Multiple intelligences Different students are endowed with different learning abilities and capabilities that they normally use to solve problems and learn. Based on the broad spectrum of intelligence demonstrated by students, learning psychologists have come up with multiple intelligences aimed at helping such students (Lane, n.d).
What this seems to imply is that students have different types of minds and their learning process is also different. In addition, their abilities to understand what they are taught at the classroom setting also differ. For these reason, the performance of students in the same classroom setting varies.
Some of multiple intelligence results are provided below
Figure 1: Multiple intelligences results
Differentiated instructions of learning allow flexibility in grouping students. Accordingly, students are grouped based on their learning abilities and capabilities, thereby giving room for adjustments (Tillman, 2003).
Therefore, incorporating multiple intelligences with differentiated instructions would help to improve the education level of a student (Gregory, 2008). Small classrooms allow teachers to devote their time to individual students. Consequently, they are better able to apply musical or logical styles of learning because students’ levels of understanding differ.
Learning can improve when tailored to suit the varying needs of students (Ireh
Software Piracy Report online essay help
Introduction The issue of copyright infringement and piracy in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector is as old as the sector itself. In order to appreciate the impacts of piracy of the ICT sector, it is imperative to understand the evolution of the vice from a complementary service into a fully fledged competitor in the sector.
At first piracy began as a means of spreading the new technology of computers in the mid 1970s when Ed Robertson’s company, the Micro Instrumentation Telemetry System (MITS), was reigning. The basic kit for running the system cost about $400 and was running on the BASIC programming language. Setting up the Altair 8800 computer that ran on the system was a challenging matter; hence, it took time for programming to be paired with the device.
This length in setting up the computer resulted in enthusiasts looking for means to improve on the bugging of the code so as to provide the code faster to users. Thus, Dan Sokol became successful in copying the pattern of the punch card and was able to run the program; hence, there appeared the first pirated software application (Leinss 2011, p. 1-2).
Piracy has taken a totally new direction from the early days where it improved the original product. Instead, over time software piracy has evolved into a practice motivated by financial gain with little regard to improving the quality of the software at hand (Depken
Using Assessment and Feedback Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The main purpose of differentiated instructions is to introduce engaging and challenging assignments that would advance learning among students with various skills and levels of background knowledge. In this respect, differentiated instructions imply individual-centered teaching approaches based on content, product, and process. Moreover, differentiated instruction encourages students and recognizes differences among the learners with multiple types of intelligences.
Acknowledging differences in perceiving various performances and roles is important, but what is more important is that teachers should measure the level and degree to which students are different, as well as define strategies that would allow to distinguish performances to introduce differentiated instructions. In this respect, pre-assessment and post-assessment techniques are indispensible to defining performance and establishing the framework for differentiating instructions for the lesion.
Lack of pre-assessment and post-assessment techniques can lead to inappropriate creation of instructions for various disciplines. Teachers should realize the importance of distinguishing between students’ skills, experiences, and background knowledge.
To highlight the importance of pre-assessment test and feedback strategies, Shelton (2007) provides the cases of Measures for Academic Progress, a program initiated at Maclary Elementary School, to show the consequences of inappropriate feedback and performance assessment strategies leading to failure to differentiate instructions to students.
In particular, Shelton (2007) explains, “…many of teachers at Maclary believe that whole class instructions is required to adhere to the district pacing guide, which, in turn, prevents them from individualization of instruction” (p. 3). The initiated test is based on formative assessment. However, teachers fail to understand how to operate data received from assessment and, as a result, they cannot provide differentiation of instructions.
Such a strategy, therefore, cannot be applied to instructions for a gifted class. The point is that the majority of gifted students have a unique way of thinking and learning and the use of instructions and methods of teaching is vital for developing their skills and abilities in future. Failure to understand individual peculiarities and focus on a holistic evaluation of class skills is inacceptable as far as gifted students are concerned.
As it has been previously mentioned, the learning process is premised on the analysis of people, processes, and products. Thus, excess focus on a process-product approach does not always provide required results in teaching and learning strategies for students given the fact that most of students come to a class with various background knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, the priorities should be given to teachers’ evaluation of students’ readiness to achieve results. In this respect, Wilkerson et al. (2000) have proved that students achieve “better feedback than the ratings of others when the focus is student performance” (p. 190). Teachers’ personal evaluations of student performance are also considered great predicators of student achievement.
Within these perspectives, the researchers have concluded that students can also distinguish teacher performance with regard to their own learning achievement. Thus, there should be a strong correlation between teachers and students perception of an academic process. In addition, to make the feedback effective, teachers should also involve feedback to introduce corrective and reflective steps, as well as formative and summative assessments of student performance of learning outcomes.
With regard to the presented research, a gifted classroom should also be subject to this type of feedback to assess students’ perception of teachers’ evaluation and define how process and products should be introduced to improve students’ performance.
Feedback strategy has a direct influence on motivation and productivity of students. In this respect, the choice of feedback strategy should coincide with the identified level of performance among students with multiple intelligences. Beaulieu and Love (2006) have defined that “the feedback strategy that best fits the situation depends, at least in part, on the performance of the person evaluated” (p. 78).
At the same time, it has been reported that students chose the feedback strategies that differed significantly from those chosen by their teachers (Beaulieu and Love, 2006). Such a perspective in evaluation should also be taken into deepest consideration for teachers to be able to introduce effective pre-assessment and post-assessment techniques to differentiate instructions (Beaulieu and Love, 2006).
In particular, a gifted classroom should also be informed about teaching strategies to define their attitude to the chosen approaches, as well as predict which strategies are the most appropriate this group of learners.
Feedback strategy concept should also be strongly associated with the function of observed performance, which is considered more positive. In this respect, teachers should also pay attention to hierarchical organization and its influence on feedback strategy (Beaulieu and Love, 2006). In this respect, teachers should be able to regard students are direct participants of performance appraisal rather than as subjects of the assessment processes.
We will write a custom Essay on Using Assessment and Feedback specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Multiple-choice testing is an effective tool for assessing students’ level of knowledge and defines the approaches to differentiating instructions. It also provides sufficient measure of student performance. Moreover, it increases the objectivity of assessing students’ skills, as well as contributes to effective time management. However, multiple choice testing has a number of disadvantages which should be considered before applying it in a gifted classroom.
According to Butler and Roediger (2008), “the multiple-cho0ice test presents a unique situation because it exposes students to erroneous information in form of lure items” (p. 604). As a result, students face a possibility of acquiring false knowledge. In order to minimize the negative effects of multiple-choice testing, it is necessary to integrate effective feedback strategy. This is of particular concern to the analysis of students’ attitude in a gifted classroom.
By means of feedback introduction, “students’ ability to differentiate between correct and incorrect responses was explored through the absolute correspondence between the confidence estimates and the proportion of correct responses” (Butler
Knowledge management systems Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Coding and Sharing Of Data
Development of Corporate Directories
Development of Knowledge Links and Knowledge Links Networks
Comparison of Literature and Current Practice
Introduction With the rapid advancement in technology, managers have realised the essence of information technology in enhancing the performance of their organization (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 2005).. It is with regards to this that the concept of knowledge management systems, a paradigm of knowledge management (KM) has increased in popularity for the last several years (Stewart, 2007).
Knowledge management systems incorporates knowledge management (KM) and information technology (IT) to enhance the process of creation, development, utilization, transfer and storage of information within an organization. This paper therefore shall expound on literature in knowledge management systems and information technology to determine the theories and concepts that are present in the field.
Literature Review Different scholars have developed different systems that can be used to classify data, knowledge and information. Vance (1997) came up with a hierarchical system of classification that has been adopted by many scholars in the field of information technology.
The importance of knowledge in an organization has been stressed with respect to this hierarchical classification of data, information and knowledge presented by Vance (1997). Thus, knowledge originates from personal information that has been stored in the minds of individuals. This information is useful in the process of generating facts, procedures and concepts and decisions to enhance the overall performance of an organization (Fahey and Prusak, 2008).
Knowledge management has always been viewed as an integral component of the overall success of an organization. Managers usually integrate this concept to improve the level of operation of their organization to achieve a competitive edge over rivals within the industries in which their organizations operate in. This is because, knowledge management is a tool that improves the innovation and responsiveness of an organization (Glazer, 1998).
The operation of knowledge management systems is based on information technology (IT) (Machlup, 2010). The aim of these systems is to ensure that the process of information and knowledge creation within an organization is effective and efficient. IT plays a critical role in the development and support of knowledge management systems.
As Alavi and Leidner (2001) asserted, the basis of knowledge management system is based on information technology. As such, IT supports the process of knowledge management in a number of ways. For instance, an organization can search for a specialist in a given field by utilizing information found on online directories and stored databases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through IT, organizations can also share information and enhance its operations through virtual teams, reviewing information from previous projects stored on a database. An organization can also have a clear understanding of the needs of its clients by critically analyzing and evaluating stored transactions data.
With these examples, it will be difficult to clearly point out the role of IT in supporting knowledge management as its use is diversified. In addition to this, it is also impossible to develop a specific technology to support the process of knowledge management within an organization (Holtshouse, 2009).
However, Alavi and Leidner (2001) narrowed down the application of IT in knowledge management to the following three areas:
Coding and sharing of data
Development of corporate directories
Development of knowledge links and networks
Coding and Sharing Of Data Coding and sharing of data that promote best practices within an organization has been one of the main areas in which IT has been used to enhance the process of knowledge management (Spender, 2006). This process is mainly achieved through internal benchmarking. Here, information regarding the best practices that have been reported to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of operations are stored and shared among individuals and different departments within an organization.
This ensures that the knowledge with regards to the best practices is made available to all hence boosting the performance of individuals and improving the overall performance of the firm. With this in place, the operations of a firm shall be conducted in an effective and efficient manner increasing level of profitability and the ease at which an organization can achieve its short term and long-term goals and objectives.
Development of Corporate Directories IT also plays a critical role in supporting knowledge management by enhancing the process of developing corporate directories. Retrieving stored data is one of the main challenges that organizations face prompting the development of knowledge management. This is because most of the information in organizations is not stored properly hence retrieving them become a problem.
In addition to this, most of the data found in organizations is not coded. This makes the task of retrieving and actually utilizing such information to benefit an organization to be difficult. Therefore, with the help of IT, coding of information via internal mapping expertise has ensured that firms are now able to retrieve information at ease.
We will write a custom Essay on Knowledge management systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has greatly reduced the level of repeated mistakes that came up as a result of the implementation of poor practices (Robertson et al, 2006). Instead, internal mapping has ensured that only best practices are retrieved and used to enhance the overall performance of an organization.
Development of Knowledge Links and Knowledge Links Networks IT has also played a critical role in the development of knowledge networks via knowledge management systems. Knowledge networks are essential in sharing of information among individuals, departments and to a larger extent, different organizations. Chrysler is an example of an organization that greatly benefited from knowledge networks.
According to Alavi and Leidner (2001), Chrysler faced a critical challenge after it modified its operations from functional to platform based organization units. In the process, the company realised that its operations would deteriorate unless suspension specialists would have an effective and reliable means of communication through which they will exchange and share ideas across various platforms (Alavi and Leidner, 2001).
This led to the development of Tech Cul that enabled Chrysler to bring individuals together from different backgrounds. This system enabled virtual and face-to-face communications among professionals from different fields of expertise. It enabled people them to share ideas and come up with solutions to collective problems that they were facing. This ultimately improved the performance of the company by developing high quality products.
From the discussions that have been presented in this paper, it is evident that information and knowledge are essential components of an organization. They play a critical role in enhancing the operations of an organization enabling it to achieve its short term and long-term goals and objectives.
It is with regards to this that managers and scholars always emphasize on the importance of knowledge management. However, to ensure this practice is conducted in an effective and efficient manner, the process has incorporated IT through knowledge management systems to enhance the process of coding and sharing of data, development of corporate dictionaries and knowledge networks that improve the process of creating, developing, sharing and storing of knowledge within an organization.
Current Practice In the modern world, information technology has taken over all the aspects of our lives including the management of organizations. Most of the organizations in the world have adopted and incorporated the concept of information technology to improve their operations to meet the needs and desires of their customers and to stand at a competitive edge over their rivals. Knowledge management systems have been one of the facets of IT that firms have incorporated to manage the knowledge and information present in their systems.
Knowledge management has played an essential role in the process of storing and retrieving data. According to Spanbauer (2007), the operations of modern organizations are entirely based on the use of emails. Members of an organization use emails as the main form of communication and storage.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Knowledge management systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, Spanbauer (2007) goes ahead to state that the major problem with the use of emails it that it does not store data in a systematic way hence making it difficult to retrieve information whenever needed. It is with regards to this that organizations such as Garner have found it essential to use applications such as Customer Coversation System (CCS) and Illumo to enhance the process of data storage, sharing and retrieval within an organization.
It is as a result of such data storage and retrieval systems that strategic and innovative discoveries have emerged from. Viagra, an erectile dysfunction drug was discovered through this process. During its early days, Viagra was used to suppress conditions that led to heart failure.
However, during its administration, nurses discovered that it had a side effect (erection on male patients). This side effect was recorded and stored. This information was later discovered by a doctor during a cross-data study and resulted in the development of a multi-billion dollar industry (Bushell, 2001). It is with regards to this that organizations in the modern word find it essential to systematically store and share information.
Knowledge management systems are solutions to organizations that have to record, maintain, store, retrieve and share bulky datasets and information. Braue (2011) interviewed the lead construction engineer of Connect East, Barry King. Connect East had been contracted by the Victorian government to maintain Melbourne’s East Link toll road (Braue, 2011).
To ensure that this process is conducted professionally in an effective and efficient manner, King and his team need to maintain the records of all assets to meet the requirements of enterprise asset management (EAM). This includes maintaining records for all the equipments, machineries, and spares that are used in the process of maintaining the road. Purchasing, depreciation and amortization records also need to be maintained.
These records need to be presented to the Victorian government and other stakeholders in the company especially due to the fact that the project is almost nearing its completion. However, with the use of IBM’s Maximo, Connect East has been able to maintain systematic records. According to King, this tool has enabled the organization to achieve optimum performance with regards to effective record keeping thus reducing the operating costs (Braue, 2011).
During its early years, social networks were viewed as platforms through which individuals can interact with their friends and family. However, with time, organizations have found it virtually impossible to operate without social network sites (Dancy et al, 2012).
According to Dancy et al, organizations in the 21st century are using social media as a platform for developing, maintaining, retaining and sharing knowledge within the organization its self and with other stakeholders. Professionals in the field of information technology view social media as a means through which organizations can collaborate to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their services through knowledge retention and sharing (Amidon, 1997).
Social media has enabled organizations to interact with people outside the domain of their operations and actually get first hand feedback on their operations and means through which they can enhance their services. It is with regards to this that most organizations have pages on social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, MySpace and so on.
These pages enable them to have direct contact with their stakeholders especially their customers enabling them to understand their needs and preferences. Additionally, through knowledge sharing, social media acts as platforms through which ideas on service improvement can be shared.
It is thus evident that organizations in the modern world have embraced the importance of knowledge management systems. This is because most organizations in the world are using varies applications, tools and technologies to enhance the process of keeping, retrieving and sharing their records through platforms such as social media.
This has in turn improved the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations ensuring that organizations achieve their operational goals and objectives and at the same time, stand at a competitive edge in their respective industries.
Comparison of Literature and Current Practice Knowledge and information has been regarded as a key asset in any organization. It is with regards to this that organizations that create, store, retrieve, utilize and share knowledge in an effective and efficient manner stand at a competitive edge. This has increased the importance and emphasis of the incorporation of knowledge management systems in the operations of organizations. In practice, it has been identified that organizations utilize knowledge management systems to achieve this goal.
For instance, the operations of modern organizations are entirely based on emails. However, to enhance the process in which information contained in emails can be stored, retrieved and utilized in a systematic manner, Spanbauer (2007) stated that organization are using applications and technologies such as CCS and Illumo.
On the other hand, an organization such as Connect East has utilized knowledge management systems to ensure that its information is stored in a manner that it can be easily retrieved and presented to the contacting government and other shareholders. Finally, modern organizations are now using social media as a platform of interacting with shareholders and sharing knowledge. This has enhanced the services and products provided by firms as a result of information sharing.
Conclusion It is always the goal of any manager to ensure that his/her organization is experiencing an exponential growth in value. However, in the modern era, the value of an organization is not mainly based on its tangible assets but by its intangible assets. Therefore, the information within an organization plays a critical role in enhancing its operations and dictating the growth patterns that it exhibits. This has led to the incorporation of the concept of knowledge management (KM) in the running and management of organizations.
Knowledge is an essential asset that plays a critical role in ensuring the success of an organization in the short run and in the long run. It is with regards to this realization that organizations have found it essential to develop systems through the incorporation of information technology to ensure that information is stored in a systematic manner hence enabling easy retrieval and utilization to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization.
Therefore, for organizations to ensure that their operations are effective and efficient, they need to embrace the concept of knowledge management system to achieve their set goals and objectives.
References Alavi, M and Leidner, D 2001, ‘Review: Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues’, MIS Quarterly, vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 107-136.
Amidon, D 1997, Innovation Strategy for the Knowledge Economy : The Ken Awakening, Heinemann, London.
Braue, C 2011, The challenges of asset management: Part one. Web.
Bushell, S 2001, In the know. Web.
Dancy, C, Busch, B and Howard, K 2012, IT service management going social. Web.
Fahey, L and Prusak, L 2008, ‘The Eleven Deadliest Sins of Knowledge Management’, California Management Review, vol. 40 no. 3, pp. 265-276.
Glazer, R 1998, ‘Measuring the Knower: Towards a Theory of Knowledge Equity’, California Management Review, vol. 40 no. 3, pp. 175-194.
Holtshouse, D 2009, ‘Knowledge Research Issues’, California Management Review vol. 40 no. 3, pp. 277-280.
Machlup, F 2010, Knowledge: Its Creation, Distribution, and Economic Significance, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Nonaka, I and Takeuchi, H 2005, The Knowledge Creating Company, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Robertson, M, Swan, J, and Newell, S 2006, ‘The Role of Networks in the Diffusion of Technological Innovation’, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 33 no. 2, pp. 335-361.
Spanbauer, C 2007, Knowledge management 2.0. Web.
Spender, J 2006, ‘Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Memory: Three Concepts in Search of a Theory’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 9 no. 1, pp. 63-78.
Stewart, T 2007, Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations, Nicholas Brealey, Chicago.
Vance, D 1997, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom: The Epistemic Hierarchy and Computer Based Information System, Sage, New York.
Why Mussolini and the Fascists were able to seize power in Italy Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for the Success of Mussolini and Fascism
Introduction Fascism is a political system characterized by absolute power being held by the state. This concept was first implemented in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini who formed the first Fascist movement, the Fasci di Combattimento, in March 1919. The programme of this movement was first radical and republican.
The Fascist organization in Italy did not begin as a powerful nationwide party. Its beginning was humble and in its first year, it had only 20,000 members. This is because Mussolini was unable to compete with the established left-wing parties.
However, a number of conditions encouraged the growth of Fascism and in three years, Mussolini was able to establish himself as the ruler of Italy, a role he continued to play until his death in 1943. This paper will set out to analyze why Mussolini and the Fascists were able to seize power in Italy so quickly after the war. A detailed review of the factors that facilitated the rise of the fascist movement in Italy and the nature of the movement will be made.
Post-War Italy Fascism in Italy can trace its birth to the First World War where Italy fought alongside the Allies. The Italian war efforts were successful and the Italian army was able to decisively defeat the Austrian army (McNeese 2000). However, the period after the war was characterized with instability in Italy.
Marsella (2004) records that during the years of 1919 and 1920, the country was beset by a wave of industrial strikes and agricultural strikes. The war had a more damaging impact on Italy than it did to almost any other belligerent country. Sforza (1925) documents that Italy was less wealthy than the other warring nations and the restrictions imposed by wartime discipline were felt more acutely by Italians.
As a result of the enormous resources that had been dedicated to war efforts, Italy was economically devastated after the war. The consequences of these were high unemployment, high national debts, and inflation. The population was therefore dissatisfied and desired political change. Fascism emerged as a reaction by a post-war society afflicted with economic impoverishment, political instability, and thwarted nationalist hopes.
Reasons for the Success of Mussolini and Fascism A number of factors led to the rapid rise of Mussolini and Fascism in Italy. To begin with, post war Italy was characterized by xenophobia and growing anti-allied sentiments. Italy was dissatisfied with the terms of the peace treaty following the end of the First World War. A major motivation for Italy’s joining the allies had been the promise of territories that belonged to her traditional enemy, Austria.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Allies promised Italy territory in return for her participation in the war. However, the Allies refused to honour this promises and Italy was not given a share of the German Empire and most of the land in the Istrian Peninsula.
Italy felt betrayed by her former allies and this feeling created a sense of isolation in a world where only the strongest powers flourished. Many Italians felt shamed by the terms of the treaty, which refused to give Italy her share of the victory. This diminished the prestige that Italy had hoped to gain from the war and many Italians joined Right Wing groups that promised to rid the country of the shame that the allies had caused on her.
In such an environment, it was very important for Italy to appear strong in front of the other world forces. Fascists called on the government to exercise its sovereign rights and forcefully seize the areas promised in the Treaty of London. In line with the nationalistic feelings of many Italians, Mussolini proclaimed that such a move was the duty of the Italian government. Mussolini’s fascist movement promised to do this and extended the blame for the current state of affairs on the government’s weak diplomacy.
The disillusion suffered by the ex-soldiers also strengthened fascism influence in Italy. As has been noted, Italy had been able to reap a well-deserved and glorious victory with the Allies in spite of the intense sufferings experienced by the Italian people. Many Italian veterans of the First World War had been peasants who had joined the army on promises of land once the war was over. After the war ended, the veterans returned home to broken promises.
While Italians campaigned heavily to acquire land as a spoil of war, the other Allied leader ignored these pleas. The veterans were therefore very dissatisfied and angry at the authority which they felt had abandoned them. Mussolini took advantage of this dissatisfaction of the angry veterans.
The late 1920s witnesses a wave of anti-socialist reactions across the countryside. This tide revived the frail fascist movement that until then had little power in the country. Marsella (2004) observes that in the 1919 elections, Mussolini’s Fascist Party, Fascio di Combattimento, had failed disastrously since the Italians did not favour the doctrine and approach to politics of fascism. However, the perceived weakness of the government led people to support fascism.
The influential middle classes lost faith in the post war regime which was governed by Prime Minister Nitti. The Catholic Popular Party (PPI) and the Socialists dominated the chamber and their hostility to the regime made the government ineffective. The weak government was unable to subdue socialism at home and this troubled the middle classes who feared a communist revolution. This class therefore began to be convinced that a draconian state solution was needed to steer Italy away from communism (Marsella 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on Why Mussolini and the Fascists were able to seize power in Italy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government’s inaction in the face of violence also helped Mussolini rise to power. In september, 1920, workers proceeded to occupy the shops and factors in accordance with the Russian revolutionary formular. Premier Giolitti refused to take action against the occupying workers and this worried the industry owners who saw it as surrender by the government to the inevitable rise of communism (Laski 1923).
Mussolini’s ability to change the doctrines of the movement to suit the needs of the people also enabled him to quickly rise to power. He was able to change the doctrines of his fascist movement to attract the support of the majority. During its formative years, Mussolini had conceived the fascist movement as a gathering of leftist interventionist forces that courted both workers and the bourgeoisie. This approach led to the huge failure during the 1919 elections.
Mussolini therefore abandoned this approach and began to champion the needs of industrialists and landowners. After 1920, Mussolini was able to adopt right-wing and nationalistic policies which appealed to the land owners and war veterans. While Mussolini previously supported the working class, he was able to attract the bourgeois as well.
Availability of financial support from the industrialists helped increase the popularity of the Fascist organization. As of 1919, the movement’s membership was low and the socialists were the most popular. The socialists had their doubled their seat numbers during the election of 1919, therefore underscoring their national support. However, the popularity of the socialists was not sustainable since their calls for labour strikes negatively impacted the industrialists.
The Italian bourgeois were fearful that the unrest in the country would deprive them off their property. Mussolini was able to exploit these fears and project his fascist movement as the only true provider of law and order. As it were, the government had been unable to provide the security and that the bourgeois craved. The fascist movement was able to transform itself into a mass political movement due to Mussolini’s efforts.
The ambivalent attitude of the government attitude also helped the fascists gain ground in Italy. Marsella (2004) reveals that when Giolitti returned to power in 1920, he overlooked fascist excesses. The fascist movement was allowed to operate with relative impunity in the country.
This was a mistake since while the Giolitti government enjoyed a majority vote, it lacked a proper power base. The strength of the government was therefore undermined by the actions of the fascists. Riding on this gains, the fascists, who were a minority, were able to gain a reputation as the organization which had the will to achieve results in the country.
The rise of nationalistic sentiments also aided in the growth of fascism. In the post war years, Italy realized that she was behind the other European nations in terms of military and industrial might. A strong national syndicalist state was seen as the solution that would achieve social harmony and the maximum level of production and social justice (Knight 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Mussolini and the Fascists were able to seize power in Italy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government in place was deemed by many to be opposed to nationalism. This perception was reinforced by the driving out of Italian nationalists from Fiume by the Italian government. Following the end of the First World War, a group of Italian Nationalists led by Gabriele d’Annunzio had in 1919 seized the city of Fiume and established a government.
His efforts were thwarted by the Italian government which bombarded Fiume therefore forcing him to surrender the city in 1920 (Knight 2003). Mussolini had advocated a strong foreign policy and many felt that if he were in charge, Fiume would not have been lost. The government action against d’Annunzio and his band of nationalists strengthened Mussolini’s position.
The old political system of Italy had lost credibility with the population. Premier Giolitti had been opposed to Italy’s entrance into the war and Nitti had an outlook of a “good European” which did not sit well with the inflamed ambitions of victory by many Italians. These ideologies made the older politicians fall out of favour with the citizens who were looking for a new possibility.
Mussolini styled himself as a representative of the passionate and optimistic outlook of the youth. Laski (1923) quips that, “Mussolini came to do battle with the old order” (p.49). The Fascism system advanced by Mussolini was eager to control what seemed a great destiny for Italy.
These Fascist ideas were readily accepted by the Italian masses that were ambitious for power following their victory in the war that had just ended. Mussolini appealed to the masses by speaking about the need of the Italian people to restore the glory of the Ancient Roman Empire. Such speeches were welcome by the Italians whose might had lagged behind that of the other European nations for centuries.
The use of brute force against enemies and detractors also speeded up the seizing of power by the Fascists after the war. As it were, there were many other political groups and ideologies that were rising in Italy during the post-war years. The Fascists were able to direct action against their enemies.
In reaction to the socialist takeover of municipals all over Italy, Fascist thugs were used to drive out the socialists. Knight (2003) attributes the efficiency of Fascist violence to the fact that most Fascist squads were comprised of ex-soldiers who had military experience.
They destroyed the infrastructure of their opponents including their printing presses and broke up public meetings. Strikers were forced to abandon their demonstrations through violence. Members of the Fascist Party were encouraged to use violence to intimidate members of any opposing political party (McNeese 2000).
The fascists were able to obtain the support of the army and the navy. McNeese (2000) documents that the fascists were also very well organized and had great discipline. They wore a uniform and had a chain of command with Mussolini at the top. By meeting criticism and dissent with deeds and not words, the fascists were able to infect the military apparatus with their spirit.
For this reason, the government did not dare to challenge their power since it was unlikely that the army would rise up against Mussolini. Many members of the government forces were also sympathetic to Mussolini’s cause and they viewed him as a capable leader for the country.
Sforza (1925) reveals that the government forces were friendly with the Fascist militia and they even supported them by providing them with arms. This co-operation between the Fascist militia and government forces increased Mussolini’s power since it was unlikely that the government would use its military might to repress the fascist movement.
Mussolini’s appeal as a charismatic leader was a major reason behind the success of fascism in Italy. Marsella (2004) admits that while it is possible that fascism could have developed and prospered in Italy without Mussolini, the personality of the man was what enabled the organization to gain a mass following in such a short time.
Mussolini was able to win over the hearts and minds of the Italians through his propaganda and ideals (Musiedlak 2009). He was also able to keep his organization united even in the face of stiff ideological differences. As it grew in power and numbers, fascism was not a united organization and there were a number of factions within fascism.
Mussolini’s leadership skills and charisma was the glue that held the disparate fascism parts together (Musiedlak 2009). He was able to effectively undertake the task of balancing the needs of the various factions and ensuring the organization did not disintegrate.
The fascists used intimidation to obtain power. As of 1922, the fascists had a minority representation in the parliament. Laski (1923) asserts that Mussolini was not even within sight of a parliamentary majority. However, with the backing of the fascist members under his command, Mussolini made the historical march to Rome.
Mussolini hoped to be endorsed into the Cabinet by force. The march resulted in the resignation of the Premier and the control of the country was given to King Victor Emmanuel who had little support. Not giving in to Mussolini’s demands for power would have led to the outbreak of a civil war, which the King wished to avoid.
The presence of Fascism sympathizers within the King’s court also assisted in the Fascist coup of 1922. Knight (2003) observes that the Italian army could easily have crashed the 20,000 stong Fascist army that was equipped with little more than pistols and rifles. However, the King’s advisers who were sympathetic to Mussolini’s cause exaggerated the strengh of the Fascists. Another Part of the reason why the King invited Mussolini to become Prime Minister with full emergency powers for 1 year and to form a coalition government was because he believed that the government could incorporate fascism and exploit its popular appeal.
Conclusion This paper set out to analyze why Mussolini and the Fascists were able to seize power in Italy so quickly after the war. The paper began by providing an overview of the conditions in post-war Italy. It has shown that the rise of fascism was in part due to the endeavour to escape from the shame that the Treaty of Versailles had brought on the Italians.
In addition to this, the rise of socialism and communism helped fascism gain ground. Many Italians say fascism as the only tool to counter these two system. By relying more and more on the Fascists to suppress socialism and communism forces in Italy, the property class empowered Mussolini up to the point where he was able to take control of Italy.
The paper has also highlighted the role that Mussolini’s leadership played in the rise of fascism. This leader was able to conform his ideas to the Italian conditions of the time. His receptivity to new ideas enabled him to break out of the ideals of socialism that he once held and launch into innovative political formulations. Mussolini continued to rule over Italy until 1944 when he was overthrown by his own countrymen.
References Knight, P 2003, Mussolini and Fascism, Routledge, Boston.
Laski, H 1923, ‘Lenin and Mussolini’, J. Foreign Affairs, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 43-54.
McNeese, R 2000, History of Civilization – The World at War, Lorenz Educational Press, NY.
Marsella, M 2004, ‘Enrico Corradini’s Italian nationalism: the ‘right wing’ of the fascist synthesis’, Journal of Political Ideologies, vol. 9 no. 2, pp. 203–224.
Musiedlak, D 2009, ‘Mussolini, charisma and decision-making’, Portuguese Journal of Social Science, vol. 8 no. 1, pp. 31-41.
Sforza, C 1925, ‘Italy and Fascism’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 3 no. 3, pp. 358-370
Intelligence Quotient – A Measure of Human Intelligence Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) refers to a standardized measure of human intelligence. The standard is dependent on deviations that an individual makes. According to psychologists, all individuals have a presumed IQ of 100. The standard deviation of 30 implies that an individual may fall short of 100 or exceed the standard.
Hence, IQ ranges between 70 and 130. IQ scores help humans to predict achievement, needs or even performance of individuals (Bradberry
Political Development in Ghana Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of Ghanas Political and constitutional development
Political and socio-economic development
Political development and democracy
Introduction In Africa, Ghana has been as one of the pioneering states. Ghana is a country of very many firsts-in-Africa in that it was the first African country to gain independence from its colonial masters. After independence Ghana was the first state to start one/ single party rule. Ghana was also the first new African state to suffer from a series of military coups. Ghana was also among the first African states to suffer from economic depressions.
It was also among the first African nations to formulate and implement ideologies to mobilise its citizen towards economic growth. Finally, Ghana was the first country in Africa to carry out a peaceful transition from a military rule to civilian rule. Since independence, Ghana was highly viewed as the state, which would set benchmarks for other developing states in Africa.
Although Ghana is currently an example of good governance and democracy, the road to political stability has not been smooth. Ghana and its people have endured a lot of turmoil and political conflicts coupled by economic recession and ethnic conflict. This history has affected its people and leaders in various ways.
History of Ghanas Political and constitutional development Ghana is predominantly a multi-ethnic state, with the Akan community forming about 49% of the total population. Ghanas population demography is probably the most important tool that has helped it develop over the years. Since the Akan share a common language, it has helped foster a sense of nationhood. During the colonial era, the British used indirect rule over the colony of Ghana.
This meant that traditional chiefs became accountable to and served the interests of the colonial masters. Although, by virtue of this, the traditional chiefs consolidated a lot of power, leadership was distorted because the traditional values of leadership such as customary checks, accountability and justice were eroded. By the end of the Second World War, there was a lot of political agitation, which led to the formation of various political organisations.
Through the efforts of Kwame Nkrumah, the colonial government agreed to constitutional reforms. In the early 1950s the gold coast as Ghana was referred to, was finally given internal self-governance. When the constitutional developments happened in the mid 1950s, Ghana became the first state, in the south of Sahara, to declare independence. Ghana as a state gained its independence from the British colonial master in 1957 (Bennett, 1973, p. 665).
After independence, Ghana faced various challenges ranging from the need to channel resources from foreign companies to local developmental issues, shift of ownership of companies from foreign to local ownership, and the need to invest in sectors that were viewed as neglected by the colonialists such as social services and education sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nkrumahs government in light of these challenges and the proposed system of governance succumbed to pressure and was finally overthrown in a military coup in 1966 (Bennett, 1973, p. 667). When Ghana achieved independence, there was no external debt, but during and after the coup it had accumulated an external debt of about $790 million.
Nkrumahs view of industrialisation being led and controlled by the state had failed miserably. From this time onwards, Ghana was to undergo a series of turmoil characterised by military coups and civilian government rule for at least three decades (Price, 1984, pp. 173-174).
Later in the late 1970s, Richard Jerry Rawlings led a group of low ranking military officers to overthrow the existing military government led by senior military officials. This coup was extraordinary in the sense that most of its leaders were young officers. One of its main objective was to clean up, the military junta went after people and senior military leaders who encouraged and benefited from corruption court martialed them and later carried out executions.
Barely after four months in office had, Rawlings handed over power to a new elected government only to overthrow it again in another coup after two years. Rawlings government adjusted the form of governance that mainly favoured farmers and export businesses. Although the power of corrupt leaders and civil servants may have been eroded, however the fundamental causes of patronage ideology to political control had not yet been dealt with (Sederberg, 1971, pp. 179-84).
In 1992, Ghana passed a new constitution, which paved way for the holding of democratic elections under a multi party system of governance. The new constitution was a move back to the presidential system but alterations were made so that ministers could also serve simultaneously as members of parliament a provision that the earlier constitutions had removed.
This was done to encourage cooperation between the executive and the legislature and this was informed by a case in which the third republic parliament rejected a budget presented by the executive. After the rebirth of multi-party politics in 1992, Ghana has held successful elections in 1996, 2000 to date (Williams, et al, 2009, pp. 102-114).
Political and socio-economic development With the advent of the new constitution, Ghana moved from military rule to a presidential system of governance. The authors of the new constitution dispensation were opposed to the strict separation of powers between the executive and the legislature, hence allowed for the provision of the president appointing some ministers from the legislative assembly.
We will write a custom Essay on Political Development in Ghana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was in reaction to the third republic parliament, which rejected the proposed budget, which was later referred to as legislative obstructionism. The authors were careful not to return the country to the events of the third republic but on the other hand, they did not want to go back to the Westminster parliamentary system, which was earlier propagated by the Nkrumah government.
This enabled the president to pick a majority of ministers from parliament and some from the private sector, which ensured that he got the required ethnic balance in his cabinet.
The president had the ability to appoint ministers from regions or areas that his political party did not have a strong hold on and hence had no members of parliament to appoint ministers. These policies emphasised on both a national interest in a strong presidency and a cooperative legislature with emphasis on the need of the cabinet to be ethnically balanced (Botchway, 1972, pp. 81-88).
After shifting to constitutional democracy many development aid partners complained about the slow rate of economic reforms as politicians and not technocrats were now taking major decisions. Parliament, which was mostly dominated by Rawlings party, was unable to pass a petroleum tax bill and fought against civil service reforms in 1993.
Rawlings administration is also credited with the starting of the National Institutional Renewal Program, which was mandated, with the task of enhancing and encouraging good policy development, public sector management and creation of an appropriate wage and grading system.
Later on the following year, an attempt to impose value added tax was withdrawn following massive outcry and opposition from the public and opposition parties. However, the liberalisation of state owned enterprises was hastened and some of the most profitable state organisations sold raising more revenue than was actually anticipated (Armstrong, 1996, pp. 72-78).
During 1994, the government embarked on a process to formulate a national development policy framework that was to be famously known as the Ghana –vision 2020. The main highlight of this policy document were development of agriculture, sustainable macroeconomic environment, development of human resource, encouraging entrepreneurship and poverty eradication, with the main goal being to sustain an economic growth rate of 8% GDP.
During the 1996 general elections, most parties came out with various economic manifestos to challenge the incumbent, with various opposition leaders promising to complete the vision 2020. Opposition parties to the battle against unpopular reforms made by the Rawlings government such as cost sharing and cost-recovery in health and education sector, promising to better the welfare of the citizens.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Development in Ghana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The emergence of independent print and electronic media after the 1992 referendum, and the constitutional provision that state owned media should provide equal coverage of the ruling party and opposition rallies, made the campaign very exciting. Although Rawlings party won the vote the opposition lead by John Kufuor were able to gunner 40% of the total vote and captured 66 parliamentary seats (Evans-Anfom, 2003, pp. 431-433).
It was however demonstrated during the 1996 elections that during competition for votes that government is at times forced to sacrifice sustainable macro-economic management and fiscal policy prudence for the temporary gain of political mileage. This is evidenced by failure to pass the petroleum tax law and commissioning of unbudgeted projects.
This election also revealed that there was a huge tendency of the population to vote as regional and ethnic blocs, which has come to become the norm in subsequent elections. After the elections and politicking was over the reforms were re-ignited as parliament passed the petroleum tax law, VAT was introduced, independent regulatory organisations in the telecommunication, water and electricity were created, and electricity tariffs were increased to cushion operating losses.
The vice president spearheaded the national institutional renewal program in 1997 and ensured that civil service reforms were implemented with urgency. Various programs were initiated to improve the government human resource capacity, monitoring systems and the budget (Leite, 2000, pp. 36-42).
Ghana was able to reduce the incidence of poverty, the population of citizens living under poverty conditions declined from 51% during the promulgation of the new constitution in 1992 to 43% in 1999. Generally, the school enrolment figure had improved, health services were improved with the help of various donors, gains were also made in the provision of social amenities and general infant mortality had reduced by 25% (Sandbrook
Scientific Management in Today’s Workplace Essay essay help: essay help
The principles of scientific management developed by Frederick Taylor have shaped the work of many organizations. Overall, this approach implies that every procedure should be specified and standardized. This standardization is supposed to replace the rules of thumb which are deemed to be less effective.
This paper is aimed at discussing the applications of scientific management in modern companies. In particular, I would like to discuss this question from the perspective of a consumer because this method can directly affect the experiences of clients. Overall, one can say this approach is still of great importance to many business administrators.
As a rule, it is believed that scientific management is applied mostly to the needs of manufacturing companies; however, one can say that this model can affects the work of service organizations as well. For instance, every visitor of a fast-food restaurant can notice that practically every workplace procedure is standardized.
The employees of such companies have to adhere to specific instructions, especially when they prepare and serve food. In this case, the goal of scientific management is to improve the time-efficiency of the personnel. This model enables fast-food companies to serve a greater number of customers as quickly as possible. This is one of the reasons why these fast-food restaurants are able to achieve financial success. To some, their practices reflect the ideas of Frederick Taylor.
