parts of the network.

References Bragg, R., Rhodes-Ousley, M., Strassberg, K. (2004). Network security: the complete reference. New Jersey: John Wiley

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Social Media Networks Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Social media networks

Freedom of the media

Responsibility of the media

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Social networking is the interaction among people who come together through a medium in order to share their experiences with one another. Such media where people meet to socially interact are commonly referred to as social media. The term social media networks therefore refers to the media that connect individuals who intend to interactively communicate with other people in a social aspect that involves sharing of opinion and experience in life.

Examples of such media that are popularly known in the current times include Facebook, twitter and YouTube among others which are available online in the internet. This paper seeks to conduct an argumentative writing on whether social media networks should stay neutral or not. The paper will look into the nature of media networks as well as their essence and possible impacts on the society.

Social media networks Social media networks are free media in which any individual can air personal opinions. As interactive sites, they offer opportunities for people to collectively discuss and share on different issues that affect their lives.

One of such networks that have been recently used by people to discuss and organize their thoughts to a collective voice of defense has been Facebook. An example of such usage was the recent global connection of Palestinian citizens who collectively voiced their concern over their country through a web page in the Facebook social network.

The page which is reported to have attracted more than fifty thousand Palestinian citizens provided the people with a chance to express what they considered as oppression of Palestine by Israel. They thus were using the web page as a means of searching for freedom for their country. The Palestinian citizens who linked to the web page also used the social network to call for a demonstration against the Israeli oppressive nature towards Palestine (Press 1).

The usage of internet social network has in the recent past been commonly used by citizens to react to authoritative governance of their territories. Issues of oppressions by regimes on their own people have, for example, led to uprisings that are traced to social media networks.

Cases such as those that were reported in Egypt where civilians were reported to have used these networks to communicate over the government’s oppression also saw a twist in what was seen as a move to regulate the nature and information that people could pass through these networks (Preston 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the wake of the antigovernment uprising that was experienced in Egypt, there were reports of forms of control of what was to be posted in these social media. Though the uprising was attributed to the existence of such networks as reports indicated that they were used by citizens to mobilize themselves for the protests, it was later realized that the media were moving in to control the communications that were made by people through them.

Flickr, one of the social networks that were used in Egypt was, for example, reported to have removed pictures of government security officers that were posted by a user of that medium. Though the company provided an excuse for removing the photos, it was evident that the company was in a move to control what people posted on the media network pages.

Flickr and YouTube have been reported to significantly control the content of information passed on its pages. Most of the regulations have been affected following the usage of the networks by activists in their campaigns for democratic processes and civil rights in which they use the networks to expose negative acts of governments.

Facebook which has limited its control over its users has on the other hand been reported to receive directives and requests for it to regulate the contents of its users. A minister in the Israeli government, for example, made an application to Facebook asking for a withdrawal of a page that had been posted to by Palestinians calling for protest over Israeli oppression (Preston 1).

Even though Facebook restrained itself from regulating its users in terms of the contents posted on its website, it yielded to the Israeli’s request and removed the page that was created by Palestinian citizens to mobilize a protest against Israel. A sense of force is therefore seen to influence social network companies into controlling contents that are posted on their web pages.

This can be derived from the cases in which articles that were viewed to be unfriendly to some governments, the Egyptian and Israeli governments were removed by the social network companies (Fox 1). It is therefore very logical to argue that the network companies have yielded to the control of external forces to undermine the interest of its users in sharing opinion and information.

Freedom of the media The question as to whether or not the social media networks should be regulated or remain neutral should depend on the responsibility of the social media networks as well as the efforts that the networks have been making to undertake the responsibility to the general public. Just like the general media, the social media networks have responsibilities to fulfill to the society that it serves.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Media Networks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is these responsibilities that the media should be gauged upon and conclusions or recommendations be drawn on whether or not an action of regulation should be taken against the social networks or whether the networks should at times take sides on some issues.

Responsibilities of these media are also essential in the sense that as democracies are established and the media gains more freedom, more responsibility is laid on the shoulders of the media companies in order to ensure that their rights and freedom do not pose threats to the wellbeing of individuals, people or a nation.

The ideal operations of the media is, for example, expected to be undertaken in a free atmosphere in which no absolute external force is felt by the media fraternity. One of the fundamental features of a reliable media is its absolute independence from interferences such as censorship.

For reliability of the information that is supplied to the society, the media should be allowed to present information in its original contents in order to express the exact information being passed across. Governments should thus keep their hands off the operations of the media especially in cases where the government is itself the subject of media criticism or scrutiny (Fourie 193).

The functionality of the media should at the same time ensure that all its target population is able to access its services. Regulations by authorities to restrict the use of a social media network should therefore be considered unlawful. The media should also not be coerced or punished for representations that are not favorable to governments (Fourie 193).

Responsibility of the media The media fraternity is supposed to develop democracy in a society by creating room for divergent opinions to be expressed. With respect to this, any institution that is charged with media regulation is to be independent of any governmental influence.

In its responsibilities, the media is supposed to undertake measures to ensure information provided are on the basis of “truth, accuracy, objectivity and balance” (Fourie 193). The media should have the capacity to be self-regulatory as well as refrain from delivering information that can incite or offend specified groups (Larking 351).

Social media networks are therefore supposed to remain independent from influence from any authority in order to achieve its responsibility of promoting democracy in societies. Instances like the uprisings that were witnessed in Tunisia and Egypt, for example, were effects of repressive regimes that could also oppress the media in order to undermine democracy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media Networks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is similarly the responsibility of the media to refrain from delivering information that could be identified as inciting or offensive to a group of a society. Taking sides in a topic that is hotly contested can, for example, be offensive to a part of a population thus calling upon the social media networks to be neutral so as to foster harmony between groups with conflicting opinions (Larking 351).

Conclusion The establishment of social media networks created forums for people to freely air their views and opinions. The responsibility of the media to control itself as well as foster peaceful coexistence requires these media companies to act with restraint in neutrality to achieve its responsibility. The media should therefore remain neutral in handling information in the society so as to avoid responsibilities over crimes and uprisings.

Works Cited Fourie, Pieter. Media Studies: Media History, Media and Society. Cape town, South Africa: Juta and Company Ltd, 2008. Print.

Fox. Facebook removes page that demanded “third intifada” against Israel. Fox News, 2011. Web.

Larking, Paul. Politics, society, and the media. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2007. Print.

Press. Palestinians call for ‘third intifada’. Press, 2011. Web.

Preston, Jeniffer. Ethical quandary for social sites. New York Times, 2011. Web.

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Analysis of Tea Cake in Their Eyes Were Watching God: Unimportance of a Integral Character Essay cheap essay help

True feelings and experience are offered in Their Eyes Were Watching God written by Zora Neale Hurston. The author admits that Janie Crawford has the life that is divided in accordance with the men, who enter her life. Though the central message of the story is all about the independence of the main character, it still seems to be doubtful whether Janie’s life could not be as colorful without all her husbands, different in nature and attitude to her.

There are three men in Janie’s life: her first husband, Logan Killicks, offered by Nanny, her second husband, Joe Starks, who is cruel and confident, and her third husband, Tea Cake, whom she loves a lot and finds as the only true love in her life. The role of Tea Cake remains to be crucial in the story as well as in the whole life of Janie as his passion, creativity, and desire to create the best living conditions promote safety and comfort that is so necessary for the story. Their Eyes Were Watching God is the story that touches human lives.

Emotions while reading Zora Neale Hurston help to understand the role of Tea Cake. Unfortunately, those readers, who are not able to make use of their feelings while reading, they fail to comprehend the importance of Tea Cake in Janie’s life as well as his abilities to change the development of the events.

The story with several purposes is not only an exciting but educative piece of writing. Zora Neale Hurston does not want to focus on one particular item and its development under the conditions set by society.

The point is that the chosen story is full of captivating flaws, certain imperfections, and even some contradictions which create a kind of challenge that has to be overcome (“Analysis: Finding Shades of Meaning in Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God”).

Some so many people want to find true love, happiness, or richness; and the main character of the story seeks to find herself, and the character of Tea Cake aims at helping Janie achieve the goal.

Main themes raised in the text vary considerably and involve the reader in the story. It is hard to understand what the author wants to say by introducing Tea Cake as one of the most influential characters in the novel. On the one hand, some signs of feminism and the desire to achieve independence by means of changing men.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the society in which Tea Cake and Janie have to live in is prejudice by certain racial conflicts. And, finally, a number of psychological aspects and the idea to use human weaknesses and turn them into personal strengths are disclosed in the novel.

The feminism of Janie is a powerful weapon to analyze. Tea Cake shows how respectful and careful a man can be regarding a woman. However, his desire to lead the family is not enough. According to McCredie, the image of Janie introduces a female voice of authority (25), and even such powerful characters like Tea Cake are not able to break the judgments and diminish the role of female dependency.

In addition to feministic ideas, racism is considered to be an integral part of human life. There are three communities which are available to Janie as she marries different people (Crabtree 56). These communities introduce different attitudes to the role of a woman in society as well as the backgrounds of the relations which have to be developed between a male and a female.

Finally, the reader gets a good chance to learn how some people’s weaknesses promote the development of other people strengths. For example, Janie’s weakness concerning inabilities to find herself make Tea Cake more powerful in his intentions to protect Janie and create appropriate living conditions for her. And Tea Cake’s weakness concerning the inability to control his power makes Janie more confident and prudent.

During the whole novel, Tea Cake may be accepted as a stimulator of Janie’s life. Though Janie understands the truth and realizes that certain age differences may become a problem in their lives, she is ready to take a risk and believe in safer future for herself, her love, and her convictions. “Ah’m older than Tea Cake, yes.

But he done showed me where it’s de thought dat makes de difference in ages. If people think de same they can make it all right” (Hurston 115). Tea Cake’s desire to destroy any possible barriers on his way to happiness with Janie turns out to be so powerful that it helps Janie understand that there is nothing bad or wrong in their relations in case they are built on genuine feelings, understanding, and respect.

Personal experience of the author plays an essential role in the story as well. Zora Neale Hurston sees the cruelty inherent to the lives of many black women and the impact of men’s activities in society. She does not want to follow the requirements set by society. What she wants is to create an image of a woman that can break the rules and choose her independent way to success and satisfaction. And the role of Tea Cake is not the last in this way.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Tea Cake in Their Eyes Were Watching God: Unimportance of a Integral Character specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His presence makes Janie more confident in her desire to gain independence, and his support makes her believe that her ideas make sense and may come true soon. However, at the same time, Tea Cake does not want to leave Janie and chooses a form of control that is not always clear to the reader.

Main traits of Tea Cake impress the reader with its diversity. This character may become cruel and tentative, fair and absent-minded, loving and independent, serious and playful. Tea Cake’s creativity is the key to Janie’s development. Janie finds him creative as he as no one else supports the desire to be developed and probe the world around.

Playful behavior of Tea Cake makes him noticeable. For a long time, Janie’s life has been controlled by cruel men whose main goals were to have obedient wives, own business, and be able to manage the relations which are developed in families.

However, Tea Cake’s play with Janie is regarded as a new perspective, a new idea that has not been used before, and Janie is captivated with the offered methods. She is ready to accept the play by Tea Cake and try to change her life for the better. Respect turns out to be another powerful aspect of human relations. In comparison to the previous husbands of Janie, Tea Cake is attractive to the reader due to his respect for women. He does not want to create certain boundaries which allow men to take control of their women.

At the very beginning of their relations, Janie accepts Tea Cake as an integral part of her life and the feeling as they have already known each other a lot (Hurston 99). There are many such cases when the characters are not ready for everything that happens to them. Still, they have to accept reality as it is.

Unpredictable accidents define the quality of a human sense of self in the story. The unforeseen departure of Janie’s mother, sudden kiss noticed by Nanny, meeting with Joe Starks, or song gifted by Tea Cake as the beginning of the most important relations – Janie could not predict all this. Still, these very events influence her perception of life and her role in the world. The role of Tea Cake is vital yet not indispensable.

During the whole life, Janie gets evidence with the help of which she understands her financial independence. Of course, Tea Cake helps Janie understand that she can be free and happy with a man. Still, he should not be the only man in her life. This is why several critics admit that Tea Cake becomes an important figure in the novel. However, he is not too much important in Janie’s life.

Janie feels better with Tea Cake. However, it is evident that she is fine without him. She has already achieved a lot in her life: she gained certain financial independence, she knows how it is difficult for a black woman to gain recognition in the society full of prejudice and misunderstandings. Though Janie finds Tea Cake a reliable person with some positive traits, she cannot trust him entirely as she is afraid to become dependent on his words, ideas, and actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Tea Cake in Their Eyes Were Watching God: Unimportance of a Integral Character by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tea Cake supports the idea to comprehend how one may see things that connect two characters (Wolff 31). This character is attractive due to his desire to create the conditions under which different people may feel comfortable. He does not focus on the methods used to achieve his goals as he tries to help people discover the most powerful sides of their characters and use them for good.

Tea Cake’s ability to create the world he and Janie are dreaming about remains to be an essential point in the novel. When Janie was a young girl, she had to perform the roles defined by her grandmother, first, and second husbands. She had nothing to do but accept the duties set. And with Tea Cake, Janie gets a chance to create the world and define the responsibilities on her own. This is why one of the main purposes of Tea Cake is to give opportunities which are so necessary for such people like Janie.

Though some critics admit that Tea Cake differs a lot from the previous husbands of Janie (Crabtree 60), still, Tea Cake and other husbands of the main characters have several things in common. First, Tea Cake wants to gain a specific portion of control over Janie. Second, this character continues putting his demands in the first place. And finally, he tries to help Janie as he still believes that his help is integral for her and no one else could provide the required assistance.

Beating Janie is defined as a possibility to establish a kind of claim on his wife (McCredie 28). This gesture may signify several things. On the one hand, Tea Cake still possesses some traits which inherent to males. On the other hand, male power is probably the only possibility to prove that men are not to gain control over all things in their lives.

The desire to protect the wife does not always have the required limitations and turns out to be a weakness of a man. It is hard for men to make quick decisions and consider their possibilities regarding women. This is why such characters like Tea Cake may be rather impulsive, and it is not always possible to control emotions under different conditions. Another significant point concerning the role of Tea Cake in the story is his direct influence on other characters.

Tea Cake’s love makes Janie lose herself again (“Analysis: Finding Shades of Meaning in Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God”). The more time Janie spends with Tea Cake, the more confident she becomes about her dependency on this man. She is in love, and this love makes her weaker and even blind.

She does not want to see the evidence that she recently gained a sense of self is disappearing; this is why some urgent actions have to be taken. The unimportance of Tea Cake as a character is proved as soon as Janie shoots her husband because of self-defensive reasons.

The death of Tea Cake is another important step in Janie’s life that has to make her more powerful (Crabtree 57). This action is motivated by a rather selfish feeling – the desire to save her life as she “saw the ferocious look in his eyes and went mad with fear” (Hurston 184). She forgets her functions of a devoted wife, and what she remembers is that she is a human being, and Tea Cake is another challenge that has to be overcome.

Tea Cake and Janie are the two characters which show how dependent human life can be. There are many reasons why this novel of an African American writer has to be read and understood. First, this is a story about human life, its challenges, and peculiarities. Reading this work, it is possible to realize why there are so many people, who remain to be dependent on personal weaknesses and uncertainties. Another reason is about the properly chosen characters and the definition of the roles in the story.

The character of Tea Cake and his role in Janie’s life become rather important. He proves that in spite of human desire to become independent and create life in accordance to personal demands and ideas, people remain to be dependent on the events and circumstances around. Though it is not an easy thing, it is hard to avoid it.

Works Cited “Analysis: Finding Shades of Meaning in Zora Neale Hurston’s ‘Their Eyes Were Watching God’.” Talk of the Nation. 17 Feb. 2000. Web.

Crabtree, Claire. “The Confluence of Folklore, Feminism and Black Self-Determination in Zora Neale Hurston’s ‘Their Eyes Were Watching God’.” Contemporary Literary Criticism 17.2 (1985): 54-66.

Hurston, Zora, Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 1998.

McCredie, Wendy, J. “Authority and Authorization in Their Eyes Were Watching God.” Black American Literature Forum 16.1 (1982): 25-28.

Wolff, Maria, Tai. “Listening and Living: Reading and Experience in Their Eyes Were Watching God.” Black American Literature Forum 16.1 (1982): 29-33.

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Company Analysis of Tesco Report essay help: essay help

Introduction The purpose of this report is to analyze internal opportunities and threats, external strengths and weakness, vision statement and mission statement of Tesco Corporation, example of achieved mission, and recommendation of strategies to develop the organization in future.

Background of Tesco Corporation Tesco Plc. is the giant of global glossary chain shop operating in fourteen countries and considered as the third largest player in terms of revenue generation. The company originated in UK in 1919 as small grosser and now turned into FTSE 100 Company listed in the LSE annual revenue of £ 60.93 billion and£ 2.67 billion Net income accounted in 2011.

Tesco possesses 2,715 outlets in UK occupying Total area 3,411,586 sq meter space while the company has diversified its business in telecommunication, banking, ICT, club card, beauty salon film producing gold trading and many more sectors with successful record of accomplishment.

The company has 2,665 stores with 70,718,000 sq. meter floor space worldwide excluding the total number of UK stores, while the numbers of outlets have been increasing with a remarkable rate of expansion. Tesco’s expansion strategy, strong organisational structure, and core business concept those are the facts that provided the competitive advantages that no other competitors can bid.

There are a number of complain about the Tesco’s corporate governance, tax manipulation and corporate social responsibility including workplace environment in third world factories but above all Tesco turned in to a power of the UK society that may not be depress the business environment. However, the following table gives more information about the company –

List Some Key Features About the Company Stores Tesco has about 4,331 Stores all over the world and among them 2,306 stores in the national market, 571 stores in Thailand, and 319 stores in Poland to offer wide range of products and services to the target customers Employees Tesco has more than 472000 employees all over the world and it is going to recruit more staff to operate the business more smoothly Tesco Personal Finance It is a combination of the Banking and Insurance service that started operation initially only in UK and in 2003, Tesco decided to buy the 50% share of Royal Bank of Scotland of £950 million to own the total share of TPF Food It is the largest business segment for Tesco as it offers 40000 food products, such as – 400 ‘Healthy Living’ products which are low in fat and sodium

150 ‘Free From’ product to make life easier for customers with food allergies and intolerances

In addition, it offers 40 Special healthy Kids snacks and 1,200 Organic product lines

Table 1: Products and services of Tesco

Source: Self generated from Tesco (1)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More SWOT Analysis of Tesco Corporation: Strengths:

Brand Awareness: the main strength of Tesco is the brand awareness of the company as it is the largest grocer of UK and the third largest grocery retailer of the world;

Employees: The company has more than 4,72,000 highly educated, enough efficient, and good manner employees including 12 international markets, and it has plan to increase 16,000 employees within very short time;

Rapid growth: the market share is growing very rapidly throughout the UK and outside market, for example, according to the report of Datamonitor (14), this company hold 13% market share of the UK retail superstores market. At the same time, market growth of few segments like Tesco personal Finance is outstanding in the local market, Toyota Lotus in Thailand has delivered strong growth in spite of recession and adverse political situation, Tesco in Slovakia saw excellent growth, and Malaysia has had an exceptional year though this was not a potential market for Tesco from 2001 Asian crisis;

Financial position: Tesco is happy with its performance in recent years as many company suffered huge loss and some companies needed government support but Tesco continues with its own financial strength and never faced loss though the earning has decreased from few segments. In addition, it has strong liquidity percentage and strong asset utilization and managerial efficiency; however, the following figure shows that the share price of the company is quite position in London Stock Exchange –

Figure 1: Basic Chart of Tesco for 2007 to 2011-05-02

Source: Yahoo Finance (1)

Variables 2010 (£ million) 2009 (£ million) 2008 (£ million) 2007 (£ million) Total assets 46,023 45,564 30,164 24,807 Total liabilities 31,427 32,715 18,349 14,301 Total revenue 56,910 53,898 47,298 42,641 Gross Profit 4,607 4,185 3,630 3,240 Total Operating Costs 53,878 50,940 44,648 40,274 Operating Income or Loss 3,032 2,958 2,650 2,367 Net Income 2,327 2,133 2,124 1,892 Table 2: Financial Overview of Tesco

Source: Self generated from Tesco (130) and Yahoo Finance (1)

Corporate governance system: many large company has collapsed due to lack of the practice of corporate governance practice but Tesco never faced such position as all the members of board of directors, and auditors are worked with integrity and for the development of the company;

Market leader: Tesco was successful to become the market leader in the UK,

Technology: It has advance technological support to enhance its profits from its products and service area; as a result, it can offer online purchasing facilities, online baking facilities and maintain customer relation by using advance technology.

Shareholders: Shareholders are a key strength of the company as they are generating the ultimate investment capacity for the company; however, they consider following factors to invest –

Tesco Plc 2010 (£ million) 2009 (£ million) 2008 (£ million) 2007 (£ million) Current Assets 11,765 13,479 6,300 4,576 Current Liabilities 16,015 17,595 10,263 8,152 Working capital = (current assets – current liabilities) 11,765 – 16,015 = -4250 13,479 – 17,595 = -4116 6,300 – 10,263 = -3,963 4,576 – 8,152 = -3,576 current ratio = Total current assets/ current liabilities 11,765 / 16,015 = 0.73462379 13647 / 18040 = 0.756485588 5992 / 10263 = 0.58384488 4168 / 8158 = 0.511285574 Basic EPS 14.78p 12.97p 26.95p 23.61p Table 3: Ratio analysis of Tesco

Source: Self generated

Product range: according to the annual report 2009, this company offers wide range of products and services including insurance facilities and credit purchasing facilities. In addition, Tesco personal finance is achieving more and more milestones besides retail services; such as, in 2003 the insurance service achieved 1 million motor insurance policies and other segments like Credit cards, savings, deposit schemes, pet insurance, travel insurance and life insurance are continuously escalating its potential to offer fully operated banking service;

Leadership: On the other hand, Tesco has achieved this success for the continuous efforts and capabilities of its top management team, including the CEO of Tesco Terry Leahy who has taken many decisions to increase its performance in global market Tesco’s UK sales are now 71% larger than Sainsbury’s;

Quality: Moreover, Tesco always offer high quality products and services for the customer as the company would like create strong loyal customer base.

Weaknesses:

Dependence on the UK market: Datamonitor (16) reported that Tesco is mostly depends on the UK market (as more that 73.8% of its revenue generates from the market);

Media: Interference of media some time creates hindrance of the business, for instance, the UK TV broadcasted in a documentary on Tesco’s corporate social responsibility and poor personnel morale on the employees by claiming that Tesco encouraged child labour in order to offer low price to the customer. For instance, one of the major sales product of Tesco is Jeans at $4 for rough use and Tesco advertise that purchase our useable low cost Jeans instead of waste money for washing powder, but media claimed that Tesco can offer at $4 only exploit the child labour of Bangladesh. On the other hand, the CEO of Tesco stated that they have no responsibility about their supplier as Tesco never suggest to exploit child labour to reduce production cost, and he further added that they visited the garments of the supplier but found no child labour;

Reduction of debt: Tesco’s aggressive expansion strategy limits the corporation to expend money except investing; as a result, debt reduction became problematic, which may adversely affect on the company.

Opportunities:

Advantage from Recession: Tesco can take advantage of recent economic downturns by changing its strategies; for instance, it can sustain as a global leader by reducing costs, offering at lower price, pushing on with expansion, and increasing total assets value; for example, Tesco (9) reported that the price of land and property has decreased significantly due to recession.

International Growth: Tesco personal Finance initially offers online banking facilities only in the national market but Tesco has the opportunity to expand the operation of this segment in international market as it was most successful segment in recessionary period in national market;

Health: The sales revenue from health care and beauty products is increasing in the UK market as Tesco is the market leader in both toiletries and healthcare retail sectors along with baby goods markets; therefore, Tesco invests regularly to develop this sectors so it has 19 stores with opticians and almost 200 stores with pharmacies;

Further Expansion: According to the annual report of Tesco, it has earned a significant profit from international market particularly from the Korean market; as it can consider further expansion with it various types of new services along with the existing services in Asian, European and American countries;

Non-food Retail: The management team of Tesco confirmed that they would continue non-food retail segment as it has generated 23% share from this segment in 2004,

Other: Tesco has efficient employees to boost the profit, and it has been experienced satisfactory profit margin all over from retail services those open new dimension to start new business or expand existing business.

Threats:

Major Competitors: The main threat in retail business of Tesco is the strong competitors of national and international market, for instance, ASDA is the subsidiary of Wal-Mart has large market share in the UK market. At the same time, Sainsbury PLC and Morrisons have huge participation in the market those change companies’ strategies regularly in order to develop the market position and gain competitive advantages over the Tesco Plc;

Expatriates Management: Tesco has always eager to expand its business all over the world by opening their subsidiary; as a result, the company need to recruit a significant number of employees from the home countries of subsidiary. However, the top management of parent company would like to train all employees to develop their communicational skills to increase sales in international market, but many employees leave their job if they get job at home; therefore, retention of employees is a great challenge for Tesco;

Global financial crisis: Tesco has experienced huge lose from some international zone due to the adverse impact of the global financial crisis though net profit has increased each year. In addition, Tesco’s annual sales revenue from few products and service was not outstanding in the UK and global market considering the performance of previous year and investment because the purchasing power of the customer has reduced and they mainly purchased necessary products;

Customer Buying behaviour: frequent change of customer mind regarding the product selection is also problem for the retail customer;

Price War: As price is the prime attraction that clasps the customer’s attention and primarily inspires them to engage with the promotions carried out; therefore, all competitors try to make sure that the pricing is in fact attractive to the targeted customers, which is one of major challenges for the Tesco Plc; for example, Datamonitor (17) reported that Morrison reduced Safeway’s prices by up to 6%;

International expansion: Tesco needs huge amount of investment to enter international market and it has to face high competition in outside of the UK market; as a result, Tesco has not generated satisfactory profits from some Asian countries;

Other: Natural crisis, foreign direct investment policy of overseas government, unfriendly approach of the government of international market, instable political condition of certain area, factors related with taxation policy, and entry barriers, local regulation and listing requirements have influence on Tesco’s operation in global market.

The vision statement and mission statement of Tesco The Vision Statement of Tesco

A vision statement is an inspirational explanation of what a business would like to attain or bring about in the mid term or long-standing future – it has deliberated to provide an apparent direction for selecting present and upcoming patterns of actions for the company in order to gain the advantage of the market throughout its operational period.

We will write a custom Report on Company Analysis of Tesco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the main vision of Tesco is to create value for clients to gain their lifetime loyalty by concentrating on the customers, understanding and fulfilling their needs and showing responsibility on the community.

This company has some other long-tem objectives to achieve the core vision such as Tesco ensures equal opportunity for all employees to get highest outcomes from them, provides guidance to work like a team, and develops mutual understanding by exchanging their views to give the highest satisfaction to the customers.

This statement also pointed out that all workers would be treated as part of a large family that indicates Tesco always create excellent environment for the staff to jointly work together as a team member, where they enjoy equal opportunities in terms of salary, pension, leave, and other job facilities.

The Mission Statement of Tesco

Mission statements are printed assertions of businesses’ central goal and objective that usually stays unaltered over time, acting as sifts to distinguish what is imperative, affirming which markets to penetrate, and transmit a sense of deliberated roadmap to the whole business; moreover, a mission is something to be accomplished, whereas a vision is something to be pursued for that accomplishment.

The mission of Tesco has designed considering the vision statement that is “to create value for lifetime customer” and the mission of the company is to survive as a market leader in the global financial crisis by offering the best products at lower price to retaining loyal customers. However, this mission statement mainly focused on three short time objectives those are interrelated, such as –

Overcome from the adverse impact of global financial crisis

The customers will come again and again

Offer lower price than the competitors

Mission that achieved by Tesco and Justification Tesco has already achieved three components in the mission statement and the flowing heads discuss about the mission statement and showed justification about the findings–

Market leader in recession: One of the greatest missions of Tesco was to sustain in the UK market as market leader in the adverse economic environment. According to the annual report 2009 of Tesco,

Figure 2: Basic Chart for Tesco Plc vs. Sainsbury

Not sure if you can write a paper on Company Analysis of Tesco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: Yahoo finance (1)

However, the above figure compares the financial position between Tesco Plc and Sainsbury in the stock market, and it represents that Tesco’s share price is much better than Sainsbury’s position in London Stock Exchange (LSE). On the other hand, Datamonitor (14) pointed that Tesco’s sales revenue is highest in the UK market and third position in global market and it generated sales revenue is 71% greater than nearest competitor.

At the same time, one of the foremost missions of Tesco was to offer products and services at lowest price in order to target all types of customer for those who want to purchase from this company. From the very beginning, this company followed cost effective strategy and the company reduced its price at highest level in order to protect competitors to capture while it found that competitors is going to draw attention of the customer by their special offer at low price.

In order to offer lower price, Tesco has to create strong supply chain by maintaining good relationship with the suppliers, and the management of the company always try to find out low cost suppliers who would provide quality products, such as, Bangladeshi readymade garments suppliers has fame to provide high quality products with low price.

On the other hand, Tesco has successfully create large loyal customer base in national and international market by implementing its low cost strategies and it also concentrates on the cultural factors to operate its outlet in foreign countries, which also help the company to retain customers.

For instance, the trading conditions of South Korea, China, Ireland have deteriorated due to global financial crisis but the company was reduced operating costs and the price of the products, which balance the profitability level as the customers are loyal; as a result, this company regain its market position in those areas within very short period.

Suggested Strategies to Tesco for future development This report scrutinise the present strategies of Tesco to recommend the most suitable strategies those the company should follow in near future and this report also suggests some strategies in light of some effective strategic tools to gain competitive advantage over competitors.

Ansoff Matrix for Tesco

According to the annual report 2009 of Tesco, this company has already positioned it as the UK market leader in retail business and it is in the third position in global market; as a result, it would be easy for Tesco to consider this strategy to develop its business at existing or new market. However, the following figure shows the Ansoff Matrix for Tesco –

Market penetration: This strategy concentrates on the development of existing products at existing market and it is an effective strategy for Tesco since the customers of existing markets would like its products because they are loyal customers and company has strong brand image, low price and high quality. However, the flowing figure shows the sales of its existing products in existing markets

Figure 3: Sales by region

Source: Tesco (9)

Market Development: Tesco has business operation in 14 countries; therefore, its existing products and service range has bright prospect in other developed countries in the world. In order develop markets in European or Asian countries, Tesco should apply this strategy with their regular price offer as pricing is one of the important factors to the customer as well as company.

Figure 4: Ansoff Matrix

Source: Self generated from Kotler

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Imposition of Hollywood film restrictions: The production code Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Arguments against imposition of film restrictions

Conclusion

References

Introduction The essay is an in-depth argument on whether or not Hollywood films should be imposed with restrictions and censorship. It is worth to note that fierce debate has been elicited by the calls to censor films produced by Hollywood. The issues of moral as well as artistic freedom have been the main contention for several years. For me to have an opinion, I need to analyze both side of the coin; arguments in support of imposition of film restriction as well as against it.

Historically, the issue of imposing restriction as well as censorship of films in United States of America data back in late 1920s (Miller, 1994). The Motion Picture Production Code adopted between 1938 and 1968 had guideline governing movie production. From 1968, Motion Picture Association of America film rating system that was responsible for spelling out what was acceptable and what was not for the America citizens.

It is worth mentioning that MPAA a body that rates the motion pictures focus particularly on the films’ thematic as well as content suitability to the audiences. These guidelines are what help parent decide what their children should be watching. The body that administers the rating is known to be Classification and Rating Administration not a governed agency. The five major rating are NC-17 rating, R-restricted, PG-1 parents strongly cautioned, PG parental guidance suggested and G-general audience (Green

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Performative Culture: Taiwan Pride Essay college essay help

In gay culture the Gay Pride parade has come to represent performative culture that is both a political act and a personal celebration for lesbians, gay men and trans individuals the world over. The Gay Pride parade offers lesbians, gay men, bisexuals and trans persons the opportunity to be out and proud, visible in the community and achieving legitimacy in the political and public realm.

In countries where lesbians, gay men, bisexuals and trans do not receive the same degree of rights and privileges as heterosexuals, or experience intimidation, threats or discrimination in the workplace or in the public sphere, the Gay Pride parade remains particularly relevant. In Taiwan, organizers instituted the inaugural Gay Pride parade in Taiwan beginning in 2003 and called it Taiwan Pride (Taiwan Pride n.p.).

Since the rescinding of martial law in Taiwan in 1987, various social movements have transformed the features of Taiwanese political culture as well as daily life, including “a workers’ and a student movement, feminist organizing and lesbian activism have begun to create alternative cultural spaces and to affect public policies and perceptions” (Sieber 20).

According to the Advocate, “Taiwan’s gay men and lesbians walk a tightrope between fighting for civil rights and staying within the government’s comfort zone. Among mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, only the latter has legalized gay sex, and that was done before the United Kingdom handed control over to China.

According to various news reports, the number of Internet gay porn sites is exploding across the region and officials are not cracking down. There is a sense among gay men and lesbians that they can come out to family members but still cannot do so in public” (Galliano and Lisotta 83).

According to the Asian Lesbian Network, lesbians in Taiwan still encounter significant personal obstacles as individuals (Sieber 22). Organized as a group, lesbians in Taiwan enjoy “more public leverage…[and] as individuals, [they] can affirm and consolidate [their] own sexual and social identity” (Sieber 22). Despite the advances made in Taiwan, according to the Asian Lesbian Network “it is still incredibly difficult to be an open lesbian.

For one thing, we are constrained by family expectations. We are supposed to be devoted to our parents and most parents cannot help but see lesbianism in a negative light. So most families don’t know about their daughter’s lesbianism. As a student, you are financially dependent on your parents, so you cannot really afford to alienate them. And when you work, you could be fired or harassed by your superiors or co-workers” (Sieber 22).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Within the Taiwanese lesbian community, as in any lesbian community, lesbians experience daily contradictions between their public and private selves. These include “passing straight at work but being out with friends, public oppression vs. private pleasure, or the seeming contradiction of multiple political commitments. The recognition and working through of conflict is a process that is essential to political and personal growth” (Becker 36).

The visibility that Taiwan Pride affords gives Taiwanese lesbians an opportunity to integrate these disparate selves and march as whole individuals. As a performative culture, Taiwan Pride underscores the need for “the expression of self…against the dominant ideology,” and provides a suitable forum for this expression (Becker 35).

As an oppressed community…Taiwan Pride offers Taiwanese lesbians an opportunity to “create positive images both to offer the new self identity and also to combat the negative stereotypes promulgated by the dominant culture” (Becker 35). Similarly, the same positive images created and expressed during the march at Taiwan Pride “cannot be cut off from the societal pressures that created the original stereotypes or the conditions that maintain them” (Becker 35).

The year 2003 was a major break through for the lesbian community in Taiwan. According to the Advocate, the Taiwanese government “boldly suggested changes to a human rights law that would allow for same-sex marriage and adoption by gay and lesbian couples. The proposals didn’t pass into law, but it was a watershed legislative moment for any Asian country” (Galliano and Lisotta 83).

The 2003 parade attracted more than 20 000 participants by different gay from organizations from all over the world as well as Asia; the main march was held in the city of Taipei on November 1 and represented the first of its kind in the Chinese community. Later on, the success of the event motivated the gay community located in Hong-Kong to organize a parade of its own (Taiwan Pride n.p.).

The 2003 march received funding from the city of Taipei, and nearly 500 people came together in the streets of Taipei “brandishing rainbow flags and pushing strollers to show support for the government’s move. The mayor of Taipei stressed that gays and lesbians wouldn’t suffer harassment by the municipal government. Although many marchers wore masks to protect their identity, hundreds walked openly in front of cameras” (Taiwan Pride n.p.).

Lesbian groups located in Taiwan believe that Taiwan Pride remain crucial to the community’s well being, “especially in the wake of a highly publicized raid on a bookstore that sold gay adult magazines” (Galliano and Lisotta 83). Kao Yi-chao, one of Taiwan Pride organizers, understands that in “places like the United States and northern Europe, gays and lesbians are able to be much more open than in Taiwan…we want to let the public know about our rights as homosexuals and increase discussion” (Galliano and Lisotta 83).

We will write a custom Essay on Performative Culture: Taiwan Pride specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Each year since the first march in 2003, Taiwan Pride has increased its size and its political import. In October of 2007 Taiwan Pride was held again in the city of Taipei and attracted 15 000 participants who marched under the slogan Rainbow Power (Taiwan Pride n.p.).

Taiwan Pride is very different when compared to other Pride parades in different countries as it “remains predominately for social and community gay and non gay movement, with just minor advertisement joining in” (Taiwan Pride n.p.). 2007 marked the first time a corporate sponsor participated in the parade when swimsuit manufacturer Aussiebum sponsored a float known as Waterboy who modeled the swimwear (Taiwan Pride n.p.).

