Natural System Sustainability Expository Essay Essay Help

System’s sustainability entails the creation and maintenance of an effective system that assists in designing, planning, incorporating and implementing its own vision by considering its various components. Since a system entails many different components, there is a need to attach equal importance to the separate parts that make up a complete system. It is therefore imperative to discuss the systems thinking theory as well as the nature step theory in order to fully appreciate system sustainability.

The theory of systems thinking sustainability employs the analogy of functionality of a human body by arguing that sustainability of the lifeblood of the body cannot be successful in isolation (Brown, 2005). Hence, the balance between support systems of the different parts of the body needs to be maintained for a given system to remain effective.

For instance, each part of the body system contributes to the whole process leading to effective and full functioning of the body. From the system, the theory continues to postulate that after achieving personal health for effective body functioning, an individual becomes happy if the immediate environment including family and friends fosters healthy relationships and thus becomes useful in a strong community.

In comparison, the theory suggests that sustainable businesses cannot exist without direction of the major components of these enterprises towards sustainability. These components include shareholders, employees, clients and suppliers to name a few. In this regard, businesses are required to heavily borrow from nature for natural systems, which if left undisturbed, will always remain efficient in carrying out natural functions (Brown, 2005).

The natural step theory The natural step theory attempts to explain the implication of decisions affecting the future. It states that factors critical to determination of success entail positive vision creation towards a desired state. The theory stipulates that to reach a desired goal, there must be an involvement of the several steps which are distinct from each other.

Additionally, fixation at one step is heavily discouraged as it affects the natural step. The first step towards vision materialization commences with a drawback from the vision. This is intended to create a route/path from the present to the future. Moving forward, the created future starts with one step and each has to have an ending progressively and successfully. After successful completion of each step, there is a remarkable progression (Nattrass

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The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction In the Wealth of Nations (WN), Smith argues that the societys prosperity can only be achieved if the society guarantees individuals the freedom to pursue their goals within the confines of natural justice. In a book that he had written earlier, ‘The Theory of Moral Sentiments’, smith explains both the origin of rules of justice and the emergence of moral sentiments.

The Adam Smith problem refers to the supposed contradiction between Smith’s argument in favour of self-interest in WN on one hand and his defence of sympathy in TMS on the other. On the face value, it may seem that the two works contradict each other (Adam Smith problem).

However, a detailed analysis indicates that no contradiction exists but rather, the two works support each other. In TMS Smith argues that in the pursuit of individual self-interest, the individual satisfies the interest of society. For example, a baker bakes bread for him to earn some monetary profits (self interest), but in turn he meets the societys demand for bread (societys interest). Under the capitalist system (WN), individuals pursue their goals through trade and production.

As they trade and produce, they must take into account the values of other society members (TMS). Smith argues that an individual or a company will make greater profits if the society (other individuals) place greater value on its activities. It is therefore evident that self-interest contained in the WN and moral sentiments in TMS work towards the same goal.

The market forces of demand and supply cannot function if there is no society, for without society, it is impossible for division of labour and its resulting efficiency to occur. This points to the fact that the market forces of demand and supply to some extent rely on the individuals ability to sympathize (role of justice in free trade). Smiths notion of self interest is therefore in line with his idea of sympathy.

Discussion In 1776, Adam Smith published his popular book, ‘The Wealth of Nations’ (WN). This book marked the beginning of the concept of market and free trade. To date The Wealth of Nations, remains one of the largely significant books in political economy. However, even before the wealth of nations, smith had published another important work in 1759, titled the Theory of Moral Sentiments.

This book is little known outside the philosophical spheres. TMS provides significant ideas into Smiths perception of human knowledge and nature. This work was the foundation of Smiths economic theory. A number of authors have argued that these two books contradict each other (they call them the two Smiths). They assert that in TMS, smith focuses on having a feeling for fellow humans (sympathy), while in WN; he argues that societies and individuals accumulate wealth by pursuing individual selfish interests.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Connecting Sympathy in TMS to WN

Smiths concept of sympathy is central to the Adam Smith Problem. According to Griswold (260), Smith asserts that one of humanitys original obsession is sympathy or having a feeling for fellow humans. Smith argued that no matter how selfish an individual may be, in his nature, there are certain inherent principles in a mans nature that will attract him to the welfare of his fellow humans and therefore their happiness.