Another example that one can discuss is the work of modern airports since these organizations also have to serve the needs of many customers. Moreover, it is important for them to optimize their performance, especially to improve their time management strategies. For instance, the luggage of passengers is always scanned, bar-coded, and transported to a particular plane. This set of procedures ensures that people do not have to stay in extremely long queues.
Moreover, these rules are supposed to prevent the loss of property. The employees of airports have to follow these procedures, instead some rules of thumb. Again, scientific management is imbedded into the work of these organizations. Business administrators apply it in effort to improve the experiences of clients.
Finally, many people have experienced of dealing with call centers. One can notice that the employees of these organizations often ask the same questions or use similar expressions, especially when greeting a customer. Some people may find this similarity rather irritating, but they should not blame workers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This behavior can be explained by the rules and requirements that call centers set for employees. In particular, managers want them to follow specific rules of etiquette while interacting with clients and ask specific questions, particular when a client complains of something. Thus, one can argue that scientific management can influence even communication between customers and companies.
On the whole, the ideas expressed by Frederic Taylor and his followers continue to play an important role for many organizations. Certainly, this approach may be criticized for making work too monotonous. Nevertheless, many companies adopt this method in effort to maximize performance.
This method also affects the way in which organizations interact with clients. Most likely, the principles of scientific management will find practical applications in the future. This model can bring such benefits as time-efficiency, cost reduction and clarity of workplace duties. This is why it still enjoys significant popularity among many managers who may work in very different organizations.
Strategic Management: Nintendo Wii International Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Alternatives – 3 possible ways to solve the problem
Introduction Establishing appropriate organizational strategic management is vital. Strategic management helps in attaining viable competitive advantages for any organization. With reference to the Nintendo Wii-International’s case study, this paper aims at identifying how the company grew to success. Nintendo was established in 1889 with the intent of manufacturing playing cards.
In 1979, it developed a first game system. Subsequently, the company developed the first LCD video game of its kind. It was unique as it had a microprocessor. Five years after, The Nintendo Entertainment System that had 8 bits
was developed. The video console performed well in terms of sales as it was one of its kind and none of those in the market by then could measure up to its features.Further, through a critical analysis, the paper will also seek to determine the strategies and reccoimendations that company should adopt so as to remain relevant in the market (Drezner, 2007).
Analytically, success of the Nintendo Company can be attributed to having a clear vision. The founder of this group intended to reach a wide range of people in an effective manner employing the use of appealing, in addition to, high quality products while observing the most viable ways to generate profits.
The Problem There are several challenges faced by the company according to the case study. Foremost, the company had to cope up with the growing demands for their products. Additionally, competition has be a considerable problem for Nintendo. Currently, the company is only limited to some regions of the world. It ought to access other international markets, as well (Michael, Hitt, Ireland
Human Resource Management: Attraction and Retention of Talent Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Attraction and Retention of Talent
Developing Human Resources in Organisation
Human Resources Planning in a Changing Environment
Attraction and Retention of Talent Human resource management becomes an essential part of business world. Even though innovative technologies contributed to the business world and many processes are completed by the machines, the successful business is run when people monitor the working process, participate in it and do all possible to remain successful and effective. To have a successful profitable people, managers are to create a good team from talented people.
Attraction and retention of talents remains one of the main goals of the human resource managers in the company and the successful implementation of the programs connected with the issue may bring much profit for both sides. Retention and attraction of talents is one of the main issues for human resource managers in different companies and the problems and opportunities connected with the issue are going to be discussed below.
Considering the experiences of the respected companies in attraction and retention of talents, it may be concluded that the use of the brand of the employer is one of the main strategies applied for the issue. When a company is famous among people and its image is rather high, talented people are sure to go there in search for a job.
Having conducted a research in the sphere of influence of the brand image on attraction and retention of talents in the company, Botha, Bussin, and De Swardt (2011) prove the mentioned statement. A positive brand of the image and the correct use of this brand while attracting employees, their training and further treatment increases the chance of employing great talents in the company.
However, the authors of the research state that wrong use of the brand of the company while human resource management may cause undesired outcome and negatively influence talent attraction and retention (Botha, Bussin,
Technological Play and Touch Technologies among children Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
The world has changed into a technological world. Most parts of the world have endorsed technology. Approximately 71 percent of children have also endorsed technology significantly (Yelland, 2010). Children access information through technological devices in the form of videos, text and pictures. This aims at equipping them with the needed technological knowledge in the present and the coming future. Most expectedly, there have been many linear impacts that emanate from the prevalence of technology amongst the children.
We note that when youngsters acquire and use the techniques of information technology, they attain knowledge in education through easier access to information. Microsoft software designed with the objectives of achieving a lot in the present educational and technological terms enhanced easier and neat working in education. Fast access of information is a factor operating through the internet, which halved the time required for certain achievements.
Availability of reading material is a precise facilitation to the success of children. The retention of knowledge and development of cognitive skills, therefore, lies on a greater proportion on technology (Verenikina et al, 2010). As Puerling (2012) suggests, children with electronic devices can access and attain information from the internet anywhere without using library.
This allows children to check education materials repeatedly, therefore, allowing them to understand. Technology has devised ways which when controlled refresh children and warrant proper physical development and mental stability (Bavelier et al, 2010). Socialization networks create space for children and allow them to interact.
The use of technology amongst children has aggravated the level of immorality by allowing them to access pornographic materials, violence and information on drug abuse. It, also, consumes much of the time meant for their education and other activities. Social sites also induce negative peer pressure leading to negative behavioral change. I, thus, recommend that use of technology should be encouraged but at the same time controlling its scope and time of use.
References Bavelier, D. Green, S.
Ethical and Moral Dilemma: McDonald’s Essay college essay help
In the contemporary business environment, many companies are embarking on the corporate social responsibilities to not only enhance a positive public image but also show an act of social responsibility and moral obligation to the society. In particular, McDonald’s fast food company embarks on an aggressive social responsibility strategy.
The company has suffered criticism over junk food. Nonetheless, the fast food giant continues to make substantial amounts of revenues notwithstanding the health issues raised regarding fries and junk. Should a company bear the social obligation to meet the demands of the society despite making profits from hazardous goods to consumers? Using the perspectives of such thinkers as Yukl, Machiavelli, Plato, Hobbes and Rand, this paper will focus on the analysis of the organizational dilemma.
Standpoints of Various Thinkers on the Issue The moral challenges of power and self-interest raised by the above issue is dazzling. Judging the organization from Yukl perspectives of leadership, the leaders of McDonald’s have assumed various ways in which they exercise power not only on the employees and teams but also on the society (Yukl, 2006).
Corporate social responsibility reflects reward power to the society where the company reaps benefits from sales and rewards the society through the initiative (Spence et al., 2004; Zaccaro et al., 2001). The use of reward power by McDonald’s has helped the organization to meet its objectives amidst calls for a paradigm shifts in eating habits.
Further, the concept of power and self-interests elucidated by Plato could infer that McDonald’s has centralized power of influencing both the employees as well as the society.
Plato sees no rationale for embarking on such strategy since it would imply that people have power. He distances himself from ‘people power’ and argues that the company, which in this case represents the ‘Republic’, should not bear any moral obligation for the society (Bostock, 2000).
Due to the power of self-interests, McDonald’s should focus on its objectives, which is to increase the wealth of its owners rather than distributing its revenues to people (Annas, 1981).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Contrary to the views of Plato, Hobbes could judge the dilemma from different perspectives. His perspective of power, which in this case is wielded by McDonalds, should be in relation to other people. In his masterpiece, The Leviathan, Hobbes says that power is relational to other people without whom there would be no any phenomenon referred to as power (Ellis
Agency-structure Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Agency and Society
Structure and Society
Conception of the duality of structure
Introduction Agency refers to the power of actors to operate independently in society without interruption. Individuals are not tied to the expectations of the society in the agency-structure theory (Structuration). The society is known to put some pressure on an individual to comply with some of the rules and regulations. Agency-structure is a theory anticipated to express the purposive nature of human action rather than its restricted or resolute facets.
Agency is evident in methodological individualism, ethno methodology, and symbolic interaction. In the agency-structure theory, the individual is at the center of all social analysis. Methodological individualism is a theoretical position arguing that adequate sociological accounts emanate from reference to persons, their interpretations of circumstances, and the reasons/motives of actions that they take.
Structure entails social life, which is largely influenced by communal life. Moreover, individual behavior could be elucidated as the artifact of structure.
Agency-structure debate is a micro-macro debate and there is a continuous effort to integrate the two. Sociology scholars, including Giddens attempted to integrate the two in order to end the debate.
The attempts to integrate the two emphasizes on the complimentarily meaning that the structure influences the individual and the agent has the capability to change the structure. This paper looks at the views of Giddens regarding the two concepts. The paper also looks at the way Giddens tried to integrate the two through, by coming up with structuration theory.
Agency and Society Giddens used the notion of temporality, capability, and knowldgeability to explain the actions of agent in society. He observed that an agent has various capabilities that enable him or her to act differently, under different circumstances. For change to take place in any given human society, an agent must exist freely.
Agency could perhaps be defined differently to mean reflective supervision of human behavior. Giddens believed that human beings have the ability to monitor their actions, including the contexts of such actions. He used the term capability to mean that agents are able to portray a number of actions at ago.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, he advised that human beings behave differently under different settings and conditions. It is therefore upon an individual to monitor his or her actions because the capacity to control one’s behavior is what differentiates people. Each person tries to evaluate his or her character and expects others to assess their actions before exposing them to the public.
According to Giddens, structures are the outcomes of human actions. Through the process of reflective monitoring, people are capable of transforming human actions. Before a human being acts, he/she is usually motivated by something. Agents use their knowledge to rationalize an act implying that people act differently because they differ in terms of knowledge.
He therefore used the term knowledgeability to imply that human beings have various forms of knowledge that are used differently in society. All human beings tend to scrutinize their actions thoughtfully. Even though human beings are supposed to act in accordance with societal rules and regulations, they are also supposed to use common due to their knowledgeability. People behave differently because of their capability and knowledgeability.
Some are perceived to act morally while others are known to go against societal laws regularly. Giddens observed that two forms of consciousnesses inform the capabilities of an individual. The first one is the practical consciousness, which means the reasoning power or the expertise of the individual. This form of consciousness is not easily recognized in everyday life. Another form of consciousness is the discursive realization.
This form of consciousness helps an individual to express knowledge. Giddens suggested that individuals have philosophical and relative and knowledge, which helps them to institutionalize structures. In order to be able to institutionalize structures, agents must possess adequate knowledge.
Giddens was quick to mention that some factors could perhaps restrain the actions of an individual. He termed such factors as capability constraints. The factors may include the age of the individual, cognitive restrictions and physical health of an individual, which bars an individual from performing certain duties. Others factors include time and space. At certain ages for instance, it would be impossible for an individual to execute some tasks.
The most limiting factor is the correlation between the movement of space and the time movement. Moreover, the geographical location of an individual could perhaps affect his or her behavior in society. One of the limiting factors in this category is locale (Münch 52). Some places call for certain behaviors only. For instance, people attending a class would be required to pay attention and avoid unnecessary conversations.
We will write a custom Essay on Agency-structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regionalization is another factor meaning that some actions are not displayed in certain regions. For instance, an individual would wish to exercise prostitution but the Islamic rules would not permit him or her. This means that the region would have played a critical role in controlling the behavior of an individual.
Presence is another factor that restrains the actions of an individual. For instance, an individual would only talk in the presence of another person. The rule of reciprocity applies in some conditions, which forces an individual to avoid the act.
However, Giddens observed that human actions are temporary and used the term temporality to imply the elusiveness of human behavior. People would be forced to act in a certain manner but they would be quick to change such actions whenever the situation demands.
In his debate regarding temporality, Giddens (1984, p. 35) observed that “the duree of daily life, it is not too fanciful to say, operates in something akin to what Levi- Strauss calls ‘reversible time.” In this view, Giddens implied that social actions are reversible. In other words, human behavior is temporary in nature.
Giddens concluded in this section by noting that an individual has the power to engage in multiple actions. In other words, an agent could perhaps be able to participate in a dialectic control. This would mean that people have the power to refrain from certain actions. Conversely, people have the capability to influence a process, particularly when it does not favor their wishes. Giddens implied that agents have the ability to act independently, even though they are also expected to behave according to societal expectations.
Structure and Society Giddens observed that structures consist of rules and resources that regulate the behavior of agents in society. These rules and resources are supposed to be memorized by individuals whenever they relate and interact in society. Whenever faced with any situation, agents use their well to solve the issue at hand given the fact that they are knowledgeable. In this case, being knowledgeable means behaving according to societal rules and regulations.
The scholar divided the forms of knowledge into three major categories. The first form of knowledge is the dominant type, which is the powerful form. He used the term resources to denote this form of knowledge. An individual may have authoritative or distributive power (Ritzer 71). Authoritative power is exercised over individuals while distributive power means the material capability.
The second form of knowledge is the signification or the meaning knowledge. The last form of knowledge, which is the most important, is the legitimate knowledge. This refers to the rules and norms that guide human behavior. All these forms of knowledge are kept in the individual’s memory and are invoked whenever the need arises.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Agency-structure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In society, an individual has the right to use structures (rules and regulations), as he or she wishes. In case an individual uses the structures for interactive purposes, the structures would be termed as modalities. Moreover, the three forms of knowledge are used during interactive sessions (Baert 61). When individuals interact, it is upon them to establish which form of knowledge to use.
Conception of the duality of structure Anthony Giddens found agency-structure to be a duality, which means the two cannot be separated from one another. Agency is implicated in structure and structure is implicated in agency. Giddens refused to recognize structure as constraining the way Durkheim did. Giddens observed that structure is both an enabling and constraining factor in human life. The scholar attempted to integrate the two by developing a theory referred to as structuration.
Structuration is a theory claiming that neither the experiences of the individual actor nor the collectivity is supreme. The structure, according to Giddens, consists of rules and resources that permit the integration of time and space in social life. The existence of structure enables the existence of social practices in different times and space. People utilize the existing structures to conduct their normal businesses.
The structures are preserved in the memories of individuals implying that the structures cannot exist without the presence of individuals. Through the memory traces, an individual is able to carry out his or functions in society. The social practices enable the generation of structures.
In this view, Giddens observed that the indispensable recursive of societal life is represented in social actions. Structure is both an intermediate and a result of duplication of human actions (Turner 12). Structure penetrates concurrently into the social life of the agent.
In his theory, Giddens utilized the phrase the duality of structure to bring out clearly the power of the structure as both an intermediate and a result of an action. Within and agent, societal rules and norms exist both internally and externally. Internally, policies and sets of laws of certain people are conserved in the memoirs of agents, which are the outcomes of their tradition. Externally, the rules and norms of society are the expressions of social behaviors.
Social structures such as the customs consist of agents since they are the outcomes of past actions. In this sense, duality comes out strongly in the structuration theory implying that an agent cannot exist without structures. Agents base their behaviors on the expectations and rules of society. Similarly, structures depend on agents to preserve the rules and norms.
Conclusion From the above analysis, it can be observed that structuration theory intends to illuminate the duality and the dialectical interplay between the two. Agency and structure cannot be conceived to be a part or separate from one another but instead they are two sides of the same coin. They are a dualism that represents duality. Agency and social rules are inextricably intertwined in all human actions.
To Giddens, sociologists have exaggerated the constraining nature of structure on agency. Structure and agency are similar to the egg and hen story. Agency and structure are a duality meaning one cannot exist without the other. From the theory, it is eminent that the changes in social rules are brought about by the changes in time and space.
Works Cited Baert, Patrick. Social theory in the twentieth century. Cambridge; Polity press, 1998. Print
Münch, Richard. Sociological theory. Developments since the 1960s. New York: Nelson Hall, 1994. Print.
Ritzer, George. Sociological Theory. 4th ed. New York: Knopf, 1996. Print.
Turner, Jonathan. The structure of sociological theory. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1998. Print.
Stanislaus Military Academy developmental model and plan Proposal college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Problem Identification
Research theories related to the problem
Measurable objectives related to the problem
Participants and change agents
Procedure of solving problem
Problem Identification In organizations, development of models and plans facilitates the achievement of objectives through scientific approaches. Stanislaus Military Academy seeks to roll out a plan that will oversee the training of Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (MCJROTC). Through the plan, the institution aspires to develop informed and outstanding citizens in cadets.
The program also seeks to develop the trainee’s leadership skills by strengthening their character and comprehending the fundamental aspects of the national security. Through the training, the military academy will help in the formation of self-disciplined individuals who will not only be in a position to develop respect for the authority in a liberal society but also understand the factors that underpin the constituted authority in the American society.
Stanislaus Military Academy faces challenges in implementing the program that will see the cadets receive the training in line with the articulations of the constitution. With its main objectives being to instill virtues of discipline, respect, courage, commitment and honor among the cadets, the organization has apparent challenges in the achievement of these ends.
The institution should be in a position to conduct impeccable training by identifying the challenges and implement the proposed changes in the organization (Michael, DiPaola
Gender in work in Australia Essay best essay help
The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century brought a lot of changes into the social interactions, relations between genders and into the division of their roles. The tendency of changes is also reflected in altering the nature of the Australian workforce according to the question of male and female involving into the labour market.
The transformation of the people’s vision of the role of a woman in the society resulted in the women’s active participation in the working process. Broomhill and Sharp pay attention to the fact that it is possible to observe the changing male breadwinner model in Australia which is caused by the historical process of the society’s development and a lot of other social and economic factors (Broomhill
Human Resource Management Practices Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Human resource management in British airways
Human resource management in Air china
Human resource management in Emirates airline
Similarities and Differences in the three airlines
Introduction Human resource management is an organization’s function that entails all aspects that are associated with the human resource or work force in a particular organization, company or institution. It entails aspects like recruitment, coordination and control of the people working in an organization.
Some of the issues linked with human resource management include hiring, development, compensation, rewards and benefits, safety and protection, health and welfare, communication and motivation, employees’ performance management and administration and training among others.
Human resource management is a very essential function in every organization as it enhances overall efficiency and effectiveness of the organization through smooth running of all the activities and operations that are carried out in the organization.
The practices are however carried out differently in different organizations although there exist some similarities (Mathis and Jackson 2). This piece of work discusses the similarities and differences in human resource management practices in British airways, Air china and Emirates airlines and reasons behind the differences.
Human resource management in British airways British Airways is a company that recognizes and appreciates the fact that the human resource is very essential and the driving force towards the company’s success. There is a lot of emphasis put on respect and professionalism in regard to treatment of the employees and also the clients.
Motivation of the employees is also a key aspect in the company. The recruitment and selection process at British airways has been designed in such a manner that the skills of the candidates or job applicants match with the vacancies in order to enhance their performance and that of the entire company.
Training and development is done to maximize the employees’ potential. There are for example computer based interactive learning centers, documented materials and other programs aimed at instilling a variety of skills and knowledge in the employees. It offers attractive reward packages for instance in terms of salaries and wages (British Airways 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human resource management in Air china The human resource management in Air china has undergone some changes all aimed at improving its overall performance in the provision of services. Total quality management has been emphasized in an effort to achieve efficiency and effectiveness and also build a good reputation and enhance growth and development of the organization.
It has numerous employees and has managed to cater for them in terms of training and skills for instance through provision of good working conditions like modern technology, favorable working style and appropriate skills through training.
The training guarantees for quality performance and also safety especially when it comes to the pilots. Team building is also an aspect that has been considered important (Air China 1).
Human resource management in Emirates airline Although Emirates airline is one of the youngest airlines, it is fast growing. The human resource management in the company is responsible for the satisfaction of the work force. It recognizes the human resource as essential tools towards achieving the organization’s goals and objectives.
The Emirates airline takes training and development as a very important aspect and spends a lot on it (five to six percent of its revenue).
There are various training methods and a variety of technological advancements that are applied to ensure that the employees are well suited for their jobs. There is also career planning and development to match with modernization and competition (iBummed 1).
Similarities and Differences in the three airlines Being in the same industry, airline industry, the British airways, Air china and Emirates airlines share some common aspects in regard to the human resource management practices.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Human Resource Management Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the three companies face the following challenges in relation to the changing environment; diversity in the work force and changing nature of work, globalization, and restructuring of the organizations’ activities. This is because the industry is very competitive and susceptible to change.
The human resource managers and other personnel involved in the management also face some changes in their roles for instance the emergence of flatter organization structures that calls for changes in their functions, the need to empower the employees for better performance, encouragement of team work among the employees and emphasis in ethical management where some standards and codes are adhered to.
Another similarity is on the great emphasis that has been placed on human resource strategies and policies to the extent of integrating them in the companies’ values.
The strategies and policies put in place are usually aimed at satisfying the needs of the employees hence enhancing the job satisfaction and performance which in the long run lead to high quality of the airline services.
The airlines are also involved in provision of services to a very large pool of clients and hence have numerous employees to enhance the provision of services and hence appropriate and effective strategies have to be put in place to manage them (Chan 1).
The similarities among the British airways, Air china and Emirates airlines are more evident than the differences. This is because all the three companies are involved with similar services because they are in the same industry.
However the differences in the human resource management can be spotted in regard to the importance attached to the employees and how they are treated. Another aspect that can bring the differences is the coverage in terms of the countries served by the particular airlines.
The emirates airlines for instance use a lot of its revenue in the training and development processes than the other airlines. The technologies applied in the training are also quite different due to the difference in the capabilities of the companies and the extent to which technology has been appreciated and embraced.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resource Management Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The three organizations also apply different recruitment and selection processes based on the qualities the companies’ value. The benefits and rewards accrued to the workforce also vary depending on what the organization’s management team considers best in regard to motivation of the employees and enhancement of job satisfaction among the employees.
The working conditions in the companies also differ based on the styles applied and also the organizational culture. All in all the differences are not very unique because the human resource management practices are usually undertaken with the main aim of enhancing employees’ satisfaction hence promoting their performance and that of the entire(Boyd 440) organization.
Conclusion Human resource management is an essential aspect in all organizations and should never be underemphasized. It falls under one of the major components of the management function which is staffing the other ones being planning, organizing, and coordination and controlling.
The human resource in an organization is a valuable asset that determines the success or failure of the organization through their efforts towards utilizing other assets in the company. It is however only through their proper management that maximum efficiency, effectiveness and profitability can be achieved.
Works Cited Air China. “Air China Strengthens Training of Newly-Employed Pilots.” Air China, 2008. Web.
Boyd, Carol “HRM in the Airline Industry: Strategies and Outcomes”, Personnel Review, 2001.Vol. 30 Iss: 4, pp.438 – 453.
British Airways. “Training and Career Development.” British Airways , 2011. Web.
Chan, Alvin. “The Challenges of Human Resource Management”. Zeromillion, 2002. Web.
iBummed. “Training and Development (Example of Emirates Airlines)” ibummed, 2010. Web.
Mathis, Robert L and Jackson,
Comparing advertisements from The Time Essay college essay help near me
This report will analyse the eight advertisements retrieved from the two numbers of the Time Magazine. The Time Magazine is a weekly news periodical, one of the largest in the world distributed globally among the audience of up to 25 million.
The analysis in the report will highlight the major characteristics of the advertisements, namely the institutions and the common themes and compare the key messages and peculiarities of the language and imagery use.
The first advertisement reflects the mission of using brighter science for creating brighter living as the brand promise of DSM, the global science-based company specializing in the spheres of life and materials.
The short and straightforward phrase chosen for the brand promise demonstrates the company’s intention to focus the customers’ and partners’ attention.
The three highlighted words, namely Health, Nutrition and Materials reveal the company’s major competencies and their interest in future and sustainability as the core values.
Looking at this advertisement, and looking through the short text below the picture, the readers of the Time Magazine, and businessmen and decision makers among them, can receive the main message of the advertisement illustrating the core competencies and values of DSM.
As to the peculiarities of the imagery and the advertisement layout, it can be stated that the depicted elderly gentleman as a representative of the older and wiser generation wants to preserve the natural resources for the future generations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By the way, the man is a foreigner, and it reveals the global character of the company and its mission. The bright curved lines at the bottom of the advertisement and a segment of the blue sky at its top can symbolize the transition to the brighter world and living promoted by DSM.
The second advertisement represents the intention to develop a real strategy for ensuring sufficient supply of resources for the future generations expressed by the oil company Chevron.
The language of the advertisement clearly demonstrates that Chevron positions itself as the leader in driving the changes in the oil industry because it not only proclaims the principles of sustainable development as the main underpinning of its own strategy, but also encourages other oil companies to use the same approach.
As to the peculiarities of the advertisement layout, it should be noted that the motto of getting real is signed by Paul Siegele, the Vice President of Strategic Planning in the company which can be regarded s a personal example motivating others to follow it.
In the left part of the advertisement, there is a father holding his child who hopefully looks at the readers. This touching picture is intended to demonstrate the dependence of the wellbeing of a child depicted in the left part and demand of developing real strategies by the oil companies represented in the right part of the ad.
This advertisement is part of Chevron’s campaign entitled Human Energy aimed at attracting the attention of individuals and companies.
The third advertisement represents the appeal to let the clean economy begin from WWF –Climate Savers as one of the largest environmental organizations in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing advertisements from The Time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The assumption of Bruno Lafont, the CEO of Lafarge, the company manufacturing the building materials and aggregates expressing his concern about building the low-carbon economy placed at the centre of the ad shows the company’s support of the campaign.
Moreover, at the bottom of the ad the readers can see the list of the other companies and organizations supporting this initiative which proves that Lafarge is only one of them. The language of this ad is simple and focuses on the topicality of the issue, claiming that it’s time.
The imagery of this ad in the form of the conceptual architecture of hypergreen – the environmental tower of the future as the background for the Lafarge’s assumption symbolizes the main objective of the campaign.
The fourth advertisement demonstrates the business promises of Huawei, the leading provider of telecom solutions. By the phrase that they have found the way to help the customers reach new heights, Huawei means certain innovative solutions which are expected to make the cooperation with Huawei even more attractive.
The language of the ad can be defined as figurative. Particularly, the word heights should not be taken in its literal meaning. The imagery used in the ad depicts the literal meaning of the world heights. One teenager supports his friend so that he could reach the bright balloons which can be regarded as the symbol of victory, triumph and the realization of dreams.
The fifth advertisement is the appeal from Scottish Development International, the organization aimed at supporting the growth of the Scottish economy and attracting the foreign investors to the country.
The language of the ad is rather simple, but the main phrase admitting that Scotland is famous for its Loch Ness Monster and achievements in the sphere of digital technologies is built on contrasts.
Recognizing the fact that the Loch Ness Monster is the inherently Scottish phenomenon, the readers are expected to take the second part of the phrase concerning the digital expertise for granted. The idea of representing the Loch Ness Monster in the form of the cable was rather interesting.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparing advertisements from The Time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the readers need certain background knowledge for understanding the meaning of the cable imitating the typical representation of the legendry monster. Moreover, the cable can connect the readers to anything they want, indicating the future and the unlimited possibilities accessible through investing into Scottish digital technologies.
The sixth advertisement asking how one can get more using the same resources is the business promise of Accenture, the global consulting company specializing in the spheres of management, technology services and outsourcing.
The language of the ad is rather simple and would not allow delivering the message to the audience if it were not supported by the imagery. The oversized sheep with an enormous amount of wool on it demonstrates that Accenture knows the answer to this question and is ready to share this knowledge with their customers.
Though the words Consulting, Technology, Outsourcing are not highlighted, they clearly represent to the readers the main spheres of the company’s services. The same technique of mentioning the key words as the core competencies was used in the ad of DSM.
The last two advertisements were created by the European Commission for expressing their concerns about closing the gender gap in salaries and pensions as a part of the campaign aimed at ensuring the equal rights to men and women. The language of these ads is simple but rather condensed.
It is significant that the ads pose questions instead of formulating demands, stimulating the beginning of debates. The text below the ads provides the direct answers to the questions posed above the pictures, mentioning the same statistical data of the 17.5 % difference in the salaries and pensions of men and women doing the same job.
The imagery placing the faces of a boy and a girl in different boxes demonstrates that the difference in their salaries is predetermined since their birth. Placing an elderly man and elderly woman in different boxes produces the impression of the contrast between them.
Identifying, Assessing and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Literature Review of ADHD in Infants
Educational, Psychological and Medical Assessment
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Treatment options
Introduction SEBD stands for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties that children or infants suffer from during the early stages of their development. SEBD is a broad term that is used to categorise various behavioural disorders that affect the performance of children in learning activities as well as in peer and family socialization.
One of these disorders that will be the focus of this study is the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children who suffer from SEBD present a special challenge to parents, teachers or other related guardians as their behavioural deficiencies causes them to interfere with the daily activities in the home or in school.
In the classroom setting, SEBD behaviour usually manifests itself in the form of uncooperativeness, rebellion to authority, oppositional behaviour and general disruptiveness (Clough 2005).
While the classroom is the most common place for the symptoms of SEBD to be displayed, the same situation occurs in the family setting where parents and siblings are engaged in a 24 hour cycle of conflict with a child that suffers from SEBD.
The unifying factor of all SEBD disorders is that they are disturbing to both school teachers and parents of the affected child, meaning that any interventions and concerted efforts to deal with the disorder will involve parents, teachers, paediatricians and therapists.
Strategies that will be used in SEBD should, therefore, consider the important role that the society, the family and the school environment plays in the overall development of the child’s social, emotional and behavioural needs (Carsch 2006).
Literature Review of ADHD in Infants Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) refers to a behavioural disorder that affects the overall development of a child psychologically and mentally. ADHD is usually characterised by poor or low attention in class or family settings, hyperactivity, restlessness and disruptive behaviour.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each of these behaviours occur at infrequent times within different settings where in one instance the child might be attentive to what is going on and in the next minute they might display disruptive or inattentive behaviour.
This type of SEBD neurobehavioural disorder is one of the most researched and studied psychiatric disorder in children and infants. This is because it is seen as one of the most continuous behavioural and emotional traits that exist in the world population causing a general deterioration in the mental development of the child (Biederman 1998).
The research work conducted on ADHD has categorised the disorder as a type of SEBD disruptive disorder that affects the behaviour of children as well as their cognitive capabilities.
The number of children who are diagnosed with ADHD amounts to between 3 and 5 percent of the worldwide population of children where 16 percent of this number are school-going children.
The percentage of children that carry the disorder well into their childhood averages between 30 to 50 percent where they continue to suffer from the various symptoms presented by the disease.
Adults and teenagers tend to develop coping mechanisms that will enable them to deal with the behavioural impairments that come with the disorder which is not possible for small children and infants (Nair et al. 2006).
ADHD has further been divided into three sub-categories which include predominantly hyperactive-impulsive disorder where the sufferer exhibits hyperactive and impulsive behaviour and inattention to surroundings, predominantly inattentive where the symptoms exhibited by the sufferer are mostly hyperactivity and impulsivity as well as combined hyperactivity-impulsive and inattentive behaviour where the child or infant suffering from the disease demonstrates hyperactivity and impulsivity.
We will write a custom Essay on Identifying, Assessing and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These are the key categories and symptoms that are demonstrated by children suffering from ADHD. Identifying and defining the symptoms of ADHD is however a difficult process as it is usually difficult to determine which levels of hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention constitute a symptom of ADHD.
Therefore for a proper diagnosis of the disorder to be made, the child or infant has to be observed in multiple settings for a period of six months or more (Ramsay 2007).
As mentioned in the previous paragraph, ADHD falls into three sub-categories which exhibit different symptoms in children. Other symptoms that are used to determine whether a child is suffering from ADHD include becoming easily distracted, forgetting certain details, poor attention or difficulty in focusing on a particular task, easily confused and difficulty in processing information in an accurate way.
The effects of these symptoms on a child’s ability to concentrate on their schoolwork are low as they develop a poor working memory and they have a low ability to retrieve vital information that will be important in their learning process. These symptoms also cause children to have poor organizational skills as well as difficulty in predicting certain outcomes from their learning experiences.
Children that suffer from ADHD have a low tolerance to frustration and disappointment, which might cause them to react poorly to overly stressful situations. They also tend to be very talkative and impulsive in their behaviour which makes it difficult for the concerned parties to deal with them properly (Lougy and Rosenthal 2002).
While children and infants are unable to control their impulsive and hyperactive behaviour, teenagers have been able to demonstrate a certain resistance to some of the symptoms that are related to ADHD.
Just like adults, teenagers are able to develop resistance mechanisms that will enable them reduce their hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentive behaviour to a manageable level.
The symptoms from any of the three sub categories of ADHD usually diminish as children approach adolescence but in some teenagers, the symptoms remain making it difficult for them to engage in social interactions within the school setting.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Identifying, Assessing and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These teenagers experience cases of hyperactivity which are demonstrated through antisocial or delinquent behaviours and also overactiveness and impulsivity which are on the extreme side (Jensen et al. 2007).
Educational, Psychological and Medical Assessment According to the American Academy of Paediatrics for Clinical Practice Guidelines, to be able to gain a reliable diagnosis of ADHD, three criteria need to be meet and they include obtaining information about the child’s behaviour from more than one setting, determining conditions that might make it difficult to properly diagnose the disorder and the use of explicit criteria to diagnose the disorder through DSM-IV-TR.
For these criteria to be effective in diagnosing a child with ADHD, the following symptoms have to be present so that the child can be labelled as having ADHD; the child has to have had behavioural impairments from the age of 7, the child should have demonstrated behavioural and psychological deficiencies for a period of at least six months, the symptoms have to had created a major handicap in the following institutions of a child’s development: the classroom, home, society, playground and the community.
In this case for the child to be termed as suffering from ADHD, they have to demonstrate behavioural deficiencies in all these social institutions (Smucker and Hedayat 2001).
Educational assessments of ADHD are usually conducted within school or educational settings where the child or teenager’s behaviour is observed to found out if they are suffering from ADHD. Although the signs for this disorder are usually evident during the infancy years of the child, the disorder is usually diagnosed during the school going years.
Apart from paediatricians and therapists, teachers have been able to identify whether a child suffers from ADHD or not. This is mostly attributed to their ability to observe children’s behaviour during the learning process which has proven to be important when designing suitable learning strategies (Rader et al. 2009).
Educational assessment of the disease is, therefore, done by observing the performance of the child in class activities and learning activities. The teacher notes how the child is able to respond to certain learning tasks by determining whether their level of focus to completing the task as well as their attentiveness to class instructions.
If the child or adolescent demonstrates an inability to concentrate in class and has learning disabilities, then they can be termed to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. If they also demonstrate disruptive behaviour in class and increased hyperactive levels, they can be termed to have ADHD (Erkulwater et al. 2009).
Because the disorder causes children to be hyperactive, they might times disrupt classroom lessons by making a lot of noise or exhibiting restless behaviour which might be a cause of disruption to other children in the class.
This disruptive behaviour could also be attributed to how easily bored children suffering from ADHD get when they are involved in less enjoyable activities such as classroom learning.
For educational assessments to be effective in determining whether a child suffers from ADHD, they should be conducted with the assistance of therapists, paediatricians and other people who are qualified to perform such diagnostic assessments.
Parents are also encouraged to participate in the educational assessment of children to ensure they are informed on whether the child suffers from ADHD or not. For the assessment to be successful it has to include information of what support services will be needed to deal with the disorder in the learning and educational activities of the child.
The educational assessment will, therefore, be important in determining what educational plans need to be drawn up to ensure that the child’s learning needs are adequately dealt (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2003).
Psychological assessment of ADHD measures the potential ability of a child suffering from ADHD by focusing on what needs to be learned instead of what has been learned in the educational context.
Psychological assessments measure the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of children and adolescents who are suffering from the disorder by assessing their learning capabilities and potential to retain information during and after the learning process.
At times, psychological assessments are usually conducted through the use of capability tests such as the WAIS-III to measure the overall potential of the child and they at times also measure the intelligence quotient or IQ of the child (Olin and Keatinge 1998).
Psychological assessments play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD as the results of the IQ test are usually used to determine whether a child suffers from the disorder.
The use of psychological assessments in the diagnosis of the disease mostly occurs when the symptoms exhibited by the child, adult or adolescent are consistent with the symptoms of other multiple diagnoses which makes it difficult for the physician to determine whether the individual suffers from ADHD.
Psychological assessments are useful in developing treatment options in the event clinicians are unsure of the most suitable types of treatment that can be used to deal with the disorder (Pliszka 2007).
Since the psychological assessment is able to measure critical aspects such as impulse control, emotional, behavioural and cognitive capabilities, it can be used by physicians and paediatricians to design suitable treatment plans that will help the patient deal with the behavioural impairments that are caused by ADHD.
The results of psychological assessments are also important in determining what educational plans will be drawn to suit the behavioural deficiencies of children suffering from the disorder.
Because it can easily identify the potential and cognitive abilities of sufferer’s, this method of assessing ADHD can be used to develop psychological recommendations that will be used to guide the parents, teachers and caretakers of the child on how they should handle them (Olin and Keatinge 1998).
Apart from measuring the behavioural potential and cognitive capability of the child believed to have ADHD, psychological assessments measure the self-control abilities of individuals by identifying the factors that infringe on a child’s ability to exercise self-control within certain settings.
For example, a psychological assessment can be used to help paediatricians and psychologists determine the factors that cause children with ADHD to develop disruptive behaviour during class time.
There are various psychological assessment models that are used to measure the cognitive and behavioural abilities of children believed to suffer from ADHD.
One of these models was developed by Cushman and Scherer in 1995 and it involves a series of steps one of which involves determining the type of information that will be gathered from the test and identifying the people who will be involved in the test.
Other steps in the model require the people involved in the assessment to identify the aspects that need to be measured and also select the measures that will be used to determine the outcome of the assessment (Olin and Keatinge 1998).
A medical assessment of ADHD, on the other hand, deals involves diagnosing the signs and symptoms of the disease to determine whether the child suffers from disorder. Medical examinations are the most common tools that are used to determine whether infants, young children, adolescents or adults suffer from ADHD.
These types of assessments have however been criticised as many clinicians argue that they are inadequate when it comes to diagnosing the symptoms of ADHD. Medical examinations that are done as a routine on children who have been diagnosed with ADHD rarely provide any useful medical interventions that can be used to manage or treat the disorder.
The results of a medical examination always support the results used during the diagnostic process by providing clinicians with important information that will be used to support the diagnostic process (Brock et al. 2009).
While medical examinations are viewed to be inadequate in determining whether a child suffers from ADHD, a medical diagnosis through the use of psychiatric assessments has proven to be effective in providing the right results.
The psychiatric assessment eliminates the symptoms that are used to diagnose ADHD through the use of techniques such as laboratory tests or physical examinations. In many of these psychiatric assessments, the DSM-IV criteria are what is commonly used to diagnose the symptoms of ADHD.
These DSM-IV criteria include six or more symptoms of inattention present in the infant, child, adolescent or adult for at least six months, the presence of six or more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness in the patient, the presence of socially impairing symptoms before the age of 7 years and the presence of these symptoms in a school, community, playground, home or social setting (American Academy of Paediatrics 2001).
The use of the identified DSM-IV criteria in diagnosing the symptoms of ADHD is usually highly effective when used with psychiatric assessment tests. The DSM-IV criteria are extensive and they cover all the symptoms of ADHD, which might be displayed by the child in any of three sub-categories of ADHD.
They, therefore, have a higher efficacy rate of ascertaining whether a child suffers from ADHD. Apart from medical assessments, other tools that can be used to determine whether a child or adolescent suffers from ADHD are self-reports.
The child is given an evaluation form where they tick off the symptoms that they think best depict their current behaviour. A commonly used tool in the self-report is a checklist where the sufferer ticks of any symptom that might be similar to what they are experiencing (Mash and Barkley 2008).
However, this method faces some discrepancies where according to Mash and Barkley (2008) the child might be unable to provide any useful information that will be used to diagnose whether they have ADHD.
Young children might also be unable to provide an accurate account of their behavioural impairments beyond what is usually provided by collateral informants.
These self-report are however effective in measuring the cognitive abilities and potential capability of clinically referred adults and teenagers as they have the cognitive ability to perform these self-evaluation tests.
Family reports, on the other hand, are usually performed by members of the affected child where they evaluate the behaviour of the child against a checklist of listed behaviours which are used to determine if a child is suffering from ADHD.
