Introduction The purpose of this report is to design a marketing strategy with very little budget for an upcoming campaign. However, this report will concentrate on the number of issues such as Online Communities, reason to joining online communities, Wang and Fesenmaier (2003) model for member needs, the power of social networking, and target Audience for the campaign.
However, this paper will also focus external and internal environment, strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats of social media marketing, slogan of the campaign, time frame, budget, technological development on advertising, and effectiveness of the implication of social marketing in the campaign, key objectives and messages of this campaign, and so on.
Situational Analysis “Drink it down” company will launch a new cherry flavoured cola drink and this report will prepare a marketing strategy to promote this new product to the consumers. The main aim of this situational analysis is to explore the current condition of the selected company “Drink it down”, objectives, functionality, target market and so on.
However, this analysis will find out the latent area where the marketing campaign will make success and importance of Integrated Marketing Communication campaign project of the company in order to create loyal consumer base or build strong brand image in competitive cola market.
However, the behaviour of the customer is difficult to understand, as they always like to taste new flavoured drinks, for instance, according to the report of the Gale Group (2011, p.1), sales of private label bottled fruit juice nectar increased more than 255.0% to $451,354.0 and sales of pineapple juice boosted about 21.40% to $6.70m in the US juice market.
On the other hand, apple juice sales fell 3.40% to $207.0 million and cranberry cocktail juice drink sales fell 9.7% to $133 million in this place, which indicates that the customers choice is unpredictable; therefore, “Drink it down” need to focus on the positive features of new flavoured products in its upcoming campaign projects.
Online Communities Plant (2004) argues that billions of individuals get together over internet to make conversation, to discover similar-minded individuals, to discuss and share contemporary subjects, to play-games, to provide or seek information, to seek support, or merely hang out with friends; they visits in chat rooms, notice boards, connects to conversation groups or they create their group using instant messaging software.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bedi (2008) states that these online social meetings are recognized through a range of terms as well as ‘online community’, which is often explained as ‘traditional aggregations that materialize when adequate individuals smack into each other more often over internet; here, members possess a common objective, interest, need, or activity that provides the primary reason for belonging to the community.
In carrying out the massive multimedia campaigns, the Drink it down company wishes to take advantage of this growing trend by targeting the online communities for sell the cherry flavoured cola. The company believes that the due to a number of features of these communities, the campaign would turn out to be quite successful and capable to generate substantial profits. Some of these features are:
Individuals connect in frequent, dynamic involvement and there are usually passionate communications, strapping emotional bonds and collective actions taking place amongst partakers;
Individuals encompass right of entry to joint resources and there are guidelines for influential admittance to those resources;
Trustworthiness of data, assistance, and amenities among individuals is essentially imperative in these communities;
A mutual circumstance of communal gatherings, verbal communication, and procedures exist in these communities.
Wang and Fesenmaier (2003) model for member needs:
Figure 1: Theoretical Framework of Members Needs
Spreadsheet Errors in Management Essay (Article) essay help: essay help
Introduction Several researches have showed that spreadsheet errors are quite common and difficult to eliminate even after careful development of spreadsheet. Generally, errors are more pronounced in spreadsheets containing numerous formulas. These errors are sometimes undetected because of some of the constraints experienced during spreadsheet development. Spreadsheet errors significantly affect the quality of organizations’ reports and consequently lead to wrong decisions being made.
In order to address the effects of corporate failures, in the year 2002, U.S. Congress ratified the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which makes it mandatory for all corporations to put in place well-controlled financial reporting systems. These systems facilitate independent inquiry into the affairs of corporations by auditors which lead either qualification or disqualification of corporation’s reports.
Scope of spreadsheet errors Reports from a large number of consultants have showed that, about 20% to 40% of all spreadsheets contain errors. A report from Dent (Dent, 1995) revealed that an audit performed in a certain mining company discovered errors in approximately 30% of all the audited spreadsheets.
In addition, report from Freeman (Freeman, 1996) revealed that data from a consulting firm in England, Coopers and Lybrand, found that, about 90% of all the spreadsheets which contained more than one hundred and fifty rows contained numerous errors. Moreover, according to the author Ditlea (Ditlea, 1987) an audit performed on four large spreadsheets by a Price-Waterhouse consultant found one hundred and twenty eight errors.