He gains nothing from this other than the satisfaction of seeing it (Smith 1751). The idea of sympathy has been widely misinterpreted to mean concern or pity. However, Smiths idea of ‘sympathy meant the tendency to identify with not only others miseries, but also their fortunes.

So fellow feeling is any similar passion or emotion that arises in the mind of an observer who observes another individuals outward expression of inner feelings. It is therefore clear that inner feeling is not only a function of pain and sorrow but also the joy and happiness of the others (Smith 3).

Smith argues that is much easier to identify with your joy than with your sorrow. As a result, a person who has no envy can easily identify with the good luck of another. On the other side, it is usually hard to identify with grief and we enter into it while dragging our feet (Smith 1751, Book 1 Ch 9).

Smith argues that this is the origin of ambition and class structure that serves to maintain order and stability in society. An individual who has the necessities of life is better placed to seek fame and fortune because he attracts positive sympathy from other individuals. As an inherent characteristic among individuals, they always want to better their lifestyles beyond what is considered a reasonably comfortable lifestyle.

This is partly attributed to the fact that they value sympathy in the form of admiring others who have already achieved that status. This point connects TMS to WN in the sense that individuals are never satisfied with their possessions. In deed if we had such a society where individuals are satisfied with bare necessaries of life, it would have been a very stable society but with no economic growth making it unable to fit in the changing world.

Nations create wealth because of the individuals never-ending pursuit to improve themselves materially. This happens under a conducive environment. According to Smith, countries that have allowed their citizens to pursue their self-interest have grown in wealth while those that failed in the same have fell into poverty.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though, the liberty to pursue self-interest cannot be without limit. This is because excess liberty by one individual is only achieved at the expense of others liberty. Therefore, there has to be a framework for regulating individual liberty. This is achieved by the rules of justice. Smith argues that justice is threatened from two sources; corruption in the society arising from the worship of riches and authority and the ambitions of rulers.

Smiths Criticism on the Worship of Wealth and Power

Smith was conscious that the worship of wealth and despise of poverty though important in maintaining social stability and driving industry, equally posed serious threats. He condemned the corruption of the princes and the political elite who ascend to power through intrigue, deception and crime but nowhere does he condemn the wealth creation.

What Smith was against was the careless accumulation of wealth that could corrupt the society, through continuous worship of wealth in total disregard to how wealth is created. He asserts that greatness and wealth in the absence of virtue and merit deserve no respect. In Smiths theory, the attitudes of people shape moral sentiments and passions.

Therefore, the tendency to worship and admire the rich and powerful, while looking down upon and neglecting the poor, though important in maintaining the class structure and order in society, corrupts the moral sentiments (Smith 3). When individuals continuously admire and adore the wealthy and the great, they tend to either ignore or excuse their faults.

This goes against the rules of justice, which is the foundation of social order. Therefore, as much as social class is created and maintained through the creation of wealth, social order is more important and the wealthy should not look down upon the poor.

Humanity in general longs for respect and admiration among his fellows. According to Smith, he can achieve this through two avenues; by studying wisdom and practicing virtue or by acquiring wealth and greatness. To Smith, the latter attract majority of humanity because they admire and worship material prosperity.

This view is similar to the modern celebrity culture in our society that is characterized by the lives of rich and famous. A society that internally undermines justice through blind worship of wealth and greatness is likely to be externally destroyed by the rulers. Absolute power, allows the rulers to manipulate the law for their own economic gains (Smith 9).

Justice as a Moral Basis of Trade in TMS

The central theme WN is that trade is the avenue to national prosperity. Trade is the direct opposite of robbery either by state or by individuals. Trade can only thrive where the security of persons and property is guaranteed. Security as a whole can be secured only through rules of justice.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More TMS hypothesizes how these rules are possible and how they are formulated. Our major focus on this part will be on how sympathy transform into rules of justice. Smith puts forward two types of moral judgement; judgement of decency or indecency of an individuals passions in responding to events.

For example, if B steals As wallet containing $ 10, A has a right to be upset and resentful. However, if A responds with excessive grief as if he has lost his entire fortune, those around him may judge his conduct as indecent. Equally, if B boasts of his achievement, his conduct will be judged by others to be improper.

The second category of moral judgements involves the merits and demerits of actions. Judgement based on proper reward or punishment for an act. As noted earlier, sympathy is an instinct that all humans possess. Individual A can have sympathy for individual B only if A can imagine how B is feeling (Griswold 339).