The parents of the child and any older siblings with the help of a paediatrician or therapist identify any behavioural impairment that the child might have which can be used to explain whether they are suffering from ADHD (Mash and Barkley 2008).
Treatment Interventions Once a child or adult has been diagnosed with ADHD, the next step will involve identifying a suitable intervention for the person’s treatment plan. The traditional method of treatment for children diagnosed with ADHD has mostly been a prescription of Ritalin which is a stimulant that reduces the level of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness.
However, the use of this drug has proven to be ineffective in dealing with the number of infants and young children that are being diagnosed with the disorder. This has seen the development of modern treatment interventions that are used in combination with drug therapies so as to alleviate the symptoms of ADHD in children (Brown 2009).
In the case of educational interventions, the school in collaboration with the parents of the affected child and therapists develop individualized educational plans that will be used for the students to cater to any learning deficiencies the child might have in the classroom setting.
These individualised plans do not however include drug therapy as they focus solely on improving the learning outcomes for the affected child. Under the individualised plan, an ideal classroom setting for the child suffering from ADHD would be one that has clearly defined rules and well-organized classroom structures.
It would also ensure that the child is not isolated from the rest of the class but is placed at the front near the teacher to facilitate guidance when the situation necessitates it (Hendriks 2010).
The amount of stimuli present in the classroom should be reduced to ensure that the child is not easily distracted or disrupted from their learning routine. The teacher should also observe class schedules and routines to ensure that there is less fluctuation in the energy levels of the child diagnosed with ADHD.
This will ensure that their hyperactivity is kept at a minimal as long as they are engaged in a mixture of low and high energy activities. Students who suffer from ADHD can also be involved in designing learning environments that will be appropriate for their behavioural impairments.
This will provide them with an opportunity to own their situation and also participate in change processes that will allow them to achieve learning outcomes.
Teachers can help children with ADHD in self-monitoring activities by selecting and explaining the behaviours that come with the disorder and also explaining to the student how they can be able to improve on their behaviour within the learning environment (Brown 2009).
Once particular behaviours of the disorder have been selected, the teacher helps the child develop a rating scale that will be used to rate the behaviour of the child based on whether they have improved or not.
The teachers show the child how they should use the rating scale to ensure they gain accurate and reliable results which they will use to determine whether their behaviour has improved.
Another educational intervention which can be used in the classroom setting is the positive behavioural interventions which involve creating positive school environments that will sustain the behavioural improvement of the affected child.
Positive behavioural interventions ensure that the school environment is able to improve the lifestyle of the affected child or teenager by reducing their behavioural impairments to a less desired level (Safran and Oswald 2003).
As mentioned earlier on, the most commonly used medical intervention that are used to treat children suffering from ADHD is Ritalin which is used to provide a calming effect to ADHD sufferers to reduce their levels of hyperactivity and restlessness.
Ritalin is therefore a type of a psycho-stimulant medication that decreases the stimulation levels of children suffering from ADHD. Various clinical guidelines have supported the use of pharmacological treatments as one of the drug therapies used to treat children, adolescents and adults (American Academy of Paediatrics 2001).
A study on the pharmacological treatment of ADHD revealed that 2.5 million children used psycho-stimulant medication in treating the disease, a number which had increased rapidly by about 12 percent every year for the number of children that were affected by the disease (Brown 2009).
Psycho-stimulant medication usually produces immediate improvements to the behavioural impairments that accompany ADHD as well as improving cognitive and social functions of the sufferer, thereby enabling them to participate in social interactions with their peers.
Psycho-stimulant medication also ensures that the cognitive and potential capabilities of the sufferer have undergone major improvements. The efficacy of this type of medication in treating ADHD sufferers has been documented in controlled clinical trials conducted by Gadow et al. in 1992 and Schahar in 1996 where the success rates have been notably high.
However, the psychological processes that underlie the use of psycho-stimulant medication have not been clearly understood by many of these researchers as well as the long term benefits that go with taking psycho-stimulant drugs (Schahar et al. 1996).
The psychological interventions that are used in treating children with ADHD involve the use of self-monitoring techniques where the affected patient observes their behaviour so that they can initiate impulse control measures and techniques to control hyperactive and impulsive behaviour.
Psychological interventions that have focused on the behavioural treatment of ADHD have proven to be effective in the past where individuals suffering from the disorder have been able to experience a behavioural change in their cognitive impairments.
Clinicians and therapists have recommended that psychological interventions should be conducted on preschool children that have been diagnosed with the disorder to ensure so as to sustain their behavioural change process (Fabiano et al. 2009).
The techniques that are used in psychological interventions include psycho-educational inputs where the performance of the child is observed in an educational setting, behavioural therapy where the child is taught techniques that are meant to reinforce and institute desired behaviours while at the same time eliminating the undesirable behaviours, cognitive behavioural therapy which deals with the treatment of dysfunctional behaviours and uncontrollable emotions that are some of the major symptoms of ADHD as well as solving problems that are caused by these behavioural deficiencies (Robertson 2010).
Other psychological interventions that are used to treat the disease include interpersonal psychotherapy which focuses on improving the interpersonal skills of the person suffering from
ADHD and family therapy where family members (parents and siblings) of the affected child are involved in nurturing and development activities that are meant to improve the socialisation process of the child (Kratochvil et al. 2009).
Psychological interventions are beneficial for children, adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD as they provide the right approaches for adjusting to their behavioural impairments while at the same time offering treatments that can be used to improve the cognitive and behavioural abilities of the individual sufferers.
Therapists who recommend the use of psychological interventions in treating ADHD should emphasize on the strengths and weaknesses of the sufferer to ensure that the outcome of the intervention leads to an improvement of the behavioural patterns of the ADHD sufferer.
Therapists should highlight and focus on the positive characteristics of the patients which will be used to necessitate change in cognitive behavioural therapies as well as the other techniques that are used in psychological interventions.
Psychological interventions provide patients with the opportunity of increasing their social skills so that they can be able to function more successfully in social situations (Young and Bramham 2007).
The aspects that are usually considered when developing psychological interventions to treat ADHD include considering the attention span of ADHD sufferers more importantly young children who are more than likely to have a high a lower attention span than teenagers.
Other aspects that need to be considered when developing psychological interventions include the memory capacity of the patient where their ability to retain information is measured as well as their potential capabilities which will be important in ascertaining whether they can be able to withstand psychological behavioural therapies (Ryan and McDougall 2009).
As mentioned earlier the medical intervention of treating ADHD has a lower efficacy rate when compared to that of psychological assessment as it focuses on repressing the symptoms of the disease rather than the behavioural deficiencies that accompany the disease.
The results of taking psycho-stimulant medication vary with many children who suffer from ADHD where children who are under psycho-stimulant medication such as Ritalin and generic methylphenidate might not show any improvements after beginning their treatment plans.
This means that there would be no difference between a child suffering from ADHD who has been placed under psycho-stimulant interventions and a child who is not under any ADHD medication. Doctors usually recommend discontinuation of psycho-stimulant medication if after a year there are no visible improvements in the health of the child (Faraone 2006).
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Treatment options In their review of the effectiveness of educational interventions in treating children and adolescents suffering from ADHD, Chambless and Ollendick noted that interventions which involved parents, therapists and other qualified professionals had a higher efficacy in treating children with the disorder than when the intervention involved teachers only.
The effectiveness of these studies in determining the behavioural expectations and educational demands of young children has yielded different results from those of adolescents and older children. Chambless and Ollendick in their 2001 studies called for more research how the educational interventions could be conducted on preschoolers so as to determine the efficacy of these interventions on preschoolers (Mowder et al. 2009).
A study was conducted by Fabiano et al. (2009) on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in treating children that were suffering from ADHD.
The researchers conducted a meta-analysis that would be used to identify the relevant behavioural treatments needed for behaviour modification processes in children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.
The researchers analysed over 174 behavioural treatment studies that had been documented by various researchers over the years where they noted that there was strong and consistent evidence that supported the effectiveness of the various psychological treatments in dealing the ADHD symptoms (Fabiano et al. 2009).
Another study that was conducted to determine the effectiveness of psychological interventions in treating ADHD was conducted by Cohen et al. 1981 where they noted that psychological interventions that were combined with psycho-stimulant medication were effective in treating children that were suffering from ADHD disorders.
Overall, research and studies conducted on how to treat ADHD in the past decade have shown that the combined use of medication with psychological behavioural treatments has a higher efficacy in treating ADHD in young children, adolescents and adults.
Studies that researched on the short term benefits of using psycho-stimulant medication alone without any behavioural therapy were less effective than when they were combined with psychologically therapy (Wolraich 2002).
The National Institute of Mental Health carried out a multimodal study of 579 children that were suffering from ADHD over a period of fourteen months.
Each of the 579 children received four different types of interventions which included medical interventions, psychological interventions that were focused on behavioural therapy, educational interventions and interventions that combined psychological, medical interventions.
The results of the study revealed that ADHD children who were treated with psycho-stimulant drugs only without the combination of psychological therapy had a lower efficacy when compared to children that received a mixture of behavioural therapy and medication who were able to record an improvement in their ADHD symptoms.
The results of the NIMH study revealed that combined treatments were the most effective in reducing behavioural impairments in children, adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD (MTA Cooperative Group 1999).
Recommendations The best treatment options that can be used in treating children, adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD are the psychological treatment options which according to research studies have been determined to be more effective than medical or educational interventions.
This is mostly attributed to the fact that psychological interventions focus on reducing the behavioral impairments that children or adults with ADHD suffer from by eliminating the symptoms presented by the sufferer of the disease.
When psychological treatments are combined with medication, they have a higher efficacy rate of treating children, adolescents and adults that suffer from the disease. To therefore effectively deal with the disorders that are caused by ADHD, psychological therapy can be combined with medical treatments to achieve a high efficacy.
Conclusion The research has focused on the social, emotional and behavioural difficulties or disorders that affect children, teenagers or adults. The SEBD disorder that has been focused on in this study is the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder otherwise denoted as ADHD.
The research has provided a literature review of the disorder by identifying the various sub categories and symptoms that make up the disorder.
The various educational, medical and psychological interventions that are available to treat the disorder were assessed and the treatment interventions that were incorporated by any of these three methods were discussed to determine which method was effective in treating or improving the symptoms of ADHD.
Based on the discussion, psychological interventions were identified as the most effective and medical interventions were deemed to be effective when they were combined with psychological therapy.
References American Academy of Paediatrics (2001) Clinical practice guideline: treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, Vol. 108, No. 4, pp 1033-1044
Biederman, J., (1998) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a life-span perspective. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Vol. 59, No.7, pp 4-16
Brock, S. E., Jimerson, S.R., and Hansen, R. L., (2009) Identifying, assessing and treating ADHD at school. New York: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg
Brown, T., (2009) ADHD comorbidities: handbook for ADHD complications in children and adults. Arlington, US: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Carsch, M. H., (2006) The handbook of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group
Clough, P., (2005) Handbook of emotional and behavioural difficulties. London, UK: Sage Publications
Erkulwater, J., Mayes, R., and Bagwell, C., (2009) Medicating children: ADHD and pediatric mental health. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., and O’Connor, B.C., (2009) A meta-analysis of behavioural treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol.29, No.2, pp 129-140
Faraone, S. V., (2006). Comparing the efficacy of medications for ADHD using meta-analysis. Medscape General Medicine, Vol.8, No.4
Gadow, K. D.,Nolan, E. E., and Sverd, J., (1992) Methylphenidate in hyperactive boys with comorbid tic disorder. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol.31, pp 462-471
Hendriks, J. H., (2010) Evidence-based assessment, analysis and planning interventions. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol.15, No.2, p. 126
Jensen, P. S. Arnold, L. E., and Swanson, J. M., (2007) 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 46, No.8, pp 989-1002
Kratochvil, C. J., Vaughan, B. S., Barker, A., Corr, L., Wheeler, A., and Madaan, V., (2009) Review of paediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder for the general psychiatrist. Psychiatric Clinical Journal for Northern America, Vol. 31, No.1, pp 39-56
Lougy, R. A., and Rosenthal, D. K., (2002) ADHD: a survival guide for parents and teachers. Duarte, California: Hope Press
Mash, E. J., and Barkley, R. A., (2008) Assessment of childhood disorders. Oxford, UK: The Guilford Press
Mowder, B. A., Rubinson, F., and Yasik, A. E., (2009) Evidence-based practice in infant and early childhood psychology. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons
MTA Cooperative Group (1999) A 14-Month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 56, 1073-1086.
Nair, J., Ehimare, U., Beitman, B. D., Nair, S. S. and Lavin, A., (2006) Clinical review: evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children. Mo Med, Vol. 103, No. 6, pp. 617-621
Olin, J. T., and Keatinge, C., (1998) Rapid psychological assessment. Massachusetts, US: John Wiley and Sons
Pliszka, S., (2007) Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol.46, No.7, pp 894-921
Rader, R., McCauley, L., Callen, E. C., (2009) Current strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. American Family Physician, Vol. 79, No.8, pp.657-665
Ramsay, R. J., (2007) Cognitive behavioural therapy for adult ADHD. New Jersey: Routledge
Reynolds, C. R., and Kamphaus, R.W., (2003) Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children. New York: The Guilford Press
Robertson, D., (2010) The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy: stoicism as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London: Karnac Publishers
Ryan, N., and McDougall (2009) Nursing children and young people with ADHD. New York: Routledge
Safran, S., and Oswald, K., (2003) Positive behaviour supports: can schools reshape disciplinary practices? Exceptional Children, Vol.69, No.3, pp. 361-373
Schahar, R., Tannock, R., and Cunningham, C., (1996) Treatment of childhood hyperactivity in hyperactive disorders. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Smucker, W. D., and Hedayat, M., (2001) Evaluation and treatment of ADHD. American Family Physician, Vol. 64, No.5, pp 817-829
Wolraich, M. L., (2002) Current assessment and treatment practices in ADHD. Kingston, New Jersey: Civic Research Institute
Young, S., and Bramham, J., (2007) ADHD in adults: a psychological guide to practice. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Limited
Innovation in the Service Industry Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction For a long time, services innovation has been ignored as compared to manufactured product innovation (Rubalcada, 2010). The services sector contributes to a large percentage of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of many countries across the world. Innovation is largely embraced in the manufacturing and technology sectors with little or no emphasis on service innovation (Rubalcaba, 2010).
Traditionally, lack of service innovation is based on the perception that services have no tangible value; therefore, it is assumed that services have little or no innovation is necessary for the services.
However, with the continued integration of goods and services in the modern economies, services innovation is essential for businesses in creating customer focussed approach in the realization of superior value of their products. Service innovation is vital in the improvement of customer experience with the business products (Rubalcada, 2010).
Service innovation There are fundamental differences between innovations done by manufacturing firms and innovation done by service by service firms. Technology is extremely beneficial in innovation of products by manufacturing firms. To produce superior products, manufacturing firms need to carry out intensive research about the changes to be made in the products that are essential in generation of higher revenues.
At the same time, the firms should have sound technology in order to create a superior product (De-Jong, Bruins, Dolfsma
Miroslava Chavez-Garcia’s book “Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s-1880s” Essay essay help free
The studies about the womens emancipation, rights, and positions in the history can be found in many academic researches. However, Miroslava Chavez-Garcia’s book “Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s-1880s” is known to be one of the most precise researches that covered the dismissed history of so-called “West women”.
The study analyzes the methods, which were used by Native and Mexican women to rebel the traditional Mexican, American and Spanish cultures in California rejecting the unstable contingencies from Spanish Catholic imposition in 1770s to Euro-American Protestant capitalist in 1880s. The author proceeds from the Spanish invasion to Mexican period in California in the six chapters. She focuses on the family relationships, the position of the women, the women rights.
The main themes in Miroslavas research are the class, the ethnicity and the gender. Therefore, the main research questions are: How have women dealt with the class-, ethnicity- and gender-based hierarchies given by Mexican men authority? and In which manner were the Mexican mens and womens positions weakened by the Spanish conquest?
The basic methodology which was used in the book is chronological approach, as the book covers the period from 1770s to 1880s. We cant but mention the descriptive method, the inter-subject analysis and the data analysis. The author has analyzed much data information, summarized it, and provided the deep analysis.
The primary sources used in the research are numerous court cases on local, country and federal levels. In addition, the author researched territorial and local land records; churches, census and city council records; the variety of newspapers and families collections of papers.
The first chapter is devoted to the sexual violence in the late eighteenth century. The author argues that the understanding of sexual differences was shaped by the Spanish conquest. In addition, she came to the conclusion that women had found many methods to rebel the patriarchs during the Mexican period.
She investigates how women got marriage and the process of family immigration according to the Spanish settlement strategy. Due to this strategy, the marriage, Hepatic women and the family were crucial elements in producing the stable society, which was needed for the Spanish conquest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Examining legitimacy, inheritance, and divorce, the author shows the way in which Mexican womens and mens positions were weakened by the Spanish conquest on the one hand, and the social relationships between the men and Mexican women, on the other hand.
Having researched the documents of the legal courts, Miroslava Chavez-Garcia confirmed that the gender issues played a crucial role in California in the periods of Mexican and Spanish eras. Californian, Mexican, and Native American women used the legal system and property rights in Spanish and Mexican California in order to improve their living conditions and achieve independence.
According to the author, the women were good at conducting negotiations. In order to achieve the upward mobility, they used Negotiation Conquest. One of the parts of negotiating the womens emancipation and power was negotiating the mens power.
Nevertheless, although most of the researched documents were set in 1840s and many parts were lost, the author managed to make the conclusion that women were very good at manipulating. Thus, the women had a right to sue their husbands if they were irresponsible fathers, or illegally owned the lands. The power shift led to the womens independence, which, in its turn, led to the decrease of physical abuse among women.
In Chapter 4, the author highlights the divorce theme. She claims that the experience of women who sought divorce in California was historically significant, as the possibility to divorce only stimulated the will to challenge the husbands and stop intolerant marriages. The divorce was the only possible opportunity for women to recover their rights for the property, which they owned before marriage.
What is more, the majority of women didnt choose the option to divorce, because they didnt want to disturb the principles of morality. However, the minority of those, who asked for divorce, and changed their life for good, made the significant impact on those who couldnt do that. As a result, very soon the number of women who was not afraid of divorce had increased.
Miroslava Chavez-Garcias research showed that the legal opportunity to divorce changed the society a lot. Especially, the focus should be made on the peoples way of thinking. Many social changes impacted Spanish-speaking and Native American women after the American conquest of California.
We will write a custom Essay on Miroslava Chavez-Garcia’s book “Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s-1880s” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chapter 5 describes that the changes in the legal and political systems have undermined womens economic status. In addition, ethic biases have greatly affected Native American women curtailing civil and land rights.
In 1850-60s the law, according to which Native Americans were excluded from the cultural, social and legal worlds inhabited by Mexicans, Euro-Americans and Californians, was enacted. The most important change, though, was the womens ability to be independent and possibility to sustain their families and themselves.
The story in Chapter 6 shows the post-conquest factor with increased illegitimacy for children, whose mothers were Native American or Spanish women. The abandoned women were forced to seek for economic opportunities somewhere far from Los Angeles. In order to survive and support their children, they had to find other men. The story is very interesting as it shows the women who are ready to protect their children under any circumstances, and their readiness for sacrifice.
History of Applied Energy Services (AES) Company Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Applied Energy Services (AES) is an American energy production company with interests in many countries across America, Europe, and Asia. Roger Sant and Dennis Bakke, Jr. founded AES in 1981 using $1million venture capital funding as Applied Services Inc. The issue of ethical dilemma dominates this company despite efforts to realize its vision of social responsibility (Paine, 2000, p.13).
By 1993, its profile had risen so high that Equities Magazine ranked it as the second fastest growing company on NASDAQ with net revenue of $519 million, net income of $71 million and a market capitalisation of $1.3 billion. AES has its values based on integrity, fairness, fun and social responsibility.
Bakke and Sant had a goal of coming up with a company that would produce clean and cheap energy, a company that is honest with production of safe energy, and one that would treat people fairly. To this end, they had to come up with ethical standards that would adhere to their goals with the belief that, if the company catered for the needs and welfare of society, its good deeds (ethics) would lead to profits.
Both Bakke and Sant had worked at the Federal Energy Administration and thus had a vast knowledge when it came to energy matters. Their ethical values were inspired by their Christian faith, and because the values they decided to apply were consistent with values of other faiths like Buddhism and Islam, all of which had the advantage of universal acceptability.
AES’ concern for the well-being of the environment and the communities it serves influenced its decisions: it has come up with corporate responsibility programs that guide it in its activities. It has a business culture that is dynamic, as well as consistent, across its operations globally.
In its pursuit to be a global power producer with plants across the five continents of the world, AES has faced a couple of challenges due to its policy of achieving organisational integrity through social responsibility. It is a firm believer in clean energy as its ethical standard for energy production as well as application of its standards evenly across the globe such as welfare of society. However, AES has found itself in a complicated situation brought about by varying standards found in the countries it invests in.
Whereas the U.S environmental standards are very high in terms of pollution limitation, the standards in the Asian countries and African countries are low, nonexistent, or generally not applied. Therefore, AES had to grapple with the ethical dilemma of sticking to its standards or on making use of the new opportunities to produce energy cheaply but with negative environmental impact.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This would mean a deviation from AES’ ethical standards on one hand, but it would offer it an opportunity to provide the community with much needed social service. AES commitment to social responsibility is driven by its desire to do good to society with the belief that it will lead to profits automatically, which is in accordance with Welch’s words, “If you want to win, when it comes to strategy, ponder less and do more” (2005, p. 166).
This has been achieved through its organisational structure that is highly decentralised having minimum bureaucracy. With such a structure, the managers on the ground have a free hand in coming up with corporate social responsibility measures that are relevant and fitting with the societal needs on the ground. In Guatemala, other than planting trees as a way of controlling carbon emissions, AES committed $1.5 million to build an elementary school for the community that lived around its shady point energy plant.
This was because the community in Guatemala needed a school more than carbon controlling. Though there was still a debate about the validity of global warming theory, AES did not want to take chances with its integrity and reputation with regard to environmental management.
Therefore, it went ahead and started a $7 million carbon dioxide offset program that would enable in the controlling of carbon emissions and arrest global warming. This was done through such programs as agro-forestry, forest preservation as well as sustainable use of natural resources.
When the company came up with an expensive idea of reforestation in Guatemala, investors in AES became worried at this non-profit project: an investment should only target profit; other things follow later. The company with the support of Sant stood steadfast in this mission, not as a public relations move, but as a commitment to its four corporate values of “fairness, integrity, fun, and social responsibility” (Welch, 2005, p.14).
This in the end earned it accolades and international recognition, which spurred its growth globally (Trent, 1998, p.15). AES had to apply strict safety conditions to its workers in India as per the laid down conditions in the U.S. In India, women would go to work in their flowing saris, which were normal for them but not ethical in an industrial setting. They would also be wearing flip-flops instead of closed shoes and industrial boots for work.
This is because, in India, the contractor was not obligated to provide such basic equipment for his/her workers though it was within the laws on safety standards for industrial work place. AES observed that, as part of its responsibility, it would not allow a lapse in its policy in terms of safety standards at the work places.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Applied Energy Services (AES) Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, as its social responsibility to its workers, it would provide all the necessary equipment for work besides ensuring a safe working environment for its employees. This would be in conformity with its values, as well as its pursuit of organisational integrity.
In India, AES faced the problem of cultural relativism in its pursuit to conclude contracts or any form of agreements (Donaldson, 1996, p.49). The Indian culture encourages the exchange of gifts between business partners. It was expected that AES does the same while negotiating contracts with government officials, as well as local leaders.
In the U.S, this would amount to bribery, which in essence is not morally right within the Indian setting. Giving a bribe or a present to get into a form of partnership was not unethical but as a show of goodwill. Welch (2005) says, “Nothing will get you a new job faster than terrific performance in your old one” (p. 271). Therefore, AES had to live with this fact as long as it wanted to do business in India though it would hurt its organisational integrity.
When it comes to environmental standards to be applied in its coal plant project in India, AES should use lower standards at least to take care of people who are far important in relation to the environment. It would make more sense to protect the people on matters that affect their immediate day-to-day lives than protecting an environmental issue that is still subject to debate. The standard PC’s are cheap pennywise because they require less technology and expertise to implement and maintain over a long period.
Therefore, their use will enable AES to make its profits and at the same time spare enough funds to invest in projects that will uplift the community over a long period. Such projects when implemented are sustainable in such a way that only the foundation is crucial, as the community will proceed to propel itself onwards without much more input from AES (Nash, 1981, p.85).
The investment in India was one of AES long-term projects that would be so lucrative in the end. India was a new market that was just opening to the world and with numerous opportunities for investment, especially in the energy sector. The Ib Valley Thermal station was to be based in the Eastern Part of India In the state of Orissa. The energy available then in the state of Orissa was 727Mw against a consumption need of 1272Mw, which would be projected to about 6000Mw by the year 2000.
The state had a coal deposit of 26% of all the coal found in India, with the Lakhanpur mines set aside for the project with 726million tonnes of coal deposit. The minefield was merely 12 kilometres away from where the plant was to be erected. The viability of the project was not in question because all factors favoured the setting up of the project. The state of Orissa had a population of about 31.5 million people with a literacy level of just 48%, which was also an average for the whole country.
At the same time, 45% of the people of Orissa could not afford the minimum nutritional needs for themselves and their families due to income constrains. The infant mortality rate was high at 80 children per 1000 born, and the life expectancy at 58 years old.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Applied Energy Services (AES) Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was a big problem in terms of sanitation, pollution and other social needs, which are core human values. In his trip to India to sign the MOU, Bakke noted the disparities between the USA and India in such terms that he realised that they were spending a lot of money on environment protection.
This was a narrow sense of view in that people in other places were dying because of lack of basic human needs such as clean water, basic nutrition, and sanitation. Therefore, Bakke and Sant decided to decentralise decision making on how the company would meet its social responsibility by empowering the management team on the ground to come up with efforts that are relevant to the situations on the ground. These should be consistent as possible with the company’s values of social responsibility (Dubink, 2004, p.35).
I would answer yes to Roger Niall’s question of whether there exist cases when terminating a project for the sake of social responsibility is the only option. When a project is not up to standards with the requirements of social responsibility, it should be cancelled because the ramifications of such a project taking off and then failing in the end due to social responsibility issues can be very harsh to the existence of the company.
A good example is the disaster that happened at the Union Carbide in Bhopal, India. The disaster happened due to negligence on the part of management and the workers at the factory who disregarded warnings of the impending disaster and its effects to the community around. There were no safety measures in place, and to make it worse, the plant was located in a highly populated area.
This was a pure disregard for the well-being of the population around it in case of a disaster happening to call for a nuclear plant situation as it was witnessed in Japan. In the end, it led to over 8000 direct deaths, as well as an environmental disaster that has its ramifications up to date. Though it happened back in 1984, the company itself, as well as its executives, have had to face legal challenges, which have led to convictions and huge penalties for the company, its former board members, and its executives.
Therefore, social responsibility is simply meant to secure the interests of the people and largely the image of the company. Very few people would want to associate with a company that is on the negative side of the expected social responsibility. Therefore, many companies build their brand names in a society by going a long way to conform to the expectations of society.
On the other hand, when a company’s name is soiled in one way or the other, the company may be forced to rebrand to resell itself as a very new entity for its own survival. AES’ policy of social responsibility is a very strong foundation for it to drive its goals for it will always endear it to the market it wishes to do business in, as the people constitute the market and thus worth taking care.
Reference List Donaldson, T. (1996). World View. Harvard Business Review, 1(1), 48-62.
Dubink, W. (2004). Implications of corporate social responsibility. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(1), pp. 23-46.
Nash, L. (1981). Ethics without the Sermon. Harvard Business Review, 1(1), 78-90.
Paine, L. (2000). AES Global Values. Harvard Business School, 1(1), 1-21.
Trent, M. (1998). Environment sustainability. Journal of forestry research, 7(1), 12-15.
Welch, J. (2005). Winning. London: Routledge.
Why the Breton Woods System Failed Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
History of the Bretton Woods System
Agreements and failure of the Bretton Woods conference
Reasons for the failure of the Bretton Woods system
Introduction Economic system refers to organizational arrangement as well as processes through which any given society makes decisions concerning production and consumption. One common theme about these objectives is that they are characterized by inconsistencies and trade-offs.
Therefore, for one objective to be attained completely there will be at least a partial sacrifice of another. In addition, the processes followed by each society in choosing objectives also differ.
As the new world economy closely integrates, societies have found their choices concerning modification of the economic system constrained, more so when dealing in international trade (Conklin, p. 1).
Furthermore, the societies have realized that the decisions of one society have increasingly more effects on the economies of other societies. This has called for agreement between nations on various issues affecting economies such as currency valuation, credit volume and trade balances (Eckstein, p. 3-5).
History of the Bretton Woods System Bretton Woods system was one of such agreements that were developed after deliberations between nations that were at that time allied to the US. This system describes the international monetary regime that existed between 1944 and the early 1970s.
It was named after the site where the conference took place, Bretton woods in New Hampshire and was attended by 730 delegates representing 44 nations of which Argentina was the only neutral nation. The original intention of the conference was to iron out the economic conflicts bearing in mind the problems resulted from economic disparities (Wiggins, para. 1)
The nations represented acknowledged that the economic problems to some extent contributed to the world war and to avoid future wars economic reform was necessary.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Members present were all focused on avoiding what they believed were past errors. It is also important to note that the US was at that time, the world’s most powerful nation both military-wise and economically.
The war did not take place within America, and during the war it concentrated on building its industrial strength by selling weapons to allied nations. Hence, by he end of the war its manufacturing annual rate that was twice that of 1935-1939 (Wiggin, para.9)
Agreements and failure of the Bretton Woods conference There were four points that stood out: first, there was a general agreement among negotiators that the interwar period had brought into light the negative effects of flexible exchange rates that were not restrained. The members believed that trade and investment had been discouraged by the 1930s floating rates.
They also believed that destabilizing speculations as well as competitive depreciations were also enhanced. They sought a compromise between the two extreme positions; those who were for freely floating rates and those who were for fixed rates that were irrevocable.
As a result, they settled on a pegged rate currency system or per value system. Members had an obligation to state a par value for their national currency and to limit the fluctuations of exchange rate within maximum margins of plus or minus one (Cohen, para. 4).
The right to change per value system was to be retained when they wanted to correct a disequilibrium situation. However, the right was to be exercised according to the agreed procedures.
Secondly, the members reached an agreement that in the event that rates were not flowing freely; an assurance to confirm that the supply of monetary reserves was enough would be necessary. However, negotiators saw it unnecessary to alter the gold exchange system that had been used previously in the interwar periods.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Why the Breton Woods System Failed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The US was not willing to alter the dollar or even gold value roles as it had the largest amount of both. Although they agreed on the need to have a supplementary liquidity source for countries with deficits the point of contention was whether to have a world central bank that would willingly create reserves when necessary or to have a mechanism where borrowing is more limited (Cohen, para. 5).
They eventually settled on a system whereby nations were to pay a subscription fee which was to be equal to the amount of quota allocated to each of them. As a result, each member was allowed to borrow from the IMF, when experiencing shortage in currency reserves.
Thirdly, the negotiators agreed that it was important that they prevent the occurrence of economic warfare that was witnessed in the 1930s. There was need to come up with a legal framework, that would make states to do away with exchange controls that limited the convertibility of currencies and adopt a free multilateral payment system (Cohen, para. 6-7)
As a result governments were prohibited from engaging in currency practices that were discriminatory. However, this had two exceptions: first, obligations on convertibility were only dealing with international trade, regulating sales and purchases in order to trade in services and goods was not allowed.
Member states could be permitted to postpone the obligations of convertibility in the transition period, if they chose to. The IMF was mandated to oversee the legal code that governed the convertibility of currency (Cohen, para. 8)
Lastly, governments agreed that an institution for international cooperation on monetary issues was necessary. Negotiators believed that the lack of a set up procedure or even a machinery through which governments would inter-consult, aggravated currency problems during the inter-war period.
The negotiators were confident that such an institution in the post war period would offer a forum for consultation. This was a monumental step as such an institution had not been formed on a permanent basis. As far as future decision making is concerned the US was guaranteed of a veto that was effective because it held a third of the all quotas of the IMF (Best, 83-86)
At the end of the conference, the IMF had been given the responsibility of loaning to the deficit countries. This was done with the assumption that the Fund’s liquidity pool would be able to cope with the problems of financing that emerged. However, after being in place for two years the IMF experienced an activity short burst.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why the Breton Woods System Failed by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result its lending rate was pressured downwards to very low levels. The role of the world’s monetary management was assumed by one actor, the US, who was not only willing but also able. The US exercised its monetary leadership in three ways: First, ensuring that there was a relatively open market that enabled importation of foreign goods.
Secondly, initiation of loans that were both long-term and short-term which were generously given out. Thirdly, a lending policy that was liberal, which was eventually put up to provide funds in the shot-term in the event of crisis (Spero
Medicare and its Mission Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents The history of Medicare
Legislative attempts to control Medicare costs
Laws governing Medicare fraud and abuse
The history of Medicare Since 1965, the United States’ government has been controlling Medicare (a social health insurance program). Medicare was established to ensure that older people are entitled to viable health insurance provisions. Additionally, people with renal diseases and acute disabilities also benefit from the program.
Before the invention of Medicare, aged individuals and other vulnerable groups hardly accessed viable health insurance covers. Additionally, they could barely afford it (Aaron, Lambrew
Personality and Leadership Traits Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
The success of organizations in different economic sectors is extensively determined by the leadership style adopted. Findings from studies conducted to determine the relationship between leadership and personality reveal that there is a strong connection between an individual’s leadership effectiveness and his or her personality (Ewen, 2003, p. 300).
Individuals’ personalities determine their behavior. An individual’s personality is a strong predictor of his or her performance across different occupational levels and jobs. Different frameworks have been developed in an effort to establish the relationship between leadership style and personality.
One of the dimensions used is the Big Five traits, which include agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, introversion-extraversion, and conscientiousness (Ewen, 2003, p.302). The agreeableness trait refers to the degree to which an individual is trusting and helpful as opposed to being uncooperative. On the other hand, neuroticism entails an individual’s emotional stability while introversion-extroversion deals with an individual’s socializing characteristics.
The openness trait refers to an individual’s ability to welcome new ideas and opinions. Finally, conscientiousness evaluates an individual’s personality based on his or her reliability and hard work (Ewen, 2003, p. 302). To understand how an individual’s personality is related to his or her leadership traits, the paper uses the observations made on a 31-year-old black female supervisor with an experience of 6 months. The paper aims at evaluating how the results of the Big Five Traits compare or contrast with the observations made.
From the observation made, the supervisor portrays a number of personality traits that have made her successful. For example, in the course of executing her duties, she illustrates a high degree of agreeableness. Agreeableness entails the degree to which an individual is helpful, cooperative, understanding, trusting, and able to relate with others effectively (Ewen, 2003, p. 302).
This has arisen from the fact that most employees have developed trust in her decision-making capability as evidenced by their agreement to her supervisory judgment. Her agreeableness has enabled her to offer help to subordinate staff. Additionally, the supervisor’s enthusiasm has enabled her to connect with the employees thus establishing an effective learning opportunity for employees (Biech, 2007, p.52).
As one of the dimensions of the Big Five traits, the conscientiousness trait asserts that a leader should be reliable and hardworking (Ewen, 2003, p. 302). Analysis of the supervisor’s personality reveals that she is very conscientious.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering that the supervisor works for a service company that specializes in providing care to individuals with mental challenges, the supervisor is very concerned about the effectiveness of the staff in the delivery of their services during their training.
This is evidenced by the fact that she conducts comprehensive analysis of each employee’s strengths and needs. This has significantly contributed towards ensuring effective crisis stabilization services for staff.
An understanding of the needs of employees is very important in the success of an organization (Biech, 2007, p. 53). This arises from the fact that it contributes towards the development of an environment conducive for working. One of the factors making the supervisor conscientious is that she has developed effective communication skills. By nurturing effective communication within a firm, organizational leaders are able to develop a high degree of cohesiveness (Ewen, 2003, p. 302).
As a supervisor of a service based institution, she appreciates the fact that development of an effective human capital is one of the major sources of competitive advantage for firms. Additionally, her conscientiousness has enabled her avoid possible misunderstanding that may occur in the course of executing her duties.
This has had significant effects in her decision-making with regard to the best course of action in line with findings of the analysis conducted. The resultant effect is that she has been very successful in influencing the employees positively. Additionally, her conscientiousness has also enabled her to be effective in offering directional influence to employees. Provision of directional influence to employees is very vital in firms’ effort to achieve their goals.
As a result, she has nurtured a working environment that all the employees like. The supervisor’s conscientiousness, as one of the leadership traits, is also evidenced by the fact that she is hardworking. For example, she is ready to sacrifice her time and work overtime when requested by her seniors. Therefore, it is possible for the supervisor to inspire the employees to develop such a behavior in order to be successful (Griffin, 2007, p. 217).
To be an effective leader, one should associate and socialize with others effectively. Through socialization, a leader will understand the employees and issues affecting them. Additionally, socialization contributes towards the development of a strong bond between the leader and the followers.
We will write a custom Assessment on Personality and Leadership Traits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In executing her duty, the supervisor is very committed towards understanding the staff’s strengths and needs. This has been attained by nurturing an effective communication environment with the employees. This makes it evident that the supervisor is not an introvert but rather an extrovert.
In their operation, organizations cannot rule out the occurrence of challenges considering that they constitute different employees of different backgrounds. An example of such challenges entails the occurrence of conflicts amongst the employees. For example, conflict between employees may arise because of cultural and ideological differences.
To ensure that such employees’ conflicts do not affect the operation of the organization, it is paramount for the leadership to be effective with regard to problem solving. This means that team leaders should act as mediators to situations facing them.
One of the ways through which leaders can be effective in problem solving is by fostering an atmosphere that results to the development of openness between the management staff and their subordinates (Biech, 2007, p. 53). One of the factors that have contributed towards the supervisor’s effectiveness with regard to problem solving arises from the fact that she is a team player.
Because of her openness, the supervisor is willing to provide her staff with an opportunity to air their opinions and ideas with regard to certain issues facing them. This has played a critical role with regard to the organization being successful in attaining the established goals. In line with this, her ability to nurture and maintain an effective relationship with the employees enables her to recognize the problems they are experiencing.
Additionally, her openness to new experience has significantly improved her creativity with regard to problem solving. This is evidenced by the fact that she can incorporate effective problem solving method thus maintaining cohesiveness amongst the employees. Considering the dynamic nature of the business environment, it is paramount for organizational leaders to be non-conformist and creative (Biech, 2007, p. 54).
On the other hand, neuroticism refers to the degree to which an individual is either emotionally stable or unstable (Ewen, 2003, p. 302). In their operation, leaders have an obligation to provide direction to their subordinate’s staff. As a result, they are supposed to act calmly despite the fact that some situations may be emotionally destabilizing. From the observations made, the supervisor is quick in recognizing and adapting to staff problems.
This has enabled the employee to dispel possible anxiety that might arise. Her ability to interpret situations facing employees enables her to be calm. According to Griffin (2007, p. 265), possessing less negative emotionality is very important amongst organizational leaders. This arises from the fact that they can cope with job pressure, tensions, and stress.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Personality and Leadership Traits by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on the detailed expositions made in the paper, it suffices to declare the Big Five Traits test a working criterion of telling where a person lies in terms of his or her characteristics. Therefore, an analysis of the observations made reveals that the supervisor has a relatively higher rating based on the Big Five traits.
This is evidenced by the fact that the supervisor depicts a high score with regard to being agreeable, an extrovert, open to new experience, and conscientiousness. Because of these traits, the supervisor has been able to develop a high degree of cohesiveness, in addition to creating an effective working environment.
Additionally, these traits have enabled the supervisor to be effective in inspiring the staff towards ensuring the attainment of optimal performance in the course of executing their duties. With regard to neuroticism, the supervisor portrays a relatively low score with a degree of emotionality. In summary, the supervisor’s success with regard to her leadership ability is strongly related to her personality traits.