The other unique aspect about Taiwan Pride is that “participants share the street with bikes, bystanders and cars and subject themselves to regular traffic management” (Taiwan Pride n.p.).

The Taipei Times reported that the 2007 Taiwan Pride marked the largest Gay Pride parade to ever occur in Asia, “which demonstrates a growing awareness of the marginalization of these groups” (Taipei Times 8). In 2009 and 2010, the advocacy group Taiwan LGBT Pride Community announced that “the parade has exploded in numbers,” as Taiwan Pride attracted 25 000 and 30 000 participants respectively (Taiwan Pride n.p.)

Works Cited Becker, Edith et al. “Lesbians and Film.” Out in Culture: Gay, Lesbian, And Queer Essays On Popular Culture. Eds. Corey K. Creekmur and Alexander Doty. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995. Print.

Galliano, Joseph and Christopher Lisotta. “Worldwide Pride.” Advocate 917 (2004): 81-88. Web.

Sieber, Patricia. “Lesbian Organizing: Culture, Sexuality, Politics.” Connexions 46 (1994): 20-23. Web.

Taipei Times. “Editorial: Cloud Hangs Over Taiwan Pride Parade.” Taipei Times 26 September 2008. Page 8. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Performative Culture: Taiwan Pride by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “Taiwan Pride.” Twpride.net. Taiwan, 2009. Web.

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Graphic Design History Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Art and Design Over the course of man’s life, there have come shifts in his living standards. These changes have occurred in all sectors of his life. That is socially, economically and politically. These changes are descriptive of a man’s revolution in life. Here, the word revolution will mean a gradual or drastic change in the sectors of man’s life as mentioned above.

To this end, therefore, we need to understand the two concepts. That is the industrial and the technological/digital revolution. It is by doing this that we shall then be able to understand the relationship between the two concepts and the contrast between the technological and the ideological distances covered by both. This paper will also look at their impact on the history of design. What is technological revolution? Industrial revolution refers to that period in history when man started to mechanize.

This was the period when man incorporated the use of machines in most of his working. This revolution started from 18th to 19th century when major changes occurred in agriculture, mining, transportation and technology (Winkler, 34).This revolution had great impact on people. This involved peoples’ social, economic and cultural aspects.

Industrial revolution signaled a major shift in people’s life. It is important to note that every aspect of man’s life underwent some change. This included peoples average income increased as well as their population. In addition, the entire living standards of the people were improved (Winkler, 34).

With the understanding of what is industrial revolution, we then ask ourselves the meaning of the term technological revolution. This is the second industrial revolution. This new revolution followed the first industrial revolution. It employed the incorporation of technology in the production process.

This was a phase of the broader industrial revolution. period is believed to correspond to the end of the 19th century up to world war 1.the raise of technological revolution was marked by the use of new technology in the mass production and production line.

Digital revolution also referred to as the second industrial revolution refers to the changes that occurred from 1980 and continue up to now. These dynamics involved the transfer from analog technology to digital technology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In deeper meaning, the term refers to the changes brought about by the digital computing. It also refers to the changes brought about by communication technology. We note therefore, that while the industrial revolution marked the agricultural revolution digital world marked the start of information age (Meggs, 67).

It is through the analysis of the two revolutions discussed above do we look on the history of graphic design. Through an analysis of the history of graphic design, Phillip Meggs done to Saul bass, the technological, realize the contrast between the two revolutions on the interview and the ideological distance covered between the two revolutions periods are evident.

In the interview mentioned above, the impact of the computer in the design of corporate identities like company logos is evident. Saul bass a designer specialist in corporate design brings out the importance of the computers in designing his logos and trademarks.

Unlike human beings, he acknowledges that computers are more responsive to modifying factors of the design such as,” how will the design look like when turned to this angle.” like he says, though this is so, the original idea comes from the mind of the designer. This therefore puts forward the fact that though the digital world has come to refine the inventions and the knowledge of the industrial revolution, the primary design still lies with the prior(Frank, 53).

On the other hand, the Bauhaus legend though closed in the 1933-a long Time ago, has continued to influence the modern day graphic design profoundly. Though this is so, the Bauhaus teachings get sharp criticism from the designers.

This is because its design ideology was mostly derived and based on the cultural and social interests of altering the social conditions of mostly the working population. Unlike the corporate design by Bass, the Bauhaus opposed the intellectual aspect of academic education in the arts.

This notion about arts had in turn the effect of removing the peoples touch in the various designs propagated by this school during the 1930s.this school acknowledged only those intellectual activities that concerned themselves with the development of the language form. These forms refer to color, image and in object construction.

We will write a custom Essay on Graphic Design History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to social separation, the lack of understanding of the cultural experiences of the people and isolation from the public, signs of the products then skewed towards the production of products that lacked public touch and this contributed to growing of lack of interests on those products. At times, this may lead to wrong choices.

It is commonly known that the Bauhaus are the originator of product. However, the design did not get application on the primary technological area. A deeper analysis of its topography reveals deep ignorance .Bauhaus does not respond to the evolution of letterform or to the mechanics of readings as well as legibility.

From the above discussion, therefore, it emerges that the Bauhaus is an important tool useful in assessing the progress of the design profession. The Bauhaus has helped us determine the design morality .in other instances, the Bauhaus has helped the designers determine the design responsibility of the professional.

Through this school of thought, designers are able to determine whether the information is by itself neutral and supportable by a design effort. We realized that it is not every design is worth from a cultural point of view (Frank, 58).

Through our analysis of the behaviors and morality,-the Bauhaus reassessed; we get the realization that realistic side of design should be maintained by designers. Designs are made to be implemented and not merely for decoration. During this time-the period of the Bauhaus, designers developed designs, which in essence there was no genuine purpose. This is in contrary to the 21st century where the digital revolution came to revolutionize all aspects of design including designing for a specific reason.

On the other hand, other supporters of counter cultural idea such as Williams Burroughs argue that digital age does not waste their time on such matters like pecking order and guideline. It is only ineffective on disorder and possible meaninglessness of conference and disorder.

In the present time unlike the 19th century as advocated by the Bauhaus and the corporate design as advocated by Bass .Thomas frank imagines the capitalist world as endless and turbulent changes. He believes that the counterculture was antinomian business know welling understanding the new information world and its effects on design especially of the television slogans. What is evident is that the corporate world is completely controlled by the antinomianism (Meggs, 67).

In conclusion, therefore, we can comfortably say that though similarities of the distance covered in graphic design history is large based on the morality of the design at that time, differences to have been evident through the relationship of the design and the people. Questions are asked of whether the design has the peoples touch. If not, such designs are abandoned by the people of whom the design was intended.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Graphic Design History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Frank, Thomas. Why Johnny Cannot Dissent. Émigré, 1.49 (1999): 50-60.

Meggs, Philip. Saul Bass on Corporate Identity. Journal of Graphic Design, 8.1 (1990): 60-77.

Winkler, Dietmar. Morality And Myth: The Bauhaus Reassessed. AIGA Journal of Graphic Design, 7.4 (1990): 30-42.

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The Sex Life of Teenagers Annotated Bibliography essay help

Chapman, J. (2000). Adolescent sex and mass media: a developmental approach. Miami: Herald.

This book has a different approach to adolescent sex. Adolescent sex can be largely blamed on mass media that has been promoting it in one way or the other. In this case, mass media has not controlled the way it airs sexual materials thereby exposing teens. This means that there are no control mechanisms to look at the content that is being aired.

The author believes that mass media should be at the forefront developing teens but this has been the opposite where they have played a big role in destroying them. As much as the media plays an important role in our society, it will be better if there are enough control measures to develop adolescents well as far as sex is concerned.

Brown, D. (2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. New York: Harper

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How Dale Carnegie’s book can be both related to and influence business in Kazakhstan Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Most of the businesses in Kazakhstan revolve around oil and gas; these industries have greatly contributed to the sturdy economic growth in the country. In addition, Kazakhstan provides one of the largest markets in the middle of Asia and is in the middle of the busy business route between China and Europe. Also, the country has other minerals which have the potential of boosting its economy. All that combined with the number of increasing professionals, makes Kazakhstan one of the most vibrant new markets today.

Just like other ex-soviet states, the country is trying to com up with clear and efficient trade customs that will tend to attract investors. In one way or the other, the country’s leaders are trying to tune their business customs to reflect those practiced in the Western World.

Nevertheless, business reforms are usually wrongly implemented, especially in business communication, leading to serious stalling of business activities. This is mainly attributed to the culture found among the citizens of Kazakhstan. The way to address people in the society differs depending on age, place of origin and associate families.

For many years now, business men have consulted Dale Carnegie’s book called How to Win Friends and Influence People so as to gain principles in effective communication. Although the book was written a couple of decades ago, the fundamental doctrine of human communication has not changed.

In fact, some argue that the principles in this book are needed now more than when it was written. Carnegie’s book focuses on the means of achieving a progressive interpersonal connection with other work mates. The book explores how someone’s attitude relates to the way one communicates. Due to the culture in Kazakhstan, the people there have a unique way in which people should communicate.

When it comes to meeting people, greetings are usually formal and the handshake is frequently done with two hands accompanied with a smile. However, due to the Muslim culture, some men opt not to shake women’s hands. If a special relationship develops, it is acceptable for acquaintances of the same gender to hug. Also, it is important for a foreigner to wait to use a Kazakh’s first name until he has been given the go ahead. Otherwise, the surname should be used at all times.

Kazakhs usually speak in a non direct manner and prefer to beat around the bush before they deliver their point. Also, they prefer tender inquiring instead of straightforward questioning. Conversely, many of them have an explosive behavior in which they shout just to make a point.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, they usually have ferocious arguments. The way they carry out their business meetings vary from one company to another. Private companies have adopted the western style of meeting where matters are rather fluid. Contrary, public companies usually adhere to numerous protocols much like during the communist regime. Therefore, public company’s meetings usually take longer with few agendas addressed.

In such meetings, business agendas are usually discussed after the members have had a small talk. Also, these meetings do not usually have a specific ending time; this is because most of the members do not usually get to the point immediately but rather beat around the bush before putting their point across. Lastly, the hierarchy is strictly observed during the meeting. This means that no junior person should ever criticize his boss in public. All the lower members in the hierarchy should always follow what they have been told by their seniors.

As a result of all the above, a company becomes inefficient in delivering its services. If this trend is repeated in almost all the crucial companies in Kazakhstan, it means that the economic growth will be deterred. However, all that can be changed if the principles advocated in Carnegie’s book are applied.

One of the first and foremost principles in the book is learning how to gain conformity and collaboration between the workers. This principle is basically about listening to one another; this means that the hierarchy factor should never be considered at all. All the members in the company have the right to air their views and be heard just like their bosses.

Another major principle in the book, which specifically addresses the business men of Kazakhstan, is maintaining composure even under pressure. Since they are known to loose their temper quickly, which leads to long useless arguments, they end up wasting a lot of time and energy. If they just learn how to control themselves, they will become more efficient in delivering their thoughts.

In conclusion, there are numerous lessons in which the people of Kazakhstan can learn from Carnegie’s book. Perhaps the most recurring lesson of all is the respect and appreciation of work mates. This is especially critical in such an area where women are not seen as equal to men or where the juniors can not criticize their bosses.

This means that the regimes which have been in use for years (communism) will remain. That is absolutely bad for business since the business world is radically changing and the people must learn to change too. By applying the principles in this book, the various industrial sectors will be able to achieve their maximum potential.

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Money and Modern Life Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Money is a scarce resource valued and accepted by members of society as a means of payment for goods and services. Money is characterized by its functions such as unit of account, medium of exchange, and store of values, medium of exchange and standard of deferred. Money is the major way of property acquisition in the society.

The society is differentiated in terms of ownership of capital. The owners of capital own the means of production while the less privileged exist at the mercy of the owners of capital. In all known societies, there is some form of inequality depicted by the manner in which scarce and valued resources are distributed. People have differences in terms of wealth, power, status and prestige. The rich and the powerful are at the top while the poor and helpless are at the bottom, the rest lie in-between.

Two forms of social stratification exist both of which are brought by ownership of capital (Solon 59). Horizontal is on the basis of social attributes such as race, gender, ethnicity and religion while vertical stratification is in terms of economic differences. Horizontal classification plays a big role in stratifying society because it is out of it that economic order of society is realized.

This paper exposes the existing differentiations in society. It applies the social stratification theory as postulated by various scholars to support the facts. Social stratification is important to socialists since it is universal that is, it exists in both capitalistic and communistic societies.

Max Weber’s Ideas on Economy and Society

Max Weber lived between 1864 and 1920; he discussed three forms of social stratification. Weber classified that an individual is simultaneously a member of three different orders in the society. The three orders are intertwined and do money and resources influence both. Enjoying the high status of one order enables an individual to acquire another. This is how the society is organized as far as monetary economy is concerned. The three orders are discussed below and how they influence the modern societal organization.

Economic Order (Social Class)

Weber used the term to discuss how goods and services are distributed. It is the way people appropriate property that is, who owns what, who owns property and who is a non-owner of property. There are those members of society today who own property through income earning, they posses professional skills. Others have nothing to offer but their cheap labor, which is readily available in the market. The main distinguishing factor is ownership and non-ownership of capital.

The owners of capital are positively privileged while the non-owners are negatively privileged. Those distinguished by skills are also positively privileged because of their rare skills. In the society today, there is an emerging social class called the petty-bourgeoisies who are mainly shopkeepers and retailers. They also influence the way goods and services are distributed though in minor extents.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social Order (Status Groups)

Weber used the term status groups to describe how prestige, status and honor are distributed in the society. Money is the determining factor in allocating honor to individuals. People with massive resources occupy high statuses in the society. Status groups are people who belong to a group that share specific styles of life and enjoy certain kind of prestige.

According to personal experiences, there are some cultures in society with unique values. The values are developed and passed from one generation to another. For example, the entrepreneurial values among Indian community, they are investors in small-scale but successful businesses.

They dominate most of the East African retail markets. Social order is closely related to economic order because different economic classes tend to belong to different status groups. Status group is differs with economic social status (economic order) because it comprises of collective actions of groups that cannot be understood or defined in economic terms alone. People are proved having different cultures, tastes, family values and religions (Weber 85).

Legal Order (Political Parties)

Political parties are normally based on ideologies and are major identifying factor in society because human beings are power seekers. Power is sought through a political party in the modern society hence attainment of legal power is tied to democracy. It facilitates the maintenance and acquisition of status and class privileges.

People have to come together to seek power collectively through political parties. People hope that with attainment of power, they will be able to influence governmental decision-making in their favor. This allows them to make money and perpetuate others in the society. Some parties are associated with the poor while others belong to the rich; money is the determining factor in acquisition of power. Parties with enough resources always sail through in elections.

Parties may be formed along racial lines or even ethnic lines in some societies but the major distinguishing factor is that political parties are formed within groups, which associate in character. Political power is important in determining which social group dominates others in the society; they are closely associated with economic interests. Actually, they are mechanisms in which people can attain economic privileges (Lemert 20).

Sources of Power in Modern Society There are three bases of power in modern society since anarchy and aristocracy is no longer valid. The sources are traditional, charisma and legal/rational.

We will write a custom Essay on Money and Modern Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The traditional power is still exercised especially in Britain but in a more advanced way. Only one family produces leaders but the leaders undergo specific training that makes them good leaders. Charisma is found among leaders who have personal charm or magnetism.

These people easily induce others to follow them especially in times of revolutions. Legal power is acquired through legal processes meaning that members of society contest positions. All these are meant to control monetary flow in the society. Power hands individuals with chances of influencing the behavior of others including manufacturing and distribution of factor products (Hurst 45).

Pierre Bourdieu-Sense of Distinction Bourdieu is a French sociologist who analyzed the society trying to understand the sense of distinction. Society has different social classes and each class is characterized by habitus (system of cultural practices). Classes have certain peculiar interests, which develop over a long period.

Classes are defined by the economic and cultural capital among its members. In each class, there are fractions, which oppose one another and compete for domination. Competition among classes is both intra and inter because of the varying choices that are influenced by experiences especially economic (Bourdieu 100).

Members of society have different set of preferences, which are influenced by social conditions of production. Tastes are influenced by cultural practices and economic history of a group. Those with money have different tastes and preferences. In the society today for instance, teachers have a taste of works of art because they are knowledgeable. They know that art is the symbol of status but because of their level of income, they cannot afford.

They look for cheap reprint of the original and elevate them to distinguished works of art. Teachers are trying to gain cultural capital by so doing but because they do not have the means of obtaining works of art in the market, some of them develop aesthetic ascetism that is, negative attitude. Teachers are against the existing economic arrangement in the society because it denies them comfortable life. The subjugated classes can only appropriate art symbolically through knowledge.

In the upper classes, there is tension between the new and the old bourgeoisie because the new tend to consume greatly as opposed to the old who are conservatives and careful in the way they spent their money. The new bourgeoisie can easily mingle with other members of society in unperturbed, and are more learned in the society.

Principles of Stratification After scrutinizing society thoroughly, it was found out that some things are constant/stable as far as money acquisition is concerned. Certain positions in society are functionally more important than others are. Different positions require different skills for their performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Money and Modern Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Importance of an individual is determined by his/her relative indispensability and replacement. Only limited number of people can move to the top classes in the society hence the elite restrict access to their positions particularly where they have the power to do so (Moore 245).

Those who can afford training and subsequent social training are usually children of parents who also occupy/occupied privileged positions in the society (Mulligan 69). The point in which he/she starts influences an individual’s movement in the social ladder.

The lower the level from which the person starts the greater the capability that an individual will moves. An individual’s social origins and family background have a considerate influence towards his/her social mobility. However, the person’s training and early experience have a strong influence on their chances of success economically.

The relevance of past carriers increases with an individual’s age, which also has some impacts on current job. Age influences first jobs and socio-cultural backgrounds since they decrease with old age. The age of an individual determines the carriers significance since older people have higher old carrier significance compared to present carrier significance that is highly significant to young people. Generally, low social origins can be an impediment to success. Poor education, large families, ethnicity and race worsen the situation.

Research Methodology The three articles on stratification that is, Weber’s ideas on society and economy, Bourdeiu’s sense of distinction and principles of stratification adhere to the scientific methodology. The research instruments used in collecting data are accurate and validated. The samples are representative since it was done randomly hence avoiding biases.

A research conducted in 2006 in Europe confirmed that the new bourgeoisie mingles freely with the low class as long as they do not interfere with their expensive lifestyles. The articles are therefore valid since they can be tested scientifically that it, it is possible to falsify. Whatever must be done is interpreting the ideas to suit modern life.

The world has changed greatly therefore some things no longer hold such as the rich restricting prestigious positions. Experts in the modern world cannot be barred from executing their duties since they are few. Those that cannot be replaced in the market are made to be shareholders in companies to reduce conflicts. What is so amusing is that money in the modern world controls all forms of activities. It is interesting to sociologists because findings can be applied in any dynamic society that is, economic differentiation exists in every society.

Conclusion Money is the determining factor in the society, for all activities to be undertaken it must be present. Karl Max perceived it as the base in the society meaning the means of production instruments such as tools, raw materials and skills. Money must be present for all these to be acquired. The means of production are the most important compared to all other forms of societal activities. Life is dependent on production and distribution.

The work that people do in society determines their position. It positions them in relation to culture, ideas, politics, education system and religion. Stratification in society is brought about by money. The monetary economy is a capitalistic economy where the markets rearrange consumers. People go for goods that satisfy their needs in the most cost effective way. The market on the other hand favors the innovative traders, those who can offer the best value for money (Birdsall 26).

Works Cited Birdsall, Graham. New Markets, New Opportunities? Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2002.

Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1984.

Hurst, Charles. Social Inequality Forms, Causes and Consequences Sixth Edition, Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2007.

Lemert, Charles. Social Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings Third Edition. Colorado: Westview Press Boulder, 2004.

Moore, Williams. Some Principles of Stratification. American Sociological Review, 10.1 1945: 242–249.

Mulligan, Charles. Parental Priorities and Economic Inequality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Solon, Gill. Cross-country differences in Intergenerational Earnings Mobility. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16.3 2002: 59–66.

Weber, Max .The distribution of power within the community: Classes, Stände, Parties,” Translated by Dagmar Waters, Tony Waters, Elisabeth Hahnke, Maren Lippke, Eva Ludwig-Glück, Daniel Mai, Nina Ritzi-Messner, Christina Veldhoen and Lucas Fassnacht, Journal of Classical Sociology, 2010.

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The Right to live and Die: Chicano Movement Essay cheap essay help

Introduction: The Long Journey to Freedom One of the most striking events in the world history, the Chicano Movement heralded the beginning of the new epoch – the era of the equal rights for both the Native Americans and the Latin Americans. However, like any other journey, this one was rather complicated and filled with all possible obstacles.

Although the struggle for rights was one of the noblest aims that could cause the fight, there was a considerable element of controversy that posed danger to the solidarity of the members.

A perfect specimen of how the wind of changes broke those whose spirit was weak enough, Mama Chona is a real study on hypocrisy and faithfulness, the family devotion and slyness, cunning and at the same time wise as she was. Could she be depicted as deplorable? Hardly anyone could agree to such characteristics; yet there was that certain something about her that did not let her stay noble.

As the world around is ruined, and the people you used to know become complete strangers, there is only one way out, which is ignoring the faults and the weaknesses of the family. The resort of all those in despair, this is a sweet consolation indeed.

Mamma Chona and Her Religion: Searching for the Answers It is quite peculiar that in her life, the religious issues and the family life were so closely intertwined. It could be assumed that the beliefs of the family members were a model of their relationships. What is supposed to be the secret between the Lord and a mere mortal, the daily prayers turned into the means to escape from the cruel reality.

Perhaps, it was the inner strength that the religion, that is, the belief and the daily prayers, gave to Mamma Chona – if anything could be considered as strength in her case. Was that the miracle of the belief that the Bible tells people so much about?

Or, perhaps, the secret chord that rendered the very soul of Mamma Chona and helped her to stay strong and determined despite all that happened around her, the world ruining, and the people fading away like the morning dew? Hardly anyone knows. Tracking the life of the woman, one could lift the veil of mystery about the family, the religion and the Chicano movement intertwined.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Sin of Cheating

Is there a grater sin than keeping silence when there is something wrong happening? Although Miguel Grande cannot be considered as a positive character anyway, the way Mama Chona behaves might seem even more repulsive.

Concealing the mischief and cheating of her son, she becomes his ally and at the same time his traitor – for she does not help him to find the way to the decent life. Bringing him up and raisin him as a family tyrant Mama Chona is not able to mend the broken relationships between her son and her daughter-in-law; she is not able to do practically anything.

“He did not like to speak directly to the Mexican women Juanita and his sisters took on to help him with the household chores” (Islas 3), which means that the man possessed rather cowardly traits of character; yet he demonstrated his dominance over the wife – isn’t that the sign of weakness?

Her son, a cheater – could there be a greater insult to a mother. However, it is quite peculiar that Mama Chona tries to close her eyes on the facts and pretend that the family is as strong and glued together as ever. Like a house on a rotten foundation, the family is falling apart, yet Mama Chona is trying to put the pieces together, pretending that everything is going to be fine.

Standing at the Beginning

Leading Mama Chona through the miseries of her life straight to the quiet religious haven, her beliefs make her survive the shocking truth about her family, namely, her children. Supported by the beliefs and ideas of hers, Mama Chona proves almost invulnerable to the tragedies that she suffers.

However, it seems that the religion of Mamma Chona is not the mysterious Rain God. Looking closer at her life and at the world that revolved around her, one can see distinctly that this was the family that was the essence of the woman’s life. The very first lines of the novel expose Mama Chona’s secret to the reader:

A photograph of Mama Chona and her grandson Miguel Angel – Miguel Chico or Mickie to his family – hovers above his head on the study wall beside the glass doors that open out into the garden (Islas 3)

We will write a custom Essay on The Right to live and Die: Chicano Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The controversy of the Chicano movement and the political ideas that underlay it are shown through depicting the family life of Mama Chona, which is quite peculiar. This is one of few attempts to intertwine the family and the politics – and, it must be admitted, one of the most successful ones. Exposing the weaknesses of Mama Chona to the public and yet emphasizing certain strong points that she possessed, Islas made quite a portrait of the Chicano movement.

Just as lame and uncertain as the ideas of Mama Chona were, it was basically grounded on a single pillar – the power of tradition; like many other political manifestations, it was full of controversy. However, there is that certain something that makes Mama Chona – and the Latin American movement – somewhat stronger – that is the incredible, truly Latin, pride.

Religion as a Way Out Has anyone ever mixed the politics and the religion? That should be something truly incredible. What strikes most about the story is that the political turmoil and the mixture of ideas is the exact reprint of the religious situation in Mama Chona’s family. Surprisingly, there is very little that keeps the family members together in terms of the spirituality.

Although one of the key ideas of religion is to bring people together, the members of the little society of Mama Chona are detached from each other – or, it would be better to say, scattered asides with their religious beliefs.

It is quite remarkable that the idea of belief is what the entire novel is pierced through with. Even without mentioning the religious issues directly, Islas points at the complicated religious situation in the family of Mama Chona. There is always a word or phrase connected with belief or trust in the book – or, rather, with the loss of the one: “The loss of his promotion was to be a shock for Miguel Grande, and he is said to have lost faith in what he believed in all his life about the country” (Calderon 124)

Conclusion: Taking a Retrospective on the Events It seems that the religious atmosphere in the family reprinted the events that occurred in the society. With all things changing their usual places, people were trying hard to keep their lives running the way they sued to, yet they failed, which led to disappointments. Perhaps, if their belief were strong enough, they could have succeeded, yet, like Mama Chona and her family, they failed to find the Rain God that could keep them together. Painful and hard to bear, this is the price of the change.

Works Cited Calderon, Hector and Jose David Salvador. Criticism in the Borderlands: Studies in Chicano Literature, Culture, and Ideology. New York, NY: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.

Islas, Arturo. Rain God. New York City, NY: Harper Perennial, 1991. Print.

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Does Money Buy Happiness? Essay essay help: essay help

Whether or not money can buy happiness is a continued debate. Billions of people in all parts of the world sacrifice their ambitions and subconscious tensions on the altar of profitability and higher incomes. Millions of people dream to achieve the level of wellbeing, when earning money will no longer be a problem to them. Legal or illegal does not really matter, as long as these strategies lead individuals to the desired monetary outcomes.

Professional economists assert that more money does not buy happiness. As a result, it makes no sense for people to pursue money. Yet, the reality is quite different, as money, wealth, high incomes, and wide opportunities which they open make people extremely satisfied. Based on the current knowledge of economics, the opportunity costs of pursuing money can be extremely high. Therefore, it is better to pursue money for a purpose rather than for its own sake.

People always wanted more money. Money inspired professional economists and bank robbers. Millions of people would even try to sell their souls for a reasonable sum of money. Nevertheless, the debate on whether or not money can buy happiness continues to persist. Globalization and consumerism have turned money into the main criterion of individual and professional success: the more money you earn the better person you are.

However, professional economists suggest that money does not make people happy. The current state of research claims that, despite the rapid increase in personal incomes, the percentage of people who consider themselves happy has not changed (Lee, 2005). Similar disconnects between income and happiness were found in most advanced economies, including Japan, Europe, and the United Kingdom (Lee, 2005).

However, the general inconsistency of these research results is too obvious to ignore. First, what does it mean for people to be happy? Professional economists may have profound knowledge of economic concepts but can hardly make happiness measurable. Second, can people be happy with their incomes if they always want more? Most probably, at any given point, individuals will feel dissatisfied with what they have and will try to obtain more.

I agree that money buys happiness, but this happiness is never constant. This idea is further supported by Lee (2005), who assumes that people will make all sorts of sacrifices to get money, but their happiness will be temporary at best. Lee (2005) relies on the two main premises.

First, “happiness people realize from having more income results from having more relative to others in some reference group, not from having more absolutely” (p.389). Simply stated, individuals always compare their incomes and positions to those of other individuals. They want to have more relative to what others have or can have. However, their happiness wanes as soon as others achieve a better social position, income, or level of wellbeing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, the nature of sensory adaptation in humans explains why people are never happy with what they have: human receptors become irresponsive to the continuous presence of one and the same stimulus (Lee, 2005). As a result, the more money individuals earn the happier they become; however, with time, money turns into boredom and no longer brings happiness.

Obviously, it does make sense to make money, since money is the main instrument of exchange and the source of unlimited opportunities for everyone. Money opens the gateway to a broad range of material and nonmaterial values, including health and education.

We should never belittle the significance of money merely because it brings only temporary satisfaction (Lee, 2005). Yet, it is always better to pursue money for a purpose rather than for its own sake. Money for the sake of money makes little sense. Money is not the end but only the means of achieving some goal, like purchasing a new house or curing a sick child.

Moreover, a common increase in individual wealth is always a positive externality, as richer countries experience lower childbirth mortality, fewer traffic deaths, better health, and longer life expectancy (Lee, 2005). We live in society and our wealth necessarily benefits others, through taxes and charity. Therefore, it always makes sense to pursue money to improve individual and societal wellbeing.

The opportunity costs of pursuing more money can be extremely high. Opportunity costs are everywhere, as every decision necessarily involves tradeoffs. Individuals sacrifice their families and personal wellbeing to become successful, rich professionals. Others apply to illegal activities and decisions to earn their wealth. In my own life, my decision to become educated was associated with major opportunity costs. First, the costs of education impose a heavy burden of financial obligations on me.

I could use this money to meet other life goals. Second, I spend more time at work and earn more money; I lose considerable earnings each time I pursue a better grade. Third, not all courses are equally pleasant: some courses seem not to be tailored to the specific needs and demands of the student majority (Frank, 2005). I could use this time to improve my knowledge of the disciplines that are important for my future career. To a large extent, the dollar cost of education does not reflect all opportunity costs.

Yet, many students forget that higher education provides a variety of benefits that helps to decrease most, if not, opportunity costs. Statistically, college and university graduates earn $14,000 a year more compared with their non-educated counterparts (Anonymous, 2003). The social value of higher education is difficult to underestimate (Porter, 2002). Education enhances workplace productivity and stimulates professional growth. Therefore, the marginal utility of a university degree increases.

We will write a custom Essay on Does Money Buy Happiness? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Almost all economists treat opportunity cost as the main economic concept (Frank, 2005). Every single decision is inevitably associated with one or more opportunity costs. These involve explicit and implicit costs of other opportunities (Arnold, 2008; Baumol

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The Emirates Airlines Marketing Strategies Essay cheap essay help

Learning and Memory of Consumer Behavior in Emirates Business corporations conduct consumer studies for the improvement of their marketing strategies. This enhances their understanding on how the consumers contemplate, sense, and reason amid different products they offer. Emirates airlines, as one of the greatest developed long-haul carriers, are no exception in this realm. Learning and memory of consumer behavior in emirates is of greater importance and requires extreme attentions for the survival of the business in this dynamic global market.

Learning within the consumers entails a rigorous transformation of the pre-existing memory as well as behavior. It is not exclusively knowledge based, but inducement by influence is also relevant. It focuses on the already known and enactment of subsequent concrete behavior[1].

Learning and memory of the flight products are crucial at Emirates airlines. Various approaches of learning are taking course from which consumer awareness rests. One of such methods is a classical conditioning where consumers are natured to abide by the culture of the organization in terms of flight schedules, travelling conditions and all the benefits that abreast their products.

Countless contemporary advertisers utilize the ideology to survive in the competitive market share. Restrictions in consumer awareness or information handing capabilities influence resolutions and marketing results. Concurrently, operant conditioning engages a diverse succession of events thus perceived as learning.

The wide-ranging outline is behavior, consequence, and the possibility of the behavior to rise or descend. The Emirates Airlines embraces learning, as well as memory, to enact positive consumer behavior towards their products. They sometimes grant offers while trying out new products. Behavior arises from either individual realms, or groups. It entails the exploitation, disposal, and product acquisition.

Importance of Marketers’ Understanding on Consumers Learning on Products and Services The marketers’ knowledge of how the consumers learn about their products is vital in the Emirates Airlines. The most fundamental one is for the marketing scheme meant to augment the promotion campaigns.

The illustration of this concept is vivid by the discovery that travelers are more receptive to flight advertisements throughout December holidays when most tourists tend to fly abroad for leisure than any other season. The organization understands that new services primarily meet adoption by few individuals, and eventually the entire population.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The marketers must be patient as the product steers through these rigorous phases while the organization has to finance the marketing projects to uphold the products buoyancy until they convene a commercial hit. The emirates marketers significantly understand how consumers learn about their services and support the gratification of initial customers, since they will in turn sway many successive clients’ brand preferences[2].

Emirates conditioning results Conditioning denotes the growth of behavior variation, which connects a desired behavior to a product with a previously unrelated stirring service. It aids in the successful promotion of new products. Emirates Airlines have effectively implemented such conditioning strategies with positive results.

This extremely firm, with affirmative results, employs several aspects of conditioning encompassing typical, operant, and vicarious erudition. They employ unconditional stimulus, which brings forth unrestricted responses from the customers towards a new product. The corporation also embraces repositioning, which engages an attempt to transform consumer perceptions of a brand, typically turning out to be less striking.

Customer’s behavior and induced receptiveness are the key components of this achievement. The rewarding of the customers behavior either at intervals or at some fixed duration is paramount in the arenas of conditioning[3]. In vicarious learning, the clients do not usually undertake the learning procedures by themselves. Occasionally, they possibly learn from examining their fellow clients.

Bibliography Shaw, S. Airline marketing and management. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, Vermont, 2007.

Shimp, T. Advertising Promotion, and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, Cengage Learning, Ohio, 2008.

Taneja, N. Flying ahead of the airplane. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, Vermont, 2008.

We will write a custom Essay on The Emirates Airlines Marketing Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes T, Shimp, Advertising Promotion, and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, Cengage Learning, Ohio, 2008, p. 145.

S, Shaw. Airline marketing and management. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, Vermont, 2007, p.107.

N, Taneja, Flying ahead of the airplane. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, Vermont, 2008, p. 140.

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The involvement of women in the science industry in America Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction The US government sees the only way towards economic prosperity is the full utilization of its people. As such it endeavors to provide equal opportunities to both men and women in all fields including science. The role of women in the growth of science industry in the US has always been an issue of concern.

A study commissioned by the Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering has revealed that women are equally capable as they are interested in science as their male counterparts. However the women involvement in the field of science has been riddled with several challenges throughput history.

Even though the US government prides itself in provision of equal opportunities, there are still glaring discrepancies in the resources and attitudes on how women and science are viewed. The increase in the number of women in position of leadership in the field of science has been commendable. However this increase has not been matched by an equal number of resources provided for these women scientist.

There are also legal as well as social hindrances that continue to belabor the place of women in science. These hindrances have had a negative impact on the gains made by the women scientist therefore slowing the pace of progress in fully utilizing the potential of women scientist. Thus the bias towards women scientists has negatively impacted the general growth of science as well as the US economy.

The history of women involvement in science The involvement of American women in science dates back before the great American Revolution in the eighteenth century. Even though the involvement of women in science at this time was not officially recognized their contribution in such fields such as botany, zoology and such others has shaped modern scientific views.

Therefore the historical perspective of their involvement is not just a mater of the professional growth but is a matter the access to scientific opportunities and resources. Up to the eighteenth century, American women scientists were just seen as “observers and recorders” of scientific happenings.

As such their views were not included in professional scientific publication as they were not seen as fully fledged scientific discoveries. This type of bias was reinforced by new scientific discoveries that portrayed women as intellectually inferior to men. Furthermore the place of women in science continues to be hampered by the exclusion of women from higher institutions of learning. As such the involvement of women in the field of science up to the early twentieth century was largely practiced outside academia (Wayne 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The opening of land-grant colleges of education in the mid nineteenth century however was a great step towards overcoming the exclusion of women. These colleges opened up spaces and gave them a chance to be actively involved in science. Initially women just practiced as teachers and instructors in these colleges (4). The early twentieth century witnessed significant number of women who graduated with science based degrees in America.

The number of women graduate in this filed has continued to increased and has been fueled by some historical event such as the world wars, which saw the demand scientists rise due to involvement of men in wars. Provision of equal education opportunities for both men and women has seen the number of women science graduates rise significantly. However, women scientist still suffers socials biases as well as facing numerous obstacles which include limited access to resources (7).

Challenges face by women scientists Patricia Rankin, a Physics at the University of Colorado explains that there are a number of social concerns facing the American women scientist (Choi 1). The biggest of this social issue the American woman scientist had to contend with is how to balance career and family.