Individual A cannot get into individual Bs mind, the best he can do is to imagine Bs feelings by way he would feel if in his situation. Using the earlier example of a stolen wallet, assume that individual W sees B stealing As wallet. W can have fellow feeling for A, because if he were the victim he would feel the same way.

Similarly, W can sympathise with As anger. Worth noting however, is that W can never fully associate with the feelings of A. His bitterness of BS act is likely to be weaker than As own bitterness of the act. This implies that if A over reacts, then W is not likely to approve it. According to Smith, the aggrieved party (A) should therefore match his passion (the extent of resentment) to that of the impartial spectator (W), if he is to capture his sympathy (Smith 22).

Therefore, the moral judgement about the decency or indecency of an act is that of the neutral spectator who is neutral and has no positive or negative inclination to the parties directly involved. Similarly, the impartial spectator can only issue proper judgement about reward or punishment for the act of stealing. Individual A may feel that the thief (B) deserves a life imprisonment but he will not find much sympathy from (W) the impartial spectator.

The Rules of Justice

From smiths point of view, sympathy forms the basis of justice. The impartial spectator identifies with the grief of the victim of violence and recommends for punishment, though not to that which the victim desires. According to Smith, rules emerge when our sense of justice disappoints us at the time when we need it most.

When this happens, then we have to judge our own actions. Smith argues that it is practically impossible for us to make reasoned judgements before we take every action as humans. This is because we often act so fast that there is no time to make judgements and that our judgements are usually full of our own passions. If we reflect upon our actions afterwards and discover that we made mistakes, we will forgive ourselves.

This necessitates the need for an external instinct in our nature that allows us to identify the proper rule of conduct. By continuously observing the conduct of others, we formulate to ourselves certain general guidelines or rules regarding what are proper and therefore should be done and what are wrong that we should avoid. When these individual perceptions coincide or merge, then the rules of just conduct come into existence.

Generally, were not originally designed with forethought, but rather developed through the accumulation of experience (Smith 23). That notwithstanding, the continuous existence of general rules, involves another element. The primary reason why rules of justice exist is that majority of the people observe them of their free will most of the time.

This element of observance originates from the virtue of self-command that Smith considers the source of all virtues. Understanding and knowing the rules by itself cannot guarantee their observance. This is because self-interest motivates individuals to violate the rules they know and approve of. Through self-command, our urgent temptations are suppressed and it directs us to observe the rules of justice (Smith 4).

According to Smith, when individuals predict disapproval (retaliation strategy in game theory), they are forced to formulate the rules of proper conduct; the rules so formulated have no author (Ferguson 122). Worth noting is that not all the rules formulated turn out to be just. Customary practices and fashion may promote or negate justice (Smith 8).

The Reduced Role of Government in Relation to Moral Sentiments

According to Smith, between the two outward moralities of beneficence and justice, justice is of more importance to the society. He argues that the state has a specific role in the administration of justice. Moral rules of justice receive recognition as lawful obligations in the last resort and the state has the task to enforce.

However, in the determination of rules of justice, Smith does not see any major role for the state because they are formed on impulse through the adaptation of humanity. Smith believed in limited role of government. He was against the idea that a ruler knows best what is good for his people and that a centralised government can better take care of all aspects of social life.

He notes that harmony in society can only be successfully achieved when laws enacted by the peoples representatives are in line with the communitys expectation and that they do not lead to either despair or anarchy. To Smith, the society is so unstructured that is impossible for it to be micro-managed by a central system of government.he further notes that the society should not try to create the best system of laws but instead focus on the best that people can bear (Smith 14).

In his writing, warns against state efforts in promoting beneficence (actions that promote the well-being of others). He notes that even though the lack of beneficence stimulates condemnation, any move to force it can be even more inappropriate (Smith 6). While the well-being of others is desirable, it cannot be achieved without endangering the more elementary morality that is justice. Both justice and beneficence are critical components of societys moral capital.

However, the state is only effective in the enhancement of justice. Beneficence can only be enhanced through urging and recommendation (Smith 16). The secondary importance of beneficence relative to justice is important in understanding the synchrony of the TMS and the WN.

Though Smith was aware and rightly worried about greed and lack of concern towards the poor in his time, he was convinced that the growth of nations is better served by stable adherence to the rules of justice that provide conducive environment for trade and industry, the way to the wealth of nations.