Reference List Biech, E. (2007). Thriving through change: A leader’s practical guide to change Mastery. Alexandria: ASTD Press.
Ewen, R. ( 2003). An introduction to theories of personality. New York: Routledge.
Griffin, R. (2007). Fundamentals of management. New York: Cengage.
Gender Differences in Communication Report scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender communication differences
Importance of gender communication
Introduction Communication is arguably the corner stone on which any successful relationship is built. The importance of effective communication is universally acknowledged. As such, a lot of research has been taken on the subject and numerous books written so as to help people improve their skills so as to make them more effective in their communication efforts.
There exist different communication styles and the one that an individual adopts may be as a result of physiological, biological, educational and cultural factors. Gender has also been noted as a contributing factor to effective communication.
In this report, the supposition that gender differences in communication exist shall be analyzed. Using current and relevant literature, a detailed report on the topic shall be provided. This shall be in a bid to accentuate on the communication differences that are inherent in men and women.
Communication involves the sending and receiving of messages and it forms an integral part of any culture. However, research indicates that men and women communicate differently. Despite the fact that men and women are created in God’s image, they differ in functionality and design.
Evidence of this is based on the fact that they often interpret the same message differently. This is arguably the most eccentric aspect of communication. As mentioned earlier, there are some behavioral, biological, educational and environmental characteristics that influence an individual’s communication style.
These characteristics affect the type of message that needs to be developed, how it will be developed and the most relevant type of communications channels that will be used to each category of an audience.
Gender communication differences As mentioned earlier, men and women have different communication styles. This is mainly as a result of nurturing and social constructs that they experience during child hood. In regard to nurturing, adults often talk to boys in a raised tonal voice. They are communicated to in a direct and relatively harsh tone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Girls on the other hand are often cooed and talked to gently and expressively. As such, men communicate in a direct, dominating and aggressive manner while women communicate in an expressive and calm fashion. In matters relating to social constructs, boys often play in groups and in most cases, one of them is always the leader of the group.
The leader always controls the conversations. This is what makes men hieratical, leaders and dominators. In addition, this aspect gives them more freedom in communication that their women counterparts.
On the other hand, girls also form play groups. However, girls form such groups to support and express each other’s point of view. As a result, women are expressive, supportive and more emotional when it comes to communication.
On the same note, gender communication seeks to establish adaptability between the sexes rather than change their communication styles. Men and women respond differently to issues such as conflicts and stress. In regard to this, women often disclose their emotions and challenges more easily than men.
On the other hand, women always try to create an interdependent relationship with men. This is achieved by their constant desire to establish open communication skills with men. Since both approaches often lead to misunderstandings and conflict, both sexes have to adapt to each other’s communication styles in order to avoid such conflicts.
In a biological perspective, women have the ability to utilize both hemispheres (collosum) of their brains. As such, they can easily handle emotions and logic at the same time. This would explain why women are able to make sense even when they are emotional.
On the other hand, men can only use one hemisphere at a time. This means that they cannot be emotional and logical at the same time. This would explain why men cannot express themselves when it comes to emotional relationships, while women manage the task just fine.
We will write a custom Report on Gender Differences in Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Educationally, men have over the years dominated the science fields while women take hold of the art subjects. Documented literature reveals that men in most cases perform better than women in mathematics, chemistry and physics. Women on the other hand do better than men in languages, literary works and social sciences.
As a result, men often take a practical approach towards issues and life while women take an expressive approach to the same. This would to some extent explain why women are better communicators than men.
In addition, it justifies why men use more gestures, assumes that there is a different solution to a problem and finds it hard to admit when they are wrong. Women on the other hand are able to express themselves eloquently and communicate towards conflict resolution and avoidance.
Importance of gender communication Generally, gender communication is pivotal to the peaceful and harmonious coexistence among individuals. Not only does this type of communication promote equality among the sexes, it also presents them with an opportunity to learn, adapt and respect each other’s differences in mannerisms, thought processes and preferences.
Conclusion From this report, it is evident that the gender communication differences are influenced by stereotypic tendencies exhibited by human beings. Women are assumed to be sensitive and talkative while men are often viewed as callous beings to which violence is the solution to every problem. However these views may or may not be true.
However, the fact still remains that there are significant differences in how men and women communicate. While understanding their explanations, the differences in the communication styles of women and men should be considered and a middle ground developed, where both sexes can use these differences to develop better relationships and understanding.
Los Pichiciegos by Enrique Fogwill Essay college essay help online
Los pichiciegos or Malvinas requiem: Visions of an underground war in the English translation is the 1983 novel by an outstanding Argentinean sociologist Rodolfo Enrique Fogwill depicting the events of the Falklands war through collecting the testimonies of the twenty-four Argentinean deserters.
Criticizing the war and the Latin American dictatorship in general, Fogwill makes near prophetic predictions in his work by using the animal metaphors and imagery for not only affecting the readers’ perception of the text, but also improving the inner working of the novel Los pichiciegos.
The historical and political background The plot of the novel depicts the events of the Falklands War through the eyes of 24 Argentine deserters. The Falklands War, as the result of the dispute concerning the sovereignty of Falkland Islands also known as Amlninas and South Georgia between Argentina and the United Kingdom lasted for 74 days, but received a broad resonance in literature and culture of Argentina.
The plot of the novel should be viewed in the historical and political context of the 1980s. On the one hand, historians recognize the Falkland war as a fiasco for Argentina which threatened its military rule and predetermined the transition to democracy in the country.
On the other hand, the Argentina government attempted to hide the real consequences and events of the conflict providing public with falsified reports. The truth of the conflict was cleared out only after the first soldiers returned from the battlefront.
In that regard, Fogwill’s approach to the presentation of the plot of the novel in the form of the collection of the testimonials of the real participants of the events is meaningful. The author claimed for unveiling the hidden truth in his work by providing the first-hand evidence to his readers.
Apart from expressing the views contradicting the generally accepted doctrine, Fogwill’s choice of the deserters’ perspective for narrating his story emphasizes the author’s anti-war views, which were put into the basis of the novel.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most citizens perceived the situation through the lens of political lies and did not know the truth before the first wounded soldiers returned to the mainland. It explains the enormous popularity of Fogwill’s novel, which was written in the middle of the war.
Certainly, due to its harsh criticism and the unveiled truth, the work could not be published during the period of military dictatorship. However, its manuscript circulated in Brazil soon after the novel was completed.1 However, it was not until the year 1984 that the text was officially published.
The allegorical meaning of the title The discussion of the role of metaphors and imagery in the novel should start from the analysis of its titles conveying the author’s intention to compare his characters and narrators to animals regarding their living conditions and behaviors.
Los pichiciegos, the Spanish title for the novel under consideration bears the name of the local type of moles, which are recognized as an endangered species. Thus, this title can be regarded as metaphoric and rather meaningful because it symbolizes several features of the depicted characters.
Traditionally, moles are animals living underground and going onto the surface only at night. Another feature is mole’s diet because it is well-known that an average mole can eat up to 70 % of its weight a day.
It is also significant for the interpretation of the symbolic meaning of the Spanish title to note that this species is recognized as an endangered one.
Moreover, the choice of the word from the local dialect for entitling the work may represent the author’s intention to reproduce the local coloring of Argentina as the setting of the depicted events of the Falklands War.
We will write a custom Essay on Los Pichiciegos by Enrique Fogwill specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Actually, the word pichis used for treating the described deserters was significant not only for creating important symbols and paralleles between the human and animal worlds, but also emphasizing the importance of taking into account the cultural peculiarities and the specific historical contexts for preventing the possible misinterpretation in foreign readers.
Malvinas requiem: Visions of an underground war, the English translation for the title of the book clearly demonstrates that Caistor as the translator did not manage to find the suitable equivalent to the word pichiciegos in the English language which would contain the variety of metaphorical meanings conveyed in the Spanish version of the title.
Regardless of the fact that the word by word translation for the title of the novel was regarded as inappropriate by the translator, the large amount of the animal metaphors and imagery have been preserved in the English text.
The deserters from the underground world are called dillos, whereas this word also has a certain dialectical coloring and initially is misunderstood by some of the characters.
However, this approach allows not only emphasizing the peculiar local context, but also discussing the way of life and habits of these animals for the readers could unintentionally draw the parallels with the life of the main characters. “Dillo goes for it – burrows, suffers and survives.
The same as with people”.2 Actually, the idea of comparing the inhabitants of the underground world to animals was clearly communicated by the author.
The Spanish title of the novel representing the author’s focus on the animal metaphors along with the translator’s inability or unwillingness as dictated by the language sense to find the word-by-word equivalent for the title demonstrate the importance of the local coloring of the plot which should be considered in the context of the socio-cultural and political situation in Argentina of 1980s.
The numerous repetitions of the word dillos in the English text emphasize the importance of the animal metaphors which was recognized by the translator.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Los Pichiciegos by Enrique Fogwill by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main themes of the novel Regardless of the fact that the plot of the novel under consideration is rather simple and straightforward, it develops several broad themes, including the criticism of the war and dictatorship in Argentina and living conditions which can make people live like animals.
The development of the events focuses on the trading colony created in underground by a group of Argentinean deserters during the Malvinas war. Recognizing their survival as the only life value, they trade with the British soldiers and even agree to spy against Argentina.
It also should be noted that the created underground economy can be regarded as an application of a free market model, which was unthinkable for Argentina of 1980s when the work was completed. However, it was not the only Fogwill’s successful forecast expressed in the novel which undoubtedly anticipated its time.
The author’s visions on the truth about the war and the future of post-dictatorial Argentina can be recognized as nearly-prophetic and even increase the value of the text under consideration.3 Closer examination allows discovering that Forgwill’s text foreshadows the future events in Argebtina of late 1980s.4
While the depicted war was only a momentous event for the Argentinean history, it can be regarded as a turning point for the decay of the military dictatorship in the country and the following transition to democracy and free-market relations.
In that regard, Fogwill’s novel is not only a valuable approximation of the events on Malvinas Islands at the time when there was no reliable evidence concerning the real state of affairs on the front but also predicts the establishment of the free market relations following the Latin American dictatorship.
Thus, not understating the fact that the depiction of the underground economics of pichis and the discussion of the military events have a strong historical basis and represent the real-life events, it should be noted that the text of the novel requires allegorical interpretation.
Taking into account the animal imagery and decoding all the animal metaphors which can be found in the text of the novel is essential for understanding not only the depicted events, but also interpreting the underlying processes in the community which would allow rating the text of Fogwill’s work at its true value.
The peculiarities of the narration patterns The chosen genre of the collection of testimonials which is recognized as Fogwill’s valuable contribution to aesthetics of Argentinean literature was effective for not only enhancing the persuasiveness of the author’s assumptions, but also depicting the events, including the formation of the underground economics and the gradual moral degradation of deserters in their dynamics.
Combining the elements of the testimonials of different narrators, Fogwill not only allows the readers to get involved into the process of investigation, but also demonstrates the changes in his narrators’ perception of the military events and their impact upon the lives of the community members.
Though the novel starts from the third-person narration in the past, this pattern is later changed. The author’s voice is mostly hidden in the novel and the text can rather be regarded as the collective memoirs of the group of deserters. Moreover, it is not until the end of the novel, that it is cleared out that there is only one deserter who is left alive.
If their testimonials were recorded and included into the novels, it implies that they were alive at the beginning of the investigation.
This discovery at the end of the novel exaggerates the dynamics of the plot, whereas the composition of the novel resembles the report on the ongoing events which produces the effect of the continuous discovery shared by the author and his readers. It may seem that at the beginning of the novel, the author himself did not know what will happen at the end.
Focusing on the fact that there is only one of the narrators left alive by the end of the novel, it is possible to draw the parallels between the development of the depicted events and the author’s choice of the original title for his work as well as the repetition of the word pitchis in the novel.
Like the local endangered species of moles, deserters do everything possible to survive, but due to the hostile environment and the historical conditions, their attempts were not crowned with success.
The impact of the animal imagery upon the readers’ perception Comparing the lives of dillos to their own existence, the narrators recognize their own moral decay with the food and fuel as the only remaining values in their lives.
The parallels and unavoidable associations between the human existence in the underground world and the life of moles not only express the author’s criticism of war as the major precondition for their enormous degradation, but also affects the readers’ perception of the text of the novel.
It is significant that the deserters themselves compare their underground world to the burrows of moles. They are aware of their degradation but can do nothing about it because it is preconditioned by the internal factors of military time.
It emphasizes the impression that the wartime left only a few human features in these characters who consider the bodies of the dead soldiers as only the opportunities to get certain precious things.
The goal of survival is above all for them, whereas the ideas of nationalism and certain remnants of patriotism can be regarded as only remote memories from the past which do not prevent them from trading with the British soldiers and even spying against their native country.
Money is of no value in their underground economics, and food is rated much higher. For this reason, the underground free market created by Fogwill’s characters is defined by some literary critics as savage capitalism.5
This unconventional word combination reveals not only the initial stage of the development of the underground economics, but also the absence of moral rules and the external regulations which could be applied to it but for the conditions of the military time.
Similar to the endangered species of pichis, the deserters can are induced to hide from their compatriots because they can be killed. They know it for sure that their own compatriots can shoot them as deserters though the only their fault was their recognition of the absurdity and futility of the war.
Through the analysis of the text of the novel, it can be discovered that the author does not blame the characters for their desertion, but rather explains the underlying causes of their choices and foreshadows the government which was really responsible for the existing situation.
The role of animal metaphors in expressing the anti-war criticism Whereas the whole novel under consideration is recognized as the depiction of the misery and absurdity of war6, the animal metaphors played an essential role in expressing the author’s criticism of not only particular military events, but also the war tactics and the Argentinean military order in general.
Comparing the existence of the twenty-four deserters to the life of pitchis, Fogwill explains the major rules of military time. The testimonies of the actual participants demonstrate that there are no other values but for the strongest desire to survive, which can drive the individual’s behavior during the military rime.
Though the narrators are not blamed for it, they lack any moral values which are traditionally recognized as the characteristics of the human kind. However, lacking morale, the narrators are not deprived of the common sense and their reasoning concerning the futility and absurdity of the war are rather reasonable.
On the other hand, the animal metaphors were an approach which allowed Fogwill to demonstrate the variety of the war-driven processes in the community in their integrity.
The near beast living conditions and the continuous struggle for survival harden people, whereas any ethical considerations and moral values are naturally put aside when the human life and survival are at stake.
However, when applied to the human community, the rules of the animal life paradoxically result in the development of the free market relations. Moreover, it is possible that comparison of the political situation to the laws of the nature world made Fogwill’s vision near-prophetical.
The use of the animal metaphors had a significant impact upon not only the effect produced by the novel, but also on the inner working of the text itself, whereas aligning the plot lines with the particular laws of the wild world allowed the Argentinean sociologist to make feasible forecasts concerning the future of the country.
Conclusion In general, it can be concluded that the use of the animal metaphors and imagery had a significant impact upon not only the readers’ impression from the depicted events but also on the inner working of the text itself.
The use of the name of the endangered species of moles in the original title of the novel Los pichiciegos demonstrates the author’s recognition of the importance of the technique of animal metaphors for expressing his criticism of the moral decay of the deserters through comparing their underground existence and struggle for survival to the life of moles in their burrows.
Thus, the parallels between the life of the Argentinean community and the animal world not only affected the readers’ perception of the text, but also possibly allowed Fogwill to make near prophetic forecasts concerning the future of Argentina.
Reference List Castro-Klaren, S., A companion to Latin American literature and culture, Blackwell Publishing, malden, 2008.
Fogwill, R. S., Malvinas requiem: Visions of an underground war, trans. N. Caistor, Serpent’s Tail, London, 2007.
Freedman, L., The offensive art: Political satire and its censorship around the world from Beerbohm to Borat, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, 2009.
Zimmer, Z., “The passage of savage capitalism: Time, non-place and subjectivity in Fogwill’s narration”. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 2: 143- 158.
Footnotes 1 Zimmer, Z., “The passage of savage capitalism: Time, non-place and subjectivity in Fogwill’s narration”. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, vol. 15, no. 2, 145.
2 Fogwill, R. S., Malvinas requiem: Visions of an underground war, trans. N. Caistor, Serpent’s Tail, London, 2007.
3 Zimmer, Z., “The passage of savage capitalism”, 147.
4 Castro-Klaren, S., A companion to Latin American literature and culture, Blackwell Publishing, malden, 2008, 622.
5 Zimmer, Z., “The passage of savage capitalism”, 150.
6 Freedman, L., The offensive art: Political satire and its censorship around the world from Beerbohm to Borat, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, 2009, 243.
Declining Direct Public Support for Higher Education in USA Essay (Article) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Declining Public Funding
Pennsylvania as an Example
Balancing Public Expectation
Supporting Private Funding to Mitigate Reduced Public Funding
Introduction Higher education in the US has transformed from a post Second World War era characterized by high state funding and minimal tuition charges in public institutions (Phillips
The role of risk perception Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction The following essay is on the role of risk perception in the context of risk regulations and management. The discussion examines the contribution of risk regulatory bodies in control and management of risks. It also examines the role of risk management in creating awareness about potential risks. Occupational health and safety is important due to the emerging risks in the workplace.
The work environment has changed due to the reduced compensation regimes on injuries especially during the global economic recession. In addition, different work arrangements adopted by organisations have led to emergence of new hazards with the most common being psychological hazards due to fatigue, overwork and low compensation. The government, insurance agencies as well as regulatory bodies are also concerned with increased cases of industrial explosions, injuries and deaths in the workplace (Reason 2008).
Risk perception To understand the risk perception, it is important to describe risk awareness. This is the extent to which individuals acknowledge their awareness of risks around them by examining how well they respond to warnings and information that alerts them about possible risk situations (Waring 1996).
Risk management refers to the measures adopted to prevent occurrence of accidents in environments or situations that may be unsafe to the development of the possible risk situations (Kriebel
A lesson framework and plan Essay (Book Review) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
A lesson framework/plan is a scheme of work that houses subthemes, which a teacher or an instructor uses to teach students. It is a structure or a guideline for the teacher in the process of teaching. The lesson plan must have three important aspects: time allotment, lesson phases, and details.
The framework should provide the amount of time that will be spent in every phase of a class lesson. For instance, introduction should take a certain amount of time similar to other phases.
This will enable the teacher manage the time provided well. Lesson phases are the various phases that the teacher will adopt in ensuring that the learning process is successful. These lesson phases include introduction, foundation, brain activation, body of new information, clarification, practice and review, independent practice, and closure (Cunningham, 2010, Para. 4).
A space is also provided to write various details that are pertinent to the aims and objectives of the lesson. Details may include page numbers of the assignments, predetermined discussion questions, and any other important information on concepts/points that the teacher would refer to in the lesson.
A framework of one lesson may not necessarily look the same like the other lessons. This is because every lesson framework must be tailored to meet the objectives and goals of every lesson. Therefore, the content of this framework may not be similar to those of a subject such as science, or mathematics.
The teacher has the responsibility of drafting a lesson framework that is tailored to the needs of the students. For instance, a teacher teaching science in a grade one and two cannot include details of reference books for grade one students to go, research, and make notes by themselves as he/she shall do to grade seven or eight. Therefore, the content must change or be tailored to a specific category of lesson.
Even though students are intellectuals, they are also emotional and social beings. All these affect their process of learning and general performance. Therefore, in planning well, it is salient that teachers take time to understand their students. Teachers need to consider the background of their students in terms of their prior knowledge, intellectual development, cultural background, generational experiences, and expectations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also vital for teachers to carry out an assessment of these students when they are designing lessons. The key reason why teachers to consider this background is to ensure that they tailor their teaching towards the needs of the students to enable them realize their set goals and objectives. Students in learning centers have different intellectual capacities- there exist slow and faster learners.
Therefore, by considering this scenario, a teacher will be able to attend to both of these groups adequately without affecting the others. For instance, a teacher may design his/her lesson plan in the way that he/she assigns more problems that are complex to the brilliant students besides assigning average problems to those who are weak.
This will enable both categories to move on and learn positively with one another. Understanding the background information about a student such as intellectual development will also help a teacher to design the lesson plan putting in mind the level of rationality of a student. For instance, if a teacher understands the cognitive ability of the students in a mathematics class, the teacher will address the issues of topics that students may not perform better.
Hence, he/she will emphasize on such areas making the students understand them, and in the end, record a positive improvement in the students’ performance.
Differentiated learning is defined as the kind of learning whereby students are provided with what they need in terms of their educational needs. Students are not equal in their intellectual abilities. Some students may be far much ahead of their colleagues in a learning environment.
Such students need to be provided with appropriate learning materials that are need-tailored. For example, a student who has mastered numbers should not be taught about numbers even if others in the class have not understood the concepts. The teacher should move ahead and introduce other new concepts for such students while attending to those who have not yet understood number concepts.
The three strategies in differentiated instruction learning include differentiation through teams, reflection and goal setting, and mini-lessons (Miller, 2012, Para. 4). Differentiation through teams is where the teacher groups the students separately and assigns them tasks to ensure that they are understanding the instructions that they are given. For instance, a teacher can assign some work to a group of students, which has a problem with reading a novel or literature, put them in a team and assess how well they are fairing on.
We will write a custom Book Review on A lesson framework and plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This strategy allows students to appreciate their abilities and work together as teams to better their performance and understanding of ideas. In reflection and goal setting, students are allowed to “reflect on their work and learning besides setting goals for their further learning” (Miller, 2012, Para. 6).
This is an opportunity for students, as it enables them to set personalized/individual learning goals. It also enables a teacher to target instructions that are specific to the goals that the students have set. This, therefore, allows students to gain from their learning process as they get to acquire relevant skills and knowledge that they aspire. Mini lessons are one of the favorite strategies that can be used in differentiated instruction.
This strategy is good for managing time and preventing time sucks during a class session. This strategy helps in supporting students, as they can be able to connect their goals’ through the mini lessons. Mini lessons allow students enough time to conceptualize the ideas that they have learned in class and reflect on whether they are achieving their set goals or not. Therefore, it is a good strategy for allowing students to evaluate and reflect on their own goals that they have set.
These strategies have some similarities, as well as differences. However, they all aim at improving the performance of students through instructions. One of the similarities of these strategies is that they involve the participation of both the teacher and student. Teachers provide guidelines besides assisting the students by giving them instructions on what they are expected to do. Secondly, teachers evaluate the success of strategies to determine whether the students achieved something or not.
On the other hand, mini-lessons as a strategy focus on students’ reflections on whether they achieved their set goals not, as opposed to the reflective and goals setting strategy that involves students setting their goals and specific objectives while differentiated through teams involves students forming groups and sharing together in their learning process. Even though the strategies differ, they can be combined to impact positively on their achievement.
When strategies like mini-lessons and differentiation through teams are combined, students will experience different environments that will act as a factor to tell the effect of combined strategies to the performance of students. However, as the two do not differ significantly, the expected impact is positive.
Reference List Cunningham, G. (2010). Chapter 7. Lesson plans and unit plans: The basis for Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109051/chapters/[email protected]
Miller, A. (2012). Six strategies for differentiated instruction in project-based learning. Retrieved from http://www.andrewkmiller.com/2012/02/six-strategies-for-differentiated-instruction-in-project-based-learning/?utm_source=twitterfeed
Irizar: Innovation implementation Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Knowledge management model
Culture of innovation
Introduction Irizar is a luxury coach developer and a division of big limited company with share investments in other nations. Irizar experienced problem in the early 1990s due to alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic settings. To survive in the problem and reclaim competitiveness in the industry, Saratxaga was hired as the new manager of the organization.
Saratxaga made innovative alterations (i.e. alteration in key values and enterprise framework via participatory administration) and was capable of achieving increasing growth level in turnover and extension into other markets (Forcadell
Higher Education in America Essay cheap essay help
Introduction The American higher education has undergone a significant transformation over the past century. This is evident based on the numerous anniversaries that most American colleges and universities have conducted to celebrate the ascent in the education sector at the beginning of the 21st century (Thelin, 2011, p. 363).
However, the emergence of contemporary developments experienced the end of the first decade of the 21st century has dampened these achievements. Some of the challenges that universities and colleges are facing relate to financial constraints, decline in donor funding, and state appropriations. For example, students’ financial programs were caught up in congressional debates with regard to renewal of grants and loans program (Thelin, 2011, p. 363).
Additionally, the American higher education has also experienced a decline in federal support with regard to university-based research and development. This has been worsened by an increment in the intensity of competition for fixed allocation with regard to grants from national agencies for example the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute for Health (NIH) (Thelin, 2011, p. 364).
The occurrence of the recent global economic recession presents a new set of financial challenges to institutions of higher learning in the US. This paper entails a reflection on various changes that have influenced reconfiguration of American higher education in the 21st century. The paper also considers demographics, diversity, and research in universities to be some of the issues that have had the greatest impact on higher education.
Additionally, an analysis of the influences of past eras on the present-day higher education has also been conducted. To develop a better understanding of the reconfiguration of American higher education, an evaluation of how these issues are affecting higher education today is also taken into account. A number of recommendations to deal with the identified challenges are also outlined.
Reflection Several changes are critical when it comes to the American higher education. One of the major changes that have influenced reconfiguration of higher education in the US relates to an increment in the number of initiatives, which aim at stimulating change within the education system.
The initiatives developed are because of the global economic and political transformations. Considering the dynamic nature of the society, there is a high demand for leaders who can effectively deal with the challenges facing the society in different spheres. One of the ways through which economies can achieve this is by ensuring that their higher education system is in line with changes occurring in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The initiatives developed have resulted to significant changes within the American higher education during the 21st century. One of the most notable impacts of these initiatives is the emergence of the national education reform movement during the 1st decade of the 21st century. Examples of these initiatives include the Race to the Top (RTT), Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and the Degree Qualification Profile.
The objective of these initiatives was to stimulate reforms, which would improve the American higher education. Because of the initiatives, the American higher learning education has undergone significant transformation at various levels such as institutional, programmatic, departmental, and classroom levels.
There has also been an increment in the number of partnerships between higher learning institutions in America and other countries. For example, the American government has collaborated with Latin American countries such as Costa Rica in an effort to stimulate economic growth besides nurturing sustainable manufacturing. Despite this, the American higher education system is experiencing an overload because of the numerous initiatives.
As a result, higher learning institutions are not able to effectively analyze the most effective initiatives. If higher learning institutions do not keep up with the changes that are occurring, then there is a high probability of the intended goal not to be achieved. The initiatives are not spread even across the university. This is worsened by an increment in diversity within the higher learning institutions.
Another factor that has influenced reconfiguration of American higher education relates to an increment in the number of new entrants. The new entrants have been motivated by the fact that most individuals perceive higher education as a change for attaining their intended growth. However, most of these institutions are profit oriented. For example, approximately 1.8 million students in the US were enrolled in 2,800 for-profit making higher learning institutions between 2008 and 2009.
This shows that there is a considerable green population in America (Bennett, Lucchesi
Ethics and corporate governance Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Jacobs (2004, p. 17) defines corporate governance as an arrangement where organizations are guided and managed, and the emphasis of this description is generally accountability. During the last five years, corporate governance has attracted more concentration from public interest due to its evident significance for the economic stability of corporations and communities in general.
Likewise, corporate governance is the process in which corporate boards administer the operation of an organization by its managers, and the way the board members are held answerable to the organization and shareholders. This contains some inferences for organization or company behaviour not just to shareholders, but also to workers, clients, company’s sponsors, and the stakeholders, as well as the society where the company operates.
The corporate governance system states the sharing of roles and rights among various members in the corporation, for example managers, shareholders, corporate panel, and other groups. It also identifies the processes and guidelines for decision making in corporate issues.
Through this process, it also gives the arrangement where the organization goals are set and the way of achieving those goals and assessing performance (Solomon, 2011, p. 219). This paper discuses a corporate governance and its situation in an organization with studies of leadership behaviours that maintain and overcome the principles of corporate governance in particular company and society in general.
Situation Corporate governance is mostly experienced in companies or organizations. Workplace behaviour is possibly among the most complex elements of the entire corporate governance interest to manage and monitor. However, leaders should have certain values, such as transparency, truth and integrity as a normal element of daily functions so that corporate governance will be achieved.
Company’s managers must start to focus critically on roles to manage efficiently with definite and perceived unsuitable and corrupt conducts if they want to prevent the possible effects and consequences of legal, society, company, and judicial impact.
The possible attack on corporate governance occurs in companies that employ particular number of workers that come from wide cross section of environment and cultures. A company may have a good status among its associates since it addresses the issues that govern the employees and truly kind with wage packages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example occurs when particular employee is called to handle issues like sexual harassment plan since there have been incidences with certain employee or manager. A company may want to zip this issue and can expect that through training they could transform employee or manager’s behaviour and keep the person often considered helpful employee. Actually, the employee may have been set aside for the company’s leadership plan and may be in risk since the victim may affirm that he will resign if the incident is not tackled instantly.
It is possible that different situations of racial harassment or discrimination, similar to sexual harassment, are addressed since they are partly aligned. A company often recruits all workers from different races and cultures, which may cause hatred and discrimination.
Some employees often accuse other employees and request them to return to their home countries or regions. Certainly, managers or employers state that they declined to recruit based on nothing, but only that they did not want them since they identify them to be non-conformist to the company’s culture and principles.
Personally, I could advise the company that it should persist that the behaviour is illegal under the company’s Act. The situation may turn more complex if the clients, working with the section of the company, do not want certain employees to be recruited in its projects. Therefore, the companies should receive the explanation that as contractors they are often accountable based on the Act. The company should understand that it is poorly exposed and could undergo severe consequences.
They should eventually decide to assess and reform the company’s policies and to offer training for employees and level training for every operation they undergo. They should recruit extra employees to cope with the raised workload and to offer advice to administration to make sure that it abides by the company’s policies. The accused employee should leave the company and the victim should be promoted after the leadership training plan.
This incident is common in most companies since discrimination or harassment is common on an occasion where employees have different backgrounds, cultures, or nationalities. It may continue unless employees are provided with their rights and roles and are placed through an informative procedure. Companies can often focus on certain issue that has been exposed as bringing about a violation of the ethics Act of the company (Giroud
Personal theory: multidimensional theory of psychology Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Personality structures of people
Explanation of motivation
Effectiveness of my personal theory
Introduction As a psychologist, an individual should be fully conversant with the way that people develop various behaviors, emotions, and thinking processes. This aspect is necessary for only then will a psychologist work on programs that can help in shaping of certain negative behaviors among his or her clients.
Since people are diverse in many respects due to differing personalities coupled with behavioral and cognitive developments, this paper proposes a personal theory of approaching people’s psychological problems in a multidimensional perspective point of view. The paper argues that, the outward behaviors of an individual are akin to the personality of that person.
The major task in presentation of this personal theory is seeking to identify the relationship between personality, outward behavior of people, and their psychological development processes. In this quest, three main psychological theories are worth focusing on: behavioral theories, cognitive theories, and personality theories.
From the perspectives of the personality theories, this paper argues that, psychologists should consider the patterns of people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that construct the uniqueness of an individual. On the other hand, cognitive theories focus “on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention” (McAlister, Perry
Aircraft maintenance Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Maintainability allocation of a series component
Maintenance logistics analysis
Aircraft is a name commonly used to refer to an airplane, helicopter or any other machine capable of flight. When carrying out aircraft maintenance, the main factor that is put into consideration is its evaluation. Effective aircraft evaluation results in the determination of its existing state and the probability of the failure of its body and engine parts. This thus leads to accountability of the entire aircraft’s lifespan. The evaluation can be done mathematically as shown using the three case studies below:
Maintainability allocation of a series component An aerospace system consisting of four subsystems namely 1,2,3,4 and having maintainability MTTR of three hours will have a load reliability that corresponds to the reliability of each of the four subsystems.
To determine this load reliability, one takes into consideration the success or failure ratios of the subsystems. In the case at hand, the constant failure rates are: 0.002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.001 respectively. If these figures represent the failure ratios then the success reliability ratios will be: 0.998, 0.996, 0.995 and 0.999 respectively.
Subsystem 1 Subsystem 2 Subsystem 3 Subsystem 4 = Load
(0.998*100) * (0.996*100) * (0.995*100) * (0.999*100) = 99.7%
(3hr/yr) (3hr/yr) (3hr/yr) (3hr/yr) = (3hr/yr)
From the above tabulation, it is evident that the aerospace has a 99.7% chance of completing a year successfully and requires only three hours maintenance duration for the first three years. However, the frequencies of services the aircraft gets in a year are not considered (Alexander 57).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Equipment availability Catering for the availability of resources in the maintenance process will require the determination of the fleet size. In the scenario given, the fleet size is twenty, B 737 type aircrafts. Each staff has eight hours of active labor a day and works for 225 days a year, which translates into: (8*225) = 1800 hours a year.
On the other hand, each plane has 3600 flight hours a year, but the flight hours between servicing is 1800. This means that each plane spends (3600-1800) = 1800 servicing hours a year which is equivalent to the average single staff hour. If that is so then the total number of employees required will be 20 i.e.: (20*1800)/1800.
Each plane takes 1800 hours a year out for maintenance; this is equivalent to 75 days (1800/24), which consequently are 11 weeks (75/7) a year. The hanger space required for all the twenty aerospace is determined by multiplying the hanger space for a single aerospace by the total number of planes which is: 75 cubic meters multiplied by twenty, the number of planes, the product of the two figures is: 1500 cubic meters (Richard, 243).
Maintenance logistics analysis The table provided alongside is one which seeks to establish the MTBF of a product. Using the figures in it, the mean down time is determined by: adding all the values then dividing them by the total sum of the frequencies: (1461/12) = 121.75 hours. The inherent availability and the achieved availability are, 28 and 118 respectively. The inherent availability is the most frequent figure from the data which in this case is the figure 28 while the achieved availability is the figure from the data provided that has the highest value.
Several management groups are consulted in the simulation of the table, some of these include, the maintenance group, the logistics team and the administrative department. All these departments are affected by and thus included in the data, their heads must, as result, be the ones to come up with the sheet.
Works Cited Alexander, Britton. International Financial Reporting and Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Richard, Brown.Vocational Business Training, Developing and Motivating People. New
We will write a custom Essay on Aircraft maintenance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Print.
The Impact and Link of Macroeconomic Variables on the Share Prices in UK Coursework custom essay help: custom essay help
A remarkable literature exists on the investigation of the impact of macroeconomic variable changes on the stock market share prices. A number of models are provided by the existing economic theory which provides the framework to study the relationship (Andreas and Peter, 2).
In the globally integrated world of today, access to information is easier and universal. The efficient market hypothesis theory depicts an efficient market to be the one in which there is a rapid change in the share prices as the new information is available.
A significant literature has explored the correlation between the economic changes and macro economic variables. For instance Asprem, Mads (609) has studied the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables on stock prices in ten European countries, Nasseh, A liraza and Jack Strauss (229) researched affect of domestic and international macroeconomic variables on stock prices and Park, Jungwook and Ronald A.
Ratti (2604) has studied effect of oil price shocks on sock markets of US and 13 European countries. The literature suggests that stock market indices are highly sensitive to the changes in basic and main variables of the economy (Pal, Karam, and Ruhee, 85).
Aim of study and Overview of Research Paper
An effective market is one wherein rapid adjustments in the security prices take place to introduce latest information. Hence, the information about the security is reflected by the prices of securities. It means that it is not easy for the new investors to predict the movements of stock price quickly, in order to make profit by trading the shares.
As for the macroeconomic economic variable effect, for instance interest rate on stock prices and money supply, the hypothesis of efficient market suggests that the competition of profit maximizing investors ensures that all the new information is well know and reflected in stock prices, therefore the investors are not able to make unusual profit by predicting the future movement of stock market.
The presence of the co integrated relationship in stock prices and macroeconomic variables brings the doubts to efficient market hypothesis
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The behavior of stock market, principally, needs to be predicted and policy makers may need to evaluate again their economic policies if the variables affecting the stock market are not what they desire (Maysami, Lee, and Mohamad, 58).
The capital markets have to play very important role in the financial sector of every economy and an efficient capital market has capability to promote the prosperity and growth of an economy by stabilizing its financial sector and providing important investment channel to contribute for the attraction for foreign and domestic capital.
Efficiency of capital markets indicates the fact that unanticipated part of the return on the security cannot be predicted and is almost equivalent to zero over a sufficient number of observations. Buyuksalvarci stated that, “The unanticipated in the actual return less what has been expected, based on the fundamental analysis” (408).
Literature Review A number of researchers have studied and estimated the extent of effect of macroeconomic variables on stock market share prices. Humpe, Andreas, and Peter Macmillan (n. d) have compared the Japanese and US stock markets, for understanding the long term movements of the share prices, using monthly data of 40 years.
They have found, from the US data, a single so integration vector among stock prices, inflation, industrial production and long interest rate. The coefficients of the single vector showed that the US stock market share prices were positively impacted by industrial production and negatively impacted by lengthy inflation.
However, they found that there was insignificant influence of the money supply on the stock prices. On the other hand, they found two co integrating vectors from Japanese data. One of the vectors was normalized on the share price that gave evidence about the industrial production and showed that it has positive effect on the stock prices.
However, money supply was seen to have a negative effect. They also have found for the second vector that rate of inflation and interest rate has negative effect on the industrial production (Pal, Karam, and Ruhee, 90).
We will write a custom Coursework on The Impact and Link of Macroeconomic Variables on the Share Prices in UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason of the difference of stock market behavior in the two countries is explained to be the result of slump of Japan after 1990 and liquidity trap of the late 1990 and start of 21st century.
Ethical Standards and Codes Essay college application essay help
Ethical standards and codes are usually the principles that are advocated for in a particular setting or discipline and when they are adhered to, they act as instruments or tools for promoting good values, for instance trust, fairness and equality and general good conduct or behavior in the process of carrying out various duties and responsibilities in an individual’s day to day life.
They advocate for maintenance of morals in all practices. There exist various ethical standards and codes that govern the practices and activities of various professions for instance teaching, medicine, law and psychology among other disciplines (Bianca, 2010).
This piece of work looks at the APA’s moral codes and standards examining its influence on the (professional) practice in the field of psychology.
The American psychological association (APA) is an essential and well known professional organization that is formed by the people in the field of psychology in the United States of America. The APA ethical principles and code of ethics are very essential to all psychologists and should be adhered strictly in their practices.
The APA’s ethical standards and codes influence the professional practice of the people involved in the various areas in the field of psychology through the outlining of the ethical principles and standards to be followed by the professionals in their work.
Some of the principles stipulated in the codes of ethics include; justice in term of access to the psychology services by everyone, integrity which involves honesty and accuracy in all the activities involved, dignity which touches on aspects of treating all people in a human manner and at the same time safeguarding the co-employees and client’s privacy and confidentiality as well as their self determination bearing the fact that breaking of any of the above could lead to loss of trust that would interfere with the work of the psychologist, fidelity, and accountability which entails the responsibilities of the professionals to the society and beneficence and no malfeasance, which entails safeguarding the welfare of the clients and respect for all (Fisher, 2003).
Apart from the above principles the American psychological association code of conduct also stipulates some standards that should be adhered to by the professionals in the field of psychology in their day to day work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the standards include; competence, human relation, proper record keeping including accountability for instance in terms of the fees charged to the clients for the services offered, provision of education and training services, indulging in research in the field of psychology and producing reports, provision of assessment and therapy services, maintaining privacy and confidentiality, competence, resolving ethical issues that may arise and general human relations among others (Herron, 2010)..
The American psychological association standards and code of ethics influences the work of the psychologists through the above named principles and standards which help the psychologists to remain focused in their practices and avoid any deviance as they take the APA document and the contents therein as a guide towards carrying out their procedures.
The American psychological association code of ethics is a document that should never be underemphasized as it has been a resource in the field of psychology. It however has not achieved much and it still has a long way to go in regard to ensuring that the ethical standards and codes are strictly maintained by all individuals in their professional practices.
Reference List Bianca, A. (2010). APA Ethical Code of Conduct. Web.