This is because by the time a woman is achieving her science doctorate degree she has approached a time when she must conceive or the biological clock will by pass her. Furthermore, if she has to conceive at such a time her career is put on hold. As such many o employers in the scientific field have an unwritten bias against employing women scientist to avoid the career interruption btought about by maternity leaves (1).

Such challenges have been occasioned by a series of social norms held by the society for a long time. It is assumed that woman must get married and have children. However successful women scientist needs to fully engage their time doing sciences and as such would not have the appropriate time left for family.

If in case they are to have families, it leaves their husbands with much of the family responsibility and as Dr. Andrea Hodge laments this is contrary t0 societal expectations. Furthermore women scientist are not fully accepted in the societies they live in. their male colleagues find it hard to refer them with tiles such as Doctor or Professor. Such women have to work extremely hard so as to be seen as “one of the boys” (Byko 1).

The US federal law is largely silent on the plight to women scientists. However there have been some legal provisions to increase the awareness as will as participation of women in the field of science. The US federal law requires that no form of gender discrimination towards provisions and funding of educational opportunities.

We will write a custom Essay on The involvement of women in the science industry in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was as a result of the 1972 federal law, named as “Title IX” that was passed to abolish discrimination of gender school in the distribution of federal aid. This federal law covered all areas of academia. These included the recruitment, enrolment, hiring as well as funding. As a result, the participation of the girl child in various academic fields increased tremendously.

The most significance increase was seen in sports such that there was an emergence of more girls’ sports teams from universities and colleges. Even though billions of dollar of grant have continued to be given out to institutions of higher learning for scientific projects, very little of these is funding finds its way to any projects being handled by women scientists. As such institutions are violating this law that requires equal gender treatment (Byko 1).

Opportunities for women scientist in America Recent statistics indicate that the number of educational opportunities for women scientist have increased tremendously in the last decade. Very many women have been earning science based degrees in American Universities and colleges. Such opportunities have increased to such levels that women science graduates are almost equal to men. This education opportunities are in all levels of education from bachelors to PhD attainments.

However, the number of opportunities for women scientist in academia is not reflected at the work place. This means that although women are receiving equal education opportunities in science based courses, the same cannot be said of job opportunities.

There are glaring discrepancies and hindrances to professional opportunities for American women scientists. A number of roadblocks have been erected to derail the drive of the American women scientist towards equal job opportunities. One such significant obstacle is being made to choose family over career.

American women scientists are in constant dilemma when it comes to the issue of raising family. Science demands long hours of engagement and thus this do leave much time to dedicate to raising a family. Women scientists also have fewer promotion opportunities as well as professional appointments. This is coupled by poor salaries as compared to their male counterparts. Thus women scientist continues to have fewer employment opportunities (Byko 1).

Recommendation to improve American women scientist prospect in work environment There are a number of considerations that American institutions as well as government can institute to protect women scientist. The recruitment process in the scientific industry has been largely through referrals as recommendations. As such, in an industry dominated by men who are subtlety but openly biased against women, many of the referrals are mostly for men.

As such women still find it hard to get these opportunities. As such the government as well as all stakeholders should develop recruitment criteria for recruitment that is merit oriented. This will ensure that women scientists are assured of fairly play during hiring and recruitment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The involvement of women in the science industry in America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Institutions should also be flexible enough and allow women scientist who want to raise families some family time. This is through the provisions of long leaves, flexible work schedules and commensurate remuneration. When a graduate or postgraduate woman is on maternity leave, such time should not be included in her work tenure schedules. This will encourage more science graduates to beat the biological clock and conceive while still pursuing their career dreams.

Most importantly, the US government should tighten the law that requires that ether be no discrimination when it comes to awarding of educational grants. Just as the equal opportunities has have had an effect in the sporting disciplines in academic institutions, the government should enforce the law in other academic disciplines and ensure that women are equal beneficiaries of these grant as men.

Conclusion It is still amazing that some of the challenges that women scientists faced in the eighteenth century still exist today. It would have been expected that some of the challenges would have been faced out with time. However, the women scientist in America still faces both social as well as legal hurdles. The society still insists that a woman has to give birth at a certain age. Thus women scientist always finds themselves with a tough call to make on whether to sacrifice their career or family.

Other than professional mistreatment from their male colleagues, women scientists face other challenges such as discrimination in the hiring process as well as few job promotion chances. The legal system which is supposed to ensure fair play in academia has been largely silent on the misappropriation of funds by donor agencies. Due to then important role that women lay in the overall growth America, the woman scientist needs better protection especial in this age where science is experiencing explosive growth.

Works Cited Byko, Maureen. “Challenges and Opportunities for Women in Science and Engineering.” TMS Online. 2005. May 3, 2011 https://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0504/byko/byko-0504.html.

Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering (U.S.). Beyond bias and barriers: fulfilling the potential of women in academic science and engineering. Washington: National Academies press. 2007. Print

Choi, Charles. “Women scientists face problems.” The Scientist. 2004. May 3, 2011 https://www.the-scientist.com/

Wayne, Tiffany. American Women of Science since 1900. California: LLC. 2011. Print

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The Piano’s Designs and Qualities Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Most of the modern music instruments such as the guitar saxophone and the piano were invented by various individuals several years back. The piano is today one of the most widely played musical instruments (Antique Digest). This instrument is played through a key board (Good 76). It was commonly used in classical music during solo performance and generally as an accompaniment (Fischer). In addition to these, the piano is also used in composing and rehearsal.

Even though this instrument remains expensive, it has remained a popular because of its versatility and ubiquity. The word piano originated from an Italian word pianoforte which means instrument. “The musical terms piano and forte mean quiet and loud, and in this context refers to the variations in volume of sound the instrument produces in response to a pianist‘s touch on the keys” (Lhevinne 123).

Bartolomeo Cristofori is today a credited for having invented the modern piano. Before he developed the piano, he made his earlier instruments using strings and they were very quiet compared to the current piano. The manufacturing of the piano became popular towards the last phase of the eighteenth century especially in Vienesse School. Vienesse piano models were made of wooden frames and each had two strings.

They also had hammers covered with leather materials. The piano instrument was later refined through a series of improvements which included the following. Felt hammer covering replaced the use of leather covering or cotton. Iron frames were also used to enhance the piano sound. Broadwood is the company a credited for the formal manufacturing of the piano instruments (American Piano Association). Vienesse Company became one of its key competitors. Today many companies have engaged in production of piano instruments.

At present, there are many designs of the piano and they vary in sizes and use. For example, the modern pianos contain two important configurations. “Almost every modern piano has thirty six black keys and fifty two white keys for a total of eighty eight keys”. “Many older pianos only have eighty five keys (seven octaves from A0 to A7), while some manufacturers extend the range further in one or both directions” (Humphries 345). Just like other instruments, the piano also needs regular maintenance and proper care. For example, the piano should be tuned in order to maintain the proper pitch needed for an effective performance. Other parts of the piano should also be periodically regulated (Harris).

The piano has been used by many musicians to compose music. Some of the composers include the following individuals: “York Bowen, Erick Satie, Duke Elington, Anthony Braxton, and James Douglas” (Brings). Apart from these composers, we have some outstanding pieces which include the following. Hesitation Blues was composed by an individual known as Jelly Morton, I Got a Woman was formally composed by Charles Ray.

These pieces are classified under the genre of blues. Some of the piano pieces that were composed in the genre of jazz included: “ body and soul which was produced by Edward Heyman together with Johnny Green, and Maple Leaf Rag that was composed by Scott Joplin” (Piano Street). The famous Elton John has also composed a number of pieces and one of them is called Crocodile Rock.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because of the above mentioned qualities of the piano many musicians still use it. “It has therefore remained a crucial instrument in Western classical music, jazz, film, television, and most other complex western musical genres” (Green).

Works Cited American Piano Association. Piano and Harpsichord Makers. 2010. Web.

Antique Digest. Development Of The Piano. 2007. Web.

Brings, Tony. Piano–A World of History and Class. 2010. Web.

Fischer, Julia. A History of the Piano, 1157-2007. 2009. Web.

Good, Edwin. Giraffes, black dragons, and other pianos: a technological history from Cristofori. Carlifornia: Stanford University Press, 2009.

Green, Aaron. Piano Classical Music – A Beginners Guide to Great Classical Music for the Piano. 2011. Web.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Piano’s Designs and Qualities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Harris, William. The Pianoforte. 2008. Web.

Humphries, Carl. The Piano Handbook . New York: Backbeat Books, 2002.

Lhevinne, Joseph. Basic Principles in Pianoforte Playing. Berkley: Dover Publications , 1972.

Piano Street. Classical Piano Pieces. 2011. Web.

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SLP Assignment – Franchising Essay essay help online

Franchising has become one of the dominant forms of entrepreneurship in all parts of the world. Companies expand and conquer larger shares of markets by making legal agreements with smaller organizations, which agree to follow the rules of the larger corporation and pay back the amount of compensation for using their brand names. There is an emerging consensus that franchising is likely to become the key driver of business growth in the coming years.

Franchising is easy and fast. It is extremely cost-effective. Baskin Robbins is fairly regarded as one of the leading franchises in the U.S. – with more than 6,000 outlets worldwide, Baskin Robbins remains an unchangeable leader of the global ice-cream market (Entrepreneur, 2011). It comes as no surprise that Baskin Robbins exemplifies a unique and interesting object of microeconomic analysis. However, at first, the three main questions of economics and their relevance for Baskin Robbins have to be considered.

Baskin Robbins is ranked among the top 500 franchises in the U.S. (Entrepreneur, 2011). Founded in 1945, Baskin Robbins currently runs 2,957 outlets in the U.S. and more than 3,600 franchises in foreign countries (Entrepreneur, 2011). I picked up Baskin Robbins for several reasons. First, Baskin Robbins remains an unchangeable leader of the American and international market of ice-cream, and I would like to understand how the company was able to achieve and retain its competitive position.

Second, franchises exemplify a unique form of small-scale entrepreneurship, which benefits large companies and customers worldwide. In this situation, the main factors of the microeconomic environment affecting the company have to be understood. Finally, I would like to see how Baskin Robbins uses innovative products to attract and retain its customers, and I seek to evaluate the place and roles of innovations in micro-business settings.

It should be noted, that franchise operations are frequent objects of microeconomic analysis. Franchise “is a legal agreement between an independent enterprise and a larger corporation in which the enterprise agrees to abide by standards set by the larger corporation and to compensate it for use of its brand name and other services” (Goodwin, Nelson, Ackerman

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The Nielsen Company: Problems and Challenges in Saudi Arabian Market Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Executive Summary This study gives an analysis of Nielsen Company with respect to problems the company faces in the market. The study begins by presenting a brief overview of the company. The review has indicated that the company has been in the market over a long period, an aspect that has significantly helped it in creating competitive advantage.

The study then gives a clear statement of the problem; which is unhealthy competition, which has negatively affected Nielsen in its effort to maximize its profits. Unhealthy competition has also led to a devastating fall in prices. This has led to the need for evaluation of the existing literature and then the possible solutions for this problem. Finally, several recommendations have been proposed.

Company background: Overview Nielsen Company is one of the most successful companies in the world. Having been established in 1923 by Arthur Nielsen, currently, the organization has extended its operations across the world. Nielsen was one of the founders of the modern marketing research industry. In addition, Nielson played a very significant role in marketing research, through making several innovations in most of the consumer-focused marketing media research.

Nielsen is also responsible for creation of unique methods of measurements that provided clients with potent and objective information about the impacts of marketing and sales programs on respective returns and profits (Nielson Par 3). Nielson spent time in clarification of the concept of market share and its importance in determining corporate performance.

In current business world, the market is characterized by a very high level of competition among the competitors. This is more so for the global market where consumers are interconnected with increased access to volumes of digital information. Nielson Company employs a complicated system of data collection methodologies and measurements in an attempt to utilize new and traditional data information into consumer intelligence.

Through its services, the company has helped various organizations in management of their individual brands, launching and facilitating the growth of new products in the market, as well as optimizing on the necessary media mix. Consequently, the company has helped numerous companies around the world in developing a meaningful customer relationship globally.

Nielsen opened its first international office in the United Kingdom in 1939, shortly after the beginning World War II. Later, the company continued with expansion of its services to other areas in the world. For instance, it extended its operations to Australia, Japan, and Western Europe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In these stages of early development, the company used the merging system in order to adopt fast in its new market. For instance, the company increased its presence in Asia Pacific by achieving control over the Survey Research Group. The company also acquired AMER World Research Group in the Middle East and Africa in late 1990s, which led to expansion of the company in these regions. In the year 2001, Nielson made a great achievement when it became a part of VNU.

Nielson offers high quality market information gathered from various places from a wide range of places collected in the most efficient way. It also offers advanced management tools, as well as sophisticated analytical systems. In addition, the company provides respective feasible methodologies in effort to help their clients in identification of the best paths of growth. The company is also committed in providing the best services in a professional way to its clients in an effort to maximize their satisfaction by helping them meet their goals.

In many cases, Nielson Company works closely with its clients in measuring their market performance in order to be able to take appropriate steps. The company also helps organizations in analyzing their market dynamics. This is another important service that Nielsen Company offers to its clients, which is of great significance as it helps an organization in making critical decisions. Another service offered by the company is diagnosing and solving marketing and sales problems.

This service has attracted a significant number of the clients as each company attempts to maximize its sales. Finally, the company helps their clients in capturing new opportunities, which is the main factor that determines the company’s success. In this case, the company plays a pivotal role to many organizations in helping them to determine right set of information.

Nielson Company has been leading in measurement and information in the market research for many years. This information has been of great importance to many organizations in their attempt to understand their clients. The company has given innovation the first stance in its operations.

This has significantly helped the organizations in maintaining pace with the emerging market trends. After having been in the market for many years, the company has managed to come up with necessary information in identifying of what consumers watch and buy by developing clear insights on consumer behaviour. These top qualities have significantly contributed to the reputation of the organization all over the world.

Problem Statement In the modern business world, the market has become highly competitive. This has been characterized by increased rate of entrance of new players in the market with an almost constant level of customers. The market has also become sophisticated with the globalization process.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Nielsen Company: Problems and Challenges in Saudi Arabian Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to survive in such a business world, every company needs to employ necessary measures in order to retain its comparative advantage. This is one of the major problems facing Nielsen Company in its efforts to maximize its profits. The company is engaged in market operations that are characterized by a very high level of competition. This unhealthy competition has led to price wars, which have negatively affected the company’s performance.

It has led to a substantial reduction in the level of the company’s returns. For instance, profits have fallen to almost unsustainable levels as a result of competition among the rival companies. Each company tries to under price its competitors in order to win customers, and in the process, the prices fall far below the desired levels.

Given these market conditions, the major challenge is winning and retaining customers into an organization. This becomes very critical. This is one of the major problems facing the Nielson Company. Despite its good performance over the past, the company has been faced by numerous problems, threatening the overall performance of the organization in both the short and the long run.

Literature Review Through the process of globalization, the contemporary market has become very sophisticated. The market has been characterized by a high level of competition, which has negatively affected the organizations involved. The main impact of this competition to these organizations is price wars. In this study, price war is seen as the market situation where the main competitors target at reducing their competitors’ market shares by progressively reducing their prices.

According to Bungert, price wars should be terminated before reaching devastating levels (2). This is because persistence of such a situation will lead to a complete fall of some of these. This can be achieved through liaisons between the competitors.

However, this becomes too complicated especially when there are many players in the market. Another challenge is that many companies will be reluctant to give their information about their strategies. This implies that in analyzing such a problem, information on such kind of data will only be estimated. Therefore, finding the solution to these problems will be complicated.

Over the past, Nielsen has encountered intense competition in its market network, a situation that has threatened its performance in the market. For instance, intense competition has frequently led to prolonged pricing wars between the company and other market research rivals like Information Resources, Inc. (IRI) (Nielson Par 5). A good example is the supermarket scanner information sector, which had a significant negative impact on Nielsen Company in 1990s. This affected the company’s performance in both the short run and long run.

As already noted, one of the main problem of unhealthy competition is the pricing wars. When many players enters into the market while the number of consumers remains constant, this leads to a high level of competition as each player try to win more customers in the market (Bungert 2). The only slogan in this case becomes the price. In this case, each company will be aiming at out-pricing its competitors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Nielsen Company: Problems and Challenges in Saudi Arabian Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, this leads to fall in prices up to unsustainable levels and threatens the performance of Nielsen’s company. As a result of fall in prices, the company’s total returns will automatically fall. Meanwhile, the company will be forced to increase its expenses on promotion in order to retain or win more customers in increasingly competitive market. This will increase general expenses or operational costs. On the other hand, the total revenue will be falling as a result of fall in prices.

In 1996, Dun Bradstreet announced a plan to detach itself by forming three separate public companies. The decision for the split was as a result of the problems of high level of competition in the market which triggered prices wars among the competing companies. This split posed another major negative impact on top of price war. Nielson was left now alone to face these challenges, which threatened the survival of the company.

The Main Players or Actors Who Contributed To the Problem Several causes have led to the problem that had driven Nielsen Company almost to its downfall point, thus triggering factors that undermine the performance of the company. One of the key players who have threatened the performance of the company is its competitions.

These posed unhealthy competition that has led to price wars. Consequently, this has led to a fall on the average level of returns. Another threat associated with competitors is the struggle for the available customers. Each player is determined to win customers away from its rivals.

This has forced Nielson to invest more in promoting its services. However, this approach increases expenses hence shrinking the profit margins. One of the main rivals to Nielsen is Information Resources, Inc. whose operations have negatively impacted on the company’s level of performance.

Dun Bradstreet has also negatively impacted on the company’s performance. This was around 1996 when the company decided to split in order to detach itself from its less profitable decisions. Another key player who has contributed to Nielsen’s problems is the Arbitron Company, which has posed a significant level of competition that has contributed to fall in prices significantly.

The management of the company also played a significant part in the reduction of the level of profitability. Nielson managed to recover almost immediately after getting a new CEO (Nielson Par 5).This implies that the management is also contributing to the fall. There is an opportunity for the management to change the operations of the company in order to improve its profitability; these include increased efficiency in the company’s operations among others.

Alternative Solutions as To How This Problem Can Be Alleviated As already seen, Nielsen has been faced with high level of competition in both the Saudi Arabia and the global market. Therefore, there is a need to come up with effective strategic plans in order to win customers from competitors. The company should also put more effort in developing its competitive advantage.

One of the ways through which this problem can be eliminated is through unilateral pricing. Unilateral pricing can solve the problem of price wars if the participating companies can commit themselves fully to the agreement (Bungert 3). Another method that the company can apply to solve this problem is application of the necessary marketing and promotional tools.

This will help the company in creating comparative advantage over its competitors. This problem can also be compressed by development of an effective organizational culture, which can help the company to increase its efficiency. Indeed, high level efficiency enables an organization in reducing its operational costs hence increasing its profitability.

How Each Alternative Can Be Implemented Coordinated pricing

Unilateral pricing is one of the main ways through which a company can solve the problem of unhealthy competition that leads to price wars. Through unilateral pricing, the competing companies come up with a certain price, which each company should adhere to. In this method, the competing companies jointly increase their prices uniformly. This helps all the players in increasing their profitability levels. However, the level of competition remains constant even after application of this strategy. However, this method suffers from the fact that some companies may fail to commit themselves fully in the agreement.

Marketing One of the ways through which the company can improve on its performance is through marketing. In every organization, there are some key marketing management decisions, which play a pivotal role in determining the performance of an organization. Managers have the ability to control these variables in their attempt to maximize the satisfaction level of their customers (Silk, 150).

These include the product, price, distribution, and management. In every day operations of an organization, the total number of sales it makes plays a very important role in determining the overall performance. However, the number of sales made is in most cases directly proportional to the number of customers.

At Nielsen, marketing can significantly help in solving the current problem. The main target in every organization is to maximize the level of sales. In this case, Nelson Company’s sales are determined by the total number of clients seeking its services. However, it requires an organization to invest in marketing and also be able to come up with best marketing strategies which would help in maximizing sales.

In the current business world, the market has become extremely competitive due to entrant of many players in the market. In the case of the research, information on consumer’s behaviour has increased significantly over the past. In order for any organization to be successful in the market, they need to have effective marketing strategies. This will help an organization to reach as many customers as possible hence maximizing its sales.

It is important to note that it is necessary to bring to consumer’s information the availability of the product or services in the in the market. Even though the company has well developed market, the company needs to retain the stability of these markets. It will be advisable for the organization to take the necessary steps in order to promote its product.

Public relations

Public relations can significantly help the company in expansion of its level of sales. According to Pezzullo, public relations play an important role in helping an organization and its public in adapting mutually to each other (Par 4). Several companies have applied public relations technique in increasing their sales. A good example of such a company is Jean’s Coffees Company.

The company uses this method by creating a good picture on the eyes of the media hence encouraging positive commentary from them. This significantly contributes in promoting the company products in its market networks. Through public relations, Nielsen can be able to develop a good relationship with the public. This will significantly help in strengthening the bond between itself and its clients. In many cases, Nielsen maintains long-term contracts with its clients since it offers recurrent services.

One advantage of this method is that is possible to reach a large number of customers (Tutor2 Par 3). This reduces the average costs of marketing the product. The message sent through public relations seems more credible as they are viewed as coming from different parties (Tutor2 par 4).

This improves on the effectiveness in enticing consumers to buy the product. Some of the tools, which the company can use through public relations, are tools like magazines and newspapers, which have of great importance to many companies. However, this method suffers from the fact that the company may lose control. For instance, the Company cannot be able to convince all the people what to say or write about them.

Promotion Over the past, most of the most successful companies have applied promotion tools in their operations. These organizations have recorded a high rate of expansion and growth, which has been the main factor, which has contributed to their success. In the global market, the success of many organizations can be attributed to the well-structured promotion strategies as a part of their marketing mix. There are several methods of promotion. These include advertising, public relations, personal selling, and media.

Advertising

Advertising plays a pivotal role in determining the success of an organization especially in the global market, which is characterized by consumers with a diverse background, and high level of competition. In advertising, Nielsen Company can use several types of media to pass information to its potential customers.

This method of promotion can have huge impact especially when the company is extending its services in new market network. The company can apply variety of media including printed, broadcasting and display media. Television is one of the frequently used media by many companies. One of the main advantages for using television is because it helps the company to reach a greater number of its target audience.

This is more so bearing in the mind the fact that the company is involved in the global market where it may be very expansive to use other methods. Therefore, this media lowers the promotion cost per head. Through this method of advertisement, the Nielsen will manage to build its brand in new markets. Over the past, this method has yielded good returns through increased level of sales.

Another method of advertisement which can be applicable to Nielsen Company is the display media. This method has also significantly contributed in increasing the level of sales in various organizations.

Through the display media, the company uses eye attracting pictures which easily attracts the attention of the targeted audience in the market. Consequently, the company manages to pass information more easily to the group. One major advantage of this medium of advertisement is that it is more cost effective. It does not require large sums of money like in the case of television.

Advertisement as a method of promotion is associated with a number of advantages. To start with, advertisement is effective in reaching a wide range of audience (Trehan, and Trehan 35).This is more so when advertising is conducted through a media covers a large number of people. The method will reach greater number of people compared to other methods like the sales promotion. Another advantage of this method is that it is most effective in creating awareness.

When the audience views a certain advert on television regularly, this increases their awareness of the presence of the product in the market. This builds their curiosity to try the new product. In this case, this method will help the company in winning new clients in new markets. This significantly helps in increasing the level of sales. Again, advertising helps in building customer trust through repetition of the main brand and product.

Despite of these achievements of advertising as a method of promotion, it suffers some limitations. To start with, this method is impersonal and therefore it becomes impossible to answer the customer’s questions. However, when a product is introduced in a new market, customers usually have some questions about the product.

In this case, some potential clients may be wishing to ask some questions from Nielson on the services provided in depth. In this case, there is a need to have close interaction with potential clients in order to win them. The company will also not be in a position to understand the needs of their potential clients. For instance, it becomes difficult to pick views from the potential customers through this method of promotion. This may limit the success of promotion to some extent.

When used on its own, this method is not effective in inducing potential customers to make their final decisions in choosing the company’s product. In other words, this method is not hundred per cent reliable in convincing the customers to choose the product from the company in question.

Sales promotion

One way through which Nielsen can invite a larger figure of customers is through sales promotion. Sales promotion can significantly help an organisation in expanding the number of its customers or clients hence boosting the level of sales. In addition, sales promotion has been of great importance in creating consumer awareness.

Through promotion, the company will manage to bring its potential customers to awareness of the service in the market. This method has been of great importance especially to these companies venturing into a new market. In some regions, most of the people may not be aware of the company’s product. In this case, it becomes very difficult to sell the product in such market. However, the company can overcome this barrier through sales promotion. This attracts customers hence increasing the level of sales.

One advantage of using sales promotion is that it can stimulate quick increases in sales by targeting promotional incentives on particular products. These can significantly help in improving the performance of the organisation in the short run. This method has helped several companies in increasing the sales in their market networks (Trehan and Trehan 57).

This method has been of great importance when the company is venturing into a new market. As already noted, Nielsen has been spreading at a very high rate. For instance, the company has been extending its services in other parts of the world in a very high rate. In such new networks, most of the people may not be aware of the company’s services.

In this case, it becomes very difficult to sell the services in such a market. However, the company can manage to bring awareness to the potential customers through sales promotion. This attracts customers hence increasing the level of sales. In this case, Nielsen will manage to expand its market despite of the high level of competition.

One advantage of using sales promotion is that it can stimulate quick increases in sales by targeting promotional incentives on particular products. These can significantly help in improving the performance of the organisation in the short run.

Personal selling

This is a process where the sellers engage in oral communication with the potential buyers with an aim of making a sale. This method can significantly help Nielsen in developing new markets. Through this method, the company manages to convince potential customers to go for its services. This helps in winning consumers from the competitors in the market.

One advantage of this method is that it is interactive and therefore possible to get the feedback from the customers on their views over the services provided. This helps the company in analyzing the tastes of consumers in a certain region. Through this method, the company manages to pass important details about its product to its customers.

This method however suffers from the limitation that it is not possible to reach a very large number of people. Therefore, it proves impotent in some cases where the market is too big especially in this case where the company is involved in the global market. This method is also costly as it requires the organisation to hire more sales force which comes along with hidden costs. This has negatively affected the productivity of the organisation.

Importance of promotion as a policy mix in overcoming the problem In every organisation, promotion is a very important practice in determining the success of an organisation. This is because the level of sales which a company makes is determined by the effectiveness of its promotional process. Therefore, it is necessary for organizations to invest in promotional activities. Promotion as one of the marketing mix plays a very important role every organisation. In the current business world, the market has become very competitive than any other time. Consumer expectations have also significantly changed.

This situation has increased the need to have a clear promotion strategy. To Gloria Jeans Coffee’s, promotion has contributed to the success of the organisation in various way. Through promotional activities, Nielsen Company can reduce any confusion to the consumer in the oversaturated market where several companies are providing similar services.

In the current business world, many consumers have developed a culture of looking for the promotions before purchasing. Therefore, it is important to conduct promotion in order to attract such kinds of consumers in an organisation. However, it is necessary to analyze the returns to associated with the promotion exercise (Anonymous par 7). If returns are low, promotion measure should be discarded.

Another importance of promotion to the organization is provision an extra incentive to choose the service. For instance by providing promotions to the consumers, it gives them a chance to realize the quality of the services provided. This can significantly help in attracting potential customers going for the services provided by the company.

Some limitations of promotion to the organisation One of the main reverse effects of promotion activities is the fact that some consumers may just sit back and wait for the incentives. In such cases, the organisation fails to realize the desired aims of promotional activities. This implies that the company does not compensate for the funds spent in providing incentives to such consumers.

In executing promotion as a marketing mix, the company incurs some costs. This has significantly reduced the profit margins of the company. Again, customers may tend to lower their demand in order to receive promotion. In this case, the promotional activities bring about reverse effects. When this happens, the promotional exercise fails as it will lead to losses.

Development of organizational culture Another way through which Nielsen can manage to win more customers as well as developing its competitive advantage is by developing an organizational culture. The level of competition seems to be intensifying with time. Therefore it is expected that the level of competition will be even high in the future.

Therefore, it will be advisable for the organization to develop a culture which will facilitate its success. Organizational culture can be defined as tacit but understood regulations in a particular organization which determines what is regarded as right or wrong, necessary or unnecessary, and how an organization responds to any deviation from day to day activities.

Every member of an organization must be familiar with this code in order to direct their behaviour as expected by other members of an organization. All new members must internalize this code which enables them to behave accordingly. Organizational culture bonds employees together as one which promotes realization of the organizational goals.

In every organization, culture plays a major role in directing the conduct of employees. The employees will always tend to behave according to the cultural specifications of an organization.

One of the most surprising aspects of the organizational culture is that we can encounter similar organizations under the same environment and in some cases with similar technologies but with different organizational cultures. As already noted, organizational culture assists new employees in an organization to know the correct way in which to conduct their behaviour.

This significantly reduces inefficiencies which are associated with absorption of new employees. Therefore, creating and sustaining a culture at Nielsen is very important in promoting the company’s success. The company should therefore pay a critical attention in creating as well as sustaining organizational culture.

Creating an organizational culture As already noted, organizational culture plays a very important role in shaping the behaviour of employees. Organizational culture therefore significantly contributes to the success of an organization. Weak organizational cultures are associated with poor performance in the respective organizations.

Since a culture is difficult to change once engraved in employees, it is important for the leaders to be careful while creating organizational cultures. Strong cultures are associated with innovation and growth. Therefore, creation of a strong culture will help Nielsen in surviving in a competitive market. It will improve its efficiency which will help in retaining its operations in the market.

There are three main sources of the organizational culture. According to Schein, organizational culture can result from the values, assumptions, and beliefs of the founders of a particular organization (219). The founders of an organization plays a vital role in the establishment of the organizational culture since they determines the environment under which the first group of employees in an organization will work as well as the organization’s missions.

Consequently, the first founders will determine the manner in which the first group will react in an effort to be fit in the organization’s environment. The founders of an organization also have a major impact on the way an organizations handles the external problems and the manner in which problems are handled.

Due to the fact that the founders of an organizations holds the original idea, they therefore have their own way on how to fulfil their ideas which is based on the personalities and their cultural history. However, some of these methods may not be efficient. In 1990s, when the market was characterized any unhealthy competition which led to price wars, Nielson was very optimistic after receiving a new Chief Executive Officer, Trivisonno.

He was very determined to change the situation within the shortest period in order to save the company from a complete fall (Nielsen par 9). The new CEO decided to streamline the company’s operations and other strategies to revive the organization. Through these efforts, the CEO managed to increase Nielsen’s profitability within a very short time (Nielsen par 10).

Organizational culture can also spring out from the learning experience of the members of a particular organization in the process of development (Schein 219). As an organization continues to mature, employees can develop a culture from the experiences they encounter in the process.

For instance, employees may be faced by a certain problem over a certain period of time. With time, these employees may develop a culture of solving that particular problem based on the methods which has worked best over the past. This strategy will significantly help Nielsen in developing a competitive advantage.

Finally, culture can also result from new values, assumptions and beliefs which are integrated in the organization through the new members (Schein 219).

When new employees get recruited into organizations, they come along with new ways of doing things. Although they are encouraged to adapt the culture of their new organization, some aspects of their previous culture will always be reflected in their behaviour. Through their interaction with other employees, new employees may export some aspects of their former culture.

With time, these aspects get engraved in the culture of an organization. At this point, it is important for the leaders to ensure that only strong aspects of culture are imported from other organizations. Otherwise, this may lead to importation of failure related cultural aspects.

There are several main steps which are necessary in creating a strong organizational culture. These steps are important for Nielsen as they will increase its ability to sustain itself in a competitive market. To start with, an organization must define its goals. This will enhance an organization to identify the changes it needs to carry out on its culture.

This is based on intensive research on each of these methods. After defining its goals, an organization should then identify the strongly performing aspects of culture. An organization should make an effort of developing and retaining such aspects. Then, an organization should modify its daily working procedures in order to improve on its performance (Plante par 4).

After creating a strong organizational culture, it is also important to put efforts of sustaining the culture. According to Schein, a culture cannot survive if the main culture carriers depart or if there is conflict over the ideas by the leaders. Conflict leads to cultural instability hence poor performance by these organizations. On adapting to these changes, Nielson will be able to win the customers from its competitors.

As an effort to sustain effective organizational culture, every organization should make an effort of giving new employees the procedures which guides the behaviour of every employee in an organization (Frost 29). Employees should be informed about the most important rules in the organization.

For instance, the leaders should always remind employees about the rules which have a significant impact on the performance level of an organization. An organization can also sustain its culture through formal statements of the philosophy (Anonymous par 5). This can be through mission statement, vision statement or statement of the values guiding an organization.

Nielson’s SWOT analysis In every organisation, the SWOT analysis is very important in enabling an organisation to determine its position in the market. This analysis also enables an organisation in detecting its areas of weaknesses which is necessary in formulation of the necessary policies. This analysis also provides an organisation with a clear understanding of its strengths. The SWOT analysis also provides information about the opportunities available in the market for the company.

This information is necessary in providing an organisation with the necessary information about the market. SWOT analysis is one of the most valuable resources which provide the executives with important information that is necessary in making critical decisions. In other words, SWOT analysis is of great significance in understanding of the key information concerning the company.

Strengths Nielsen Company has several strengths which have significantly contributed to the achievements which the company has recorded over the past. These strengths have also helped the company in surviving in its competitive market environment which characterized with a very high level of competition.

The major strength of the Nielsen Company lies on the fact that the company has managed to capitalize on research innovation. Research and innovation is one of the main strategies which have been applied by most successful companies in an effort to improve their services to the clients.

Research and innovation contributes in consumer satisfaction. Through research, Nielsen has managed to maintain a constant high level of development on its product. This has enabled the organization in providing high quality services. This has enabled the company to retain its customers. Research and innovation has also contributed in developing the company’s comparative advantage.

Over the past, the company has kept a good record for provision of high quality data with high level of integrity. This has led in development of the company’s reputation in its market networks which has led to improvement in the level of sales. This has also led to improvement in the company’s reputation.

Other strength of the company is based on the fact that the company has managed to capitalize on the weakness of its competitors. For instance, the company has given more attention on measures which can lead to reduction of its operational expenses. Consequently, the company will be able to under price its competitors.

In other words, the company has managed to change its operations in order to adjust accordingly with changes in the market conditions. For instance, the company streamlined its operations with the help of its newly elected chief executive officer in 1990s.

Nielson has also managed to acquire the ownership of some of the famous companies in the industry which causes competition to the company. This has significantly helped the company in expanding its market share. For instance, Nielson has recently taken under control of the IAG. IAG research measures the effectiveness of the advertising and program engagement. IAG works with a wide range of clients which includes advertisers, internet providers, telecommunications services and content providers.

On the other hand, Nielson measures what consumer views. Therefore, the combination of the two entities will significantly lead to the improvement of the services offered by the company. This will also help in winning more customers as a result of merging these two entities. This has helped in development of a comparative advantage over other companies.

Finally, the company has a wide range of data collection tools. This is unlike in the case of other companies which have been over relying on a few tools in data collection. This therefore distinguishes Nielsen Company from other similar companies. This achievement has enabled the company to provide deeper insight into current markets. This has significantly helped these companies in expanding their services.

Weaknesses

The main weakness of the company is based on the fact that it has not managed to diversify on its operations. Diversification can help an organisation in surviving in a competitive market. This is because its overall profitability is not significantly affected in case one field fails.

Opportunities

Despite of the tough times that Nielson had been undergoing over difficult moments, the company has some opportunities. These opportunities have favoured the company over its competitors. One of the main opportunities of the company is kits ability to grow very fast. Over the past, the company has recorded a very high rate of growth.

Another opportunity of the company lies on the fact that the company has been in the industry for a long period. The company has previously recorded good performance in terms of expansion. For instance, the company has acquired several companies through mergers. This has significantly favoured the company’s operations. The company has also managed to target best market opportunities in its networks. This has significantly helped the company in improving on kits level of sales.

Threats

At Nielsen Company, there are several threats which have undermined the performance of the organization both in the short and the long run. These factors have posed a big danger to the organization in the effort to maximize its profits.

One of the main threats which pose a major danger to the company is the high level of competition. The company has been faced with a very high level of competition. As already seen, companies offering market research services like Information Resources, Inc. (IRI) has posed a major threat to Nielsen.

Over the recent past, more players have been entering into the market which has led to these companies crowding in same clients. This competition has led to prices wars, a situation which has led to fall in prices to almost below the equilibrium level. This has posed a big problem to Nielsen. Such unhealthy competition leads to the reduction of the total revenue, a situation which has lowered the profitability of the organization.

Implications of the study for future use This study is of great importance to the company in the future. It has provided enlightenment to the company which has significance implication for the future. This is more so to the international corporations whose operations are extended in various countries. In he future business world, the level of competition is expected to be extremely high.

