Munich: The Ethical Aspects Of Revenge Essay Essay Help

The film Munich directed by Steven Spielberg is aimed at exploring the ethical aspects of revenge. It should be noted that the authors of the movie focus on the military operation known as Wrath of God. It was supposed to be the retribution against people to kidnapped Israeli athletes and later killed them.

One can examine this operation from the perspective of consequentialism or the ethical framework which lays stress on the results of a decision, rather than its motives (Attfield 128). On the whole, the movie shows that revenge is an immoral act because it does not contribute to any positive outcome. More likely, such an action can pose a threat to innocent people. This is one of the points that can be made.

It should be mentioned that consequentialism is a philosophy according to which the results of a person’s actions or decisions are the main criterion according to which their morality should be evaluated (Attfield 128). In a turn, the motive of an individual cannot be used as a justification for an action that harms people (Attfield 128).

In fact, the motive underlying a decision is not relevant. This principle can be used to analyze the events described by the film-makers. They focus on the activities of Avner Kaufman who is a Mossad agent. He is ordered to assassinate people who planned and implemented the kidnapping of Israeli athletes in Munich. It is necessary to focus on the consequences of this operation.

First of all, one can mention that, they assassinate one of the suspects in a hotel by denoting a bomb within his room (Munich). However, in this way, they severely injure and probably kill several civilians. They are innocent people who have nothing to do with terrorist organizations. Certainly, the film-makers show that the agents do not want to harm any innocent bystanders; however, such a risk is an inseparable part of this operation. This pitfall is vital for assessing the ethical dimensions of revenge.

Another result of this operation is that one of the agents named Carl is killed in the course of this operation. In particular, he is murdered by a contract killer. This outcome can hardly justified from the perspective of people who might have cared about him. This concern is relevant when one speaks about people who decided to carry out this operation. This is another issue that should be taken into account by the viewers of this movie.

Finally, it is critical to remember that this operation did not eliminate the threat of terrorists. Those people, who were assassinated by Mossad agents, were easily substituted by others. This is why the main character of this film resigns from Mossad because he believes that this war against terrorism is futile (Munich). One can argue that he looks at this dilemma from consequentialism viewpoint. This is the main aspects that can be distinguished. It is important for understanding the ethical conflicts that are imbedded in this movie.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The analysis of these events suggests that that revenge cannot be justified from the standpoint of consequentialism. The problem is that this action did not lead to any positive outcomes which could benefit any stakeholders. Moreover, one can say that Steven Spielberg’s film Munich eloquently illustrates the futility of this strategy. This is the main argument that can be put forward.

Works Cited Attfield, Robin. Value, obligation, and meta-ethics, New York: Rodopi, 1995. Print. Munich. Ex. Prod. Stephen Spielberg. New York: Universal Studies, 2005. DVD.


The Moral Dilemma in Gone Baby Gone Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Following Immanuel Kant’s moral theory, it is possible to divide actions into moral and immoral according to the idea of the categorical imperative, and the discussion of actions as moral or immoral strictly depends on their appropriateness to the determined maxima used by Kant to develop his theory.

Gone Baby Gone (2007) is the film directed by Ben Affleck where the main characters have to make definite decisions which can be discussed as problematic from the point of morality. Patrick Kenzie is the main character who has to decide about the further life of the kidnapped girl Amanda.

The girl was separated from her mother Helene McCready, and she was brought up by Captain Jack Doyle who intended to provide Amanda with the better life conditions and more opportunities. Although the life of Amanda in the family of Doyle was rather harmonious and comfortable, Patrick chose to report about Doyle’s illegal actions in order to provide Amanda with the opportunity to live with her mother. Thus, Patrick made the right moral choice because of the maxima described in Kant’s moral theory.

The maxima of Kant’s moral theory are based on the idea of the categorical imperative and the person’s duty to act according to the universal moral laws. From this point of view, the person’s behaviour can be discussed as moral when any other person can act the same way in similar circumstances.

Moreover, if the person’s behaviour can determine the universal moral law, this behaviour or action is absolutely moral. Intentions or reasons can be discussed as the driving forces for acting morally or immorally. Focusing on Patrick’s action, it is possible to examine two opposite opinions on the morality of the character’s actions.

Thus, the life of Amanda in the family of Captain Doyle was almost perfect, and the intentions of Doyle were good because he wanted to demonstrate the better life to the girl. However, Patrick acted according to the principle of the categorical imperative. Police officers and the other involved persons act the same way in the situations when criminals kidnap children.

Boys and girls are sent back to their families in spite of the criminals’ intentions. From this perspective, Patrick followed the first maxim proposed by Kant and acted as the other people could act in the similar situation with references to the positive motives and without references to the possible negative consequences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the actions can be considered as moral when they are universal laws for many other people who choose to act the same way. Looking at the situation described in the film from the different perspective, it is possible to assume that it is unnecessary to investigate the cases of kidnapping because many criminals can provide the kidnapped children with the better life conditions.

Thus, the pattern of avoiding the family problems with the help of kidnapping can be followed globally because such a situation is discussed as moral in the case of kidnapping Amanda.

Patrick ignored the proposed opportunities for Amanda which were presented on the surface of her relations with Doyle’s family, but he acted morally according to the principle of the universal law. Although Patrick’s decision can be discussed as controversial from the point of the final events demonstrated in the film where the poor parenting is accentuated, the main character’s action is right with references to Kant’s moral theory.


A Taste of Blackberries: Short Stories Comparison Essay online essay help

Although Hunnicut’s and Norris’s stories of the same title, “Blackberries,” are set in completely different environments and feature completely different characters, the two authors manage to touch upon surprisingly similar issues.

Plotwise, the two stories have little to no elements that make them similar to each other; one might think that blackberries would be the glue that would hold the two stories together and suggest the least bit of cohesion; however, the given element seems strangely setting the two stories apart to even further degree.

On the one hand, there is a clear indication that blackberries as a symbol are used in the same way in both texts; in fact, the same words are used to describe the process of tasting the berries: “She mashed it with her tongue, chewed and swallowed” (Hunnicut 72) and “The boy put the blackberry in his mouth. He rolled it with his tongue, feeling its irregularity, and crushed it against the roof of his mouth” (Norris 74).

However, despite the similarities, the aftertaste left by the blackberries is different in each novel. While in the first piece, the berries are used as a symbol of the relationships of the couple that have probably themselves in a dead end, in the second story, blackberries symbolize youth and hope.

Moreover, in the story of a boy and his father taking a walk across the forest, blackberries appear to cement the friendship between them, therefore, allowing the readers to see the process of bonding between the father and his son in a very innocent and at the same time touching way: “When he laughed his father saw that his mouth was deeply stained.

Together they picked and ate the dark berries, until their lips were purple and their hands marked and scratched” (Norris 73); in the first novel, the berries, on the contrary, are supposed to embody the feeling of hopelessness that both the husband and the wife found themselves in, as well as the lack of connection between the two.

When it comes to the themes and issues raised in both novels, the similarities between the stories, however, come out in full blue. Even though Norris’s story seems to have a much more upbeat tempo as the process of bonding between the father and the son is described, as soon as the two return from their forest walk, a conflict unwraps at the end of the novel: “His mother’s face was red and distorted, her voice shrill” (Norris 73).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The characters are very diverse in both short stories, yet there is a clear link between them. To start with, none of the stories has a protagonist – there is no good or bad character, but simply people with their complex personalities, and who happen to be in complicated situations.

In Hunnicut’s story, neither the husband or the wife are to blame for the wall of alienation between them; or, to be more exact, each of them is to blame to the same extent. Likewise, in Norris’ short novel, the mother and the father start a conflict out of nothing simply because they have stuck in their daily routine

Speaking of the settings in both stories, one must mention that, despite the seeming dissimilation between them, these settings, in fact, have more in common than meets the eye. For example, though Hunnicut’s story takes place somewhere in the suburbia, while Norris clearly places her characters in the realm of countryside. However, both places are quiet and inviting, which emphasizes the conflicts between the characters to an even greater degree.

Two separate worlds created by two different authors, the two stories share certain features. Even though set in different universes, they have a lot in common; and, weirdly enough, major differences in them often contribute to the creation of even stronger links between the stories.

Works Cited Hunnicut, Ellen. “Blackberries.” Literature: A World of Writing Stories, Poems, Plays, and Essays. Ed. David L. Pike and Ana Acosta. London, UK: Pearson Longman. 2010. 71–73. Print.

Norris, Leslie. “Blackberries.” Literature: A World of Writing Stories, Poems, Plays, and Essays. Ed. David L. Pike and Ana Acosta. London, UK: Pearson Longman. 2010. 73–75. Print.


The American Civil War: Rules, Chronology and Turning Points Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

From the beginning, the Confederates and the Union forces had an almost equal strength when it came to manpower, but as the war continued the Union forces grew in number as it was able to isolate some of the Southern states (West, 2006, para. 19). Confederate planners and ordinary folks believed that guerrillas would be a significant component of their armed base; however, common soldiers had to be the main actors because the war could not be won by mere guerrillas.

Confederates considered the war a “people’s war.” There were disadvantages to this type of war. Guerrilla war produces vigilantism and “outright outlawry” which make civilians victims rather than the protected ones. The Confederate leadership felt suspicious of the members of the guerrilla forces and so the guerrilla war failed because the Forces underestimated its capability.

The guerrilla war came out to be a war with “its own rules, its own chronology, its own turning points, and its own heroes, villains, and victims. At the same time, it also formed part of the wider war. It influenced the strategy and logistics of conventional campaigns, the political culture, the morale of soldiers and civilians, the southern economy, and ultimately, the very nature of the conflict.” (Sutherland, 2002, p. 262)

The guerrilla warfare held promise as demonstrated by its many successes. On 23 March 1862, Colonel James Carter of the Second East Tennessee Infantry, United States Army, led a group of Tennessee volunteers, along with the Forty-Ninth Indiana Volunteers, to proceed to Big Creek Gap passing through Boston.

When they reached the foot of the mountain, Colonel Carter received information that they were to encounter a rebel cavalry at Big Creek Gap. Colonel Carter divided his volunteers into two with one group under the charge of Lieutenant Colonel Kcigwin and the other one under his command.

After an ascent of about 9 miles to the mountain, they surprised the enemy led by Lieutenant Colonel John White. After a short period of fighting, the rebels were defeated and many of them ran to different direction. Many were killed and wounded while fifteen rebels were taken prisoners. The attackers were a group of guerrillas from the Union Forces. (United States War Department et al., 1884)

There were many disadvantages and instances of failure in the conduct of guerrilla war. Instances of how people wanted to form and employ guerrilla tactics or schemes could be seen from these phrases taken from the database on “War on the Rebellion.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A Louisianian announced that it was very advantageous for “a regiment of mounted men, on the guerrilla order,” on the southern parts of his state, and so he asked that he be allowed by the Confederate government to do so.

Another man, an Alabamian, asked permission to raise a group to conduct guerrilla tactics without “restraint and under no orders.” A guerrilla leader said his group of 300 guerrillas conducted a raid and inflicted heavy damage to a Union unit in the summer of 1862 in Alabama. (United States War Department et al., 1884)

The concept of war of attrition, which was designed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, involved guerrilla war strategies. The concept was based on the strategy of George Washington during the American Revolution against the British forces. By applying guerrilla tactics, the Confederates could gain time before they could seek help from foreign allies.

Davis appointed diplomats who used their skill in attaining foreign sympathies, especially the British. This plan failed when the diplomats were captured by a Union officer while they were on their mission to gain British support. The war of attrition was opposed by General Robert Lee who wanted a strong strike against the Union Forces. (West, 2006, paras. 6-7)

The “Anaconda” plan, designed to blockade the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to weaken the economic and political bases of the Confederacy, was destined to fail from its early inception.

It was a master plan of General Winfield Scott, chief of all generals of the Union forces, but which was not supported by President Lincoln. Scott argued that the Confederates had no navy to support its army and therefore it would be easy to attack the Confederates in the Mississippi coasts cutting the Confederates export of cotton, possible import of weapons and help from foreign allies.

The Union forces would then invade the open areas of the Mississippi River. Scott theorized that this strategy would need 300,000 men and about two years to accomplish. The Anaconda plan was a long-range and large scale operation of the Union forces as against the Confederates’ war of attrition involving guerrilla tactics. (Encyclopedia Virginia: Anaconda plan,n.d.)

We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Civil War: Rules, Chronology and Turning Points specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Guerrilla warfare was never used on a large scale because Confederate political and military leaders tied to traditional, hierarchical forms of social and military organization did not trust the men who came from grassroots and fear the results of such unregulated mode of fighting. The guerrilla tactics were first used for local defense but Confederate leaders underestimated it and failed to tap its advantage.

The Confederate generals wanted to use guerrilla warfare when they realized they were outnumbered; their armies accounted for just about 55 percent of the opposing forces. The Union’s population was more than double the Confederacy. General Robert Lee was at first opposed to the guerrilla strategy but applied it in later campaigns, especially when he saw that his troops were outnumbered. (Sutherland, 2002)

The guerrilla war befits its true name, a people’s war. There were irregulars here and there asking for authorization from higher-ups of the Confederacy so they could form smaller guerrilla forces and operate with guerrilla tactics.

The ways of the guerrillas however were questionable since they prepared the guerrilla ways, even in the far reaches of the country. They used this in the west and the North-South border. As the war went on, they became desperate as they attacked Union mail trains. In August 1861, Unionists asked United States Simon Cameron as rebels controlled the state government. (Sutherland, 2002)

The Union forces attacked both the Confederate soldiers and their civilian supporters to finally crash the enemy. They forced the sword on all sides of the enemy, particularly the people who supported the Confederate armies. The Confederacy was now reduced in number; their smaller gains were done through guerrilla tactics.

General Robert Lee felt that time was on the side of the enemy and that the Union armies had the initiative. Lee opposed his president’s concept of attrition. He did not want a defensive strategy since the way of taking advantage of the Confederate’s limited resources was to have a general action so that the Union forces would abandon the war. (Sutherland, 2000)

The Confederate’s strong force during the final years of the war was General Lee’s Army which was concentrated in Northern Virginia. With a frontal attack, the Union army could not defeat Lee’s formidable army, and so the coastal wars began with the strategy of attacking Confederate supplies. To weaken Lee by attacking the logistics was one of the objectives of the coastal wars. This stage of the war was very crucial. (Murray, 2011, p. 114)

The Navy Board’s plan was for the forces to implement through a step by step process. The Federal Army wanted to create the lines over which they could operate effectively because they were only holding the southern bases. This was a long stretch of coastal areas difficult to control.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Civil War: Rules, Chronology and Turning Points by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the Atlantic Campaign had to be an effective operation, a theatre that had to be played in sequence, i.e. to capture every area to lead to the final objective, strangling the Confederate Army by way of capturing the areas they controlled and their logistics. (Dougherty, 2010)

The Atlantic Campaign started on August of 1861 when the Union forces landed men and big guns on the Confederate-controlled port of Hatteras. The Union bombardment created heavy damage and they had a successful landing. This stage involved taking control of the area so that the forces could provide rapid and uninterrupted attacks. A specific area was the Port Royal but there were also identified ports in the Gulf that had to be controlled.

These were strategic points to give the forces areas to operate and proceed to their final objective, the taking over of Fort Clark. On the other hand, the coastal wars were also General Lee’s final line of defense. What happened was a battle like no other battle – the Federals against the Confederates firing their guns along the Atlantic. The Hatteras Inlet was a key passage to North Carolina which had become a haven of pirates and brigands disguised as guerrillas.

The Secretary of the Navy of the United States at that time wrote that the blockade would benefit the people of North Carolina. Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark were heavily defended by the Confederates such that the battle was the most heavily fought during the Civil War. This was one proof that the guerrilla war did not work. (Dougherty, 2010)

References Dougherty, K. (2010). Strangling the confederacy: Coastal operations in the American civil war. Pennsylvania: Casemate Publishers.

Encyclopedia Virginia: Anaconda plan.(n.d.). Retrieved from

Murray, W. (2011). War, strategy, and military effectiveness. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sutherland, D. (2002). Guerrilla warfare, democracy, and the fate of the confederacy. Southern Historical Association, 68(2), 259-292. doi:

United States War Department, Moody, J., Cowles, C., Ainsworth, F., Scott, R., Lazelle, H.,…Kirkley, J. (1884). War of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies, series 1, volume 10 (part I). Retrieved from

West, M. (2006). Did the Confederates have a master plan? Retrieved from


Antisocial Networking Essay college application essay help

Technology is a concept that has experienced great revolution over the past years. This has grown to have a positive influence in most parts of the world. Interaction with technology has become the daily order for people across the world. Technology has contributed towards the establishment of various communication links across the globe.Children in contemporary society have adopted technology among their top priorities.

The contemporary world has thus seen the adoption of various technological aspects such as mobile phones, mobile texting software’s and other texting methods (Johanson par. 1). Teenagers have greatly invested their time and resources in these gadgets which they use to communicate with their friends (Stout par. 3). They have developed unique short languages that they use for texting. These languages are difficult to understand for those who are not accustomed.

In her article “Antisocial Networking” Hilary Stout definitely brings into context the various dimensions that networking has taken in children’s lives. She discusses the various ways in which networking has influenced children’s lives, and how they affect relationships with their friends. She compares the various changes that have taken place since the end of technology era of adults to the current era of teenagers. Teenagers greatly rely on networking to stay in touch with each other.

This way, they are able to text and talk with each other on various issues that seem relevant. Research shows that with the upgrade in technology there have been various changes in children’s livelihoods (Stout par. 6). There has been great transformation from the face to face interactions to online communication when children communicated without physical interaction. Play has become a rare concept in the lives of modern-day children, and meetings have become almost unacceptable.

They have become more oriented on sharing things on social media sites. As the negative aspects, Hilary Stout highlights the concepts of cyber bullying, and exchange of sexually oriented messages. This has increasingly influenced the children’s way of thinking, since they get involved in more negative cyber activities (Johanson par. 2). Through texting children have drifted apart from each other, and they thus do not offer emotional support to their friends. The article mainly propagates that children have greatly been affected in various ways due to networking.

Networking has brought up an increased need for emotional and physical connection between children. This affects the relationships that they have as they grow up. Their need to give comfort to their friends has become less effective since they rarely meet their friends face to face. Some researchers have also argued that technology brings teenagers together.

This is because they are in constant communication with each other through texts and social media, while other researchers believe that it greatly affects the reasoning level of teenagers. This is because they get influenced by the current trends in technology and some of them become antisocial (Stout par. 8). They become introverts and do not communicate with their friends in real life but only through social media. Teenagers have a relationship with technology that forms an important part of their lives in the 21st century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication is one such aspect that technology has brought up in the current world society (Johanson par. 4). Most people rely on technology for communication. Teenagers have thus created an emotional link with their communication gadgets in particular mobile phones. This is because it breaks geographical barriers that one may meet when they want to meet with friends. Instead they are able to stay in touch every time no matter the distance.

They can make plans and discuss various issues without any difficulties by using means of communication such as Skype, face book, twitter and making video calls. This way they interact while seeing each other through video recording software. Stout thus presents this fact in her article by providing various concepts of discussion (Stout par. 10).

She brings into context Beth Cafferty’s view, who is a parent to a fifteen year old son. She says that “I actually think they’re closer because they’re more in contact with each other anything that comes to my mind, I’m going to text you right away”. This, according to the thesis, supports the integration of technology into the lives of teenagers.

In conclusion, social networking has greatly developed a sense of reliance on teenagers among themselves. They are within reachable distance since technology has reduced the physical barrier of communication (Stout par. 7). The article thus presents the fact that despite the negative effects that technology may have on teenagers, the positive effects are more applicable.

This has led to the acceptance of technology by modern-day society. Future technology will see improved gadgets used for communication thus making it a more effective area. This will later lead to an increased level of communication among teenagers. Future relationships will be more effective and more interactive because of technological advancements.

Works Cited Johanson, Isaac. “Antisocial networking: Obsessive attitudes towards social media websites are changing”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 Aug. 2013. Web. .

Stout, Hilary. “Antisocial Networking?” The New York Times. 30 Apr. 2010. Web. .

We will write a custom Essay on Antisocial Networking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Costs and Benefits of Federalism Essay college essay help near me

Federalism refers to a governance system that allows the sharing of power between the central government and other political units of the country. The U.S. is the major country that uses the federal system of government. The U.S. is a very big country. It operates under 50 regional governments of the states. There is a separation of power between these states. The federal government organizes the governance of the country. The U.S. is one of the oldest federal governments. It approved federalism on 17th September 1787.

The American federal system of governance has undergone several changes. The fact that the U.S still maintains this system shows that the system must have various benefits. Some of the benefits include ensuring that the government remains close to the citizens of the country. However, federalism has various costs. Conflicts between the state and national government in the running of the United States is one of the major costs of federalism.

Federalism leads to the formation of small political units that help in the governance of the citizens of the country. In the U.S., states and counties are the small political units that help in the governance of the country. These political units have their own political leader. The governor is the political leader who helps in the governance of a state.

The leader is usually from within the state. Democratic nations usually ensure that citizens elect the political leader of the political unit. This helps in reducing the dominance of the majority in governance of the country. Therefore, federalism helps in increasing the liberty of the citizens of the nation.

Federalism leads to the formation of small governance units. The small units perform duties that the central authority would have performed. Education, security, and healthcare are some of the major services that state governments perform. Formation of small governance units makes it easy to govern a country with a large geographical area or population.

If the U.S. did not use federalism, it would have been very difficult to manage the country effectively. In addition, the local governance units are closer to the citizens. Therefore, they understand the problems in their areas. This makes it easy for them to choose and implement policies that would help in tackling the problems effectively (Kollman 25).

Nations strive to improve the patriotism of their citizens. This helps in improving the governance of the country. Federalism helps in improving the patriotism of the citizens of a country. It is a fact that people usually feel close to their hometowns or states. Federalism uses this loyalty to improve the patriotism of the citizens of a country by giving more power to the states. This enables it to improve the patriotism of the citizens of a country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Federalism fosters the democratic governance of a country. It enables the government of various states to experiment with various policies. The state government can experiment with the policies since the effect of the policies would be limited. These experiments enable other states to implement the policies effectively. The successes or failures of the policies provide insights on how to implement the policies in their jurisdictions effectively.

However, the national government is not at liberty to experiment with policies. Failure of policies of the national government may have devastating effects on the well-being of the country. California is one of the states that has experimented with many policies. It is one of the first states to experiment with various environmental regulations. Other states and the federal government have studied the successes and failures of the policy in implementing various environmental regulations in their jurisdictions (Feeley and Rubin 26).

Federalism has several costs. It allocates various tasks to the national and state government. In some instances, this may lead to duplication of duties. Duplication of duties is the major limitation of federalism. It increases the inefficiency of the governance system. In addition, it increases bureaucracy.

It forces people to comply with regulations of the both the state government and the national government (Ward and Ward 188). In addition, federalism is a very expensive system of governance. It necessitates the election of many people to governance positions. This makes it difficult for poor countries to afford to use the system. In addition, increased bureaucracy of the federal system may lead to corruption.

Federalism empowers state governments. It enables them to create policies on various issues. This may hinder the creation of a national policy on various issues that affect the country. The policy of different states may be contradictory. This is despite the fact that the states are in one country. The U.S. highlights this scenario.

Despite the fact that the U.S. is one country, it does not have a unified policy on several issues. It has 50 policies that represent the 50 states. Lack of a unified policy creates confusion and makes it difficult to govern the nation. In addition, empowerment of state governments may lead to lack of accountability if policies fail. This is due to the fact that federalism leads to overlap of responsibilities of the national and state governments.