Fisher, B.C. (2003). Decoding the Ethics Code: A Practical Guide for Psychologists. New York: Sage publishers. Web.
Herron, R. (2010). Psychology Code of Ethics. Web.
Ethical Standards and Codes Essay college essay help: college essay help
Ethical standards and codes are usually the principles that are advocated for in a particular setting or discipline and when they are adhered to, they act as instruments or tools for promoting good values, for instance trust, fairness and equality and general good conduct or behavior in the process of carrying out various duties and responsibilities in an individual’s day to day life.
They advocate for maintenance of morals in all practices. There exist various ethical standards and codes that govern the practices and activities of various professions for instance teaching, medicine, law and psychology among other disciplines (Bianca, 2010).
This piece of work looks at the APA’s moral codes and standards examining its influence on the (professional) practice in the field of psychology.
The American psychological association (APA) is an essential and well known professional organization that is formed by the people in the field of psychology in the United States of America. The APA ethical principles and code of ethics are very essential to all psychologists and should be adhered strictly in their practices.
The APA’s ethical standards and codes influence the professional practice of the people involved in the various areas in the field of psychology through the outlining of the ethical principles and standards to be followed by the professionals in their work.
Some of the principles stipulated in the codes of ethics include; justice in term of access to the psychology services by everyone, integrity which involves honesty and accuracy in all the activities involved, dignity which touches on aspects of treating all people in a human manner and at the same time safeguarding the co-employees and client’s privacy and confidentiality as well as their self determination bearing the fact that breaking of any of the above could lead to loss of trust that would interfere with the work of the psychologist, fidelity, and accountability which entails the responsibilities of the professionals to the society and beneficence and no malfeasance, which entails safeguarding the welfare of the clients and respect for all (Fisher, 2003).
Apart from the above principles the American psychological association code of conduct also stipulates some standards that should be adhered to by the professionals in the field of psychology in their day to day work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the standards include; competence, human relation, proper record keeping including accountability for instance in terms of the fees charged to the clients for the services offered, provision of education and training services, indulging in research in the field of psychology and producing reports, provision of assessment and therapy services, maintaining privacy and confidentiality, competence, resolving ethical issues that may arise and general human relations among others (Herron, 2010)..
The American psychological association standards and code of ethics influences the work of the psychologists through the above named principles and standards which help the psychologists to remain focused in their practices and avoid any deviance as they take the APA document and the contents therein as a guide towards carrying out their procedures.
The American psychological association code of ethics is a document that should never be underemphasized as it has been a resource in the field of psychology. It however has not achieved much and it still has a long way to go in regard to ensuring that the ethical standards and codes are strictly maintained by all individuals in their professional practices.
Reference List Bianca, A. (2010). APA Ethical Code of Conduct. Web.
Fisher, B.C. (2003). Decoding the Ethics Code: A Practical Guide for Psychologists. New York: Sage publishers. Web.
Herron, R. (2010). Psychology Code of Ethics. Web.
The Ethical Perspective Concept and Types Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Personal ethics
Introduction Ethical Awareness Inventory is an instrument that helps in the evaluation of one’s ethical perspective. The judgment of an issue as being right or wrong is relative as individual judges; that is, individuals judge an act as being right or wrong from their own perspective.
The ethical perspective that one belongs to determines the ethical decisions made by the person as well as how the person relates with other people. The Ethics Awareness Inventory program involves the use of a series of questions, followed by the analysis of responses.
The answers, usually four, are given and classified ranging from the most ethical decision to the least ethical decision an individual can make to show the type of ethical perspective an individual belongs.
There are four main ethical perspectives that most people base their ethical views on, viz. character, obligation, results, and equity. The knowledge of one’s ethical perspective is vital in making good moral judgment and also in good interpersonal relationships.
Ethical Perspectives Ethical perspectives are different and are important in personal and professional development. The obligation ethical perspective is based on an individual’s sense of duty or obligation to do what is morally right. This perspective considers the person’s actions to determine intention, rather than looking at the results of an action.
It holds true Kant’s deontological ethics that an action is good or bad depending on one’s motives not results achieved thereafter. Equity ethical perspective is based on an individual’s daily experience as a guide to making ethical decisions.
The perspective holds that there are no absolute standards for a right or wrong actions because the circumstances of actions may be different. Other people view actions from a character ethical perspective. They tend to look at the virtues of an individual instead of concentrating on the action itself.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They believe that the person should have good character and strive to live up to high moral standards. The results of ethical perspective on the other hand, consider the results of an action to determine whether an action is morally good or not.
Personal Ethics The Ethical Awareness inventory program is important in evaluation of an individual’s ethical style, which has profound effects on professional and personal life. Culture, religion, and family issues heavily influence personal ethics of an individual.
The awareness of right or wrong from early childhood helps a child to develop the same values and morals later in life. Religious teachings also influence individual’s ethical perspective as people are taught that good ways prevail over evil behaviors.
Cultural norms also impact upon the ethical perspectives of the individuals. Certain actions are considered to be against cultural norms of some communities. However, cultural influence on the ethics is varied as culture varies from community to community. Going against cultural norms attracts a punishment including being labeled an outcast.
Professional Ethics Personal ethics focus on the behavior of an individual in the workplace as opposed to the behavior at home. The professional ethics entail integrity, honesty, and respect to the seniors and the co-workers for the proper working relationships in the workplace. The professional ethics is also under the influence of culture, family and religion.
In professional ethics, acts such as corruption are seen as morally wrong. The professional ethics and the personal ethics in most times are interrelated as an individual with good personal ethics always has a good professional ethics.
Importance of Personal ethics It is important that people adhere to ethical norms either at an individual level or at a professional level. Adherence to ethical norms promotes the development of research and truth in people’s social lives. Understanding one’s ethical perspective is important in making sound and ethical decisions and in promoting good interpersonal relations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Ethical Perspective Concept and Types specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People with good character ethical perspective try to achieve moral excellence by focusing on the virtues or character of an individual. They focus on the integrity, honesty, justice, honor and wisdom of an individual. This is important as an individual’s virtues supersede the action itself.
The ethical perspective of equity judges an act objectively from a practical point of view as the circumstances of an action are different. In this perspective, right, or wrong does not exist, as an action is judged based on the practical outcome.
The results of equity perspective focus on the results of an action, whether they are morally good or wrong while the obligation ethical perspective looks at an individual’s sense of duty as a basis for doing what is right or wrong.
Conclusion People view ethics from different perspectives but majority are influenced by four main perspectives that is, character, obligation, results and equity. These different ethical perspectives translate to conflicts among people if not well understood.
Understanding one’s ethical perspective therefore helps in promoting ethical decision-making and promotes good interpersonal relationships. Without knowing one’s ethical perspective, it will be almost impossible to know and appreciate other people’s ethical perspectives.
Consequently, people will live in conflicts because no one will appreciate the other for he/she does not understand his/her ethical perspective let alone understanding others’ perspectives.
The future trends for marketing management Research Paper college essay help
Introduction According to Cant, Strydom and Jooste (2009, p.1), marketing is a vital element in the success of a firm. For example, marketing promotes a firm’s growth, profitability and growth. This arises from the fact that it entails a number of processes which are aimed at delivering value to the customers.
Through marketing, a firm is able to establish a mutually beneficial relationship between the firm and the various stakeholders. In order to be successful in its marketing processes, a firm must incorporate the concept of marketing management.
Kumar (2001, p.14) defines marketing management to include a number of activities such as planning, implementing, analyzing and controlling the various programs which a firm develops in an effort to maintain and grow the mutually beneficial exchange relationship established between the firm and its target market.
Alternatively, the American Marketing Association (AMA) defines marketing management to include the process of planning and implementing marketing ideas conceived, promotion, distribution and pricing the firm’s goods and services in order to satisfy organizational and customer objectives (Kotler
War and Crusades Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The church participation
History of the crusades
Introduction War has been defined as a clash between two groups which involves intentional use of arms in fighting each other, mostly for political gains. War is a brutal and cruel way to solve some state problems.
For example, people have used war to determine who benefits from which resources in the country or who controls certain parts of or the entire the country.
For any place to be termed as war zone, there has to be people who have willfully and consciously decided that they are going to engage in warfare, and this has to take place in reality and not just remain as an intention that is yet to be executed. Certain questions have been raised by different scholars concerning the concept of war.
For instance, can there be a time when war is necessary and the right thing to do? Is it possible for war to be completely eradicated? In case of war in a state, what are the necessary measures to be taken by the state to ensure that its citizens enjoy normal privileges in life? In this paper, the concept of war, with specific reference to the crusades is discussed.
Just war The just war theory is one of the renown theories about war. This theory has been supported by a number of people for example, Saint Augustine, Aquinas and many other influential historical figures.
It is believed that Augustine was the pioneer of this theory, although it is not very clear whether there were others involved in the formulation of the theory. This theory has raised many arguments both about its morality and legality.
The just war theory has three major sections. They are jus ad bellum which deals with reasons as to why going to war against another state may be justified, jus in bello which stipulates how those involved in wars should conduct themselves and jus post bellum which deals with the post war requirements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jus ad bellum mostly deals with the head of state. This is considered as the most important among the three sections of the just war theory. Under this principle, several things are needful before there is declaration of war by the head of state.
For instance, there must be a just cause as to why the state has opted to use war as a toll for finding solution. A just cause would be for example, defending the country against enemies who may have already struck them, defending the citizens against violation of their human rights through brutal attacks.
Some proponents of the just war theory suggest that the only just cause for any state to engage in war is because of something terribly immoral and incorrect done to them.
Other proponents of the theory suggest that the only reason a state would be justified to engage in war against another is in self defense from an attack which leads to abuse of the rights of people. These rights could be the rights of every citizen or the rights of a state.
The rights of a state are stipulated in the international law which gives every state a right to political independence. The states also enjoy the right of being in charge of its territory and any outside attempt to rob it of this right might lead to war if there is no any other peaceful means of resolving the conflict.
The invaders of another state’s territory hence may not enjoy any rights as the invaded territory is forced to resist their attack violently. According to Brad (2001,10), It is important for the state to have these rights as stipulated by the international law for the well being of its citizens and to promote peaceful interactions.
With these laws, the state is able to be in full control of its citizens’ rights and is thus able to protect them from any violation of their basic individual rights that would result from the violation of the state’s rights. This is because; any state government exists to take care of the citizens.
We will write a custom Research Paper on War and Crusades specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For any state to be able to enjoy the rights of international law rights of a state, they also have to satisfy some three set conditions. The first condition as noted by Brad (2001, 125) is that the state must be instituted by its citizens and acknowledged as lawful by both locally and internationally.
It must also have peace genuinely without the use of force to cause the citizens to uphold peace and must be in good relationship with other international states.
Another condition is that the state should respect other genuinely existing states and should not be involved in activities that interfere with the rights of such states. The last condition is that the state must work towards protecting the rights of its citizens.
Muslim invasions Islam is a religion that was founded by Prophet Muhammad. After his death in 632, the Muslims were involved in a series of violent attacks on some nations in an attempt to increase their influence and territory (Riley-Smith 2005, 26). Their major targets were lands occupied by Christians and Jews.
This is because according to them, the lands occupied by these religious groups should be ruled by the Muslims. During the attacks, the Muslims were able to capture several nations and they were still trying to conquer other nations too.
The nations that were conquered by the end of 8th century include North Africa and some parts of the Mediterranean. Spain had also been invaded and captured by the Islamic militants. The Islamic military groups further settled in Italy after capturing it and became very powerful in the region.
They controlled the Byzantine Empire and its capital. This empire was unable to defend itself fully from such invasions despite the fact that it had helped other nations like those on the shores of Mediterranean fight against the Muslims.
It is noted by (Riley-Smith 2005, 28), that the invasions of Muslims on Christian and Jewish lands continued and by the 11th century more nations had been captured. They included what is currently known as Turkey (previously known as Asia Minor), which had a strong Christian background.
Not sure if you can write a paper on War and Crusades by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After the Islam armies captured the Roman Empire and gained much power over it, the emperor was very distressed and sought help from other Christians. He requested the Christians who resided in the western parts of Europe to help their counterparts in the Eastern region. This call for help against these invasions is what led to the rise of the crusades.
The church participation The origin of the church is believed to be the eastern part. According to the book of Acts chapter 2, the church began after the out pouring of the Holy Spirit during the day of Pentecost in Jerusalem.
The church then spread to other areas like the west, and through the preaching of Apostle Paul, it was able to spread to Europe and other countries on the west (MIDDLETOWN BIBLE CHURCH, 2011). As time passed, the church split into the eastern and the western church.
The east was made up of the Greek Church while the west had the Latin Church. This separation caused a lot of problems in the church. A large number of the Eastern Church had also been converted by the Muslims.
The Muslims had managed to acquire a lot of the land considered Holy by the Christians through by force because naturally, the Muslims are known for their warlike tendencies. This character is still present among them today because the Muslim lands are among the hardest to evangelize.
With this being the situation then, the Eastern Church experienced a lot of attacks from the Muslims and they managed to capture parts of the eastern territory for example Syria and Egypt. They even threatened to capture Constantinople, the capital city. This is when the Eastern Church decided to ask for help from their western counterparts to stop any further destruction and acquisition of their territory by the Muslims.
Although the Christians from the west were not very willing to help those from the East, they decided to do so because of other reasons. The main reason was because the city of Jerusalem was in the East. This was very important to the West because the Christians used to go there as pilgrims.
They esteemed Holy places and objects, for example they would be content and feel happy to just hold the nails that were used to crucify Jesus Christ.
According to MIDDLETOWN BIBLE CHURCH (2011), the Christians made pilgrimage to Jerusalem regularly without any hindrance from the Muslims who controlled this land for a long time. They used the Christians pilgrims as a source of money just like they would to any other tourist who wished to visit the land.
This situation did not last for long because in the year 1071, the land of Jerusalem was captured by a different group of Muslims: The Turks. This group was very harsh towards the Christians and would not allow them to visit the Holy land. The Christians who were treated harshly informed the rest on their return from pilgrimage.
They were distressed that the land they consider holy was being controlled by the Muslims. This is what motivated them to participate whole heartedly when a call to free the holy land from Muslims was given.
They participated by offering themselves as knights to fight against the oppressive Islamic regime. They also used their wealth because most of them were very wealthy and left their families to go and wage war against the Muslims.
History of the crusades The crusades, which have commonly been translated to mean ‘going back to the cross’, emerged as a result of the vicious attacks from the Muslim nations (Madden 2001). They were called for by the emperor of Constantinople and the response was very impressive.
The emperor did not call for them for selfish gains as has been claimed by some people but because of the urgent need to free the Christian lands that had been under siege before more harm was caused. To avoid further damage, which was also a threat to the Christian religion and culture, the crusades were necessary.
Again, Madden (2001) notes that, the crusades were not called for to try and win more converts as people have been made to believe. The Islam religion was threatening to overtake Christianity by dictating over them after capturing their nations and trying to invade more nations.
A council was held at Clermont in the year 1095 whereby there was a suggestion from the pope to try and stop any further attacks from the Islamic armies (Orend 2011). Many people responded positively to this call and vowed to recapture the lands back.
Their mission was clear; they were ready to sacrifice their lives to win back what previously belonged to them and also because of their religious convictions. This is contrary to some peoples’ beliefs, that the knights used this opportunity to amass wealth for themselves.
Recent studies have shown that the knights had a lot of wealth and decided to leave all their wealth and fight for what they believe in. although some people acquired wealth form the war, most of them had given up their wealth and forsaken their families to participate in the crusades.
The pope required the participants to carry out two tasks. They were to assist their Christian counterparts in the eastern parts to be free from Islamic armies. This was one of the ways they would show love to their Christian brothers. The crusaders were also to re capture Jerusalem from the Muslims.
The pope also expected them to re capture any other holy cities that were invaded. According to Orend (2011), the crusaders were able to capture Jerusalem and they believed that this was their way of showing love to God. They believed that God had given them a chance to de this despite the fact that he was able to do what they had done without them.
Although then initial call for the crusade was out of good intentions, the crusaders were not very keen to observe this call without deviating. They were involved in unethical acts like killing Jews, who they categorized together with the Muslims, and taking wealth from them.
They even tried to justify these evil acts by claiming that the money they got would be useful in funding the on going crusades. The crusaders further continued with these killings during the second crusade 50 years later despite the pleading from St. Bernard for them not to do so.
The first crusade was successful despite the crusaders lacking leaders to direct them. They went to the target territories without fear, ready to carry out the common aim. It is incredible how successful their mission was without any clear guidelines or structures.
Their success could also be attributed to the fact that the Muslims were lacking in unity and they (Muslims) under estimated the ability of the crusaders to fight back and win the war. This was however, the only crusade that was very successful.
During the first crusade, their achievement included: defeating the Muslim armies in the states of Syria, Lebanon and Israel which were governed by the Muslims. After their success in re gaining Jerusalem, most of the knights lost motivation to continue fighting.
This posed a major challenged to the crusaders because their mission was still incomplete. In an attempt to shield the holy land together with the routes that led to it, the crusaders sought to establish their own military rule in the land they had overthrown the Islamic armies.
This was not the only reason why they wanted to control these nations but they were also interested in the vast wealth that was there. They set up a Latin kingdom in Jerusalem whose ruler was Godfrey of Bouillon. They also had similar kingdoms in Syria Lebanon and Turkey.
The subsequent crusades were not so good for them because they were defeated in most of them. Particularly, the 1144 crusade led to the death of many crusaders.
This trend led to many Christians believing that probably, God was communicating something to them. They thought that God was reprimanding them for their sins; therefore they had no choice but to put up with the increasing Islamic influence.
The 12th century crusades were very unsuccessful because of the vast problems that the crusaders had. The residents of the places where the crusaders were supposed to go and help in ridding them of Islamic influence were tired of the war that seemed unending and with no results.
They therefore sought to make peace with their enemies through compromising their faith.
They also saw that their dependence on the crusaders to provide for their needs was not a good idea because they only got such help during war. There is no evidence to show that the crusades were called for as a means of encouraging or carrying out colonization in these countries.
Conclusion War is a very costly activity because it involves loss of lives and resources. It may also lead to the suffering and loss innocent lives. The crusades also involved a lot of losses incurred by both the crusaders and the enemy lands that were attacked in order for the holy places that had been captured by the Muslims to be regained.
Several questions concerning the crusades are raised to date. It has been debated whether or not the crusades were successful and also whether it was worthy for people too go through all that struggle that the crusaders underwent.
It has also been a concern to many whether anything valuable was accomplished through the crusades or it was an unworthy mission.
The actions of the crusaders may not attract a lot of praise from many people because they acted very unethically and to an extent against the bible teachings states that the enemies should be loved and prayed for but not attacked and destroyed (World History Project 1995). Nowhere also in the bible are Christians taught to fight for the holy land and protect it from invasions.
On the other hand, since the crusades were initiated by the popes, people who were thought to be a very important source of spiritual guidance, the crusaders can be excused for their ignorance and blind obedience.
Their action was a response to an urgent need that they had to deal with by using any means available at their disposal. It was necessary for them to wage war against their enemies to enable good to prevail and evil to be defeated.
Reference List Brad, Roth. 2001. “Governmental Illegitimacy in International Law”. Oxford: Clarendon.
Madden, Thomas F. 2001. “The Real History of the Crusades”. ARMA. Web.
Middletown Bible Church. 2011. “Learning from the church history: The Cost of the Crusades”. Middletown: Middletown Bible Church. Web.
Orend, Brian. 2011. “War”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Web.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan. 2005. “The crusades: a history”. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Web.
World History Project. 1995. “The Crusades”. Web.
Effect of Local Language Communication in Decision Making for MNC Dealing with Local Customers Proposal best college essay help
Abstract This study focuses on understanding the problem of local language communication in a multinational company management. The cultural context in which the subsidiary firms of multinational companies operate will help in understanding how local languages affect the business relations in MNCs. In this study, local language will be considered to be part of cultural aspects that affect subsidiary company management.
The local language effect will further be narrowed to the customer communication and general relations in management of subsidiaries. This study will be a qualitative study on foreign multinational companies operating in Saudi Arabia. Probability sampling will be the major sampling method with questionnaires being the major tools of collecting data. These research methods and tools have been picked upon because they reduce chances of biases in research.
Introduction Multinationals Corporations have increased in number and are projected to increase as business organizations continue to take advantage of globalization in enhancing trade. One of the major problems facing the management of expatriate firms in Saudi Arabia is the influence of local language in communication by multinationals.
Therefore, the main objective of the study centers on assessing the influence and impact of local language in the administration of expatriate firms in Saudi Arabia. Arabic is the national language of Saudi Arabia, and research has proved that it takes a minimum of one year for a non-Arab speaker to learn and effectively communicate in Arabic language. The main question in this research is: How does local language affect the communicative relationship between staffs of subsidiary firms and the local population or customers of the company?
The language vacuum between the expatriates and the local population can be a hindrance in furthering trade goals by multinational companies. They have dwelt significantly on factors that directly relate to business establishment. Literature review will help open up into the real challenges of local language communication by multinationals. It will also help in gaining a deeper understanding and exploration of the following questions:
What is the effect of local language in management of subsidiary companies of multinational corporations?
How do Multinational corporations deal with the local language barriers?
How does the local language in Saudi Arabia influence the management of multinationals that originate from outside the region?
What role does local language communication play in promoting business in Saudi Arabia?
What challenges do expatriate staffs face when communicating with the local customers?
Research Interest The main reason why multinational companies expand into new destination is to expand their customer base. Foreign cultures often affect the management of expatriate staff and the subsidiary companies at large. Adaptation to foreign language poses great challenges in human resources management of subsidiary companies. It takes a lot of time for expatriate staffs to adopt the local language and use it well in communication.
Communication is a vital tool in business development, and language is the most essential component of communication. Other aspects of management such as marketing management are also negatively impacted by local language. Given the fact that Arabic is the local language of Saudi Arabia, the foreign staffs of foreign companies must learn how to communicate in the local language.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They must also learn other native languages that are used in the country. This will enable them to reach all potential customers. Language can hinder firms from developing close and sustainable relations with locals1.
The rate of expatriate failure has been on the rise. One of the reasons for expatriate failure is difficulty of adapting to aspects of foreign culture. Modern management of business organizations has to be customer-focused because customers are the key determinants of the performance of a business firm.
Therefore, the mastery of language in business communication is very essential. Studies have revealed the importance of language in management at the international level. However, systematic research in the same area does not exist. Language in multinational companies will continue to be a major issue in the expatriate management of subsidiary firms. Therefore, further studies are needed in this area.
Relation to previous studies In the last two decades, many researches in the field of international management have been centered on how multinational corporations manage their subsidiary firms2. The studies have focused on diverse aspects of challenges of managing parent companies and the subsidiary companies3. Mother firms of multinational companies operate within a familiar business culture or environment.
They rarely face cross-cultural problems which are faced in the managing of subsidiary companies.4 However, it is evident that one problem in the management of subsidiaries has not been given the attention that it deserves. Multinational companies must understand that language is an important asset of business enhancement5.
Communication is very essential at any level of management. This poses a great challenge in international management. Percy Barnevik, the then chief executive office of ABB observed that communication and language barrier was the genesis of operational problems for the company6.
Many managers of multinational companies are coming to accept that language is indeed an operational problem for the subsidiary firms. While this seems to be a reality, the acceptance of the problem is a problem in itself7. Very minimal research has been focused on the effect of language diversity in international management8.
We will write a custom Proposal on Effect of Local Language Communication in Decision Making for MNC Dealing with Local Customers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Subsidiary firms operate in foreign environments. Thriving in foreign markets needs the understanding of the customer trends and how markets are structured. Foreign markets are usually complicated for new subsidiaries. The management of subsidiaries should understand the behavior of their customers9.
Customer behavior is best understood when they are fully engaged by the firm. Unfortunately, subsidiary firms find themselves in regions where the language spoken differs with the parent country’s language. This has been the case with Danish multinationals that operate in France or western multinationals that are operating in the Arabic Region10.
Marketing is an important aspect of business thus business firms are adopting proactive marketing practices. The expatriate staffs are forced to learn the local language so that they can effectively communicate with the locals11. The mastery of local language communication by the multinational will have positive effects on the survival of the firms. Multinationals use expatriates in management who are often non-native speakers depending on the countries in which they are situated12.
Corporate communication is an important facet of business organizations. A number of multinational companies are choosing certain international languages as corporate languages. However, this cannot assume the reality in modern business where firms are centered on customers. Firms seek to win customers in whichever places they operate. Therefore, in as far as corporate languages are chosen by firms, local language communication for multinationals often overrides the corporate language.
Language is an important feature or organizational communication13. Multinational companies move into new functional areas with many expectations on of capturing a new market for their product and services. Therefore, they must learn how to communicate with the locals14.
The liberalization of trade has resulted to the rise of the number of multinational companies and the expansion of their activities in different regions. Different multinationals are seeking business opportunities in various nations around the globe15. They do not consider how local language will impact on their business operations in the foreign destinations.
Research shows that the adoption of corporate language by multinationals does not have a significant positive effect in eliminating communicative problems. Therefore, it is advisable for multinationals to shift their attention to foreign language when they are operating in foreign countries16.
Multinationals and mode of entry into new business destinations Multinational organizations must choose best suited strategies that will help them exploit the new business environment. The culture of the new country and the local language in the new destinations must be given consideration. Failure to do this result in extended challenges that present themselves in stunted communication relations between the Multinational companies and the local customers17.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effect of Local Language Communication in Decision Making for MNC Dealing with Local Customers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Language affects the practice of employees of multinational companies especially in cases where the MNC is operating in a multilingual environment18. In such cases, multinationals choose a common corporate language to be used. While scholars of international management look at this from a positive angle, they are also weighing on the possibility of failure19. The failure of firms often come about when they do not focus on adapting to local language usage and instead center on corporate language usage20.
Many multinationals choose English as their corporate communication language21/22. Therefore, when they enter the new regions, they will want to stick to this language. This works negatively for these organizations because some regions like the Arabic region heavily use the Arabic language23.
Proposed research methods Information for this research will be obtained from different sources. These sources are the review of literature concerning the topic under study. This will include primary sources or information from the field, and secondary sources. All these sources of information are vital and will help provide detailed knowledge and understanding of the problem under investigation.
Review of literature Information related to the topic under investigation will be obtained from reliable sources. Online publications such as online journals will be the key sources of information. The information from online publications will be supplemented with information from other materials including textbooks, magazines, and reliable websites.
Primary sources of information Information will also be sourced using empirical case studies of ten different foreign multinational companies that are operating in Saudi Arabia. Qualitative survey techniques will be used in the empirical study of the sampled multinationals. The sampled companies must come from outside the Arabic region.
A qualitative research method will be employed in this research since it is aimed at explaining how local language affects customer communication in multinationals. Language is a qualitative phenomenon, thus it will be better investigated using qualitative research tools. The aim of this research will be to analyze and not just explaining the outcomes.
Questionnaires will be used in obtaining information from the sample multinationals. The questionnaires to be used will have both closed-ended questions and open-ended questions24. Questions used will be based on lingual aspects in managing customer relations. Marketing research questions are best suited in this case.
The data gained from the questionnaires will be analyzed using social science research analytical tools like the SPSS. The analysis will help in opening into and addressing some of the research questions. The question of how multinationals deal with local language communication barriers will be addressed in this analysis.
Arriving at samples in researches that are utilizing case studies is easier25. In this research, a stratified sampling technique will be used to separate the Arab-based multinationals from the ones originating from outside the region. After this, simple random sampling will be used to pick on companies that originate from outside the region26.
Simple random sampling techniques have been highly applauded in research since they reduce the possibility of biases. Many research techniques narrow down to simple random sampling technique when they want to arrive at the final sample27.
Reflections The effect of local language in multinationals is an area of management that has not been fully researched. However, this area is sensitive and has been affecting the operations of subsidiaries.
The potential impeding factors in the duration of this research are the limitation of time and the limitation to accessing all the detailed information from the sampled companies. Also, the sampled companies may have already used other means to adapt to local language communication. This is likely to influence the outcomes of this research. Language will also be an impeding factor in the research.
The research method used is suitable for this research. However, for every research method used, there are pros and cons. Therefore, the researcher must ensure that he or she maximize on the merits of the selected research method. Questionnaires form part of the best research tools because of the privacy aspect in them28.
However, they can still be manipulated by the researcher when making entries in readiness for analysis. The interviewees will be given room to respond to the questions the way they understand them29. The interpretation of questions is a notable problem. Therefore, the questions will be standardized by using a tone of language that is commonly used in marketing research30.
Conclusion This research is expected to employ qualitative research methods. Thus, a case study methodology shall be adopted to establish recommendations that will serve as a solution and a basis for future research. It will focus on the national language as a local language in countries where the subsidiary companies of multinationals are situated. A review of literature will be carried out in this research.
Probability sampling has been chosen because it will ease the selection of a proper sample in the study. I intend to undertake several pilot studies to test this proposal so as to master the challenges that will be faced and avoid them during research implementation. Since SPSS will be used in analyzing my data, I will acquire the software and learn how to use it. The research will be implemented within the set timeline so that the goals can be met.
Bibliography Andersen, H.
Man, the State and War by Kenneth Waltz Essay (Book Review) scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Examination of the Veracity of the Sources Utilized
Critique of the Text
Summary When reading the book “Man, the State and War” by Kenneth Waltz, the main driving thesis behind the book immediately presents itself in the form of a question which is: “what is war?”. Waltz answers this question by postulating the the origin of war comes from “within man, the inherent structure of separate states and due to the very state system itself” (Waltz, 2001).
He refers to the aforementioned causes of war as “images of international relations” and views them from either a singular or collective perspective from which he ascertains how each “image” interacts with the other which ends up resulting in the occurrence of war.
Waltz claims that it is this interaction between the various “images” which is the main cause of war due to variances in methods of thought, thinking, relations and other variables which create either positive or negative effects. It is at this point that Waltz attempts to analyze whether it is possible to create a world that is devoid of war or if war itself is an inherent aspect of mankind which will never truly go away (Waltz, 2001).
Upon further reading it can be seen that the ideas of Waltz are heavily influenced by the ideas of realism and neo-realism wherein he states that the anarchic international system combined with self interested states (which is one of the claims of realism) actually prevents the creation of a peaceful global environment due to factors related to competition and mutual distrust.
In the end Waltz states that the only method of resolving the current dilemma of war is if a single world government was to be created which addresses the individual concerns of each state. Unfortunately such a situation requires each state to give up their much vaunted “sovereignty” which would be highly unlikely resulting in peace being applicable in theory however being unattainable in practice (Waltz, 2001).
Examination of the Veracity of the Sources Utilized When going through the entirety of the text it can be seen that Waltz synthesized the views of Hobbes, Mills, Rosseau, Kant, Spinoza, Kant, Smith and a variety of other known experts in the field of international relations in order to formulate the arguments present within his book.
The sheer amount of views and in-text lifting from other authors lends the work a certain degree of veracity in terms of the accuracy of the arguments and how they conform to current methods of thinking regarding the current state of conflict within international relations and its origins. As such, in terms of its use of sources I find that there are no problems whatsoever.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Critique of the Text The main strength of the work of Walsh comes from its use of prolific body of historical knowledge and thoughts from various experts in international relations tht formed the foundation of his work. Yet, despite this abundance of literature it must be noted that Waltz fails to “think out of the box” so to speak when it comes to examining the causes of war and instead single mindedly focuses on the “images of international relations” that he had brought up at the start of the text as the main causes of war.
There are other factors that he neglected to take into consideration such as religion (which was why the historic crusades were started and one of the contributing factors behind the ongoing conflict between Israel and several Arab states), ethnicities (as seen in the current ethnic conflict between Sunni and Shiite Muslims which has led to various uprisings in the Middle East), economic factors (as seen in the case between the U.S. and Japan when the U.S. cut of supplies of much needed resources to Japan which sparked the bombing of Pearl Harbor and brought the U.S. into the Pacific theater), historic alliances (seen in the case of World War 1 wherein the balance of power system and historic alliances in effect brought numerous nations into the war) (Vassalo, 2003).
Lastly, the fight for resources has been an ongoing theme within human history which Walsh neglected to elaborate on yet has been growing in relevancy due to factors related to growing population rates, global warming and an assortment of other factors which has further exacerbated this growing point of contention (Betts, 1999).
Furthermore it must be noted that Walsh had a habit of framing the motivation of man in relatively “black and white nature” (i.e. good or evil) which is an over implication of how people thinking and act. While the book itself is great basis from which one can learn about the origins and causes of war, it focuses too much on the various arguments of historical thinkers without sufficiently examining other factors which influence the start of wars.
Conclusion Overall, it can be stated that the work of Waltz is a great attempt at explaining the origin of war yet, based on the critique of the text, it can be seen that the concept of war is too broad to be defined within the parameters defined by Walsh and constitute far more factors than what was elaborated on.
Reference List Betts, R. K. 1999. Must War Find a Way?. International Security, 24(2), 166-198.
Vassalo, A. W. 2003. Man, the state and war: A Theoretical Analysis (Book). Military Review, 83(1), 68.
We will write a custom Book Review on Man, the State and War by Kenneth Waltz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Waltz, K. 2001. Man, the state, and war: A theoretical analysis. (pp. 1-284). New York: Columbia Press.
U.S Intelligence History Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction National intelligence refers to the act of conducting activities, which are perceived to be essential for the conduct of both national security as well as foreign relations of a given country. In the United States, a cooperative federation consisted of approximately sixteen governmental agencies have been put in place to conduct these activities.
Further, these agencies work separately during the preliminary stage but join hands in the pronounced stages of these activities. Among these intelligence activities includes; collection as well as production of domestic intelligence, military planning in addition to espionage performance (Loch 23).
The cooperative federation put in place is commonly referred to as United States Intelligence Community. In a research conducted by Loch, it was found out that the United States Intelligence history is dominated by certain strategic themes, which relate to the intelligence’s reform catalysts (Loch 23).
Vaart notes that it depends with the perception of an individual in assessing whether the United States’ Intelligence reforms have been reactive in an effort towards dealing with past events or they have been proactive as well as forward-looking with the point of dealing with the future trends in addition to patterns in national security (Vaart 39).
Thesis Statement This article will focus on establishing the recurring themes considering the United States’ Intelligence history, which seem relevant to the significant reform catalysts. In addition to this, the paper will also establish whether these reforms have been reactive in trying to deal with past events or whether the reforms are forward-looking and proactive with the point of dealing with future trends and patterns in national security.
Discussion Recurring Strategic themes in the U.S Intelligence History
In order to understand this, it is necessary that the difference between strategic themes as well as reform themselves be comprehensively understood. Consider the following example; in the early 1880s, the Naval Intelligence office was established by the then President of the United States and this was considered by world wide political analysts as an intelligence reform.
What drove the nation into establishing this reform was the international crisis. As such, it was when the powerful United States captured a flagged ship owned by the British at the time the civil war was cropping up. Another catalyst for this reform was the inability of the United States’ marine force to track ships belonging to Britain during this international crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strategic theme that gave rise to this reform was represented by the expansion of the presence of the United States navy in many international oceans in addition to the increment of the United State’s maritime trade with international trade partners (Vaart 39).
From this perspective, one strategic theme that is majorly recurring in the history of the U.S Intelligence is the need for a director of national intelligence. Indeed, this had been outlined in 1971 by Schlesinger. 20 years after Dulles report was written and presented to the United States Government, James R. Schlesinger, then an official in the office of Management and budget, was asked by the president as well as the National Security Council to make a review of the Intelligence community (Vaart 42).
He found out that, considering the past decade, the intelligence cost had shot up yet the intelligence community had not achieved what he termed as a commensurate improvement with regards to the coverage in addition to the aggregate quantity of the intelligence products.
He advocated for an immediate appointment of a manager to be mandated with the responsibility of planning as well as rationalizing the intelligence collection and the evaluation of the intelligence products not only within the intelligence community but also within the defense department.
He indicated that there would be a new position established for the manager from a white house coordinator to Director of national Intelligence, who is fully pledged and who would be responsible for control of budgets of the intelligence community.
Another recurring theme in the history of the United States’ intelligence can be traced in 1882. During this time, the Naval Intelligence office was put in place and as such, it was supposed to reform the United States’ intelligence. The global community was experiencing trade hardships. Many industrial analysts described it as an international trade crisis.
This reform occurred immediately after the powerful United States captured a flagged ship belonging to the Great Britain during when civil war had taken effect in addition to the inability of the United States’ marine force to track ships belonging to Britain during this global trade hardships period.
We will write a custom Essay on U.S Intelligence History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United States government opted to expand the operations of the marine military wing into major internationally shared oceans such as the pacific. In addition to this, the government saw it necessary to increase its maritime trade with international trade partners. This, according to the findings of Vaart is the strategic theme that led to the naval intelligence office (Loch 29).
Thirdly, after the attacks of 11 September 2001, calls for the need to split the Director of National Intelligence duties between the chief of the intelligence community as well as director of the C.I.A were made. This surfaced to be a recurring strategic theme. The catalyst that led to the underlying reforms was the terrorist attack. This attack led to the death of a significant number of people.
As such, three passenger planes were high jacked by terrorists and they crashed the three planes into the Twin Tower buildings causing many deaths. Therefore, calls for implementation of measures to conduct high levels of investigations in addition to far reaching reforms were made.
There were many surveys examined. However, the most influential was the 9/11 commission’s report that advocated for the splitting of the Director of the National Intelligence. The president adopted this report and acted upon it guided by the report’s recommendations.
Nature of the reforms
These reforms can be identified as possessing both reactive or proactive. With regards to being reactive, the reforms are made in a bid to deal with past events. On the other hand, proactive reforms are made to deal with the trends and patterns in national security that is likely to occur going into the future.
The reforms can be perceived as reactive if they are concerned with establishing the weaknesses subject or failures that led to a tantalizing effect and seeking ways to containing this effect. For instance, as James R. Schlesinger indicated, the intelligence cost had shot up yet the intelligence community had not achieved what he termed as a commensurate improvement with regards to the coverage in addition to the aggregate quantity of the intelligence products.
He recommended to the President the appointment of a manager who would be mandated with the responsibility of planning as well as rationalizing the intelligence collection and the evaluation of the intelligence products, not only within the intelligence community but also within the defence department. Such recommendations were aimed at correcting the past actions of the intelligence community and therefore making improvements so as to ensure that such will not be experienced in the future1.
These reforms can also be described as reactive. Considering what happened after the September 11 terrorism attack; there were calls for implementation of measures to conduct high levels of investigations in addition to far reaching reforms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on U.S Intelligence History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is indeed a reactive reform as the calls necessitate looking into the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, which was a past event, and therefore making investigations. This reform, since it was the majorly recommended by surveys including the 9/11 commission’s report, was adopted by President Bush.
A reform is identified as proactive due to its tendencies in focusing on the future events. The aforementioned reforms can be said to be proactive in addition to holding an element of reactivity. For instance, considering the findings of James R. Schlesinger about the Intelligence Community, he found the performance of the intelligence community lacking.
As such, the cost that had been incurred on intelligence activities had gone up without anything beneficial to show for it. As a result, he made a recommendation that there should be appointed a manager who would be mandated with the responsibility of planning as well as rationalizing the intelligence collection and the evaluation of the intelligence products, not only within the intelligence community but also within the defense department.
While this is seen as a worthwhile recommendation, it is proactive. The essence is the future. As such, James R. Schlesinger puts the future into focus and saw it necessary to make these recommendations in an effort towards preventing such a miss surfacing in the future2.
Another example of a reactive reform is the calls for the split of Director of National Intelligence duties between the chief of the intelligence community as well as director of C.I.A after the September 11 terrorist attacks. These reforms were advocated for since they would ensure that the intelligence community will be better prepared in the future when such an event happens.
Perhaps, the duties of the Director of National Intelligence duties was so much generalized such that some important duties such as chief of the intelligence community as well as director of C.I.A were overlooked and therefore causing a narrow scope of intelligence activities and this led to the inability of the Intelligence community to prevent the terrorist attacks. Therefore, the reform; that is splitting of duties, would guarantee that; in the future, terrorism attacks will be prevented and this evidently clear that such a reform is proactive in nature (Loch 33).