This implies that only those companies with a well developed competitive advantage will manage to survive in such markets efficiently. This study will therefore be of great significance as it helps organizations in developing their competitive advantage.

The study has indicated that Nielson recovered very first after the new Chief Executive Officer took over control of the company. This has a critical implication in the future. It indicates that the leadership can significantly affect the performance of an organisation. The new CEO managed to make necessary adjustments which led to a sudden improvement in the company’s level of performance.

The new CEO decided to streamline the company’s operations, after which the company recorded an improvement in its level of performance. This implies that it will be important for organizations to adjust accordingly depending on the prevailing conditions. This will require organizations to have a perpetual reconsideration of their strategies in order to adjust accordingly. Some strategies are feasible in some conditions while the same strategies may prove impotent in other situations.

Conclusion and Recommendations In conclusion, this dissuasion has clearly shown that Nielsen has encountered severe problems in the market. The root of the problem is the high level of competition which has affected the profitability of the organisation. Unhealthy competition has led into price wars between Nielsen and its rival in the market. As a result the company has suffered from increased expenses in an attempt to win back and retain its customers. The level of competition continues to increase as more competitors enter into the market.

It is recommended that every organisation make necessary adjustments in order to be able to combat the problems which result from excessive and unhealthy competition. The study has indicated that prices wars have led to the fall in prices. Therefore, it is Advisable for the company to make necessary adjustments in order to reduce the overall operational costs.

This will help in compensating any reduction in prices as a result of excessive competition. The company can also compensate for fall in prices by applying strategies which can increase their performance levels. By so doing, the company will be able to under price its competitors despite the level of competition. In other words, the company will manage to lower its prices and still retain its profitability.

From this discussion, it is clear that there is a need for organizations to propose the development of success culture; a culture where every employee is committed to the success of an organization. One of the way through which this could be done is through modification of day to day working procedure.

For instance, Nielson may decide to make some modifications on how the company conducts its research. This adjustment may lead to improvement of the services provided by its clients. It is also recommended to facilitate effective communication in an organization. This will significantly help in improving the level of efficiency in the organization. Consequently, the organization will manage to sustain itself in a competitive world.

Works Cited Anonymous. “The Marketing Mix (The 4 P’s of Marketing).” Quickmba, 1999. Web.

Bungert, Michael. Termination of Price Wars: A Signaling Approach. Germany: DUV, 2003.

Frost, Peter. Reframing Organizational Culture. California: SAGE, 1991.

Nielson. “History.” Nielsen. Web.

Pezzullo, Mary. Marketing Financial Services. U.S.A.: Kogan Page Publishers. 1998.

Plante. “How to Create Strong Organizational Culture.” Marissa Phillips, 2009. Web.

Schein, Edgar. Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons, 2004.

Silk, Alvin. What is marketing? U.S.A.: Harvard Business Press, 2006.

Trehan, Mukesh and Trehan, Ranju. Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi: FK Publications, 2009.

Tuto2. “Promotion – introduction to the promotional mix.” tutor2u, 2011. Web.

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The Movie “Real Women Have Curves” and the Memoirs “Why Do Abused Women Stay? My Story” Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents The conventional paradigm of the female world in Mexican culture

The denial of the traditional roles of the female passivity

Searches of the social and national identity

Celebration of female identity

Conclusion

Works Cited

Though the problem of gender roles and women’s discrimination may seem obsolete for the members of modern community, it remains rather topical for the representatives of national minorities whose culture defines strict social expectations concerning the gender roles and opportunities.

The conventional paradigm of the female world in Mexican culture The conventional gender-based ideologies in some cultures predetermine the discrimination of women, depriving them of opportunities to receive education and make their contributions to this world other than raising their children and taking care of their husbands. As it can be seen from the texts under analysis, the cultural beliefs of women with Mexican background make them blindly accept their limited opportunities because these are the established dogmas rooted in their cultural beliefs.

Cleofilas, the protagonist of the story “Woman Hollering Creek” accepts the paradigm of the female discrimination which she under the influence of the Mexican soap operas at the beginning of the story considers as inevitable and almost natural.

The woman’s claim that to suffer for love is good and that pain is sweet clearly represents her voluntary approval of the female inferior position which is rooted deep in her own beliefs (Cisneros 45). Similar example of the blind acceptance of the paradigm based upon the women’s limited opportunities can be found at the beginning of the movie Real Women Have Curves in Ana, the Mexican American girl and one of the top students at the Beverly Hills High School.

Speaking with her teacher Mr. Guzman about college, Ana first admits that her family cannot afford it, but after the teacher mentions the scholarships, she has nothing to say and it becomes clear that the financial side of the issue is only on the surface, whereas the real problem is rooted in the girl’s perception of the women’s roles and her own status.

Going even further, the author of the article “Why Do Abused Women Stay? My Story” discusses the social problem of domestic violence and the women’s acceptance of moral and physical abuse and fear of changing the existing situation and avoiding the discrimination.

Representing the cultural beliefs of their female characters regarding the conventional gender roles at the beginning of the depicted stories, the authors emphasize the women’s blind acceptance of their limited opportunities rooted deep in their consciousness. They show how difficult it may be to protect one’s rights for freedom and education or to leave an abuser because it would require changing cultural beliefs and reject the conventional paradigm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The denial of the traditional roles of the female passivity After demonstrating the women’s acceptance of the conventional gender-based ideology for getting the insight into their cultural beliefs and inner worlds, the authors of the articles and movie under consideration proceed to discussing the main driving forces which make the women deny the traditional roles of female passivity and change their lives. This approach allows the authors to depict the development of the characters in their dynamics.

In Cisneros’ story “Woman Hollering Creek”, Graciela and Felice are the Latinas females rejecting the traditional paradigm of women’s suffering and influencing Cleofilas’ views regarding her own identity. Felice’s pickup can be regarded as the symbol of female financial and spiritual independence. The discovery that a woman can not only drive a car, but also choose it and pay for it becomes a turning point in Cleofilas’ moral growth (Cisneros 55).

While Graciela and Felice express the contemporary assertions concerning the women’s identity in Cisneros’ story, the school teacher Mr. Guzman becomes a person affecting Ana’s views in the movie Real Women Have Curves. In contrast to Graciela and Felice, the teacher cannot become a role model for the teenager, but he communicates his ideas about the girls’ real opportunities in several episodes of the film.

Coming to Ana’s birthday to speak to her parents about the girl’s further education shows that Mr. Guzman realizes the impact of the family upbringing and cultural beliefs upon the girl’s views (Cardoso “Real Women Have Curves”). However, the teacher’s attempts do not affect the position of Ana’s mother who still insists that she herself can give her daughter all the education she may need, including the skills of sewing, raising her children and taking care of her husband.

In contrast to Cisneros as the author of “Woman Hollering Creek” and Cardoso as the director of the movie under consideration who claim that he external influence is required for reaching the denial of the conventional roles, the author of the article “Why Do Abused Women Stay?” does not discusses the external factors, but rather concentrates on the inner struggle which precedes the decision to leave the abuser and protect one’s rights. Regardless of the chosen scenarios of the characters’ transformation, the denial of the traditional paradigm of passivity is preceded with the conflict between the outdated stereotypes and contemporary perspectives and searches of one’s social identity.

Searches of the social and national identity The characters’ searches of the social and gender identity are interrelated with the changes n their cultural beliefs.

In that regard, the title of the movie Real Women Have Curves is rather symbolic because not only Ana, but thousands of other girls attempt to answer the basic question what it means to be a real woman and whether they really have the assumed flaws they are constantly told about.

We will write a custom Essay on The Movie “Real Women Have Curves” and the Memoirs “Why Do Abused Women Stay? My Story” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is only through her tender relationship with Jimmy that Ana gets rid of her complex of inferiority developed by her own mother through berating the girl because of her overweight. The title of Cisneros’ story “Woman Hollering Creek” can be regarded as one of the ways to find one’s social identity.

This title is the reconsideration of an old legend according to which a woman comes to the creek to drown her newborn baby and hollers after it. As opposed to this traditional interpretation, in Cisneros’ story the hollering creek becomes the place where the female characters holler loudly to express their pain with their voices which is not allowed by the conventional society rules.

Showing the first women’s attempts to cross the borders attributed to the period of searches of their social identity and the difficulties caused with the society confrontation, the authors claim that the extraordinary measures were necessary for the women’s self-expression and celebration of their identity.

Celebration of female identity The inner struggle in the hearts of contemporary women between the family traditions, social expectations and their inner voice results in their protests. The authors of the works under consideration show the extreme ways chosen by their female characters for their self-expression.

The character of the movie under consideration manages not only to find her own female identity, but even supports her sister and other factory workers in their searches. When the females at the factory carry off their clothes and work stripped to their underwear so that to demonstrate to Carmen, Ana’s mother that they are real women who do have curves.

This episode can be regarded as a revolution in this small Mexican community and the women’s desperate attempt to struggle for their personal identity which finishes with the females’ personal acceptance and abandonment of the artificial gender roles and stereotypes rooted in their conventional culture.

The yell of Cisneros’ main female character at the end of the story can be regarded as the symbolic celebration of her female identity. Cleofilas who was previously unable to express her pain, realizes that she can use her own voice for expressing her feelings and protest to protect her rights. Actually, the character herself is surprised at hearing her voice which represents her personal victory over the existing dogmas and stereotypes.

The memoirs “Why Do Abused Women Stay?” do not contain any symbolic representations of the women’s protest and self-expression, whereas the narrator is rather inclined to give promises to herself. It can be explained with the narrator’s focus on the inner conflict. The only mentioning of her second successful marriage in the last sentence of the story can be regarded as a peculiar representation of her personal triumph and acknowledgement that celebration of female rights for happiness in modern community is possible.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Movie “Real Women Have Curves” and the Memoirs “Why Do Abused Women Stay? My Story” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Through the analysis of the short stories by Cisneros, the movie Real Women Have Curves directed by Cardoso and the memoirs entitled “Why Do Abused Women Stay? My Story”, it can be concluded that there is a strong relationship between the women’s abuse and the national cultural values. Thus, struggling for their natural rights, women need to reject not only the social expectations as to their roles, but also their own artificial stereotypes concerning the woman’s place, role and opportunities established in culture and consciousness.

Works Cited Cardoso, Patricia. “Real Women Have Curves”. Online Posting. YouTube, 23 February 2010. Web.

Cisneros, Sandra. Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories. New York: Paw Prints, 2008. Print.

“Why Do Abused Women Stay? My Story”. Tellinitlikeitis.net. 3 Sept. 2007. Web.

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Effects of global warming on human health, human welfare and human settlements Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Effects on human health

Effects on human settlement

Effects on human welfare

Conclusion

Works Cited

Global warming is the gradual increase in earth’s surface temperature. The increased temperature leads to an increased melting of snow and ice. The resultant of the melting is an increased global sea level. It is estimated that between 1906 and 2005, earth’s surface temperatures raised by 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (Ernesto 8-23). In 1998, Kyoto protocol was developed as a preventive measure to further global warming. This paper discusses the effects of global warming on human health, human welfare and human settlements.

Effects on human health There are some diseases that have been triggered and caused by the increased temperatures on earth, they include skin cancer, skin diseases and pulmonary diseases; some of these diseases are caused by direct integration while others are as a result of indirect effects of global warming. When some areas are heated, a wave of hot air that moves from one the region of high temperatures to the areas of low temperatures; these heats may carry with them some diseases like tuberculosis that affect the people.

At the high temperatures, some viruses and bacteria are able to multiply resulting to increased health complications on the people; such viruses include Hantavirus. Melting of icecaps, reduce the freshness of water, when the saline intrusion of water is increased, then people are likely to suffer some related diseases (Colleen 5-8).

Effects on human settlement Global warming has resulted to extreme weather conditions, some situations that cannot allow productive agriculture or hinders a comfortable life of the settlers. When lands and climate fail to support productive agriculture, then people living in the areas are more likely to move to other places; this leads to land that have been left to be consumed by effects of weather while others, which are believed to be productive are over populated.

Populations that live in risk prone areas are more likely to suffer loss of land to the increasing sea level and risks of dangerous waves; when the temperatures increase; they lead to melting of the ice caps that lead to an increased water levels on seas and oceans. When the water levels increase, they reclaim coastal lands leading to resettlement of the coastal people (Colleen 12).

Effects on human welfare When temperatures increase, they affect the quality of life in the world; people are not enjoying their life to their fullest. Increased temperatures have an effect on human psychology and socially he can have limited enjoyment of life. The massive campaigns on the probable effects of global warming are not working well with human welfare.

The diseases that can be directly or indirectly be attributed to global warming have a negative effect on human welfare. Global warming is likely to have negative effects on people’s economies, geography, urban planning, and sociology, when the above attributes of life have been affected, then the human welfare is affected negatively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When icecaps melt and water levels increase; recreational features and places are reduced, at coastal places, there are higher risks of high tides and waves that are dangerous to human beings thus reducing relational activities along the coast (Colleen 23).

Conclusion Global warming is the increase in earth surface temperature, which results in increased global sea level. The major cause of global warming is human activities especially in this era of industrialization; it has a negative effect on human health, settlement and welfare.

Works Cited Colleen, Reid. Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Sep. 2008. Web. Print.

Ernesto , Zedillo. Global warming: looking beyond Kyoto. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2008.Print.

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Concept of Globalization Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents The Concept of Globalization

The Drivers of Globalization

Effects of Globalization

Conclusion

References

Globalization is the interconnection that has been experienced in the world through the improvement of communication, trade, and transportation. It also entails the incorporation of national and international economies through foreign investments, capital flows, and migration. This has increased connectivity and interdependence of world markets and businesses. The following paragraphs explain the concept of globalization and its impacts on organizations and communities.

The Concept of Globalization According to Manfred (2002), the traditional international trade theories that support globalization are: Ricardian model, Heckscher Ohlin Model, and Specific Factor Model. Ricardian model is created in a way that the only difference among different countries is their production technologies. All other features are seen as the same and hence it states that the reason for the trade is the difference in production. The Heckscher Ohlin Model expands on the number of features of production.

It presumes that the workforce and capital, which refers to machines and buildings, are used in production of finished goods. Lastly, the Specific Factor Model is considered as an alternative to Ricardian model. It presumes that one factor of production is precise to a particular industry. This specific factor is considered to be stuck between industries and cannot be moved due to changes in the market.

The Drivers of Globalization There drivers of globalization include market, government, cost, customer, and infrastructure and the Internet. First, market drivers enable the customers to connect with international trade by use of global marketing channels.

Market drivers include customer demand, industry trends, and neighboring markets. Second, government drivers include the trade policies, technical standards, and government regulations. Third, cost drivers include the site of strategic resources, the differing costs in many countries, and the possibility of economies of scale.

Flat experience curves slow up globalization and big companies like aircraft industry show more economies of scale than those which expenses come from rent and labor. Fourth, Customer drivers contains common customer needs which determines the customer tastes and culture, The number of global customers also determines whether a company should participate in the global trade and transferable marketing where the company may develop a world brand.

Lastly, infrastructure and the Internet are important drivers. The two have improved and increased opportunities and competitions. With infrastructure, roads for transportation of goods and commercial jet aircrafts are improved. The improvement of Internet with big microprocessors and telecommunications has enabled communication at a low cost. This communication connectivity includes the Local Area Networks being connected to the Wide Area Networks, which connects the whole world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of Globalization The effects of globalization in an organization are that organizations are exposed to the global demand, supply, and global market competition. This enables the organization to produce more goods according to international demand without forgetting the international market competition.

It also makes the organization to be able to survive with no struggle because global opportunities and strategies strengthen the organization hence they are able to deal with threats. Communities benefit by getting outsourced jobs, but some have negative effects of job security and pay. Globalization changes cultures because it promotes cultural exchanges from different people across the globe (Reinsdorf

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Are Young Girls in the United States Growing Up Too Fast? Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Growth of young girls in the United States

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Growth is an inevitable process not only in human beings but also in all living organisms. There is a certain way that people expect that a child grow from infancy to adolescent/ teenage stage, to adulthood and finally to old age and a disruption of the process is considered to be an abnormality of a kind.

Young people in the United States more especially the girls are deemed to be growing up too fast than expected an aspect that has attracted a lot of concern among parents and other responsible bodies. There are various factors that have been associated with this change in growth rate among the young girls as compared to the earlier generations. This paper investigates on this aspect with much emphasis being given to causes that leads to this.

Growth of young girls in the United States Young girls in the United States are growing up in a relatively high rate than it is expected. This issue has been accrued to various reasons for instance the media (TV and Radio) and what it portrays, poor upbringing where the parents or caretakers do not guide the girls accordingly like in terms of supervision, addiction to many sites on the internet among others.

According to Atwood (2006), the poor upbringing or rather lack of sufficient supervision of the young girls by their parents and their guardians is a contributing factor towards the tendency of the girls behaving like adults in a very tender age due to what they have been able to experience. Parents in the United States tend to be very busy in other aspects for instance jobs, leisure and businesses, leaving very little time to spend with their children and understand what they may be going through.

The girls tend to have early exposure to sexual aspects for instance through the people around them who may even abuse them sexually or tell them that it is not wrong to engage in sexual behavior. For this reasons, they become used to sexual activities without their parents noticing and it is only when it is too late that this can be noticed for instance when they get pregnant or contract sexually transmitted diseases.

Coy (2009) asserts that the mass media (print and electronic) has had a negative impact on the young girls in the United States through how popular culture is displayed in regard to young girls and women.

The girls and women are displayed to be a level below the boys of the same age in various aspects. Femininity and beauty are presented as the significant attributes hence limiting the girl’s aspirations making them to concentrate too much on beauty and appearance which in return make them indulge in sexual related activities an aspect that is not good.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If only the girls were presented to be equal to the boys in terms of what they can achieve fro instance in terms of education and career, then they would have a mentality that they can also achieve much in life apart from concentrating on appearance/beauty and what may make them seem sexy.

The mass media more especially the television is also a contributing element towards the changes in the growth rate of the young girls in the United States of America. This aspect is however coupled with less supervision by the parents where the young girls are free to watch whatever channel or program they wish to without any restriction.

This has resulted in changed perception about the concept of sexuality where the young girls view sex as an aspect to be proud of and hence they engage in it without fear. We see the mass media, through the various available channels, presenting sex as a fascinating activity that is without any risk but rather enjoyment. This has in a way made the young girls in the United States to be very eager to experience it even in their young age (Thompson, 2010).

The media also presents some celebrities and other notable personalities to be very attractive with slim bodies and make ups which make the young girls to spend a lot of time in trying to look sexually attractive. This in return makes men to view them as grown up women who are ready for sex and they end up having sexual intercourse either voluntarily or through persuasion by the male friends.

The consequences of this behavior has been unwanted pregnancies and worse still, sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/ Aids since even though the media brings out the issue of sex to the young people, it does not clearly show the risk factors associated with it and so the young girls are not careful and they come to suffer the consequences later (Brown, Childers

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Anti-Islamic Religious Discrimination in the Workplace Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Islamic Religious Discrimination

Development of Anti-discriminative Laws

Social and Psychological Aspect of Discrimination

United States Legal Framework

Human Resources Management Practices

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Religious discrimination is common in workplaces making human resource managers to have difficulties in satisfying the diverse religious needs and professional demands of the work. Diverse religions exist in the world with different beliefs regarding worship, dressing, and way of life hence complicating the work of human resources managers in enforcing professional ethics.

Realizing that religious discrimination in workplaces is a significant challenge in employment sector, many countries are formulating policies and laws that provide framework to guide human resources in eradicating religious discrimination.

For instance, Australia has adopted laws that prohibit religious discrimination; “the Equal Treatment Act came into effect July 2004 and prohibits direct or indirect discrimination against employees on the grounds of gender, age, ethnicity, physical or mental disability, religious belief, world view or sexual orientation”(Hart

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Investment in Education Essay best essay help: best essay help

Scholars have often used the term ‘capital’ in different contexts and fields to imply a number of related meanings that may not necessarily agree in both scope and depth. In finance, accounting and management, for instance, the term is used to make reference to financial wealth, particularly the wealth used to start or sustain a business entity.

In classical economics, however, capital is used to imply one of the three factors of production, and differs from the other two factors – land and labor – because it can be used in the production of other goods, it is human-made and, lastly, it cannot be exhausted immediately in the process of production (Perlman

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Gender stereotypes of superheroes Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Which one is superior: male or female superheroes?

Literature review

Methodology

Proposed Design

Conclusion

Works Cited

Which one is superior: male or female superheroes? The research on the gender differences between male and female superheroes falls under the gender research from sociological, psychological and political points of view. There are some amounts of research conducted on coloring books, comic books and cartoon characters in order to see the ways by which gender differences are depicted.

Some researchers focus on the issue from a theoretical point of view while some others have focus on the effects of these gender stereotypes depicted in mass media organs. Yet some other works give their primary focus to practical applications of comic books in classrooms to teach various subjects such as race, equality, gender, patriotism and American history among others.

My topic is based on the debate on gender indifference when it comes to portrayal of women in the media. The research will examine a number of comic books and the remarks given by different researchers.

According to many researchers, superheroes are known to influence a child’s development in terms of upholding their moral values hence the fact the most male superheroes are portrayed as having more strength than the female counterparts makes it a major concern for researchers. It is evident that girls are not innately weak beings neither should they be portrayed as sexual icons with very unnatural figures that are not obviously like those of a normal girl.

Against this background, our hypotheses of the research will be: (1) Males will appear more often than females. (2) Both males and females will be depicted in gender-stereotypical roles. (3) Males will be depicted in more active states than females.

Literature review Libby and Aries (302) state that “the way in which we perceive the world around us is not merely a neutral registration of some external reality. Instead, perception involves an active construction that incorporates our past memories and expectations as well as the current context”. The stereotypes have turned against women regarding them as weak beings, cowards, and talkative characters who have a much lower status in the society than men.

The most notorious for promoting gender stereotyping are mostly the social institutions. Since the advancement of media technology that has been incorporated as part and parcel of our every day living in regards to how we involve ourselves with socialization. Entertainment programs such as films, cartoons and dramas are always having a common expectation from the members of the society perpetuating these stereotypes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is a common thing that children get to start watching cartoon while they are very young and they watch them almost every time given the opportunity. From many researches that have been conducted, the male characters in cartoons are always superior and dominant beings as opposed to the female (McCabe et al197).

A research conducted by Siegfried and Strand (14) affirms that the cartoon world is a man’s world. While another study conducted by Aiken (74), clearly describes the male characters as also the dominant characters as she describes them as being “chase-and-pratfall”.

Eick (3), a researcher and the author of “Gender Stereotypes in Children’s Television Cartoons,” is in support of the fact that male characters were always being the position of power in such character roles as policemen, superheroes and scientists and they were never shown as characters who could perform roles that include cleaning, cooking nor even have instances where they would show emotions through crying. It is noted that in almost all cartoon programs the male characters are portrayed as strong and dominant characters as compared to their female counterparts who are seen as vulnerable, puny and always depending on the male characters.

The creators of the cartoon have their target audience which is mostly around the age of two to possibly eighteen years of age (2-18) an age bracket that considers a child’s growth. Most of the children have no way of differentiating reality from fantasy hence the stereotypes that develops around this age tend to last longer in the children’s minds as they gradually develop and become mature.

Hence, cartoons portray cultural narrations that can be used to enlighten the young ones and show who they are and who they can end up being. The society is responsible for defining the roles for the two genders. From my point of view, superheroes are neither good nor bad; am convinced in this by the views that have been expressed by several scholars from previous researches.

In 2010, Aiken conducted a research on superheroes basing her referencing on comic books. Aiken’s aim of conducting the research was to find how meaningful super- heroes were in terms of teaching children history in the classroom environment. According to Aiken (41), there are many ways through which school curriculums can be incorporated with comics to suite students learning ability.

Aiken found out that comics that are related to superheroes have significant impact in regards to the history of U.S. in the twentieth century. She suggests that the comic characters, such as Captain America, Wonder Woman and Spiderman could be used to show the people that they can improve themselves to be better people in the society “desire for heroes and for somebody to show us that we can be our better selves” (45).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gender stereotypes of superheroes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The comic project book founded through the teachers college at the University of Columbia has been helpful for both the students and the teachers. Students are getting involved in comic works especially via the internet through the help of their teachers. The most notable point is that with time, more teachers are embracing comics today and they use these comic books to their advantage and to the advantage of their students in their classrooms.

Baker and Raney (25) conducted a research concentrating on the gender-stereotypical behaviors portrayed by male and female superheroes in cartoons. They conducted an analysis from 160 hours of recorded programming to watch about 70 characters. The main aim of the analysis of the study is to find out how the different gender characters are being portrayed through stereotypic roles (Baker and Raney 33).

After the analysis which involved the analyzing of the characters manifestation individuality, different traits personal behavior and the super heroic functions of the characters, the result confirmed that there is indeed a great difference between female characters and male characters in regards to how they depict their emotional feelings, how tough they are, their strategy in solving problems and coming up with solutions.

From the research, the female characters are depicted as more emotional and attractive characters while the male characters are depicted as tough and superior characters.

According to Fitzpatrick

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The mysteries of Capital Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents The five mysteries of capital

The mystery of missing information

The mystery of capital

The mystery of political awareness

The five mysteries of capital Many world economies, if not all, are founded on capitalism, socialism or communism. The needs of the people in a particular region or country will determine which option the government takes in order to meet them. Many of the world’s developed economies apparently used capitalism as the best option to organize their economies in ways that will meet the needs of its people.

Most of the countries in the West employed capitalism as an option which, as it can be seen, has enabled them to a large extent to create much of the wealth they have now. The way market forces in existence relate to each other, helps these countries in sustaining the created wealth.

Developing countries on the other hand, employed a different approach to this; they adopted the socialist and communist options as the best options of organize their economies. And as it has been witnessed, many of these countries struggle to sustain these forms of governance.

It is this disparity in wealth creation between developed countries and third world countries that compelled Hernando to say that capitalism is the only feasibly way logically, that can be effectively used by countries to organize their economies in this modern age.

He starts this book by suggesting that capitalism has not been maximized fully and therefore, has not achieved its optimum potential in the developing world. He goes ahead to say that the reason for this failure is that most of these developing or centrally planned nations have not been in a position to ‘globalize’ capital internally, in their own boundaries.

To clearly articulate his ideas about capitalism, he has summarized his many years of research to bring out the economic realities of life faced by countries such as Egypt, the Philippines, Haiti and even Peru, his native country. Studying these nations, Hernando was able to come up with conclusions as to what is the main cause of the failure of the economies in these countries.

In his effort to find out why capitalism does well in developed nations especially those in the West and not in the developing countries, Hernando embarked on unraveling a number of mysteries that had been neglected by many scholars for many years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He summarized them into five, the first one he called it the mystery of missing information, the second as the mystery of capital, the third he called the mystery of political awareness, the fourth as the missing lessons of the US history, and the last one he called the mystery of legal failure. Basically, these mysteries summarized Hernando’s whole idea of how countries and people can form capital.

The mystery of missing information The defenselessness and troubles of many of the people who are not blessed financially have been recognized and emphasized by many of the voluntary bodies in the world. However, the capacity of these people to accumulate their own wealth in terms of assets seems to be ignored.

Researchers write about the plea of these people from the comfort of their homes or offices but they have never gone on the ground to look at the potential that these people have. This is why Hernando and other research sought set out to go on the ground and look at how much wealth the poorest people have in the poor backyards. They discovered that these people had enormous wealth; however, most of this wealth is just dead capital that only serves a few people.

This is why according to Hernando, despite that fact more than five-sixths of the world’s population is poor, it is this fraction that owns the world’s houses, crops and even business, although they are all extralegal. This type of property needs legal documents such as articles of incorporation, titles, and deeds, which most of the poor do not have, and therefore, they do not use them. This why Hernando calls these property “dead capital” because, according to him, it is property that cannot be used by people in the generation of more capital.

Hernando sees this dead capital as the inherent potential in these poor people which cannot be used simply because its existence in terms of infrastructures is only implied instead of being legal. It is very difficult for governments and people in developing countries to confirm addresses, compel people to pay their debts, apportion property ownership into shares, secure legal housing, and legal jobs or participate in formal businesses, if there are no laws put in place to establish ownership.

He goes ahead to expound on these by saying that poor people have businesses but lack statutes of incorporation. They have houses but lack their titles. They have crops but no deeds to them. These are very important representations, lack of which, makes it impossible to grow economically. Many developing nations have adopted almost all western inventions, but have not been able to generate enough capital, sufficient to sustain their economies domestically simply because they lack the above mentioned representations.

Hernando argues that having a government in place is not the problem, because many of these so called governments have copied everything that western governments do in appurtenance. However, these governments have concentrated all their focus and efforts on this appurtenance instead of putting in place structures that can meet the needs of a market economy. Hernando notes that many people in developing countries encounter many roadblocks in their quest for legal property rights.

We will write a custom Essay on The mysteries of Capital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He has cited an example from Egypt whereby it takes many procedures through many agencies over a long period of time for one to acquire land. This is besides the fact one is not guaranteed that the deed to the land will be revoked by the next government to process the needed paperwork. He therefore feels that it is these cumbersome bureaucratic measures that make resources in developing nations invisible both commercially and financially.

They are the ones responsible for the many extralegal sectors in developing nations. They have lead to a very active area in the business field. That is why Hernando thinks that despite the poor status of these countries, they posses millions of treasure that is just waiting to be used only if these people unravel the mystery of how to profitably transform their assets.

The mystery of capital This is the most important chapter of the book because it covers the major mystery of creating sustainable wealth. He suggests ways that can be used to revive the so called dead capital found in the developing world and make them sustainable just like those in the western world. He suggests that the solution to these problems is to put in place what is called formal property rights. He delves here in explaining what he implies by active capital borrowing from the ideas of classical economists such as Karl Marx and Adam Smith who tried to define what capital is.

He shows how the history of capital started right from the medieval times. For instance, he shows that capital was taken to stand for the number of cattle or livestock and how this was valued in terms of money in Medieval Latin. Using Smith’s definition of capital, Hernando managed to figure out that capital does not necessarily mean the number of accumulated stock of assets as many people believe, but rather the potential that these assets hold in facilitating more and new production.

He acknowledges that poor people have great potential, but this potential can only be realized or discovered if they are granted or are facilitated with proper ways of getting property rights. He compares capital to electricity which, hidden in water, must first be harnessed in order to be realized and used.

He notes that Western nations were in a position to create capital simply because they put in place formal property arrangements. The process of putting in place such type of system entailed the collection and preservation of information pertaining to assets in recorded data. According to him, this system of formal property is a representation of the shared concepts of what can be termed as meaningful economically as regards assets.

He asserts that in formal property system, capital is generated in transactions that relate to property. It is the formal property system that gives authenticity to transactions that bring about capital in most of the western countries. He appreciates the fact the putting information that is diverse and dispersed into a single system is not an easy task, but it is a worthy one because it part and parcel of property rights. He goes ahead to show just how long it took western countries to put in place property rights that are fully integrated in the system.

For a long time, people have blamed poor and developing nations for lacking an entrepreneurial spirit or put simply, a market orientation. In his research, Hernando discovered that the major obstacle to the people in third world nations lies in their inability to generate capital.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The mysteries of Capital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many of the western countries however, are not able to pinpoint out exactly how this system works for the developing and poor nations. The reason for this failure lies in the fact that the system is buried deep in regulations, legislations, statutes and institutions which have specifically been established to govern it. He therefore, strongly believes as seen in this book “Mysteries of capital” that it is only the extra legal sector that can appreciate the beauty and the workings of the system used in these poor and developing nations.

He suggests that to make people accountable regardless of their location will create individuals from the masses, individuals who will come out and bring change to the respective localities. Previous impossibilities can only be realized if people are granted formal property rights because these rights are not personal thereby preventing one from getting lost in the masses. With formal property rights in place, one becomes legally attached to his or her property and therefore, is bound to work towards improving it by creating more property.

Property rights have made assets freely interchangeable with others setting a standard, both nationally and globally for their trade, which has in turn allowed assets to flow easily between persons. This has enhanced networking among individuals, a factor that has necessitated easy flow of information on assets and the potential that they carry in respect to generating more capital.

He therefore concluded this important chapter by observing that the difference that exists in the ability to create wealth between poor and developing nations lies in the fact that developing nations lack the ability to access formal property system and the inaccessibility of the system to the western nations.

The mystery of political awareness In this chapter, Hernando discusses the third mystery by trying to find out why there is a lack of awareness pertaining to this crucial issue, why existing governments have year after year, failed to tap into this promising potential that the poor carry? He attributes this to the mass influx of people into urban centers that has been happening around the world.

He however notes that recent migration of people from rural areas to urban centers in non-western countries is not the main problem, to him; it is the failure or the delay in realizing that the disorder created by this migration of people in developed countries as being the result of a revolution that brings much promise than harm. He therefore, sees this migration as a problem that we as a people, must accept as something unavoidable and find ways of solving it.

He cites urbanization as a problem that should be addressed urgently because many of the countries experiencing it are poor and therefore, lack necessary institutions to tackle mass migration into the few and poorly developed urban centers. The migration also causes fragmentation of property arrangements.

These problems coupled with the fact that governments in these countries lack standard laws that permit assets and the agents of the economy to freely interact and pave way for the rule of law to apply. The best way he thinks can solve this problem is for such governments to exploit the inherent potential that the urban influx of people carries.

Hernando however, says that the real problem is not tackled because of the existence of two blind spots. In the first blind spot, Hernando shows that migrations from one area to the other had been around for many years. He shows that the famous industrial revolution in Europe was as a result of the influx of people into European cities.

Restrictions and economic hardships then forced these people into extra legal undertakings. Therefore, from the very beginning, the increase in the world’s extra legal populations brought into existence a new and unique class of entrepreneurs wholly with new legal arrangements to govern them.

However, more often than not, the government always felt threatened by these migrations, they saw problems with each and every migration. They associated them with the spread of diseases and increase in crime. They always failed to notice that root cause of this disorder was not population or the poor few, but rather the old-fashioned system of owning property. This was the main cause that simply needed to address in order to solve the problems facing its people.

The second blind spot came in the failure of the people and governments to realize that the problems facing them were not new at all. What they had to do was to simply adapt to the new realities, but instead, governments embarked on putting in place new legal mechanisms in order to stamp out the new settings. However, new legalities brought with them new infringements leading to enactment of a series of laws after old ones were broken.

Too much restriction left migrants with extra legal work as their only option of getting an income and therefore increased extra legality. Many of the western nations were overwhelmed with the increase of extra legality; they slowly and gradually started to give in just as it is happening today in developing nations. After many years of infringements and defying of law by extra legalities, politics came in and forced governments to adapt to the new realities to conform to the needs of the common people.

He therefore, notes that the past of the developed nations resembles to a large extent to what is currently happening in developed nations. He therefore concludes by showing us that many of the so called developed or western countries went through this process.

He shows how the west tried many times to solve this same problem little by little but it proved to be an ineffective approach. What these countries needed to do was to simply reform their laws and put in place a property system that would have ensured that there was division of labor, that everyone was integrated into the system.

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The Impact of Immigration on the Economy of the USA Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The USA is one of the most attractive countries to come for many specialists and workers from different countries of the World. Every year, a big number of immigrants come to the country to find good jobs and start a new life.

The negative effects of immigration are actively discussed in the society: immigrants compete with the local specialists for the jobs, illegal immigrants do not pay taxes and cause social problems, and oth. However, some authors state that the US immigration has many good effects on the country’s economy. The aim of the essay is to study positive outcomes of legal US immigration.

The immigrants become the participants of the US labor market. When they offer their skills to the employers, they compete to the local workforce, and the wages are assumed to decrease. However, the study (Smith et al 4) showed that this influence is actually very low.

Besides, the local workforce start improving their skills by attending trainings, getting additional education etc., which is a good outcome for the US economy. Finally, hiring immigrants who are ready to receive low salaries is beneficial for employers: their companies’ services and goods are sold at a lower price because the expenses for the workers’ salary are low, and the profit is high (Smith et al 4).

The study of how the local workers and immigrants cooperate also demonstrated the positive effect of immigration. Domestic workers choose jobs where they are the most effective, and the production process becomes more advanced (House of Lords 103). This process is called specialization: workers are given the responsibilities according to their skills, and the productivity grows (Bhatta 314).

On the other hand, immigrants come to the USA not only as workers but as consumers of the US goods and services. They pay the earned money for things they buy, which is an additional source of salary for workers and that of profit for the companies.

However, the US immigrants are not only workers. Many specialists come to the USA to work in the field of science, engineering, medicine, technology, management. They bring their talent and experience to the companies and develop the strongest industries of the US economy (House of Lords 103).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, it is necessary to discuss the fiscal effect of immigration. On the one hand, immigrants use services offered by the state, and the budget money is spent to provide them. On the other hand, immigrants are tax payers, which means that they bring money to the US budget.