Exposer to the risk of spreadsheet errors With the help of spreadsheet programs, end users develop analyses covering multiple cells. End user developed spreadsheets are more exposed to errors because few users implement the disciplines necessary for the systems’ development. If there are zero incorrect cells, the risk of making bottom-line errors in the spreadsheet is greatly reduced. The end user developed spreadsheets are therefore quite dangerous to organizations and can even lead to winding up of an organization.
Types of spreadsheet errors Errors in operational spreadsheets
Generally, there is a misconception among many people that errors are only caused by human actions such as mistyping of numbers, wrong application of formula, and inserting formula in the wrong cells. According to various researches, human beings are likely to cause about 0.5% error when they perform simple mechanical jobs such as typing.
These errors are rarely detected and therefore affect the quality of the reported work. Research also shows that, the error rate increases to about 5% when human beings perform complex logical works, such as program writing. There exist many other types of errors which occur during spreadsheet development. These types of errors are more technical and not easily detectable. Panko and Halverson (Panko
Current and Emerging Technology in Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction and Background Historical Development of Business Intelligence (BI) and Data Warehousing (DW).
The need for advanced and improved BI and DW increased in the early 1990s during which businesses witnessed technological advances. During this moment, market completion increased because of globalization and electronic commerce. The introduction of the internet was spread all over the world, and companies were in a rush to incorporate e-business in their regular operations with a goal to cut on stuffing costs while offering a 24-hour customer service.
Organizations applied numerous systems in which back-end application tools emerged. Although advances in technology have solved business problems, data solutions have been inconsistent with the changing business needs. This scenario has greatly affected the operations of businesses on a larger scale.
As businesses increased their needs due to changing market demands, database-stuffing costs increased considerably. Throughout this period, IT firms introduced many techniques of data handling with an objective to solve the challenges of increased data volumes (Data Warehouse par 1-5). However, system applications could not enable decision makers to make rapid organizational strategic decisions.
Factors Influencing the Development of BI and DW Data warehousing concerns with analytical and management aspects of data in firms, and not storage of bulk information. Today, increasing data pushes many organizations toward spending huge funds ion creating efficiency in their databases. The purpose of a data warehouse is mainly to integrate a set of organizational data designed from internal and external environments. In contrast to the ordinary notion, a data warehouse does not host the entire set of data for an organization. Its main role is to offer fundamental measures needed for key decision making on data management. During decision-making process, decision makers in an organization do not directly access data warehouse, but it is done through front mechanisms facilitated by data marts.
A typical data Warehousing Environment
In the modern business world, the concept of data warehousing continue to meet numerous challenging ranging from ever increasing volumes of data. Additionally, there is a growing need for data warehouses with low latency (Data Warehouse par 2).
Following this combination of challenges, traditional approaches and technology tools have failed and, as such, users of data warehouses are consistently searching for infrastructures that will facilitate their operations by addressing the dynamic conditions of business and information technology. Ankorion noted that one of fundamental challenges facing modern users of IT in data warehouses is the inability to migrate relevant and voluminous data within a specified period.
For example, if a firm needed to move a given amount of data within thirty minutes of business operation, it would be difficult for a traditional batching process to accomplish this task within the demanded time. Besides taking a relatively longer time that required, traditional batching technology creates negative impact on the operations during the loading process. Relying on this scenario, there is need for mechanisms to address challenges facing the implementation of contemporary strategic information management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business Intelligence (BI) refers to approaches and techniques applied by organizations to make strategic business decisions. Its main purpose is to cushion business technologies, which emphasize business goals to facilitate performance. In the recent years, many organizations have achieved success through investing huge funds in the development of robust BI and data warehousing processes. Emphasis on these two concepts revolves around a belief that accurate and effective access to information about services and customers offers a crucial basis for business success.
Today, businesses are striving to align themselves to the changing needs of data warehousing. Gartner, lnc notes that senior managerial executives and chief information officers (CIOs) need to acquaint themselves with the changing trends in the context of data warehousing. The kind of technological applications needed must be in line with the demands of cost-benefit analysis in order to deliver value to businesses in the twenty first century (Madhu par 7).