Conclusion It has been found in this analysis that during the history of the United State’s intelligence, there have been major reforms. There are catalysts that have resulted from these reforms being made. In addition to this, there have been strategic themes that have led to the establishment of these reforms.
The analysis found out that reforms and strategic themes can be easily confused with each other. However, a closer consideration establishes that indeed, it is strategic themes that bring about the surfacing of reforms.
It was also found out that reforms can be reactive, that is, focuses on dealing with the past events. Further, they can be proactive with the point of dealing with future trends and patterns in national security. However, it depends with the perception of a person. With regard to the aforementioned reforms, it is evidently clear that some can be singly reactive while others can be perceived as both reactive as well as proactive (Vaart 39).
Works Cited Loch, Johnson. Strategic Intelligence. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2006. Print.
Vaart, Andres. “Studies in Intelligence,” Journal of the American Intelligence 39 (2008): 39–50.
Footnotes 1 Johnson Loch, Strategic Intelligence (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2006), 53
2 Andres Vaart. “Studies in Intelligence,” Journal of the American Intelligence 39 (2008): 44.
California Medicaid Cuts Essay argumentative essay help
The proposed California medical cuts are initiatives, which the federal government has initiation to minimize the cost of treatment to the people whose income level is relatively low. This plan targets the low income group who depends on agriculture as the source of livelihood, thus might not be able to meet the high cost of hospitalization.
Reports have acknowledged that Healthcare costs have drastically increased and low economic growth has thrown many residents in the area, a situation that necessitates government involvement in the matter. Although the proposed medical cuts have significant affects on the privately owned community hospitals in the state, the facility owners need no panic because the anticipated legislations would not affect their operations completely.
For example, there are some proposed cuts that are likely to be most relevant for the operation of the hospital. Therefore, the hospital owners need to focus on the reductions that will help them achieve remarkable level of development and economic sustainability.
The proposed California medical cuts will reduce the overall state’s expenditure and probably ease the level of taxation of the people. In return, the low income earners might have some money to seek medication at the community facility. The healthcare medical cuts would also result to substantial reduction of Medicacid program that the state government rolls to help the low income earners meet the cost of treatment.1
The reduction in the amount of money spent on the scheme means that there are people who might not get the security of the Medicacid program and would use their own money to finance their medical cost. In this regard, the community health facilities would remain relevant to the people and will continue to offer treatment to the local patients from the low income category.
In helping the low income earners cope with the rising cost of employments, their involvement into the medical scheme would make sure that they obtain this essential service. On the other hand, the increased number of people losing their employment due to job cut that result from economic down turn indicates that the Medicacid program will experience increased enrolment beyond its capacity.2
Since the government might not fund the increasing medical cost of the rising low income earners, it will reduce its contribution to the program. This will for a number of local people with low income to use their limited financial capability to seek medical attention from the community facilities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other proposed healthcare medical cut that the government intends to implement that would be relevant to the operation of the hospital is reducing the provider’s payments. This is significant because the amount of money that the medical facility owner will spend could reduce. As a result, he or she would spend more money on developing the facility and be able to provide best treatment to the patients.
Third, the proposed healthcare medical cut that the government intends to implement that would be relevant to the operation of the hospital is promoting the program integrity.3 Here, the government intends to put efforts to improve the honesty with which the treatment services are provided to the people.
Therefore, the patients who visit such facilities would get the best medical attention, thus will not shun the facilities. Therefore, most of the proposed healthcare medical cuts would be relevant to the operation of the hospital and the owners should mainly focus on quality.
Bibliography Kaiser, Henry. California Medicaid Cuts Spark Anger; N.Y. Medicaid Fraud Detection. 2012. New York, NY: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Lambert, Lisa. Fewer Jobs Means more Spending on U.S. Medicacid. (2012). New York, NY: Thomson Reuters.
Vibeck, Elise. “Report: Medicacid Costs Squeezing State Budget.” (2012). The Hill’s Healthwatch Report, pp. 1-2.
Footnotes 1 Henry Kaiser. California Medicaid Cuts Spark Anger; N.Y. Medicaid Fraud Detection (2012) New York, NY: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation 1.
We will write a custom Essay on California Medicaid Cuts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2 Lisa Lambert. Fewer Jobs Means more Spending on U.S. Medicacid (2012) New York, NY: Thomson Reuters 1.
3 Elise Vibeck. “Report: Medicacid Costs Squeezing State Budget” 2012 The Hill’s Healthwatch Report 1.
Australian Advert Banned on UK TV Essay (Article) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The article pertains to a ban imposed by the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) in UK on a tourism advert by Australia because of a use of the sear word “bloody”. It further quotes the response of Director of Tourism Australia, Scott Morrison and indicates an element of ethnocentrism on part of the two nations.
The advert exhibits the use of English language as a cultural dimension that unifies both the countries however; the psychological dimension is what distinguishes the two. The article stipulates a different value system and a difference in beliefs and cultural norms(BBC NEWS 2006).
Hence the article has two aspects; one the one hand it is an amalgamation of cross cultural beliefs and values, it represents a promotion of acculturation whereby Tourism Australia attempts to promote a diffusion of cultural values using and a melting pot approach in promoting tourism in Australia. On the other hand it also elicits a sense of ethnocentrism, a cultural bias towards the belief of superiority of one’s own ethnic group.
In a marketing perspective ethnocentrism can act as a deterrent in consumer purchasing decisions(Puzakova 2010). Where the advert itself represents an ethnocentric approach by Australia to promote its culture, the article represents and ethnocentric bias by UK as well in terms of believing that its language use is more appropriate than that of low-context culture of Australia.
The differences in intercultural communication are evident. Whereby, Australians, based on this article, are more open in their use of language, the British seem more conservative indicating an insensitivity of variations in the international communication that lacks in the Australian advert(Chaney and Martin 2007).
It can also be argued that conservatism, politeness, being reserved and formal in the use of language are perhaps just stereotypical characteristics that plague the British society. Research, according to Scott Morrison, shows an appreciation of the Australian sense of humour in the British population.
Hence it could be in fact just an imposition of traditional values by the BACC to preserve its traditional front stage culture, ignoring the evolution of its backstage culture and a diversity of self concept in one culture. The ethnocentric bias is based on mindsets incorporating cultural and social factors and is developed through socializing agents like schools, families and friends and thus can be altered with a change in socializing agents(Puzakova 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus the article is an example of xenophobia in its most ethereal forms which is persistent even in an era of massive globalization.
Bibliography BBC NEWS. Australian advert banned on UK TV. 2006. Web.
Chaney, Lilian H, and Jeanette S. Martin. Intercultural Business Communication. India: Pearson Education Inc. , 2007.
Lilian, Chanay H. Intercultural Business Communication. India: Pearson Education Inc, 2007.
Mail Online. The world’s biggest family. 2011. Web.
Mamman, Aminu. “Employee intercultural effectiveness in a multicultural workplace.” International Journal of Human Resource Management (Peason), 1995: 528-552.
Puzakova, Marina. “Mitigating consumer ethnocentrism via advertising and media consumption in transitional markets.” 2010: 727-764.
We will write a custom Article on Australian Advert Banned on UK TV specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Savani, Krishna. “ Cultural Conditioning: Understanding Interpersonal Accommodation in India and the United States in Terms of the Modal Characteristics of Interpersonal Influence Situations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011: 84-102.
Is HRM a worthwhile investment for an SME Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Organizations’ management teams are increasingly appreciating the importance of human capital in an effort to improve their organizations’ competitive advantage (Kok 2003). This has led to an increment in the number of studies being conducted with regard to best practices of managing human resources.
There has also been increased recognition of the purpose of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the modern economies. This realization illustrates that, there is a point of convergence between human resource management and small medium enterprises. Human resource management [HRM] deals with management of a firm’s workforce (Kok 2003). It is composed of a set of different but interrelated processes, activities, and functions that are aimed at attracting, developing, and retaining an organization’s workforce.
Some of the activities undertaken in HRM include employee recruitment, selection and formulation of effective appraisal and compensation scheme. Through HRM, organizations can develop and retain talented and energetic workforces that can contribute towards attainment of the formulated organizational strategies, missions, goals and objectives (Transky
Critical factors of executive success: Steve Jobs Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of business performance and executive competence
Performance of Steve Jobs as a senior executive
Introduction The successful of business organisations is often depended on the leaders or executives who drive leadership in these business organisations. Business leaders are the main strategists of business programs that define the success of the firm in the industry and the economy in which it operates. Executive competence is one of the leadership attributes that combines other enabling qualities for business leaders (Henman, 2011).
There are many notable business executives across the world that have helped companies to gain strong positions through innovation. The late Steve Jobs id on of the most commonly known executives for his ability to drive Apple Incorporated to what it is today. It is argues that Jobs was able to develop the company through executive competence that he developed over time. This paper discuses Steve Jobs and his leadership skills that aided him in attaining executive competence that enabled Apple Incorporated to grow to success.
Overview of business performance and executive competence It is important to note that no business company can attain growth without a clear and visionary leadership from the person leading the company. The company’s success is often based on the policies that are developed and how these policies are implemented by the organisation.
Organisational leaders or executives are the overall overseers of policies of companies since they approve the policies and ensure that these policies are implemented to the latter. The kind of policies that are developed and their respective implementation depend on business leadership qualities of the executive. The executive must have a clear picture of where he or she ought to drive the company to (Goleman, 2011).
Goleman (2011) observed that good business leadership skills of organisational executives often result in positive business outcomes for firms. This makes firms more competitive and positions them in the sense that they become more strategic in the market. Business leaders form the first brands of organisation that they are heading.
Steve Jobs is one of the most echoed business executives having taken over leadership in Apple and diving the company to greater heights. Though business leaders are shaped the organisational environment, they should to have more influence to the organisational environment.
They need to take charge of the environment and subdue to favor the practices of the company and bring about achievements. This is what successful business executives like Steve Jobs were able to do. The performance of Steve Jobs as the Chief Executive Officer of Apple incorporated is linked to many factors most of which revolve around the business leadership skills and competence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Performance of Steve Jobs as a senior executive Business executives have to be transformative in nature. Transformation is one of the most desired aspects in organisational or business leadership. Steve Jobs was termed as one of the most transformative oriented executives in the world by believing in change and innovation and making that change happen through innovation.
This is one of the aspects of executive competence that made Steve Jobs leave a legacy by making Apple one of the leading companies in the competitive information and communication technology industry. Transformational leadership is argued to drive innovation which is one of the most desired attributes in organisational positioning.
One of the most important transformative aspects of Steve Jobs is his belief in innovation and the subsequent support and involvement in organisational innovation leading to creativity in the company (Mohr, Sengupta
International trade Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Nations all over the world strive to achieve stable economies through legislation of various policies. They do so in the attempt to woe investors to participate in activities that will develop and expand their operations. There is no country in the world that can exist without relying on foreign investors and foreign trading activities (Ilmanen, 2011, 33).
This is due to the disparities in nature and amount of endowments in these countries. Exchange rate is an essential financial aspect that determines the level of a country’s participation in international trade. There are several factors that nations undertake which determine their exchange rates as evident in this essay.
Definition Exchange rate is the value at which the currency of a country measures against the currencies of other countries. All countries in the word have exchange rates they use to determine the value of goods from other countries (Sarno and Taylor 2003, 11). This rate enables traders to know the value of their goods in the international market.
How States Influence Exchange Rates
Even though, a nation does not have an absolute right of deciding or fixing the rate at which its currency exchanges with those of other countries, there are some extents to which a state can determine these rates. These are steps a nation takes to ensure the exchange rate favours both local and foreign trading activities. Therefore, importation and exportation of goods and services ensures consumers and traders get a fair deal for their money and investments respectively.
Peace is an indispensable factor that promotes trading activities all over the world. Nations that strive to maintain peace within and outside their boundaries enjoy an influx of investors. This means that not only their investments are secure but also their lives are saved. No one will ever wish to invest in a war prone country regardless of the profits the investor will get.
However, countries that encounter civil strife discourage investors (Weither, 2006, 20). Their goods and services do not attract international demand; as a result, their value depreciates. Therefore, the more a government strives to maintain peace within and outside its territories, the higher the chances of enjoying favourable exchange rates.
Investors are usually looking for countries that offer potentials of economic growth. Nations coming out of prolonged civil conflicts due to poor governance, those that have unexploited resources and those that open their boundaries to foreign trade, attract investors (Jha, 2011, 47). Some African countries are enjoying favourable exchange rates as a result of restructuring their government systems and assuming responsible leadership.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have demand for modern technology, expertise and investments. This demand makes their currencies fetch high prices in the international market. Therefore, their exchange rates compete effectively with other currencies. The more a country offers investment opportunities to foreign investors, the better its exchange rate ranks.
Balance of Trade
It is not enough for a country to participate in international trade. However, nations should ensure there is a positive relationship between the volume and value of exports and imports (Ilmanen, 2011, 54).
This situation has significant influence on a nation’s exchange rate. The more a country exports, the lower the exchange rate of its currency compared to other nations. Therefore, nations should ensure they export more goods than what they import. This means they participate in productive international trade that raises the value of their currencies.
Even though, most nations can not survive without relying on international bodies like the World Bank, for financial assistance, it is better for them to borrow as little as possible. The higher the amount of debts a nation has from global organisations or other nations, the higher her currency exchanges with those of other countries.
This leads to an unfavourable exchange rate since the country is not economically independent (Schofield and Bowler, 2011, 96). However, countries with fewer debts have a strong command on international trade activities, and thus their currencies have high values. Therefore, to have favourable exchange rates nations must borrow as little as possible from other nations or international organisations.
Investors expect high returns on their investments regardless of the risks involved. Foreign investors look for nations that offer high rates on investments in order to cater for operational costs and gain profits. Nations that offer high interest rates on investments have without doubt attracted many investors.
Competitions among investors become inevitable leading to high value for the limited currency of these nations (Clark, 2011, 33). However, countries that offer peanuts to investors discourage them leading to depreciation of the value of their currencies. Therefore, the higher nations offer returns on investments, the more the values of their currencies are appreciated.
We will write a custom Essay on International trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Most nations find international trade a one sided activity due to high exchange rates that do not favour them. However, from the above discussion it is clear that such nations can influence the value of their currencies in international markets. Nations should strive to achieve conditions that facilitate foreign and local investments to stand high chances of favourable exchange rates.
References Clark, I. (2011). Foreign Exchange Option Pricing: A Practitioners Guide (The Wiley Finance Series). New York: Wiley.
Ilmanen, A. (2011). Expected Returns: An Investor’s Guide to Harvesting Market Rewards (The Wiley Finance Series). New York: Wiley.
Jha, S. (2011). Interest Rate Markets: A Practical Approach to Fixed Income (Wiley Trading). New York: Wiley.
Sarno, L. and Taylor, M. P. (2003). The Economics of Exchange Rates. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schofield, N. and Bowler, T. (2011). Trading the Fixed Income, Inflation and Credit Markets: A Relative Value Guide. New York: Wiley.
Weither, T. (2006). Foreign Exchange: A Practical Guide to the FX Markets (Wiley Finance). New York: Wiley.
Carbon-pricing scheme Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Making the emitters pay
Price inducements work
The challenge of settling on the right price
Introduction In Australia, a carbon-pricing scheme is usually known as the Carbon Tax Scheme (CTS). The scheme was unveiled in July 2012. This scheme calls for businesses producing more than twenty-five thousand tones of carbon dioxide corresponding emissions per annum to acquire emissions permits.
The aim of this report is to discourage emissions of greenhouse gases, “which pose a serious threat due to the cause of man made climatic change” (Adeyemi,
The Telecommunications Company of Brazil Report college admissions essay help
Brazil is the ideal country to acquire a new telecommunications company. Due to military rule, the country has witnessed hyperinflation and its economy is not very liberal. Brazil has undergone major reforms which have ensured that the economy remains somewhat liberal. The country needs to adopt structural reforms so as to ensure a growth in its GDP.
There is a great need to curb inflation and keep the interest rates low. The country has had high public debt and there is no political will to enact conservative spending policies. The revenue system for the country has not been up-to-date and it has a heavy tax burden, although its taxable base still remains narrow.
Individual companies have devoted a lot of resources and manpower in trying to manage their tax affairs. The tax system is still complex, unwieldy, and porous. All these factors necessitate the acquisition of another telecommunications company (USA International Business Publications 50).
Brazil is ideal as a telecommunications hub given that it has a high population, and the market is both large and growing. The country’s economy is diversified and it is witnessing political stability though political effectiveness is not yet up to date.
This coupled with a tax system that is ineffective and a deficient labor market and infrastructure implies that the country is in dire need of another telecommunications company. With the country’s economy moving towards stability, it will be the best spot for such a company.
There is a hope for the country’s sovereign risk to stabilize. The local capital market is deep and this is a solution to the liquidity and solvency problems. There is therefore a stable outlook towards the same. Fiscal consolidation will automatically increase the primary surplus. With the increase in the differential rates, the currency is bound to stabilize.
The country’s banking sector has also been found to be stable. This is due to the fact that it was able to withstand the world economic recession that hit every sector of the economy across the globe. The banks in Brazil have a credit risk management system that is well developed and supportive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The banking system is characterized by strong regulatory and supervisory strategies. With such stability, the telecommunications company is bound to blossom as most of today’s telecommunications companies carry out their activities hand in hand with the banking sector. A good example of this is the electronic money transfer system that has most of its activities linked to the bank.
The economic structure is also very vital in the success of any telecommunication company. With an export base that is diversified and a financial system that is well-regulate, the country will be at the pick in terms of economic growth.
The telecommunications company will be of great importance particularly when it comes to improving the countries revenue collection system. The country’s political leaders must therefore make and implement laws that will provide a fertile ground for the development of the telecommunications company (Polishuk 200-205).
The telecommunications company will revolutionize the country’s economy through the adoption of the e-business that is stable and with very limited risks. There is limited risk for fraud and theft. With the introduction of a paperless economy, there is efficiency and speed in business transactions. The country forms a large section of the market for information technology in Latin America.
The industry produces computers and other telecommunications equipment that are worth billions of dollars. The government policies seem to be in support of the telecommunication advancements. Internet penetration has greatly increased within the last five years. This is vital for the growth of Brazil’s economy.
Services like e-banking, e-learning and other online activities significant to the growth of the economy will be availed to the people and hence boost the economic growth. There is however a need to upgrade these services to reach the international standards. This there necessitates the establishment of another telecommunications company.
The sales accrued from e-commerce have doubled in the last two years and the sales of personal computers and other communication gadgets have been increasing with time. Telecommunication companies are sustainable and frequently pay dividends aimed at boosting cash flow as well as maintaining a share price that is strong.
We will write a custom Report on The Telecommunications Company of Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The companies are not hit as hard as other sectors of the economy in the event of an economic recession. The country is strategically placed and it is closer to the world great economies like the United States and Mexico. There has been a significant trading between New York and Brazil. The telecommunications company is therefore able to tap in the neighboring markets and maximize the profits.
The telecommunications companies are known for high yielding stocks and they are fast growing companies with a greater competitive advantage. The advancement in the telecommunications technology will help the country to shift from over depending on the export earnings and become in information economy.
The telecommunications company will ensure that the country’s wealth resources are equally distributed to all sections of the country (Polishuk 67-80).
Works Cited Polishuk, Paul. “Brazil.” Brazil Monthly Newsletter 10 November 2010: 67-80.
Polishuk, Paul. Brazil Telcom. Salvador: Information Gatekeepers, 2009.
USA International Business Publications. Brazil Telecommunication Industry Business Opportunity Handbook. Washington : Intl Business Pubns USA, 2005. Print.
The History of the Genocide in the Rwandan Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
History of the Genocide
Introduction The Rwanda genocide that occurred in 1994 led to the loss of about 800,000 lives of the Tutsi community. The assassination of the president Juvenal Habyarimana triggered the genocide where the Hutu militia together with the Rwandan military organized systematic attacks on the Tutsi who were the minority ethnic group in Rwanda.
The Rwandan genocide was quite strange because it was a speedy mass killing, which led to the loss of about 800,000 lives in just 100 days. The United States of America president at that time Bill Clinton during his visit to Rwanda apologized and told the Tutsi that he felt like other people “…who did not fully appreciate the depth and the speed with which you were being engulfed by this unimaginable terror” (Power Para. 7).
The Rwanda genocide becomes the extreme genocide that occurred in the 20th century. This essay explores the history of the genocide, the reasoning of the Hutu government and establishes why the international community did not intervene.
History of the Genocide Hutu and Tutsi are the two tribes of Rwanda who have always been political enemies, fighting for power since independence in 1952. Belgians who colonized Rwanda favored Tutsi while they neglected the Hutu, but after independence, Hutu begun to enjoy the privileges of the government. “…independence ushered in three decades of Hutu rule, under which Tutsi were systematically discriminated against and periodically subjected to waves of killing and ethnic cleansing” (Power Para. 17).
Many Tutsi went to exile in the neighboring countries and formed rebels who constantly attacked the Hutu government. In 1990, Tutsi formed the Rwanda Patriotic Front, which attacked the Hutu government leading to the Rwandan civil war.
The Rwandan civil war led to the signing of the Arusha Accord that compelled the Rwandan government, which Hutu dominated, to form a government of national unity by incorporating marginalized Tutsi and the Hutu who were in opposition. For the realization of peace, the deployment United Nation peacekeepers helped in demilitarization of the civilians for Tutsi and Hutu to live in harmony.
Hutu thought that the Tutsi and the Belgians wanted to enslave them again as during colonization and they vowed never to agree with the terms of the Arusha Accord. By 1993, “Hutu extremists rejected these terms and set out to terrorize Tutsi and those Hutu politicians supportive of the peace process …thousands Rwandans were killed, and some 9,000 were detained while guns, grenades, and machetes began arriving by the planeload” (Power Para. 18).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Subsequent periodic attacks on Tutsi set the stage for the genocide in 1994. Then, there was evident militarization of Hutu in readiness to exterminate the Tutsi and Belgian peacekeepers, who the Hutu perceived as their enemies.
The assassination of the Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana triggered systematic mass killings of Tutsi by the Hutu military where they killed about 800,000 Tutsi in about 100 days. Though many diplomats perceived it as civil war, they alter discovered albeit late, that genocide had occurred. Now the genocide is a great scar in the land of Rwanda.
Hutu Government Hutu government emerged after independence in 1952. Prior to the independence, the Tutsi enjoyed much privilege from the colonial government because they cooperated with the Belgians in undermining the Hutu struggles for independence. Therefore, the Hutu government reasoned that Tutsi were their enemies and they fought them both politically and by use of military.
Democracy was difficult to achieve because political parties and Tutsi were defiant to the Hutu government and it perceived them as dissidents. The enmity of the Hutu and the Tutsi became feasible when the Hutu government in three decades consecutively discriminated against the Tutsi tribe leading to their exile.
“In 1990 a group of armed exiles, mainly Tutsi, who had been clustered on the Ugandan border, invaded Rwanda…next several years the rebels, known as the Rwandan Patriotic Front gained ground against Hutu government forces” (Power Para. 16). After the Rwandan civil war, the Hutu government realized that the Tutsi were a great threat to their government and their existence, hence devised ways to exterminate them.
The Hutu government also perceived the signing of the Arusha Accord that led to the formation of government of national unity as a scheme to overthrow them out of government.
The Arusha Accord was just a paper as the then United Nations assistant executive; Beardsley confessed that, “we flew to Rwanda with a Michelin road map, a copy of the Arusha agreement, and that was it … under the impression that the situation was quite straightforward; there was one cohesive government side and one cohesive rebel side” (Power Para. 21).
We will write a custom Essay on The History of the Genocide in the Rwandan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Hutu extremists in the government rejected the implementation of the Arusha Accord and did not implement it to the letter. Consequently, anyone who was supporting the Arusha Accord became an enemy to the Hutu government.
The Hutu government reasoned that Tutsi, opposition leaders and foreign diplomats wanted to overthrow them from the government, thus organized systematic mass killings as a way of defending their its rule. The assassination of their president was a clear indication of a scheme to overthrow the government.
International Community The international community did not intervene in the Rwanda genocide because of the bureaucracies in their policies. For instance, the United States foreign policy did not provide for Bill Clinton to intervene the occurrence of Rwanda genocide. George Bush in 2000 issued his statement concerning Rwanda that, “I don’t like genocide, but I would not commit our troops … genocide could happen again tomorrow and we wouldn’t respond to any differently” (Power Para. 40).
The foreign policies of the United States are full of bureaucracies and that is why it took long for them to respond but with apologies that could not help. They did not consider Rwanda genocide as a humanitarian crisis, thus, they kept quiet while 8000 lives are lost per day.
There were slow responses from the international community because the situation of Rwanda was a combination of civil war and genocide. Power argues that, “it is true that the precise nature and extent of the slaughter was obscured by the civil war, the withdrawal of U.S. diplomatic sources, some confused press reporting, and the lies of the Rwandan government” (Para. 26).
Other nations relied on the United Nations and the United States of America but they all kept quiet leaving them to rely on confusing news from the Rwandan government and the media. If the international community could have intervened, it could be justified as a humanitarian war because it could have saved many lives
Conclusion The Rwandan genocide is a shocking experience to the world because it depicts how human lives can be lost in such an inhuman way. The situation of Rwanda became much worse as the international community never responded effectively to save the situation.
The international community never imagined that mass killings of that extent would occur as many thought that what was happening was just a normal civil war. Thus, ethnical politics of Rwanda and the international community are responsible for the occurrence and the extent of the genocide.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of the Genocide in the Rwandan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Power, Samantha. “Bystanders to Genocide.” The Atlantic Monthly 288.2 September 2001. Web.
Carbon Footprint Components and a Role of Business Report essay help online free
Introduction Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge facing the world today. As greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere, global warming occurs. The consumption of fossil fuels by the energy infrastructure is one of the greatest sources of greenhouse gases which are responsible for recent global warming and climate change concern.
The Government’s goal is to play an active part in global efforts to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations to avoid reaching dangerous levels and to adapt to the climate change that is now inevitable. However, with the change in global climate facilitated by the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, there is an urgent need to consider the renewable energy sources for sustainable development.
The major advantage of the renewable energy sources is that they can never be depleted since they do not exist in fixed amounts like the non-renewable sources. They are clean and have very little contribution to global warming. Most of these sources are harvested in their natural form and thus requires very little operation costs.
This paper analyses the components of a total footprint for a business, gives reasons why there is need to reduce the carbon footprint and gives an appraisals of some of the energy sources that can be used to reduce the level of carbon emissions.
Carbon Footprint Greenhouse gases are released to the atmosphere through natural process although most of them result from increased human activities; some of these activities are agriculture, deforestation, and industrialization. As forests are converted into farmland and cities, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
This is because all living things contain a given amount of carbon dioxide and when they die, carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere. If forests and grasslands are cleared large amounts of carbon dioxide stored in them is released into the atmosphere increasing the volume of the greenhouse gases (Cramton
Mitigation of disaster Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
How the article aid DEM professionals in providing competent and ethical assistance to the citizens affected by disasters Digital Elevation Models are essential tools used by the geological departments in a nation to help reveal various aspects of earth’s structure. Generally, a combination of various factors is known to cause disasters; these include political factors, cultural/social factors, economic factors, and physical/geographical factors in a given area (Rovins, p.3).
The above-mentioned article examines possible consequences that can be seen if proper response to a disaster is not followed by a recovery from the disaster. It reminds different professionals about their collective responsibility in managing disasters should they occur.
In fact, it emphasizes the fact that there is need to predict and prepare for such incidences. DEM professionals can thus use the model to help in predicting disasters, for instance, the possible occurrence of a volcanic eruption of faulting along some lien of weakness on the surface of the earth.
The concept of physical vulnerability is described in the paper. The way the infrastructure of a country is designed in relation to the geographical location has been portrayed as one of the factors leading to disasters. It is also observed that even though attempts have been made to plan for hazards that results into disasters, implementation of such plans often fails. The DEM professionals should consider it a responsibility on their side, to be involved in the planning process.
Perhaps, it is lack of enough information that could lead to poor implementation of the plans, thus these DEM professionals should be involved during the planning of infrastructure. In addition, surface terrain should be considered when designing infrastructure such as roads and railways, while houses that happen to have been erected on lines of weaknesses should be brought down following recommendations from the professionals.
How the information can be used to create democratic public policies and programs that assist the community in mitigating, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the disasters In managing disasters, much focus has been given to mitigation planning. This paper reveals that the implementation of plans has been thwarted especially by the fact that the causative agents may not follow a predictable or regular pattern. Policies that allow for flexibility in the operations of the government could thus be enacted based on such a principle. Moreover, a special program department in a government could be created that deals with such issues.
Besides, it has been stressed that planning for disasters should not be isolated from all the other planning in a community or country. Thus, a democratic system of government would be one that advocates for the incorporation of such plans in the national budget and obtaining views from the public concerning such steps. This has been supported by the paper as reducing losses that are experienced in the response to and recovery from a disaster.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, arguments have been put forward that the cost of mitigation planning can be very high. However, it is still acknowledged that such costs cannot be higher than the unpredictable damages that can follow a disaster. Therefore, policies to be adopted should be those that would prefer reducing benefits rather than completely losing such benefits.
Evacuation of victims of disasters from the struck areas has been used in some areas in order to reduce casualties. However, the findings in the paper reveal that it is not a good solution, as it is just a temporary solution that would soon wither away with a short time.
Instead, physical planning should be done to ensure that the population is settled on safer locations. The authority can then find appropriate activities suitable for such areas. This can be easily used in the management of flood disasters
Reference Rovins, J. (2009). Effective Hazard Mitigation: Are Local Mitigation Strategies Getting the Job Done? American Military University. Retrieved from https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/highpapers.aspx
International Law is not really law Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
International law entails principles and rules that govern relations among countries, individuals, and organisations. It also has public international law that deals specifically with rights among different states and various citizens of different states. On the other hand, private international law looks at disputes among private individuals, natural or juridical, which occur among parties of different nations. In some cases, the line between public and private international laws has become unclear.
Australia operates under the federal system of laws. This makes its relation to international law a complex affair. Enforcement of international law in Australia has met challenges. However, we must understand that enforcement alone does not determine the extent of what the term law means. This is because, in some cases, domestic laws may also be unenforceable.
In the recent case of Jenton Overseas Investment Pte Ltd v Townsing  VSC 470 (11 November 2008), the Supreme Court of Victoria offered an essential observation of how the uses Foreign Judgement Act 1991 may affect enforcement of international law.1 The Judge turned down an application from a foreign country (Singapore). He observed that Australian courts are reluctant to invoke public policy as an avenue for refusing enforcement or recognition of foreign judgement.
Australian courts have not recognised or enforced foreign judgement on this basis. The main reason is the “interest of comity’ to maintain” (mutual respect among sovereign states) (Foreign Judgment Act 1991). This happens when courts observe the Foreign Judgment Act. In this regard, enforcement and registration are only relevant on the grounds that are ‘significant reciprocity of treatment’ of Australian judgement in a foreign country.
The courts also observe this because of public policy volatility. In this sense, a repugnant law may exist or repugnant applications of such laws may occur; thus, offending public policy. However, such cases only occur in crucial cases where there are offenses of laws of Australia public policy.
Despite such challenges, Australia wants to enhance enforcement of international law. This is an attempt to understand various laws from different nations, legal procedures, and institutions in areas of international laws. Australia planned to enhance this approach through establishing institutions, training, and legal exchanges.
In the international front, Australia has signed several treaties relating to international law on areas of social security, trade, shipping, security, non-proliferation, and defence among others. These treaties form the basis of international law. However, the country experiences challenges in enforcing such laws due to its federal system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The federal system provides an opportunity for opposing parties to opt for arbitral laws instead of relying on Model Law based on the International Commercial Arbitration of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). This is a significant source of challenge to application of international law in Australia where various laws of different nations interact.
Another source of a challenge lies in the appeal or review powers of different states with regard to Commercial Arbitration Acts. Recent trends also indicate the process is litigious and reflect those of court processes. These technical issues make application of international law in Australia difficult.
In 2009, the federal government of Australia has realised such technical, legal challenges and consequently introduced a bill so as to change the relevance of international law in the country.2 This bill seeks to repeal section 21 of the International Arbitration Act 1974 (Cth). The section has allowed parties to disregard application of Model Law.
The bill also seeks to repeal loophole that allow parties to “nominate an alternative arbitral tribunal” under the International Commercial Arbitration in Australia. This implies that State and Territory laws shall only operate in the domestic cases.
This bill shall transform the relevance of international law in Australia as it seeks to eliminate legal challenges that arise from the federal system. The process has also not been so efficient in Australia such as in the area of confidentiality.
International law requires states to comply with certain conditions in enforcement with regard to individuals. Thus, it is an offence for a nation to treat a foreigner in a way that violates provisions of the international law. The challenge lies in lack of a relevant agreement that a foreigner can use to complain before the international tribunal. However, a country can raise such issues.
Nations are not under any obligation to enforce such rights. This implies a nation can choose to enforce or not to enforce such law. Such observations lead scholars to conclude that international law is never a law. This is because countries which formulate such international law, through treaties and conventions, do not recognise or treat international law as law in their countries.
We will write a custom Essay on International Law is not really law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite such challenges to international law, we must recognise that the law is applicable and works in all states. Nations must recognise it, and adhere to set benchmarks. In this regard, Australia has recognised its relevancy in areas of peace, development, human rights, and democracy. Australia must comply with such international law so as to safe its self-interest and on the ground of reciprocity.
We can argue “that the Commonwealth only enters into an international obligation because doing so is relevant, therefore, important to the advancement of the interests of Australia”.3 This is so because Australia needs to address matters of international cooperation and of common concerns.
In case Australia fails to fulfil needs of international law, it becomes an issue of international interest and disapproval. In this context, most states observe international law even if such observations are mundane in nature, and have less impact relative to national law. This also explains why Australian lawyers practice international law before domestic courts.4
We cannot ignore functions of courts in enforcement of laws. Australian courts are important in facilitating enactment and enforcement of international law. Thus, Australian courts should not be hostile in enforcement of international law through facilitation, interpretation, and implementation, but should harmonise its law with those of other countries. Other jurisdictions may have high regards of judgements of Australian courts; thus, enhancing enforcement of international law.
The sources and evidence of international law Decisions of the United Nations Human Rights Committee (HRC) in cases brought by individuals against Argentina, France and Gabon involving Article 17 issues
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation (UN HCR 1988).
Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks (UN HCR 1988).
The UN Human Rights Committee (HRC) has Counter-Terrorism Strategy that the General Assembly has recognised in the resolution of 64/297. According to the UN, states terrorist acts can destroy human rights, democracy, and freedom. In addition, such measure may violate or prejudice the rule of law and human rights.
Thus, observing human rights can address factors responsible for the spread of terrorism. Still, effective counter-terrorism acts and human rights protection are necessary for combating terrorism. As a result, the HRC has “ten best practices” for combating terrorism. According to HCR, ‘best practices’ reflect legal and institutional provisions that enhance promotion and protection of human rights and the law in all various cases of counter-terrorism.
Best practices also cover benchmarks of the international law, human rights, and all aspects of a country’s legally binding conditions. Best practices can be existing, emerging, required, and recommended among international bodies and domestic courts. Such practices must also relate and promote effective fight against terrorism. Best practices must also comply with human rights, enhance the enjoyment of human rights, and fundamental freedom.5
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Law is not really law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A UN General Assembly resolution on the right to privacy
A UN General Assembly resolution on the right to privacy indicated that International human rights law condoned invasion of privacy where it was mandatory for legal reasons, and performed with agreeable dignity.
For instance, in the US (United States v United States District Court, 1972), the Supreme Court ruled that it was illegal to carry out surveillance of a US citizen without a warrant even if the operation benefits a nation’s national security. However, in reference to ICCPR Article 17, invading individual’s privacy without a warrant is tantamount to interference with an individual’s privacy the law does not allow; thus, such actions are unlawful.
A general comment by the UN HRC on Article 17
A general comment by the UN HRC on Article 17 is in General Comment No. 16 (04/08/1988). It has provisions on the right to “respect of privacy, family, home and correspondence, and protection of honour and reputation” (UN HCR 1988).
It protects people against unauthorised or arbitrary interference with individual privacy from the state or other bodies. In this context, every country should uphold the UN HRC provision whether such interferences originate from the state, lawyers, or natural persons. Therefore, countries should enact laws that guard against such interferences so as to protect individual rights.
A decision of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, which upheld the compatibility of their law with international human rights standards
A decision of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, which upheld the compatibility of their laws with international human rights standards rely on the provision of the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990. New Zealand observes that such laws have same provisions as those of the Australia law of statutory interpretation.
This also applies to Section III of the British Act that needs the court to interpret the law in a way that is compatible with Convention rights. There may be ambiguity in interpretation, but the jurisprudence in New Zealand can provide guidance, in the use of the common legislation in Australia.
An article written by Professor George Williams, a leading expert on anti-terror laws
Professor George Williams, a leading expert on anti-terror laws, observed that Australia passed several anti-terror laws after the 9/11 attacks. The country passed at least one anti-terrorism law after every seven weeks. The Professor observed ”It would be unthinkable, if not constitutionally impossible, in nations such as the United States and Canada to restrict freedom of speech in the manner achieved by Australia’s 2005 sedition laws”.6
At the same time, Australia also empowered ASIO to detain and interrogate “non-suspect citizens” for a period of one week. He notes that such approach to anti-terrorism was unique among Australia comparable legal systems. In addition, the country’s Federal Parliamentary committee on intelligence and security also embarked on a mission of reviewing over 40 proposals that seek to increase the country’s intelligence-gathering power. On his view, such tough anti-terrorism laws were unnecessary and draconian.
A report published by Human Rights Watch examining New Zealand’s anti-terrorism laws and their compliance with international human rights standards
A report published by Human Rights Watch examining New Zealand’s anti-terrorism laws and their compliance with international human rights standards (2010) showed that national security (counterterrorism) measures impacted on the enjoyment of human rights. For instance, in 2007, the police used heavy-handed tactics to arrest suspected terrorists (Maori Terrorism suspects).
In this regard, New Zealand has recognised that it has a different constitution from the rest of the world, but was working to enhance provisions of human rights both nationally and internationally. These rights are in the Human Rights Act 1993, and New Zealand Bill of Rights Act of 1990. In 2009, the country noted that provision of human rights was mandatory so as to enhance the country’s credibility and promotes its international reputation.
The US had criticised New Zealand for weak counter-terrorism law. In this regard, the country decided to toughen its anti-terrorism law. The Terrorism Suppression Act 2002, according to New Zealand’s Solicitor General was incomprehensible. This means the Court could not prefer terrorism charges against the accused. This is a clear violation of human rights. However, the state still maintained some charges related possession of illegal firearms and grouping among others.
In 2010, the state had “Urewera 18” in custody awaiting trials. This is after three years since the court charged them. In this case, the Appeal Court of New Zealand ruled that the “Urewera 18” were to face trial without a jury. No one knows the reasons behind such decisions. The police faced criticism for such arrests, but it tries to maintain its dignity through insisting that such suspects must face trial related to organised crimes.
Bibliography International Arbitration Amendment Bill 2009 (Cth).
Jenton Overseas Investment Pte Ltd v Townsing  VSC 470.
Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen  HCA 27 .
Law Society of New South Wales (Young Lawyers), The Practitioner’s Guide to International Law (New South Wales Young Lawyers International Law Committee, 2010).
United Nations Human Rights Council, A/HRC/16/51, [22 December 2010].
Williams, George, ‘A Decade of Australian Anti-Terror Laws’ (2011) 35 Melbourne University Law Review 1137-1175.
Footnotes 1 Jenton Overseas Investment Pte Ltd v Townsing  VSC 470.
2 International Arbitration Amendment Bill 2009 (Cth).
3 Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen  HCA 27 .
4 Law Society of New South Wales (Young Lawyers), The Practitioner’s Guide to International Law (New South Wales Young Lawyers International Law Committee, 2010).