The study (Smith 11) showed that in the long run the total fiscal effect of immigration is positive. There are a few states where many immigrants come: the local power has to spend too much to support them, and the effect is negative, but in most states it is positive. Educated immigrants who get prestigious jobs pay higher taxes to the budget, and this is also beneficial for the whole state.

Thus, it is reasonable to talk about the positive influence of immigration on the economy of the US. People coming from different countries become workers, consumers and tax payers and make their contribution to the economy. They also bring their talents and knowledge and enrich the production and management process. The government’s immigration policy is the means of strengthening the positive outcomes of immigration and minimize those negative.

Bibliography Bhatta, Gambhir. International Dictionary of Public Management and Governance. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2006.

House of Lords. Economic Impact of Immigration 1st Report of Session 2007-08: Evidence. London: The Stationery Office/Tso, 2008.

Smith, James P. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, D.C.: National Acad. Press, 1997.

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Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Summary of the case

Value-add through training

Value-add through the work environment

Value-add through compensation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Infosys is a global information technology service provider with its headquarters in India. With the rapid rates of its growth and the changing environmental factors, the human resource department faced the challenges of the increased rates of turnover caused by the reduced employees’ satisfaction with their working conditions.

This paper will discuss the main precursors of the employees’ dissatisfaction and turnover and the measures which were imposed by the human resource department for the purpose of building the employees’ competencies, retaining the skillful workforce, increasing the levels of their engagement and translating it into the improved performance.

Summary of the case Having been ranked as the no. 1 in the Best Employer Surveys in 2001 and 2002, Infosys toppled from these lists and reported a significant decrease in the employee’s satisfaction and commitment in 2003. Recognizing the role of human resources in the company’s organizational success, the top management investigated the main underlying causes of the existing problems and took measures for improving the current state of affairs.

Created in 1981 by Narayana Murthy and his six colleagues with borrowed $ 250, after the decades of its hard struggle against the bureaucratic environment and near to death survival, the company was growing at a rapid rate since 1999. The shift from body-shopping to offshoring, moving up the IT value chain, improving the company’s brand equity and ensuring that the company is the employer of choice for the best potential employees, Infosys managed to overcome the difficulties occurring at the initial stage of its development.

Ensuring that the salaries of their employees were about 15-20 % higher than offered by the competitors and developing a deep understanding of the workers’ attitudes, the company created favorable working environment. As it was admitted by the company’s HR manager, “There are three ways in which we add value to the employee: learning value-add through training, emotional value-add through the work environment, and financial value-add through compensation and benefits” (Delong 6).

At early 2000s, the skyrocketing number of employees and the external challenges in the form of the US restrictions on the visas for business purposes decreased the employees’ satisfaction and commitment which required the changes in the human resource strategies for handling the issues of the high turnover rates and improving the performance.

Value-add through training Realizing the importance of introducing the employees into the Infosys culture, the company developed separate training programs for the college graduates coming to the company as their first working place and the employees coming to Infosys from other companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emphasis upon learnability instead of strong IT backgrounds in the candidates for fulfilling the vacancies allowed Infosys to hire promising specialists and take the advantages of effective hiring processes which was complimented with the following training programs (Birkinshaw 20).

Nurturing the talent and competencies was recognized as one of the primary objectives at Infosys in the organizational report of 2008-09 (“Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09”). The enrollment of the employees into the training programs aimed at enhancing their professional, leadership and sustainability knowledge has become a common practice at the company.

The Special Training Program is a new initiative at Infosys which through the partnership with the Indian universities and balancing their curricula builds the necessary competencies in the students from the socially disadvantaged sectors. This solution can be recognized as an important contribution to the future hiring processes as the company.

Value-add through the work environment Along with the training programs aimed at building the competencies in the employees, Infosys takes the initiatives for creating the favorable working environment within the company. The goal of preserving the position of one of the leading employers in the industry was proclaimed as one of the business objectives at Infosys in the organizational report of 2008-09 (“Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09”).

As it was reported in 2008-09, the programs such as STRAP (Strategic and Action Planning), Voice of Youth (VoY) and Infosys Women Inclusivity (IWIN) are aimed at increasing the employees’ involvement into the decision making processes and creating the favorable working environment and giving serious consideration to the diverse needs of the employees’ population.

The attempts to support employees with physical disabilities have been made since 2006 when the Equal Opportunities Team was created (“Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09”). Moreover, the Family Network Program was launched for the purpose of supporting the employees in balancing their work-personal life issues.

Another important objective was facilitating the employee-employer dialogue which was achieved through conducting meetings and surveys focused on the employees’ inclusivity and satisfaction. Sparsh as the company’s intranet allowed fostering the feeling of community and inclusivity among the workforce, whereas Infy TV as the first corporate TV channel in India allowed creating a strong communication platform.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The strategies aimed at improving the working environment were helpful for improving the employees’ satisfaction with their working conditions. Still, the rates of turnover at Infosys remained enormously high and reached 14, 568 employees leaving the company during the year 2009 (with the 104,850 as the total number of employees in 2009) (Dey 45).

Value-add through compensation Turning the employees’ competencies and engagement into high performance is an important element of the human resource strategy at Infosys.

Infosys was one of the first Indian companies to offer the stock options to its employees in 1994 for the purpose of retaining the brightest workforce and reducing the risks of losing them to the US competitors. However, with the skyrocketing number of employees in early 2000s, Infosys replaced its stock options with the higher levels of incentive pay (Birkinshaw 19). Currently, employees can associate their pay with their individual and corporate performance.

Another significant improvement was the change of the promotion model. The promotion policy linked to the specific needs of the organization was one of the major causes of the employees’ dissatisfaction (Delong 9). Developing clear role definitions and the performance assessment scales was a significant step forward in solving this problem.

Additional factor aimed at stimulating the employees’ improved performance is the highly competitive working place. Thus, after the performance assessments are completed, every individual is informed on his/her place within the peer group. Combining the collaborative approach with competitive environment within Infosys is expected to foster the workers’ motivation and improving their performance.

Conclusion Recognizing the importance of retaining the skillful workforce and adopting the effective hiring strategies for the company’s business performance, Infosys has been making attempts to improve the working environment, training and compensation patterns for increasing the employees’ satisfaction since the early 2000s.

Though the turnover rates within the company still remained rather high as it was reported in 2009, the measures taken for improving the environment, facilitating the employee-employer dialogue and improving the workers’ motivation and engagement were important for improving the existing situation.

Works Cited Birkinshaw, Julian. “Infosys: Computing the Power of People”. Business Strategy Review, Winter 2008, 19(4): 18-23. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Delong, Thomas. “Infosys (A): Strategic Human Resource Management”. Harvard Business School, 16 Oct. 2006, Print.

Dey, Subhendu. “Employee Retention- A Key to Organizational Growth”. Globsyn Business School, January-June 2009, 3(1): 45- 49. Print.

“Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09”. Infosys Corporate Site, 31 March 2009. Web.

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19th Century’s Impact of Haitian Revolution on Cuba Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic Impact

Cultural Impact

Political impact

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Haitian revolution is one of the greatest revolutions that ever happened in history. It took place between 1791 and 1804 in Haiti which was then known as Saint-Domingo. Saint Domingo was one of the richest colonies and was under the French rule. It was tended by slaves, had fertile soil and a very favorable climate. Some of the things cultivated there were cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar, vegetables and some fruits. After attaining its independence, Haiti became the first republic occupied and governed by blacks who were formerly slaves.

In Saint-Domingo, there were four groups of people: the planters who owned the plantations and were key supporters of slave trade so as to get labor for their plantations, the Petit Blancs who were mainly traders, teachers and other who did not own plantations but had good jobs, the free people of color and the black slaves.

Economic Impact The Haitian revolution had a great economic impact on Cuba in the 19th century. Since Haiti had been one of the richest colonies worldwide, its revolution led to economic instability as the slaves sought to overthrow their masters who owned the plantations. This disrupted agriculture and gave Cuba a chance to revitalize its agricultural production.

Notably, the revolution caused the collapsing of the sugar industry in Haiti thus giving Cuba an opportunity to revive its sugar industry. In 1902, Cuba got a chance to sign an agreement with US which gave Cuba a chance to export a certain amount of its sugar which led to tremendous growth in its economy (Abbott 1).

Cultural Impact The migration of Haitians into Cuba impacted differently on the Cuban culture. First, it led to the development of Haitian Creole. Certainly, language is a key part of culture thus the importance of the Creole as a cultural impact. This language came to be when the Haitian migrants arrived in Cuba. These refugees arrived there to work in the sugar plantations and as they interacted with the Cuban, the Haitian Creole was introduced.

In addition, there were different types of music and dances that were brought by the Haitian immigrants. These dances and music became a significant part of the Cuban culture as they enriched it. One such dance is the Tumba Francesa (Viddal 1).

Political impact The Haitian revolution has had its political impact on Cuba in the 19th century. It is this revolution which led to the emancipation of slaves in Cuba years later. The revolution made many slaves revote against oppressive governments and gain their freedom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition sugar trade between Cuba and the US brought the two states closer. However, at some point in the 19th century, the Cuban government under the leadership of Fidel Castrol nationalized the large estates of agriculture, industries dealing with refining of sugar which had previously been owned by individuals.

This was seen as a communist move by the US government which was against communism. As a result, the US government prohibited importation of goods from Cuba which consequently led to Cuba nationalizing some US owned assets amounting to 8 billion.

Conclusion It is clear that the Haitian revolution, though termed as the forgotten revolution, had some direct and indirect impact politically, economically and culturally on Cuba. Through the revolution, Cuba got a chance to rise as a great sugar supplier, its culture got enriched by the immigrants from Haiti and also its politics got impacted with the changes in relations with the US and the abolishing of the slavery system. Therefore, the Haitian revolution played a great role on bringing key changes in Cuba.

Works Cited Abbott, Elizabeth, Sugar: A Bittersweet History, Overlook Press, 2010. Web.

Viddal, Grete, Dance! Global Transformation of Latin American Culture, ReVista, Harvard Review of Latin America, Volume VII, No. 1, Fall 2007, p. 48-50.

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Cartesian Dualism Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Dualism

Anti-dualism

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Cartesian dualism is a philosophical concept that asserts mind and body are different entities in a person but they interact intricately for the proper functioning of a human being. Rene Descartes came up with the philosophical concept after establishing that, both material and immaterial worlds exist in a person. The mind constitutes the immaterial world while the body constitutes the material world and effective interaction of the two results into a rational being.

According to dualism, the mind directs the body’s actions ; actually, Descartes observes that “sensation and perception involve states of the world affecting states of sense organs, which in turn affect the brain, which causes the mind to be in certain states” (Baker 6). Thus, the interaction of the mind and the body constitutes Cartesian dualism, which is a landmark in philosophy. This essay examines the constituents of Cartesian Dualism before exploring arguments for and against the same.

Dualism Dualism is the interaction of the mind and body as immaterial and material substances respectively. Descartes believes in the existence of both immaterial and material worlds that interact effectively in nature. As an illustration of the existence of immaterial and material substances in nature, Descartes uses human beings to explain the nature of mind and body.

Descartes is concerned about “how the immaterial could interact with the material, and how the ‘extended’ substance of body could house the ‘unextended’ spirit called soul, resolved the problem of the incompatibility of the two entities by his dualism” (Baker 7).

Prior to the Cartesian dualism, Greek philosophers held that, the mind and the body are unique and distinct entities that are incompatible. However, through his method of systemic doubt, Descartes argues that since his mind can doubt the existence of bodies in nature, it clearly proves that there is a link between the mind and material world.

In sixth meditation, Descartes argues that understanding and imaginations emanate from the sensual perception of the material world, hence proves that there is distinction and connection of the mind and body. He holds that “the two components which constitute man had an independent origin and are of a fundamentally different nature … the body could be divided up by the removal of a leg or an arm, but the soul was indivisible” (Hawthorn 88).

The different attributes of the mind and body make the two different entities while their concerted functions make them complementary in defining the nature of human beings. Thus, dualism explains the interaction of the mind and body while acknowledging the fact that they are different entities in human being.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his attempts to define his identity, Descartes realizes that there is complex association of mind and body that enables him to achieve reality on top of understanding his environment. He argues that since he has the capacity to think and doubt his existence, it obviously follows that he exists as a mind trying to comprehend the body.

In order to ascertain his existence, Descartes came up with method of systemic doubt where according to Russell, “whatever he could bring himself to doubt, he would doubt, until he saw reason for not doubting it…by applying this method he gradually became convinced that the only existence of which he could be quite certain was his own” (11).

Since he was certain of his existence because he had ability to think and doubt, Descartes discovered philosophical concept of dualism in human nature in that, the mind and body are two components that coexist in a human being.

According to Cartesian dualism, the mind and the body interact at the point of pineal body because it is the only gland in the brain that is not duplicate, which connects the body and the brain.

Nagel argues that, “the body is extended matter: the soul is unextended spirit; when, however, the extended is acted upon by the unextended, some definite point of interaction is required and it is to be found in the pineal gland” (8). Descartes believes in mechanistic interaction of the mind and the body bringing about physical movement of the body and dictates the actions that human beings perform.

Without the mind or ineffective interaction of the mind and body result into haphazard actions, hence proves that the mechanistic interaction is critical in defining the human nature. Out of all creatures in the universe, human being is a dualistic creature with ability to think and act accordingly unlike animals that act according to their instincts and stimuli of nature. Therefore, the dualistic nature of human beings enables them to coordinate their mind and actions appropriately.

Anti-dualism Although Cartesian dualism supports that the mind and the body are different entities, none can exist without the other. The mind and the body are critical and complementary components that constitute human being and therefore, it is quite impossible to separate the two.”

We will write a custom Essay on Cartesian Dualism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whether one believes that the mind is a substance or just a bundle of properties, the same challenge arises, which is to explain the nature of the unity of the immaterial mind” (Russell 26). It is practically impossible to combine or separate material substance and immaterial substance in nature.

Separation or combination of material and immaterial substances is quite perplexing as they are incompatible. If the mind and the body are separate and independent entities, why should they interact in the human being? They should have separate and distinct entities that do not need to interact for them to sustain their existence. In Cartesian dualism, the mind exists because of the body and the body exists because of the mind.

Critics of Cartesian dualism further argue that interaction of the mind and body is not testable in the laboratory; hence, they introduced theological concept asserting that divine power is responsible for the interaction. Baker argues that, “critics of dualism objected that if soul and body were substances of entirely different natures, interaction between them was in fact impossible” (12).

The assumption that the mind and the body interact at the point of pineal gland is a mere coincidence as there are other unduplicated organs in the body or brain. Furthermore, there is no empirical evidence to prove that pineal body is the point that connects the mind and the body. The nature of the mind is very complex and mysterious for one to comprehend; it is incomprehensible for immaterial and material substance to interact at pineal gland.

The problem of dualism lies in the assumption that the immaterial mind and material body can interact effectively at the point of pineal body. The assumption does not make scientific sense as no one can test immaterial substances in the laboratory because they are incompatible with material substances that human beings can perceive.

Critics question therefore remains how can one perceive and measure immaterial substances. For causal relationships between the mind and the body to exist, dualists should demonstrate empirical and convincing experiment that ascertains the relationship.

“It is not clear in what sense such stuff is immaterial, except in the sense that it cannot be integrated into the normal scientific account of the physical world …it is just an aberrant kind of physical stuff” (Hawthorn 93). Therefore, due to lack of empirical evidences and parameters that can measure immaterial substances, many critics of dualism have attributed dualism to the efforts of divine power that control the universe.

Conclusion Critical analysis of opposing arguments of dualism and anti-dualism shows that Descartes wins as he argues that thoughts and doubts concerning certain things in nature are sure proof of their existence. Since critics of dualism doubt the existence of immaterial mind, it definitely follows they doubt reality and existence of immaterial substances.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cartesian Dualism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Attributing dualism to influence of divine power by Descartes’ critics is not satisfactory because like immaterial substances, divine forces are not testable in the laboratory. Therefore, Cartesian dualism gives probable explanation of the distinction between human beings and animals.

According to Cartesian dualism, human beings are dualistic creatures with the ability to think and act according to their thoughts, hence reaffirming their rational capacity. The critics of Cartesian dualism do have sufficient evidence to disapprove effective interaction between the mind and the body; therefore, Descartes’ argument that anything doubted is real for it elicits doubts in the first instance stands. Therefore, anyone who doubts Cartesian dualism doubts reality.

Works Cited Baker, Gordon. “Cartesian Dualism: Mind Brain Interactions.” Philosophical Review Journal 4.2 (1997): 1-34

Hawthorn, John. “Cartesian Dualism.” Australian Journal of Philosophy 63.7 (2006): 87-98.

Nagel, Thomas. “Mind and Body Cartesian Dualism.” Philosophy, 2001: 1-11.

Russell, Bertrand. Problems of Philosophy. New York: Feedbooks Publisher, 1970.

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Rock Island Arsenal: Developing and Rewarding Teams Essay scholarship essay help

Rock Island Arsenal is a public firm that manufactures weapons, and is located at Mississippi River. The company has made commendable efforts to improve the quality of its products.

Such efforts include team building and employee empowerment, which started in 1981 with a quality circle program. The program has evolved into independent work teams and highly performing employees because the company applies the following elements in its management: use of teams, development and recognition, and communication (OPM, 1998).

Therefore, the following paragraphs discuss the concept of recognition, which is applied by Rock Island Arsenal to improve performance, and how it can be useful in a typical organization. Likewise, communication is seen as another element besides recognition that was used to improve performance.

Recognition was used at Rock Island Arsenal to improve performance by monetary awards to the federal employees who perform according to the required standards. This is very important because the employee is motivated and he/she continues to perform better.

This recognition program is set for different teams, facilitators, and peers. Supervisors and employees participate in deciding who is to be given awards and how they recommend or elect the person(s) to whom the award is to be given; these awards are given by the commander.

He also presents the quality excellence honors, which is given to a group or an individual for excellent customer service or process perfection (OPM, 1998). The other awards include environmental attainment and good community services. With all these awards, the employees have been motivated and this has led to improvement in performance.

Rewards as a type of recognition can be applied in my organization because it is a positive reinforcement of actions and beliefs. This helps people to build self esteem because they accept and feel good about themselves. Luthans and Doh (2002) argues that for effective recognition, there should be criteria for selecting the employee’s performance that is eligible for a reward.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the following are the criteria to apply in my organization: all employees must be eligible for a reward, employees should be given information on what behaviors or actions are to be rewarded, the employee who performs to the required standard must be rewarded, recognition should be as close to actions or performance as possible, and it should not be determined by only managers because it will be seen as favourism.

In addition, monetary awards are important to the employees, especially when they are given in form of bonuses for the work done. Also, they can be given cheques by the most senior person for the employees to feel recognized. Employees should be given special gifts that will touch them personally.

For example, the best employee of the month can be given a washing machine. Honorary titles are also important because they motivate the employee and this includes honors like professor and fellow, which are given in recognition of contributions made by an employee.

Communication is another important element used by the Rock Island Arsenal. There is free information flow because bulletin boards are posted at the local area network for all employees to read with newsletters, which helps the employees to know new processes or services, progress and team or individual achievements.

There are halls for weekly meetings with television broadcasts. Communicating has helped the company to share critical issues such as performance and productivity. The supervisors and the employees are able to know and understand well and act on the strategic direction of an organization.

Therefore, with the use of written communication, the employees are able to read and reread complicated and vital instructions and hence, there is lesser chance for the information to be lost or misunderstood. With spoken communication in meetings, it has allowed employees to ask questions where information is not clear hence they get immediate feedback.

The employee is able to participate in decision making and this makes him understand that he/she is part of the organization. In essence, with effective communication, the managers and the employees are able to address the performance issue and the employees are allowed to make suggestions for improvement and so they feel that they have ownership in problem solving especially in process improvements.

We will write a custom Essay on Rock Island Arsenal: Developing and Rewarding Teams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Luthans R.M.

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Cartesian Dualism Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Dualism

Anti-dualism

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Cartesian dualism is a philosophical concept that asserts mind and body are different entities in a person but they interact intricately for the proper functioning of a human being. Rene Descartes came up with the philosophical concept after establishing that, both material and immaterial worlds exist in a person. The mind constitutes the immaterial world while the body constitutes the material world and effective interaction of the two results into a rational being.

According to dualism, the mind directs the body’s actions ; actually, Descartes observes that “sensation and perception involve states of the world affecting states of sense organs, which in turn affect the brain, which causes the mind to be in certain states” (Baker 6). Thus, the interaction of the mind and the body constitutes Cartesian dualism, which is a landmark in philosophy. This essay examines the constituents of Cartesian Dualism before exploring arguments for and against the same.

Dualism Dualism is the interaction of the mind and body as immaterial and material substances respectively. Descartes believes in the existence of both immaterial and material worlds that interact effectively in nature. As an illustration of the existence of immaterial and material substances in nature, Descartes uses human beings to explain the nature of mind and body.

Descartes is concerned about “how the immaterial could interact with the material, and how the ‘extended’ substance of body could house the ‘unextended’ spirit called soul, resolved the problem of the incompatibility of the two entities by his dualism” (Baker 7).

Prior to the Cartesian dualism, Greek philosophers held that, the mind and the body are unique and distinct entities that are incompatible. However, through his method of systemic doubt, Descartes argues that since his mind can doubt the existence of bodies in nature, it clearly proves that there is a link between the mind and material world.

In sixth meditation, Descartes argues that understanding and imaginations emanate from the sensual perception of the material world, hence proves that there is distinction and connection of the mind and body. He holds that “the two components which constitute man had an independent origin and are of a fundamentally different nature … the body could be divided up by the removal of a leg or an arm, but the soul was indivisible” (Hawthorn 88).

The different attributes of the mind and body make the two different entities while their concerted functions make them complementary in defining the nature of human beings. Thus, dualism explains the interaction of the mind and body while acknowledging the fact that they are different entities in human being.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his attempts to define his identity, Descartes realizes that there is complex association of mind and body that enables him to achieve reality on top of understanding his environment. He argues that since he has the capacity to think and doubt his existence, it obviously follows that he exists as a mind trying to comprehend the body.

In order to ascertain his existence, Descartes came up with method of systemic doubt where according to Russell, “whatever he could bring himself to doubt, he would doubt, until he saw reason for not doubting it…by applying this method he gradually became convinced that the only existence of which he could be quite certain was his own” (11).

Since he was certain of his existence because he had ability to think and doubt, Descartes discovered philosophical concept of dualism in human nature in that, the mind and body are two components that coexist in a human being.

According to Cartesian dualism, the mind and the body interact at the point of pineal body because it is the only gland in the brain that is not duplicate, which connects the body and the brain.

Nagel argues that, “the body is extended matter: the soul is unextended spirit; when, however, the extended is acted upon by the unextended, some definite point of interaction is required and it is to be found in the pineal gland” (8). Descartes believes in mechanistic interaction of the mind and the body bringing about physical movement of the body and dictates the actions that human beings perform.

Without the mind or ineffective interaction of the mind and body result into haphazard actions, hence proves that the mechanistic interaction is critical in defining the human nature. Out of all creatures in the universe, human being is a dualistic creature with ability to think and act accordingly unlike animals that act according to their instincts and stimuli of nature. Therefore, the dualistic nature of human beings enables them to coordinate their mind and actions appropriately.

Anti-dualism Although Cartesian dualism supports that the mind and the body are different entities, none can exist without the other. The mind and the body are critical and complementary components that constitute human being and therefore, it is quite impossible to separate the two.”

We will write a custom Essay on Cartesian Dualism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whether one believes that the mind is a substance or just a bundle of properties, the same challenge arises, which is to explain the nature of the unity of the immaterial mind” (Russell 26). It is practically impossible to combine or separate material substance and immaterial substance in nature.

Separation or combination of material and immaterial substances is quite perplexing as they are incompatible. If the mind and the body are separate and independent entities, why should they interact in the human being? They should have separate and distinct entities that do not need to interact for them to sustain their existence. In Cartesian dualism, the mind exists because of the body and the body exists because of the mind.

Critics of Cartesian dualism further argue that interaction of the mind and body is not testable in the laboratory; hence, they introduced theological concept asserting that divine power is responsible for the interaction. Baker argues that, “critics of dualism objected that if soul and body were substances of entirely different natures, interaction between them was in fact impossible” (12).

The assumption that the mind and the body interact at the point of pineal gland is a mere coincidence as there are other unduplicated organs in the body or brain. Furthermore, there is no empirical evidence to prove that pineal body is the point that connects the mind and the body. The nature of the mind is very complex and mysterious for one to comprehend; it is incomprehensible for immaterial and material substance to interact at pineal gland.

The problem of dualism lies in the assumption that the immaterial mind and material body can interact effectively at the point of pineal body. The assumption does not make scientific sense as no one can test immaterial substances in the laboratory because they are incompatible with material substances that human beings can perceive.

Critics question therefore remains how can one perceive and measure immaterial substances. For causal relationships between the mind and the body to exist, dualists should demonstrate empirical and convincing experiment that ascertains the relationship.

“It is not clear in what sense such stuff is immaterial, except in the sense that it cannot be integrated into the normal scientific account of the physical world …it is just an aberrant kind of physical stuff” (Hawthorn 93). Therefore, due to lack of empirical evidences and parameters that can measure immaterial substances, many critics of dualism have attributed dualism to the efforts of divine power that control the universe.

Conclusion Critical analysis of opposing arguments of dualism and anti-dualism shows that Descartes wins as he argues that thoughts and doubts concerning certain things in nature are sure proof of their existence. Since critics of dualism doubt the existence of immaterial mind, it definitely follows they doubt reality and existence of immaterial substances.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cartesian Dualism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Attributing dualism to influence of divine power by Descartes’ critics is not satisfactory because like immaterial substances, divine forces are not testable in the laboratory. Therefore, Cartesian dualism gives probable explanation of the distinction between human beings and animals.

According to Cartesian dualism, human beings are dualistic creatures with the ability to think and act according to their thoughts, hence reaffirming their rational capacity. The critics of Cartesian dualism do have sufficient evidence to disapprove effective interaction between the mind and the body; therefore, Descartes’ argument that anything doubted is real for it elicits doubts in the first instance stands. Therefore, anyone who doubts Cartesian dualism doubts reality.

Works Cited Baker, Gordon. “Cartesian Dualism: Mind Brain Interactions.” Philosophical Review Journal 4.2 (1997): 1-34

Hawthorn, John. “Cartesian Dualism.” Australian Journal of Philosophy 63.7 (2006): 87-98.

Nagel, Thomas. “Mind and Body Cartesian Dualism.” Philosophy, 2001: 1-11.

Russell, Bertrand. Problems of Philosophy. New York: Feedbooks Publisher, 1970.

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Research in management Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Research proposal

Research Manuscript

Data collection and analysis

Conclusion

References

Introduction Research is important in every area of the society. It enables people and governments to solve problems appropriately by choosing the most appropriate solution to any problem affecting the population. It also helps in good management of resources. Research involves obtaining statistical values and analyzing them.

Research proposal This is done by first identifying the research that one wants to conduct; this includes an introduction of the study with a problem statement, hypothesis, definition of terms and a summary. The introduction is supposed to give the reader the background information and objectives of the research.

A section of the method to be used in the research should be included. This include the design, subject of participants, instruments and the procedure showing the plan and the activities which will be involved in the study. This should be followed by some idea about the data that will be collected. A discussion and limitations of the research study should also be indicated (Salkind, 2010).

Literature review is important as it reveals that the researcher understands the research problem (Salkind, 2010). Identifying the appropriate sampling population and method for data collection is significant. It may be interviews with questionnaires. The data is then collected and finally analysis of this data carried out.

Research Manuscript A research manuscript is written after the research is done, data analyzed and conclusion and recommendations done. At this stage it is ready to be published. The research manuscript is written by identifying a title which describes the research concisely, clear and attractive to the readers.

The researcher should also give a summary of the research precisely. It should also include an introduction, materials and methods. Results, discussion, references and appendices must be included. Author notes, footnotes, table captions, tables, figure captions and figures are also important to enhance understanding of the research carried out (Salkind, 2010).

Data collection and analysis Data collection and analysis is the base of statistics. Statistics therefore include collection, organization and interpretation of the data collected. There are two types of statistics namely descriptive and inferential statistics. Inferential statistics are used to make conclusion in the results of data whereas descriptive statistics describe the qualities of a given sample (McMillan, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effective research ensures that the collected data represents the population on which the research is being done (Salkind, 2010). For example, if one wants to conduct a research in teenagers in a particular district it is important that there is equal distribution in sampling areas including both boys and girls. From the data that one collects, one is able to make a conclusion if for instance it was drug abuse the percentage of teenager abusing drugs in that population.

Data interpretation should always avoid assumption, but to some extent one may conclude that the result or probability that a person is a teenage is a drug abuser is a matter of chance, this occurs when one is not able to find any evidence that it is because, e.g. of family background that the teenage is not abusing drugs.

A research always works towards avoiding any assumptions by ensuring that the questionnaires cover many issues related to that research to improve the accuracy. The researcher should also try to collect his data from a normal population.

Once sample data has been gathered through an observational study or experiment, statistical inference allows analysts to assess evidence in favor or some claim about the population from which the sample has been drawn. The methods of inference used to support or reject claims based on sample data are known as tests of significance. (Test of significance, n.d., p. 1)

This test of significance is subject to null hypothesis H0, which is believed to be true but has not been proved. Since sampling is not 100% perfect and does not cover every sample that is available, one is likely to make some errors. The null hypothesis is subject to acceptance or rejection. If the null hypothesis is true and from the results is rejected, this is known as type I error. It has some level of significance, which are conventional values associated with it. When one accepts a force null hypothesis, this is known as Type II error (Salkind, 2010)

Descriptive research is a kind of research that works to explain a give research in relation to other environmental factor. However it does not restricted to any group such as teenagers .For example the use of alcohol and drug abuse in a given area regardless of age or gender (Salkind, 2010)

Survey research on the other hand studies intensively. It even involves the thoughts of the respondent while conducting a survey research. This calls for an intensive interview to the respondents and needs to be handled with a lot of care and attention. The interview questions are closed or open ended.

We will write a custom Essay on Research in management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To increase efficiency and effectiveness, there is need for clarity of objectives and an appropriate sample is necessary. In addition one needs to come up with questions that are simplified or structured but should be easy to analyze and directed to particular goals (Salkind, 2010).

Correlation research is the research that measures the degree of linear relationship between two variables. The correlation coefficient varies from -1 to 1.The positive correlation is shows that there is a positive relationship between two variables while negative correlation indicates a negative association between two variables (Salkind, 2010).

To be effective in research, one must find an appropriate research method. These experimental designs include pre-experimental, true experimental and quasi experimental which is also known as casual comparative design (Salkind, 2010).

Pre experimental design is not characterized by random selection of participants from a population and does not involve a control group. True experimental designs include all the steps in selecting and assigning subjects in a random fashion, plus a control group leading to a greater efficiency and comparison (Salkind, 2010).

Quasi experimental method is different from pre-experimental and experimental methods in that the hypothesized cause of differences you might observe between groups have already occurred. This means that pre assignment of groups has already occurred. There are different designs that can be used in quasi experiments.

The most common is non equivalent control group design especially when it is impossible or difficult to assign subjects randomly to groups. Static group comparison design is used when one cannot randomize and cannot administer a pretest (Salkind, 2010).

Single subject research design is a good method of understanding causal relationships that looks at individual rather than groups. They are mostly used in behavioral analysis and education. Multiple baseline design is a good design where two behaviors, two subjects or two occasions are selected for a study and a treatment applied to one of them. In this way the behavior, the participant, or situations in which treatment is not present serves as a baseline against which the effects of treatment can be determined (Salkind, 2010).

In developmental research one may apply longitudinal method. This determines changes in behavior in a group of subject for more than one point in time. A cross sectional method can also be used. This is done by examining one group of people repeatedly over a time. A good combination of the methods in a particular study enhances accuracy of the results.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Research in management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion For one to obtain accurate results, it is important that to consider the, most appropriate method to carry out the research. Inferential statistics help one to make the right decision. The research project should therefore describe its purpose clearly on the methods and activities so as to accomplish its purpose.

References McMillan, J. (2005). Data Analysis and Collection. Web.

Salkind, N.J. (2010). Exploring Research. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

Tests of Significance. (n.d.). Tests of Significance. Retrieved from http://www.stat.yale.edu/Courses/1997-98/101/sigtest.htm

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Do The Right Thing Analysis Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Community

Black struggles and racism

King and Malcolm’s use

Argument

Crisis and conflict characterize the film “Do The Right Thing”. However, explicit racial divisions and tones that the characters who belong to different races in the film bring out the motive in this crisis.

Spike lee intends to bring out the notion that human beings are different and unique in their own ways and there is little human beings can do to hide from that fact. It brings out the notion that, differences between people are the source of all prejudice, stereotyping, and intolerance. Amid all the chaos, Spike Lee seeks to show that there are some voices of reason through the character of Da Mayor.

That, human beings have a choice to live positively and all the ills that the community in the film embodies can easily be avoided by only doing the right thing. The community in the film has intertwined interests that apparently make it difficult to do the right thing, be it for personal or communal benefit. From the onset, the film presents a multiracial community brought together by various interests.

Community All the people who live in the block have developed some interdependence while some characters are caught up in situations that demand that they commit their loyalties to different parties. People in this community have kept alive racial awareness and the interdependence that exists is only for convenience and survival.

John Turturro and Buggin Out who have not cared to hide their views about racial awareness and won’t waste an opportunity to hit out at people of different races proof this. The presence of the Radio Raheem the Radio personality, Smiley the retard and the “cornermen” especially the radio disk jockey who comment on almost everything give rise to a complicated but thriving community. There is also white owned business that serves a dominantly black neighborhood.

Mookie the deliveryman has a Puerto Rican girlfriend with whom they have a baby. He is aware of the sentiments that black people hold about whites but he needs a job hence he has to work for the whites to make a living. Comments like those of black people like Mother, Sister and Buggin out clearly show the reservations that blacks hold against whites despite acknowledging the importance of people like Aiello, albeit grudgingly.

Black struggles and racism The community is a reflection of the black population in the US. It brings to thefore the ills that afflict such a community. Police brutality as shown by the shooting dead of Radio Raheem’s wife which fuels the tenacity of such communities to use force as the only means of protection.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The police show little remorse as they leave his body and speed off. The touchy issue of racism and advocacy for equal rights is dominantly present throughout the film. Racism is deeply rooted in the community in the film perhaps a reflection of the American society at the time.

Through Buggin Out, Aiello’s prejudiced mentality comes out. After Buggin Out’s query as to why there are no black faces on the restaurant owner’s wall of fame, Aiello retorts that he only recognizes the achievements of his fellow Italians and by extension white people. Given that he represents whites in the film, the subtle message here is that white people think lowly of blacks.

King and Malcolm’s use Smiley sells postcards bearing the photos of Luther King and Malcolm X both of whom are black. This is comparable to recognizing Italians only faces on Aiello’s case. The resentment present in the black community and the need to have someone who represents liberation breeds adoration of the two black leaders from the black community.

Malcolm X and Martin Luther Kind are the emblems of black struggle for equality in the US. Black representation comes out through the two public figures although their approaches to black representation and liberation struggles were parallel.

Argument The use of the two black figures brings out an argument on what actually is right. Martin Luther King is known to have advocated for peaceful means to solving crises and tensions in the community especially racism. On the other hand, Malcolm X advocated for the use of force where necessary to get what one believes is rightfully his/hers. The title of the film emphasizes the importance of doing what community generally accepts as right.

This presents an argument that what is “right” is comparative. For instance, peace and equality it’s possible to achieve peace through both force and diplomatic means. It is an argument that life in this community brings out clearly. After Radio Raheem is shot, people are upset and apparently put the blame on Aiello. Objectively speaking, Aiello has little to do with Raheem’s death. The police should take most of the blame for his death. People could not listen to Da Mayor when he tries to appeal for reason.

However, the root cause of the problem is Raheem and Aiello’s approach and their provocative ways that are nowhere near diplomatic. They do not at all embody any of Martin Luther King’s principles. No one knows for sure if their violent confrontations could have produced respect and subsequent peaceful coexistence between the two.

We will write a custom Essay on Do The Right Thing Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tragic end to Raheem’s live and Aiello’s business is quite a pointer to what violence advocated by Malcolm X is but no one knows for sure if there could have been a positive out come. Moreover, none can either deny. After all, what other form of self-defense is available to depressed people?

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Philosophical Analysis on the death of Osama Bin Laden Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Osama Bin Laden was the mastermind behind the September 11 bombings in America which left the entire America shaken. He also masterminded the 7th August 1998 in Kenya and Dar es Salaam where the American embassies were targeted. Osama is the main face behind the Al Qaeda terror group and when it was announced that after years of hunting him down, Osama had finally been killed by the United States government, there could not be any better news of the year than that.