This may make the national and state government blame each other for the failure of the policies. Hurricane Katrina highlights the conflict of authority that may exist between the federal and state government. There was confusion between the federal government and the state government on who was responsible for the rescue operation. This delayed the rescue of people who were victims of the hurricane. It led to the loss of life of many people.

We will write a custom Essay on Costs and Benefits of Federalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Federalism may lead to uneven distribution of the wealth of a nation. It is a fact that the distribution of natural resources, industries, and employment varies from one region to another. In addition, the state governments are only concerned about the development of their regions. Therefore, they may implement policies that may have adverse effects on other states. This may create conflicts between different states.

Governments of both developed and developing countries use the federalism. The success of this system has made many countries to contemplate using the system of governance. However, prior to implementing the system of governance, it is vital for the countries to consider the cost and benefits of the system.

They should ensure that federalism enhances the strengths of the country. More than 200 years of continuous alteration of the federal system of the U.S. has enabled it to tackle some of the problems that federalism faces. Therefore, the U.S. provides a good case study for other countries that strive to implement federalism. However, the U.S. has been unable to tackle all the problems of federalism.

Works Cited Feeley, ‎ Malcolm and Edward Rubin. Federalism: Political identity and tragic compromise. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2008. Print.

Kollman, Ken. The American political system. New York: W W Norton


Political Battlegrounds in Curriculum Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Making Curriculum Decisions

Political Discourses in Curriculum Development

Cultural Political Discourses in Curriculum Development


Reference List

Introduction When children attain the age of going to school, parents have the obligation to take them to school. This crucial duty of parents is part of the children’s fundamental rights. The government has an interest in ensuring that all children have access to quality education. When parents take their children to school, they expect them to be taught by qualified teachers using a state-enforced and authorised curriculum.

Who influences the process of making curriculum? What roles does it serve? Who makes the important decisions on what is to be taught? These questions hardly appear in the parents’ minds. This suggests that people take children to school or any institutions of higher learning without adequate knowledge of who controls the decisions that involve the curriculum within a nation or a state.

This paper reveals that curriculum comprises immense political battlegrounds in any education system of a nation. The battle on what a curriculum needs to deliver emanate from all directions in society. Various business groups, religious organisations and/or groups, and educational radical reformers among other groups have stakes in a curriculum. They want it to fulfil their interests by offering programs and subjects which meet their interests.

The American curriculum has been dominated by social, political, and economic motivations since early 1900 up to date. Cognition of this battle makes any curriculum leader explore the struggles of curriculum from four main approaches, which have taken a central dominance in shaping the American curriculum throughout its history. These include the humanistic approach, developmentalism, social efficiency, and social meliorism.

Each of these schools of thought has its concerns on what the curriculum should deliver. Consequently, “curriculum leaders who are grounded on the understanding of cultural politics and curriculum theory recognise any curriculum as a complicated conversation and decisions…and must have such understanding to navigate within a broader and increasingly conservative political sphere” (Ylimaki, 2012, p.305). This paper analyses the curriculum as a cultural-political undertaking based on Ylimaki’s claim raised above.

Making Curriculum Decisions Making curriculum decisions is a splendid and a monumental task. In this process, curriculum developers have to take into consideration various opinions of economic, social, and political actors who have an interest on what curriculum should deliver.

This reduces the entire process to involve complicated conversations and decisions, which are similar to political acts. Making political decisions requires decision-makers to ensure that the decisions made fulfil the interests of all interested parties. Curriculum leaders experience a similar dilemma while making curriculum decisions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From one dimension, curriculum leaders are required to address the concern of social efficiency paradigms of curriculum theoretical approaches. Proponents of the social efficiency school of thought struggle to have curriculum address and serve the principal functions of meeting economic needs (Richards, 2005, p.242).

Curriculum leaders need to implement curriculum in a manner that prepares people to perform efficiently and effectively in the work environment. While this concern is essential for curriculum leaders to pay attention, they also have to consider the curriculum from the context of political issues raised by social meliorism.

The advocates of this school of thought argue that the curriculum needs to serve the function of bringing about social changes through fostering societal improvements. School curriculum should then produce political, social, and economic reformers. Social meliorism also advocates for the school curriculum to serve the function of solving prevalent problems in societies such as drug and substance abuse, racism, and sexism, among others.

The political nature of the process of making curriculum decisions is more pronounced where curriculum leaders have to make decisions to satisfy the interest of two groups subscribing to two opposite schools of thought on the functions of curriculum.

For instance, the humanist theoretical paradigm claims that the curriculum has the central prerogative to expose students to their cultural traditions (Brady


The Major Beliefs of Lutheranism and Their Impact on Non-Religious Issues Essay college admission essay help

Martin Luther (1483–1546) stated, “Every man must do two things alone; he must do his own believing and his own dying”. During the time of the Religious Reformation, there were many conflicts and misunderstandings between the people and their religions. For that reason, someone had to stand up and fight for his own beliefs to reach for what he thought was right, for example, people must have faith to reach salvation, and the only religious foundation is the Bible itself.

That person was Martin Luther, the founder of Lutheranism. Since the religious question was one of the most important issues during that time, Lutheranism did not only affect the other religions but also had great impacts on non-religious issues and spheres such as economy, government, and art.

Martin Luther is the prominent figure in the Western history who influenced not only the religious life of thousands of people but also the society in general because the ideas of Lutheranism changed the people’s approach to the social norms and rules associated with the political and economic life which were typical for the 16th century.

In 1517, Luther, a German monk, demonstrated his position in relation to the tradition of the Roman Catholic Church to provide rich people with indulgences. This tendency affected the religious life of the society, and it was oriented to destroying the moral principles of the European population under the mask of religiosity. Luther analysed different aspects of the Roman Catholic Church and proposed the specific 95 Theses supported with many other writings of the educated monk.

In these theses, Luther highlighted a lot of misunderstandings and differences characteristic for the ceremonies, practices, beliefs, and principles followed by the Roman Catholic Church in comparison with the ideas presented in the Bible (Matthews, Platt, and Noble). This analysis performed by Martin Luther resulted in the statement of the main beliefs which are discussed today as the ideals of Lutheranism.

Thus, Luther stated that many ceremonies and practices preformed by the authorities of the Roman Catholic Church were not supported by the sacred words from the Bible. Moreover, the position of the Roman Catholic Church in relation to the idea of indulgences was rather immoral.

While trying to draw the public’s attention to the unfairness and inappropriateness of Roman Catholic Church’s actions, Luther formulated the major beliefs of Lutheranism which are the focus on the grace of God as the cause for the people’s salvation, the faith of the individual matters, and it can guarantee the salvation because of God’s grace, the person can also rely on the direct communication with God as the guarantee of the salvation, and the Bible is the authority and the norm to determine the rules, principles, and standards for the people’s life (Fink 293-294; Matthews, Platt, and Noble).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The discussed beliefs were rather provocative in comparison with the traditional religious visions spread by the authorities of the Roman Catholic Church, but those ideas attracted the masses, and the Protestant Reformation started as the society’s reaction to the unfair activities of the Roman Catholic Church and the significant religious and ideological movement.

Luther drew the public’s attention to the idea that they were independent in their relation with God because of the focus on the individual worshipping and communication. Moreover, according to Luther, the Roman Catholic Church played an important role in contributing to the economic imbalance typical for the Medieval society.

From this perspective, hundreds and then thousands of the Lutherans rejected the ideals of the Roman Catholic Church and organised the social rebellions to promote the ideas and beliefs stated by Martin Luther (McCleary and Barro). Thus, Lutheranism as the religious movement was based on the significant social fundaments because Luther not only proclaimed the religious ideals but also focused on social and economic problems characteristic for the Medieval society in the European countries.

The effect of the beliefs and ideas that luxury of the Roman Catholic Church as well as many ceremonies and practices were unnecessary to communicate with God according to the words of the Bible was significant. The governments of the countries which are known today as Germany, Sweden, and Norway could not control the spread of Lutheranism and the associated Protestant Reformation. From this perspective, the theological debates were connected with significant political, economic, and social grievances.

The expectations and needs of the lowest social classes could be met with references to the visions proclaimed by Luther that is why many people chose to follow Luther not only because of the easiness of the religious doctrine but also because its significant social role (Fink 293-294). Numerous rebellions which were intended to change the social and economic situation in Europe during that period were also associated with the spread of the concepts of Lutheranism.

The impacts of the major beliefs shared by the Lutherans on the government, economy, and the culture of the European societies were significant because the governmental authorities could not control the processes of organising the churches of the Lutherans, and they could not regulate the spread of the ideals close for the majority of the European population.

Luther’s words about the role of indulgences and his emphases on the words presented in the Bible should be discussed in the theological context because of the concentration on the religious faith and on the individual’s relations with God.

We will write a custom Essay on The Major Beliefs of Lutheranism and Their Impact on Non-Religious Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The socially significant ideas were added to Luther’s words while interpreting his visions in relation to the person’s religious freedom from the impact of the Roman Catholic Church (McCleary and Barro). Thus, the Roman Catholic Church affected the development of the European society significantly, and any words about the freedom from the church’s impact caused the development of the social movements under the ideals of Lutheranism and the Protestant Reformation.

The reaction of the public to Luther’s call to action and his proclamations associated with the necessity to follow new religious ideals were interesting for the people because they were close to them regarding the possibilities to orient to the personal beliefs and the personal vision of faith as the communication with God.

The discussion of the Bible as the only norm and standard provided people with a lot of opportunities to develop their culture and morality. That is why, the topics depicted in art during the period of Lutheranism development and statement of the ideals of the Protestant Reformation were closely connected with the role of a person in the world regarding the personal relations with God. From this point, the culture and art were also influenced by the processes started by Martin Luther in the 16th century.

The reforms and visions proposed by Martin Luther in his theses or articles were accepted by the European Medieval society because the proclaimed beliefs were closely connected with all the people personally.

Thus, Luther proposed the new visions of religion according to which people could orient on their own relations with God without the direct intervention of the Roman Catholic Church in the relations. As a result, the discussed beliefs influenced not only the particular visions of the Lutherans but also their specific ideas in relation to the basics of society, the society’s economy, the specifics of government, and culture.

Works Cited Fink, David. “A History of Lutheranism”. Trinity Journal 24.2(2003): 292-296. Print.

Matthews, Roy, DeWitt Platt, and Thomas Noble. The Western Humanities. USA: Mayfield, 2001. Print.

McCleary, Rachel, and Robert Barro. “Religion and Economy”. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20.2 (2006): 49-72. Print.

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Idea of Hybrid Church by Dave Browning Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Intimacy and Impact

The Hybrid Church

Possibility of the Hybrid Church



Introduction In his book, Browning makes a deliberate attempt to cover the definition of churches by design and constitution.[1] He postulates that there are big churches and small churches all through the world.

He also talks about a ‘hybrid’ formed from these two opposites. According to Cole, having a global church is no longer a problem since most countries use English as their medium of communication and because the world is now connected by the internet.[2] This paper critically summarizes Browning’s ideas of micro and mega churches as well as his concepts of ‘intimacy and impact.’

Intimacy and Impact There are various values as far as church ministry is concerned. In most cases, these values are depicted in a bipolar scenario where intimacy lies on one hand and impact on the other. Consequently, most churches are essentially pulled towards one of the extremes.

Churches that stress on values such as communal association, sense of belonging, and unity are in most cases drawn towards intimacy. On the contrary, those churches that lay emphasis on outreach programs and missionary work are pulled towards impact. A ministry or a church needs to first of all understand where it lies as far as these aspects are concerned before making an effort to stretch towards the other pole.

The Hybrid Church Currently, hybrid is a term used in many scenarios. According to Baker, the hybrid forms represent the bringing together of two or more elements without changing the status quo.[3] The formation of such a hybrid is geared towards the goal of creating the best outcome possible. It is designed by bringing together two distinct components of different units to perform a specific role. Therefore, it is the fusion of two unique, but equally important elements to bring out a superior and efficient outcome.

The ‘hybrid church’ gives us a new terminology to use when discussing the merits and demerits of small and big church ministries. This is very important since it affords us the advantage of having blends in values from both extremes. The hybrid allows us to have the important value of unity associated with intimacy without losing out on growth and impact.

It provides a combination of that which is big and powerful, blended seamlessly with intimacy and detail. If permitted, most churches prefer to have intimacy and impact. Unfortunately, in most church scenarios they are only allowed to choose one or the other. This is where a delicate hybrid is needed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Possibility of the Hybrid Church Many people are not comfortable with the word ‘hybrid’ and see it as conveying an unholy combination of truth and falsehood. Despite this, a hybrid church is not an effort to merge one aspect of theological truth or fact with another less plausible philosophy in an attempt to form a fresh and more enhanced doctrine. Instead, it can be said to be a deliberate attempt to draw the true Christian church back into consistency with the view of the apostolic church as expressed in the Bible.

In the modern day American culture, two extremes can be found in almost every situation. According to Lunn, “the different contributions of two of the models will each develop the positive and negative aspects of the ambivalent, hybrid situation.”[4] In the present church setting, there is the mega-church on one hand and the micro-church on the other. The mega-church boasts of a well-known name, and a capacity to influence its community in immense ways.

Nonetheless, the micro-church is a relatively small collection of people who have a modest impact on their neighborhood. The micro-church also focuses on relationship ties and offers love and intimacy to its members. This is where the hybrid church is useful in a special effort to integrate these two very important biblical values of impact and intimacy. It provides a blend where the church not only has a chance to grow and make a name, but also a platform where relationship between members is personal.

The early church gives us a clear picture of how this kind of hybrid works. In line with the mega-church, the earliest Christians used to worship in temples (Acts 5:42). Paul also acquired the hall of Tyrrannus where he conducted daily lectures (Acts 19: 8-10). However, they still had the micro-type intimate relationships and small fellowship groups where they communed, broke bread and worshiped collectively in their homes (Acts 2: 46).

Every church today can learn some important lessons from this kind of fusion if it is to maintain intimacy while expanding and spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ. As the church holds huge gatherings and undertakes ambitious campaigns to grow its flock and impact on the community, it must not take for granted the value of close relationships among its members.

Every member of the church brings with him different leadership qualities and values to the body. These members are part of the small units that eventually form the big church. If these small relationships are maintained and nurtured, they can make a stronger more unified ministry.

Just as Christ equates the church to a body with different parts performing different functions, the hybrid church today recognizes these parts and the role they play in building the whole body. It is a deliberate attempt to bring intimate qualities of a modern-day small-group church and the impact of a modern-day mega-church together. The hybrid does this with the intention of creating a seamless amalgamation of the two.

We will write a custom Essay on Idea of Hybrid Church by Dave Browning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hybrid church helps diminish any mixed intentions that are focused more on material gain rather than the spiritual growth of the church by reducing the need for massive expensive structures. Instead, it advocates for simplicity and modesty putting emphasis on small units that make the bigger church. Cutting the cost of these structures enables the ministry to invest more money into the community and global outreach.

As good as it seems the hybrid model also has several problems. According to Beckham, “the problem with the hybrid house church model is that the large group and small group expressions of the church are not encouraged to come together as one….”[5] These groups need to be integrated in a way that all the parts have a cohesive association with the body church. Just as parts of the body are useless individually, the different cells or units of the church cannot achieve much independent of each other.

Bibliography Baker, Christopher. Hybrid Church in the City: Third Space Thinking. London, UK: SCM Press, 2009.

Beckham, Bill. Where Are We Now? Houston, TX: Glocal Publications, 2005.

Browning, Dave. Hybrid Church: The Fusion of Intimacy and Impact. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2010.

Cole, Neil. Church 3.0: Upgrades for the Future of the Church. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-bass, 2010.

Lunn, Andrew J. “The Neighborhood Church in an Individualized World.” PhD diss., The University of Birmingham, 2011.

Footnotes Dave Browning, Hybrid Church: The Fusion of Intimacy and Impact, (San Francisco CA, Jossey-bass, 2010)

Neil Cole, Church 3.0: Upgrades for the Future of the Church (San Francisco CA, Jossey-bass, 2010)

Christopher Baker, Hybrid Church in the City: Third Space Thinking (London UK, SCM Press, 2009)

Andrew J. Lunn, “The Neighborhood Church in an Individualized World” (Ph.D diss., The University of Birmingham, 2011)

Bill Beckham, Where Are We Now? (Houston, TX: Glocal Publications, 2005), 156 – 169.


Marketing Research Methods Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Marketing research is the process of gathering, recording and analyzing information about a given commodity in the market or the general market behavior. There are different ways of conducting marketing research. These methods include; secondary methods, surveys, focus groups, field trials, observations, and through conducting interviews.

Surveying involves identifying and administering questionnaires to the target market (Bryman


The “Invisibility” in the novel by Ralph Ellison Essay college essay help

Invisible Man is the famous novel by the American author Ralph Ellison. The novel represents the integral part of the American literature. Invisible Man plot has a symbolic meaning in its background and the definition of the “invisible” should not be understood in a straightforward way. The novel’s plot does not consist of any fantastic elements. Quite the opposite, it touches upon the real keen social problem of the American society of the XX century.

Invisible Man is devoted to the life of Afro-Americans in the United States. However, the author uncovers the problem a little bit differently from the typical literature works and speeches of the activists of that time. The narrator of the novel tells us that he is “invisible”.

However, it is not his physical stance. Rather, he feels this way because his existence is ignored by the society. He says that “when they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination — indeed, everything and anything except me” (Ellison n.pag.).

The “invisibility” to which he refers is caused by not his actions or behavior but rather by the attitude of people towards him. In his speech introduced in the Prologue, he tells us that he is invisible simply because people refuse to see him (Ellison n.pag.). The race discrimination of the Afro-Americans in the United States had been the urgent problem for decades. However, the authors like Ellison tried to shake people’s minds and to make them “see” the black people.

“The bewildered and nameless hero of “Invisible Man” longs desperately to achieve a personal success and to help his people. But his role as a man acted upon more often than acting, as a symbol of doubt, perplexity, betrayal and defeat, robs him of the individual identity of the people who play a part in his life” (Prescott par. 8).

In the “battle royal” episode, the example of the attitude of the white Americans to the black Americans can be seen.

“Blindfolded, the Negro boys stage a “battle royal,” a free-for-all in which they pummel each other to the drunken shouts of the whites. “Practical jokes,” humiliations, terrors–and then the boy delivers a prepared speech of gratitude to his white benefactors” (Howe par. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The force which the white used towards the narrator is explained by the overall madness and blindness of the social minds. The narrator tells us that he fought “automatically” because everyone did (Ellison n.pag.). The “battle royal” episode shows us that the violence provokes further violence.

The episode of the meeting of the main character with Mr. Norton represents one of the most important elements of the plot. Mr. Norton is the wealthy Boston citizen and the sponsor of the college.

The narrator describes him as “a Bostonian, smoker of cigars, teller of polite Negro stories, shrewd banker, skilled scientist, director, philanthropist, forty years a bearer of the white man’s burden, and for sixty a symbol of the Great Traditions” (Ellison n.pag.). Mr. Norton is “blind” as he cannot see the real side of the life of the Afro-Americans in the United States.

Although he spends a lot of money for charity, his good actions do not yet tell about his world outlook. Mr. Norton is the successful well-educated person but he lives in the world the reality of which is far from the reality of the Afro-Americans. That is why he becomes the marionette in this situation. In fact, it becomes obvious that the amounts spent by Mr. Norton only contribute to the further discrimination and exploitation of the blacks.

In his talk with the main character of the novel, he tries to explain him his vision. However, it can be hardly done if he lacks the real understanding of the problem. He mentions that the fortune is pleasant but the main character, the “invisible man”, wonders how the fortune can be pleasant if his parents, grandparents and relatives experienced the hard way of life, so, the fortune is painful (Ellison n. pag.).

It is not surprising that they misunderstand each other. Mr. Norton belongs to the absolutely different social layer. It is hard for him to realize all the life troubles which the main character and the other blacks suffered. In spite of the fact that Mr. Norton is sincere, he is not able to help because he does not see the actual reality and the main character remains “invisible” to him.

In order to summarize all above mentioned, it should be said that Invisible Man is the outstanding work by Ralph Ellison. The metaphor of “invisible” is used by him to reflect the life of the Afro-Americans in the American society of the XX century. In the Prologue, the main character explains what it likes to be the “invisible” as he is seen by people’s eyes but not by their minds.

We will write a custom Essay on The “Invisibility” in the novel by Ralph Ellison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the first chapter, “the battle royal” shows the attitude of the whites towards the blacks clearly representing the race stratification of the American society. In the following chapter, the character of Mr. Norton is introduced to the readers. Mr. Norton is another example of the person who cannot see the real life of the blacks, though he intends to make his own contribution to the overcoming of the social problems in the United States.

Works Cited Ellison, Ralph 1947, The Invisible Man. PDF file. Web.

Howe, Irwing 1952, Review of: Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man. Web.

Prescott, Oliver, “Books of the Time”. The New York Times. 16 April 1952. Web.


Accounting Aspects of Corporate Governance Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Multinational companies are striving to have good corporate governance (GCG) status since the Security Exchange Commission (SEC) demands that firms should protect the interests of all stakeholders.

From a historical perspective, surprise failure of giant corporate bodies like Enron, ABC Learning Centres, Allco Finance, and Lehman Brothers hastened the need for GCG. In line with the failure of Enron, accounting as a discipline has been held accountable for the cause; therefore, accounting has to give out clear analysis of the company’s operations overtime (Shil 3). Aspects of corporate governance touch on the interests of investors, employees, customers, the local community, government of the region, and vendor partners.

The entire process has to monitor the operations of the company in order to ensure fairness, transparency, and equity to all the stakeholders. On the legal, ethical, and sustainable line, aspects of corporate governance attempt to maximize and protect the overall values of the shareholders.

These aspects help in enhancing the bodies’ performances as they make environments favorable for maximization of returns on investments, enhancement of operational efficiency and assurance on long-term production for organizations. GCG make corporations to attract highly competent workforce on a global basis.

GCG makes numerous investors to develop trust and make investment decisions. This concept has become an essential feature in the current corporations as they carry out both internal and external audits in line with the accounting standards.

Professionals in the accounting field compile information for any entity and reports at the end of a given time. Corporate governance and accounting improve the image of corporations if market participants coordinate them well. Notably, accounting attempts to eliminate bad governance within giant and small corporations.

Therefore, corporate governance represents the process of administration and control system within a company. The aspect determines how companies set and achieve their objectives, manage and assess their risks and optimize their performances (7). For sustainability of corporations, governance system has to be in line with the stipulated accounting principles. GCG, therefore, aims at creating value through innovation and exploration, and providing control systems that commensurate with the risks under focus.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For sustainability, companies mix sustainable development with corporate governance by identifying and comprehending their environmental and social effects and responsibilities on the market participants (Turner and Harbinson par. 3).

In these companies, sustainability helps in getting all voices on board by aligning the strategic environmental and social goals with the strategic direction of the companies to ensure that governance oversight systems comprehend and play their part in keeping their focus. GCG helps firms to protect themselves from financial challenges as it focuses on accounting department and financial internal systems.

Companies have to record and report financial information to both internal and external stakeholders in order to assist employees in carrying out their expectations within their firms. The boards play significant roles in evaluating the nature and significance of GCG, as well as relevance of sustainability. Since the management boards form critical departments of governance structures, they must possess high level of integrity and right skills to make rational decisions that can manage risks (par. 5).

In the boards, employee representatives participate in decision-making procedures for specified period. The wide inclusion in the board ensures that corporations protect the rights of employees. Non-executive directors and investors also help in bridging gaps between management and the stakeholders. Corporate governance enhances transparency, accountability, and awareness by considering the interests of all stakeholders in their operations.

Works Cited Shil, Nick. “Accounting for good corporate governance.” JOAAG 3.1 (2008): 1-9. Print.

Turner, Martin, and Anthony Harbinson. Corporate Governance. Association of Chartered Certified Accountants. ACCA UK, 5 July 2009. Web.