In the contemporary business world, data warehouses remain to be fundamental elements of the information technology (Madhu par 7). The increased need for setting up a robust and exclusive data infrastructures is a response to the changing needs for business intelligence (BI). The technological business world is growing at a faster rate and as such, there is need for a flexible, dynamic, and optimal data designs to enable business to deal with their information and security gaps.
The emerging trends din business enterprises inevitably declares data warehouses as one of the critical components of business information relay. In a report delivered by Madhu, he suggested that businesses and individuals would need information about the changing practices and consumer trends in order to develop strategies geared toward blending technology with current business solutions (par 5).
This information will assist firms, through warehouse authorities and CIOs to safeguard business operations against budget waste. In this paper, nine trends in warehousing and data management are critical in the next five years.
Most organizations that utilize IT infrastructure have shifted toward implementation of grid computerization in their data warehousing mechanisms. The application of grid technology has enabled firms to develop databases with speed to maximize their performance. A grid refers to a set of servers linked to high-speed network, which integrates data to enable sharing among many separate departments or users. Since a single access mechanism is designed using a grid mechanism, users of this technology saves on costs and human resources. The figure below shows a typical computerization using grid.
Fig: typical computerization using grid
We will write a custom Research Paper on Current and Emerging Technology in Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data warehousing involves pooling of data from different parts of an organization. In order to make strategic and tactful business decisions, users retrieve these set of data via queries. Grinds help in scaling of data to improve the overall performance of data systems. The application of grids ensures reliability. Since it involves many servers, failure of one server may not lead to a fatal business breakdown.
Currently, organizations have begun to integrate grids with Data warehousing tools with a view to reduce transaction time, as well as operational costs. An example of ETL that has applied this technology is Informatica. In their production activities, oracle has utilized this form of technology in management of their processes. Many benefits accrue from utilization of grid computing in DW and BI processes. The major benefit is harnessing of underutilized capital and human resources in business enterprises while providing efficient and reliable data warehousing service.
Trends in Data warehousing Optimization of data warehouse and performance.
Storage and management of data continue to face many challenges in many organizations (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 5). Studies reveal that although firms have achieved effective systems in data handling, there are noticeable challenges in optimization of these systems in order to reap optimum benefits. Because of this emerging challenge, data management has tended to improve the functionality of data warehouses.
Many organizations have focused their attention on dealing with gaps in warehouses through data compression as viable strategies. On the other hand, data warehouse venting companies have emphasized the need for differentiated products in response to claims of non-performance.
Introduction and Usage of In-Memory Database Management systems (DBMSs).
Due to the merging need for real time access to warehouse data, data handling has taken this issue with a lot of keenness in order to business demands. Additionally, data sharing among various subsidiaries of the same companies has attracted huge interest among vendors. To address this information and technology needs, vendors have resorted to development of in-memory DBMS (IMDBMS) that have the capacity to relay fast responses to queries in real time.
Technology experts have predicted that in the near future, traditional approaches to data warehouses will need to adapt to the new technological needs fueled by market changes (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 5). Both vendors and firms will require to adjust to new and advanced in-memory DBMS. Research suggests that application of IMDBMSs will help offer solutions to challenges of business intelligence. In return, solutions to BI problems will leverage firms through development of super-products that will become the focus of major vendors.
Use of Open-source Database Management Systems (OSDBMS) in data warehouses.
Currently, businesses and other firms have not emphasized the use of OSDBMS in their operations. Studies show that application of ODBMS has received mild response due to the usage of traditional approaches in data handling. A survey by Garter reveals that firms that have adopted these mechanisms have benefited both in real cost as well as efficiency (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 4). Although the use of this category of technology requires manual system support, it offers best optimization solutions to data warehouses.