There was celebration and jubilation the world over. But what does it mean now that the leader of the largest terror group has been killed? Is it going to be peaceful now that he is dead or will the Al Qaeda group attempt to avenge his death? This discussion takes a philosophical analysis on the death of Osama Bin Laden.

Afghanistan which had suffered various terrorist attacks that were planned by the Osama led group of Al Qaeda could not help but show their joy on the death of Osama.

Both the president of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai and his counterpart president Barrack Obama of America described the killing of the Al Qaeda leader as victory not only for Afghanistan but also for the rest of the world as well. It is now hoped that Afghanistan which has had to contend with wars and terror attacks for many years will now enjoy lasting peace. But is this really so?

It has been argued that members of the Al Qaeda terror group are much angered by the killing of their leader. For this reason, it is anticipated that they are likely to stage even more attacks to avenger for the death of their chief. Furthermore, even without revenging, it is important to remember that the Al Qaeda group is wide network of terrorists and thus killing their leader will not necessarily mean that the terror attacks are over.

The killing of Osama however was a good move because the members of the Al Qaeda are now aware that they are likely to nabbed and this may act as a discouraging factor for them to continue pursuing their ulterior motive. Coincidentally, the death of the leader of the largest terror group in the world came just a day after the Al Qaeda had vowed fresh attacks on U.S. troops in Afghanistan.

A cross- section of people seem to be having doubts regarding whether Osama Bin Laden was killed or not. They argue that since the ratings of President Barrack Obama had dropped significantly since he took office early 2009, that this was a political gimmick that would see him get all the praise for having killed the world’s most wanted criminal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, looking at the weight with which terror attacks by Osama have always had on America, it is obvious that such an issue would not be the subject of a political gimmick especially for America that has always remained under threat from this terror group. Confirmed reports show that DNA tests have been carried out on the body of the fallen Al Qaeda leader for purposes of verifying that indeed he is dead.

The whole world is watching with baited breath to see what happens from now on and whether the Al Qaeda will be cowed by the death of their leader.

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Reflection paper: “The Death of the West” Essay essay help online free

The rationale behind reflection is to exhibit the learnt principles, speculations, and concept of bargaining as well as negotiation. One may desire to center on one particular passage or to react to the focal argument of the entire selection. It usually entails commenting on the content portrayed by the author (Palloff

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How the Brain Reacts to Sexual Stimulation of the Sense of Taste Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Sense of Taste The taste bud also referred to as the receptors of taste is mainly found on the tongue as well as the upper side of the mouth close to the pharynx. The basic tastes are bitter, sour, sweet and salty. In line with Crooks and Baur, the sensitivity to amino acids causes a different sensation called “umami” (2010).

The nerves below the taste glands transfer sensations to the brain, therefore the functioning of the sense of taste correlates to that of smell. Greater number of taste buds enhance better tastes since it increases sensitivity, for instance, women have more taste glands that men and are thus more sensitive to taste and smell than men (Crooks and Baur, 2010).

The lining of smell receptors in the nose cavity also has a link to the olfactory nerve that transmits sensations to the brain. The structure of the nose is special and according to Kar and Kar, the structure makes the organ to be termed “vomeronasal” due to suspicious of influencing the reproductive system (2005). Human nose is thus the main organ that determines taste and smell.

Brain’s Chemical Reactions to Taste and Smell The body’s natural lubrication and smell of sexual fluids determines attraction as well as partiality to the sexual partner. These are body chemical substances that the sexual partner either perceive or imagine through the smell or taste. The cavity is made of sensitive nerve endings that receive and transmit the pleasurable stimuli to the brain.

Origin and Existence of Sexual Stimuli Most sexual stimuli originate from central nervous system but the most fascinating factors involve how the brain is able to organize the sexual behaviours. Taste is one of the main factors that influence sexual stimulation. Both men and women experience stimulation very differently due to the differences on the concentration of taste buds.

The differences are both psychological and physical as more discoveries emerge in the haunt for understanding the causes of sexual dysfunctions. The studies are providing chances of exploring and discovering how various components of sexual arousal can occur. One of the main influences of sexual arousal is taste, which as discussed above has a very close link to smell. The diagram below shows various parts of the brain and the responses to stimuli.

Taste and smell initiates the mediation of the thoughts, emotions and fantasies required for arousal. A smell can also trigger the memory of an exiting fantasy. According to Kar and Kar, the limbic system, hypothalamus is a predominant part of the human brain that plays a vital role in sexual arousal (2005). There are neurotransmitters that receive stimuli from various sense organs such as the nose and tongue, which have high influences on sexual responses as well as arousal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taste as a Facilitator of Sexual Arousal Dopamine (a “catecholamine neurotransmitter”) is the main facilitator of sexual arousal in both men and women but serotonin (a compound in the brain and other body organs that acts as a neurotransmitter) provides the restrain from arousal (Kar and Kar, 2005).

The diagram shown below indicates the position of dopamine in the brain. For this reasons although the sense of touch seems to dominate majority of the stimulation among other senses, the taste and smell elicits one of the main erogenous sensory region due to high concentration of nerve endings.

People respond and react uniquely to stimulation of taste. They also respond in accordance with sexual experiences and the significance of the erotic stimulus. However, sexual arousal through natural smell and taste faces various challenges due to the cultural sensitivity to matters concerning health or personal hygiene.

The senses of smell and taste are nevertheless major contributors of human responses. Scientifically feelings can travel from the sensual organs to the brain that sends the information to the sexual organs thus eliciting sexual responses. The diagram below shows the possible pattern for the romantic and maternal love as influenced by both taste and smell as indicated by Crooks and Baur, (2010).

References Crooks, R, and Baur, K. (2010). Our Sexuality. California, CA: Cengage Learning.

Thesis Statement This book mainly focuses on the brain in relation to sexual arousal. The writers mediate through the power of thoughts, memories, emotions and fantasies in influencing arousal. According to the writing, sexual arousal depends on power of thoughts, memories, emotions and fantasies.

Main ideas One of the main ideas presented by the authors involves the processes of determining and ranking the senses of sexual arousal. According to the writing, the sense of touch dominates other senses. This is for the reason that there are various points of the skin that presents highly responsive tactical pleasing points. These areas such as palms or lips have high concentration of nerve endings and therefore the writer compares the zones to other erogenous areas of the body that have little or no erotic significance during sexual activities. Furthermore, the writers’ positions the sense of sight second from touch, since it is also a provision of stimulus that most people find to be sexual fascinating. The writers also compare the visual responses of men versus women.

Another key idea presented by the book involves the sense of smell and taste and the role this plays in influencing sexual arousal. The main predicament raised by the writers in this case involves the negative consideration of these stimuli during sexual activities due to the traditional and cultural concerns on issues relating to hygiene. Other concerns raised involve comparing the human beings to other animals, majority of which have a strong link of sexual odours to the reproduction.

The writers discuss the role played by hormones in determining sexual behaviours. At this point, there is deeper analysis and comparison between the male and female hormones.

The writers addresses the issue of sexual responses and provides a significant analysis of responses, for instance through analysis of reaction of persons in different age groups.

Evidences On sexual arousal, the writers indicate that various stimuli in the brain influence arousal and response for instance the dopamine and serotonin.

The writers are also keen to note that majority of the evidence presented on issues concerning influence of taste and smell on sexual arousal is still tentative particularly the concern that the body produces pheromones that double as sexual attractants.

The writers also indicate how most people are quick to indicate and emphasize on various fundamental differences especially sexual responses between males and females.

There is enough evidence on the issue of sexual arousal differences that are linkable to different orientations particularly the age differences.

Kar, N, and Kar, G. C. (2005). Comprehensive Textbook of Sexual Medicine. New

We will write a custom Research Paper on How the Brain Reacts to Sexual Stimulation of the Sense of Taste specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Publishers.

Thesis Statement Neurotransmitters are the main determinants of the formation of sexual patterns, caused by various simulative sense of taste.

Main Ideas The writers emphasize the functions of the brain one being the important role in human sexual arousal due to the psychological impact of smell as well as taste.

The emphasis also focuses on the limbic system and hypothalamus part of the brain as predominant structures responsible for sexual arousals.

The text has highlighted the neurotransmitters that receive stimuli from various sense organs and the influences the neurotransmitters have on sexual responses as well as arousal.

The text has a clear distinction between Dopamine and Serotonin as forms of neurotransmitter, which provides humans with a control over arousal.

Evidence in Support of Main Ideas The sexual functioning requires coordination of activities in various body organs such as negotiation of the sensory system.

Change of the cortex, adjustment of activities in the endocrine as well as the limbic system and incentive of the nervous system are the main sexual arousal coordinating aspects.

The book presents the anatomical changes of neurotransmitters.

According to the writers, Dopamine is a “catecholamine neurotransmitter” that facilitates human sexual arousal while serotonin is a compound in the brain and other body organs that acts as a neurotransmitter to provide human control over sexual arousal.

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The role that the northern and southern women played in the Civil War Research Paper essay help free

It is argued that Americans thrive under crisis and that crisis yields the best from American citizens. The American civil is termed as the greatest historical event in American history. The significance of this war is that it helped form the foundation of the modern day American civilization marked by freedom, liberty for all and respect to basic human rights (Kingseed 2). Several historians as well as scholars have come forth to offer explanation about the civil.

These explanations highlight a number of issues connected to the war. Some of these issues include the social cultural perspective of the war, the economic aspects, the political dimensions of the wars and the roles that various people played in the war (Kingseed 1). Most significantly the war has been given a masculine connotation such that a lot of credit has been taken away from the involvement of both southern and northern women directly and indirectly in the war.

Studies of the civil war literature reveal that women were active participants in the war in more ways than one. It has been revealed that other than being nurses in nursing homes where they treated soldiers and other war casualties, women also acted as spies and they were also disguised as men who fought gallantly as soldiers.

The involvement of women in was necessitated by a number of factors such as defending civilian camps when men left to engage at the war fronts (Blanton 1). Other roles include cooking, cleaning as well as relief work. Thus gender roles are a significant issue in analysis of the American Civil War as women made significance contributions.

In the south the role of women took a more social economic perspective. This is true especially for the white women. The white women were divided into two social classes; the rich and the poor. The elite rich woman took a more aggitative role during the war. They nudged their men to enlist in the war as soldiers and fight for the secession of states like Georgia.

Elite women appealed to the ego and manhood of their husbands by asking them to honorably register as soldiers. When their men did this left a big gaping hole at home. These roles, among them farming, running of homes, running of business and many other that were traditionally let for men were now being played by women. Elite women thus ensured a smooth running of homes in absence of their men (Georgia Encyclopedia paras 2 – 5). As such this role greatly contributed to the victory of the Federal Forces.

While the elite women took a more active role, the middle class and poor women in the southern states bore the much of the economic grudge of the war. These women were more susceptible to the destructive effects of the war. While their elite counter parts pressed their husband to enlist in the war, these women pressed the pressed the state governments to exclude their husbands from war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is due to the fact that they were shouldering the entire burden of feeding their families and due to the sever food shortages occasioned by the war they needed their husbands back home. They also pressed the states government for food relief and when the state government did nothing they lead food looting riots in many towns (Georgia Encyclopedia paras 7 – 9).

The success of any war depends on the roles that spies play in passing important war intelligence especially about the enemy. The American Civil War was no exception. Women provided spy services in many different ways. In some instances women would travel great distances in great peril to warn enemy forces. In 1862, a woman traversed through the woods for more than 40 kilometers to warn the union forces that the confederate forces were intending to damage the Cheat River Bridge.

Such spy work lead to the protection of the bridge by the union forces (Full Valley Archive (a) para 2). Other than travelling in person, women also wrote letters that contained war intelligence and passed it to their armies. Such letters included the letter written to the confederate forces warning of a union wagon movement through Chambersburg (Full Valley Archive (b) para 2).

It is argued that women did better espionage work than men could possibly ever do during this war. This is because women were not expected to be involved in war due to the fact that both the Confederate and the Union Forces looked down upon the involvement of women in war (Blanton para 8). The success of women spies was also reinforced by another some shrewd tactics that enemy forces were oblivious of. The tactic included the charm and the power of women seduction.

One of the renowned seductress spy was Antonia Ford, a federal sympathizer who provide lot of intelligence from the union forces. Ford is said to have used most of her time rehearsing seduction techniques that included dressing, posing and the art of seductive speech. She is said to have possessed such powers that it was so easy for her to retrieved war secrets form the Union Forces (Phillips 55). In one such incident Ford seduced the union soldier who had come to harbor in her family house.

She was able to get and convey useful information about the union’s intent of using confederate colors to confuse the Federal Forces. The consequent saving of the confederates defeat by Fords work highlight the roles that southern and northern women spies played in the war (Phillips 59).

The American Civil War has been presented as a masculine war, with the role of women obscured by men’s. Civil war researchers are of the opinion that women too emerged in front line battles as soldiers (Blanton para 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The role that the northern and southern women played in the Civil War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of brave women were involved in military exploits as were the male soldiers. These women also suffered the same fate as their male counterparts, such as suffering in military camps as well as the mistreatment subjected to kidnapped soldiers. These women also took arms and engaged in violent confrontations with enemy forces.

Both the union and the confederate armies did not allow for enlisting of women soldiers. As such the women who intended to engage in war disguised themselves men. They even took masculine names and shed of anything that might have given their feminine identity way. All this was in the desire to help their Armies win the war. Amongst the most famous women soldiers was Mary Owens who had adopted the name John Evans (Livermore 2, 5).

Jane Schultz a professor of American and Women studies at the University of Indiana – Purdue University, Indianapolis has moved to expound a number of mythical beliefs surrounding the roles of women in the American civil war. Under her article Schultz explains that the common myth holds that only a few number of women become nurse to take care of war casualties which included soldiers.

Through out her exploration of the civil war archive the professor came up with valid evidence that proves that the union forces had employed more than 21 000 women who acted as nurses in military hospitals (Schultz para 3). Furthermore she discovered that even though the federal forces had a lesser number of women nurses, the number was no less than 10 000 women nurses (para 4).

Her evidence is backed evidences from the Full Valley Archives records. In one of the letters from Gen. Lee, a federal officer, the General notes that in one of the casualty hospitals there had been about forty nurses taking care of about 300 war casualties. This explains that the hospitals were well supplied with nurses to take care of the victims of war (Full Valley Archives (c) para 5).

Professor Schultz continues to explain that other that other key roles played by women in both the south and the north had been perceived to be minor but never the less were of utmost importance. Women also acted as cleaners, who ensured that her was proper hygiene and also provide sanitary services in hospitals (para 3).

Moreover women also acted as relief workers and as such provided relief services such as food and drugs to soldiers in battle torn regions. The social dimension of the war time society is also evident in this role. While the elite women provide relief services because they had the capacity to, their counterparts from the lower echelons of society did it for a wage. Professor Schultz findings from war time hospital cards reveals that the average woman relief worker received between 6 to 12 dollars per month (para 10).

Other than this women were also vey useful in preparing and war attires for soldiers. As such they worked in industries as seamstresses as helped in preparing military cloths (para 11). Further evidence reveals that women also acted as waitresses in army camps. As such they helped cook and serve food for army officers

Not sure if you can write a paper on The role that the northern and southern women played in the Civil War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most overtly expressed significance of the American civil war was the outcomes that helped America shape its future s a true democratic and federal state. This exemplified the fact that Americans have the ability to get the best out of a very dire situation.

However, the role of women in then war is greatly denied by scholars who have fallen short in appreciating the vital gaps that women filled to make the wars a success. Without women the war would have had severe consequences such as an unimaginable loss of human capital. This loss was curtailed by the fact that women selflessly served as nurses who helped stabilize war casualties. Other than nursing the roles of women as spies helped alter the course of the war.

The relief services that women offered were of great effect as they helped sustain armies in dire times. Furthermore these women motivated their men to enlist in the wars. Therefore the civil war in America can attribute its course to the influence of women as it can to the influence of men.

Works Cited Blanton, DeAnne. “Women Soldiers of the Civil War” Prologue Magazine, 1993. Web.

Full Valley Archive (a). “ Records Related to Augusta County Regiments.” The valley of the shadow. Web.

Full Valley Archive (b). “Records Related to Franklin County Regiments.” The valley of the shadow. Web.

Full Valley Archives (c). “Records Related to Augusta County Regiments.” The valley of the shadow. Web.

Georgia Encyclopedia. “Women during the Civil War.” 2011. Web.

Kingseed, Cole. The American Civil War. West Port, CT: Greenwood Press. 2004. Print

Livermore, Mary. My Story of the War: A Woman’s Narrative of Four Years Personal Experience. Hartford, CT: A. D. Worthington and Company. 1889. Print.

Phillips, Larissa. Women Civil War Spies of the Confederacy. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. 2004. Print

Schultz, Jane E. “Ten Common Myths about Women in the Civil War and How to Dispel Them.” Foreign Policy Research Institute, 2008. Web.

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The Cause and Effect of Divorce on Children Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes

Effects on Children

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Although the main objectives of marriage are permanent union and healthy relationship between couples, unfortunate circumstances do arise in marriage that forces marriage partners to divorce. Psychologists and sociologists have noted that causes of divorce entail many complex issues that complicate and stall continuation of marriage. Infidelity, lack of commitment, drug abuse, poor relationships, incompatible lifestyles, abusive behaviors, and financial problems are some of the common causes of divorces in the modern society.

When divorce occurs in a family, couples are not the only ones who experience emotional and psychological suffering, but also children. Children experience traumatic experiences seeing their parents quarrel and fight until they divorce leaving them to live under single parent-families, which denies them a chance to enjoy balanced parenthood. Given that divorce rates are increasing in the modern society, what are the causes and effects of divorce on children?

Causes Psychologists and sociologists argue that causes of divorce are complex of issues that result from internal and external influences on marriage. Couples experience many challenges in their marriages that complicate their relationship status and compel them to divorce, as the only way out of the problems they face.

As mentioned above, the common causes of divorce in the modern society include infidelity, lack of commitment, drug abuse, poor relationships, incompatible lifestyles, abusive behaviors, and financial problems among other social issues. Nevertheless, research studies point at infidelity as the most common cause of divorce among young couples.

According to Stewart and Brentano, “extramarital affairs contribute about 27% of the divorce rates in the United States while domestic violence comes second with approximately 18% of divorce rates” (448).

These figures show that, the major factor that contributes to the high rates of divorce in the society is an external factor of extramarital affairs. Extramarital affairs are very common due to change in marriage lifestyles and perceptions of the society. Studies further reveal that husbands are the most unfaithful in marriages by having many partners as compared to their wives. Abusive behaviors of husbands that lead to domestic violence come second as the most cause of divorce in marriages.

Financial problems, incompatible lifestyles, drug abuse, and lack of commitment contribute to poor relationship in marriages leading to divorce. When couples experience financial problems in their marriages, they cannot agree on how to satisfy family needs; therefore, the priority of satisfying family needs creates conflict because partners feel that they are living poor lives within the marriage while divorce can offer freedom of satisfying one’s needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since marriage involves union, husband and wife have diverse interests in life. Clashing interests of life in marriage result into incompatible lifestyles that complicate marriage relationship. Couples who have incompatible lifestyles will not lead a happy marriage life for they will always have quarrels and disagreements that eventually end up in divorce.

Stewart and Brentano argue, “Drug abuses such as alcoholism has made couples to neglect their marital responsibilities leaving their partners lose interest with marriage life causing them to file divorce in the courts” (451). According to survey, among couples, husbands are more likely to fall into drug addiction and neglect their marital responsibilities, which push their wives to seek divorce.

Effects on Children Effects of divorce are very damaging to the growth and development of children and significantly change course of their lives. Research shows that the “effects depend on the age of the child at the time of divorce, on the child’s gender and personality, the amount of conflict between parents and the support provided by friends and family” (Temke 109). Children of two years and above can experience emotional and psychological disturbances if parents divorce.

The children at this stage are psychologically mature to understand the nature of relationships that their parents undergo and they are often depressed and traumatized when parents divorce. Preschool age children tend to blame themselves for the occurrence of divorce as they develop sense of guilt and become socially withdrawn from the family Since children are very young to endure emotional and psychological disturbances, they become depressed and their performance declines in class.

As children grow and approach adolescence, divorce experiences haunt them. They contemplate on how divorce has changed their lives in terms of increased family responsibilities and change in their lifestyles. Adolescents tend to lose meaning of life and marriage because they may leave their studies and decide never to get married in future.

“Teens experience anger, fear, loneliness, depression and guilt, some feel pushed into adulthood if they must take responsibility for many new chores or care of siblings and may doubt their own ability to get married or to stay married” (Lansdale, Cherlin,

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The Baroque Period of Art Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Baroque period refers to a time when artists introduced new techniques into their works. The period officially started in 1600, which means that the new trends had already been rolled out earlier. The changes in art styles were initially present in Italy, but as time moved on the trends were spread to the other parts of Europe, probably by people who had been in Italy previously.

Francesco Barromini was one of the most famous architects in this period. His career started from a very humble beginning because initially he had worked as a stone mason (All-art 1). Perhaps he worked in masonry as one way of following the foot steps of his father who was also a stone mason.

Masonry provided the stepping stone for Barromini to start a career in architecture. When he later migrated to Rome, he met Michelangelo – the patron who gave him lessons in architecture. Michelangelo was a renaissance artist who had skills in many fields ranging from painting to architecture.

Although Barromini was taught using renaissance concepts, he decided to use the new concepts, and just like other baroque painters, he was barred from displaying his works in the workshops and therefore, baroque architecture took a long time to be accepted (89). Barromini was given assignments by the Roman Catholic Church and he used such opportunities to exhibit the new trends in architecture.

In essence, the church played a major role in spreading baroque architecture because it was used as the vessel for conveying the emerging trends to the public. Most churches in Rome integrated baroque architecture into their design. Legendary artists such as Michelangelo were very conservative because even when they used new styles they still incorporated their previous styles.

The break through for Barromini came when he was asked to design the San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, which was a catholic church in Rome. This church was perceived to be one of the pieces that fully reflected baroque architecture. The church was constructed on a relatively small place that is between two intersecting roads.

The lack of adequate space meant that the orientation of the structure had to be in portrait so that it could only be adjusted upwards. On the other hand, renaissance structures were broad and thus needed more space to accommodate them. Perhaps this idea was ripe for implementation because the population in urban centers was already swollen and hence buildings had to utilize the available space.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barromini employed multiple colonnades on the walls of the San Carlo building. The colonnades were used to make the walls look ornamental which was thought to be quite appealing. The colonnades were complimented with lots of arcs which were greatly emphasized by the new styles.

The development of these styles was advocated by the public because they felt that they needed something unique to spice up their taste. Barromini incorporated sculpturing on to the walls of San Carlo and the former straight lines were replaced with curves. The buildings that were built using baroque styles commanded a lot of respect because they represented authority owing to the fact that they cost the owners more money than ordinary structures (Wellek 90).

Similarly, Thomas Hobbes was a renowned English philosopher who wrote many books during the baroque period. He played a major role in enhancing the spread of baroque period by shedding light on the importance of liberation. This is because the new styles in art were initially rejected by conservatives and government agents.

The new styles were developed through creativity, which was strongly opposed by conservatives because they wanted artists to retain old techniques. He fought hard for people to be allowed to do anything they wished as long as they did not break the law. His campaign in support of creativity led to the acceptance of new styles of art.

In conclusion, baroque architecture was very costly and that is why it was applied in public structures because only the wealthy could afford it. Artists like Borromini used the church as a tool for creating awareness about baroque architecture and it was in deed successful because later on most public buildings in Europe incorporated baroque styles in their design.

The public played a significant role because even when the authorities were receptive towards the new style they induced the artists to come up with new designs. If the public had not demanded for changes in art the baroque styles would not have been invented.

Works Cited All-art. “History of Art: Baroque and Rococo.” All-art.org.n.d. Web.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Baroque Period of Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wellek, René. “The Concept of the Baroque in Literary Scholarship.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 5 (1946): 77–109.

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Confidentiality in Counseling Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Different groups

Ethical dilemma and steps

Challenges facing Confidentiality

Benefits of confidentiality

Conclusion

References

Counseling describes a method of relating and responding to other individuals with the aim of providing them with an opportunity to explore, discover, and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully (Bond, 2000). It depends on the context in which the word is used to derive the actual meaning. Generally, counseling is a service provided by a trained professional and it is a process that involves a series of steps.

These include identifying the problem that needs to be addressed-such problems could be from the client who needs counseling help, consider the outcome of the decision (to the client and the entire society) understanding the client, assessing ones potential competence (skills that are required to solve the current problem), consideration of ethical standards in relation to the situation. In counseling, information shared includes one’s body, mind and thoughts, beliefs, feelings and fantasies (Burnard, 2005)

Confidentiality refers to the ethical principle of not revealing information known to a given party to unauthorized parties. This principle ensures secrecy among two or more parties who share information to them. In addition, confidentiality restricts giving information to third parties.

Counseling involves so much classified information being revealed by the client. For instance, it may involve confessions and revelations of past and current situations of darkest and very sensitive high profile information of crimes, plans that are underway to achieve a given objective, secrets that could lead to arrests and prosecution by law and other forms of confidential information that should not be allowed to reach a third party.

Counseling takes on different forms depending on the situation, such as traumatic experience that has occurred in ones life, or information required on medical, career, legal, spiritual, and emotional situations that have affected a client either short or long-term.

In either situation, the information shared between the client and the professional counselor should be kept and treated with the privacy and confidentiality that is deserved with regard to conformity to legal standards that describe confidentiality (Feltham and Dryden, 2006).

Both confidentiality and privacy are integrally related. Privacy allows individuals to limit access to information about themselves whereas confidentiality allows individuals to control access of the information they have shared, hence enabling the development of client trust with the counselor (McLeod, 2004).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different groups Counseling involves a variety of different age groups; matters that affects these groups and most of the groups that seek counseling services tend to assume that whatever they are divulging to their counselor, will be kept confidential – for children and adolescents, there are many critical issues that face them, which need that counselors maintain confidentiality in offering their services.

The adult clients are assumed rational in providing any kind of information to the counselors. Managing confidentiality in counseling minors tends to be very complex because most of them are frightened and have doubts that the information given out might be divulged to third parties, who might threaten the minors to the extent of causing more harm to them (McLeod, 2004).

Ethical dilemma and steps Having a mentally disturbed patient who suffers from paranoia, at this point, the situation needing attention is a description of paranoia, the different forms, and symptoms with the patient and how to calm the effects of paranoia. The therapist decides on the best way possible to handle the patient.

The decision made will affect both the patient and other colleagues in different ways-the patient should be informed of the measures to take when certain feelings of anxiety, fear, and or violent reactions come up. The psychologist should contact the patient’s family or friends and inform them about the consequences of the situation.

Consultations and information gathering about the issue of paranoia from other professionals, the internet, and medical literatures will enhance the process of decision making by the psychologist, in order to provide best assistance, the psychologist can also direct the patient to another professional colleague who has vast experience on such situation.

In such cases, the ethical standard of confidentiality is breached so to allow extensive acquiring and dissemination of knowledge that will be helpful in assisting both the patient and the entire community, but privacy and anonymity of patients situation should be taken into consideration.

In order to clearly understand and provide solution to the situation, the psychologist should analyze the links between family, behavior, culture, and relevant theories that correlate to the dilemma of the patient.

We will write a custom Essay on Confidentiality in Counseling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most cases, counseling jeopardizes a person’s feelings, rights, position, and judgment. In this situation, the psychologist should prioritize the patient’s dilemma, and consider performance to the best even if it breaches the legalities, provided it does not endanger the patient-community relation.

In offering the professional services, the psychologist should consider the role of other aspects in the community towards the decisions undertaken in the entire process, how paranoia is perceived within the cultural, religious, and social contexts, and corrective steps taken should such aspects result into conflicts, by either seeking legal assistance.

In case of unexpected results in future, the psychologist should develop alternative courses of action-if for example the services given to the paranoia patient fails, or face prejudice from community, prescription of other professional services should be advised accordingly.

The situation at hand should be looked at and advised within a larger perspective in consideration to the effects and those affected by the decision; the process should accommodate and harmonize the perspectives of all the members involved in counseling. All the decisions made by the professional counselor should be undertaken in consideration of personal responsibility to the latter, through reconciliatory means in consideration to ethical code, response, and actions.

The possible outcome and the eventuality of the results should be evaluated by the psychologist in terms of the overall action taken in providing counseling services to the paranoia patient and the results, if negative, other cause of action should be prescribed to correct the situation of either the patient, conflict from society, legal issues, and other areas.

The above processes should be followed by the psychologist to ensure that the decision taken in order to assist the paranoia patient does not compromise the safety of all the parties involved. In addition, the services provided help the patient’s life in future; it will ensure that future challenges are overcome in a conflict free environment while guaranteeing better professional services to patients (Pope, Vasquez, 2007, p.111).

Challenges facing Confidentiality Sometimes, in the counseling process, not all the information is availed by the client and such information could be needed for different issues to take place. For example, a client who has been severally abused sexually by his/her parents, or a stranger for that matter could hide such information from the counselor due to the relation that exists between the client and the perpetrator.

This hidden information is required by the counselor and medical practitioners to prescribe medication and other measures for the client. Hence, the counselor might opt to get the information from a third party to be able to ensure the success of counseling. Such a situation breaches confidentiality of the information for both parties.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Confidentiality in Counseling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Parental consent – Parental consent is needed from parent or guardian before entering counseling relationship especially in cases where the minors are considered not to make informed decisions about certain issues. However, their inclusion in the counseling process might restrict some information form the minors and as a result breaching confidentiality of the entire process.

Competency (Age limits) – where the client is a minor, an adult has a great influence towards confidentiality. For minors who are seen as irrational in terms of revealing information and making decisions, the confidentiality is not guaranteed to some extent because a third party has to be involved in such a context to reveal or confirm certain information. The competency of age determines the confidentiality of the counseling process.

Legal issues – Matters concerning the various laws of any given state influence confidentiality in a way; for example, in cases of minor pregnancy, the minor might refuse to inform her parents about the plans for an abortion or even the pregnancy. Thus, if the abortion goes out of hand, the counselor is held responsible by law as for not informing the parents. Moreover, privacy rights influence confidentiality in counseling.

Decisions making models – Several models are used by counselors to promote the clients welfare depending on the situation at hand. Here, complexity of the situation and information provided by the client would influence the use of a third party.

Privileged communication – This refers to the rights that protect clients from disclosing information during legal proceedings without informed consent (Pat, 1998).

Confidentiality in various situations is breached, such as where it has involved notifiable diseases and the entire society has to be informed of the disease and its dangers.

Other situation involve the births and deaths of individuals by the clients, information given to the police officers due to accidents and or crime, court orders which would require that certain information be made available to third parties, and where the professionals have to share certain information. All these forms result in breaching of confidentiality in any cases of counseling (Palmer, 1997).

Benefits of confidentiality The client benefits from confidentiality during the counseling process in that, the client has a secure environment to give a full and frank account of issues pertaining to the problems they are facing. In other words, the client has someone whom he or she can accord trust for counseling services. Confidentiality supports public confidence and trust in both counseling and the general healthcare services. It expresses mutual respect for the client or patient, and the autonomy of the patient is guaranteed.

Confidentiality also guarantees the clients’ beneficence, non-maleficence (no intentions of harming the client whatsoever), justice and equal treatment and fidelity (loyalty, reliability and action in good faith). In certain cases, confidentiality reduces chances of the client being vulnerable to certain risks that may arise if the information revealed is made public and or relayed to a third party.

Confidentiality ensures that the clients’ situation is dealt with, however nasty it may look to the client, and hence reduces chances of certain solvable situations worsening and becoming catastrophic in future. Clients are able to access professional assistance without the fear of victimization, and hence the reduction of the guilty conscience in the clients’ lives (Poon, 2003).

Conclusion Counseling involves numerous services that are provided to the clients by professional counselors. These services concern and influence a persons taste, beliefs, thoughts, and fantasies.

Confidentiality greatly influences the entire process of counseling, as the client and the professional counselor have to build and maintain trustworthy ground of access to information from both parties for the entire process to be successful.

Different groups influence the extent of confidentiality during the counseling process, hence resulting into variation of management of confidentiality among the different groups.

There are situations where confidentiality needs to be breached in order to get specific information about certain issues, and also to solve and prevent the occurrence of catastrophes in the entire society from the influence of information provided by the client. The clients benefit from confidentiality in many different ways. In counseling, the professionals should adhere and strictly maintain and ensure that privacy and confidentiality of the process is maintained to the latter, as this ensures the success of the counseling process.

References Bond, T. (2000). Standards and ethics for counseling in action. London: Sage. Web.

Burnard, P. (2005). Counseling skills for health professionals. London: Nelson Thornes Ltd. Web.

Feltham, C., and Dryden, W. (2006). Brief counselling: a practical, integrative approach. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill International. Web.

McLeod, J. (2004). The counsellor’s workbook: developing a personal approach. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill International. Web.

Palmer, S. (1997). Handbook of counseling. London: Routledge. Web.

Pat, L. (1998). Counseling Minors: Ethical and Legal Issues. Counseling and Values, Vol, 42, Issue 3. Web.

Poon, S., M. (2003). Counseling “for life enrichment faith, hope, and love.” Singapore: All Nations Enterprise Ltd. Web.

Pope, S., K., Vasquez, T., J. (2007). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling. CA: John Wiley

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Logic in Islam and Number of Islamic Theologians Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evolution of Islamic Logic

Concept of Islamic Logic

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Islamic logic is a philosophical concept in Islamic theology and philosophical beliefs that guided great philosophers in achieving wisdom for them to understand philosophical and theological problems such as nature of humanity, existence of universe and societal ethics. Islamic philosophy does not only deal with the religious issues of Muslims, but also educational issues as philosophers want to unravel all mysterious in universe and society.

In ancient times, Islamic philosophers obtained their philosophical beliefs and ideologies from Greek philosophy, Indian philosophy, oriental philosophy, and the Quran.

Combination of the diverse philosophical ideologies resulted into Islamic logic, which has made marked contribution in the Islamic philosophy. “Historians of logic have long recognized that the medieval Muslim philosophers and philosophical theologians rendered variously as rationalist theologians, dialectical theologians and the ‘scholastics’ of Islam made some interesting contributions to the history of logic” (Corazzon 4).

The Islamic logic flourished between 8th and 12th centuries culminating into Islamic Golden Age that revolutionized Islamic philosophy and theology. Great philosophers like Al Kindi (801-813), Al Farabi (872-951) Avicenna Sina (980-1037) and Averroes Rushd (1126-1198) made significant contribution in the evolution of Islamic logic. Therefore, this essay examines evolution of Islamic logic and Islamic theologians who made significant contribution in the Islamic theology.

Evolution of Islamic Logic Islamic logic is very important in modern philosophy because it forms part of the evolution of philosophical logic in the world of philosophy. Great Muslim philosophers and theologians concertedly worked together during the 8th and 15th centuries leading to the development of the philosophy.

As aforementioned, in the ancient times, Muslim philosophers and theologians relied on Greek philosophy, Indian philosophy, oriental philosophy and the Holy Quran in establishing Islamic philosophy with logic being the central aspect. Corazzon argues that, “when the Greek logical works were handed to the Muslim scholars in translation in and after the 9th century A.D., they studied them thoroughly and critically and wrote commentaries upon them” (8).

The commentaries have now become part of Islamic logic that revolutionized Islamic philosophy during the 12th century when theologians came up with novel philosophical ideologies. Muslim philosophers delved on life’s mysteries such as existence, creation, human nature, determinism, and divine knowledge using logic. Logicians and theologians worked together in establishing philosophical ideologies that has become cornerstone in the modern philosophy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Muslim philosophers during the 8th and 12th century dealt with two main philosophical ideologies, Kalam and Falsafa. Kalam philosophy involved unraveling of theological mysteries while Falsafa involved analysis and interpretation of Neo-Platonism and Aristotelian philosophies of Greek.

The Muslim philosophers aimed at merging diverse philosophical ideologies and incorporating them into Muslim religion. Other philosophers also benefited from Islamic perspective of philosophy as they struggled to unravel mysteries behind life, existence, human nature, and divine knowledge. In order to build philosophical foundation of logic, great philosophers established schools where harmonization of diverse philosophical ideologies from different parts of the world took place.

The philosophers recognized that, “modern scientific process may generate universally quantified assertions which are considered objectively valid was unknown in the days when syllogistic logic came under attack of Arabic scholars” (Bergstra 3). Thus, great philosophers like Al Kindi (801-813), Al Farabi (872-951) Avicenna Sina (980-1037) and Averroes Rushd (1126-1198) established ancient schools of philosophy that aided development of Islamic philosophy.