5 United Nations Human Rights Council, A/HRC/16/51, 
6 George Williams, ‘A Decade of Australian Anti-Terror Laws’ (2011) 35 Melbourne University Law Review 1137-1175
Curriculum design and development Essay essay help online
Introduction Curriculum development is a concept that has attracted a lot of discussion in respect to the way it can be appropriately defined. According UNESCO and IIEP (2006), there is no single definition of curriculum development. Most definitions focus on the syllabi and learning materials. The broader definitions consider that curriculum is concepts that include other factors within and outside the school systems.
Traditionally, curriculum was referred to as a group of courses that formed part of the school’s education program. This refers to the approved courses that have to be accomplished so that a student can be promoted to the next educational level.
As the world continues to modernize its education systems, various definitions have been developed to explain the concept of curriculum development. Therefore, curriculum can be defined as the organization of sequences of learning outcomes. The sequences are entrenched in the education system of a country, and are aimed at achieving quality education (UNESCO and IIEP, 2006).
Schools and colleges have designed curriculums to develop the skills of students. This is aimed at achieving various professional requirements in the changing modern world. Therefore, the need for superior skills has contributed to the need for curriculum development in education systems worldwide.Curriculum development has been described as the process of planning aspects that are taught within an educational institution.
Curriculum development is done to match the school courses and programs to the skills of students (Hedden, 2012). The aim is to develop a curriculum that provides educational sustainability in the long run; thereby achieving the goals of national development.
Curriculum development focuses on major and minor topics and courses that contribute to the students’ career development. Curriculum development refers to a wide range of discussions by different professions and organizations that make decisions concerning learning experiences. Such decisions need to be integrated in a national, regional, or local education system to ensure sustainable development (Braslavsky, n.d.).
Curriculum development varies from country to country. The process can be controlled from a national level by the ministry of education or individual states as the case in some federal countries (Braslavsky, n.d.). Centralized countries usually apply a top-down approach in the development of curriculum. In this regard, the curriculum is presented to teachers who, once they adopt it, should teach the learners. Eventually, the curriculum is evaluated by all the parties concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Braslavsky (n.d.), the society can control the process of drive curriculum development. This is referred to as the bottom-up curriculum development. The responses collected by teachers and other education officials are evaluated, and standards are set to develop the curriculum further. This system is mostly used by decentralized governments.
Professional organizations that influence curriculum decisions
The curriculum being developed should address the issues of relevance, sequence, and integration in a given community’s set up (Stabback, 2007). Therefore, the process can be influenced by various professional organizations that ensure that the curriculum meets the diverse, fundamental, national, economic, social, communal and personal objectives without any form discrimination.
The organizations are usually composed of individuals from a common profession or specialization. Over the years, these organizations have actively participated in curriculum development to ensure sustainability of education institutions. This is done with the aim of expanding knowledge and skills to students (Hedden, 2012). Some organizations that influence curriculum development include: Accountants Association, Professional Engineering organizations, and the National Councils of Teachers.
Name Links Purpose American Accounting Association-AAA http://commons.aaahq.org/files/0b14318188/Pathways_Commission_Final_Report_Complete.pdf The article aimed at integrating professionally oriented faculty into significant aspects of accounting education, programs, and research.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics https://www.nap.edu/read/5844/chapter/5 This article aimed at providing guidelines related to the teaching and learning of mathematics among students. This was meant to ensure that all students attain equal Standards-based mathematics education. Also, the teachers were assured of the growth opportunities in respect to their profession.
Curriculum design and development
The process of curriculum development involves the design and development of integrated plans for learning, how to implement and evaluate the plans, and checking the outcome. Designing the curriculum involves critical analysis of the teaching and learning framework.
The purpose of the design stage is to elucidate certain action plans for achieving the curriculum objectives. The process is done professionally and technically to avoid any overlap between the topics and the course. This results to the development of syllabuses that focus on certain areas or subjects.
We will write a custom Essay on Curriculum design and development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ultimate result of the process is usually a coherent flow of topics regarding the courses offered in education institutions. Curriculum development ensures that students receive integrated and coherent learning experience that contributes towards personal, academic, and professional learning experience (Stabback, 2007).
Various steps are involved in the process of designing and developing curriculum. These steps are majorly followed when a new curriculum is required, or when curriculum reforms are indispensable. Curriculum development involves step-by-step contextual scan and research of relevant best practices.
Consultations with various stakeholders followed by development of a curriculum framework are conducted before syllabuses are accepted. The accepted plans are then implemented, and proper monitoring is established to check whether everything concerning the curriculum is accurate. The review and amendment of the contents is necessary for the whole process to succeed.
The process is systematic and has a clear focus on sub-systems to avoid disastrous outcomes and waste of resources. Having a systematic process in the development of the curriculum enables the elimination of any potential loop holes. At the same time, this articulates the international standards benchmarks (Stabback, 2007).
The role of technology in curriculum development
Technology plays a great role in curriculum development around the world. Over the years, technology has played a significant role in the world education curriculums. This has been viewed as the greatest improvement that curriculum development has ever witnessed. Computers have become a means of information delivery where web curricula and online modules are the common technologies that have positively transformed curriculum development (Ali, 2008; Scholl, 2001).
Technology has supplemented the delivery of learning resources due to the growing number of publication and technological breakthroughs in research. Today, technological advancement offers standardized instructions and learning environment that is familiar and can be accessed from any destination (Ali, 2008).
This has resulted in greater satisfaction amongst learners since they can share and access common resources. Technology has also reduced the time spent for curriculum development in a considerable manner as compared to the previous ways of curriculum development. Efficiency has also been achieved in the development of the curriculum as compared to traditional methods that required a lot of time (Scholl, 2001).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Curriculum design and development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More School-wide Curriculum development initiative
The Ministry of Education is charged with the responsibility of undertaking extensive curriculum research. This is aimed at collecting relevant responses about what should be changed, introduced, or done away with to improve the curriculum.
This involves consultation from parents, teachers, education officials, administrators, and professional bodies among other stakeholders. The findings are then submitted to the special curriculum review committee that analyzes the process before agreeing on the areas and subjects that need to be addressed.
Proper measures are established to ensure that the plans are implemented. In addition, proper checks are instituted to evaluate the progress of the plans (Braslavsky, n.d.). The close monitoring of the process facilitates further amendments to the curriculum.
The major challenges experienced during curriculum development can be classified into three categories. This includes internal, social, and external challenges. With regard to internal challenges, the curriculum development experiences the challenge to conform with the requirements by the ministry.
These requirements are important to the schools. The culture usually impacts the process, demanding for changes that recognize its values and norms. External forces may also prevail in curriculum development to ensure that the proposed curriculum addresses issues of international concern such as health, science, and human rights (Stabback, 2007).
Conclusion Curriculum development is a complex process that requires commitment of the organization responsible and the various stakeholders. The process should be conducted with transparency and systematically so that the outcomes of the whole process become credible.
The curriculum developed should embrace modern developments in technology. It should also adhere to the internationally accepted standard of an efficient curriculum. This ensures proper integration of the education system of the country.
References Ali, I.I. (2008). Role technology
Nursing Code of Ethics Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Goals of the nursing code of ethics
Introduction Nursing practice is guided by a set of code of ethics which constitutes an essential part of the profession. For a long time now, nursing practice has integrated the concern for the welfare of patients and the vulnerable population as well as for social justice. From a functional perspective, nurses work towards the normalization of those elements that detract from health. Not only are the nursing career prospects obliged to abide by the moral and ethical standard of nursing profession, but also to embrace them as a critical aspect of the health care profession.
Goals of the nursing code of ethics To serves as concise reminder of the ethical duties and commitment of all the persons who choose the nursing career.
To outline the nursing profession’s invariable ethical standards.
To highlight the professional’s own awareness of its obligation to the community.
Ethical principles In the code of ethics, the term practice has been used to signify the various functions of the nurse in whatever position he or she assumes, such as immediate patient care provider, policy developer, researcher, administrator, educator among other. Therefore, the principles and commitment outlined in this code of ethics fits all the nursing positions and context (Lubkin
Significance of Organizational Behavior Report college essay help
Organizational behavior has routinely been studied since its discovery in the hawthorn study. Research indicates an inextricable relationship between organizational behavior and a firm’s performance. Understanding organizational behavior enables managers to discover synergies for employee performance.
Therefore, the study of organizational development has led to the creation of positive organizational behavior as advanced by positivist psychologists1. Organizational learning process is critical to organizations because it helps management teams and low-end employees to adapt to the workplace environment, and to grow their competitive advantage2.
The process of learning behavior at the workplace, such as seeking new information, apportioning time to improve workflow procedures, and testing the validity of work assumptions offers employees to reflect on their actions. This allows them to acquire knowledge and helps in sharing information3.
The extent to which members of an organization interact to understand individual characteristics helps employees to develop a common base for a mutual collaboration. Studies have indicated that mutual coexistence among employees and their immediate seniors enhances knowledge and information sharing, which promotes and concretizes their ability to understand and execute their respective duties.
The nature of relationships illustrates that while people may have different personal dispositions and different personal attributes, learning and interaction can generate greater mutuality4. Therefore, if organizations fail to implement facilitate employee learning programs, they run a risk of impeding successful behavior learning, which may hamper improved performance.
A review of the literature indicates that people naturally know little about their fellows, and they would need reinforcement to develop learning competencies. Though many researchers have devoted a lot of their time in investigating the significance of behavior learning at work environment, most researchers have confined their studies on notions of negative behavior5.
The role of positive behavior in building positive interpersonal relationships helps organizational members to share their variable information, which remain essential to creating new approaches to completing work processes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The extent and the quality of learning behavior of individuals and groups in an organization makes people feel highly appreciated and valued and helps to neutralize the uncertainties and tensions. Capacity and objective and subjective experiences of employees with their colleagues and supervisors contribute to better subordinate-superior relationships.
Researchers argue that while negative organizational behavior may have a devastating impact on an organization’s capacity to progress, understanding variations in behavior can be used to nurture mutually coordinated relationships. This is because the process of learning organizational behavior facilitates connectivity of relationships, and captures openness to differences. This scenario helps members to free themselves and clear doubts and negative perceptions about their counterparts.
Studies indicate that connectivity among employees through behavior learning enhances the development of non-defensive reactions, and facilitates sharing of knowledge about new challenges6. Therefore, using organizational behavior, organizations are able to generate impetus for future successes.
References Carmeli, A., D.Brueller,
Human Capital Management in the US’s Healthcare Industry Essay essay help online
Introduction The healthcare industry is the most important in the economy since it deals directly with the lives of the citizens. This means that the elements of ethical considerations and moral obligations are very important in the industry. The success of the industry depends on the ability of the various stakeholders to ensure that ethical considerations and moral obligations are given priority in the industry.
This objective can only be achieved if the firms in the healthcare industry are able to recruit and retain talented and creative employees. Thus human capital management has become a fundamental function in most healthcare organizations especially in the US market that is characterized by clients who are more concerned with quality and value for their money.
Human capital relates to the assessment of the human resources that are at the disposal of an organization. Human capital management considers the skills, experiences, motivation and aspiration of the employees as the most important assets in an organization. Thus organizations must be in a position to invest in the development of these assets and ensure that their workforce use them for the benefit of the organization.
This paper will focus on the value of human capital management. The meaning of human capital, the strategies that firms are using to develop their human capital and the drivers of human capital will be illuminated in light of the US healthcare industry.
Strategies for Developing Human Capital in Order to be Competitive Having realized the value that employees add to the competitiveness of businesses, healthcare organizations are currently focusing on strategies that can help them to retain the best talent in the industry. Consequently, a variety of strategies and policies have been formulated and implemented by various organizations. These strategies include the following.
Development Strategies Development strategies relates to the efforts that are made by an organization to improve the competence of its employees. Improving the competence of the employees is mainly done through continuous training and education. Even though most organizations focus on introducing the training programs, the methods that they use vary from one organization to the other.
Some firms have implemented a comprehensive development program that also caters for the training costs. Such organizations use their own facilities to train their employees instead of contracting third party organizations to offer the training services. The comprehensive programs have been the most successful in the development of human capital due to two reasons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, all employees have the opportunity to access the training services since the financial constrain have been eliminated. Second, it leads to the desired outcomes due to the fact that the training is done in accordance to the technical needs of the organization. Some organizations have adopted partial development programs due to their limited financial capabilities.
In this case, the employees are given incentives such as study loans and study leaves in order to pursue various courses that are related to their roles. This strategy has not been very successful since the employees always go for training that fulfill their needs instead of the technical needs of the organizations. The human development programs have helped to improve the competence of the employees.
Job Satisfaction in the Workforce and the Role of Stress Audits Job satisfaction relates to employees attitudes towards their work. The level of job satisfaction has a direct impact on the performance of the employees and the organization has a whole. The performance of the employees will be high if they are satisfied with their jobs. Thus healthcare organizations are using incentives to motivate their employees.
Besides, they are investing in acceptable work environment in order to retain their employees. Stress audits relates to the process of monitoring the stress levels among the employees. Such audits enable the organizations to formulate strategies that can be used to help the employees to manage work related stress. High levels of job satisfaction among employees lead to better performance in the organization.
Employee Retention Programs Employee retention programs are concerned with the ability of firms to reduce employee turnover by offering the most competitive and acceptable work environment. These are incentive-based programs that are used by employers to reward top performance in their workforce. Employees tend to be more committed to their work if they believe that their efforts are recognized and rewarded accordingly by their employer.
This has prompted organizations to adopt acceptable performance appraisal systems in order to eliminate bias in the process of evaluating the performance of employees. Effective retention programs enable employers to avoid losing their valuable employees to their competitors.
Safety and Management of Behavioral Risks Safety and behavioral risks influence the quality of human capital in two ways. First, the safety of the employees influences their performance. The employee will be more productive if they are not exposed to health related risks such as contracting diseases that are prevalent at the workplace.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Capital Management in the US’s Healthcare Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Second, the behavior of employees such as substance abuse affects their health. In the healthcare industry, the employees have to be healthy in order to avoid infecting their patients. Thus the performance of the workforce will only be high if safety measures have been put in place. The performance will also improve if behavior change programs succeed in promoting the physical wellness of the employees.
The Meaning of Human Capital Management in the Industry The firms in the industry believe that effective management of their human capital is the key to success. Thus human capital management in the US healthcare industry is considered to be the combination of all those process that involve the acquisition and retention of talent. Even though there are other factors that contribute to the competitiveness of healthcare organizations, human capital has been distinguished as the most influential on the performance of the firms.
Human capital is the most important success factor in the industry since the knowledge, attitude and skills of the workforce determines the patient outcomes and hence the quality of services. This means that it is the ideas and the contributions that employees make in their organizations that determine the overall performance.
It is not the amount of financial capital or health equipment that really improves the competitiveness of the healthcare organizations. Thus “strategic talent acquisitions” have become the main trend in the industry. This means that healthcare organizations are investing a high percentage of their resources in recruiting and retaining talented employees.
Human capital management has thus become the major tool for creating competitive advantages in the industry. This explains the value of the human capital in the healthcare industry.
The Human Capital Drivers in the Industry Innovation
Innovation refers to the process through which new ideas or techniques are introduced in health care organizations in order to improve their competitiveness. Health care organizations will be able to facilitate innovation by employing talented individuals. The process of innovation can focus on the products or the processes of producing the products.
Product innovation aims at introducing new product that satisfies the specific needs of the clients. Thus it enables the firms to increase their revenues. Process innovation on the other hand aims at improving the efficiency of the firms in regard to the provision of their services. This means that it facilitates cost reduction and improvement of the quality of services. Innovation can be disruptive or non-disruptive.
Disruptive innovation usually replaces the existing system and creates more value to the owners of the health care organizations. Non-disruptive innovation on the other hand focuses on improving the existing system with the aim of solving a particular problem. Thus organizations that embark on appropriate innovation will be able to improve their competitive advantages in the industry.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Capital Management in the US’s Healthcare Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research and Development
Research and development relates to the process through which health care organizations conduct various studies on their products, processes and the industry in order to improve their competitiveness. In the context of human capital management, it focuses on the skills and knowledge of the employees. It is the driving force behind innovation because its findings inform the development of new products and strategies for offering services.
Health care organizations will be able to formulate effective marketing plans if they conduct research on their markets and industry. They will also be able to develop the right products by researching on the needs of the clients. For example, they can be able to develop more effective and cheap treatment methods through research and development. Therefore research and development has a positive impact on the competitiveness of health care firms.
Patient outcomes refer to the result of the treatment process. It helps in evaluating the success or the effectiveness of the treatment services that are offered by health care organizations. Patient outcomes can be indicated by the readmission rates and the physical wellness of the patients after being discharged.
It determines the sales of health care organizations since the clients will only be loyal if they are able to realize positive outcomes. Consequently, the organizations are focusing on improving the competence of their physicians through training in order to ensure positive patient outcomes.
Response time relates to the time devoted to service delivery and how fast the clients are able to access the services. The clients usually prefer an efficient organization that is capable of responding to their needs immediately. Consequently, most firms have invested in communication technologies that enable the physicians to share information with their colleagues and the clients efficiently.
This enables the nurses to have more time to care for the patients in order to realize the expected patient outcomes. Thus health care organizations will be able to improve their competitiveness by focusing on rapid response time.
Quality of Customer Services
The quality of customer services determines the level of the clients’ satisfaction especially in the health care industry. Customers are usually concerned with the quality of services and will only visit a hospital if the value for their money is guaranteed. They also prefer health organizations that are able to respond effectively to their enquiries.
Thus health care organizations are investing on training programs in order to equip their employees with the best skills for offering customer services. The competitiveness of the firm will improve as the quality of customer services improve.
Evidence in Support of the Value of Human Capital Management The value of human capital management can be explained by the following trends. First, due to the increasing demand for talent in the industry, healthcare organizations are becoming more innovative in recruiting their employees. Unlike in the past when physicians used to search for potential employers, healthcare organizations are currently sending their employees to teach in universities with the aim of identifying and recruiting talented students.
Second, the supply of talented physicians has not been able to match the demand in the industry in the last ten years. Consequently, healthcare firms have only survived due to the implementation of effective human capital management strategies. Third, the market value of most healthcare firms is measured in terms of intangible assets such as relationships, partnerships and creativity.
The development of these assets depends on the availability of talent. This means that healthcare organizations can not acquire the above mentioned assets if they do not focus on effective human capital management principles. Finally, the quality of services is the main success factor in the healthcare industry.
The quality of services on the other hand depends on the competence of the employees. The competence of the employees can only be improved if human capital management strategies that focus on skills, education and knowledge have been put in place.
Conclusion Human capital management focuses on the development human resources in terms of the employees’ skills, knowledge, experience and education. Thus human capital management is used by organizations to create competitive advantages in the market by maximizing the potentials of their employees.
In order to achieve this objective, firms have implemented training programs, incentive programs and diversity programs. The main drivers of human capital in the healthcare industry include employee retention programs, development strategies and job satisfaction. Human capital management is the most important management function in healthcare organizations due to the evidences that have been discussed above.
References Hart, K. (2006). Human capital management: implications for healthcare leaders. Nursing Economics, vol. 21 (2) , 94-115.
Jeffrey, G. (2010). Executive leadership development in US healthcare management. Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 23 (1) , 102-161.
Kabene, S., Orchard, C.,
Virtual Education Schools Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents History
Categories of online programs
Synchronous versus asynchronous programs
Models for state-based virtual programs
History Virtual schooling was initially conceived in 1996 in two regions of the United States following the invention of the Virtual High School and the Florida Virtual School. Five years down the line, between 40,000 and 50,000 learners enrolled in virtual classes (Clark, 2001, as cited in Barbour, 2006).
Approximately a decade later since the initiation of a virtual school, Setzer and Lewis (2005, as cited in Barbour, 2006) postulated that there was about 328,000 public schools recruitment in video-based or online learning. This academic projection excludes home school and charter school students who are additionally admitted in cyber as well as in virtual schools.
Virtual learning is rapidly increasing allover the united states concurrent with the expanding number of teachers and policymakers who appreciate education that is unrestricted by proximity and time. By September 2006, 38 states had implemented online learning curriculum, important rules controlling virtual schooling or both.
In the previous year, many states have adopted new state-led curriculums or set up online learning policies, including Nebraska, South Dakota South Carolina, and Missouri.
Expansion in the amount of students in various obtainable curriculums has been continued, as reflected by the 18% growth of Louisiana Virtual School, 22% of joint Ohio’s eCommunity Schools, more than 50% of Idaho Digital Learning academy and Florida Virtual School, and 24% of Virtual High School (Watson
A Discussion of the Benefits and Limitations of Second Life Essay college admissions essay help
Benefits of Using Second Life as an Instructional Tool The introduction of technology to the field of education has occasioned many beneficial outcomes for both students and educators. Second Life, in particular, has afforded teachers a whole new range of possibilities in offering instruction via virtual platforms. One of the benefits of Second Life is that teachers can be able to offer instruction to a global audience that is not limited by physical boundaries or geographical locations.
Another benefit that is closely related to the above is that students who use virtual classrooms for educational purposes can now learn from their safe environments instead of having to attend physical classrooms. Such an arrangement saves time and critical resources for both educators and students.
Third, the sense of immersion that Second Life generates makes it an excellent tool for role-play, content reinforcement and re-enactment. These attributes are critical to any form of educational instruction, and Second Life offers the much-needed platform for educators to reinforce the necessary content to students.
Forth, it is a well-known fact that instructing learners by showing them how to do things as opposed to traditional techniques of instruction brings highly positive results. Fifth, the interactive nature of Second Life not only affords students and teachers an interesting, faster and more effective learning experience, but it also foster an environment where students are able to interact with others for collaborative development.
Sixth, the simulation possibilities inherent in Second Life can provide students with a critical comprehension of what it is like for other people in the real physical world. This attribute prepares the students’ mental and intellectual capacities for future challenges.
Lastly, Second Life affords educators the possibility to prepare immersive self-paced tutorials and assessments, administer them via the virtual space and feed results into an online database for students to view their performances.
Benefits of using Second Life for Professional Development
Impacts, Justification and Legitimacy of the U.S Invasion of Iraq Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Abstract The United States invasion of Iraq in 2003 came at a time when the war on terrorism was at its peak. After the events of the September 11, 2001, the Bush Administration vowed to combat all acts of terror within and outside U.S borders.
While this initiative was highly applauded by the international community and especially the member countries which had suffered huge humanitarian losses in the hands of terror suspects, the plan to ouster Saddam Hussein from power as part of curbing the spread of terrorism was not received kindly from some quarters.
The historical account of the authoritarian rule of Saddam Hussein in the run up to the 2003 attack by United States has been discussed in this essay. Furthermore, the real impacts of the war as occasioned by U.S foreign policy on Iraq have been deliberated in detail.
The unipolar nature of the 2003 attack on Iraq has also been used as the springboard in dissecting the role played by United Nations Security Council before and during the attack.
While the outcome of the war was visibly felt far and wide, the essay attempts to critically evaluate how Americans and the people of Iraq were negatively impacted by the unstable relations between the two countries. Finally, the justification of the war as well as its legitimacy has been incorporated in this theoretical research study.
Background and synopsis of poor rule in Iraq Iraq has faced challenges like the long history of authoritarian rule and the crushing of democracy, the rivalry between Sunni and Shia, separatist claims of the Kurds and the demands of the Turkmen coupled with foreign interference like in the case of 2003 invasion by United States and its allies. The contemporary history of Iraq commenced immediately after the breakup of the old Ottoman Empire.
In the campaigns against the Central powers the British military invaded Iraq and was initially defeated by Turkey. Thereafter, the British troupes regrouped and later captured Baghdad. Later, an agreement was signed by the British and French that led to the carving out of Iraq from Ottoman Empire.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The agreement became conclusive in May 1916. In 1920, the carved out territory came under the control of the British with the name “State of Iraq” (Wollack, 2010, p.22).
When the British established the Hashemite monarchy in the new territory it did not take into consideration the politics of different religious as well as ethnic groups. This offered a chance for the Kurds and the Shiites to begin fighting for independence. Meanwhile, the United Kingdom initially established two regions which were Basra region and Baghdad region, but later the two were merged.
In 1932, Britain granted Iraq independence; however, the British still hung on to the armed forces bases and also the privileges of transfer for the British military powers. There were subsequent wars and conflicts in Iraq, even after independence had been granted.
The 1941 coup d’état saw the ousting from power of Abd al-llah who was the president at that time. The military wing soon took over the custody of the country. The Hashemite monarchy which was brought back thereafter operated up and until 1958. Another coup took place and the monarchy was sent packing by the Iraqi troops (Wollack, 2010, p.23). A series of forceful power take over followed later that is in 1966 and 1968.
During these undemocratic power changes, the military was the decider of which political party was the next head of government. Therefore, bloody conflicts between political parties were the most visible type of conflicts in the Iraqi political arena (Stimson, 2010, pp.63-64).
Since the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq at the beginning of the twentieth century, successive governments played the role of authoritarian suppressor rather than as mediator of governance in a multi-ethnic and religious country.
The use of assassinations and executions were the usual tools rather than negotiations in Iraq’s politics (Rex, 2011, p.97). Such politics became rather a political culture where Iraq could only be ruled through a strong central government with very limited rights to minorities.
We will write a custom Essay on Impacts, Justification and Legitimacy of the U.S Invasion of Iraq specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was the case until April 2003, when the United States leading the “Coalition of the willing” invaded Iraq and toppled Saddam’s Baath regime. The United Sates promised the Iraqi people and the whole region of Middle East of new democratic era (Wollack, 2010, p.24).
The Ba’ath Party had been ruling Iraq for a considerable length of time before the decline of Saddam Hussein in 2003. Nevertheless, in the post-Saddam era, the state of Iraq went into a political transition, struggling with the collective challenges of instituting structures of governance and allocating power within the institutions of the country.
Such tasks proved to be difficult since the majority of the state institutions were not functioning due to thirty years of iron fist rule of the Ba’ath party. It is more than seven years since the US assault on the state of Iraq, and vigorous debates about the future of Iraq continue in every level of society (Wilbanks
Business Strategy and the Economic Environment of Business Zorlu Group Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents The Market Situation amidst Globalisation
Privatisation and Liberalisation in Turkey
Market Structure in Turkey
The “New Ottomans”
Turkeys Accession to the European Union
Economic Implications of Turkey’s Accession
The Market Situation amidst Globalisation The Zorlu Group operates in an international environment. It is much affected by the rising tide of intense globalisation. The success of this group of companies is its adherence to the philosophy of successful international human resource management, which has become an international emerging phenomenon in business.
Globalisation is one of the key drivers to this trend. The term globalisation has a wider meaning; it involves many fields of knowledge to include economy, business, science, medicine, and many more. Globalisation is the advancement in technology, for instance the Internet and, subsequently, Information Revolution. We can now connect and conduct business with the rest of the world so easily.
Globalisation is characterised by mergers and acquisitions of industrial, commercial and financial companies, leading to an increase in the global role of large, multinational companies and to a lessening of the role of nation-states. (Bairoch, 2000, p. 197)
This is what has happened to the Zorlu Group. It started as a family-owned business in Turkey. The owner Mehmet Zorlu maintained a steady growth in the company which started as a textile company, and incorporated in it a culture of quality, integrity and perseverance.
Globalisation has widened the business arena or the playing field for the Zorlu Group. Connell (2007, p. 12) says that “Contemporary business ideology pictures globalisation as a galloping homogenization of the world in which all now participate on equal terms”.
Globalisation is also seen as a “little more than an expression of capitalist ideology” (Ferguson, 1992, cited in Bartelson, 2000, p. 181). Capitalists play a major role in a free trade with minimal intervention from governments of nations. The governments of these nation-states are part of the global world itself.
Economists define globalisation as the “international economic integration that can be pursued through policies of ‘openness’, the liberalization of trade, investment and finance, leading to an ‘open economy’” (Van Der Bly, 2005, p. 875).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theoretician Giddens (1990, p. 64, cited in Raab et al, 2008, p. 597) defines globalisation as “the intensification of world-wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.” This is stating the existence of the global world which can be interpreted as the virtual world.
The ‘old world’ is now dominated by information and communication structures brought about by technology and the internet. The ‘world of objectives’ is gradually replaced by ‘a world of signs’ (Bartelson, 2000, p. 189). This is the age of the digitisation of the world. In globalisation, nation states have lesser roles or in the words of Bairoch (2000), “the diminution of the role of states”.
The phrase term global village has become synonymous with the world we live in. Many authors and scholars would like to express it as saying that the world is now living in a global village, narrowed down or has been made small (but limitless) by the interconnectedness of things because of computers, the internet or the World Wide Web.
Communication and the conduct of business can now be made possible to anyone anywhere for as long as he/she has a computer.
Some of the internal factors that influence decision making in an organisation operating internationally are the senior managers’ psychological make-up, the organizational strategy, resources, organisational history, policies and systems, and organisational culture, among others.
There are other environmental factors that include labor markets, the national, regional, and world economies, financial markets, ethical and religious systems, factors in the green environment, and other industry interests.
A study by Hofstede (1980, cited in Franke et al, 2002, p. 5) revealed that some aspects of national culture are associated with economic growth.
We will write a custom Essay on Business Strategy and the Economic Environment of Business Zorlu Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Privatisation and Liberalisation in Turkey Privatisation means the sale of government-owned enterprises such as oil refineries, telephone companies, airlines, and utilities. It refers to providing public services or even goods.
Governments usually act on privatisation on certain public service areas, purposely to acquire and raise funds and improve the services of these public services. Other services that can be opened for sale by the government include fire protection, jails, schools, waste collection and disposal. (Shanoff, 2001, p. 20)
Privatisation advocates in Turkey believe that government services could be delivered at lower cost and with quality by private firms which are more responsive to the demands of the industry and the consuming public.
Shanoff (2001) says that the “public sector, which allegedly is sheltered from the ‘cleansing’ effect of the competitive market, is presumed to be awash in inefficiency.’
This means the public sector cannot really deliver the quality service the people or the community so urgently needs. By contrast, the private sector tends to minimise cost and provide quality service because of intense competition.
Privatisation accompanies liberalisation. It is also defined as “the process of transferring the production of goods or provision of services from the public sector of an economy to private ownership and operation” (Lewis, 1999).
Privatisation also includes:
The sale of state-owned operations to a privately owned company;
The offer of shares in a state-owned operation on a capital market;
The distribution through some voucher scheme of shares in a state-owned operation.
The government often controls the energy sector within the country; this is true with Turkey. Successful privatisation goes through various barriers and hurdles. But privatisation is a crucial element in the liberalisation process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Strategy and the Economic Environment of Business Zorlu Group by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Turkey is one of those countries which have undergone the slow process of liberalisation, and has adopted some of the market-based competition in its industries. Liberalisation is also well underway in the East European countries, the United Kingdom, South America and the United States.
There are benefits and defects in the privatisation of the energy sector, according to a World Energy Council paper presented by Gerhard Ott, Chairman of the Committee on Benefits
Application of Research Approaches in Business Situations Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Performance
Theory is usually tested in practice to prove its validity and applicability; a business research is a theoretical framework that enables researchers to outline the basic aspects of the practical implementation of methods to reach expected outcomes. In this respect, a theoretical approach should be used in a business situation to maximize the effect of the overall strategy.
For instance, when a human resource manager wants to improve the employee commitment as one of the social responsibility characteristics, he/she may use one of the strategies reviewed in literature and apply it to the corporation. Assessment of results with regard to their effectiveness or ineffectiveness would demonstrate if the appropriate strategy have been chosen and applied to practice.
Performance One of the research approaches usually explored in the process of business research is performance. As a rule, performance may concern the overall performance of an organization, performance of individuals, performance of groups with regard to the skills of group members, and the ways the performance is measured.
In other words, an organizational performance can be measured with the help of the employee satisfaction when the organization is considered as a workplace and its performance can be reflected in a survey held to find out whether the conditions are appropriate as well as salaries, system of bonuses, training, overall satisfaction.
For instance, in their study Clarke and Estes (2008) suggest to “use human performance analysis process constantly so that [to detect] …performance gaps as business conditions change” (p. 178). This means that performance is the reflection of the situation in the company and response of it and all its elements to internal and external changes.
Performance can be easily applied to business situations when it is necessary to keep abreast of the latest changes that take place in the market and within the organization. One of the ways of applying performance as a research approach is demonstrated in the study by Herbst and Coldwell (2004) where performance-monitoring research is claimed to be an integral part of the quality management policy.
As such, “South African Airways (SAA) may select sample flights and administer questionnaires to passengers on these flights about …in-flight service, food quality, aircraft clean lines…” (Herbst
Negotiations Case Study college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Pergy Fischer is the current chair of Mid-Western contemporary Art. Fischer took over the management of the museum at a time when it had a number of problems; most of them were financial. The museum was in need of premises and thus the management decided on building new premises. The new building was to ease congestion in the operation of the day-to-day activities at the museum.
Moreover, the new premise was to help the museum stock a variety of more artifacts from various parts of the world. Initially, the construction of the building was seen as a simple venture that would not raise any problems. To raise funds for the same, many people had pledged to donate towards the project. However, a challenge arose because the greatest pledge came from the former Chair of the museum, Mr. Peter Smith.
Relying on pledges to fund the new project proved very unreliable. Overtime, it became apparent that most donors would not honor their pledges. Many donors and stakeholders had pledged enough money towards the project. However, the donor would end up paying only a part of the pledge citing economic hardships as the challenge.
Other donors would just change the priority of giving and therefore to some extent heavily vary the amount pledged. Since the introduction of the FASB accounting rule, it became mandatory that all the nonprofit organizations record all the pledges as income during the time of the pledge.
The new requirements and rules made the number of lawsuits in the US law courts, relating to donor pledges, to rise sharply. These lawsuits were made in order to seek the court redress in claiming the unfulfilled pledges.
A former chairperson had made a huge pledge towards the project but also failed to honor it. Consequently, Fischer sought the board’s advice on the case that involved the Smith’s unfulfilled pledge.
Due to not fulfilling the pledge, lack of funds was seriously affecting the museum and the construction project was seriously stalling. During the meeting, the board members argued about the idea and finally settled that the lawsuit was not the best idea then.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the court approach was not the best solution, Fischer was contemplating the next alternative approach to collect the unfulfilled pledge. According to Born (2009), if one does not wish to bring a lawsuit against another, arbitration is the best alternative remedial process. Arbitration serves the aggrieved party but it does not involve any court process.
Born (2009), further observes that arbitration helps parties to avoid costly and lengthy litigations. Noting Smith’s current situation as discussed in the meeting, arbitration will simply be the smartest idea. Instituting a lawsuit against smith would simply leave him weaker and in the process jeopardize his life.
It is, therefore, advisable that, considering his current situation, the museum institutes an arbitration process in order to encourage him to honor his pledge. Such a process will help both parties to easily reach a consensus. Moreover, consensus will be arrived at in a less costly way and save time as opposed to lengthy court cases.
Should Fischer involve the board or formulate a recommendation on her own for the board’s next meeting?
Following the first meeting with the board, Fischer received quite a number of ideas in terms of alternatives to lawsuits. The ideas gathered from board members aimed at ensuring the organization does not have to proceed with any legal suit against Smiths.
Most of the argument were based on the situation that smith is in, while others argued with the image of the organization in mind. In a way, it will be noble for Fischer to involve the board in further discussion leading to any action against Smith.
This will highly reflect the element of transparency and accountability in her leadership. Further, involvement of the board in determining next agenda enhances democracy and participation.
Nonetheless, basing on the first board meeting, it may seem like wasting time to involve the board in setting the next agenda. It would appear like waste of time because the board seems to have already agreed unanimously on the decision to follow. This means that involvement of the board will not change much on what is already agreed. Formulating a recommendation on her own for the board’s next meeting will have many implications.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Negotiations Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though Fischer is the Chair of Mid -West contemporary art, the position does not give her absolute powers to do as she wishes. By formulating a recommendation on her own for the board next meeting, it means that she has undermined the decision reached earlier by the board, and that she no longer values the output of the board as she can equally do better without the board.
Similarly, her decision means she has started dictating to the company on what to do, without necessarily consulting in order to get the perspectives of the rest.
Making the organizations’ decision on her own, it would mean that, she no longer upholds the virtue of practicing democracy and that she now prefer authoritarian things to the rest of the board members. According to Gasper (2005), leadership should be learned rather than being inherited.
Gasper (2005) simply means that a leader should develop his leadership skills through interaction with the rest rather than doing things depending on what he think is acceptable and favorable. Gasper further notes that the best style of leadership is the one that combines the elements of democracy and directive. With democracy, the author notes that the leader should practice the issue of giving power to be self-directing.
Should the museum sue Smith or not?
There are many factors, which should inform the decision on whether the museum should sue Smith or not. First, Smith has a moral responsibility to pay the pledge he made to the museum. Regardless of Mr. Smith’s current Situation of suffering from cancer, his written pledge still stands.
When the museum received the following pledges it had a lot in mind, and by all standards, the pledge came in to relieve them. Unfortunately, even after the museum had started implementing some of its plans with the pledge in mind, like coming up with a bigger and modern structure, the pledge was not fulfilled.
As of now, the Smith’s are elderly and sick. Consequently, the chances of recovering the pledge from them get slim with the passing days. The smith pledge issue is compounded by the fact that the board is almost unanimous that the museum is not supposed to sue the Smiths. The reason the board is adamant on not suing the Smiths’ is that the Smiths’ have been long members of the museum.
Particularly, Mr. Smith was a long serving chairman of the museum. There have equally been worries of the reputation of the organization and the Smiths’ if the lawsuit were to go through; considering that, particularly at this time, Mr. Smith is tremendously ill with cancer. The reputation of the museum has to be safeguarded if it is to viewed favorably by the public and other donors in general.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Negotiations Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The board is avoiding a negative image; where it will be seen as greedy by engaging in a court battle whenever issues come up. Similarly, the board is afraid that suing Mr. Smith will anger him so much, such that he will never again try to lend or even give any part of his money to the museum. The board is also afraid that by suing, Mr. Smith and other donors will be forced to think twice before they offer the museum any money.
Largely, I think the museum should not have hesitated in suing Mr. Smith because legally Mr. Smith had committed a crime by pledging to offer an amount worth $5millions to the museum, a pledge he never satisfied.
According to Keown (2003), a financial pledge has lot of significance in any business or organization, because a part from being recorded as income in account receivable, the organization is also valued with the amount of money pledged in consideration.
This pledge made the museum to experience intense financial stress. Were it not for the pledge, the museum would not have commenced constructing the new structure that had actually cost the museum a lot of money.
Reference list Born, G. (2009). International Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer law international: Amsterdam
Gasper, E. J. (2005). Introduction to Business. Cengage Learning: Boston.
Keown, J. (2003). Foundations of Finance: The Logic and Practice of Financial Management. Pearson Education Inc: London.
Agenda-setting theory Essay argumentative essay help
Nowadays it is possible to find a few people who do not think that mass media affect, to some extent, public opinion. Admittedly, people find out about numerous events and phenomena from mass media. This is because many citizens do not attend political rallies and therefore rely on television, radio, newspapers and magazines for information. This assumption can be regarded as a basis for the agenda-setting theory.
The theory’s major point is that mass media decide what is the most important news and what event (or person) “deserves” less attention. It is necessary to point out that the basic points of the agenda-setting theory are plausible, and the strength of the theory lies in the fact that media do shape public opinion to certain extent, but the weakness of the theory is that mass media’s impact is somewhat over-estimated.
McCombs and Shaw have written about studies done on the coverage of election campaigns by the media in the 80s, and the percentage of what was actually aired. From the studies, it was found out that the percentage of what was aired was different from what was addressed during the political rally on the ground.
In other words, what was actually emphasized during the rally was different from what was emphasized in the news (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 70). Later, when the public was asked to comment on what they thought about a certain politician, majority of the answers reflected what was aired on television (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 75).
For example, a politician may allocate a huge percentage of his rally time on law and order agenda and give little attention on civil rights. A media house may reverse these priorities and concentrate on civil rights more than law and order. As a result, the public would think that this particular politician does not care about law and order (security), but cares more about civil rights.
The writers have also emphasized on the salience of effect created by the media. Most of the upcoming politicians are usually unknown since they are simply not in the news. It was found that, new politicians are usually first mentioned in the newspapers and magazines, and then on television (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 82).