Need and use of Data marts
Data marts refer to an analytic data application usually handled by fewer users as compared to data warehousing. The technology is a revised information technology designed to optimize the performance of data warehouse. As it was mentioned, one of the major challenges facing organizations is the inability to generate maximum benefits from their existing systems. To leverage companies from this problem, data marts work to offload data warehouses in order to gain high performance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Current and Emerging Technology in Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, data marts act as middle partners that create efficiency and effective performance of data warehousing. Based on the emerging difficulties in upgrading data warehouses, data vending firms have rejuvenated their efforts in providing instant solutions to existing IT infrastructures through application of data marts.
Drivers influencing development of Data Warehousing/BI Need for single-ended truth.
It is important to note that inconsistent and obsolete information does not provide a basis for proper and strategic decisions. Businesses have developed need to consolidate their BI data to enable tactful decision-making process. Companies dealing with data warehouses help businesses to design a single-ended or version that incorporates all data with accuracy and reliability.
The competitive business has pushed firms to develop viable strategic frameworks capable of informing the management of the best decisions. Strategic positioning requires establishment of a well-grounded information base to facilitate this process. Therefore, the need for one-stop data warehouse and business intelligence has necessitated the need for accurate and effective DW and BI.
Dynamic Information Needs
It is difficult for many businesses to accurately forecast or predict their future needs in respect of information. Many system applications have proven to be rigid with no capacity to change with the dynamic information needs. To move alongside changes in market demands, businesses require flexible information systems capable of analyzing dynamics of business environment.
To help address this need, business have developed a desire for data warehousing tools that designed to offer flexibility in terms of decision making by the management and chief information officers.
Need for good customer care
Customers are the backbone of the progress of any business and as such, due consideration must be given when designing information systems that facilitate transactions. Research has indicated that about 10% of the customers are responsible for 90% of profits. Therefore, businesses have focused on the need to offer excellent customer service in order to gain market loyalty.
Studies show that data warehousing and its application tools has the capacity to identify best or potential customers. This trend has made businesses to develop impetus for swift and efficient data warehousing tools and business intelligence systems to help align themselves to the market dynamics. Studies show that companies that have applied DW and BI in their operations have reaped maximally. Benefits have included reduced costs of transaction, distribution and, advertising.
Supply chain management.
The growing competition in the business world has necessitated the need for supply chain systems capable of addressing distribution challenges within minimum period. This need calls for partnership with supply chains that have the technological capacity to deliver on promises of the customer.
To help achieve this objective, firms have resorted to investing in data tools that will help them meet customer needs within real time. Traditionally, distributors of products delivered at their own comfort. Contrary to this case, businesses are fighting to gain the largest market share and as such, focus has shifted toward ensuring reliability.
Need for Updated and Accurate information.
Today, businesses thrive under competitive market environments that require from them to make quick decisions. When faced with problems, businesses expect to identify the contributing factors, identify weaknesses, and give responsive solutions to the underlying circumstances. As such, contingent decision plans must be set up in order to enable businesses to leverage themselves from challenges of lacking instant solutions (Data Warehouse par 5).
Therefore, firms need to analyze their internal and external business environments with a goal to identify strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats. This process needs business to access up-to-date data to respond to challenges, as well as utilize opportunities available to them.
Technical Factors influencing development of Data Warehousing/BI Need for Simple systems.
Systems responsible for data handling are generally complicated. There is a growing need for simple, but efficient data management system to help businesses respond to the needs of market environment. Complex systems are costly since they require much time to work on to deliver results.
For example, a complex system would take an average user a longer time to understand or to initiate a transaction. A reporting environment would need a simple, yet efficient IT infrastructure to enable faster production of relevant business reports to enable proper decision-making.
Data warehousing provides an IT platform that generates simple queries when accessing information necessary for business progress (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 4). Data warehousing has inherent ability to simplify this tasks because of its simplistic nature. Since business have been in dire need of such kind of IT tools, their development has been fast tracked to help them meet their need for simple systems.
Evolution of Application systems.
Technology is one of the fastest growing and changing phenomena in the world. Similarly, businesses are inevitably dynamic because of their fragile market environments. Because of this, businesses are continuously in need of support to meet their ever-changing market demands. Changes in business needs do so at faster rate than the growth in returns. As such, there is a need to cut on information costs while remaining relevant to the new information.