Jeff Henderson and his Family Environment Essay essay help

Jeff Henderson’s book throws light on the factors that might have contributed his criminal activities. Much attention should be paid to his family environment. In particular, one can speak about a combination of various circumstances such as acceptance of deviant behavior and inability of parents to shield him against the harmful influences of peer pressure. This is the main thesis that should be examined more closely.

First of all, one should mention that Jeff Henderson’s father left the family, when the author was only an infant (Henderson 13). It was his grandfather who shaped Henderson’s values and attitudes. The main problem is that he taught him stealing (Henderson 15). More important, Jeff Henderson’s grandfather perceived theft as something acceptable.

From his view point, it was acceptable for a black person to steal money from whites (Henderson 15). Overall, by setting such examples, he made Jeff more tolerant to criminal activities. This is one of the details that should be considered.

Apart from that, it is important to mention that his parents failed to safeguard Jeff against risks that one could face in the neighborhood. For instance, the author’s recollections suggest that he was accustomed to seeing people selling drugs (Henderson 28). Moreover, people, who were engaged in these activities, did not think that their action were unethical or illegal.

It should be noted that many teenagers living in such communities encounter similar problems (Solomon 10). One can say that Jeff Henderson could not resist the influence of these people because his family did not pay much attention to his development. It is possible say that during childhood and adolescence, Jeff Henderson was left to his own devices. Therefore, he was more likely to behave in a deviant manner.

This discussion suggests that the family environment of Jeff Henderson could have been one of the forces that prompted him to be involved in crime. It is critical to focus on the lack of parental care and acceptance of deviant behavior. This are the main aspects that can be identified.

Works Cited Henderson, Jeff. Cooked: My Journey from the Streets to the Stove, New York: Harper Collins, 2007. Print.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Solomon, Lewis. Cycles of Poverty and Crime in America’s Inner Cities, New York: Transaction Publishers, 2012. Print.


The Problem with Calorie Restrictive Diets Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Summary


What happens during a diet?

Catabolism and Anabolism

Importance of maintaining Muscle Mass


Works Cited

Summary This article focuses on the current trend in calorie restrictive diets wherein people think that the weight they lose when dieting is fat when in reality it is mostly muscle and water weight. The type of myth I chose to utilize this article is that dieting (i.e. drastic calorie deficiency) helps in long term weight loss goals.

Introduction What most people fail to realize is that there is a massive difference between weight loss and fat loss. In the case of fad diets, people seem to think that when they see their weight going down it is an indicator that they are losing fat. A more likely scenario is that they are losing muscle mass and water weight since fat is the last thing the body catabolizes which is the worst outcome that could occur (Rubin, 41).

What happens during a diet? You see when you go on a calorie restrictive diet; your body automatically shifts into what is known as “famine mode” wherein it tries to store as much fat as possible. This is an evolutionary response during times when food was scarce and the body needed to store as many calories as possible to survive (Fusco and Pani, 3157-3170).

The inherent problem though is that at the present, people continue to be more physically active despite subsisting on fewer calories due to the need to go to work or go to school etc. As a result, your body will catabolize your muscles in order to “make up” the difference in caloric intake so that it can continue to function (Fusco and Pani, 3157-3170).

Catabolism and Anabolism When you exercise you are making your body enter into a catabolic state wherein it breaks down the muscle

in order to perform particular exercises. After that comes an anabolic state where your body uses the food you eat to build back the muscles stronger than before. Basically:

a.) catabolism = destroying the muscles

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More b.) anabolism = growth and making the body stronger

In cases where a person goes into a long term calorie restrictive diet, they are making their body enter into a long term catabolic state which can be considered as a form of long term destruction. The reason behind this is that they are simply not eating enough to sustain the muscles. As a result, the muscles get smaller and smaller.

Importance of maintaining Muscle Mass Our muscles burn calories on a daily basis, the more muscle you have the more calories you burn while the less muscle you have the fewer calories you burn. So, if you enter into a calorie restrictive diet and you keep on losing muscle sure you are losing weight but you are not losing fat, rather, you are losing muscle mass instead and that is a bad thing (Rubin, 41).

The fact is that it is a lot harder to gain muscle than fat. In order to gain muscle a person would need to perform various types of resistance training exercises. However, since they are on a calorie restrictive diet, it is unlikely that they would have the energy to do so. It will come to a point that the fat will come back with a vengeance and they will not be able to lose it as easily since they do not have enough muscle mass (Rubin, 41).

Conclusion Based on what has been presented so far, it can be seen that in the case of drastic calorie restrictive diets, the weight loss is temporary since when a person bounces back from the diet and there is lesser muscle mass to burn the fat, they will become fatter and it will be harder to lose weight. The end result is that the person dieting will go back to the calorie restriction resulting in them entering a vicious cycle.

Works Cited Fusco, Salvatore, and Giovambattista Pani. “Brain Response To Calorie Restriction.” Cellular


Theories of Personality: What Lurks Behind the Veil of Consciousness Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Studying a human personality is by far one of the most complicated tasks, since it presupposes embracing a number of issues, starting from the factors that the environment in which a person develops in can be characterized, to the values and principles that the person in question was raised in accordance with.

That being said, the number of theories of personality is rather large, and it is bound to grow as other factors of personal development are discovered. However, among the ones that already exist, certain theories deserve being taken a better look at. Despite the fact that these theories were provided quite a while ago, they still remain challenging and inspiring.

Maslow: Holistic Dynamic Theory Starting from the basics, one must mention that Maslow’s Holistic Dynamic Theory must not be confused with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; even though the two theories have a lot in common, with one of them practically being the logical continuation of another one, there is a basic difference between the two.

As Feist and Feist explain, the famous hierarchy of needs makes one of the elements of the Holistic Dynamic Theory; to be more exact, it allows for distilling the key reasons for people being motivated. As for the theory itself, Feist and Feist put it in the following way: “it assumes that the whole person is constantly being motivated by one need or another and that people have the potential to grow toward psychological health, that is, self-actualization” (Feist


The Song with no Motive and the Songwriter without a Clue Essay cheap essay help

Analyzing songs must be one of the least gratifying tasks, since it is always hard to figure out not only what idea the author tried to get across, but also whether the author’s idea is more important than the interpretation of the audience.

There are different schools of thought that provide various answers to the given question. Some say that the author’s intent is the only valid interpretation; others claim that, once the work is released, it is open to criticism and can be viewed through the prism of other people’s vision. Hence the ambiguity concerning the “Omie Wise” comes.

Although the issue raised by Anna Domino is not that big, it still offers an interesting introspective into the author’s universe. The very fact that the author chose writing a letter as the means to convey her message to the audience makes the story told in the song of the same name look unbelievably real and, therefore, very touching.

The author, therefore, raises a very peculiar question, asking her audience whether the leading character of a song should be viewed as a unique personality or a generic image[1]. While the latter is easier to relate to, since it allows literally any listener to find a number of points of contact with the image in question, creating a unique character that has individual character traits and, therefore, can be seen as a compelling personality is doubtlessly a much more interesting and definitely more challenging task.

Although a generic character guarantees an instant success of a song, being very relatable, a unique character will help the audience evolve by posing a number of ethical questions and life choices to its audience. Offering a fresh look at the old character, the author of the article stresses the significance of a character that the audience can empathize with.

Another bit of information from The Rose and the Briar that was meant to leave an impression, the story behind “Pretty Polly” narrated by Rennie Sparks also deserves being mentioned as the issue that gives a lot of food for thoughts. As the author claims, the song does not have any motive whatsoever, which begs the question whether a song can exist outside the basic rules of songwriting, such as the need for a clear motive.

On the one hand, the given idea seems completely absurd – being one of the key elements of any song by definition, a motive sets the mood for the song, creates the atmosphere and invites the audience into its realm, not to mention the fact that a motive makes it possible for a band or a musician to play the song. “Pretty Polly,” however, proves the given rule wrong, as Sparks insists, telling about a song “cut from its original epic length to form a lean, mysterious and brutal folk song”[2].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Described as a song without a motive by the author, it strangely creates an intriguing story canvas, dragging the audience into it and creating images in ones’ head; which is even more interesting, these images transform into pieces of a puzzle that fall into their places as the song unwinds.

The given admittedly unique phenomenon begs the question whether motive is that important for a song. Although traditionally, a motive is supposed to be the glue that holds a song together, in the world of modern music, other elements of a song can perform the given function. For instance, the author of a song can supposedly rely solely on music, leaving the story behind. Thus, the concept of popular music is stretched to reach out to the classical music, in which motive is as complicated as a novel plot.

Bibliography Domino, Anna. “Naomi Wise, 1807.” In The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus, 69–80, New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010.

Sparks, Rennie. “Pretty Polly.” In The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus, 35–50, New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010.

Footnotes .Anna Domino, “Naomi Wise, 1807,” In The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010), 70.

. Rennie Sparks, “Pretty Polly,” in The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010): 35.


Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

The sixteenth century was marked by a great number of witch trials in rural areas and border regions of Western Europe. This situation could be observed in England, Scotland, Germany, France, and other countries.

To a great extent, this phenomenon can be attributed to the following factors: 1) official recognition of witchcraft and the activities of religious zealots who inspired the persecution of many people; 2) the stereotypes and superstitions about women and their relations with supernatural powers; 3) poverty, wars, and religious turmoil. These are the main issues that should be taken into account.

At first, one should mention that the religious authorities recognized the existence of witches. For instance, it is possible to refer to the bull of Innocent VIII in which he grants local authorities the right to “do all things necessary” in order to struggle with witches (Innocent VIII unpaged).

Furthermore, much attention should be paid to the notorious treatise Malleus Maleficarum which is also known as The Hammer of Witches. Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, who were the authors of this text, popularized the idea that many people could be the servant of “devils” (Kramer and Sprenger 41). To some degree, this book contributed to the growing hysteria about witches, especially in Germany.

Finally, it is critical to mention that the stereotypes according to which women were more likely to be to be seduced by the devil (Verlet). They contributed to the victimization of many women, especially spinsters and widows since they were most powerless (Verlet). These are some of the forces that increased the fear of witches.

Moreover, it is critical to remember that witchcraft accusations were more widespread in the areas that could be profoundly affected by wars and poverty (Lualdi 320). To some extent, they intensified people’s hostility to one another. Among such regions, one can distinguish rural areas of Scotland and Germany.

Under such circumstances, people were more likely to use witchcraft accusations as a means of acquiring wealth. In turn, the most unprotected victims could be widows and spinsters. Thus, one should focus on the socio-economic aspects of this phenomenon.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, witch trials were more widespread in the countries where the influence of the Catholic Church was weakest. Again, one can speak about Germany or Switzerland. These states were mostly profoundly affected by the Protestant Reformation. Moreover, the role of Catholicism in Scotland or England was reduced because the government did not want the church to interfere into its policies (Hunt et al. 464).

The main problem is that the declining power of the Roman Catholicism gave rise to people who could be viewed as religious fanatics. Moreover, even religious leaders of the Protestant Reformation such as Calvin and Luther approved of witch trials (Ankerloo 11; Brady 626). In turn, the activities of religious zealots were least controlled in rural areas of these countries. This is another aspect that can be distinguished.

Thus, one can say that the witchcraft hysteria can be attributed to a combination of different factors. Much attention should be paid to the role of zealots who raised panic about witchcraft and insisted on persecution of many innocent people. Additionally, poverty and war contributed the increased number of witchcraft accusations especially in rural or borderline regions. These are the main factors that made witch hunt possible in Western Europe.

Works Cited Ankerloo, Bengt. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Period of the Witch Trials, New York: Continuum, 2002. Print.

Brady, Thomas. Handbook of European History 1400 – 1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, London: BRILL, 1994. Print.

Hunt, Lynn, Thomas Martin, Barbara Rosenwein, and Bonnie Smith. Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, London: Bedford, 2012. Print.

Innocent VIII. Bull Summis Desiderantes. 5 Dec. 1484. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kramer, Heinrich and James Sprenger. The Malleus Maleficarum, New York, Book Tree, 2000. Print.

Lualdi, Katharine. Sources of The Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, London: Bedford, 2012. Print.

Verlet, Melissa. The Witch Hysteria. 28 Sep. 2013. Web.


Contextual Factors Regarding the Classroom and Students Expository Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The atmosphere in the classroom and particular features of the necessary instructional planning and assessment significantly depend on contextual factors which are aspects of the community and district’s development, features of the concrete school, and students’ characteristics.

To analyze how contextual factors can influence the teacher’s approach to realizing instructional planning and assessment, it is necessary to refer to the environments and contextual factors typical for the First Grade class of Webster Elementary School located in Webster, Wisconsin. Thus, it is important to focus on the discussion of environmental and classroom contextual factors as well as on students’ characteristics and on their impact on the teaching-learning process.

The environmental factors which influence the development of the community of Webster, Wisconsin, are the community population and support for education. Thus, according to the data of 2012, the whole number of residents in Webster is 644 persons living at the rural territories (Webster, Wisconsin, 2013). The small number of population influences the number of students in Webster schools from the community because many students are from other communities.

Responding to the needs of these students, teachers include the aspects associated with the communities’ cultural and historical development designing instructions, focus on different values and traditions.

The community’s support for education is strong, but the parental involvement in the classroom activities is minimal. The design of instructions depends on the ability of parents to participate in the class projects, pay for the additional educational materials, and interact with a teacher while involving a teacher in the family environment.

To describe the district, it is necessary to refer to such factors as socioeconomics and race and ethnicity. While referring to socioeconomics, it is important to note that the median household income of the population is approximately $34,460 as it was fixed in 2011 (Webster, Wisconsin, 2013). The majority of the district’s population is involved in manufacturing, and the average rate of unemployment is 6.7% (Webster, Wisconsin, 2013).

It is important not to focus students’ attention on economic differences while providing instructions to avoid biases and to contribute to the idea of equality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The development of a district is also influenced by the factor of race and ethnicity because 3.8% of people are American Indians, 2.8% are of the mixed origin, 2% are Hispanics, and 1.8% are Blacks (Webster, Wisconsin, 2013). This factor contributes to the cultural diversity and teacher’s use of instructions to demonstrate the respect for diversity without focusing on stereotypes.

The factors of school population and the race and ethnicity are important to discuss the demographics of Webster School. The whole population of the school is 720 students, including the students from the other neighbor communities. This fact influences the teacher’s instructions and assessment because of necessities to meet the other communities’ expectations, respond to the communities’ values and morals. Instructions should not be abusive for representatives of different communities.

According to the race and ethnicity factor, 78.8% of the school population are Whites, 2.2% are Hispanics, and 10% are American Indians (WISEdash, 2013). To respond to the ethnic diversity in classes, teachers provide instructions and assessments in two languages when it is necessary, add the response to the cultural diversity to lesson plans, treat all the students equally, but with the respect to their culture and ethnicity, not contributing to developing stereotypes.

The classroom environment should also be described in relation to such important contextual factors as physical features, technology equipment and resources, the parental involvement, and the classroom arrangement because these factors directly and indirectly affect the quality and type of instructions and techniques used by teachers in order to enhance the teaching-learning process.

The classroom used for the First Grade class’s activities is not large enough in order to provide the necessary rest for eighteen students and playing and learning activities typical for students of the First Grade.

However, the technological equipment is appropriate to work out the effective lesson plans and perform all the planned activities. SMARTBoards and iPads are available to be used in order to develop students’ skills and contribute to their activities while presenting and explaining the new material (Webster School District, 2013). Moreover, the large assortment of books and other educational materials are available for teachers and students in order to assist them in their teaching and learning activities.

The parental involvement which is characteristic for the First Grade class is not significant in order to influence the aspects of the teaching-learning process. Thus, parents do not participate in the planned outdoor activities, and only few parents perform the functions as the representatives of the parental committee in the class.

We will write a custom Essay on Contextual Factors Regarding the Classroom and Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other important factor to affect the specifics of the lessons, instructional planning, and assessment is the classroom arrangement. The classroom is too small in order to arrange the students’ tables to form circles necessary for the group work. Any movements in the classroom are limited because of the arrangement of tables that is why a teacher should choose between the activities which are appropriate to be performed in the classroom with little space.

In addition to the environmental and classroom contextual factors, it is necessary to discuss student factors such as age, gender, interests, and learning styles which are characteristic for the First Grade class because they influence the design of the used instructions, learning activities, and assessment techniques and methods directly.

Thus, the age of the First Grade class’s students is the key factor to plan instructions and activities in order to contribute to the students’ perception and understanding of the material. For instance, children of 6-7 years understand clear instructions which can be supported with visual materials in order to explain the expected goals.

Furthermore, the students of this age respond more actively to the instructions which are connected with different types of the practical activities. The next factor is the gender of students in the class. The First Grade class consists of nine boys and nine girls. Thus, the gender does not influence the choice of instructions and assessment techniques significantly because the dominance of boys or girls in the class is not observed.

However, interests of boys and girls at the age of 6-7 years are rather different that is why these aspects should be taken into consideration while developing the necessary instructions. It is important to note that the elements of games are effective for providing instructions and assessments for the students without references to their gender because playing activities are appropriate to meet the students’ interests at this sage of the personal development.

To contribute to the development of the most effective instructions for the First Grade class, it is necessary to pay attention to the students learning styles. The boys in the class are more responsive to the visual material when the girls react more actively to the heard information.

That is why, it is effective to combine the visual and auditory techniques and resources in order to present instructions and assessment activities in this class. This approach can contribute to increasing the students’ understanding of the material and performance.

Nevertheless, the contextual factors are rather complex in their nature, and such factors as the student skills and prior learning can influence the teacher’s approach to determining the learning goals, instruction, and assessment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contextual Factors Regarding the Classroom and Students by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is necessary to state that the focus on the student skills and prior learning is extremely important while developing the learning goals regarding this or that subject because students’ abilities to read, write, and count and their successes in these activities are important to determine the further learning goals in relation to reading, writing, and mathematics or other subjects.

The learning of the next aspects of this or that field should be based on the definite prior knowledge. Thus, it is important to refer to the skills developed by the students at the Kindergarten stage.

Student skills are also significant to determine the instructions used by the teacher and his or her approach to assessment. Thus, it was necessary to modify the instructions used at the Kindergarten stage in order to contribute to the progress of the students in the First Grade class. That is why, the range of aspects presented in instructions was expanded, but the number of details accentuated became less because it is necessary to help students ask the questions focused on the general material.

Furthermore, the level of thinking skills’ development affected not only instructions but also the choice of the literature used in the class. The prior learning and knowledge is important to plan assessment to evaluate the students’ progress. The methods used previously are not effective, but the new approach to assessment is based on students’ abilities to perceive the material at the new stage.

From this point, contextual factors influence the classroom activities at all the levels, and they should be addressed in order to contribute to the effective teaching-learning process and development of appropriate instructions and assessments.

References Webster School District. (2013). Web.

Webster, Wisconsin. (2013). Web.

WISEdash. (2013). Web.


Institute for Healthcare Improvement Organization Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of Nurses in Effecting Change



Introduction The Institute for Healthcare Improvement is one of the largest organizations within the United States (US) that affects change in the health environment. The organization offers training courses to personnel in the medical profession at global and community levels. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the role of nurses in the Institutes for Healthcare Improvement activities.

Role of Nurses in Effecting Change Enormous increase in health care costs is increasingly becoming a concern to government, corporate as well as personal budgets. Draper et .al (2008) revealed that the health care expenditures have increased by an average of two percent higher than the growth of GDP for the past fifty years. The underlying concern is that if this trend continues, health care expenditure is likely to consume more than twenty-percent of government expenditure in most countries by 2050.

The trends in government expenditure are disturbing. However, this organization promotes efficiency in service delivery, hence reducing the cost of services at health facilities. Since nurses have a primary contact with the patients, participation on the efficiency management at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement organization will greatly reduce the unnecessary costs such as wastages and misuse of health provision instruments (Draper et al. 2008).

The general agreement is that wellness programs run by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement have profound positive benefits to both the administration and patients. Through these initiatives, patients have the opportunity to live happier, healthier, longer and more productive lives.

Being the most important assets to an organization, improved productivity of health institutions presents a bundle of benefits to the administration. The development and implementation of wellness programs and health programs is initiated and managed by nurses. As a result of involvement of nurses in this change process, hospitals and other health facilities are likely to experience dramatic shift from a culture of treatment to prevention (Jennings et al. 2007).

When developing records management mechanisms, numbers of setbacks befall health program providers. Data storage has become a complex element in records keeping. This problem is further complicated by merger of health facility departments and integrated health delivery services.

Fortunately, the records management and treatment skill offered by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement equips nurses with the relevant skills of micro managing records especially in the remote health facilities. Thus, a nurse involved in the records management course offered by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement will have necessary expertise in professional records management of patients (Draper et al. 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concept of leadership can be broadly defined as the intrinsic ability to internalize a setting with the intention of empowering a group or team to proactively and creatively contribute towards problem solving.

On the other hand, management, in the broad spectrum, can be defined as the process in an organization that is inclusive of setting, strategic planning, managing resources and deploying the needed resources to realize specific objectives that are measurable within a specified period of time. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement encourages nurses to offer primary leadership and management skills in implementing changes through the participatory approach (Jennings et al. 2007).

Conclusion Leadership inspires the need to contribute proactively towards creation of a suitable environment for closing the gap that may exist between a challenge and its solution. A nurse participating in the change activities of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement may offer creative leadership which is a rich recipe for an imaginative response to stimulation. The stimulation creates a wider chain of adaptation of viable solutions when implementing change in the healthcare environment.

References Draper, D. A., Felland, L. E., Liebhaber, A.,


Book “The Looming Tower” by L.Wright Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Terrorism is a global phenomenon that has affected many countries over the past years. Terrorism dates back to the first century where in order to attain certain political ambitions, a Jewish group would maim and kill its enemies with the aim of ousting the Roman rulers from Judea. Up to date, the majority of terrorist attacks and the willingness to use extreme violence hinges on certain political grievances.

Terrorist attacks in most cases come as a surprise attack and both the developed and developing countries have been targets of such attacks. The most recent surprise terrorist attack happened on Saturday 21 September 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya, where terrorists held hostages in a shopping mall before killing and maiming them. The siege lasted for three days. This attack shows that terrorism has metamorphosed to target both developing and developed countries.

Technological innovation is one of the main contributors to the advancement of terrorism in this modern era as there is overwhelming information available over the Internet, which allows terrorist to modify their tactics, obtain information on their potential targets, and improve on their weaknesses. In addition, the Internet facilitates easy and effective communication amongst terrorists when they are planning on their targets and the kind of weaponry they are going to use for their heinous acts against humanity.

The fact that the United States is a superpower and it has the most advanced military around the world does not mean that it has not been affected by acts of terrorism. Being a superpower the United States in the past has waged war on terrorism with an aim of making the world a better place where people can enjoy peace.

Unfortunately, this decision has come at a cost, as the country is now a target for terrorists especially from extremist Islamic Jihadists who believe that the western civilization is leading to the decadence on traditional Eastern societies. The American involvement in the Middle East politics has angered radical groups like the al-Qaeda, which was supported by the Taliban government (Wright, 2006).

This government operated under the leadership of a Sunni extremist Islamic group in Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001 before the invasion by US. In the year 2001, the al-Qaida terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden carried out one of the most deadly terrorist attacks in contemporary times, which is commonly known the 9/11 in the United States. This paper analyzes why the US intelligence failed to stop the 9/11 attack.