Conclusion Smiths theory of moral sentiments argues that human beings by nature possess the instinct of fellow feeling. In the wealth of nations, he illustrates that self-interest is the engine of the wealth for countries and that through free trade; nations achieve the best path to prosperity. The Adam smith problem is not a real problem because of the following points;

In TMS Smith stays clear about the importance of self-interest over sympathy, secondly, self-interest and sympathy augment each other. During war, what sets each individual against every other individual is the instinct of sympathy. An individual can relate to another individuals joy as well as misery.

This capability actually enhances individual interests. In the absence of social harmony, the gains made will be short lived. As Paganelli points out, self-interest plays a positive role in the enhancement of virtues and the enforcement of moral rules (Paganelli 369). Third, it is impossible to carry out trade in the absence of steady rules that safeguard property, life and liberty. Without the rules of justice, trade cannot go on and the rules of justice cannot be achieved without sympathy (fellow feeling).

Lastly, sympathy drives self-interest as individuals extend and long for sympathy. To Smith, why we aspire for riches and fame over and above what is necessary is because we long for praise from other people. In the course of doing everything in order to earn praise from others, people end up meeting the society’s needs. It is this broader view of Smiths sympathy that nations are driven to greater prosperity.

Works Cited Griswold, Charles. Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print.

Paganelli, Maria. The Adam Smith Problem in Reverse’ 40:2 history of political economy. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.Print.

Smith, Adam. The Theory of moral sentiments. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.Print.

Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1981.Print.

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Country Analysis and Foreign Market Entry Choice Report custom essay help

Abstract The purpose of this report is to analyze the foreign market and entry choices in relation marketing of pet care products in India. Various sources of theoretical framework have been used to gather secondary information. In addition, issues such as competition, culture and market have been researched.

This business report has analyzed foreign markets referred to as 5Cs by use of theoretical framework. These 5Cs are based on competition, culture, customers, constitution and company. This framework which is very broad has been used to analyze the real Indian market situation and pet care industry, though it can be used to analyze a variety of foreign markets.

The findings show the evidence of potential pets care firms to enter the Indian market, based on preferences of the consumers and the general market situation. In addition, it has been found that the future success of pets care firms in India will be determined by their strategic commitment.

The categories of pets food in India is increasingly becoming specialized along size, breed, and age of dogs, cats and other pets. Rising disposable income and humanization of pets are believed to be the key causes of rise in demand for these products. Royal Canin premium brand is one of the dog foods, which is highly specialized and cater for varied life stages, sizes and breeds.

In many urban centers, exclusively-packaged dog food is commonly fed on puppies less than six months. Flavors and life stages are the main categories of product specialization, though it is less profound in cats’ foods. This is attributable to the fact that cat owners are less interested in learning about a variety of breeds compared to dog owners.

The study recommends India as a potential international market for pets’ care products since the analysis of the facts shows that this environment has less risk factor and many opportunities as a result of increased benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income.

Introduction In future, pets care in India is expected to continue registering more popularity and growth. Several factors such as benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income are attributable to such growth and popularity. More consumers in India are increasingly finding the need to have pets for companionship and are spending more on their welfare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The realization of the benefits of prepared foods is drawing a sharp shift from non-prepared foods. As the owners of the pets become more interested in improving their pets’ health and giving them comfort, strong popularity and growth within the pets’ products such as dietary and supplements and grooming products is expected take place (Ramesh, 2008).

Provision of pets’ care products in India is dominated by multinational companies. In year 2010, Mars International India Pvt Ltd was the leading player, followed by Royal Canin India Pvt Ltd and Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt. Strengthening of multinationals and Consolidation of pets’ care products resulted from a number of acquisitions that took place in 2009. Specifically, multinational Companies gained from loyalty and brand awareness.

In addition, availability of resources for education and marketing as well as provision of quality products also gave these companies a competitive edge. In 2010 and 2011, international brands like Hill’s Pet Nutrition Inc continued joining the pet food industry. The manufactures have seen a growing demand for pets’ products in urban areas and hence continues offering different wellness and health products for pets in India (Louis, Boone

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Union or Not Proposal college essay help: college essay help

The workers’ union plays a great role in the workplace. Lack of union in the plant that SNCC is purchasing will automatically have disparities in the company. This is because of the nature of roles played by unions in companies. They ensure a positive function in addressing and preventing familial abuse via intervention and training.