The development of Kalam and Falsafa formed the foundation of logic during the 11th century as the head of Avicennian School of philosophy Al Ghazali introduced the concept of Islamic logic into Madrasah as a curriculum for children to understand their religion and universe.

The curriculum worked tremendously and led to the development of rational movement that advocated for the introduction and incorporation of Islamic logic into various aspects of curricula. Coupled with the emergence of Greek and oriental philosophies, the Muslim theologians dedicated their time in harmonization of diverse philosophical ideologies into their religion.

Herbert argues, “…systematic attempt undertaken by Al-Ma’mun who, being fascinated by the practical use of Greek philosophy and sciences, had issued the explicit policy of the state to promote the significance of the adoption of the ‘foreign culture’” (13). Therefore, promotion of foreign philosophical ideologies and incorporation into Madrasah led to evolution of Islamic logic.

Concept of Islamic Logic The philosophical concept of Islamic logic has four aspects viz. historic logic, holistic logic, real logic, and crescent-star logic, and they all give evolution of Islamic logic across over time. Historic logic forms the infancy of part of logic development that is between the 8th and 15th century. During this period of historic logic, the dominant philosophies were Arabian, Greek, Welsh, Roman, and French. The evolution of Islamic logic in this period occurred very rapidly due to the establishment of schools and expansion of Islamic religion.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Logic in Islam and Number of Islamic Theologians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Muslim theologians seized the opportunity of philosophical revolution in carrying out in-depth studies of divine knowledge, and unraveling mysteries of life such as existence and the nature of human beings. Bergstra posits that, “Islamic logic as accumulated some 1000 years ago is comparable to what today is called informal logic rather than formal logic or to philosophical logic” (5). Though Islamic logic forms basis of modern philosophical logic, critics consider it informal and thus irrelevant in the modern philosophy.

Holistic logic is a Muslim philosophical concept that involves application of logic in theology with the objective of understanding mysteries of life and divine requirements. On the other hand, the Avicennian logic is a combination of theological and general philosophy that helped in the spread of Islamic religion.

Since Islamic philosophy is central to Islamic religion, theologians did apply Islamic logic holistically in resolving philosophical problems such as creation and existence of the universe. During this period, theologians focused their teachings on the need to have wisdom. Given that Islamic logic was the only effective philosophical ideology in Islamic religion, many people flooded Madrasah and schools to attain wisdom. Theological wisdom was very critical because it enhanced spiritual status of the Muslims.

As part of holistic logic, “development of Kalam in the Muslim world was not only triggered by an external factor of Greek writings but also by an internal factor, namely the need for the art of debate in defending their views against their adversaries” (Herbert 15). Hence, Islamic logic was very essential in spreading and defending Islamic religion.

Real Islamic logic focused on core Islamic values and identity. Muslim philosophers studied philosophy and established philosophical logic as a way of understanding divine mysteries and world’s wisdom. Aristotelian logic inspired Muslim philosophers to form real Islamic logic in terms of language, theology, metaphysics, and epistemology.

“In the spirit of Aristotle, they considered the syllogism to be the form to which all rational argumentation could be reduced, and they regarded syllogistic theory as the focal point of logic” (Bergstra 19). Thus, real Islamic logic was an instrument of rational argumentation in the development of knowledge, theological principles, and advancement of Islamic philosophy.

Crescent-star logic is an Islamic logic development model that is very important in developing of societal structures like finance, religion, courts, and social institutions that are essential in Islamization.

Muslim philosophers and theologians worked together in building societal structures that are critical in Islamization of traditions so that they can be in tandem with modern philosophy. Crescent logic is a versatile concept of philosophy that is applicable in controversial or opposing ideologies that often results into dilemma as in justice system and in theological analysis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Logic in Islam and Number of Islamic Theologians by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “Progress in Crescent-star logic may help to improve the usage of logic for the application in Islamic courts because it uses and integrates several logical themes which must come together forming a complex of reasoning methods of uncommon complexity” (Bergstra 7). Muslim philosophers and theologians applied crescent logic to build social institutions such as Madrasah, schools, religious and justice system in order to enhance human development in the society.

Conclusion The Islamic logic originated from ancient philosophers of 8th to 12th century who came up with Kalam and Falsafa as foundations of explaining ancient mysteries and knowledge. Islamic logic then built from the philosophical ideologies of Kalam and Falsafa. These ideologies evolved with time and by the 12th century, they resulted into great revolution of Islamic religion and philosophy.

Muslim philosophers and theologians took advantage of the philosophical revolution to spread Islam and develop social institutions. Islamic logic then became an important component of theology and education for it enhanced human development. Currently, the Islamic logic contributes significantly to the foundation of modern philosophy.

Works Cited Bergstra, Aldert. “Real Islamic Logic.” Journal of Islamic Philosophy 47.29 (2009): 1-42.

Corazzon, Raul. “Ancient Islamic Logic and Ontology.” Theory and History of Ontology, 2005: 1-46.

Herbert, Davidson. “Modern Views on the Origin of Islamic Theology.” Journal of the

American Oriental Society 4.6 (2002):1-33.

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Employee benefits, Unemployment insurance and workers compensation Term Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Unemployment Insurance

Workers Compensation

Works Cited

Employee benefits also known as fringe benefits are non-wage compensations provided by the employer exclusive of their normal earnings. These benefits differ from country to country depending on the country’s laws. Employee benefits are not counted as part of salary or wages earned by the employees and are provided to the employees in exchange for their contribution towards the organization. Common examples of employee benefits include leave pays, health insurance, pensions, stock options, vacation fees among others.

Besides these benefits, which are referred to as tangible ones, there are other intangible benefits like promotions, or employer’s oral appreciation. In addition to employees’ benefits, there is worker’s compensation that has been made a legal requirement and therefore every employer is required by the law to comply that includes salaries, wages and tips. These compensations are direct payments to employees for the job they have done (Lohr 43).

Employee benefits motivate employees and improve their productivity towards their organizations. Studies have indicated that organizations that offer good employee benefits tend to retain workers easily than those offering poor benefits. Employee benefits serve as saving schemes to employees for instance retirement benefits and provide financial security to retired employees and their families (Bojas 75). There are several ways through which employee benefits are provided or implemented.

They can be through group insurance plan whereby the concerned parties make their contributions jointly, retirement plans initiated, or benefits are automatically determined by the employer based on their policies. Group insurance plan is renewed on an annual basis and is cheaper for an individual’s working career. There is also universal life insurance that incorporates both insurance and saving components.

Upon the maturity of the agreed period, the person is given his savings plus accrued interests and therefore these schemes are more of an investment than insurance. There are group disability-income insurance schemes paid on a weekly or monthly basis as long as the individual was contributing premiums up to hi/her death. They are either short-term or long-term. Some organizations have introduced cafeteria plans that help employees to choose the benefits that best suit their requirements.

Unemployment Insurance In some industrialized countries, governments have introduced special unemployment insurance that refers to weekly or monthly cash benefits to workers who are involuntarily unemployed. In United States, it is known as unemployment compensation. It is usually given to those unemployed people who cannot find available jobs and are willing to work to enable them earn their living (Bojas 34).

This is because unemployment is termed as a fundamental risk and the fact that it cannot be insured. In most cases, these programmes are state based since commercial insurance is not able to cover them. The objectives of putting up these programmes are to ensure basic human needs are adequately met for the maintenance of peace and order in the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These programmes also help to provide income to those individuals that are involuntarily unemployed in the short-run. Other objectives are to encourage government and other employers stabilize employment opportunities for the people hence creating jobs for the unemployed workers and economic stabilization during hard economic times i.e. recession and depression.

Unemployment insurance covers all the private organizations, central government, local authorities as well as non-governmental organizations. There are well down laid procedures, systems and norms for their administration and coverage. However, proper eligibility criteria must be established to determine who qualifies to be an unemployed worker. Periodic cash benefits are given as per the pre-determined formula.

Workers Compensation Sometimes workers may be injured in their job places or even fall sick while still at work. In other instances, an employee may even die due to job related accidents (Bojas 34). These are risk factors and workers need to be assured of some forms of compensations incase of contingencies before undertaking their jobs because economic insecurity might arise.

In such cases, workers are compensated through social insurance programmes to provide medical care or cash benefits to the victims. Laws have been enacted to ensure that fairness and justice prevails to those who fall sick or get injured at their work places. These also address the disabled workers and prevent employers from intimidating their employees (Lohr 43). One of the objectives of these programmes is to provide a comprehensive cover for job related misfortunes.

They also protect employees against any possible loss of income. Disputes between employers and employees are reduced and people’s safety properly guaranteed. The specific employees’ compensation law provides for several benefits that an employee is entitled to for instance medical care, death benefits among others. Disabled people have to be recognized in the society and their presence appreciated by providing relevant benefits to them.

They might be temporarily disabled or permanently disabled and some weekly cash benefits need to be paid to them. All the three discussed social welfare programmes are what differentiates good employers from bad ones (Lohr 43). Employers that implement appropriate packages for employee benefits and workers’ compensations have had good performance and reputable images due to higher attraction of employees.

Works Cited Bojas George J. Labor Economics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Employee benefits, Unemployment insurance and workers compensation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lohr, Kathy. Unemployed without benefits: A Couple’s Struggle. National Public Radio. Web.

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The Problem of Global Racism in Modern World Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Racism Ideology

Rise of racism

Global Racism

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Racism can be defined as a set of beliefs or a doctrine, which creates a notion that persons are distinct due to their phenotypic differences. It appreciates the reality of race to inflict a sense of superiority. Racism have existed as long as human beings whose history is marked by several incidences of prejudice and stereotyping. It is attributed as the resultant of unrest, which causes countries to create specific legal codes. Racism is a concept used to generally to describe negative attitudes pointed to a given ethnic group.

For instance, the most renowned instance of racism in human history is the issue of slavery where the blacks were regarded as sub-human only fit to be traded as properties and most importantly, to labor in the white man’s farms. Racism was at peak during the 20th century during the rein of ‘overtly racist regimes’ (Fredrickson 1). In South America, segregation laws and denial of voting rights on blacks resulted to them being regarded as of low-class irrespective of efforts to curb racial disparity through constitutional amendments.

Racism Ideology Racism can be traced during slavery in the capitalist society facilitated by imperialists, which justified the vice terming it as a right. Blacks were oppressed and termed as biologically inferiors intellectually, in culture and politics. As civilizations dawned, the blacks recognized their rights and tried to fight for liberalization. Racists try to justify their acts, which constitute racism as an ideology thorough stating that this group of people is less human and therefore inferior, fit to be ruled by the superior races i.e. the white supremacy.

Victims as a result, remain subjugated and more oppression is directed towards them where racism became a usual subject, while the victims perceive themselves as racially distinctive. Racists points out that the victimized race lack the potential to avoid racists attitudes subjected towards them. This is victim blaming and is so prevalent in the modern world and shapes up the racism ideology currently put in place (Andersen

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Special Places to Relax best essay help: best essay help

Living under stress and tension has become the norm rather than the exemption for most people struggling to meet daily work demands and other family and personal responsibilities. Available knowledge demonstrates that although working is a critical component for our survival, relaxing and letting off steam is equally important as it promotes healthy lifestyles as well as provides the body with ample time to refresh and reenergize itself.

There exists a wide variety of special places where people go to relax or find inspiration, such as museums, game parks, zoos, social networking sites, religious sites, libraries, bars and hotel lounges, and nature walks, among others. Individual preferences and tastes play a contributing factor in selecting a place to relax and get inspiration from.

In my view, social networking sites, zoos, libraries and museums provides the much needed relaxation and inspiration to enable one focus on the demands of tomorrow. Visiting social networking sites offer great relaxation in that one is able to share with friends about the challenges and fears of life.

Some social networking sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Tweeter, offers interactive platforms that enables one to while away time in a much more beneficial way than sleeping since you get a chance to not only update yourself in regard to current occurrences, but you also get to share knowledge in a far relaxing state away from the limitations of the traditional classroom.

What’s more, social networking sites provides one with a platform to relax while sharing and networking with friends with whom you share similar interests and passions.

Visiting zoos and museums, in my view, is the most appreciated way to relax and also learn, albeit informally. The experience of feeding bananas to animals in the zoo sweeps one away from the hassles of the physical world to a splendid, warm and almost supernatural world where you instantaneously forget your troubles and enjoy the offerings and wonders of the world to unimaginable limits.

It is imperative to note that zoo and game park visits are also inspirational in nature by the very fact that you get to see how animals interact and socialize with each other. Museums are places where you get to feel and experience our cultural wealth in a manner that is hard to copy in the physical world. The artifacts and tools used in ancient times provides a strand of inspiration on how civilizations have progressed over time and what we are able to achieve as we continue to interact with the environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Libraries, in my view, are places where people should visit not only for formal educational purposes, but also to relax and acquaint themselves with content in their own free time. Some libraries offer a cool and enticing environment where one can unwind while perusing through the pages of a classical William Shakespeare’s novel or a magazine of the latest technological trends.

The knowledge gained during such experiences provides an individual with inspiration to not only read for the purposes of passing examinations, but also to read as a way of internalizing the learning culture. The above discussed places, in my view, are very special when it comes to relaxing and finding inspiration.

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The Tale of Kieu Essay essay help site:edu

The Tale of Kieu is full of characters, producing long-lasting impressions upon the reader and Dam Tien is one of them, even despite the fact that its role is only supplementary. Dam Tien is an apparition or a ghost that tells the fortune of other people; it represents itself in the form of a young woman.

Nguyễn Du first mentions this character when Kieu finds her grave. This ghost appears to her and makes a prophecy about the course of major character’s life. In particular, she says that Kieu will have to undergo a great number of hardships and miseries before she eventually finds happiness and love.

It should be noted that the author provided us with biographical details about this character. In the past, she was a singer, “renowned for looks and gifts” (Nguyễn

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The Spread of Democracy Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evolution and Development of Democracy

The Democratic Peace Theory

The Spread of Democracy and Peace

The War and Peace Zones

International Institutions and the Spread of Democratic Peace

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Years back, the general perception of democracy by most countries was that a democratic system of governance was only possible under particular socio-economic and cultural conditions and thus a preserve for the rich western countries. However, democracy characterized by regular free and fair elections is common in most countries today, with majority of them being poor developing nations.

Increasingly, democracy is becoming a universal concept as opposed to the earlier beliefs that it is a preserve for rich industrialized nations. In non-democratic countries, democratic movements are a common occurrence, where the citizenry demand freedom and expansion of the democratic space as a way of promoting peace and development.

Although the spread of democracy depends on internal attributes or societal factors within a nation, international influence also promotes the spread of democracy in non-democratic countries. Given the rapid global spread of democracy, multilateral assistance is important to promote democracy in non-democratic and autocratic countries. Democracy leads to peace either nationally or between countries, thus contributing to regional stability.

Evolution and Development of Democracy The social origins of democracy involved a revolutionary shift of the relative importance accorded to individuals by the society to a collective system where the rights and interests of all the society members were upheld.

The expansion in the democratic space gave rise to democratic forms of governance that contributed to the developments in the various aspects of the society. It contributed to developments in science, education, economy and culture in ancient world (Russett, and Oneal 2001, 112).

The earlier democratic forms of governance particularly the American democratic revolution, led to the rise of Renaissance in the field of science, religious reformation and the rise of capitalistic economies in earlier democracies. In the non-democratic governance, the social elite including the military or religious personalities or royalties ruled the countries.

The revolutionary shift particularly in Western Europe in the last century intended to advocate for the recognition of the rights of the individuals from the ruling elite and in the process give more power to the people. During this shift, political democratic institutions emerged to advocate for the interests, values, and rights of the people from the authoritarian leadership.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This shift was gradual, characterized by shift of power from a centralized system to the society. The military or monarchial rule gave way to the rule by the rich and wealthy traders in the society who comprised the majority of the earlier parliament. Later, the need for the recognition of universal rights and freedoms for all individuals necessitated the distribution of power to the commercial class and much later extended to all citizens.

The origin of democracy can be linked to the ancient city of Athens in Greece. The emphasis on freedom and earlier religious and philosophical studies in Greece coupled with the need for freedom of worship and trial by a competent judicial system contributed to the rise of democracy in this ancient civilization. The increasing concern over autonomy helped grow and stabilize independence that was a critical ingredient in major achievements in the field of politics and science.

In ancient Rome, the governance included aristocratic and democratic principles with the aim of promoting a collective welfare of all the members of the society. During this period, the empire enjoyed relative peace compared to the other nations in Europe. However, much of the rulers of the Roman Empire disrespected the rights of individuals leading to the collapse of the empire.

With the fall of the Roman Empire, political absolutism took over suppressing the individual rights and liberties. After the fall of the Roman rule, the security of the people in Europe was compromised giving way to protection by warlords in exchange for payment. Individuals submitted to authoritarian leadership of monarchs and appointed priests, thereby depriving the populace of their individual civil rights and privileges.

The economic development and religious practices were under control of these rulers. Economic freedom contributed to the rise of democratic governance in most civilizations of the ancient world. The growth in trade characterized by the use of a common currency shifted power and dependence from the monarchic leaders leading to wealthy merchants giving rise to a form of individualism, where the rich merchants enjoyed certain privileges.

The shift from a centralized power system to the new system characterized by economic freedom encouraged the social development and development of individual enterprises. The economic freedom also contributed to Renaissance financed by the wealth merchants giving way to a change in human thinking and social organizations. Learning, particularly of philosophical concepts and languages provided the means of spreading new ideas on governance to all parts of a society contributing to breaking the prevalent political ideologies.

The increase in knowledge freed people from the religious and absolutistic control by demanding the recognition of individual rights and liberties from the ruling class. The intellectual and economic development in Europe led to religious reformation where the authority previously centralized in religious institutions, shifted to individuals giving rise to the democratic governance.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Spread of Democracy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Democratic Peace Theory The democracies of the world seldom engage in international conflicts or wars between them as supported by empirical data research. This phenomenon shows a direct relationship between growth and expansion of democratic ideologies with peace or relative stability of a country or a region. In addition, the empirical research evidence suggests that violent actions are rare within democracies as opposed to aristocratic or purely monarchial countries. The democratic peace theory is based on Immanuel Kant’s philosophical ideas.

Immanuel Kant in the 16th century postulated the idea that the establishment of democratic republics could contribute to world peace. He believed that with democratic governance, people will see no reason to go to war or engage in a conflict, unless in self-defense (Kant 1991, 106). If there is relative peace in a country or a region, wars could be limited if not eliminated. Kant’s ideas gave rise to the modern democratic peace theory, which claims that democracies rarely engage in wars.

The democratic peace theory holds that democracies do not engage in war between themselves although they may engage in war with non-democracies. Empirical evidence supports this claim to some extent.

The proponents of the democratic peace attribute the lack of war in democracies or friendly relations between democracies to the peaceful conflict resolution mechanisms inherent in democratic societies or restraining public opinion. The democracies opt for peaceful means of solving internal political conflicts through mediation and dialogue rather than war or civil conflict.

Additionally, democracies engage in bilateral or multilateral trade, which eliminates chances of going to war in case of strained relations. Democracies also have established democratic institutions including a free electoral process and an influential legislature that deter the government from going into war.

The democratic peace theory advances two important reasons as to why democracies seldom engage in war with each other. Firstly, the democratic institutions in democracies deter these nations from engaging in war.

According to Doyle, basing his argument on Kant’s philosophy, the democracies fail to go to war with each other because in a democracy, the leadership is answerable to the citizenry (Doyle 1983, 323). If the democratic government unilaterally decides to go to war against the public opinion, it faces the risk of removal from power through elections.

In addition, democracies allow the public opinion to be incorporated into a country’s foreign policy hence reducing or eliminating the chances of going into war. The domestic political structures in democratic countries also contribute to avoidance of war by democratic nations as it increases political competition between the incumbent government and the opposition.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Spread of Democracy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second reason advanced by the proponents of the democratic peace theory involves the inherent social and cultural practices that promote peaceful resolution of conflicts allowing rival parties within a nation to reach a compromise, which is then extended to other democratic countries.

In addition, democracies also develop a positive perception of each other pertaining justice and conflict resolution within their boundaries, which encourage peaceful resolution of a common conflict. Democratic states also cooperate in many aspects, particularly in trade, because of common interests leading to a community of states with common interests that prevent wars among them or with other democratic states.

The critics of the democratic peace theory, among them Christopher Layne, argue that democracies fail to engage in wars because of other reasons other than those advanced by the democratic peace theory. The crises in democracies do not often result to war because of various reasons. Layne posits, the crisis between the “Great Britain and France in 1898, which have the most developed democracies in the world, did not result to war because the British war machinery was simply overwhelming” (1994, 43-44).

Other critics argue that, only interstate wars conform to the democratic peace theory and that internal dispute resolution in a democratic nation cannot be attributed to democratic peace theory by considering the civil wars in democratic states such as the American Civil War of 1861-1865. This challenges the applicability of the democratic peace theory in internal disputes of democratic nations.

In contrast, non-democracies lack democratic norms of compromise and peaceful resolution of conflicts or crises. They are, therefore, war-prone and can engage in war with democratic states. Democratic states on the other hand exercise restraint when in a conflict with a non-democratic nation.

However, the democratic nation may go into war with a non-democratic nation if the expectations are not met or if the non-democratic state takes advantage of the moderation exercised by the democratic nation. Thus, according to the democratic peace theory, democratic nations develop peaceful relations with each other but behave differently to other non-democratic states.

The Spread of Democracy and Peace The spread of democracy termed democratization began in the last century from a few democracies but spread to the current state where more than 50% of all the states are democratic republics. The spread of democracy even to non-democratic nations is partly dependent on the democratic nature of the surrounding nations or region.

The democratization of a non-democratic nation is enhanced when the surrounding nations are democracies (Kant 1991, 114). Conversely, a democratic state surrounded by authoritarian countries will most likely revert to non-democratic practices. The democratic states increased sharply after World War I but fell in the advent of World War II. At the end of the Cold War, the number of world democracies has continued to increase.

The democratization process and its contribution to peace are best explained by the classical theory by Immanuel Kant (Kant 1991, 112). Kant advanced a series of democratic processes that would eventually result to peace. Firstly, Kant argued that the idea of development of a peaceful democratic community would encourage the elimination of non-democratic ideologies.

He also considered the contribution of democracy based on democratic norms to the process of democratization and peace following an evolutionary pattern. However, the major concern is whether democratization reduces the chances of a nation engaging in warfare. Empirical evidence indicates that dictatorships increase the chances of a country going into civil war or engaging in war with other nations.

Democracy often in the Western world entails freedom of expression and association by all the citizens within a nation and people-driven governance characterized by free and fair elections. However, the role of democracy in the spread of peace within nations and between democracies is often contentious. Historically, democracy was a revolutionary and social movement whose main aim was to break away from the authoritarian rule in most countries.

The major reason for the rapid spread of democracy is that democracies rarely go to war. However, critics argue that established democracies do not engage in war with each other not because they uphold democratic principles, but because they have common trade and social institutions even within their borders.

While it is evident that democracy promotes peace and integration both nationally and internationally, new rivalries between states might generate interstate wars. During the Cold war, the rivalries between powerful democratic nations such as Russia and China led to minor wars and border insecurity.

Despite democracy being one way of solving interstate conflicts and achieving peace, in my opinion, democratization alone does not normally result to avoidance of wars. Countries that boast of internal democracy engage in warlike actions with their neighboring countries, which is a pointer that democracy does not always lead to peace like the tensions between India and Pakistan. Additionally, democracies just like military leaderships can opt for war, to improve their popularity among the electorate within a country.

The old regimes within democratic countries also manipulate democracy by engaging in war with neighboring states or against minority society within the democratic nation. In other emerging democracies, the regime, which is normally inclined towards authoritarian rule, uses the electoral process to consolidate power over the people with less regard to fundamental individual rights and liberties.

In my opinion, it is difficult to convince non-democratic states that democracy is beneficial compared to authoritarian rule. The ruling elite in democratic countries often use democracy and democratization as means of legitimizing cruelty and tyranny to its citizens. In some cases, the leaders exercise authority over the electoral process making it impossible to conduct free and fair elections.

In addition, in these countries, the freedom of the media is minimal and the opposition parties often face mistreatment from the governing party. In developed democracies, the threats of war with minority dissidents or with neighboring countries are common. Thus, the notion that democracy contributes to peace is not always right.

Indeed, in the modern era, democracy is used as one way of seeking international recognition by breakaway states while at the same time committing various acts of atrocity. This, in my opinion, further complicates the notion of democratic peace as held by the Western powerful democracies.

The leaders of the breakaway nations use ‘democracy’ as the reason for seeking independence from the dominating state. However, in the process of democratization, the minorities are forced out of the territory as the leadership seeks to establish a homogeneous ethnic group to bolster their political interests.

Forced expulsion or genocide of the minority communities is committed in order to attain a uniform state comprising of a single ethnic group. After the atrocities, performed in the name of democracy, a referendum is held to confirm the majority rule of the new state.

The War and Peace Zones Modern democracy and peace belong to the new world order. Given that democracy alone faces challenges in achieving universal peace even between industrialized nations, the real world order provides an ideal way for countries to regulate its institutions in the wake of globalization in the 21st century.

This can be achieved through intergovernmental cooperation. In addition, the real world order provides means of engaging the non-democratic institutions through use of international institutions. Under the new world order, the international institutions such as the United Nations, undertake the role of ensuring peace and security of the nations with the support of developed nations.

However, the world order faces challenges amongst them, the unpopularity of the concept. In addition, centralized rulemaking body requires universal participation by all the member states including the non-democratic states. The major challenge includes the fact that the United Nations cannot operate effectively without support from the powerful democracies neither will the states approve overall authority to this international body that would compromise their sovereignty.

The common belief that the new world order will bring universal peace even to authoritarian-ruled countries is based on the democratic peace theory, which postulates that democracies seldom engage in war amongst themselves.

While democracies may engage in war with non-democracies, they abstain from engaging in war amongst themselves hence establishing a ‘zone of peace’. The zone of peace will keep on expanding with the spread of democracy until universal peace and democracy is attained in all regions of the globe through an international federation.

The notion of a zone of peace, established under a democracy, began in the eighteenth century based on the Kant’s ideologies about the democratic peace and the idea of a global federation. The origin of the idea for a common federation has its roots from military alliances common in the sixteenth century.

The military alliances promoted peaceful resolution of conflicts by allowing enemy states to cooperate. However, the new world order bases its quest for global peace through international institutions, while Kant’s theory holds that universal peace can be attained through the establishment of democratic republics in the countries of the world.

In addition, the peace theory , which advocates for the formation of an international federation to enhance peaceful coexistence among nations, claims that democratic nations act only peacefully towards each other but can fight with non-democratic nations. However, Kant expected democratic nations to behave peacefully towards all the other nations, whether democratic or non-democratic as a way of achieving global peace.

Democracies often remain peaceful unless they are attacked or threatened by regimes from non-democratic nations. Under the democracy theory, the democratic nations are justified to employ force against authoritarian regimes because the non-democratic states may interfere with the peaceful democratic life in these countries. In addition, democracies cannot go to war with one another in order to promote the spread of peace among nations.

Thus, the spread of democracy is believed to increase the level of regional stability and peace among the various nations of the world beginning with the zones of peace and later spread to include the other non-democratic countries or the ‘war zones’. However, powerful nations particularly the Western governments and the International institutions such as NATO have wrongly used the spread of democracy to propagate forceful intrusion into relatively stable countries.

The ‘zones of peace’ as supported by liberal democracies are portrayed as just and the best way of attaining global peace. However, other forms of political organizations can also promote the development of specific ‘zones of peace’. The liberal democratic peace can be achieved through other forms of political organizations other than the liberal democracy supported by the Western world (Singer, and Wildavsky1993, 32).

Countries that do not conform to the ideologies of the liberal democracies or the Western cultural or socio-economic practices, experience relative peace and have friendly relations with the neighboring nations. The current democratic peace theory proposes a universal peace and security among nations, which is only achievable though democratic practices and international institutions’ presence.

In my opinion, democracy can spread both within a nation and internationally with help from democratic institutions within a democratic state and the international institutions such as the UN. However, the control of political affairs of the country should be left to the citizenry as opposed to the forceful application of the democratic principles on the people. Otherwise, the citizens would retaliate with revolt, which could harm the spread of the democratic peace.

Internationally, democratic peace can spread through emphasis of respect to fundamental human rights by all nations irrespective of whether they uphold liberal-democratic ideologies or they are simply non-democratic. The social development and expansion in religious and economic freedoms can also contribute to the spread of democratic peace across the world.

International Institutions and the Spread of Democratic Peace Despite democracy playing a vital role in the spread of peace, it faces many impediments in the spread of democracy among many nations. In most authoritarian nations, reforms are rare with electoral systems that deter the spread of democratic peace.

In addition, these countries have a weak and non-vibrant civil society and cannot effectively challenge the governing regime. Other emerging democracies practice authoritarian rule under the guise of democracy. The international institutions such as the United Nations help to foster democratic peace in nations faced with governance challenges.

The United Nations, comprised of different democratic nations, undertakes to prevent common problems that hinder the spread of democratic peace. In particular, the internal conflicts or civil wars within a nation, government atrocities against its own people and wars between states are the major concerns of the United Nations of the Security Council (Luard 1986, 93).

However, these global institutions experience faces challenges from the member states that may refuse to comply with the laid down statutes as seen during the Cold War. The structural frameworks of the new world order relies on the development of these international institutions, which should have formal authority to promote peace even if it means the use of force.

However, the West including the United States refuses to vest authority to the legitimate global institutions and thus affects their operations. In addition, these global institutions contribute less, if any, to the welfare of the citizens of most countries. The global interests, particularly of the non-Western developed countries during the Cold War coupled with the perceived ineffectiveness of the International institutions in promoting peace contribute to the continuation of authoritarian governance.

In my opinion, the UN system as presently constituted has the potential of promoting peace and security than during the Cold War. The new challenges facing the UN’s operations include the potential security risk of countries amassing weapons of mass destruction.

However, I believe that the UN through various commitments can solve this potential crisis and contribute to peace among nations. Through mobilization of UN peace keeping activities to countries ravaged by war, peaceful negotiations, and conflict resolution can be reached. The UN can also authorize the use of force in exceptional circumstances, especially in countries ravaged by war or in case of potential threat of weapons of mass destruction, which is important in promoting peace among countries.

The UN also promotes the establishment of democratic governance in a country by first allowing a transitional government to be in place. This, in my opinion, is a vital step in rebuilding a state ravaged by war. The UN has the mandate to carry out inspection and monitoring of a country’s nuclear plants to ascertain the activities of the nuclear plant. Thus, any potential threats from weapons of mass destruction can be avoided and contribute to global peace.

Under the UN Charter, the relations between nations are covered. However, the internal activities of nations such as civil wars and weapon amassment by nations remain unregulated. In addition, the Charter provided for open membership by all interested nations regardless of whether they are democracies or not.

However, I think the operations of the UN could be enhanced if the membership comprised of democracies only because democracies respect human rights and fundamental rights. Additionally, democracies seldom engage in wars between themselves and do not allow killing by governments or civil wars to occur.

Thus, creating a UN institution that is comprised of democratic nations only would contribute to the expansion of democracy and peace among nations. Democracies are also less prone to engage in production of weapons of mass destruction and are more likely to comply with international laws and treaties than non-democracies. Democratic nations are less likely to be threats to international peace than dictatorships and therefore, form important members of the UN.

In addition to contributing to the spread of peace, democratization or the spread of democracy has promoted international cooperation particularly with regard to peace and security of nations (Spencer 1998, 305). Democracies often do not fight other democracies but can engage in war with authoritarian regimes when attacked.

The democratic nations cooperate through international institutions under the new world order to promote global peace in the nations of the world. Democracies often respect and trust the democratic practices of the other democratic nations leading to peaceful relations and expansion of democratic peace among nations.

The spread of democracy also has promoted international cooperation in trade and economic sectors, which is not feasible in war or international conflict. However, economic depressions or boundary dispute between democratic nations may strain the international relations enjoyed by democracies.

The integration of the world economy particularly in the areas of communication and trade can be attributed to the spread of democracy. This has encouraged cooperation in the management and regulation of the international organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank. Additionally, democratic nations cooperate in promoting the spread of democracy by advocating for a vibrant civil societies and democratic institutions in non-democratic institutions.

Conclusion The democratic peace theory holds that democracies rarely engage in war amongst them but can fight with authoritarian regimes. The spread of democracy, therefore, contribute to the spread of international peace among nations as postulated under the new world order. However, some democracies engage in dictatorial leadership and in the process hinder the spread of democratic peace. The international institutions play an important role in promoting the spread of democratic peace.

In addition, democracy promotes international cooperation among nations particularly in world economy and international trade. Given the important role played by international institutions in the spread of democratic peace, the membership of the United Nations or the United Nations Security Council should comprise of developed democracies in order to grow and consolidate democratic peace.

Reference List Doyle, Michael . 1983. Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs. Philosophy and Public Affairs 12: 323-353.

Kant, Emmanuel. 1991. On Perpetual Peace: Reprinted in Kant’s Political Writings Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Layne, Christopher. 1994. Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace. International Security 19, no.2 (February/March): 43-44

Luard, Evan. 1986. War in International Society. New Haven: Yale University Press Russett, Bruce, and Oneal, John. 2001. Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations. New York: W. W. Norton.

Singer, Max, and Wildavsky, Aaron. 1993. The Real World Order: Zones of Peace / Zones of Turmoil. New Jersey: Chatham House.

Spencer, Weart. 1998. Never At War: Why Democracies Will Not Fight One Another. New Haven: Yale University Press.

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Innocence and Experience in Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

It is certainly evident that life and experience occurs, and eliminates or changes the quality of human innocence. Of course, this is perfectly normal. However, frequently those undergoing such a process, can often feel suffering, loss, and perhaps confusion. This is definitely a part of human evolution. Within our text, the reading of the three pieces by Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost, all serve to illustrate this phenomenon.

“Araby” is a coming of age tale of a young Irish Catholic boy, living in early twentieth century Dublin. Clearly, at the start of the story, the young man is an idealist. Author James Joyce describes his protagonist whose disappointments prompt him to unexpected reaction. “My eyes were often full of tears (I could not tell why) and at times a flood from my heart seemed to pour itself out into my bosom.” (Joyce)

As the story is narrated by the boy now grown, the loss of innocence through remembered experience is doubly poignant and ironic. Looking back, the narrator speaks of himself as growing up in one of the worst parts of a then very blighted city. Tantamount here also is the boy’s feeling that his religion is empty, ritualistic, with no real and true care for his Maker and the rest of humanity.

However, when the boy next falls in love with the sister of a friend, “Mangan”, he briefly experiences a form of renewal. Nevertheless, he is doomed to be disappointed as his view of love is one based on piety and unrealistic romance. He does not get the girl. He mourns thus, “Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derived by vanity, (Joyce )

Finally, the last vestiges of his innocence are purged through his actual experience of visiting the Arabian bazaar and realizing that it is very different from what he’d formerly perceived. Dark, sinister, seductive, and highly commercialized, Araby epitomizes for the narrator, the real and experienced state of the world.

Next, in Jamaica Kincaid’s one-sentence short story entitled “Girl”, the loss of innocence through experience is delivered to the daughter by her mother, who provides her with a litany of advice.

Although the mother’s speech to her daughter seems motivated by love and she provides her child with information she believes the girl will need in order to survive as a women in the Western Caribbean world, it is nonetheless a loss of innocence gained via the mother’s diatribe. Although the mother gives the girl what she believes to be helpful information on all from chores to life and love, she displays a strong lack of confidence in the child.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The parent starts with telling her offspring, she should “Wash the white clothes on Monday and put them on the stone heap; wash the color clothes on Tuesday and put them on the clothesline to dry; don’t walk barehead in the hot sun.” (Kincaid ) Mother then proceeds to slight the girl’s very character by telling her,

“on Sundays try to walk like a lady and not like the slut you are bent on becoming.”

(Kincaid )

The young lady appears to respond minimally, both in her defense and to acquire additional information. The daughter claims, “but I don’t sing benna on Sundays at all and never in Sunday school.” Therefore, at the end of the mother’s lengthy statement, the youngster is presumed to have left behind her childhood, and prepared to enter the adult world.

Finally, prominent twentieth century American poet Robert Frost touches on innocence, experience, and choice in his verse, “The Road Not Taken”. He claimed that the poem was originally written when he and a close friend came upon two similar paths in the woods, and were in a quandary as to which way to go. The poem appears to promote the wish that they could explore both paths and would possibly do so, if they could, but that reality would probably not permit that series of events.

Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. (Frost 149)

Lastly, the final point made by Frost is that his choice dictates his loss of innocence and subsequent reality. He speaks of a later time in which he will recall:

We will write a custom Essay on Innocence and Experience in Joyce, Kincaid, and Frost specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I — I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. (Frost 149)

Of course, it isn’t clear what kind of difference occurred, and whether or not, it was either positive or negative, but just experienced. Therefore, the choice precluded another experience, a type of loss.

Works Cited Abcarian, Richard, Samuel Cohen and Marvin Klotz, eds. Literature: The Human Experience. Bedford Saint Martin’s 10th edition

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Art and Aesthetics: Art in Public Space Essay best college essay help

Art refers to a means of purposefully putting things in a particular manner so as to influence the mind, senses as well as the emotions. It constitutes of various creations, human activities and several methods of expression of human ideas through paintings, music, sculpture, literature, filming and photography (Creative Intelligence 4).

Beauty on the other hand refers to the characteristics bestowed in an individual that leads to a perceived understanding of satisfaction and pleasure. It emanates from aesthetic. Ideal beauty thus refers to that which attracts admiration in a given culture leading to perfection. Thus art has been broadly explored in aesthetic so as to bring out its correlation to generations and mankind. This essay therefore, uses the concepts from semiotics to discuss art and aesthetics in relation to California Disney Hall as a piece of art in public.

Semiotic concepts include signs and making meaning out of the signs identified in a particular piece of art whether performing art, sculptural or modeling art. They mainly encampass creation of meaning out of a given sign accorded to artwork. The interpretation of a given piece of art work is based on the denoted meaning identified such as the identification of visible signs as well as the actual cultural relationship that comes along with such identifications.

Therefore, the main aim of semiotic artist is to derive methods of navigation coupled with interpretation of connoted meaning (Bann 128). This seeks to unfold the coded meaning and meaning unfolded in a given object of aesthetic value by determining its relationship to collective consciousness.

Concepts of semiotics have been identified in the history of art for instance, in the works of Panofsky and Riegl (Creative Intelligence 5) including the very important texts by Meyer bringing out visual semiotics. When these concepts are put together and modeled in to what is appealing to the senses of the public, it results in to what is called aesthetics. This is the creation of beauty. Art work that has been well organized in a given media so as to be staged out or performed in a public arena is referred to as public art.

Public art is important to public art specialists, bodies that commission art performances, curators as well as the entire art world with much emphasis being given to collaborations, the specificity of the site of performance and the involvement of the community. At times art is used to refer to any given piece of art that is displayed in a public arena or any public buildings that are easily accessible to the community (Maasik 50).

The California Disney hall is the best example of art in public. The hall is among the four concert halls of the LAMC (Los Angeles Music Centre). It has a seating capacity of two thousand two hundred and sixty five persons which is one of the characteristics of public art which puts focus on community involvement hence accommodating more people during performances (George). It serves various functions alongside being the centre for LAMC (Los Angeles Master Chorale and LAP (Los Angeles Philharmonic) performances.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The hall was built in honor of Los Angeles citizens and to Lilian Disney’s husband dedication to art. The acoustics and the architecture of this concert hall supersede that of Dorothy Chandler Pavilion making the most important piece of art. As opposed to many of the halls used for concert performances (Ronald and Melissa 55), California Disney hall’s entrance is ever open during daytime hence giving room for access by the public to its 7-level subterranean parking space, café, hotel box office as well as the gift shop.

The entrance of the hall constitutes of columns of enormous tree trunks made from Douglas fir with straight grains. Apart from providing support to the Hall structurally and visually the columns assist in lighting as well delivering air conditioning. Douglas fir is well appreciated for its aesthetic value, thus most of the surfaces in the hall have inco-operated it, in addition to the musical instruments made from timber.

This has enhanced the beauty and the aesthetic value of the hall that attract the public. Initially Frank Gehry had purposed to have the whole building finished with stone. However, he changed this to have the hall dressed with stainless steel. Frank settled on a stainless steel finish since he believed that this kind of finish worked well with the reflecting and changing the bright sunlight from southern part of California.

As a result of the halls numerous contours and exacting specifications in its design, structural beams made of steel had to be fixed using computer aided three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA).The steel beams were fixed into place only after having intersected the xyz coordinates as they appeared in the plan.

The public park of the hall sits on a one acre piece of land, thirty four feet over the hope street. It is strategically positioned thus making it accessible to all people without any restrictions through the hours of operation.

The park provides a good view point to most of the landmarks in Los Angeles for example the LACL (Los Angeles Central Library) which is on the southern part of Los Angeles, SGM (San Gabriel Mountains) and DS (Dodger Stadium) to the North as well as Hollywood sign which lies to the West. All these are visible particularly on a cloudless day.

The magnificent sight gives a sense of beauty to the public and every person looking at such a hall would appreciate the kind of time devoted to making the building beautiful and appealing to the viewers. The park also consists of full-grown flowering plants with a distinct ability to flourish in designed plant vases.

We will write a custom Essay on Art and Aesthetics: Art in Public Space specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many of the plants in the hall were taken from residential homes and lifted up by the help of three hundred and fifty ton crane. The flowers were cautiously positioned facing the initial direction before being uprooted to their new location (David Hume 58). During the entire period of Philharmonics the flowers keeps flowering consecutively offering the beauty of alternating shades of colors.

The hall also constitutes of LDMF (Lilian Disney Memorial Fountain). This was Franks design as he designed this in honor of Lilian Disney. This was in recognition of Lilian Disney’s affection for Roses and Delft porcelain. In creating this fountain, reinforced bars of iron were curved to create structures that resemble petals of flowers.

The mesh made of stainless steel was fixed and then packed with water proof concrete. Furthermore, several tiles and royal vases made of Delft porcelain were broken into pieces which were skillfully mounted by a team of eight people skilled in the art of ceramics. This led to the beautiful fountain present at the California Disney Hall.

The children’s Amphitheatre which is home to educational programs as well as programs owned by the community which are produced by MCED (Music Centre Education Division) as well as the LAP (Creative Intelligence 2). The seating area consists of concentric arcs made in small parts bearing in mind the children seating in this section.

This space provides relaxing place for visitors who would love to relax as well as have lunch or read anything as long as the children are not using it. Within the hall is the REDCAT (Roy and Edna Disney/CalArts Theater) which is the meeting point for audiences and performing artists, home to performing art, experimental theatre and music. Furthermore, there is a three thousand square foot display space including a café for multiple functions.

Art in public arena is in most cases developed to interact with the public by allowing the individuals to participate by their sight, feelings as well as their entire senses. For instance, in the Disney hall, the public can participate in such kind of art by sitting on the seats that are curved in a concentric manner thus allowing them to have a feeling of that particular art. The hall has a resonating interval of two minutes hence during the performance the public can listen to the piece of art being presented and appreciate it (George).

By looking at the tree columns and the floral plants one can feel the beauty of the hall as all these features are magnificent. The entire art work portrayed on the walls as well as the surfaces attracts the public thus making the people to feel the surfaces hence participating in the work through hands-on experience.

The Disney hall displays its art in public place by virtue of its sculptural work having to do with the culture of the people of Los Angeles. For example the broken Delft Vases used to decorate the hall are as a result of the affection that Lilian had in Porcelain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Art and Aesthetics: Art in Public Space by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore the culture of using porcelain had to be brought out on this particular hall so as to in co-operate a particular artist culture in this piece of art. This gives a feeling of community involvement and ownership which one of the semiotics in art in public places which brings a sense beauty to a whole piece of artwork.

The Disney hall stand on a very large piece of land giving room for more people to be accommodated hence upholding the norms of art in public places. The kind of architecture employed on the building allows the public to enjoy the beauty of the exterior of the building without necessarily entering the building. It is important to note that anything that does not amuse the public is not art.

Never the less with Disney Concert hall, most of the people enjoy looking at the large columns supporting the building with lots of amusement. Memorials as well as monuments are some of the ancient forms of art in public despite the fact that architectural sculpture is a bit pronounced in bringing out a true picture of art in public. A case in point is the huge columns and the rose flowers in the hall. The large space occupied by the park is suitable for public viewing and this is what attracts the public viewing of the Hall.

Semiotic aesthetics demand that artwork is an indication of a sign whose aesthetic value is founded on a given mode of reference. This is true with the California Disney wall as much of its artwork is based on particular meanings. The porcelain used in decorating the fountain in the whole results from Lilian’s affection to artwork made from porcelain. In addition, to this, her affection for roses led to reinforced iron bars being made to resemble rose petals.

The fact that Walt Disney loved art led to his wife, Lilian designing the California Disney Hall in honor of her beloved husband. Last but not least the love for the culture of the public led to this hall being made such that it attracted and held more than two thousand people hence giving room for most people to have a glimpse of any piece of art being performed. Most of the performing artists take deliberate pleasure in staging their various works due to the acoustics of the hall.

Using the concepts of semiotics in designing the Disney hall is what makes it a piece of art in public. Several features put together to bring out the aesthetic value of the building remains as they are, they carry the meaning of what they are and not any other hidden meaning. For instance, the flowering trees that keep giving different shades of flower alternatively are actually flowers and they do not carry any other meaning.

Furthermore, the hotels, café and the shop at the hall just what they are and have no hidden meaning. With such kind of art being displayed with symbols and signs carrying their own meaning and not any other hidden meaning brings into the lime light the beauty of art in public on this hall.

It is also important to note that one of the important things about semiotic concepts is that meaning and signs are never limited. Therefore, to enhance the aesthetic value of any piece of artwork, this concept emphasis that a single sign can take various available meanings. It is therefore up to the audience to extract the exact meaning of a given piece of art without necessarily deviating from the exact meaning.

In conclusion, concepts of semiotics are based on the fact that objects are best appreciated from the perspective of the audience. This implies that the audience can view an object at any given perspective as long as he finds beauty any that given piece.

With various meanings contained in various signs which are employed by the artist, the audience can draw that which is pleasurable to him and accord that given sign. In addition, the meaning given to any piece of art in public can only be expounded once the social or original context of that work has been removed.

Never the less, semiotic concepts insists that irrespective of the meaning intended by original author of art work the meaning taken by the audience supersede the authors. Just like the California Disney hall, different groups of audience have expressed their different views concerning its aesthetic value. In view of all this whether the hall is appealing to the public or not is upon the audience to assert this with respect to how it views this building. However, till to date it remains to be the best art in public space.

Works Cited Bann, Sawl. “Meaning/Interpretation.” Shift, Ronald Nelson and Richard. Critical Terms for Art History. Chicago, 2003. 128.

Creative Intelligence. “Architectural and Garden Highlights: Walt Disney Concert Hall.” Music Centre ,Performing Arts Centre of Los Angeles County. California: Music Centre, 2009.

David Hume . The letters of David Hume. Ed. John Young Thomson Greig. Vol. 2. Garland Publisher, 1983.

George, Lynell. The Los Angeles Times. 11 May 2008. Web.

Maasik, Sonia. Signs of Life in the U.S.A. Popular Spaces:Interpreting the Built Environment. Chicago: Oxford, 2006.

Ronald Lee Flemming and Melissa Tapper Goldman. Public Art for the Public (Art in Public Places Program) (Art in Architecture Program). The National Affairs, Inc, 2005.

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“The Tale of Kieu” by Nguyen Du Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Virtue

Strength and Weakness

Conclusion

Works Cited

The Tale of Kieu is one of the first Vietnamese books that made me understand the relationship between Vietnamese and Chinese culture. There are several characters in the poem, from whom we can get the main ideas of the author, and set off the image of young Kieu. Through images of the minor characters, the author reveals the essence of the philosophical notion “virtue” and its peculiarity in Eastern culture, the role it played in the destiny of the poet himself.

The Tale of Kieu is a moral verse. I say this because Kieu and other characters go through what they go through by fate; a situation they have no control over. There are instances through which immorality is illustrated, but beyond this curtain, there are great moral lessons . We are told of Kieu, “Alive she played the wife to all the world” (Du, 7) .As such the mere presentation of Kieu in a brothel can send the signal that the verse is immoral. But this should not be the motivation for such a harsh conclusion.

Virtue The kind of restoration that we eventually encounter points to the fact that this tale is seriously mirrored towards advancing the nature of virtue. This is seen from the inner thoughts of the minor characters. Though Thuc got Kieu through a brothel, he had a yearning of once getting a partner with whom they could marry and finally start a serious family. “…this harlot, after all, knows right from wrong…” (Du, 75).Theirs was a relationship which quickly moved from a casual one to a morally acceptable one.

Scholar Ma played a tragic role in the destiny of young girl. In the eastern culture the beauty of tragedy if considered deeper, purer, and truer than the beauty of happiness. From the book we may know if Scholar Ma was not the main cause for Kieu to become a prostitute. Kieu’s renunciation would not be so prominent.

Scholar Ma destroyed her personal happiness, but by doing this, her character became more immoral. The very same situation became classic from the point of view of Chinese and Vietnamese literature. Virtue of Kieu was impossible without Scholar Ma. Scholar Ma is an original element of fate and at the same time, an ordinary representative of his social group.

Strength and Weakness Thuc’s image includes several issues such as the question of strength and weakness. In fact, paternity plays a great role in the story; Thuc just could not not follow his father because it was impossible from the point of view of Eastern philosophy. Father’s image personifies the idea of social, moral and virtuous responsibilities. For Kieu and Thuc, this fact was the universal truth; still the girl was stronger than her lover and she took responsibility and decided to face the judge.

Thuc could not fulfill his obligation to his wife and to Kieu. When the judge took pity and ordered their marriage, Thuc was afraid of his first wife and did not reveal his relationships with the girl. Kieu saved faces even in shameful situations, while Thuc fell sacrifice to his passions and weaknesses. Kieu is strong, even in the hours of hardships. Thuc is influenced by her strength when he helps her escape the temple and the threat which his wife corresponds. We are told “…known as Miss Hoan, she wore a great name….” (Du, 79)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More True virtue serves as an example for others and strengthens them. Virtue plays out in the tale from what Miss Hoan goes through. Though Thuc leaves her and marries Kien, we can easily see how she practically stands her ground as first wife.

Through Thuc we see the reflection of squander and plunder as compared to what actually befell Vietnam historically (Du, 164). Thuc being a thrift spender, “squandered money with both hands”. Vietnam as a country got squandered by invaders who affected almost every aspect of the country.

Though The Tale of Kieu portrays characters as seen, going deeper one sees an embodiment of what ails the society. There are several competing forces and these determine the way things work out. The character, in essence, presents to us how destiny is equally determined by fate.Kim Trong’s ordeal was separation with Kieu, and even reunion of lovers was not so happy. It happened because they were engaged, but their relationships were not full.

Of love and friendship they fulfilled both claims –

They shared no bed but joys of lute and verse .

Their wishes all came true since fate so willed,

And of two lovers marriage made two friends. (Du, 165)

We will write a custom Essay on “The Tale of Kieu” by Nguyen Du specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their mutual life is ordeal for Kieu. At the end of life, a human’s soul seeks for truth. Kieu becomes a nun and does not want to defile Kim Throng’s ordeal. She proves that true virtue is renunciation.

Conclusion Through the images of the minor characters, the author reveals the essence of virtue and its role in the destiny of people. From what befalls the characters, we can finally see the kind of moral conscience that drives humanity being advanced in the tale. There are several issues which we see getting resolved through reconciliation and reunions.

By all these one can only conclude that the characters, through the turmoil that they go through, serve as a medium through which the trouble that humanity goes through in search of virtue is reflected. Kim for instance seeks Kieu’s love for a long time, but Kieu’s refusal to give in quickly initially is motivated by the fear if soiling Kim’s stature. Her sticking to the preservation of chastity only goes further to reflect the inner yearning for virtue. In essence The Tale of Kieu is a moral verse.

Works Cited Du, Nguyen. The Tale of Kieu. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.

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Illegal Migration Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The legal framework relating to this issue Illegal migration takes place when citizens of one country enter to a foreign country without following the laid rules and guidelines thus violating the laws of the country which they enter to. The issues about illegal migration in the USA has been a problem for quite a long time and as a result, measures have been taken and a legal framework has been established to deal with this vice.

As of the year 2007, it was estimated that about 20 million migrants to the US were in the country illegally where the majority of illegal migrants were noted to be from the neighboring Mexico.

The legal framework under which issues dealing with illegal migration in the US is found in its Immigration Policy. The policy not only does it control illegal migration, but it also reflects different and diverse goals such as reuniting people with their relatives, providing labor in the sectors which seem to have shortages and many more. This policy covers both the legal and illegal migrants to the US.

In the part of illegal US migrants, the migration policy states that any person found living in the US can be made to leave the country either through a formal process (such as use penalties, fines and prohibition from future entries or may be asked to leave the country at will). The US immigration policy has undergone several changes and amendments since the country attained its independence in order to cater for the different situations which have arisen with globalization and advancements in technology.

The recent restructuring of the US migration laws were done with the enactment of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which enabled the state to create the department of Homeland Security (DHS). With the creation of DHS, the functions of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were transferred to the Department of Homeland Security which is better armed with the resources of dealing with migration (Wasem

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Lie and Deception Research Paper writing essay help

Mankind has been endowed with the gift of communication use both verbal and non-verbal means. However, meaningful communication among the people is usually distorted by willful lie and deception. Deception refers to intentional distraction of information between people in a relationship and usually leads to distrust between the partners (Rondina and Workman 1).

It usually involves the violation of rules governing relationships and is regarded to be an outright contravention of what is expected each of the relational party. In any interaction, people expect their close friends, family members, as well as unfamiliar persons to exercise the highest degree of truthfulness. It is unfortunate that human beings have a natural tendency of wanting to deceive in their day to day interactions.

Some forms of deception that may be mentioned include lies, concealments or omissions, understatement which involves limiting truth, equivocations where an individual make contradicting statements, and exaggeration of truth. A lie is the act of claiming to have some information or disseminating or withholding information from an individual (Cullen 2). Usually, the information supplied is farther from the truth. The research paper explores lie and deception from a psychological perspective.

Different groups have realised the need to detect lies and deceptions especially the forensic psychologists, the police, security experts, and those in relationships. A lie refers to a statement that is usually made deliberately with an intention of misleading or deceiving another; it is a deliberate telling of falsehood (Rondina and Workman 3). It is also a form of deception and has been categorised into different types. They include: being economical with the truth, propaganda, bluffing, emergency lie, the big lie, and so forth.

The ability to detect lies and deceptions is a useful skill that any manager, employer, and many activities that help one from either becoming a victim. Psychological researchers have realised that they can investigate individuals suspected of lying. They use both body and language and can tell whether one is telling the truth or not (Cullen 25). It has been established that with objective observation of an individual’s body language by concentrating on the physical gestures as well as the verbal cues, one can tell if a person is lying or not.

A number of physical gestures have been associated with deception and that it is possible to understand the body language. If an individual is being untruthful during communication, the individual’s overt expression will be limited and strained (Cullen 41).

The movement of the arms and hand will also be limited and if any, they would be highly self-centered. They would also not spread their hands when seated on a sofa or leave them on their on when standing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the liar will appear to be shrinking into him/herself. Another clear that a person is not telling the truth is that he or she will not make direct eye contact or if made, it would be prolonged. In case of any hand movement, they would be directed towards the face, holding the throat as well as the mouth. Moreover, the individual would be touching their nose or rubbing at the back of their ear (Rondina and Workman 11).

With keen observation, such an individual would not be seen touching the chest with widely opened hand. The standing posture also tells a lot about the truthfulness of what an individual is saying at any particular time and psychologists would read a lot from this.

Psychological researchers in the field of human interactions in relation to lying have also found that emotional gestures can be used to effectively tell whether someone is being truthful (Cullen 49). A close observation of these gestures reveals clear contradictions from what would otherwise be natural expressions.

When one is lying, the timing as well as the duration of emotional signs is usually out of the natural pace. The expression of these emotions may be delayed, or prolonged, and when they end suddenly than one would naturally anticipate (Rondina and Workman 16).

For instance, when someone receives a gift and says “I love it!” in the course of receiving, and smiles later, instead of doing the two concurrently, the person would probably be insincere. On the other hand, there is usually a mismatch between the verbal statements and gestures or expressions when one is lying. A truthful person’s expressions would involve the whole face unlike the one who is telling a lie or faking emotions since the facial expressions would only involve the mouth.

The other way through which one can detect lies is by investigating the behaviour of an individual interactions and how they react. Research findings reveal that a liar would always be on the defensive while an innocent person will always be offensive during interpersonal relationships (Rondina and Workman 30).

Eye contact during interaction also tells a lot; the liar will often avoid direct eye contact with the questioner. A liar is likely to cross his hands over the chest as well as fold the legs; this is an indication that he or she is trying to withhold some information.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Lie and Deception specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This scenario is usually evident during interviews or when police are interrogating a suspect. Liars are more likely to use the words of the questioner when answering. They are also known for avoiding pronouns and introducing other parties into what involves them, for instance:

Police officer: Did you steal the electrical appliances from your neighbor?

Suspect (While facing the ground): No, I did not steal any electrical appliances from my neighbor.

Police officer: Where were you on the night of December 31, 2010?

Suspect (With a raised tone): Even my family members know,…did not do anything evil on that night.

It can be concluded that lying and deception raises moral concern when it comes to interpersonal relationships. The consequences of lying can be so hurting on the victim. People ought to be truthful in whatever they say or do despite the myth that truth is a bitter pill to swallow.

Works Cited Cullen, Sharon. Understanding Deception. Samhain Plc. 2009: 1- 57

Rondina, Catherine

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Blood Donation as Charitable Activity for Society Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction It has being observed that serving the humanity for a noble cause not only brings welfare, well-being, but also the prosperity to ones inner soul and overall life. The humanity turned towards civilization when it came to realize the importance of helping and assisting the other human beings, caring living things and supporting a civilized society which turned the cave age stay of men into a modern civilized and much more compact world.

The concept of humanity does not end with the concept of living and caring in a digital, technological and modern world, but starts and ends with the global noble and human cause of bringing a feeling and sense of care for all living and well beings on this single planet. We call it the black age where human miserably fought the worst wars of the human history, taken of vast land just for the cause of creating dominance on the map of the earth or killing each other in the name of the desperate revenge.

Hence, these all events lead the scholars and intellects around the globe that these aggressive occupation of land, dominance of ethnics, or any sort of power that brings one entity as supervisor or superior on another, would take nowhere.

And it leads to the emergence of the world’s most generous, kind, man loving and peace widen individuals around the world who not only sent a message of serving humanity, serving mankind, spreading peace, and making world a better and lovable place for all generations to come, but also did them in their own lives as practice so as to pursue people for the cause of loving and serving humanity.

Mother Teresa would be the name to mention here who in her whole life, dedicated her each breath for the nurturing and well-being of humanity without any discrimination of creed, cast, ethnic or religion and hence leaving behind us all an example of deeds that would remain immortal in this life as well as in the life here after.

Blood Donation is one of those noble and enduring deeds. Blood works as a fuel in our body and is the main constitute of keeping our body alive and fresh from the day of a human birth till the departure from this planet and during all the seconds a body lives, enjoys and works in any part of the world, at any temperature and at any condition.

Hence, this main module of a body must be maintained to a certain level inside the body to keep it healthy, fresh and in workable condition to perform daily life task and procedures. The procedure of taking oxygen in and carbon dioxide out from the body is all performed by Blood. It acts as a transporter of carrying those gases inside and outside the body perpetually and periodically. Blood also helps the body from getting infections or becoming vulnerable to the bacteria’s or germs from the outer world of the body (Steane, n.d).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Blood also provides delivery service of rotating different daily meal compounds inside the body to different locations or cells for body nurturing and growth. The process of taking water, separating the necessary tissues or cells or energy from them and converting them into urine is also a function of blood inside a human body. Blood take out the necessary minerals and energy cells from the healthy foods, and eatables for the nourishment and growth of the body as well as good circulation of it’s inside the veins (Zoology Homework, n.d).

The human blood constitutes of four essential parts which are “Red Cells”, “Platelets”, “Plasma”, and “Cryoprecipitate” (ARC, 2011). Pint is the standard unit of measuring Blood around the world which different slightly in its accepted values in continents across the globe. In the U.S. Customary System, the value of 1 pint of blood varies from 0.473 liters to 0.551 liters whereas the same 1 pint is equal to 0.568 liters in British Imperial System (TheFreeDictionary, n.d).

Hence, the procedure of Blood Donation varies upon the requirement of the patient or the receiver that is the Blood can be donated as a group of those mentioned Blood Components above or it can be donated in specifically for the required of any of those parts or blood components.

A man body has an average of 4.5 to 5 liters of Blood in the body as compare to 4 to 4.5 liters of Blood in woman’s body with 14-18 pints of average blood in the adults or mature human being (KarmaYog, n.d).

Blood donation is a very simple and healthy procedure. According to an old saying, the blood donation keeps your blood rotating and hence leads to a healthy and refreshing life after the procedures.

Hence, donating blood is a four stride function i.e. the donors’ registration, examination of medical background along with a partial physical health check (the check up of body temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate etc), the blood donation, and finally refreshing juices.

At most, a blood donation time is observed around 15 minutes (i.e. the actual time of filling the empty white bottle with blood during donation). And on an average, one pint is transferred or donated from the total of pints in a human body (ARC, 2011).

We will write a custom Report on Blood Donation as Charitable Activity for Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the blood donation process is beneficial to both the donor and the recipient because during blood donation, the excessive consumed body of products containing high amount of iron releases that amount and take them to the normal average human level i.e. sometimes we call them obese or fat which can cause heart and diabetes problems . Hence, the blood donation reduces the chances of heart attacks or diabetes (Leong, 2008).

Role of UAE Government regarding Blood Donation Almost all around the world, local governments, nongovernmental organizations and health institutes are busy for the noble cause of blood donation. Blood is among the scarce minerals that the digital and technological world cannot produce or supply through any other mean but human being.

Hence, it is the only process of transportation from one human body to another human body, the latter called patient or recipient while the former is called the blood donor, and beneficial to the health of both the donor and the patient. The patient get healed through the blood transformation and the donor gets rid of many of the possible health hazards that can be cause of heart and diabetes, in case of high amount of iron inside the human body.

The Health Minister of United Arab Emirates (UAE), H.E. Dr. Hanif Hassan Ali Al Qassim, initiated a nationwide blood donation campaign in the United Arab Emirates in the last quarter of 2010 following the international accreditation of Sharjah Blood Transfusion Centre. The Minister elaborated the vision of the blood donation campaign to be the self complacency in Blood donation and transfusion in the UAE and accredit ate globally.

The Minister applauded the efforts and hard work of the donors of age group in their twenties or thirties for this splendid cause of blood donation (Ministry of Health, 2010). The minister also emphasis and vision for launched blood campaign for an increment of blood donors from an average of 9 percent to 10 percent a year.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been nominated among the five biggest blood donor and transfusion countries, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) (Emirates247, 2010). The UAE also takes the prides of holding World’s Blood Donor day 3 years back in 2008 which is the first Arab country to held such internationally recognized day.

The Reason for selecting such category among others in the UAE Society The world is developing and developing at a rapid pace towards more and more advancement in science and technology, to gain excess power over excessive land and control overseas, to have an arguable share in everything that can make an impact towards their national interest all around the globe. That includes every nation, every country and every part of this planet. Governments are thriving for enough in their national and domestic favors and interests.

The worlds’ worst wars have been fought in the past centuries. The planet sees the magnificent use of its natural resources, also when those blessed resources were made bane for the humanity and human life. That era was the era of doing everything and advancement just for the benefit of one’s own interest and favor, everything aside was out casted or ignored.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Blood Donation as Charitable Activity for Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More And hence, just after the world war I, when the Great depression hit very hard and severely the great and all economies around the world, the leaders of the time decided to sit under a common roof to take humanity out of this disaster where hundreds and thousands of people lost their jobs, lost their homes, lost access to food and nutrition and hence human life became miserable to survive.

The history saw the worst part of human nourishment. Hence, leads to the solution of the Leagues which even did not prevent any further collision. And hence we saw the World War II.

Just when everything was lost and those who wanted to have control over the global took over the control, then people realize what have been lost and what still can be done to avoid further catastrophe to the generations to come.

Hence, we saw campaign for global causes in the form of Millennium Development Goals which includes two similar goals on health improvement and development globally around the continents i.e. goals of improving maternal health and fighting and solving HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases, not in national or domestic interests but for a sustainable global planet.

From Education, Transportation, modern Telecommunication, Housing and Construction, and hence in all the fields via which the United Arab Emirates (UAE) can compete, with the emerging challenges from the developed countries, it has done and done impressively well and hard enough.

Today, Dubai is considered as a hub of world Trade, Tourism and Investment. Enriched and blessed, this land, with the wells of Oil, people of the UAE worked extremely hard to make this desert a healthy, living, and touring spot of the world. Enough, but more than enough, has been written or is being written for the sustainability of all the mentioned sectors in the UAE by many organizations, firms or institutes as their own stack is attached with the normalization of all stated factors.

Out of these all factors, humanity calls for something that can cure their pains, heal their wounds and assist them towards nurture and affection. Health is the sector that is the centre of development of almost all the government around the world. Most of the worst diseases, that the human life can see, exist today that includes the curse of Malaria, Cancer, AID/HIV and others.

Also, the casualties that the latest and technological world causes i.e. casualties from accidents be these via mean of road or air, ultimately their victims need blood. Hence, causing an alarm for an effort that can alone be lauded across the world is the cause of sustainable measure for good health and being of locals and populous.

Hence, in the light of above mentioned facts and text, the topic “Blood Donation” is the most valuable and enlighten among all those that relate to technological development or nuclear enrichment programs or all those that have nothing to do with serving and assisting humanity but making human life miserable through their certain functionalities.

Stages of Group Development For teams to perform efficiently and effectively in collaboration and assistance of each participating member, the following five are the most essential steps toward positive, fruitful and productive output via stepping upward in the stages of group development model.

Not only does it increase the performance of the department or organization or the cause for which they are working together, but it also results in productive output of the work which that group take over. The members increase their contacts in the inside and outside world of their firm.

Since, this model is also followed by multiple organizations working for the same cause, this can help the members to have quality understanding of mutual communication and delivery of words or point towards the ultimate objective of the group. It also increases the efficiency of the human resource at the organization or firm for any of their future deals or communication with entities inside or outside their business.

Therefore, the work for “Blood Donation” task is divided according to the following five stages and uniformly divided among the members of the group.

Forming A very first meeting is held to discuss the procedure of how the group can proceed towards the completion of the task regarding “Blood Donation”. Since, the formation of random groups in the classroom requires initial time for members to have effective and clear communication between them, hence, the different aspects of contacting a blood bank, procedure to run the awareness campus and others are vaguely discussed.

Storming The ideas are blurrily discussed with the group members in the group formation stage. Now, the members are busy discussing and brain storming the following undertakings that would eventually help in the report making.

Contacting a nearby Blood Bank

Analysis of regular blood donation

To contact a particular Company so that an awareness program can be launched within its premises.

Material required for the Blood Donation awareness campaign

Activity day i.e. exposing employees to this charitable act of blood donation

Norming After the brain storming activity in the storming stage, the group is all set to clear out the procedure for the campaign to begin. Hence, the duties are uniformly divided amongst the members.

One member is going to contact a nearby blood bank

One is going to contact a company XY to have their idea implemented and;

Third member is going to collect information about the publishing and printing of material required for the campaign.

Performing As all the directions are set for the task to be initiated, members have got the chance to perform the awareness activity within the XY Company they contacted in the earlier stage. The members also remain successful in publishing and printing the material for the activity to take place. The material that is printed for the campaign includes flayers, hand outs, pamphlets and t-shirts.

Adjourning In the last stage for the preparation of their report for the Blood Donation task, members have successfully visited and ran a fascinated awareness campaign on blood inside the XY Company building. The employees are happy to be a part of this charitable awareness program inside their offices.

The employees are participating with all their interest and responding to our queries at ease. Members have distributed the flayers and handouts with the workforce. A pamphlet regarding the activity, to take place in the building, has been posted on the main notice board at the welcome entrance of the building. A small presentation on this charitable activity is also being given to the employees and staff of the XY Company all through the day.

Conclusion Blood is that constitute of the human body that supports and live the refreshingly bio system of the living body. Hence, it is viable and has monopoly in its production and wide spread use. By monopoly or wide spread use means that the only source for getting blood is human for supporting and healing a human.

It is found to be a noble cause for the serving of humanity all around the globe. Though technology and digital world have produced an ease for human lives, but they are unable to produce Blood, a natural mineral, up to such advancement in the technology.

Governments, nongovernmental organizations and institutions around the world are constantly thriving to increase the blood donation each year to cure and heal thousands of patients waiting for this constituent of human body to cure them. WHO has been encouraging those stakeholders to motivate their populous to show generosity towards this universal goal that would ultimately be in favor for a sustainable and health environment and world for us, for people around us and for generations that are to come.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been the most active member in this regard. After internationally accreditation of the Sharjah Blood Transfusion Centre, the Health Minister H.E. Dr. Hanif Hassan Ali Al Qassim originated a nationwide blood donation campaign in the UAE in the last quarter of 2010 with a mission to increase the blood donation from 9 percent per year to 10 percent per year.

Hence, envisioning and revitalizing the self stipulating in Blood Supply and Donation not only inside their territory (UAE) but across the globe for the common humanity serving.

Hence, beside the soaring economy, developing infrastructure, high pumping of billions of dollars in its territory for a complete modern, developed and self sufficient city and centre of the world, the government in the UAE i.e. the Ministry of Health is taking its best efforts towards the “Blood Donation” topic discussed above with various quotes and references from online newspapers and ministry of health UAE website.

This not only because health is the sector which is ignored by most of the governments in developing countries but also because it is the uprising issue of hundreds and thousands of people around the globe awaiting the help from those who are capable of delivering them a inspiration of hope and life. The example of which is given as the Millennium Development Goals which incorporated two of its goals related to health. One is the improvement in the maternal health and other one is combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases.

Historically fights or wars were fought for individual society’s goal or objectives. But the examples like Great depression, the melting of Atlantic and the deforestation has turned the nature of globalization. It teaches a lesson of immense cooperation and assistance to each other for each cause around the globe to make this planet a worth living and rejoicing place for generations.

Upon reaching the conclusion on the Blood Donation, it is now the role of each member, each person and individual of any society to come and help, all those who are desperately looking forward to us, by all our possible means that can contribute towards the good foundation of serving humanity which would eventually spread peace and tolerance in our society.

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Policy Paper on Oil Conservation Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Needs section

Policy section

Benefits section

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Back in 1973, the country was hit by oil crisis that left all individuals in a quagmire. This was a wake up call for various stakeholders to take necessary action that amounted to imposing National Maximum Speed Limit, down sizing automobile categories and enacting National Energy Acts among other (Juhasz 237). However, it is still evidence that more needs to be done to help arrest the problems of energy in the country.

This is because the need for energy not only in the country but globally is growing exponentially calling for a review of the policies in place as well as coming with new ones. Considering the current trend on energy consumption especially from oil, there is need to conserve it or else we risk coming to a stand still in terms of economic growth due to lack of energy.

Needs section As suggested by Juhasz 42 tremendous increase in human population has an automatic effect on increased amount of energy need. A larger population will need energy for lighting their houses, during construction of new buildings, a larger amount of energy is consumed, and there is increased need for transport among others. All these put pressure on the available energy resources. Unfortunately the problem facing BP since last year has made it a challenge for oil products to be available (Brune 207).

The environment has been negatively impacted as a result of the oil spill forcing the company into legal suits where they have parted with lots of money that could have been used to better oil conservation, processing and storage. Political instability in a number of OPEC countries has negatively impacted on availability of oil forcing prices to sky rocket due to short supply. For instance countries such as Egypt and Libya have experienced political instability which has seen to it that oil supply has declined.

There are studies that have shown that there is a decline in oil reserves. The amount of oil resources underground has been deemed to decline at an alarming rate and in the near future, there will be no more underground reservoirs of oil. It is no doubt that this has been influenced by the raising demand of the energy source (Brune 37). Another area of concern when it comes to oil conservation is the manner with which the rich in the society have absolute control on the resource.

In the major countries that are top suppliers of the product, there are a few rich individuals who dictate how the product is to be priced, supplied, transported among other attributes. This negatively influences impact on the consumers. Lastly, oil as a source of energy compared to other sources is heavily depended on. This kind of over-reliance is a threat to it being available in the future (Madison par. 4).

Policy section Having in mind that the demand for energy will continue growing; to help propel the growth of the economy there is need to come up with steps that will help conserve oil. One major way to do this is to solicit for alternative sources of energy. Despite the fact that 80.0% of transport and industrial sector depend on oil, having in place other sources of energy especially from bio fuel, solar energy, nuclear and more so the renewable sources is called for. This will not only help ease the pressure on oil as a source of energy but also save our environment from carbon emission which depletes the ozone layer (Jochem

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