Al-Qaeda and the chronology of events leading to the 9/11 attack on United States According to Wright (2006), al-Qaeda is a terrorism group that was founded by Osama bin Laden in the 1980s in a place called Peshawar in Pakistan. The leader was the son of a billionaire Saudi Arabian and he formed the group to fight any country that he perceived as a threat to Islam across the world. The first aim of the group was to aid Muslims in the fight against the Soviet Union, which had invaded Afghanistan in 1979 by facilitating the transportation, financing, and recruitment of thousands of Muslims around the globe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Osama felt that he had a role to play in the ending of the advancement of soviet communism that would corrupt Islamic lands. Even the United States government under President Ronald Reagan, Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian regimes supported the involvement of Muslims in the fight against the Soviets. However after the defeat of the soviets in 1989, the involved Islamic groups were not dissolved; instead, they reorganized and started fighting what they believed to be corrupt Islamic governments and foreign invasion on their land.

According to Wright (2006), the decision by the aforementioned three governments to let Muslims participate in the Soviet war is one of the contributive factors to the formation and convergence of a powerful al-Qaeda as an extremist Islamic group. For instance, due to this war, different organizations met, which even led to one of the organizations under the leadership of Ayman al-Zawahiri who was an expert and intelligent militia from Egypt to merge with the al-Qaeda organization led by Osama (Wright, 2006).

Osama’s abhorrence towards the US grew as his zeal to overthrow non-Islamic governments and establish genuine Islamic governments was fuelled by the influence of the United States and other European governments.

In a bid to handle this situation, the terror organization led by its leader came up with plans on how they would relish terror on any nation that was opposing their plans. According to Wright (2006), the September 9/11 attack in the US, which made Osama a global figure as a terrorist, was the climax of the list of events that had occurred in the previous years.

After the end of war against the Soviets, the terror group established training grounds in Afghanistan with a redefined aim of waging war on the United States for its invasion and continued presence in the Middle East. Osama’s move to Sudan in 1991 up to 1996 also aimed at establishing more training and recruitment of insurgents as well as linking with other terror organizations, thus making the al-Qaeda an international group.

During this period, the al-Qaeda group animosity towards the Americans was manifested by the attacks in two hotels in Aden, Yemen, targeting American troops on their way to Somali for a peacekeeping mission.

This attack shows that the group was completely in opposition of the involvement of the US government in Islamic nations’ affairs worldwide even in developing and war torn countries like Somali. The difference in opinion in solving humanitarian crisis between the American government and the al-Qaeda group led to the eventual withdrawal of the US troops from Somali in 1994.

We will write a custom Essay on Book “The Looming Tower” by L.Wright specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The al-Qaeda was sponsoring the Somali Islamic militia group, which was fighting the US troops and this aspect led to the onslaught of 18 US soldiers after their helicopter was shot down. Osama’s hatred towards the Americans was also exhibited by the terror attack on the US military attack on Saudi Arabia and the 1998 bombing of two US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.

In the same year, the al-Qaeda leaders ordered Muslims around the world to kill Americans and all those associated with them, as they believed that they were send by the devil to destroy the Muslim community. All these terrorist attacks mainly aimed at putting an end to the American’s invasion to Islamic nations and it seemed like all the American citizens located anywhere across the world were vulnerable to terrorist attacks.

In addition, some Islamic nations like Egypt, which were seen by the al-Qaeda as allies of the American government, were not spared as justified by the suicide bombing of the Egyptian embassy in Pakistan in 1995. Zawahiri believed that the Egyptian government had become non-Islamic by supporting the Americans and the bombings would serve as a warning for the government to change its wayward governance style.

The political ambition of Zawahiri made him believe that all the Egyptians working in the embassy were government workers and they deserved to die without even considering that other innocent Muslims would be vulnerable to the attack. He also intensified his campaign by maiming and killing 62 tourists most of them from Switzerland, who had visited the country.

This move shows that the al-Qaeda had waged war against not only on the United States, but also on all non-Islamic nations around the globe as they were thought to contribute to the moral degeneration of the Islamic community and some of the Muslims were being converted to Christianity, thus abandoning their old religion. Hence, the group wanted to establish an Islamist state governed by the by sharia law and without the influence of modern ideologies and politics.

However, the US being the sole superpower, was not deterred by these terrorist attacks on its citizen as it was determined to root out the problem of terrorism from the society. The US relentless effort to fight terrorism led to the attack on al-Qaeda insurgents in Afghanistan and Sudan with the aim of neutralizing the terror threat by killing and destroying their training areas.

Apparently, this move perhaps gave the wrong message to the terrorists that perhaps the United States was not getting their message of non-indulgence on Muslim affairs and Islamic nations. Therefore, they planned to have one catastrophic attack that would drive the message home to the Americans and other nations across the world. Ultimately, the group achieved this goal through the coordinated terrorist attacks on September 11, 2011.

The 9/11 attacks and how United States failed to stop them Despite having the most advanced technology to gather intelligence on any terrorist threat to the country, the United States goes down in history as one of the countries that were worst hit by terrorist attacks after the 9/11 fateful attacks, which led to the death of approximately 3000 innocent lives. The insurgents had planned the terrorist operation very well as they hijacked four commuter planes, which were then flown directly to the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and one of the commuter jets crashed in a field at Pennsylvania.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Book “The Looming Tower” by L.Wright by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The al-Qaeda managed to make a mockery of the elite intelligence units in the US, as some of the insurgents had stayed in the country for about a year. The terrorists even took flight lessons in America’s known flight schools to perfect their fighting skills without being detected by the intelligent units. The other suicide terrorist managed to slip in the country some few months before the actual date of the planned attacks.

One of the intelligence units that failed in averting the 9/11 catastrophe was the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which failed to communicate and share crucial information with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

The FBI was established in 1908 and it can be labeled as the broadest of all federal agencies in the United States, where it is tasked with gathering information to help in coming with solutions to prevent any terror threats to the country. The majority of the agents who have been privileged to work for this organization are very intelligent.

One such person was the then senior FBI agent John O’Neill. O’Neill had a master’s degree in forensics, which implies that he was highly informed in his duties, as he was informative, very skillful, and had admirable expertise in gathering classified information that would help in combating any terrorism threat to the country. Being a senior agent at the FBI, John was tasked with the responsibility of leading other agents in the investigations of the East African bombing on the US embassies as well as the USS Cole attack in Yemen.

As the al-Qaeda terror group carried out these attacks, it gave O’Neill the opportunity to gather highly classified information concerning the leader of the group and the imminent threat that he posed to the United States. O’Neill was among the first people to know about the existence of Osama and gather intelligence that was linked to the 9/11 attack.

O’Neill’s brilliance and determination to secure the United States from any terrorist attacks led him to capture one of the plotters of the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993 known as Ramzi Ahmed Youssef. This terrorist was apparently brilliant as he had evaded arrest since 1993, and thus only an intelligent man like O’Neill was in a position to arrest him.

The arrest of this terror suspect was very important in the investigation of al-Qaeda as it introduced O’Neill to a new complicated and sophisticated world of terrorism that was mainly targeting Americans. In addition, the arrest helped in averting thousands of deaths and destruction of property as the suspect was already planning to bomb a couple of jets. After the Ramzi’s arrest, O’Neill became obsessed with the case, and thus he looked for any kind of information that he could get with the aim of tracking Osama and the al-Qaeda group.

Thorough investigations carried out by O’Neill and other members of the Counter Terrorism Security Group proved beyond reasonable doubts that al-Qaeda was planning to attack the United States. O’Neill established that Osama had cycles of his attacks over the years, thus unearthing intelligence that nobody in the bureau could ever come up with, as he gathered intelligence not only from the US intelligent community, but also from other areas such as Britain and Egypt.

Unfortunately, the gathered information was not useful due to lack of cooperation between the intelligence communities. Some of the senior members did not even consider the international terror group as a threat to the Americans despite the fact that in the past few years they had waged war on Americans due to failure to remove US troops from some Islamic nations. Therefore, the 9/11 attacks came as a surprise as other intelligence bodies had not seen the gravity of the situation from O’Neill‘s perspective.

Wright’s chronicles show that there was lack of coordination amongst the intelligence communities. For instance, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had information on a meeting by al-Qaeda members that had taken place in Malaysia in 2000 (Wright, 2006). This meeting was mainly to plan the 9/11 attacks, but unfortunately the CIA heads kept all the details to themselves and saw no need to inform the FBI.

The FBI did not even know that the two Qaeda members, who entered the US after the meeting would later be involved in the deadly terror attack the following year despite the fact that CIA had photographs of some of the terrorists. The CIA’s failure to give crucial information to FBI agents who had been trailing the activities of the al-Qaeda gives the impression that they were involved in a competition to determine which of the two agencies was effective in gathering intelligence and countering terrorist activities.

This aspect thwarted the ambitions that the FBI had in averting terrorism activities by al-Qaeda as they had solved a similar issue in the past by arresting Ramzi who had planned to kill many innocent Americans. The result of this error was the catastrophic 9/11 terror attack that left many productive Americans dead or injured.

How the US intelligence should avoid terrorist attack in future In the recent years, the al-Qaeda threats have reduced courtesy of the United States’ campaign against terrorism. However, aspect this does not mean that the extremist Islamic group does not pose a threat to the country, and thus a recurrence of the 9/11 attacks in the future can still happen, if proper measures are not put in place.

The country’s role in making the world a better place still makes it a target for terrorist groups that are politically or religiously motivated and hence new measures should be put in place to thwart such attacks. However, this goal is only achievable if there is no existing gap amongst the established intelligence agencies. Issues of members of being accused of hiding crucial information like the case of CIA should not recur in the future.

The agencies should be in a position to hold meetings, discuss security issues, and share whatever information they have as they were established to counter terrorism and any other threat to the country and not to compete with one another. This move will not only aid in saving innocent people from imminent danger, but also it will be critical in protecting property that is essential in the development of the country.

Being a superpower, the United States should serve as a leading example to other countries in its effort to counter any terrorist attacks against its citizens by using all avenues to collect intelligence on any terror plot. The US intelligence groups, viz. the NSA, the CIA, and the FBI should work closely and share information in time in a bid to be a step ahead of the terror groups as such a move will avoid situations where the terrorists can execute their plans in the country.

Conclusion Terrorism mainly carried out by al-Qaeda has caused many deaths around the globe and it can be said to be one of the most serious threat in the 21 century. The fight against terrorism is not easy, but it can be controlled if there is intelligence, which stands out as the first line of defense against terrorism. The history of al-Qaeda runs deep into the past when radical Islamists regrouped after the Soviet War to defend Islam nations from western interference.

Wright’s book, The Looming Tower, shows that the United State’s intelligence agencies had information on the 9/11 attacks but they failed to counter the same due to a cold rivalry between FBI and CIA. Therefore, inter-agency sharing of intelligence in the future will help to uncover any hidden agenda by terrorist organizations across the world and thwart attacks, thus saving lives and property from the heinous acts of terrorists.

Reference Wright, L. (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.


Advertising in Abercrombie best essay help

Table of Contents Overview: Ad Description

Obvious Message

Hidden Message

Conclusion: Social and cultural relevance

Appendix 1

Overview: Ad Description Appendix 1 shows a grey, white and black advert comprising of a plus-sized woman lying down on her right side. Her right arm is resting on the ground and folded to support her head. The woman has tilted her head to make her seem like she is looking forward and diagonally.

She has also let her short hair free to fall on her back. In terms of dressing, she has a grey T-shirt with the ‘Abercrombie


Draft Cover letter essay help free

In order to successfully complete this task:

Choose any of the three target job postings you identified earlier in the course.
Review all that you learned about the company offering the job.

Study this cover letter guide published by Full Sail’s career development team.

Read the All-Best Tips for Writing a Cover Letter.

Study these tips about writing a solid resume.

Read this blog post from Full Sail about writing a resume.

Create a first draft cover letter and a first draft resume that is tailored for the job posting you are targeting.
Share your cover letter and resume with your peers in the discussion board below.

Offer advice to at least 2 other students, explaining how they can improve their cover letter or resume.
In this activity you will revisit the three job listings you located earlier in the week and choose one you are interested in pursuing further.

To be clear, you will not actually be made to apply for this job, but rather will be using it as the focus of the remaining assignments in this course.

In the current competitive job market, employers will receive hundreds of applications for any job posting. Trying to get your resume noticed can be tough. In order to communicate your interest and qualifications for a particular position, you will need to draft a compelling cover letter to accompany your resume.

The beginning of any cover letter should refer to the job posting itself, especially the job description. Leveraging the research you did on the company, tailor your letter to the company and the position. Show the company that you are actually interested in what they do, instead of simply being interested in the job.

Your cover letter should reflect your personality but don’t forget the aim is to sell yourself as a viable, qualified candidate. Keep the language as professional as possible, paying careful attention to spelling and grammar.

You can also use the cover letter to highlight key achievements in your career. If you are just starting out and do not have much experience, expand on key achievements outside of work.

Be sure to convey confidence at the end of the letter, closing with a strong statement such as “I know I can be a valuable asset to your company and I look forward to hearing from you soon.”

For this project you will be creating a cover letter and your resume.

The beginning of any cover letter should be the job posting itself, especially the job description.
Tailor your letter to the company and and the job posting.
Research the company.
Show the company that you are actually interested in what they do, instead of simply being interested in the job.
Make the cover letter and resume reflect your personality but don’t forget the aim is to sell yourself as an individual.
Keep the language as professional as possible, paying careful attention to spelling and grammar.
Use examples of key achievements in your career.
If you are just beginning your career and do not have much experience, expand on key achievements outside of work.
In a single post, or posted separately, share the first drafts of your cover letter and resume below. Your cover letter should be kept between 200 words and your resume should be kept to 200 words. These documents might not be perfect but they must be complete. Spelling, grammar, and editing should be near-perfect shape.


Battles and wars Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Battles and wars are an inseparable part of the human nature and one of the most deadly ones was WWI. After the War, the seeming picture was that countries had democratic governments but this was only a topical view. There were many factors that were internal and unique to each country involved.

One reason for the collapse of democracies was that the historical period was the beginning of a new era, technology was developing and countries and their governments wanted to dominate more land. A nation that wants to take over other people cannot be guided by democratic standards, as it is tyrannical in nature.

After World War I, several European nations were competing for power in the region and were focused only on own interests. The major parties in the war were Germany, England and Russia, and there was much political conflict that was unresolved. A democratic solution was meant to offer everyone a fair chance and the decision that was targeted by the governments would be lost.

A democratic vote would divide and reinstate lands and colonies according to the highest moral principles, giving them back to the original owners, but the for dominance and wealth was much more powerful than democracy, it was greed. There was much spying and counter actions by several nations, even a race for the dominance of outer space. Satellites were placed into orbit to spy on enemy bases. German u-boats were common place in neutral and off shore waters of several nations, adding to the provocations.

For some time, large and small European countries have been trying to work out a deal in a peaceful way but that brought no results. Democracy became outdated and could not bring a solution.

As democracy is based on the ruling of masses—majority of nation’s population, it would not represent the selfish urges of a few members of the government. In a democratic nation, the leader is appointed by the people through a fair vote, the public is considered to be the center of the government and the common goals and interests are based on the greater good.

The rights of a person, equality and freedom cannot go together with a world domination, war and overpowering of other nations. Historically, Germany is cited as the “most evil” country that started the war and was the only one to blame. In reality, the surrounding countries did not mind the war and felt it was needed for the division of European lands. If democracy was the regime in place, the majority of people would decide against the minority and the change of government would have to peaceful.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Democracy looked good on paper but it could not be practically applied because of people’s greedy nature. It is clear that the basis of democracy lie in morality and absence of division. In all instances, European countries failed to reach a unified decision and democracy between the nations failed.

Each country wanted more than fairness would allow, thus the only choice to resolve the matter was an open conflict. From the very start, democracy had little chance to change the future and prevent another violent outbreak, as is evident from the regimes that took over and another World War.

The victims of the Great Terror were people of several countries and nations who were politically repressed by the government. This sort of occurrence took place in many countries, but it was particularly horrific for the people of USSR, from 1937 to 1938. The company of mass terror was organized by Joseph Stalin who was the ruler and absolute leader.

Even though people were brainwashed to believe that he was a proper tyrant, what went on beneath the surface was terrible. At the time of Stalin’s death, the nation was in mourning and people were unaware of what was really taking place. This proves how secret and cruel the actions of the government really were.

One of the reasons for the Great Terror was Stalin’s paranoia, which led him to believe that he was being followed and someone wanted to kill him. It is possible that it was true, but he gave a preposterous order to catch a specific amount of “public enemies” within a specific amount of time. There was a “quota” of people who had to be killed in the name of public and national safety. The constitutional rights of people were never taken into consideration and there was never a proper investigation.

It is known that any form of evidence was taken to be true, even if it was as small as an anonymous letter scribbled on a piece of paper with child’s handwriting. People were arrested, tortured and killed. There is much evidence that consists of documents written by Stalin himself, stating that more and more people must be murdered. In some cases, numbers of people to be executed without a reason, at a single time, were in hundreds and even thousands.

There were lists that were given to Stalin and he was using only his own judgment to decide people’s fate. Some people he would choose to torture for longer periods of time, others were ordered to be executed by the firing squad. Another sad fact is that people who were instrumental in catching innocent public were later killed themselves, so their trials or any form of justice became impossible.

We will write a custom Essay on Battles and wars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This sort of treatment of the nation had a major effect on the well being of the USSR. By some counts, more than one million people were killed within a year. There were also numerous concentration camps where people spent years working and dying in the process. Even the families of those politically repressed were considered “public enemies”, without exception of women or little children. Such families had no choice but to move from place to place, without any legal work, education or a place to live.

The organization that was carrying out Stalin’s orders was called NKVD which was an underground uniform system not unlike KGB. It had a full authority over the lives of people and connections in all institutions. Stalin was so possessed with his idea to kill off as many intelligent and “dangerous” to his own shortcomings people as he could, that even those within NKVD were victims of the regime.

A large part of the world is unaware that Stalin was much worse than Hitler and other tyrants, as he was killing people in his own nation, in great numbers and for the most immoral reasons. Later, after the regime changed and Stalin was gone, there were many archives that were still kept secret. KGB came into being and some form of similar activity was still taking place.

National Socialism is a form of a public system or regime which united socialism with significant amount of nationalism and racism. It is built on an ideology that it is the only true order and should be supported at all cost. One of the examples of National Socialism is the Third Reich where it was the major and official ideology.

Internally, there were several divisions, such as socialism, nationalism, racism, Fascism and anti-Semitism. The major goal of National Socialism was to create and ensure that a large territory of a nation was cleaned out of all people who were not of Arian race.

National Socialism is often thought to be one of the versions of totalitarianism which would exist for long periods of time. Adolf Hitler was the one who started the movement of National Socialism which later evolved into Nazism. The reason why Hitler was able to gain support from so many people was because he offered unity and strength to the nation. He made the public feel as if Germany was being mistreated by the rest of the world and the population must rise against such unfair treatment.

When National Socialism appeared, it was closely connected to communism. In the end, the two regimes were both part of a two-poled system of the development of human society. It was a capitalist world where the collective common good of society was trying to reach a similar end—to build a utopian world.

Communism was promising to make all people on the planet equal and destroy all differences between classes and the powerful, whereas National Socialism would only create utopia for the selected ones, according to the race and at the price of the lives of others.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Battles and wars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fascism is a unified term that entails most right wing political movements and ideologies. It is characterized by a dictator-like type of ruling where nationalism, militarism and totalitarianism are its major directions. It originated in Italy with Mussolini who wanted to unite the nation using violence.

Fascism does not accept any form of thinking or morality different from that, reflected in its own ideologies. Fascism was Hitler’s way of ruling and became the moving force in the Second World War and the Holocaust. His idea was not to reinforce and better the nation but to create it all over again from scratch.

One of the reasons for Fascism is the economical crisis, which is used by the person in power to unite the masses with a seemingly noble cause. The military and orderly nature of Fascism gave it even more strength, as well as a sense of belonging.

This led much of the young population of Germany to want to be a part of a large movement, united by the “honorable” cause. The difference between National Socialism and Fascism is that Fascism uses extremely militant and violent ways, and it does not accept any socialism or capitalism, basing everything on one ideology.

The similarity is based on the dominance of one race and the totality of the regime. Unfortunately, National Socialism leads to Nazism which eventually, leads to Fascism, so the connection is obvious. In all instances, people’s and nation’s critical state is used to unify public masses against all other nations and even the whole world.


Emperor Xiaowen and His Court Essay college essay help

The mural ‘Emperor Xiaowen and His Court’ depicts a walking-procession (presumably a religious one) that involves at least twenty members of the Emperor’s entourage. The Emperor himself heads the procession. He appears to be intending to dip his fingers in the cup filled with water (?), which is being held in front of him by one of his servants.

The Emperor’s facial expression radiates calmness, which sets him visually apart from the rest of the entourage’s members that seem to be experiencing an array of different but predominantly positive emotions. The artist went about emphasizing the Emperor’s royal status by the mean of having him slightly elevated above others, within the composition’s spatial framework.

The fact that the procession’s participants are being depicted wearing richly decorated garments, and the fact that due to these garments’ sheer length they can be hardly considered the items intended for an everyday use, we can assume that the portrayed event is indeed rather extraordinary. What adds to the mural’s aesthetic value is that the author succeeded in accentuating the depicted event’s transitional subtleties (viewers do perceive it as such that is being in the state of motion).

As it was already mentioned, the mural ‘Emperor Xiaowen and His Court’ is carved in the limestone rock. What it means is that at the time of its making (522-523), the Chinese already possessed the knowledge of metallurgy, which in turn allowed them to make carving-chisels out of iron.

Because limestone is particularly prone to the forces of erosion, the state of the mural’s preservation suggests that, apart from knowing how to carve depictions in stone, the ancient Chinese artists also knew how to lessen the extent of the produced artifacts’ susceptibility to the elements of nature. Another technical aspect of the mural in question is that the applied polishing appears being of a supreme quality.

Given the fact that this polishing needed to be applied manually (by hand), we can well assume that there were a number of people involved in the process. In its turn, this serves as yet another indication that there is much of not only technological but also logistic complexity to the discussed mural. Such our assumption correlates rather well with what historians know about the developmental phases of the Chinese ancient civilization.[1]

There can be a few doubts, as to the fact that the carved mural ‘Emperor Xiaowen and His Court’ was meant to commemorate the Emperor and the members of his court, as such that never ceased being observant of the early Buddhism’s ritualistic provisions.[2]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In its turn, this was intended to convince the Emperor’s subjects that their ruler’s main agenda was concerned with acting on behalf of ordinary people (representing the bulk of believers). Moreover, because the author made a deliberate point in accentuating the Emperor’s ‘Buddhist’ looks (hence, his apparent calmness), there is a certain rationale in the assumption that the mural was supposed to serve as an additional proof that the Emperor is in fact radiates the spirit of a true divinity.

Therefore, we can say that the mural’s foremost social function was concerned with its potential ability to legitimize the Emperor’s authority in the eyes of onlookers. What it means is that, along with referring to the mural ‘Emperor Xiaowen and His Court’ in terms of art, we can also refer to as the art-related tool of an ideological indoctrination.

Bibliography Qiang, Ning. “Imperial Portraiture as Symbol of Political Legitimacy: A New Study of the ‘Portraits of Successive Emperors’.” Ars Orientalis 35 (2008): 96-128.

Tsiang, Katherine. “Changing Patterns of Divinity and Reform in the Late Northern Wei.” The Art Bulletin 84. 2 (2002): 222-245.

Footnotes Ning Qiang, “Imperial Portraiture as Symbol of Political Legitimacy: A New Study of the ‘Portraits of Successive Emperors’.” Ars Orientalis 35 (2008): 113.

Katherine Tsiang, “Changing Patterns of Divinity and Reform in the Late Northern Wei.” The Art Bulletin 84. 2 (2002): 238.