McCombs and Shaw claim that people “learn not only about a given issue, but also how much importance to attach to that issue from the amount of information”, in this way media are setting the “agenda” (1972, 176).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Admittedly, this basic assumption of their theory is plausible since mass media do “sort” news and attach different levels of importance to each event and person. Thus, many people follow the set “agenda” and pay more attention to most important and less attention to least important. Besides, this principle works in the same way when it deals with political campaigns.
One of the greatest strengths of the agenda-setting theory is that it presents “a vast wealth of research on the impact of mass media content on the public agenda” (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 68). The theory reveals the major processes which influence public opinion.
It is especially relevant when considering political campaigns since at present the “information in the mass media becomes the only contact many have with politics” (McCombs and Shaw 1972, 176). Thus, politicians’ pledges are perceived through the vision of mass media. Apparently, when mass media highlight the campaign of a politician and there is nothing said about others, people can forget about the existence of “others”.
The other strength of this agenda is the level of accessibility people have on media. Today, virtually all the homes in America have a television set and even some channels have dedicated their channel to news and consumer advice. Television sets are also found in the waiting room of many offices, cafeterias and bars. Written materials are also easily available on the streets.
News stands display their material clearly for the public to see and entice them to buy. Other politicians have put up billboards during the camping to ensure almost everybody knows that they are running for a seat. Since the agenda setting theory is based on the people accessing the media material, it is apparent that what is on the media affects people’s opinion on a large scale.
The other strength of this theory is based on the fact that most people are usually undecided on who to vote for during the campaigns. Moreover, the undecided voters do not to attend political rallies simply because they do not care or are not concerned. Other voters simply do not believe that these candidates will deliver their promises. Despite of the lack of concern, they have to vote in the end.
When some people were asked on why they voted for some candidates, they mentioned that they liked the way they dressed, talked or even smiled. Therefore, politicians have capitalized a lot on their image in trying to win the election. Over the years, it has been seen that the image politicians present to the public through the media, has many times enabled them to win elections (McCombs and Shaw 1972, 180).
We will write a custom Essay on Agenda-setting theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, apart from the strengths, the agenda-setting theory has quite significant weaknesses. Crespi states that the theory “does not accept the discredited image of all-powerful mass media”, but “does ascribe a major role to them [mass media] in the public opinion process” (1997, 40).
Nevertheless, even the major role of mass media is quite a disputable issue. McCombs and Ghanem claim that the plausibility of the agenda-setting theory is supported by the fact that voters do not have “alternative means of observing the day-to-day changes in the political arena” (2003, 185). However, it is not taken into account that voters are usually exposed to different types of mass media.
Admittedly, various newspapers and magazines set different agendas. Some people prefer reading this or that, newspaper or magazine because it highlights campaigns and activities of a certain politician.
In this case, the voter sets his own agenda by choosing this or that source of information. These cases are not rare; on the contrary they are rather common. Thus, this is the most evident weakness of the theory which assumes that mass media play the primary role.
The other weakness is that this theory ignores the effect the public has on itself. When people are in a social event, they are bound to talk (positively and negatively) on the agendas advocated by the politicians.
It has been found that, an opinion from a friend, or from someone of the same social class, goes a long way in affecting the opinion of the subject (Crespi 1997, 58). Some politicians and companies have realized this effect and have started the door to door campaigns in an effort to influence the public’s opinion (Crespi 1997, 60).
Another weakness is that people are more sentimental to people and products that hail from their hometown. People are usually less influenced by the media regarding a politician hailing from their area. For example, it was seen that the media would have done little to persuade the people from Illinois to vote for another candidate other than Obama.
People are more likely to vote for a person whom they have ever met, know their relatives or live in their neighborhood. This has been attributed to the pride or a sense of belonging which people hold regarding a product or a person who hails from their area (Crespi 1997, 58).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Agenda-setting theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, it is possible to point out that the agenda-setting theory is very important in terms of the study of mass media impact on public opinion. The major strength of the theory is that, there have been studies done and proven it correct. Also, the availability of the media to almost anyone strengthens the theory. In addition, the presence of undecided voters who vote simply because of appearance favor this theory very much.
However, the major weakness of the theory is that it regards mass media as primary source of public agenda shaping. Also, the theory ignores the effect friends and relatives have on each other. In addition, the theory ignores the effect of the pride which people have regarding politicians who hail from their area. However, more studies should be done regarding this theory especially on the psychology field.
It is apparent that people attach an emotional feeling towards the people they vote for or the products they buy. Politician nowadays have become more of actors in their campaign adverts. Also, the incorporation of music and camera effects on campaign adverts has been known to emotionally affect the public’s view on certain politicians. This is all done to try to make an emotional connection with the public.
Bibliography Crespi, Irving. The Public Opinion Process: How the People Speak. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1997.
McCombs, Maxwell and Salma I. Ghanem. “The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing.” In Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, edited by Oscar H. Gandy, August E. Grant, Stephen D. Reese, 67-83. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2003.
McCombs, Maxwell E. and Donald L. Shaw “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly 36, no. 2 (1972): 176-187.
Internationalization of small and medium enterprises: effects on operations and performance Essay custom essay help
Abstract Globalization operations are the current trends in which businesses pursue in a bid to be competitively advantaged. Small and medium enterprises have as a result embarked on opening their branches and operation of their businesses in overseas markets.
This is what has made the researcher to do a research by taking a sample of 20 SMEs in the UK and gather data from the employees and top management. It would be observed in the research that the performance and operational efficiency of SMEs is enhanced by foreign operations. There will thus be a swell on the financial reports presented by these businesses.
Introduction A large number of multinational firms are small and medium enterprises. The contribution of the SMEs on the economic development and their impacts on the international arena has made it a major area for research.
The lion’s part of the economies of underdeveloped and developing economies is controlled by small and medium enterprises (Athavale, 2006). A considerable proportion of the size of the economies of developed nations is also determined by the SMEs.
The need to go global has led to the internalization of the operations of small and medium firms. The attention on the operations of the SMEs is epitomized by the quantity of research undertaken on the contributions of SMEs on the economic performance of various economies (Kirby
Asian Studies: Suharto’s Fall Essay essay help: essay help
Abstract Since 1998, Indonesia which is the country with the highest majority of Muslims in the world has transformed from an authoritarian state to a democratic state. Indonesia has developed various features of a democratic state and which is indicated by such aspects as the economic prosperity, enhancement of women rights among others. This remarkable change is as a result of Suharto’s fall from power in 1998.
Suharto was the Indonesian president for more than three decades before he fell from power in 1998.Duiring Suharto’s regime, women’s rights were greatly violated.The rate of violence against women was high. The new regime has put up measures aimed at protecting the rights of women (May, 2009, 7).
Introduction Statement of the Problem
Since the poor economic growth and subsequent fall from power of Suharto in 1998, the political system of Indonesia has experienced a dramatic change. The most intense impact is the process of decentralization and democratization that was initiated between the period 1998 and 2000.Democratic reforms in Indonesia have taken into pieces the past authoritarian system.
Decentralization has also stripped Suharto from power. The new system has eroded the authoritarian institutions that were created during President Suharto’s long-term rule. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of Suharto’s fall form power and the subsequent protection of women rights in Indonesia.
This paper is important as it demonstrates how women were restricted during President Suharto’s regime and also the reforms that were undertaken to improve the status of women. Though several studies have assessed the impact of Suharto’s fall from power, little effort has been put into studying the subsequent democratization and its effect for the women’s rights in Indonesia.
This essay will examine the impact of Suharto’s fall from power and the subsequent fall of authoritarianism, corruption, and political persecution in Indonesia, and examine the subsequent protection of women’s rights on Indonesian women.
Prior to independence, women’s’ organizations in Indonesia focused on such aspects as women’s education, the evils that are associated with forced marriages, the importance of self-worth among others. After the Dutch colonialists left in 1945, the situation changed as leaders focused their attention to matters of national interest, and as a result, women’s issues were disregarded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The situation worsened when President Suharto assumed power in 1966 (Nashat,
Advocacy Plan Essay essay help online free
Target Audience For students studying in small communities of Ashland, in Mississippi, library is an indispensable tool for education. It is important for students to have instant access to library resources for conducting scientific researches. Therefore, students should be assured that they will get the books and services needed in time.
The library has a perfect match for its services and timely operations towards the students and plays a pivotal role in school. It is preferable for students to have an access library services on a 24 hour basis. In such pursuit, urgent need for implementing an online service that allows an all the time access to library books, and log in at any time for research and various studies is of high importance.
Due to the fact that the main mission of the school is sustaining and increasing collaboration between teachers, students, and parents, meeting students’ needs should be a priority for the administrative stuff.
Advocacy Plan Goals Goal 1: The program on improving academic standards will be based on encouraging student learning through higher order thinking
With regard to the situation in library, one of the methods to meet the academic standards is to introduce students to media applications promoting better utilization of the material.
According to Prasher (1997), that main aspect of library school program should be based on “extending the existing body of factual knowledge concerning the values and procedures of libraries in their many aspects, and including the development of methods of investigation whereby significant data are obtained, tested and applied” (p. 190).
In this regard, students should be ensured that all plans are directed at improving the quality of library service through increasing the academic standards.
Goal 2 Directing the library resources on developing academic, career, and social skills in students to enhance their abilities to participate in class activities and learn defined outcomes
Librarians should constantly provide care and support to students. Greater responsiveness and active participation in students’ research will greatly contribute to their better understanding of some academic problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Goal 3: Technology is an inherent part of library media program of Ashland Middle School
Such goal can be achieved through the implementation of online access to libraries. Students who have computers in their rooms would be able to access books online.
Stock of books at a time is readily known, as the staff is able to identify borrowed books and submission of the books back the library. In order to simplify the search of books in library, it is possible to create online archives fostering the process of searching.
Activities for Advocacy Activity 1:
In Friedman (1987), to achieve the goal of having an online library service in the University, several activities should be put in place. The department of ICT and Computing would consult, organize themselves, and design an online library system.
The project would run for duration and when it is finished, it will be tried on several occasions. Library staff, administration, and students should fully participate in the implementation of the system.
Libraries in higher learning institutions are extremely beneficial to the entire school staff. There are superb collections of all sorts of books that help achieve academic excellence. In this regard, it is necessary to work out specific activities stimulating and increasing librarians’ participation in students’ academic process.
In particular, it is purposeful to establish certain academic criteria and requirements for librarians, such as ethical code of conduct and ethical standards. In addition, cross-cultural aspects should also be involved.
There exists continued technological advancement in library services. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce specific training courses that would contribute to students’ quick adjustment to the ongoing changes. It is necessary to introduce specific rule disclosing the main stages of successful search for books via the online library catalogue.
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The technology introduction will be supported by the installation of necessary hardware and software as well as explanation of the basic functions this equipment entails.
The training programs for the library stuff will contribute to students’ better adjustment to using the resources of library. During orientation, new students should be trained as well to have a full comprehension of all technological introductions. Therefore, the marketing needs should also involve training courses (Miller, Pride, and Fisher 2006).
The media specialists will provide students with library e-mail that will serve to accept any students’ requests concerning suggestions for improving services and staff qualification.
In order to engage the service providers, it is necessary to connect with Internet providers who can ensure students with good online access to library catalogue. Besides, some protection measures should be introduced to enhance safety and security as well as the protection of the intellectual property of the school. For this measure it is necessary to address the School Board to provide financial support.
In order to promote specific training courses, it is also necessary to conduct a marketing survey to reconcile students’ needs with the financial resources possessed by the School Board.
Reference List Friedman, J. (1987). Planning in the public domain: from knowledge to action. London: Princeton University Press.
Miller, G., Pride, M
Differentiated Instruction, Its Sense and Advantages Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Rationale behind Differentiating Instruction
How to Differentiate Instruction
Usage of Technology in a Diversified Population of Students
Introduction Educators conduct investigations thus discovering several ways of instilling knowledge upon learners. It is vital to assert that the discovery of differentiated instruction has achieved scores of goals in the academic ambience.
Differentiated instruction (DI) encompasses crafting numerous pathways so that students of diverse aptitudes, concerns, or learning requirements experience uniformly suitable ways to understand, employ, and exude conceptions as a component of the daily education practices (O’Meara, 2010).
It permits students to acquire superior liability and possession for their personal learning, and grants chances for peer coaching and mutual learning. DI, also multilevel training, requires scheduling so that the trainer teaches the complete lesson whilst meeting the personage desires of the children.
Although this is cumbersome process, it is apposite to train with reference to every child’s potency, as well as appropriate point on the scale. It is thus necessary to employ differentiated instruction in the edification institutions for learners to apprehend their potentials, as well as appropriately apply the acquired knowledge.
Prior experiences in the classrooms have shown that no two students are similar. Moreover, it is impractical for two kids to learn in a matching way. It is also imperative to declare that an enhanced setting for one child or student is not automatically apt for another. All these postulations lead to the point of differentiated education where instructors endeavor at instructing children to reflect for themselves.
Differentiated instruction; therefore, goes along to address these parameters, but upholding the fact that an indispensable curriculum is appropriate for everyone. Instructors who employ this technique use varied methodologies to furnish the individual wishes of students.
Rationale behind Differentiating Instruction Instructors, as well as other educators, have always differentiated instructions in the course of their works. The rationale behind differentiated instruction revolves around theories, edifying common sense, and benefits of the technique. This technique tends to achieve the needs of the assorted learners through utilization of varied education styles. This is factual since DI employs styles like visual, solo and social among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures that the children feel contented within the learning environment. DI usually welcomes students with varied education and other types of disabilities. Such disabilities are neurologically correlated thus bordering the student’s capacity to learn a subject (Benjamin, 2003). The technique; therefore, prompts the instructors to dispense knowledge in accordance with the child’s acumen level.
It is crucial to affirm that educators utilize differentiated learning to mind learners from diverse cultures, especially those whose initial tongue is not English. Since the technique employs bilingualism in the instruction centers, learners from other cultures may study English as they continue with the basic topics in indigenous words.
Teachers tend to differentiate instructions for entire inclusion of children in the learning progression. The technique usually uses a participatory mode of teaching thus involving students to contribute for their own gain. Teachers have previously utilized the method of direct and rote memorization in their works; however, this has not proved viable enough to instill proper subject information.
However, DI excites creativity, besides helping students comprehend ideas at advanced echelons of thinking than the aforementioned techniques. Another reason why instructors differentiate instruction is due to its efficacy in reaching learners of dissimilar potencies and weaknesses in a learning setting. Its stance is that one dimension does not fit every one, so it is an instruction with learner’s variance in mentality (Benjamin, 2003).
How to Differentiate Instruction Differentiating instruction needs a methodical understanding of the concepts of this technique. In a bid to differentiate instruction, the teacher should analyze the divergences in willingness, interests, as well as learning manners of learners, using an assortment of performance gauges. Since there are four means of differentiating instruction, starting instructors may commence differentiation by fluctuating the content, procedure, or reaction for every group.
As the educator gets expertise in technique, differentiation can happen at all three ranks of the course for various students. Differentiating content obliges a teacher to pre-analyze students who do not need express instruction. Content entails knowledge, talents, as well as feelings. Students signifying elevated understanding on the topic may pass over the lessons, but maintain on applying the conceptions to the assignment solving (O’Meara, 2010).
Teachers can also achieve this by differentiating process through changing the learning stratagems or activities to offer suitable methods for learners to discover the concepts. This offers the students substitute itineraries of maneuvering the ideas entrenched in the conception. For instance, students can utilize graphic controllers, atlas, illustrations, or chats to exhibit their understanding of the concepts learnt.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Differentiated Instruction, Its Sense and Advantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another way is differentiating the result, where the teacher varies the intricacy of the product produced by the students to express the mastery of the ideas. This implies that a teacher would expect a further composite and sophisticated thinking from an above-rank learner, as opposed to students operating underneath the grade rank.
Finally, educators can differentiate instruction by stage-managing the environment, as well as accepting personage-studying styles. Individual students have varied learning modes; therefore, allowing them to exude such styles helps in mastery and application of the subjects.
Usage of Technology in a Diversified Population of Students The use of technology is imperative in instilling knowledge, in a diversified population of students. However, the modes of application of such technologies greatly contribute to their success (Pitler, et al., 2007). There are plentiful ways that teachers can use a technology in a dissimilar population of students. One can use participatory smart boards in place of chalkboards in class teachings.
It is a flat monitor, which has a link with the teacher’s CPU, as well as school Internet. This allows students to participate in the disciplines like spelling, mathematics, among others. Additionally, the use of touch screen expertise proves viable since students can use remote clickers when responding to the query. It is noteworthy to combine technology with the traditional mode of teaching to make learning all-inclusive, engaging, and pleasurable.
A teacher should understand the formula for victory, which engages the student, content, as well as the surroundings in which he or she is applying the technology. Owing to the prevailing online books and other interactive actions, teachers can permit children to go online to complete the tasks. Consequently, one can provide the publisher’s website so that learners can complete the tasks at home.
Instructors can, as well offer options to the students on the best and familiar mode of technology to boost their learning. This implies that a diversified class may comprise a group, which is conversant with a technology, as opposed to another. There is a need to use a combination of technologies like computer games, videos, virtual museums, and interactive websites (Pitler, et al., 2007).
Conclusion Although differentiated instruction is not a novel mode of teaching, it is gaining popularity due to its success. Educators should have a substantial idea in DI to implement it effectively in the classrooms. There is assorted basis for differentiating instructions, and these are based on investigation, common sense, and advantages. One can differentiate instruction by changing content, procedure, setting, and result.
Educators can always implement these slowly as they gain momentum in this technique. The use of technology to ensure excellent learning in a diverse populace of students requires a thorough understanding of the technology, as well as combining it with the traditional instructional methods.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Differentiated Instruction, Its Sense and Advantages by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Benjamin, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction: a guide for elementary school teachers. New York, NY: Eye on Education.
O’Meara, J. (2010). Beyond Differentiated Instruction. California, CA: Corwin Press.
Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. Kuhn, M.
Capital Asset pricing Model Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
Executive Summary Used by investors to establish relationship between expected return on investment in asset or security and the risk. It assumes that taxes do not exist in the market and transaction costs are not incurred. CAPM also assumes that investors borrow at risk free rate and uses the beta coefficient to measure volatility of the security. CAPM has several applications including capital budgeting, portfolio analysis and decision making in strategic planning.
The technique is based on risk which can either be diversifiable or non-diversifiable risk. Several criticisms have been laid out with reference to the assumptions made.
The most important factor is that CAPM considers systematic risk, which reflects the general position of investors who have diversified portfolios. This paper outlines the types of risk and assumptions of the capital asset pricing model as well as demonstrating an application of the CAPM equation using a simple example.
Introduction The capital asset pricing model, commonly referred to as CAPM, is a tool used by organizations and investors to analyze returns based on risks taken in certain investments within the market. It provides the rate of return on assets which an investor has interest in. The rate of return represent the value that the organization or investor expects to achieve based on the risk undertaken.
It basically seeks to establish the value of an asset based on risk and returns. The capital asset pricing model is based on several assumptions and equally has many applications with regards to a company or organizations investment options.
Risk and CAPM Investment in any financial asset usually presents some level of risk. This risk is classified as either diversifiable or non-diversifiable risk. Diversification is aimed at reducing risks that an investment or asset is likely to experience. This is undertaken by adding more stocks or investment portfolios that have minimal correlation to avoid being affected equally by the same type of risk.
For investors, this tool is particularly important as it is used to calculate the returns on risky investment portfolios. What an investor eventually earns is dependent on the level of systematic risk that they undergo.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diversifiable Risk Diversifiable risk is often referred to as controllable risk as they are company specific risks which are unique to the company. Random occurrences within the firm lead to diversifiable risks. These range from strikes by employees, lawsuits and poor managerial practices.
This implies that the risk that the investor is willing to encounter can be eliminated through diversification as this risk can be easily mitigated due to the fact that it is within the firms’ control. This is attributed to the uniqueness of the risk as opposed to the economy wide or market wide effects. Diversification ensures that the firm develops a portfolio of many assets to eliminate unsystematic risk (Brigham
Performance management scheme Report argumentative essay help
Introduction Human resources are precious, they need to be managed effectively; when developing a personnel’s management strategy; an organization needs to have an effective performance appraisal and rewarding system. When an effective performance management is implemented, it boosts employees’ confidence and motivates them.
Performance management is defined as a continuous process that involves assessment of an employee in all dimensions with the aim of rewarding and establishing areas that can be improved for better performance. Leader have the role of overseeing the success of the strategy; when managing performance, leaders are seen as performance coaches, trainers, confronters, mentors, and counselors.
An effective performance process helps an organization to learn and understand its staffs strengths, weaknesses, talents and capabilities.
When the above attributes of employees are known, then a company can devise appropriate motivational, rewarding, training and mentoring programs to enhance performance within the organization (Anthony, Kalmar and Perrewé, 2002). This paper discusses major steps involved in a performance management process.
Major phases involved Although performance management is a continuous process, which differs from annual appraisals (annual appraisals are periodical performance appraisal that involves assessing the general performance of an employee with the main aim of rewarding or salary adjustments), they follow a certain procedure that need to be well understood by managers. The procedure follows the following pathway:
Identifying and describing essential job functions
One of the major roles of human resources department is to establish the tasks that employees are supposed to take within an organization.
When recruiting, human resources look for a certain attribute, qualification and talent with employees; the attribute will be used to fill a certain vacuum within the organization, after deploying the employee to the needed position, the next move that the human resources should take is to appraise and boosts the employee’s knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When placing an employee within an organization, there are features that need to be looked into, they include the capability, attitude, moral, experience, education qualification and the general perception that the employing has towards the role likely to be undertaken. The main aim of role definition and description of job functions is to promote continuous employee and organizational growth and development.
It has the aim of ensuring that the right employee is given the right job. On the other hand, when making orchestrate teams, managers have some functions that they need to undertake; they need to appraise and realize the capability of the people to a team so that they can make winning teams.
When managing an organization, every department has some roles it is made to attain; the roles are defined in the corporate goals and objectives, they play a role in the general attainment of corporate mission and vision. When assigning tasks, manager should define the major functions and expectations that they have towards their employees, they should ensure that the there is clear definition of role and separation of power.
An old management saying states that it does not need supermen managers to provide extra ordinary results but it only requires proper duty allocation and enhancing their attainment so that ordinary people can deliver extraordinary results consistently.
Leaders and department heads have the task of allocating duties and overseeing that the right placement has been done; periodically depending with the role that a team has to play, there should be performance contracts that staffs sign and guarantee the management that they will attain that.
When dealing with short-term projects, the team operating the project should guarantee that, they could deliver the expected results with and within time and resources allocated.
Although the expectations are set at the start of a period, managers should be realistic and review the performances if they are needed to, they should also offer appropriate mentorship and physical resources to assist in the attainment of the set functions (Bandt and Haines, 2002).
We will write a custom Report on Performance management scheme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Developing appropriate performance standards
Corporate goals, objectives, mission statements and vision statements of an organization define the expectations that stakeholders have from an organization; on the other hand, they represent the promise that managers, who acts as agents of shareholders have made to their stakeholders.
With the overall expected and promised goals, human resources should get their position; every employee is seen to be performing a certain duty to fulfill the goals directly or indirectly.
Human resource departments should develop the performance standard that they want from every employee, having attained; they are the same standards that are used in performance appraisal. A balanced score card assist human resources to look into qualitative and qualitative performance of an employee.
When developing standards, human resources department looks into two main aspects: qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative standards are the deliverables that an employee is expected to produce when offered maximum support and mentorship from the management and the organization as a whole.
The tangible outcome that can be attributed to a certain employee when supported by other members of the team should be the vocal point in quantitative performance standard setting.
There are different ways of coming up with the target that every individual is likely to get; the most common method is a top down approach where the top managers define the corporate goals and general target, then divide it among the departments that produce quantitative results.
When doing this the division take as many stages as the fragmentation of an organization, for example for a three staged organization, the top manager divides the target among departments considering the potential of the department, then the department divide the set targets among the section they have.
When dividing targets among sections in an organization it is the most risky and the part that requires maximum corporation and considerations, departmental heads, section heads and top management should be available. In current team goal oriented teams, targets can only be given to a team with individual players; the general team performance will form the basis of appraising an employee as well as performance management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Performance management scheme by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The next performance standard that an organization should set is qualitative performance; the performance is more concerned on the general attitude and conduct of employees within the organization. To attain the desired results, an organization needs to have an organizational behavior that supports the fulfillment of the goals.
The quantitative standards that are set in an organization are mostly the human resources policies that an organization should uphold; they include ethical conduct, the general accepted organizational behavior and the corporate principles. For example, Toyota Motor Corporation operates a five-principle policy where it expects that employees should follow the principle to be considered to have been well integrated in the organization.
The internal qualitative performance standard by Toyota are Kaizen (continuo’s improvement), Teamwork (developing orchestrate winning team), Respect (respect is towards employees, other team members and customers), and Genchi Genbutsu (go and see).
When doing the continuous appraisals, managers should be keen on the rate at which an employee fulfils quantitative and qualitative performance expectation of the organization. There should be no point that the organization should ignore either of the sides in their appraisal. In most cases, organizations can only improve the qualitative standards but they cannot cut them down (Samson, 2009).
Performance management and rewards
An employment contract calls for the employer to pay some remuneration to the employee on the job that the employee has dome. Rewards take different forms; they are pegged on different parameters that include education, experience and the demand and supply forces of labor.
Other than being a motivational strategy, an effective reward system acts as a tool of attracting, motivating, and retaining employees within the organization. To enhance good performance and to show employees the value they have within the organization, the reward system should be effective and responsive to their needs.
Rewards should be pegged to the performance of an employees and the rate that they grow with should be god enough to show how valued an employee is to an organization. Rewards have a psychological effect on human beings, human resources tend to believe that if they are paid well, then they are valued by their organization; they get motivated and willing to work further.
An effective reward system has three main approaches they are base pay, incentive systems, indirect compensation, perquisites and awards; base pay are mostly defined in the initial employment contract and gives the amount of reward that an employee should expect from the employer; in most formalized organizations.
Base pay is made as a matter of policy where a certain carder of employees is given the minimum and the maximum wage limit they can have when in that position.
The incentive reward systems are the extra benefits other than monetary reward that an employee is entitled to by virtue of working for a certain organization. They are seen as benefits that accrue to employees, they include medical schemes, insurance schemes, and pension and co-curriculum activities. They are benefits that are likely to attract the attention of employees and facilities the attractiveness of an organization.
Indirect compensation, are compensations that accrue to third parties defined by a policy; they include education for one children to a certain level, health cover for a family among others.
When developing performance management strategy, the reward system should be well made and structure to attract and retain high valued employees; reward is both motivational and attracting tool. Management should ensure that the structure is well moderated and reflects current market situation (Kleiman, 2000).
Monitoring and assessing performance
With time, management should be able to monitor, control and assess the general performance of teams and employees, depending with the nature of an organization as well as the tasks undertaken, the duration for monitoring vary.
The deliverables and success parameters vary thus management should ensure they understand the trend and the expected duration for an evaluation. At this stage, a number of approaches that can be used to gauge the level of operational success, they include the use of Gannt charts, and flow chart diagrams or critical success factors parameters.
When using either method, management should be comparing the expected results and the actual results of a certain process; the variance as a result may be favorable (the employee has surpassed the set target) or it can be negative. When favorable, the reasons behind the high performance should be established, they include that the targets were too lenient or the employee worked extra hard to fulfill the organizations goals and objectives.
If the targets were seen to have been easy to attain, then management should adjust them accordingly, on the other hand, if the extra ordinary performance is attributable to employees individual or team effort, then managements should chip in and reward them accordingly.
Alternatively, when there is extra ordinary performance, management should seek to realize if there is any invention or innovation that the team has had, that could be used across the organization. Appropriate structures to pass the invention and innovation to other departments should be put in place.
According to expectancy theory of motivations, in the paradigm of Rewards-personal goals relationship, human resources has the sole aim of ensuring that employee’s effort and personal attributes are rewarded using an appropriate system. It aims at rewarding ones talent, expertise or professionalism that adds value to an organization.
If rewarded it encourages creativity, innovation and exploitations of one’s talent as one anticipates high reward. Employees expect to be compensated for their efforts within the organization; they have some personal goals they need to fulfill with the works of their hands.
When they know that if they work hand they will be paid for performance, they are motivated to work harder and attain their expected personal financial benefits (Henderson, 2003).
Giving and receiving feedback about performance
After having an elaborate monitoring and assessment procedure, human resources should interpolate the results to assist them come up with the best strategies to improve and boost performance within the organization.
Feedbacks can be documented or given by immediate supervisor of an employee, they have insight knowledge on the general performance of an employee and probably they can advice on areas that need to be improved.
In scientific appraisal system, also called balanced score card system, when appraising an employee, manager or his immediate supervisor sits with the employee and they discuss the performance of the employee, the generate a single document that they both agree it is true and fair. This document is used as the appraisal feedback with some recommendations that needs to be implemented in an organization.
Feedback is crucial is performance system; it is the result that are used to develop and forge the way forward as well as realize the strong points in an organization. Manager have the role of interpolating the feedback effectively and coming up with a coaching, learning, monitoring and training strategy.
The mentoring strategy developed should aim at addressing the issue within the organization and probably offer some insight information that can assist in the future not to have such similar issues (Harold and Michael, 1994).
Planning education and development opportunities for staff to improve work performance Education and development programs are crucial for the attainment of corporate goals as well as knowledge improvement within an organization. They are also focused on certain areas that need improvement. Human resources managements should understand professionalism can be developed and managed with continuous training and development of employees.
Employees have limited set of skills that require continual upgrading in the phase of changing market demands and technology. Only by updating these skills using well-developed education and development programs, that development of knowledge can be attained within an organization.
Human resources management should ensure that employees are well motivated to take the education and development programs positively, highly motivated employees are more productive.
The training areas are determined through the appraisals and performance monitoring and assessments conducted in course of business; employee must be appraised appropriately to enable the human resources department to establish the areas that need to be improved.
In modern contemporary business environment, there is a growing demand for diversity training; companies sharpen the skill of their team through various training programs; diversity programs are aimed at shaping developing a better cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, to have a double effect where the company benefit and employees are expected to benefits from such moves.
When a company has a pool of expertise, it increases the level of efficiency in production. Diversity training offers a chance to an organization to plan its training program to facilitate the development of a team. It goes further than normal training where it involves cultural diversity training, consideration of minority groups, gender factors and training on rights of employees.
It aims at increasing respect for civil rights and inclusion of minority in a team. International human rights, discourages any discrimination in a working place when diversity training is adopted in a company, the management and junior appreciated the cultural diversity of different people and thus would not discriminate them. On the other hand, the training leads to understanding of human resources rights and freedom.
When an effective and goal oriented training is conducted in an organization, then employees get a chance to improve their skills and grow their career. Knowledge management programs are supported by the strength of information that employees have so there is need to have continuous training programs in an organization all along; it will enhance performance and job satisfaction (Smith and Mazin, 2004).
Generate solutions to performance management issues
When managing performance, a number of issues are likely to face an organization; the issues are likely to vary with organizations however, the most common ones are on structure of the system and to implement it.
Communication is one of the most effective ways that can determine the success or failure of performance management programs, when an organization has an effective communication structure, and then chances are on the higher side that performance management will not be a problem.
An effective communication system should thus be implemented in organizations as it bleaches the gap between management and employees. An effective communication system takes the form of a two-way system where an employee listens to the management and management gives employees the chance to express what they feel or think about a certain issue.
With appropriate communication system the next policies that an organization should implement is coaching, mentoring and counseling programs.
Coaching is relatively short term and involves a certain established issue that management wants to address in their company. Supervisors and team leaders are the coaches and should target the areas that they feel their team need improvement.
When coaching managers should offer required support and ensure there is good communication among the team members and the head. Sometime the help of a professional in a certain area is crucial to offer insight information about the challenge that is affecting the team.
Mentoring is a form of training where the mentor is more concerned with the ongoing and day-to-day guidance given to employees, they need to be shown the way forward and be prepared to take leadership posts within the organization.
Leaders of different section are the mentors; this offers a good environment where a leader can learn the strengths and weaknesses of an employee for proper growth within the organization or to offer the required training.
Counseling is another approach that managers should incorporate in performance appraisal; counseling is more on private issues of an employee, where management aims at improving the social and personal feelings of an employee.
There are times that employees performance is low because they may be undergoing difficult time in their personal life, management should involve the services of an expert to solve such issues, although its expensive, it is likely to offer good results in the long run (Renckly and Renckly, 2003)
Conclusion An organization requires physical and human resources for its operations; human resources performance need to be appraised occasionally and appropriate measures taken to improve their performance, The human resource department is given the mandate of ensuring that adequate employees are available at all times.
It has the mandate of planning, deploying, employing, training, retaining, dismissal of employees, and development of an effective performance management scheme. An effective performance management scheme looks issues in the interest of workers and the organization.
References Anthony, W. P., Kalmar, K. M. and Perrewé, P. L. ,2002. Human Resource Management, A Strategic Approach. South-Western:Thomson Learning.
Bandt, A. and Haines, S., 2002. Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.
Public Discourse under the Financial Crisis in the U.S and Canada Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abstract Many authorities have considered the occurrences of the 2008 financial crisis a historic occurrence that brought many challenges to the entire economic world and changed how the world does business. To date, the effects of this crisis still resonate in different parts of world’s economy.
The number of people that lost their jobs, the number of companies that ran into bankruptcy and dwindled in self-destruction through foreclosures and closures, the amount of money that was pumped into the economy by governments as stimuli to guard investors and businesses and the amount of cuts that was done to most national budgets to cater for the crisis are elements of the crunch that make it one of the most outstanding in modern history.
The US and Canada equally had its share of the challenge and it actually it is surmised now that the crunch was triggered by developments in the US market in the real estate and banking industries (Camiciottoli, 2009).
The central focus of the paper will be discovering public discourse that are related to the 2008 financial crisis where it will determine the contents of these articles and analyze and consider them regarding the way they have been written and the theoretical concepts the authors employed in conveyance of the information contained therein.
Introduction Public discourse under the financial crisis in the U.S and Canada
The global financial crisis triggered by bankruptcy of the investment bank-Lehman Brothers – since September 2008 has been likened to a tsunami – or so commonly called the ‘financial tsunami’.
The analogy is appropriate because just as a tsunami, the economic depression has a geographical origin (in the suburban housing market in the US) but spreading geographically over vast regions of the world. In doing so, the crisis has impacted significantly on global economies all over the world albeit it to a varying degree of intensity (Camiciottoli, 2009).
Background of the study
Financial crisis is a situation that is characterized by high levels of unemployment, a drop in prices of commodities and having low trade and investment opportunities. In 2008 the world suffered a financial crisis which was thought to have originated from the United States of America.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It began in late 2007 and headed on to 2008 affecting the economy of the entire universe. It is said to have been caused by the unfavorable lending ways in the United States of America and the rising trend of acquiring real estate loans. Rising food and oil crisis is also cited as a factor that led to this phenomenon.
Loans lost their value as assets prices slammed thus making large financial institutions such as the banks to have huge losses that amounted to them needing financial assistance which in turn led to the rescue packages from the governments. Its effects are felt to date and the world’s economy has not yet fully recovered with many pundits suggesting that the United States economy will take until late 2011 for it to fully recover.
In recent times, there has been a number of research and study on the global financial crisis. The available discourse has specifically addressed the question of its cause and its economic effects to other countries. As much as there has been some study on the financial crisis, there has been little or no research on public discourse of the financial crisis of 2008.
This paper will view the public discourse in regard to the 2008 global financial crisis as well as the genre involved in relation to the financial crisis. It is determined that studies that have been done on this topic in the last four years have mostly used single genre which means that they have obtained their information from a single main source like the newspapers (McCloskey, 2002).
In addition to this, the paper sets out to analyze the financial column beginning with single genre where it will evaluate financial columns articles finding out there rhetoric analysis and stating their ideologies.
The paper will attempt to prove that financial columnists’ writings (which is constitutes of articles that are published in newspapers) are a single genre and this will be done by applying the genre theory. The paper will then analyze the rhetoric devices and finally connect rhetoric devices used by each columnist with their political ideology.
There have been a number of studies on the discourse of economics but currently there is little or no research that is published on the discourse in the financial arena especially regarding the global crunch of 2008.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Public Discourse under the Financial Crisis in the U.S and Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard therefore, the research gap for this paper will only be restricted to the discourse and genre analysis that is directly or indirectly connected to the 2008 global financial crisis whose effects and influence on world economies are still felt even now. Based on previous researches, the financial column articles will first be defined as a single genre.
Then, rhetoric analysis on financial column articles will be conducted particularly connecting with the financial crisis (McCloskey, 2002). Finally, from looking at the financial columnists’ writing, their ideologies and perceptions about the research question will be studied as well.
This research in order to realize its objectives, it will set out to answer a number of questions. These questions are all steered towards answering the research objectives and the appropriateness and success of the paper will be determined by the level of satisfaction to which these questions are answered. They are:
What effects does the recent financial crisis have on the public discourse in the U.S. and Canada?
Do the financial columnists constitute a single genre? If yes, why?
What are the rhetoric devices used by the financial columnists when talking about the financial crisis? What new phrases or terms are created by financial columnists due to financial crisis? And what phrase and terms have changes in frequency or meaning in relating with the financial crisis?
What kinds of rhetoric devices are frequently used by the financial columnists when talking about financial crisis, for example, metaphor or figurative language?
How do financial columnists use the rhetoric devices to persuade newspapers readers to agree with their opinion about the financial crisis?
In what ways is the ideology of financial columnists reflected in their use of rhetoric devices?
Chapter Two: Literature Review
The concept of genre theory, rhetoric analysis and ideology inspire the design of research questions of this study. Some concepts that are considered traditional are at times intrinsically problematic. They are usually defined by using similarities they have in different respects such as: in strategies and approaches used in the discourse, the audience intended and in the mode of thinking opted for (Miller, 1984).
The incomplete and sometimes conflict opinions prevent a coherent and integrated comprehension of genres. Comparing with traditional genre concepts, the contemporary genre theories has been a matter of considerable discussion in research communities throughout the world. The Sydney School analysts such as Bazerman (1993) and Swales (1990) have used the concept to complement the Hallidayan notion of register.
In America the seminal work of Miller (1984), Swales (1990), Bazerman (1993) have contributed to a wider understanding of the concept of genre by defining the concept, introducing models suitable for performing genre analyses, and not least capturing the complexities of genre systems and genre development.
The theorists of American school “tend to describe genres in terms of family resemblances among texts” (Swales, 1990, p.49). Some of texts used in a specific genre are at times compared and illustrated by the theorist involved when the approach of family resemblance if used.
From this perspective, if the researcher finds similarities among the financial column articles, it is able to define the financial columnists’ articles as a single genre. However, such approach has been criticized on the basis that “no choice of a text for illustrative purposes is innocent and such theories can make any text seem to resemble any other one” (Swales, 1990, pp.50-51).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Discourse under the Financial Crisis in the U.S and Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The modern genre theory is situated in several streams of thoughts that recognize the social nature of a text, including the social constructivism that is shaping contemporary academic thought in social sciences and humanities, as well as sociologists’ contribution (Freedman
Impact Digitization and Convergence on Internet Essay college admission essay help
Introduction The internet is the most recent fundamental media in the contemporary society, which entirely relies on web browsers. The establishment of the web in the year 1989 was a triggered by the massive development of social sciences, as a result of increased urge to share accumulated knowledge among scholars and researchers.
According to Baym (2007), the internet has massively revolutionized the contemporary information dynamics with regard to the converging diverse global cultures. Considering the power of visual images on behavioral changes, the television has largely played a very significant role in the currently experienced modernization as a result of globalization.
As noted by Lester (2002), the ability of the media to allegorically amalgamate diverse lifestyles is facilitated by the level of motivation towards its use. As television out-fashioned the radio, the internet as the most personalized digital media has the potential to render the television less relevant. This paper will discuss the impacts of digitization and convergence on the internet in the currently globalized society.
As noted by Geer