In most work places, domestic abuse is one of the union agenda since it is majorly a public health issue, family issue, workplace issue, social justice issue and a community issue. This paper seeks to discuss the role of unions in workplace and their relationship with the human resources and management.

Lack of union in the SNCC plant will therefore have disastrous impact in the company as a whole. This is because unions are vital in helping its members stay healthy, employed and safe so that they may remain self sufficient economically and retain their dignity (Phanindra, 2009).

Various business issues are associated with unions. The absence of a union in a workplace may result into adverse effects in the company. Without the union, issues such as fear, embarrassment, and workplace gossip, abuse of rights, exploitation, demonization, workplace conflict and low self esteem among other issues may arise due to lack of protection by the union. In situations where there is a union, positive issues results.

Employers and employees would to thing such as: understand that embarrassment and fear can prevent a member from talking concerning job issues, respect the rights of the members and their decisions, daunt workplace gossip, enlighten the member about the role of the union on their confidentiality, assistance and their non judgmental support, consider reassignment of jobs, refer members to unions, recognize retirees, develop unions resolutions, make public statements against violence and safety, negotiate supportive contract language and sponsor workshops concerning domestic violence (Noe et al., 2010)..

In case the new plant had a union, the union would be subjected to play multiple roles in ensuring success of the company as far as the company employees and operations are concerned.

The union would perform functions such as: negotiating collective agreement, the union would bargain for the terms and conditions that would be considered in employment of the workers in the bargaining unit; consulting and informing, the union would be informed and consulted on the recruitment decisions made by the company concerning collective redundancies, transfers and pension schemes; representing employees at grievance hearing and disciplinary, where there is a situation concerning discipline, the union would accompany workers to the committee for hearings; and partly or non unionized workers, here the union is obliged to inform the company about those workers who have since withdrawn from membership. The company is also obliged to inform the union about those members who cannot be part of the union (Boeri, 2007).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship that would exist between management, human resources, and the union if the new plant had a union would be a healthy and friendly one concerning the workers and the workplace. The management and the human resources both have roles and responsibilities towards the union.

The union representatives may be part of your employees and therefore considerable time off for their union duties should be awarded to allow them execute their administrative duties. The relationship between the union and the management should be consultative in that either of them informs and consults each other on matters concerning development of their interests and changes that are to be implemented in the company.

This enables the workers to adopt the stated changes without much opposition. The two could also enjoy a mutual relationship where the management allows the union to use the company facilities in their administrative functions (Noe et al., 2010).

In summary, the role of both the management and the union are directed towards a common goal. Achieving the objectives of the company and satisfying the needs of the workers. This paper has illustrated the role of unions at workplace and the relationship between the union, human resources and the management.

References Boeri, T. (2007). Role of Unions. London: Prentice Hall.

Noe, R. et al. (2010). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. London: McGraw-Hill.

Phanindra, V. (2009). The Role of Union in Workplace. New York: Cengage.

We will write a custom Proposal on Union or Not specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian Analytical Essay best college essay help

Introduction Many theorists suggest that a family forms the first model of political society. This is mainly because parents are relieved of their duties of caring for children once they reach adulthood. Similarly, children are relieved of complete obedience to their parents at adulthood. Moreover, family bonds and obligations are practically broken. In fact, whatever remains is voluntary. It signifies an opportunity for children to be masters of their own destiny.

This is the basic unit of political society, in which people are born free but everywhere they remain in chain. The expression is according to Rousseau who asserts that modern states have the habit of repressing freedom, which is everyone’s birthright. Moreover, he faults them for neglecting civil freedom, which is the main reason for joining civil society. He therefore believes that legitimate political power can only be achieved through social contract. This paper will assess the view that social contract is totalitarian (Rousseau, 1762 p. 1).

Rousseau’s social contract According to Rousseau, people are denied freedom, which is their birthright. He therefore believed that for considerable freedom to be exercised in any given society, it requires a legitimate government or political authority. Moreover, this authority must be attained through social contract. It is also quite important to note that the social contract must be accepted by all residents for mutual protection.