Defense of Marriage Act Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Definition of Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

Status of DOMA

Effect of DOMA on Families

Reasons that Led To the Striking Down of Section 3 of DOMA

Works Cited

Definition of Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) On September 21, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) into law. This law has faced opposition on numerous occasions since its introduction because it authorizes unequal treatment of lawfully married same-sex couples. In essence, it discriminatingly deprives such couples over 1,100 protections entitled to legally married couples at the federal level (Peralta 1-9).

Therefore, this law denies married same-sex couples many vital responsibilities and protections including immigration rights, tax benefits, retirement savings, social security benefits, veterans’ benefits and health insurance. Many people who opposed the law wanted Section 3 revoked because it did not allow the federal government to acknowledge same-sex unions even in situations where home states of such individuals acknowledged their unions (Freedom to Marry 3).

Status of DOMA On June 26, 2013, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that annulled Section 3 of the law because it contravenes the U.S constitution. The court made that landmark ruling in Windsor v. United States (Freedom to Marry 5). The decision made it possible for married same-sex couples to have access to the numerous protections entitled to legal marriages.

Currently, several strategies are in place to overturn the law. This move is likely to prevent same-sex marriage intolerance. According to the Gay


After the Mayflower and Tecumseh’s Vision Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

After the Mayflower and Tecumseh’s Vision are two films that form the first and second parts of a five-part documentary known as We Shall Remain. The two documentaries explore the lives of two Indian leaders during the encroachment of white settlers and pilgrims on their land. After the Mayflower captures the period of the white pilgrims during the time Indians were led by Massasoit in the 17th century. Tecumseh’s Vision captures the time the Indians were led by Tecumseh in the 19th century.

Long before the leadership of Tecumseh and Massasoit, native Indians interacted with the European settlers and welcomed them in their land. Their shared their land, hunting expertise, food and supplier with these settlers thinking that they would protect them from other Indian tribes. Things started to change in the 17th century when it became clear that the European settlers were after their land. This essay compares and contrasts the situations of encroaching white settlement that faced Tecumseh and Massasoit.

In After the Mayflower, Massasoit welcomes the New England settlers in their land under close supervision. He allows them to use their land to build a home without engaging in a confrontation. Massasoit sends a few native warriors to investigate the behavior and actions of the visitors. The fact that the settlers were accompanied by women and children made them believe that Europeans were harmless.

The narrator of the film says that it was a customary tradition of the Indians to welcome guests accompanied by women and children (“After the Mayflower”). Tecumseh had witnessed the killing of his father by the settlers and knew what they were capable of achieving. His brother’s (Lalawethika) vision set him on a path of renewal to harness the energy of the Indian people by creating a great political and military confederacy obligated to eliminate the expansion of whites.

Massasoit was gullible and easily persuaded in the eyes of the white settlers unlike Tecumseh who was stern, respected and inspiring. In After the Mayflower, Massasoit is seen signing every treaty the white men brought to him without much hesitation. There is a scene that Massasoit storm into the village of the whites furious that they were planning an attack against the native Indians. He eventually leaves after signing another treaty with the white European settlers.

Maybe his fear of the powerful native enemies made him collaborate with the white settlers in all ways possible. Tecumseh was feared by both his native enemies and white settlers. In Tecumseh’s Vision, historian David Edmunds says “there was an aura around him of leadership and respect, that even people who opposed him- even his enemies- admired him” (“Tecumseh’s Vision”).

A counterfactual scenario is that Massasoit deliberately broke the treaty with the white settlers after realizing he had failed his people by giving away most of the land. In the treaties that he signed, white settlers were allowed to use land without any problem. What the native Indians did not know is that they would not be allowed to step on land that was already issued to the settlers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this angle, Massasoit’s death and beheading was a consequence of his guilt rather than the greed of the Europeans. A counterfactual scenario in Tecumseh’s Vision is that Lalawethika had not risen from the dead, and Tecumseh did not go ahead to mobilize the native Indians to rise against white settlers. This implies that European settlers in North America would still posses’ chunks of land belonging to the native Indians.

Works Cited “After the Mayflower”. We Shall Remain. American Experience, 2009. Film.

“Tecumseh’s Vision.” We Shall Remain. American Experience, 2009. Film.


Cisco’s Building of Brand Essay college essay help

Building a brand in a business-to-business context is different from doing so in a consumer market. The case study given about Cisco demonstrates this fact. When Cisco started its operations, its main target market was corporate bodies. It was selling its products to firms, which needed systems that could help them run more efficiently.

The firm has however, grew exponentially over the last decade and it has come to appreciate the fact that consumer market can no longer be ignored. The approach taken by Cisco to build its brand when it was targeting other business units has changed following its decision to include consumer markets as part of its target markets. The approach taken to attract organizational consumers is different from the strategy taken to attract consumer markets. One of the difference comes in the way building the brand is concerned.

When dealing with business-to-business market, the focus will be on the decision makers within the targeted firm. This can be the chief executive. In such cases, a firm will make an effort to ensure that the decision maker understands the brand and its superiority over other existing brands.

This is because the decision maker is known (McNally


Terrorism: The United States’ Involvement Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction of the Issue

Contributions of Journalism


Inciting incidents

Personal viewpoint/Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction of the Issue Terrorism often refers to war situations in which combatants unleash indiscriminate violence upon civilians as part of a war strategy to deter further attacks from opponents, with the main characteristic being unleashing terror on innocent civilians. Terrorists use a number of methods to accomplish their mission including kidnapping, inflicting injuries on the victims, and even killing.

In the past, acts of terrorism were random and restricted to warring nations. However, things have changed over time and now acts of terrorism are no longer restricted to war situations and the area of operation has broadened. In the recent past, the vice has raised global concern, as terrorists use the phenomenon as a means of attaining power and territorial dominance.

Somalia depicts a good example of how rogue militants apply the use of terror to cause instability within governments and gain control of an entire nation. The Al-Shabab, a splinter group of the larger Al Qaeda international group, is responsible for instability in Somalia and it has controlled the law and resources in the country for several years, thus weakening the government and leaving civilians at its mercy.

Most major acts of terrorism that have occurred in the past decade are creations of the Islamist extremist group Al Qaeda, either through subsidiary splinter organizations such as Al Shabab or through the main organization. The United States of America is one of the countries that have been on the receiving end mainly due to its efforts to root out the vice and its involvement in violence in Islamic nations such as Iraq and Afghanistan.

The attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center in 2001 that resulted in the deaths of dozens of Americans and destruction of property worth millions of dollars courtesy of the Al Qaeda revealed the seriousness of the terrorism menace. For this reason, the government of the United States has been on the forefront in fighting terrorism internationally.

Contributions of Journalism International news agencies have made it possible for the world to access information on global occurrences concerning terrorism. Although journalism is vital in providing access to information, journalists are responsible for the nature of information they broadcast and the level of disclosure they deem fit.

Therefore, it is crucial for them to conduct background research and confirm the plausibility of their information without compromising the right of people to access the truth. Most news articles published online regarding terrorism and the American government’s involvement highlight certain key issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, although the American government’s efforts are noble in theory, the practicality of accomplishing the eradication of terrorism has raised some concerns in the international community. The strategic implementation of plans to eradicate terrorist activities by the Al Qaeda is one of the concerns that the international community has raised with acts such as extraordinary rendition raising human rights concerns (Yardley Para.3).

Extraordinary rendition is the act of capturing and extraditing a suspect to a country other than the capturing nation for purposes of obtaining information or conducting a trial. Although international laws on human rights prohibit torture and mistreatment of prisoners of war during the term of their detention or during the process of interrogation, the United States government has in the past taken advantage of nations that have not ratified such conventions and used them for extraordinary rendition.

The reason behind such a move is that it allows the government to bypass the torture prohibitions in the process of interrogation by allowing the local authorities to use such methods instead. The American government thus acquires what it wants without technically breaking the law. Libya is one of the countries that are infamous for being a favorite destination for rendition for the American government.

Secondly, some journal articles express the international community’s concerns regarding the extent of the American government’s jurisdiction internationally. The jurisdictional concern comes from the ability of the American government to order the rendition of suspected terrorists. Sometimes, rendition has the effect of infringing the sovereignty of a country.

A good example of such a scenario is a recent raid in Tripoli, Libya, that led to the arrest of a terrorist suspected to have been behind the 1998 bombings of the U.S embassies in Tanzania and Kenya and plotting an attack on the U.S forces in Saudi Arabia around the year 2000.

A report by The New York Times on October 6, 2013 indicates that the U.S troops, with the help of the F.B.I, captured Abu Anas al-Libi outside his home in Tripoli and took him forcefully as his family watched (Baker and Sanger Para.4). Although some Libya citizens view the act as an abduction carried out by a government, a report by the U.S News and World Report indicates that the capture was legal and that the suspect would undergo a trial.

The report also stated that the U.S Secretary of State, John Kerry, asked people not to sympathize with terror suspects and that the arrest was not an abduction as the suspect was indicted in 2000 of his offences and will have a chance to defend himself. The report adds Kerry insisted that the American justice system prescribes to the rule of innocence until presented with proof of guilt (Lee Para.6).

We will write a custom Essay on Terrorism: The United States’ Involvement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis An analysis of the above scenario presents two elements in journalism, viz. the application of discretion and the effect of disclosure. Although what the U.S News and World Report article may bear truth, its resultant effect is the creation of doubt regarding the fairness of the suspect’s trial. The inclusion of information on the process of the capture and the statement of Kerry of not sympathizing with terror suspects bring doubt to the government’s presumption of the suspect’s innocence.

Therefore, it is important for journalists to weigh the effect that disclosure of certain information in their articles may have on the audience or readers. However, the use of facts in relaying the information in the creation of the report is commendable as it fosters the disclosure of truth to the readers, thus enabling them to make their own independent opinions.

A separate news report by The New York Times on the same day indicates that the U.S might be holding the suspect on a U.S navy ship outside Libya for questioning (Weiser and Schmitt Para.5). Holding a suspect on a ship outside territorial waters negates the use of a country’s laws and invites the application of international law until such a time when the ship reenters territorial waters. Usually, during a rendition, the laws of the capturing state apply (Yardley Para.7).

In the case of Abu Anas, American laws would apply, thus excluding torture. However, the use of the high seas creates a scenario in which the American government may opt to apply international law instead. The secluded location of the ship may also raise concerns regarding the fairness of the interrogation process.

Unlike the report by the U.S News and World Report, the information in this article is mainly speculative. Although the information makes a good story, the factual element of the report is wanting. Although the article contains some factual details about a similar case that serves as background information, the rest of the information including the army’s expectations and the occurrence of the event are purely speculative.

The report may hold some truth, but it serves to prove that readers have a duty to discern factual details and filter the rest when forming objective opinions about certain matters. For instance, the inclusion of information about a case similar to the speculative case may lead to the conclusion that such renditions normally occur for suspects with apparent links to Al-Qaeda, which may be true or false.

Provision of background information in journal articles allows readers to connect the dots and understand the flow of the entire story, which most news articles regarding the topic of discussion, viz. terrorism and the United State’s involvement, embrace.

The articles in the New York Times mention the reasons for Anas’ arrest as his suspected involvement in plotting against the United States troops in Saudi Arabia, involvement in the attacks on the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, and most crucial of all, involvement with Al Qaeda. Although Anas’ arrest may seem unfounded as an isolated incident, connection with such background information creates a larger picture for the reader.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Terrorism: The United States’ Involvement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Inciting incidents The main inciting incidents that brought focus on the topic at hand were the attacks on the Westgate Shopping Mall in Nairobi on September 21, 2013 allegedly by Al-Shabab militants, resulting in the deaths of dozens of people and the injury of dozens more.

The attack was supposedly retaliation for Kenya’s deployment of troops to Somalia in a bid to root out the militant group and bring peace to Somalia. Although the United States did not feel any significant direct effects of the attack, it had an interest in the attack mainly for purposes of arresting the perpetrators of previous attacks on its embassies in 1998 and possible capture of Al Qaeda operatives.

The news articles indicate that the events raised concerns about the extent of damage that the Al Shabab group is capable of executing if allowed to grow. The concerns formed part of the reason why the U.S raided Somalia in a failed mission carried out earlier in October this year. The main reason for the mission was to conduct the arrest of a suspected Al Qaeda operative in the region.

The Libyan and Somali raids occurred simultaneously. Some of the information that remains unclear is details on what the United States government will do to the suspect, Anas, in the application of justice. Although the United States laws do not allow torture during interrogation of prisoners of war, it is unclear if such interrogation will take place in the U.S (Savage and Weiser Para.7).

The location of the suspect is also sketchy as information regarding the same on a naval ship outside Libya is purely speculative. Although it is understandable why such a location remains a secret due to security concerns, the same creates concerns on his treatment during the detention period. Another matter that remains unclear is the period of detention for the suspect.

Additionally, although the articles indicate concerns on the extent of the United States’ jurisdiction on matters beyond its boundaries following the alleged abduction of Abu Anas, the reports leave the question unanswered, with the closest answer being that the arrest was legal and compliant with the U.S laws.

Objectivity is one of the most important components of proper journalism as it gives the reader the chance to form informed yet independent opinions regarding events happening around him or her and round the world in general. In order to achieve such objectivity, it is important for journalists to present the entire story, devoid of personal prejudices and with a look at all angles.

In the case of terrorism, proper journalism would require journalists to present stories from the views of both the attackers and the victims of such acts. Although this aspect is the rule, it is sometimes impossible to detach personal opinions from a story while reporting. However, good journalists ought to know how to present such opinions as what they truly are and exercise care not to present them as facts.

For instance, the story by The New York Times on the probable location of Abu Anas may cause panic for some readers, especially close family and friends of the suspect due to the possible implications of the story considering past events and their outcomes. The implications sometimes overshadow the fact that the news report was a speculative lead on a possible location sometimes resulting in public reactions such as demonstrations that sometimes graduate to riots.

It may also cause security concerns for American officers on naval ships as it creates a basis for attacks on different ships from the militant group. One of the ways through which journalists can avoid such scenarios is through the confirmation of sources before the publication of articles and ensuring the indication of any personal opinions in the articles as such.

Personal viewpoint/Conclusion My point of view regarding the topic is that the government of the United States has the right to fight the terrorism menace internationally, and especially the Al Qaeda (The Editorial Board Para.8). The logic behind this stand is that the group emanates from Muslim nations in which the US had involved in battle, thus making it a combatant in every sense.

Secondly, the US has the right to protect its national security, especially after the 9/11 attacks (Baker et al. Para. 6). However, in the process of weeding out the menace, the American government should cooperate with other nations and respect their state sovereignty as per international law.

A report in the New York Times on October 6, 2013 indicates the dissatisfaction of the Libyan government with the manner in which American troops executed the raid (Gall and Kirkpatrick Para.8). Although there was no bloodshed, the capture of Abu Anas outside his home in broad daylight without the knowledge of the Libyan government officials caused questions among Libyan citizens on the sovereignty of their government.

Although the United States’ intention was noble considering the fact that the government in Libya is new and thus weak, the execution of the plan was lacking in some aspects. An editorial piece by the New York Times titled The Fight against Al Shabab also proves the American government’s ability to go beyond its mandate.

The article states that the United States’ involvement in Somalia mainly comprises air attacks on targets where there is suspicion of occupation by leaders of the terror group, provision of training for A.U troops, and provision of aid in terms of food, medical supplies, and financing. Overall, all the articles are informative about the topic, although some lack a certain level of objectivity by including speculative information and personal opinions.

Works Cited Baker, Peter, and David Sanger. “Raids Show the Limits of U.S Military Strikes.” The New York Times 6 October 2013. Web.

Baker, Peter, Helene Cooper, and Mark Mazzetti. “Bin Laden Is Dead, Obama Says.” The New York Times 1 May 2011. Web.

Gall, Carlitta, and David Kirkpatrick. “Libya Condemns U.S for Seizing Terror suspect.” The New York Times 6 October 2013. Web.

Lee, Matthew. “Kerry: Capture of Terror Suspect in Libya Legal.” The U.S News and World Report 6 October 2013. Web.

Savage, Charlie, and Benjamin Weiser. “How the U.S is Interrogating a Qaeda Suspect.” The New York Times 7 October 2013. Web.

The Editorial Board. “The Fight against Al Shabab.” The New York Times 6 October 2013. Web.

Weiser, Benjamin, and Eric Schmitt. “U.S Said to Hold Qaeda Suspect on Navy Ship.” The New York Times 6 October 2013. Web.

Yardley, Jim. “Italy-Former C.I.A Chief Requests Pardon for 2009 Rendition Conviction.” The New York Times 13 September 2013. Web.


Biography of Clarence Thomas Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Early life – Hometown and Family

Education and Jobs

Government Positions

Works Cited

Early life – Hometown and Family Born on June 23, 1948, in Georgia, Clarence Thomas is one of the most notable black figures in the U.S. Justice system. Thomas grew up in Pin Point, which is a small, underprivileged region located south of Savannah, a land that previously served as slave plantation. His father deserted him when he was only two years old (Cox 10-19). Thomas spent a better part of his childhood in poverty. He lived in an area that lacked many critical infrastructures such as transport and sewage systems.

Most residents of Pin Point lived in misery and only managed to earn a few cents each day doing labor-intensive work. Thomas’s mother, Leola, did everything within her ability to ensure that her children never lacked. She was a domestic worker who also relied on charities from the church to sustain her children. When Thomas was seven, her mother opted to remarry after her wooden dwelling caught fire and burned to the ground (Clarence Thomas par. 2).

As Leola could not support the two boys adequately, she decided to take them to their grandparents. His grandfather, Myers Anderson, was an upright person who believed in the value of hard work. Anderson was quite autonomous and innovative. He used the back of his car as his premises, where he sold his wares. Thomas and his brother were lucky to live with their grandfather who was also a deeply religious man.

Anderson was a devoted Catholic and Democrat who worked hard to instill in the two young boys the values of financial independence and self-control, including the moral capacity to discern right from wrong (Vanzo par. 2). Clarence Thomas (3) further notes that life with his grandfather was better in many ways because it introduced him to better days. Living with his grandfather meant that he could have meals on a regular basis. Besides, he could also involve himself in indoor plumbing work.

Most outstandingly, Anderson instructed his grandsons to appreciate the value of a good education. The two boys quickly appreciated the importance of hard work and could often help their grandfather in various ways. When Thomas was free, he always visited the neighboring Carnegie library because the Savannah Public Library was out of bounds for the black community at the time.

Education and Jobs When Thomas was young, he had a strong desire to join the priesthood. In a bid to realize that aspiration, he joined a black parochial high school. He stayed for about two years at the institution before joining a different one called St. John Vianney Minor Seminary. Although

Thomas maintained exemplary performance in his education, he had a difficult time coping with his peers because he was the only African American pupil in his class (Vanzo par. 3-5). Racial intolerance had not ended for Thomas because when he enrolled in the Immaculate Conception Seminary in Missouri in 1967, he also faced the same dilemma. On one day, a classmate irritated him when he celebrated the killing of Martin Luther King Jr. That conduct by the classmate prompted him to leave the seminary.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thomas was also lucky in 1968 because he managed to secure a position with an enrollment plan targeting minorities in the region. The Holy Cross College in Worcester, Massachusetts had funded the enrollment plan. While Thomas was at the institution, he excelled in many ways. For instance, he participated in a number of community activist organizations and helped to establish the Black Student Union (Ondaatje 28).

At the same time, he managed to maintain an impressive academic record, graduating among the best students of his class in 1971. He managed to graduate with an honors degree in English. Thomas was also lucky to qualify for a position in another program in support of qualified minorities, which enabled him to join Yale Law School in New Haven, Connecticut. To elude labeling from other students, Thomas opted to take a business-oriented law course as opposed to constitutional and civil rights specialties (Vanzo par. 3-5).

While Thomas was at Yale, he also performed exceptionally well academically, managing to graduate with a J.D. Degree in 1974. In his first job, he worked as an assistant in the office of attorney general of the state of Missouri from 1974 to 1977 (Clarence Thomas: Biographical Data par. 1-5). His main task while serving in this position was to represent the Lincoln University. This was a predominantly black institution run by several arms of the government.

For instance, the Department of Revenue and the State Tax Commission played a leading role in managing the institution. After working for some time as an assistant attorney general, Thomas decided to work as a legal representative for the Monsanto Company, a position he held for two years, between 1977 and 1979. This position required him to supervise a number of federal regulations, where he handled bankruptcy, antitrust and product liability issues (Clarence Thomas Eighth Chairman of the EEOC par. 1-4).

Government Positions Although Thomas started from very humble beginnings, he has become one of the most notable figures in the American justice system. Through hard work and a bit of fate, he has managed to make remarkable achievements, which have enabled him to hold several government positions.

For instance, he is the second African- American to work at the High Court, a position that has enabled him to establish himself as a conservative (Clarence Thomas par. 1). As noted earlier, Thomas’s first job was that of an assistant attorney general of the state of Missouri. This means that he worked as Senator John Danforth’s assistant. After holding that position for a while, he worked for two years as a legal representative for a private company.

Thomas also served in the U.S. Department of Education for nearly one year (between 1981 and 1982) where he worked as the assistant secretary for civil rights. President Reagan appointed him to this position partly because his political views were conformist. After about one year, the Reagan administration also offered him the chairperson position in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). In 1990, President Bush selected him to become one of the judges of the U.S. Court of Appeals.

We will write a custom Essay on Biography of Clarence Thomas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The president also recommended him for the post of Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Many minority groups disapproved his nomination claiming that his opinions regarding civil rights were conventional. However, Thomas managed to survive several days of probing from the Senate Judiciary Committee dominated by the Democrats. Thomas has been working in this position since 1991 (Clarence Thomas Eighth Chairman of the EEOC par. 1-4).

Works Cited “Clarence Thomas Eighth Chairman of the EEOC, May 6, 1982 – March 8, 1990.” EEOC. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d. Web.

“Clarence Thomas.” Oyez. International Chicago-Kent College of Law, 6 Oct. 2013. Web.

“Clarence Thomas: Biographical Data.” law.cornell. Legal Information Institute, n.d. Web.

Cox, Vicki. Clarence Thomas. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009. Print.

Ondaatje, Michael. Black Conservative Intellectuals in Modern America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. Print.

Vanzo, John P. Clarence Thomas (b. 1948). 26 Aug. 2013. Web.


Writer’s Choice Essay custom essay help

Please answer the following essay questions in (250-750) words. Responses not within these limits will not be considered. You may type directly in the box, or compose your answer in a word-processing program and paste into the field. Please do not use special characters such as bullets because the formatting may not transmit properly.

The essay questions will be evaluated based on relevance of the content, clarity of purpose, and writing style.

****** Use this question to write the essay question. All of our honorees brought great personal and professional successes to their work environment. What would you consider one of your greatest professional successes and what was the impact that it made? How did your success demonstrate your ability to solve problems and develop solutions in order to benefit your organization?


Values and Culture of the Seventeenth Century Dutch Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free: essay help free

In the seventeenth century such as a country as the Netherlands could be distinguished among many other European states. In particular, one can speak about such trends as the growth of commerce, welfare of citizens, and the evolution of arts and sciences. Moreover, it is possible to identify such values of people as independence, entrepreneurship, and unwillingness to accept encroachments on one’s rights or liberties. These are the questions that should be discussed.

When speaking about the values of Dutch people, one should first mention that they attached much importance to independent entrepreneurship and commerce. This is one of the reasons why middle classes played an important role in this society (Hunt 507).

These middle classes are represented in various works of art created in this country. For instance, it is possible to mention Jan Steen’s painting The Baker Arent Oostward and His Wife (Hunt 511). To a great extent, this picture represents people who were not dependent on the state because they could earn their living.

This is one of the issues that can be identified. Furthermore, the paintings, which were created during the Dutch Golden Age, often lay stress on such an activity as production (Slide 10). These values are reflected in the writings of people who visited the Dutch Republic; among them, one can distinguish John Locke who was able to learn more the political and economic development of the country (Lualdi 71).

To some degree, social, economic, and political life of the country affected his views on the role of the state and production (Locke unpaged Second Treatese). Moreover, the artworks created during this period suggest the seventeenth century Dutch attached importance to science as one of the factors could contribute to social progress (Slide 3). This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished.

Moreover, the film Girl with a Pearl Earring throws light such a quality as people’s unwillingness to blame others for one’s misfortunes. This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about Griet who has to work very hard in order to support her family (Girl with a Pearl Earring).

However, one can say that the Dutch Republic also faced several challenged. For instance, one can speak about lack of social protection. It should be mentioned that Griet’s family went almost broke when her father, who was a painter, lost his eyesight (Girl with a Pearl Earring).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, one should mention that she is treated as an inferior person by other people, only because she is poor (Girl with a Pearl Earring). This is the main challenge that she has to overcome. So, one cannot say that this society was completely devoid of problems. It should be noted that the artworks analyzed in the artwork may not necessarily be fully realistic. As a rule, one should focus on the pictures which portray everyday life of peasants or artisans. These people represented the majority of the Dutch population.

This discussion suggests that in the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic passed through a period of rapid growth. This period was reflected in various cultural works, especially painting. Yet, one can also speak about modern cinematographic works. They can throw light on the values of Dutch people in the seventeenth century. These are the main arguments that can be put forward.

Works Cited Girl with a Pearl Earring. Ex. Prod. Andy Peterson. London: UK Film Council, 2003. DVD.

Hunt, Lynn, Thomas Martin, Barbara Rosenwein, and Bonnie Smith. Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, London: Bedford, 2012. Print.

Lualdi, Katharine. Sources of The Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, London: Bedford, 2012. Print.

Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Project Gutenberg. 2011. Web.


History of Environmental Regulation in US Essay essay help free

The environment movement of the 1960’s led to major environmental changes to address issues of water, oil and air pollution. Before the movement started, conservation only targeted the wilderness and sustainable resources such as trees used to produce timber. Environmental disasters gradually increased with incidents such as the 1969 oil slick caught fire in Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio (Barnhill, 2013).

Environmental pollution was caused by increased use of chemicals which affected both plants and animals. An example of these chemicals is DDT that was found tto cause cancer and genetic disorders (Barnhill, 2013). Another incident that contributed to the awareness is the pollution of the Great Lakes. In particular, Lake Erie was a practical symbol of environmental degradation. The lake suffered eutrophication, with excessive growth of algae and moss that utilized all the oxygen in the water, killing its aquatic life (Glin, n.d.).

The first fatal atomic accident occurred in 1961 when a small reactor was destroyed in Idaho. This accident exposed three men working at the plant to heavy radiation which subsequently killed them. Following this accident, there was renewed interest to prevent similar nuclear accidents. This prompted the implementation of safety measures.

The scarcity of deers in 1961 led the adoption of a law that advocated for the hunting of bucks only. The open season was canceled to protect wildlife in Ohio. Environmentalists became active in the 1960s and started airing their concerns over the increasing rate of environmental degradation (SGI, 2004).

An increased concern on pollutants in 1965 caused President Lyndon Johnson to endorse a publication which discussed how the environment was being destroyed by pollutants and in particular, the increasing levels of carbon dioxide caused by the increased use of fossil fuels.

These fossil fuels led to a rise in atmospheric temperature as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has an effect on the growth of plants, whereby leaves develop an increased rate of carbon dioxide fixation (Taub, 2010).

The 1968 Farmington mine disaster prompted the US Congress to pass the Federal Coal Mine Safety and Healthy Act in 1969. The mine disaster killed 78 people when it exploded due to increased methane levels and explosive coal dust. A closure order for the mine was issued promtply, but it was later sealed perman (Stewart, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the explosion, the Act required that surface coal mines undergo two annual inspections, while underground coal mines had to undergo four inspections annually (United States Department of Labor, 2013). Following this incident, the US government passed laws that required drugs be tested to determine their safety before they could be sold within the country (News Medical, 2013).

There were frequent air pollution episodes in New York City between 1962 and 1964 due to sulfur dioxide and smoke shade. One such episode occurred in 1966, prompting an increase in the number of clinic visits by people suffering from bronchitis and asthma. There were increased death rates as a result of the rise in temperatures (Lave


The Impact of a Fitness Intervention on People with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities Essay (Article) essay help: essay help

In this article, Barbara Wilhite, Gregory Biren, and Leslie Spencer (2012) examine the impact of a fitness intervention on people with developmental and intellectual disabilities. This intervention is described as a recreational activity. The authors pay attention to the experiences of caregivers during their participation in this program.

The scholars rely on such a method as the semi-structured interview. Yet, one can also speak about the use of surveys containing multiple choice questions (Wilhite et al., 2012, p. 253). The results of this study indicate that the participants were able to derive such benefits as lower level of stress, improved muscle tone, or decreased weight (Wilhite et al., 2012, p. 257).

More importantly, the participants learned to interact with people who might not be closely familiar to them (Wilhite et al., 2012, p. 260). This is one of the issues that should be singled out. Apart from that, one should speak about caregivers such as the relatives of people with disabilities. These people have to struggle with increased levels of stress (Wilhite et al., 2012). In turn, the participation of this program can help them cope with this problem.

The authors acknowledge the limitations of their study. In particular, they mention that it did not have a comparison or control group (Wilhite et al., 2012, p. 263). Nevertheless, they believe that physical activity can be a good recreational opportunity for people with disabilities. These are the main issues that the scholars discuss in this research article.

This article can be useful for discussing the topic of this paper. First of all, the scholars show that one should consider the needs of people with disabilities and their caregivers since these individuals closely interact with one another. In many cases, caregivers require some respite in order to cope with their duties more effectively. This is one of the issues that should be considered.

Furthermore, it is vital to take into account the health risks to which people with disabilities can be exposed. As a rule, they represent a physically inactive group. One should pay attention to such characteristics of a person as cardiovascular endurance or muscular strength (Wilhite et al., 2012, p. 250).

This information is important for the development of physical exercises that can best suit the needs of these individuals. Additionally, recreational activities of people with disabilities should help them socialize with others. In many cases, they do not have opportunities to communicate with others, and this problem should be addressed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from that, people, who organize recreational programs, should emphasize the need for physical activities. To a great extent, medical workers need to raise the awareness of these people about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. During recreational programs, one should focus on the dietary habits of people with disabilities since very often they cannot choose the food which is most beneficial for them. These are the main aspects that can be distinguished.

On the whole, one can argue that this article can throw light on the organization of recreational activities for people who have a disability. The authors show what characteristics should be considered by medical workers and caregivers. This article demonstrates that recreational activities have to serve multiple purposes such as socialization, respite, and adoption of healthy lifestyles. This is the main point that can be made.

Reference List Wilhite, B., Biren, G.,


Management Consulting: Case Study of IBM college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Nature of management consulting

Acquisition of a consulting firm

How consulting adds value

Desirable attributes of a consulting firm

Types of management consulting projects



Introduction Management consulting is defined as an advisory service contracted and provided by expert people who assist the client organization to identify and analyze management problems, devise suitable solutions and help in the implementation of the said solutions.

It is a method of assisting organizations to improve managerial practices as well as employee and overall organization performance and growth (Hanisch, 2012). Business entities and companies seek consulting services due to several reasons including uncertainty, time factors and reputation.

Uncertainty is covered by expert analyzers who are charged with the responsibility of sieving information to provide coherence and meaning. Some firms may not have technical and managerial capacity to resolve the problem and may require time to develop such hence the need for management consultants. Finally the firm may acquire recognition and status as a result of interacting with the consultancy firm (Perchthold


You are a teacher/social worker and you have the children of Dee (11 year old Clare) and Kate (5 college essay help

You are a teacher/social worker and you have the children of Dee (11 year old Clare) and Kate (5 year old Elliot) from the individual scenarios in Chapter 1 in your class/on your caseload. What issues would they face be coming to your school/caseload with as a result of them living in poverty? How will these issues effect learning, development or progress on a daily basis at school? What you do to assist them and possible their mothers to address these issues?
Be sure that your response answers all the the prompts/questions in the assignment. Take into account the individual situations of each parent and their situations and what they’re dealing as an impoverished family. Make sure that you’re completing this assignment from the prospective of a teacher or social worker within the school.

This assignment must be at a minimum, 2 full pages in length, double spaced, 12 point font (Times New Roman).


The Flood of San Antonio in 1921: Re-Evaluating the Effects. A Catastrophe Viewed Through a Different Lens Proposal essay help free: essay help free

Introduction: A Bit of History San Antonio was not quite famous up until the early XX century, when it was struck by a natural disaster. In 1921, a massive flood destroyed the city and changed its landscape considerably. When one might have thought that the situation could not possibly get any worse, it became clear that, due to the flood, a large mass of toxic waste was washed into the river (San Antonio Flood of 1921). Even though the effects of the flood are no longer noticeable, the given experience still provides several important lessons to learn.

Miller’s Point of View: An Economical Approach When considering the effects of the flood, Miller stresses the negative effects of flood on the city. Therefore, in his assessment, Miller’s priority is civilization. However, the reconstruction of the city takes less time than the reconstruction of the environment destroyed by the flood, which is why the effects of the San Antonio flood on the environment must be reassessed.

Environmental Impact: Counting the Losses Needless to say, the destructive nature of floods brings considerable losses to the environment in which they occur. Being completely uncontrollable, of incredibly big mass and running at a very high speed, the San Antonio flood struck the environment of the city impressively, leaving vast barren lands behind.

It is worth mentioning, though, that the issues listed below can be related to the short-term changes in environment. The long-term changes, on the contrary, seem to be quite positive, which the next chapter is going to shed some light on.

Natural habitat destruction Perhaps, one of the greatest losses concerned the destruction of the natural habitat for the San Antonio flora and fauna. It is important to stress that the San Antonio natural habitat included the environment in which such species as a log perch and a long-eared sunfish, could develop.

However, once the landscape was changes as the flood influenced the topsoil and washed a number of elements away from the land, replacing them by new minerals, the traditional environment was changed. Unable to get accustomed to the new habitat, some of the species did not survive the change.

Changes in the river ecosystem The river ecosystem has also suffered greatly. Perhaps, one of the most drastic changes concerning the state of microorganisms, as well as larger species, including fish, concerns the fact that the amount of suspended sediments in the river mass increased, therefore, leading to the death of the organisms that required clean water instead the suspension of minerals and soil that the river turned into after the flood.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More City and nature: what does not mix Industries have always had a negative impact on environment, yet, for the most part, industrial waste is transported to the places where it is relatively harmless for nature. In case of the San Antonio flood, however, a great part of domestic and industrial, often toxic waste was carried in a massive torrent and introduced into the river ecosystem.

As a result, many organisms suffered, the river algae being the one that has been affected the most. Once the algae, which was also food for many river dwellers, was destroyed, the latter faced the threat of dying out – and many of them did.

Regarding the Positive Aspects It would be wrong, however, to assume that the environmental effects of the San Antonio flood were solely negative. Caused by natural factors, the flood was an integral part of the natural cycle and, therefore, contributed to the improvement of the environmental state, even though these improvements came at a price for the residents of the city.

Although the effects of the flood on the city structure, as well as agriculture, were drastic, in some sense, the flood helped set the stage for further environmental and, therefore, agricultural, improvements. Among the most notable results, the ones mentioned below are in the spotlight.

Topsoil components replenishment Soil is often taken for granted by the city dwellers; it rarely occurs to most of the city residents how fast minerals and natural resources are consumed by the crops, as well as washed away by the effects of industry. As a result, crops are most likely to become increasingly worse every year.

The given problem is traditionally solved by transfer of minerals and other resources to the fields. Floods, however, also contribute to the enrichment of soil in that they carry a number of minerals that area accumulated in the soil. Thus, after the flood of San Antonio, topsoil components replenishment occurred, which contributed to the improvement of the city environment an allowed for more options in agriculture (Hölzel and Otte 132).

Land mass elevation and the sea level Another peculiar effect that the flood of San Antonio had on the city concerns the elevation of the land mass. With the increase of suspended sediments in topsoil, a considerable land mass elevation can be observed. The given phenomenon can be explained by the fact that topsoil elements allow for keeping the elevation at a relatively high level, since the land mass increases with the increase in the number of topsoil elements.

We will write a custom Proposal on The Flood of San Antonio in 1921: Re-Evaluating the Effects. A Catastrophe Viewed Through a Different Lens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, the elevation of the landmass above the sea level in San Antonio rose greatly after the flood took place (Wilby and Keenan 349). In its turn, the increase of the altitude has contributed to a slight change in the San Antonio wildlife habitat, therefore, making it possible for endangered species to survive.

Suspended sediments Suspended sediment load, which the San Antonio flood led to, can be considered as a major improvement in the environmental state of the land. As it has been stressed above, the replenishment of topsoil, which occurs during a flood, is crucial for agriculture; and, seeing how a rapid increase in the concentration of sediment in water leads to topsoil renewal, the San Antonio flood did affect agriculture in a very positive way (Ramakrishnan and Rajawat 1211).

In relation to the suspended sediments, the fact that the groundwater resources were finally replenished must be mentioned. Indeed, once the land was flooded, the water from the river basin percolated into the soil and reached the cavities, which the groundwater could usually be found in. As a result, the groundwater resources were finally renewed, which, again, was a major improvement of the environmental state of the city, for it created the factors for further restoration of the natural habitat and an increase in the number of species.

Conclusion: A Look into the Future As it turns out, when considered within the environmental context, the flood of San Antonio happens to be not a disaster, but an element of a natural chain of events.

The given fact does not mean, however, that the instances of flood must be ignored in the future; instead, it will be necessary to consider the effects that a possible flood might have on the environment based on the specifics of the local nature and undertake the precautionary measures in order to make the consequences as insignificant as possible. Therefore, the flood of San Antonio can be seen as a sad experience that, nevertheless, provides an important lesson to learn.

Works Cited Hölzel, Norbert and Anette Otte. “Restoration of a Species-Rich Flood Meadow by Topsoils Removal and Diaspore Transfer with Plant Material.” Applied Vegetation Science 6.2 (2003), 131–140.

Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh and As Rajawat. “Simulation of Suspended Sediment Transport Initialized with Satellite Derived Suspended Sediment Concentrations.” Journal of Earth System Science 5.10 (2012), 1201–1213.

San Antonio Flood of 1921. Sep. 24, 2010. Web. Oct. 8, 2013. .

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Flood of San Antonio in 1921: Re-Evaluating the Effects. A Catastrophe Viewed Through a Different Lens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wilby, Robert L. and Rod Keenan. “Adapting to Flood Risk under Climate Change.” Progress in Physical Geography 36.3 (2012), 348–37.


“Confessions” a Book by St. Augustine Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Content and Analysis

Confessions from the Point of the Seven Dimensions of Religion


Works Cited

Introduction In Confessions by St. Augustine, we can follow the path which St. Augustine went through in his philosophical and religious views. “The work is a tour de force of confession, a highly intimate and often lyrical confession of praises and of thanksgiving, of sins, and of faith, by a mortal man speaking to his omnipotent and omniscient God” (Kotzé 197).

Content and Analysis The second book starts from the desire of St. Augustine to recall of his memories from the past in order to recognize the rottenness of his past life once again and to love the God. He confesses that the passion rules his actions and that he sin a lot. “But, fool that I was, I foamed in my wickedness as the sea and, forsaking thee, followed the rushing of my own tide, and burst out of all thy bounds. But I did not escape thy scourges” (St. Augustine par. 5).

In the second book of Confessions, St. Augustine told us about his life when he was sixteen years old. At that time he did not recognize his mistakes and he achieved the understanding and recognitions of his actions later when he had adhered to Christianity.

In Chapter 5 of Book II, we get to know the reasons and consequences of people sins explained by St. Augustine on the examples of his own life. He also tells us that the God has forgiven his sins and rescued his soul.

“When, therefore, we inquire why a crime was committed, we do not accept the explanation unless it appears that there was the desire to obtain some of those values which we designate inferior, or else a fear of losing them. For truly they are beautiful and comely, though in comparison with the superior and celestial goods they are abject and contemptible” (St. Augusitine par. 15).

In Book VII, we see how long path St. Augustine has gone to become a Christian. In the search of the answers to his questions, he turned to Neo-Platonism and other philosophical movements. However, in Christianity, he obtained a real recognition of his life and actions.

In the first chapter, he mentions that his youth, which has been malicious and criminal, has come to the past, and he has entered in the mature age acquiring the life wisdom and true faith to God. The content of the seventh book gives us an understanding of how difficult it was for St. Augustine to repent sincerely and to become a true Christian.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his search of the God, he analyzed his actions, his life, and his thoughts. In Chapter 7, he tells us how his minds and world perception has been changing. Eventually, he concludes that it is impossible to imagine something better that the God and the God is the highest virtue. He recognizes that as the God is the highest virtue, what the God wants and makes is also the highest virtue and the Word of the God is the highest value.

At this period of his life, although he was close to the Christian teachings, he mentioned that his thoughts were still unclear and he did not found the answers to all of his questions.

In Book IX, St. Augustine tells that his recognition of the God and the Christian values became deeper. The first chapter of the book starts from the quotes from the Psalms when the King David mentions that the God was the rescue to his soul.

Confessions from the Point of the Seven Dimensions of Religion Ninian Smart, one of the outstanding religious scholars, introduced seven dimensions of religion. According to his seven dimensions model, the formation of any ideology of the religion can be described on the basis of the analysis of the formation and changing of the world perception.

Smart insisted that the religious experience was the starting point of any religion formation. From the standpoint of his theory, Confessions of St. Augustine represent the bright example of the religious experience role in the development of the stable religious beliefs and views. In particular, the doctrinal and philosophical dimension is clearly observed in the work of St. Augustine as he formulates his ideas and philosophical views coherently. Besides, the emotional and experimental dimension characterizes Confessions of St. Augustine.

This dimension implies the expression of the personal feelings and emotions in the process of search of the answers to the religious questions. St. Augustine not only states which view he has adhered to in the particular period of his life but also expresses which feelings he experienced at that time.

Conclusion Confessions of St. Augustine represent an interesting theme for studying in the Religious Studies and Theology. From his work, it becomes clear how difficult way St. Augustine has gone through in his life to become spiritually mature personality with the stable religious views and the world perception.

We will write a custom Essay on “Confessions” a Book by St. Augustine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His work is rather interesting in context of the analysis of the seven dimensions of religion suggested by Ninian Smart. The doctrinal and philosophical as well as experimental and emotional dimensions are clearly observed in his work.

Works Cited Kotzé, Annemaré. Augustine’s Confessions: Communicative Purpose and Audience, Boston: Brill, 2004. Print.

St. Augustine n.d., Confessions. 10 Oct. 2013.


Entering the aviation workforce requires a unique skill set. Personnel must not only possess the necessary qualifications, but also meet college essay help online

Entering the aviation workforce requires a unique skill set. Personnel must not only possess the necessary qualifications, but also meet industry expectations such as the ability to work in a diverse and team-based environment, attention to detail, and a desire to learn. For this activity, you will create a presentation on the personal and professional attributes necessary for entry into your chosen career field. Consider the unique requirements for your field; the aviation industry is comprised of many different elements, each with its own distinctive environments. Job descriptions can be helpful in identifying specific traits employers are looking for, as the module resources indicated. Your presentation must include a minimum of five slides but no more than eight, not including the title slide or reference slide. It must have embedded audio and include speaker notes. Keep in mind that as a minimum your presentation must include: A specific occupation within or related to the aviation industry. The unique personal attributes required for your chosen occupation. The unique professional attributes required for your chosen occupation. How your identified personal and professional attributes assist employers in navigating industry changes.


Physical activity and cognitive health Essay college essay help: college essay help

Physical activity and cognitive health are two inseparable concepts. The interdependence is so great that any change in either one will result in immediate effect on the other.

Since ancient times it has been known that physical activity alleviates the symptoms of sadness, grief and more even depression. In a book titled “Fit and Well”, the authors present a close connection between fitness and well being of the mind and body. Not only is physical activity a great way to reduce stress and cure depression, it changes the lifestyle and allows for a better quality of life.

Overall, there are six dimensions that define a healthy lifestyle, they are: physical wellness, emotional, intellectual, interpersonal, spiritual and environmental (Fahey, Insel and Ruth 3). Physicians recommend physical activity to relieve the stress and depressed mood. On a strictly psychological level a person who exercises feels better about themselves morally.

They feel that they have accomplished something and the euphoric emotion overpowers the state of negativity. The bodily chemical functions and cognitive mechanisms are closely intertwined. It has been shown that physical activity greatly influences blood pressure, platelet function, heart rate, variability and the autonomic nervous system in general (Contrada 17).

Fitness helps a person to feel better by having an organization and structure of an activity. It does not necessarily have to be heavy lifting or other types of strength training. A game of volleyball, badminton or even swimming, will create changes in the brain that will release chemicals, which beneficially deal with the depressed state.

When a person begins any sort of physical activity, the body arranges itself and prepares for a different state. The neural controls give a signal to the mechanisms in the body that affect the blood flow, skeletal muscles, tissues and organs (Otto 5). The activity of the body makes the brain release endorphins into the blood stream and as such, the whole mechanism of the body is affected. This happens unconsciously.

As briefly mentioned previously, cognitively, the physical activity creates a structure in a person’s life. The individual is looking forward to the exercise. There is a change in plans, adjustment of the schedule, which forces a person to think about the future activity. The state after the exercise is another level of reward and relief. Also, wellness in the environment and social interaction are closely connected, as a person must be one with the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recycling and keeping the living conditions healthy, leads to a more satisfying existence. Proper and respectful communication with other creates a circle of friends who are also part of a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is another important factor, as the body greatly depends on the food people intake. Vitamins and minerals contained in fruits and vegetables provide energy and a strong metabolism to fight off illnesses and diseases (Fahey, Insel and Ruth 5).

After acquiring information about fitness and wellness, it will help adjust a person’s lifestyle. Light exercise in the morning, daily walks or bike rides will be enough to help the organism. Proper diet and regular check-ups will ensure that both mind and body are happy. Overall, it is clear that exercise is a very effective way to lead a healthy lifestyle. Environment, personal emotions, nutrition and interaction with others, all play a role in how strong and positive a person is.

Works Cited Contrada, Richard. The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and health. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, 2010. Print.

Fahey, Thomas, Paul Insel and Walton Ruth. Fit


Importance of Strength Training for People in Modern Society Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Benefits of Strength Training

Importance of the Topic

Works Cited

Introduction Strength training is a vital feature of physical exercise that is deemed important for the human health. The exercise has numerous benefits that are cardinal for physical and mental health of an individual. Despite the mentioned advantages, most people tend to ignore the exercise due to the belief that it is meant for particular individuals such footballers, weight lifters, soccer players, athletes and other professionals in sports.

Strength training is significant for everybody regardless of age, profession, or gender. Its success depends on proper planning and identification of goals and objectives to be achieved (Thomas 189). This study therefore looks at strength training as one of the essential elements of physical exercise.

Benefits of Strength Training In addition to the general benefit of improving body performance, strength training has specific advantages which are imperative for the human body. These include increased level of energy in the body, healthy and efficient weight loss, enhanced performance of the digestive system due to improved metabolic processes, reduced level of stress and improved intellectual performance (Kraemer 278).

The exercise is also important in managing the level of depression. Physical body exercise enables the brain to regulate the movement of endorphins which are essential in controlling depression during and after the exercise (Robert and Ross 67).

Strength training plays a vital role in protecting the human body against diseases, for instance, heart disease which is associated with the level of body activity can be easily controlled by physical exercise. Particular functions of the heart such as cardiovascular activities are enhanced through regular involvement in physical exercises such as body training.