In this regard, he defines sovereign as a collective grouping of all individuals of a political society and maintains that it should be taken like an individual. In this sense, as far as an individual has a particular aim or goal in life for his or her best interest, a political society or sovereign have a general will that aims or fights for a common goal. Therefore, as much as the sovereign is absolute in its authority, it also has authority on issues of public interest or concern. In conclusion, Rousseau’s verdict to those who violate social contract is death.

According to Rousseau, an alien lawgiver is mandated with the responsibility of creating abstract as well as general laws. Moreover, it is in these laws that the general will is clearly expressed. In addition, he alludes to the fact that a government is required to perform executive duties along with sovereign in exercising legislative powers. The government is therefore mandated with the responsibility of running day-to-day activities in society. There are several forms of governments namely, monarchy, democracy and aristocracy, among others.

However, the form of government lies heavily on its size. For instance, monarchy is considered as the strongest of all forms of government. Moreover, according to Rousseau, it serves the largest population and is suited for hot climates. He also argues that aristocracies are the best form of government and usually more stable than the rest.

Rousseau also maintains those sovereigns is always distinct from government and therefore are always in constant friction. In this regard, this friction has the propensity of destroying a state. It is therefore important that the state remains healthy for stability and longer reign, which may last centuries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rousseau continues by pointing out that citizens implement their sovereignty through periodic and regular meetings. It is quite important to note that rarely does everyone attend these meetings; however, this is necessary for a healthy state. He also insists that use of representatives in these meetings endangers well being of a state especially since the general will cannot be heard.

In essence, he thinks that citizens should note vote for their personal needs, rather they should do so in the interest of general will. Furthermore, results attained from these votes ought to approach unanimity. This is where the rule of supermajority links as it ensures that the general will is heard. Rousseau uses an example of Roman republic to sink his view of social contract and the concept of general will.

Social Contract can thus be defines as an agreement that enables an individual to join a civil society. It therefore binds that individual into society or community that exists in the interest of communal protection. In this respect, such individuals loose the right to do whatever they want albeit they get civil freedom, which allows them to act and think morally and rationally. Therefore, Rousseau maintains that we can achieve human status by going into social contract (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).

The general Will Rousseau uses the concept of general will to assert his argument on a legitimate political society. He believes that a general will can only be achieved through inclusion of all members of society. This is contradictory to the current practices where representatives are elected to vote on behalf of citizens. He believes that this form of law making is contradictory to the needs of a people and therefore acts to serve personal needs and not the general will.

In this regard, he defines general will, as that will of sovereign, which aims at achieving a common good even though each member of a society is known to have his/her will. This is not expressed in the general will. In fact, general will express the will of a state, which covers everyone.

No wonder, he insists that everyone should be involved in such decisions since representatives may at times forward their own personal interests as is witnessed all over the world’s democracies. The general will is thus described as will of all, which can refer to the sum total of individual will.

However, this is only possible in a healthy state. In a state experiencing friction between sovereign and government, the general will differs from will of all. This is mainly because what is known to be general will, may sometimes be infiltrated by personal interests at the highest levels. This causes jittery and animosity between sovereign and government and may lead to fall of a state. General will is therefore very important and must concur with will of all, in order to achieve a healthy state (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).

We will write a custom Essay on Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Democracy There are several forms of governments in the contemporary world. These include democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy, among others. According to Rousseau, the form of government depends on its size. For example, monarchy is considered as strongest of all the various forms of government.

Furthermore, he maintains that Monarchy serves the largest population and is suitable for hot climates. In addition, Rousseau argues that aristocracies are the best form of government, which last for centuries. Rousseau faults modern democracies for demeaning their subjects and sovereign. For instance, modern democracies have representatives that are supposed to enact laws on behalf of citizens. However, this is not entirely true.

In fact, while some legislators go for their own interests, other push for ideologies over and above what their constituents want. This has caused jittery and acrimony in most countries with continual replacement of representatives during elections. Nonetheless, it continues to haunt them, as the trend of presenting personal thoughts continues.

Rousseau tries to determine the possibility of achieving freedom, as it should be and not in its present form where self interest takeover power and utilize it, as they want. In fact, it is for this reason that he goes for concurrence between the general will and will of all.

However, current democracies do not offer such provisions. In fact, they claim that Rousseau’s theories are impracticable in modern world and require an ideal world that can heed to most people’s wants. In essence, as much as democracy tries to achieve concurrence in issues and freedom, it fails to reach its minimum threshold in Rousseau’s view (Estlund, Waldron, Grofman

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