Strength training is also important in increasing the performance of respiratory system of the body by improving the functions of the lungs and other respiratory organs. Moreover, exercise reduces the rate of bone infection by strengthening the bones and enhancing the level of bone mineral (Thomas 189).

To realize the above benefits, it is very cardinal to properly organize and plan strength training activity. This should also include identification of the training aims which have to be achieved (Kraemer 278). A good training program should be pursued on a regular basis. It is also important to determine the training activity which is suitable for the body. When selecting the appropriate activity, it is important for one to seek guidance from a professional who can also help in identification of the training objectives (Robert and Ross 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance of the Topic As an individual who chose the topic I have learned some lessons that are important for personal life development, for example, I have learned that strength training enhances one’s self confidence, self-esteem and self-worth. Strength training improves the level of self confidence by enabling an individual to acquire a desired body shape and appearance which is important for evaluation of one’s physical abilities (Thomas 189). Moreover, I have also learnt that strength training is very important in reducing the rate of ageing.

The topic discussed in this study will help me make some changes in my lifestyle in order to achieve good health. The changes include increasing the level of participation in physical exercises, seeking guidance from health professionals on the most appropriate physical activity and encourage friends and relatives to participate in strength training. These changes will play an important role improving body energy and health.

Works Cited Kraemer, William. Science and Practice of Strength Training. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2006. Print.

Robert, Kennedy and Don, Ross. Muscle Blasting: Brief and Brutal Shock Training. Sterling Publishing, 2004. Print

Thomas, Faye. Fit and Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness: McGraw Hill 10th Ed, 2008. Print.


Climate change and extreme weather conditions Essay essay help: essay help

Climate change has been widely discussed in all aspects. In this regard, the latest global heat wave rekindled the debate on climate change. Proponents of climate change argue that human activities are to be blamed for the current global climate change. Essentially, human activities are cited as the major cause of global warming.

The Intergovernmental Panel’s on Climate Change (IPCC) recent reports indicates close links between human activities and changes in the global climate (Burke 2). The relationships between human activities and global warming are yet to be ascertained though the symptoms are obvious. In fact, extreme weather conditions experienced around the world are attributed to human actions.

The current heat wave is one of the extreme weather conditions resulting from climate change due to human activities. Even though critics argue against the link between extreme weather conditions and climate change, scientific evidence clearly indicate a strong correlation between the global warming and the extreme weather conditions.

However, researchers in this field have been cautious when drawing conclusions directly linking extreme weather conditions to climate change (Burke 2). The opponents question the validity and reliability of current data basing their arguments on the history of world climate. Historically, the world has experienced calamitous heat waves, floods as well as other extreme weather conditions without human activities involved.

In the recent past, scientists have continued to draw in data linking the two variables. The agreement across the board is that human activities such as emissions of the greenhouse gases have contributed to global warming. As such, there should be sustained measures to limit the greenhouse gas emissions (Thurber 2). Unless such measures are undertaken, dangerous heat waves as well as floods are likely to re-occur. In addition, prolonged draughts as well as coastal flooding have increased chances of extreme weather conditions occurrence.

Nonconformist scientists and politicians often dispute about the predictions, yet the number of disasters arising from extreme weather conditions is undoubtedly escalating. In addition, similar data from various sources cannot be disputed on the ground of validity and reliability (Thurber 2). In fact, data from climate agencies indicate similar results with slight variations.

For instance, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Climate Data Center (NCDC) indicate that the last thirteen years have experienced the hottest periods within 132 years. Precisely, the hottest period ever recorded since 1895 occurred from 2001 to 2013. The IPCC, which has been involved in various researches around the world, predicts more extreme weather conditions in the coming decade (Zaelke and Veerabhadran 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the IPCC reports that the frequencies of extreme weather conditions have increased. Previously, the heat waves occurred once in 20 years. Currently, the heat waves occur two times in one decade. The prediction is that continuous emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere leads to reoccurrences of global warming within two years.

Heat waves are not the only extreme weather conditions that are expected to occur but also flooding, hurricanes, prolonged drought, coastal flooding as well as ice storms are expected in the next decade. The IPCC, which is concerned with the climate studies, normally has accurate predictions and warn associates against premature judgments (Zaelke and Veerabhadran 2). The panel depends on clear evidence to make conclusive predictions.

The reason is that many factors that tend to explain the variations in world temperatures are not directly linked. In other words, there is disconnection between the current causes of extreme weather conditions and the similar past climate situations. The explanations provide facts used by critics to argue their case. In addition, the conclusions drawn from the data taken within 132 years cannot be linked with the similar data from another century.

Consistent with the recent report released by the IPCC and the UN panel, human actions contribute immensely to climate change. The reports follow the studies undertaken to determine the relationship between climate change and human activities. In fact, the reports indicate that typhoons, hurricanes and coastal flooding are likely to increase in this decade (Shank 1). The recent reports concur with previous information on climate change and extreme weather conditions.

In addition, the studies indicate that greenhouse gas emissions are the major cause of climate change (Zaelke and Veerabhadran 2). Some of the effects of greenhouse gas are the extremely high and low atmospheric temperatures. The cyclic global temperatures are prone to intense weather conditions. The data is supported by basic atmospheric science arguing that warmer air causes intense drought and heat waves. The result also explains the cause of the recent heat waves.

According to the reports, the extreme temperatures are also likely to cause increased frequency of precipitation associated with typhoons, cyclones, hurricanes as well as coastal floods. In addition, available data indicate that heavy rains are expected to rise in many parts of the world within this century due to increased atmospheric pressure and temperature (Shank 1).

Even though recent statistics are almost similar to the previous information, the accuracy of data collection and analysis improves the reliability of the conclusions drawn. In other words, the two agencies are majorly concerned with accuracy of the data to draw plausible correlations between the human activities and the global warming.

We will write a custom Essay on Climate change and extreme weather conditions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The IPCC and the UN also found out increasing human susceptibility to extreme weather conditions. While carbon emissions continue to be unabated, human vulnerability to the extreme weather conditions persistently increases (Leonhardt 1).

Flawed decisions on climate change by governments and industrialists together with continued increasing populations are exposing the majority of people to the harms of extreme weather conditions.

Human activities including land use, rapid urbanization, unchecked coastal developments and growth of megacities have led to the increased vulnerability of rural and urban communities to the tribulations resulting from extreme weather conditions. The reports argue that necessary measures have to be taken to avert extreme weather related problems.

Global warming related problems have been cited to vary from social to economic aspects. In other words, climate change significantly influences the political and socio-economic trends around the globe. In particular, the global climate changes have affected the trends of global economic growth.

For instance, the Colorado floods and Yosemite Rim Fire are examples of the devastating effects of climate change. In addition, the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) argued that over fifty percent of extreme weather events in 2012 were influenced by changes in climate (Leonhardt 1). The consequences of the calamities ranged from crippling of tourism to loss of homes and livelihoods.

Further, the weather events posed risks to the economic growth. Moreover, a research by the US Department of Energy (USDE) asserted that energy infrastructure is gradually more susceptible to extreme weather events emanating from climate change. For example, the wildfire that occurred in close proximity to Yosemite National Park in San Francisco led to the declaration of state of emergency due to the threats the wildfire posed to the city’s electricity supply plant.

According to Yale Project on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC), most American citizens are prepared to engage in peaceful civil defiance against organizations promoting global warming in operations. The government’s lack of environmental policy change initiatives is increasingly perturbing the public.

For instance, the Keystone XL pipeline project is facing mass opposition from the public due to the venture’s environmental implications (Shank 1). Through such protests, the government has initiated climate bill, carbon tax as well as having set up the strict limits of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Climate change and extreme weather conditions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, companies have been on the forefront in ensuring paradigm shifts towards carbon reductions and major ventures in renewable sources of energy (Gillis 1). Studies also indicate that abrupt changes experienced on the planet including melting, acidifying, flooding and warming have led to a completely different globe. In other words, higher amounts of black carbon in the atmosphere heat up the Earth.

Consequently, extreme weather events characterized by heat waves, heavy rains and violent storms occur. Such weather conditions adversely affect vegetation and animals. Scientists link such extreme weather conditions to climate change. The assessment of climate science by the IPCC indicates that the continuous warming of the atmosphere, sea level rise, alterations in the global water cycle and diminishing snow levels are the results of the human influence.

The panel has achieved remarkable successes through endorsement of the carbon budget for humanity. In reality, the regulation of the amount of carbon and greenhouse gases by industries and clearing of forests have led to burning up of approximately a trillion metric tons of carbon and the reduction of planetary warming to about two degrees above the sea level (Shank 1).

However, climate-cynic organizations contend that the report by the IPCC is hysterical and exaggerated. For instance, the Heartland Institute argues that anticipated global warming would be insignificant to be transformed into climatic calamity. In essence, the critics argue that due to the slow rates of global warming experienced over the last decade, rapid reductions in global warming are imminent (Gillis 1).

The administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have put forward the necessary steps that the government should implement to counter the rising climate alterations nationally and at the global level. As the world experiences continuous warming with highest levels of humidity occurrence over the last ten years, the deficiency of actions to curb climate change has negatively influenced the ambiance.

As such, governments are embracing market-based models in reduction of greenhouse gas discharges by imposing carbon taxes on power plants releasing higher amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Augmented ventures in clean energy expertise are also critical in spurring firm economic inclination along with habitable atmosphere.

Most importantly, the amendment of Montreal Protocol (MP) of 1989 will be significant in solving the ozone problems by phasing out warming chemicals including the hydro-fluorocarbons. In reality, the presence of common sense conservative principles based on protecting health, utilization of superior expertise available and innovativeness in economy to obtain solutions have been instrumental in solving climate concerns such as depletion of the ozone layer, pollution of rivers and problems caused by acid rain.

The US citizens have increased calls for the adoption of hydraulic fracturing process in the extraction of natural gas to prevent the emission of carbon in the atmosphere. The use of hydraulic fracturing process will also reduce threats to drinking water and the environment (Gordon 2).

Further, the government is encouraging the utilization of alternative energy sources including wind and solar power. Moreover, increased investments in research, innovative-generation of energy such as use of nuclear plants and experimental expertise are significant in ensuring low-carbon presence in the atmosphere.

Environmental experts have come up with diverse strategies aimed at ensuring a habitable atmosphere. For instance, the actions taken by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) under the Clean Air Act (CLA) have restricted the discharge of effluents from power plants.

In fact, the EPA has stringent discharge standards for the stationary sources leading to virtual elimination of coal-fired plants. However, significant steps put forward at the United Nations climate caucus produce positive impacts on promoting political goodwill to climate change.

In this regard, the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) projects focusing on reducing of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon, methane, lower-level ozone and hydro-fluorocarbons, will reduce global warming by 40%. In addition, the diminution in global warming is capable of preventing over three million demises resulting from the contamination of the environment.

As it can be observed, climate scientists have continuously forecasted and warned about the increased global temperatures that lead to extreme weather conditions, such as severe droughts, intense flooding as well as ferocious storms. Reports by the United Nations and other climate change agencies indicate that human activities are to be blamed for the extreme weather situations as well as climate changes experienced all over the globe today.

In addition, the scientists warn that weather extremes are projected to worsen in the coming years. In essence, the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities augment heat and coastal floods as well as increase levels of precipitation (Bordessa 1). The UN report stated that higher temperatures triggered such disasters as floods, heat waves and snowstorms.

As such, the UN has moved to establish the maximum frontier on greenhouse gas emissions. The scientists warn that if humans continue disgorging the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through their activities, irreversible climate changes are eminent. Actually, the utilization of economical natural gases and current fuel principles as well as rules regulating mercury have led to the reduction of greenhouse gas discharge into the atmosphere by seventeen percent

Additionally, the utilization of filters on automobiles and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels have benefited California by cutting the level of warming effect caused by diesel by over fifty percent. Further, many countries in the developing world are embracing resourceful biomass stoves, solar lamps and modern brick kilns as opposed to conventional mud stoves and utilization of kerosene lamps leading to reduction of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Moreover, several initiatives include reduction of leaks from gas pipes, capturing methane from waste dumps and water treatment plants as well as reducing discharges from rice paddies. In essence, the elimination of such temporary climate noxious wastes is significant in slowing the pace of global warming.

Works Cited Bordessa, Kris. “Global Climate Change Linked to Extreme Weather?” Wired 11 February 2012: 1. Web.

Burke, Marshall. “Weather and Violence.” The New York Times 30 August 2013: 2. Web.

Gillis, Justin. “U.N. Panel Finds Climate Change Behind Some Extreme Weather Events.” The New York Times 18 November 2011: 1. Web.

Gordon, Kate. “Let’s Upgrade Our Insurance Policy on Climate-Change Risk.” The Wall Street Journal 25 September 2013: 2. Web.

Leonhardt, David. “It’s Not Easy Being Green.” The New York Times 9 February 2013: 1. Web.

Shank, Michael. “Fed Up With Climate Change Apathy.” US News 19 September 2013: 1. Web.

Thurber, Mark. “Carbon Pricing Is the Best First Step to Address Global Warming.” The Wall Street Journal 25 September 2013: 2. Web.

Zaelke, Durwood and Veerabhadran Ramanathan. “Going Beyond Carbon Dioxide.” The New York Times 6 December 2012: 2. Web.


Movies in the 1960s Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction Data collection through interviews offers a researcher first hand information on the subject. This paper explores the movie scene in the 1960s as explained by the 74 years old retired American marine called Mr. Van Clerk. Specifically, the treatise explores the movie theatres in the downtown of New York City.

Mr. Van Clerk is a retired Marine who lives in the downtown area of the New York City. He was raised in the same neighborhood until he joined the military in the early 1970s. In the view of this retired citizen, action movie was the main center of attraction to movie theatres in the downtown area. Most of the action movies were inspired by the previous Second World War and the need to paint the war soldiers of this war as the true heroes of America.

Mr. Van recollects that the entire geographical region of downtown New York had only three movie theatres. The theatres were located in the eastern corner, Central Street and the southwest end near the Downtown National Park.

Though several decades have passed, Mr. Van describes his first day at the movie theatre in the company of his father at the age of 14 years. Specifically, the first action movie he watched was the famous Attack blockbuster. This event reaffirmed his passion for action movies and career choice. In fact, Mr. Van ended up as an army officer to emulate the main character in this particular movie.

In the 1960s, movie tickets were sold several days before the actual screening. Mr. Van stated that there were different types of movie tickets depending on the number of attendees and sitting position in the theatre. Though the price margin for different kinds of tickets was fairly negligible, Van recalls that having a VIP ticket would mean a better view and free snacks.

The snacks that were sold during screening in these movie theatres were the traditional pop corns and soft drinks. Mr. Van recollects that the female ushers would serve the snacks to the attendees at a cost of between five cents and ten cents. The most expensive snack was the milk shake which was retailing at fifteen cents.

The movie theatres, according to Mr. Van, showed three films for each admission during the weekends and two films during the weekdays. The busiest day in the movie theatres was Fridays since most releases were screened on this day.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though the movie screens were black and white, Mr. Van recollects that the sound proofing technology was in existence and viewing quality was average. The main themes in the action movies of the 1960s were heroism , revenge, and punishment for felony against the state. Mr. Van recalls the movies Attack and Vikings as his favorite action films. He has since kept a copy of each in his expansive action series home library.

In the view of Mr. Van, movie producers of the 1960s were generally ethical on the extent of what they displayed as explicitly violent motion images. He recalls attending these films with his seven years old sibling without having to deal with later nightmares from this minor. This is no longer the case since Mr. Van has reservation for excessive violence display in action movies despite the parental advisory message exempting teenage audience.

Conclusion Conclusively, Mr. Van accepts that the current movie theatres have better sound proofing, viewing, and sitting arrangement. It is apparent that action movies were more appreciated in the 1960s than today in the memory of this retired soldier.


Complete initial post and at least one response in the interactive case analysis forum. Refer to the “Case Analysis Essay essay help online

Complete initial post and at least one response in the interactive case analysis forum. Refer to the “Case Analysis Procedures” document for guidelines. Apply the secular approach covered in the chapter in which the case appears in addition to Biblical ethics, and note the differences. After reading and analyzing all the cases listed below, choose ONE to write about in your post. Describe how you would analyze the case, what you would do, and why. Then, read your classmate’s analyses and reply to at least two, noting areas where you agree or disagree with their analysis or decision. The cases for this week are the following:
Chapter 10 Opening Scenario, pp. 181-182
Ethical Vignette 1, p. 195
Chapter 11 Opening Scenario, pp. 196-197
Ethical Vignette 2, pp. 209-210
Chapter 12 Opening Scenario, pp. 211-212
Ethical Vignette 2, p. 225
Chapter 13 Opening Scenario, pp. 226-227
Ethical Vignette 1, p. 237.


Health Promotion for Child Obesity essay help: essay help

My health program must address child obesity in america. I am getting my masters in health education in order to become a physical education teacher. In this class we’ve discussed theories and models for health promotion, communities needs for assessment, and mission statement, goals and objectives for health programs. These are the details for the paper:

You are asked to plan a health promotion program, discuss the implementation, as well as outline the evaluation process. Please propose a community or a population you want to design a health promotion program for. In a 5 to 8 page paper, you will address all required areas of the case. Your task for this case study is:

1. Please describe the health and quality of life problems that this community or population group is facing. Which health problem seems the most important? 2. Please choose one health problem for your project. What behavioral factors influence this problem? Which of these behaviors are more important and which are more amenable to intervention? Which behaviors would you intervene on based on these considerations? What environmental aspects seem to also affect the health issue you selected? 3. What are the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors for the health behaviors you identified for question 2? What are the enabling factors related to the environmental influences you detected for question 2? 4. What policies, resources, and circumstances can facilitate or hinder intervention on the factors you identified for question 3? 5. What data sources did you use to answer questions 1-4? If you were doing a project in real life, and this would be a comprehensive plan, how would you gather your needs assessment data? What would be your primary and secondary data sources?


Portfolio Package Essay college essay help near me

Throughout this course, you have taken steps to identify the risks in your community, identify the actions that the community has taken to address those risks, and prepare some priority issues to address in risk management. Now, this work will be combined to create a portfolio package. You should prepare this portfolio package as if you were going to an interview panel and interviewing for a position as the community’s chief resiliency officer. The chief resiliency officer is equal to the other department heads in the organization and reports directly to the chief executive such as the city manager or county administrator.
You have flexibility in how you organize the portfolio package. However, the components that make up your portfolio package should include corrections and updates that you made based on integrating the feedback provided by your professor about your previous assignments.
You have the option to submit your portfolio package as multiple files or as a single file.
Your portfolio package will include the elements listed below.
Include an executive summary that introduces the portfolio package and highlights the priority focuses for risk management and hazard mitigation that you have identified. Your executive summary should include an overview of the current activities in disaster risk reduction and risk management that are being used in your community and your new action plan that provides a snapshot of how you would frame or change the risk management activities of the office, should you get the chief resiliency officer position.
Your portfolio package will also include your revised and updated assignments from Units II, IV, VI, and VII. You should update them as needed to address the feedback provided by your instructor. Specifically, make certain to include the following elements:
Unit II Article Critique: Incorporate your article critique discussing an emergency support function issue for today’s first responders.
Unit IV Research Paper: This section should contain the research and evaluation of your local hazard mitigation plan.
Unit VI PowerPoint Presentation: Include your presentation, which focused on the evaluation of your community’s hazard mitigation plan.
Unit VII Scholarly Activity: Include your briefing memo.
APA Style should be followed.


I chose a passage from a reading that I should state why I chose it. The requirement: “A passage custom essay help

I chose a passage from a reading that I should state why I chose it. The requirement: “A passage might be selected because it illustrates the author’s central argument, seems confusing or raises questions, connects to ideas or information presented in lectures or other readings, or inspires a creative thought in the reader.”
The passage I chose from an article:
“The mental hurdles that one would have to jump in order to fathom a world where the siege on the Capitol was mounted by Black people are too high. Because not only can I not imagine it, I do not want to imagine the massacre that would have been the result of anything that looked like what we saw on January 6. But while I cannot and do not want to imagine that scenario, I can hope for a world where it would not be necessary.”

The article link:


Please watch Regina Hartley’s TED Talk “Why the Best Hire Might Not Have the Perfect Resume (Links to an custom essay help: custom essay help

Please watch Regina Hartley’s TED Talk “Why the Best Hire Might Not Have the Perfect Resume (Links to an external site.).” In this 11-minute presentation, Hartley argues that when given the choice between a job candidate with a perfect resume and one who has fought through difficulty, companies should always give the “scrapper” a chance.

Answer the following questions:

What do you think scrappers can contribute to organizations and how as a hiring manager you could determine if someone is a scrapper.
Discuss what you think are the biggest challenges for managers who want to effectively address individual differences.
Do you think that people can change their personality? Explain your point of view.


It is known that the vast majority of technology company employees are white, male, and Asian. For example, Google’s essay help

It is known that the vast majority of technology company employees are white, male, and Asian. For example, Google’s U.S. workforce is 61 percent white, 30 percent Asian, 4 percent of two or more races, 3 percent Hispanic, 2 percent black, and 1 percent other. These skewed demographics may be based on patterns and norms in elementary and high school, in addition to the “information gap” and pipeline problems. Furthermore, organizations may have a systematic problem based on hiring managers’ beliefs, stereotypes, or unconscious biases. Apply the 3-Step Problem-Solving Approach to OB to solve this brief case study.

Step 1: Define the problem(s).

Step 2: Identify causes of the problem(s).

Step 3: Make recommendations for solving the problem(s) you identified.


Provides a complete, well-developed discussion of key points from the article using appropriate citations. •Ideas and statements are supported Essay college essay help: college essay help

Provides a complete, well-developed discussion of key points from the article using appropriate citations.
•Ideas and statements are supported by three or more examples from personal and/or professional experiences
•Provides own perspectives on the topic that’s reflective, insightful, and original
•Logical development of ideas with clear and accurate information
Its just a body paragraph on safety of sharp objects that is used in nursing or hospital setting etc. Examples’: needle, etc
Use scholarly source

• All information taken from the source, even if summarized, must be cited, and the article must be listed on the Reference page according to APA.
• All sources used are nursing journals published within the last five years


Dispositional Personality Theories Matrix Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction There are several theories developed by philosophers to understand personality. According to Cervone (2001), dispositional theories can be described as a combination of numerous thoughts regarding the personality of human beings. These theories try to relate the character traits of an individual to personality.

The most popular dispositional theories are; the individual psychology theory and the trait and factor theory. Individual psychology theory, developed by Gordon Allport, is rooted on the fact that human beings exist in uniqueness, diversity and permanence of personal growth. On the other hand, trait and factor theory give emphasis to the application of factor analysis, a mathematical procedure used in reducing many variables to a small number.

This is useful since many traits of an individual can be cut down to particular traits that are used in describing an individual’s personality. One of the major drawbacks of Allport’s theory is that it is not grounded on scientific research. As such it can never be proved and does not explain the unconscious behaviors. Conversely, trait and factor theory embraces lots of research and believed to be accurate. However, it is more suitable to researchers than parents, educators, and counselors.

Description of how dispositional theories affect individual personalities Dispositional theories help in understanding the diverse personality elements amongst individuals. The way an individual respond to different situations is based on his or her attitudes, feelings, perceptions, interests and other sensations. Dispositional theories explain how these behaviors are portrayed in different individuals.

Primarily, the individual personality theory undertakes that different individuals have varied kinds of behaviors. Despite the fact that a group of persons may seem to have the same characters, each person portrays certain distinctive attributes. For example, different individuals have different views regarding life. While some people may have optimistic perceptions about life others may be cynical.

Gordon Allport assumes that dispositional features of an individual appear as traits and causes of personality. According to the theory, some character traits of an individual are cardinal, which means that they can be observed by everybody and are not concealed. Nonetheless, some behaviors are more elusive and may be observed in some situations only, like when an individual is stressed (Feist


Accounting Environment and Role in Economy Research Paper argumentative essay help

Accounting professionals give information on the economic trends and operations of corporations or people. From a historical point of view, such pieces of information were necessary for insiders in organizations. Nevertheless, with the complex nature of the growing economy, several players required the information for different reasons.

In providing information to stakeholders, accounting professionals have to abide by the regulations stipulated within their professional bodies. For instance, ethical practices and transparency facilitate mobilization of both domestic and international investments, as they promote confidence among investors (McPhail and Walters).

Accountants must be ethical in their dealings to prevent negative economic development, as evident from the cases of Lehman Brothers and Enron’s collapse. Accounting helps in creating a sound investment environment, and, as a result, promoting financial stability. This essay discusses the accounting environment, its aspects, and contributions to economic development.

Accounting environment collects, analyzes, and communicates information regarding economics to concerned groups in order to enable them make informed decisions on the issues at hand. For example, different groups in society require accounting information in deciding on how to allocate the scarce resources effectively. The practice of accounting by people for people makes it an art that requires societal inputs and collaborations to promote sustainable economic development.

In line with economic development, the accounting profession assists in maintaining global standards, business standards, sustainability, aiding capacity building, and integrated reporting (Nrupalia par. 4). When a market has good financial architectures, it assures investors of productivity and sustainability. For this to occur, market players must be accountable for all resources put in infrastructural developments, hence the need for accounting in the entire process.

International accountancy bodies work in unison to provide investors with full assurance on the promising nature of national economies. For example, over 100 nations that have embraced the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) recorded benefits in their economic signals. ACCA attests that global standards make it easy for comparison of transactions across borders and commands (Welch par. 3).

Companies that conduct transparent transactions using the global standards open-up their regions for receiving capital support. With the large pool of investors, the cost of capital for such companies goes down tremendously, hence increasing profitability and returns on investments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In capacity building, just as physical infrastructure is essential in development and sustenance of economies, effective governance and financial reporting are also vital in developing a high level of assurance (Drever, Stanton, and McGowan). The coordination of activities among people, institutions, and standards has to be in a way that the accountancy capability develops to strengthen national and global economies.

For instance, Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) has been engaging national bodies in improving their regulatory and oversight roles as a proficient organization. As an accounting body, ACCA has improved awareness on professional auditing of their World Bank-funded projects in order to help countries develop sustainable action plans (Welch par. 6).

Capacity building underpins development of specific skills and enhances capacity of individuals and institutions, thus helping in carrying out corporate reporting. The 1997/98 crisis that faced Asian-Pacific region changed the international financial reporting standards in order to enhance transparency and data comparison. The US implemented the Sarbanes-Oxley following numerous scandals that had occurred in corporations by 2000.

At the same time, Europe witnessed the introduction of the Eighth Directive to avert reoccurrence of such scandals in corporations. In introducing guidelines that prevent occurrence of negative effects that can hurt the economy, the accounting profession worked towards ensuring a stable and better economy for all (Drever, Stanton, and McGowan).

Also, the scandals made the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) introduce Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSCs) to assist in accounting and auditing of developments and priorities in different nations and regions. In the report, presentation and evaluation of weaknesses and strengths of frameworks and accounting practices were evident, such that it revealed regulations and their application in different nations.

The implementation of international accounting principles and standards assist in creating an effective market for all stakeholders. As an accounting body, ACCA plays critical roles in capacity building activities by providing technical support and resources for round-table discussions (Welch par. 7). Notably, during such conferences, the body supports UNCTAD’s efforts outlining the regulatory and legal structure and institutional frameworks, which are significant in economic growth.

Accounting bodies work towards developing sound financial standards and systems are based on strong ethical and governance framework, and high-quality auditing and accounting standards since they are vital requirements for economic development (Duska, Duska, and Ragatz).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Accounting Environment and Role in Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When international investors understand the global standards, cross-border trade becomes prosperous given that the dealings remove reconciliation and translation costs. Moreover, the international regulations encourages transparency and easy comparisons for international transactions as well as reducing costs of capital for all companies as they have access to capital from a large pool of investors worldwide.

With high reliability and transparency rates in information provision, individual firms develop great confidence, which translates to low capital cost amidst reduction in interests rates and escalation in share prices. Global reporting standards that accounting profession has presented create easy comparability for world markets and even support labor mobility in which organizations can outsource for cheaper labor from different countries or companies.

On sustainability, accounting bodies promote sustainability reporting and transparency among corporate bodies. For ACCA, it believes that all organizations ought to report the impacts of their activities on the local society and environment and how they have put their policies into practice.

When entities report such effects credibly, they enhance stakeholder engagement and response to their concerns and requirements. Since sustainability is imperative to economic development, accounting bodies require companies to inculcate it in their business and corporate strategy. Such reports need frequent reporting and disclosure to stakeholders so that the sustainability process becomes central to both corporate and business decision-making.

Historical performances of organizations in the US and societal interventions show the benefits that accounting can bring in the economy of nations. The origin of modern accounting is traceable around the Gilded Age in the American society, where hardworking Americans developed innovative and creative spirits, which resulted in extraordinary economic boom. At the time, such innovative spirits went unfunded since exceptionally few individuals had economic strength to do so.

When Andrew Carnegie weakened a dam, which he had constructed in order to allow for more optimal fishing experience, the investment failed leading to loss of about 2,000 lives and $425 billion dollars in damages (Combs et al. par. 3). The Homestead incident, as well as the Haymarket Square Riot, resulted in public’s demand for enhanced regulations. As a way of ending privately owned monopolies, the Sherman Act of 1890 came into play.

During this period, organizations had to audit financial statements given that employees had began to gain more rights in the overall management of firms. For quality assurance purposes, constant auditing of firm’s financial statements became necessary. Clearly, investors still had no third party protection since employees were the auditors of financial statements. The whole concept was an internal affair of organizations, excluding outside stakeholders.

The implementation of the act across America resulted in prosperity in growth of companies in the 1920s. When firms started to realize slow cash flow, they began to search for new sources of capital from corporate stock issuance. Businesses relied on this option to expand their services and products to other customers in America.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Accounting Environment and Role in Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Companies began to manipulate financial records with the intention of driving up stock prices, repay their loans and attract and retain investors. This became possible since organizations made the development of accounting standards a private affair, hence were unregulated and designed poorly.

This incident made lawmakers to include shareholders in sharing of such information to avoid malpractices emanating from other market participants. The massive growth in financial markets and past occurrences in the market had necessitated for regulations such that by 1933, the government passed the Securities Act and formed the Security Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1934 (Combs et al. par. 6).

The introduction of SEC in the American market streamlined the overall operations of corporations, as the commission could hold them legally responsible for any misconduct. American businesspersons and financiers shifted their ideological thinking from being bound to their own principles to being bound to a hybrid principle from SEC. Evidently, accounting played significant roles in eliminating unprofessional conducts in the American economy.

Afterwards, SEC began to establish accounting principles that provided general conceptual framework for the profession through American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). The process made committees to come up with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) that guide accountants in making decisions on affairs that relate to their responsibilities.

As a way of sealing loophole of actions that one can take in case of a company’s departure from the codes, AICPA went on to create Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS), which has changing set of codes that enhances consistency and transparency in financial market reporting across the US. Such regulations helped Ireland in spurring its economy that had stagnated before 1984, as it was able to maintain low corporate tax rates to grow the economy by 6% (Combs et al. par. 10).

When the Republic of Ireland joined the European Union (EU), it paid a sturdy price during the financial crisis due to its failure to inculcate the ethical framework that could guide their engagements at corporate levels. The crisis led to loss of pay packages among government employees and increase in unemployment rate. Accounting principles help in managing such issues in a just and fair manner, and countries that have clear set of accounting principles continue to prosper economically.

When countries adopt a uniform and strong reporting system, international and domestic flows of resources is enhanced, as the move mitigates corruption and mismanagement of resources (Drever, Stanton, and McGowan). The Republic of Ireland made progressive steps in addressing the quality of corporate reporting from ethical perspectives to strengthen the domestic and international financial architecture.

Clearly, accounting helps in creating a leveled-play-ground for all businesses and investors by introducing specific regulations and guidelines that monitor market operations. The increased pace of globalization has made developing nations to introduce such codes and standards even though they face constant challenges to corporate reporting, such as weak legal systems and lack of human capabilities. Information disclosure in business assists in integrating sustainability ideas that are crucial in developing the economy.

In the development projects, accountants evaluate investment opportunities in line with the financial and non-financial benefits and aspects in order to ascertain whether a project is worthwhile or not. In the function of investment appraisal, accountants provide information that implementers can use to fund beneficial projects.

Therefore, the profession reduces instances of committing funds in non-beneficial investments, which only harms the economy of a country. Evidently, such pre-analysis supports growth of viable projects. Further, accountants have taken over the responsibility of preparing financial statements for business owners.

They also audit accounts of companies so that the information presented to the government and other stakeholders have high level of credibility. Therefore, they help business owners to track the performance of their dealings through preparation of financial statements and constant auditing of accounts. A prosperous economy must have credible information on the operations of businesses within their territories, and accountants are the real players in ensuring that credibility is paramount.

Fraudulent acts such as embezzlement and misappropriation of funds create an environment that is not growth-minded, thus hindering economic growth. Since fraudsters hurt the economy, restrictive measures have to be in place to monitor such acts to mitigate their occurrences. Accounting instills in its professionals internal controls that are effective in blocking loopholes that can aid fraudulent acts.

Currently, the accounting environment has included IT skills in their studies in order to produce all-round professionals who can mitigate fraud effectively in their areas of service. Information technology infrastructures have caused and aided fraudulent services, thus necessitating the need for inculcating IT in the study programs of accountants. The establishment and implementation of such functional internal controls in organizations is the work of accountants.

Undoubtedly, fraud remains a major threat to the operations of organizations, especially to financial institutions. Attempts by accountants to eliminate the vice results in economic growth. Moreover, accountants engage in proper financial management services to the companies and societies. Recovery from economic breakdowns, such as the 2008/2009 financial meltdown, requires technical skills that only accountants can provide.

The current climatic challenges that pose great threat to the sustainability of businesses have forced the accounting profession to widen their scope by determining costs that business ideas and resolutions have on the environment. Climate change has been a global issue, and businesses have focused their attention on sustainability such that their services have short and long-term goals on addressing the change.

From the perspective of environmental sustainability, it is unbeneficial to make huge profits and not care for the state of an environment in present and future dimensions. Environmental accounting has developed a conceptual framework that integrates the environmental, national income, managerial, and financial aspects (Baba par. 7).

Organizations that account for all their effluents and discharges are well placed to save on costs of expenses, as they are able to minimize waste from excess materials. Implementation of environmental accounting enables businesses to be productive in their service provision since they prevent environmental degradation, which can make them commit more funds in ecological management.

Accounting has an inclusive view of business operations by analyzing possible threats that can hamper economic growth and designing mitigation approaches to contain the situations. Therefore, environmental accounting assists in minimizing costs and negative effects that business operations might have on the environment (Henderson par. 1).

Economic development has to take into concern the environmental dynamics and the influence that businesses have on them. Accounting presents the cost analysis of their engagement and the advantages that arise. In the line of environmental protection, there are investments made for environmental protection and current operating expenses.

Business entities that identify, outline, and control the environmental costs and revenues can save money from diverse points and improve their external image easily. The move assures businesses of continuous existence due to the ease to attract and maintain new customers from their capabilities to access wider market. From this analysis, it is clear that accounting performs SWOT analysis in all business engagement to ensure inclusive development of the economy (Baba par. 9).

Accounting performs integrated reporting from a holistic approach to make stakeholders comprehend fully how organizations run their activities. Integrated reporting incorporates business model and corporate strategy to enable different audiences develop strong connections. A connection between short and long-term goals of a company offers confidence to investors in gauging the measurability, realistic and attainability nature of the objectives.

Accounting sets standards for businesses so that investors’ positions in the management remain mandatory. The development of accounting theory has helped in minimizing scandals that had been rampant before society comprehended the theory.

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has developed conceptual frameworks that have helped society to comprehend some kind of knowledge base and mitigate loopholes in specified areas (Henderson par. 3). In giving society necessary information on business regulations, accounting helps in strengthening the economy through collective responsibility in fighting vices that can harm development.

The profession’s practice in training its auditors and accountants to remain ethical in their dealings is an essential step in supporting economic growth (Duska, Duska, and Ragatz). In serving the public’s interests, these professionals support utilitarianism idea where unrestricted free market is a guarantee.

Accounting assists in ensuring that market controllers adhere to distributive justice in all their engagement. For example, the analysis of tax policy and financial reporting at Enron Company where some companies had been reporting high profits in order to gain public confidence in their operations, yet they were making loses and ending up experiencing minimal tax costs.

Violation of ethics is the sole reason for the fall of the great company since greed pushed the top executive in making profits irrespective of their dealings. Such loopholes have posed great challenges to economic development, and the accounting profession has even instituted the use of both the internal and external auditors in analyzing company operations. Auditors must maintain a high level of integrity so that the public can gain complete confidence in the roles of the profession in administering businesses.

Transparency remains a significant factor in the presentation of financial reports of companies. Accounting embeds itself on the economy, and its dealings affect the dynamics of the economy. Accounting professionals have also shifted their services from company-based to client-based in order to gain insights into the thinking and expectations of the public on the global economy. The shift in focus has made it possible for accountants and auditors to prevent negative economic development.

Works Cited Baba, Mirela Camelia. “Advantages of Implementing Environmental Accounting within an Economic Entity.” University of Tibiscus. N.p. Web.

Combs, Madison, Nasser Mikdadi, Kevin Righi, and Aaron Sweger. “Accounting and Economic Development.” Virginia Tech: Pamplin College. N.p. Web.

Drever, Margaret, Patricia Anne Stanton, and Susan McGowan. Contemporary issues in accounting. Milton, Qld.: John Wiley


Canadian National Railway Co.: The Challenge and Fun of Innovation Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Chosen Strategy

Current Issues

Means to Address Emerging Problems

Competitiveness and the Related Challenges

Suggestions and Recommendations


Works Cited

Introduction Innovation will, probably, always remain among the hardest issues for the companies that have achieved certain success. When one starts a brand new business, it is clear that it has to keep in pace with time; when the business performance sways back and forth, innovations often turn out to the key to improving the current state of affairs.

However, when a company already is a success, maintaining its high standards often turns out to be very hard. Despite the fact that at present, Canadian National Railway is at the top of the list of the most successful companies in Canada, it is most likely to face a number of challenges in terms of tackling the competition issues unless the company, mainly because of the lack of initiative concerning its innovation strategies.

Chosen Strategy Among the latest breakthroughs that the Canadian National Railway Company has had since recently, the idea of resorting to a more environmentally friendly policy must be mentioned, as the 2012 report on the Canadian railroad transportation services says (CN Railway Explores Natural Gas to Reduce Emissions from Trains).

The strategy that brought the company at the top of the list of the Canada’s most successful businesses, the given approach seems to have been working well for the CN Railways for an entire year. However, now that the environmental awareness has died down, the fact that the CN Railways is now making its customers a part of the plan for saving the Earth has clearly worn out its welcome. While CN railways is yet enjoying its triumph, there are obvious signs that the company has stuck.

Current Issues However, now everything seems to flow well in the Canadian National Railway Co. According to the recent news, there have been a couple of railroad accidents that must have brought the amounts of customers’ trust towards the company down a few notches.

In addition, the fact that the company has been using the same approach for several years running seems rather sad. As long as the environmental awareness policy was a thing, it was natural to hear the CN emphasizing its pollution-safe concept; now that being environmentally aware is taken for granted, the emphasis on what should go without saying seems weird at the very least.

Means to Address Emerging Problems According to what White says in her paper, among the key factors of the Canadian National Railway’s triumph, which allowed the company to become one of the most successful railroad companies in the state, the deficiencies of its few competitors must be named firsthand.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, when taking a look back at what made the company so remarkable, one must mention the fact that success has always cared about keeping its services updated, unlike its rivals. In addition, the fact that the latter were quite few can also be considered the basic reason for the company’s success.

In the XXI century, however, the Canadian National Railway Company seems to have taken a back chair to maintaining the strategy that made it hit the list of the top hundred most successful organizations in Canada, and it clearly needs new means to boost the customers’ interest.

Seeing how the environmental craze has become less influential since recently, it will be required that, apart from announcing its environmentally friendly policy, the Canadian National Railway needs to incorporate a new idea into its current innovation policy, which will boost the company’s rating among the customers and help the Canadian National Railway Co. make its services even better.

According to Stitch and Miller, there has been a rapid increase in the demand for railroad freight transportation: “Railroads are increasingly moving finished consumer goods” (Stitch and Miller 605). Therefore, it is necessary to consider the possibilities that technological innovations open for transporting finished goods faster and safer. At present, it will be most reasonable for the Canadian National Railway Co. to check the

Competitiveness and the Related Challenges In addition to the issues regarding transportation safety and speed, it will also be require to keep an eye on the possible rivals. Even though the company does not seem to have any in the observable future, it is still necessary to keep in mind that railroad freight transfer may lose points in comparison to, say, airway goods transportation (King, Case and Premo 77).

Indeed, the idea of alternative transportation services being the rival of the Canadian National Railway Co. is quite threatening. After all, it must be admitted that railway is not the fastest means of transport. Therefore, airways and other transportation means have impressive chances in the contest with the Canadian National Railway Co.

Suggestions and Recommendations When it comes to defining the further avenues for the company to develop, one may assume that the best way for the Canadian National Railway Co. to handle its current issues is to reconsider its values and get the company’s priorities straight. Although it might seem that the organization needs some urgent measures to be undertaken to address the emerging issue an prevent the possible catastrophe, it is clear that hasting things up will not do the Canadian National Railway Co. any good at the moment.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Canadian National Railway Co.: The Challenge and Fun of Innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, it will be necessary to evaluate the company’s chances for success and figure out how much time exactly it has to balance at the top of the most valuable companies list. As soon as the customers’ demands are taken into account and the company’s course in terms of innovations is redefined, it will be safe to say that the Canadian National Railway Co. is going to do well in the next decade.

Conclusion As the assessment of the Canadian National Railway’s assets and evaluation of the challenges that the company is facing currently has shown, even for a company of that great a scale, it is important to make sure that every single element of the mechanism that allows for the company’s performance is updated in accordance with the latest demands in the specified sphere.

As the example of the Canadian National Railway Company shows, it is important to make sure that the potential customers are not only aware of the innovational strategies adopted by the companies, but are able to appreciate the effort that the company makes.

Since in the given case, the environmental awareness issue seemed to have died down by the time that an environmentally friendly approach was undertaken by Canadian National Railway, it would be reasonable to announce a new concept that the company could follow in order to both improve customer service and show that the company is doing its best to keep the tack of the latest advances in technology, economics, management, etc.

Therefore, the given case shows how important it is to carry out a well-balanced policy and to keep an eye on both economical and social changes.

Works Cited “CN Railway Explores Natural Gas to Reduce Emissions from Trains.” Corporate Knights (Fall 2012), 14.

King, Darwin L., Carl J. Case and Kathleen M. Premo. “2012 Mission Statements: A Ten Country Global Analysis.” Academy of Strategic Management Journal 12.1 (2013), 77–91. EBSCHOHost.

Stitch, Bethany and Chad R. Miller. “A New Public Philosophy for a New Railroad Era.” Administrative Theory


Legal-Ethical Issues Affecting Patient Rights for the Elderly Essay online essay help

Ethics is an important part of the field of nursing; it concerns moral aspects of people behavior and attitudes. As practice shows, there are often ethical dilemmas related to personal responsibilities and freedoms.

Every patient has their legal rights and every nurse practitioner is to respect those rights regardless of gender and age of the patient (Kapp, 2000). It is important that elderly patients and their loved ones be aware of the ethical issues that may arise and be ready to cope with them. Healthcare professionals working with the elderly face complex situations related to many legal and ethical issues.

The moral and legal standards for people caring for the elderly remain critical for ensuring that older persons access quality services. Ethical issues are a commonplace in our modern society. People who respect moral issues are frequently confronted with situations requiring them to make ethical choices. It is a commonplace to find some people confronted with ethical dilemmas (Kapp, 2000).

Older adults are frequently more susceptible to those than the average people are. The people who are trusted to care for the older adults sometimes take advantage of the older person’s condition for different reasons (Tabloski, 2010). The legal and ethical issues that affect patient rights of the elderly include confidentiality, informed consent, relationships, and medical code.

Confidentiality is one of the legal and moral issues that affect the patients’ rights for the elderly. Healthcare professionals should normally keep details about their elderly clients confidential. They should show respect for the autonomy of their elderly clients. Disclosing information about patients is legally and morally incorrect (Tabloski, 2010). However, healthcare professionals are sometimes confronted with the legal and ethical dilemma of having to release information about their patients to the family members.

Healthcare malpractice is also both a legal and moral issue that affects the patient rights for the elderly (Pozgar, 2010). The professionals who offer healthcare services to older persons must always put safety and health of their clients first.

Injuries related to medical processes, the use of faulty equipment or medicine, and deliberate acts that cause harm to the elderly have both legal and moral consequences (Kapp, 2000). Healthcare professionals practice defensive medicine to avoid litigations from the family members of their elderly patients who may allege negligence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The law protects the concept of informed consent in healthcare profession because it is both a legal and moral issue. All patients must give consent to permit treatment to take place (Pozgar, 2010). However, informed consent presents many challenges for healthcare professionals who work with the elderly because it has serious legal and moral implications.

Sometimes the elderly cannot give consent to sanction their treatment because they may be too weak. The elderly person, who requires surgery but cannot offer consent, presents the healthcare professionals with serious dilemmas (Kapp, 2000). When treating an elderly person, doctors face potential dilemma between morality and the law.

The kind of relationship that healthcare professionals can have with their elderly clients can have legal and moral implications in relation to patient rights for the elderly (Kapp, 2000). Associating with the elderly clients is protected by the medical code of ethics. Healthcare professionals who violate the ethical codes with their elderly clients face the risk of being disqualified from the roll of practitioners.

The Purpose of Advanced Directives If a serious medical condition does not allow people to take decisions regarding their treatment, this responsibility goes to the patient’s relatives. If there are no relatives, the physician or the hospital can fall responsible for your further treatment.

However, preparing An Advance Directive is a way to predict such a situation and make sure that only you will be responsible for your end of life treatment. The Advance Directive will provide guidance to those responsible for the patient’s treatment when he/she is unable to make decisions independently.

Advance Directives entail the legal papers where people spell out their decisions in relation to the end of life healthcare services in advance. The fundamental reason why people draw advance directives is to ensure that they can access the specific treatment they want, as well as refuse healthcare services they do not want. (Tabloski, 2010). . It is significant in reducing confusion during the end of life healthcare provision. Advance directives are a commonplace in the elderly healthcare service delivery. (Tabloski, 2010).

The application of advance directives remains crucial to the provision of quality healthcare to the elderly. The notable issues that advance directives cover include the application of breathing machines to prolong the life of older persons. The elderly can also spell out whether they would permit healthcare professionals to perform resuscitation procedure on them should they face breathing problems. Furthermore, the elderly can declare whether they would permit maintenance of their life using tube feeding (Tabloski, 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Legal-Ethical Issues Affecting Patient Rights for the Elderly specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is notable that sometimes healthcare professionals make decisions to ignore advance directives drafted by the elderly. This is a commonplace in scenarios where doctors consider such directives irrelevant based on their moral standards.

It is also possible for doctors to refuse directives because of misinterpretation of the law and inconsistencies associated with moral consciences and professional responsibilities (Rai