The changing business needs that have required an evolving application system resulted in a trend to design a data warehousing applications that would render businesses updated. Data warehouses have developed out of the inability of businesses to offer reliable and inexpensive solutions to their dynamic problems.
Conclusion Technological advances continue to evolve at a high rate with every passing minute. The information systems have played huge roles in the development of business themes, which have facilitated progress. Today, there is a growing need for new information in all spheres of life.
The dynamics of business environment has necessitated businesses to seek information infrastructures to inform managers of the best decision practices that would help to safeguard the business against potential threats while, at the same time, taking advantage of the opportunities.
Developments witnessed in DMBMS are instrumental in ensuring that business intelligence and data warehousing work to benefit organizations.
Today, competition has become the order of the day in the business world. To enable businesses to make up for the changing information needs and reduced costs, IT firms continue to experience pressure in order to yield infrastructure that has the ability to meet customer needs. While designing data warehouse, It experts should be able to examine multiple factors that unite to deliver a DW with ability to meet the demands of the business world as well as cut down on the designing cost.
An examination of the changing fundamental indicators is critical in establishing solutions that would take businesses to the next level of competition. As data increases in business data stores, It designers should be ready to adapt to changing environment to enable organizations make tactful decisions relevant to improving business performance. To achieve this task, they must address issues related to scalability, accuracy, flexibility of data warehousing tools.
Various factors have contributed to the emergence and rapid development of IT infrastructure in terms of DW and BI. Since business intelligence relies heavily on the robustness of information systems adopted by particular business, it is imperative to design DBMS capable of providing a framework upon which business intelligence work.
There are two categories of drivers that account for the emergence and development of DW and BI. These factors include technical and business drivers. Technical drivers have cooperated with the demands of the business environment to ensure that efficient and robust DBMSs.
Business factors consist of all market factors causing a reaction from CIOs and managers in order to meet business objectives. Both vendors and firms will require to adjust to new and advanced in-memory DBMS. Application of IMDBMSs will help to offer solutions to challenges of business intelligence. In return, solutions to BI problems will leverage firms through development of super-products that will become the focus of major vendors.
Works Cited “Data Warehouse.” Data-Warehouse. Net. Web.
Madhu, Zode. “Grids in Data Warehousing.” TDAN.com, 1 Jan. 2009. Web.
“Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends for the CIO in 2011 and 2012.” ITBusinessEdge. 1 Jan. 2009. Web.
Using the information from Albl, define both faith and reason Essay essay help free: essay help free
Many people best understand faith as a religious concept, particularly, the belief in things not seen but that are true (Lewis 56). By contrast, the conventional definition of reason is far from religious; it has to do with the natural sciences deductive thinking and dialectical theories. However, this paper seeks to correct these narrow-minded views and establish a comprehensive position that clearly explains the relationship between faith and reason, since these two qualities are not mutually exclusive.
Faith, as per Thomas Aquinas, refers to the alignment of a person’s being, including his or her mental faculties to “divine truth” (Aquinas 67). To achieve this state, one has to subject himself / herself to the “grace of God”. It refers to a state of total surrender to God’s will that almost requires mental or intellectual blindness.
One has to forfeit a bit of logic for faith to work. Albl gives several descriptions of faith that can better explain this concept. For instance, he says faith triggers a person to wonder (Albl 32). It is not enough for instance to appreciate the enchanting nature of the blue sky, faith asks who made it blue and why.
Another description of faith pertains the view that all that exists because of the creation is a gift to humanity and that all should be grateful for it (Albl 33). It is also the foundation of a person’s trust in anything or anybody else, including self-confidence (Descartes 76). Trusting in what is intangible increases a person’s capacity to believe in what he or she can see or touch. Aquinas imparts that faith requires a portion of the grace of God for it to be fully fledged (Albl 34).
This will is what pushes one’s will to defy their logic and succumb to pure belief. The result is conversion of the whole person, not just their thoughts. Acquiring it is a continuous process that requires a person to train or discipline their minds constantly before it can become a “habit of the mind” (Albl 37).
Reason on the other hand has to do with man’s intellectual faculties. The cause of questioning things in a bid to understand them better, or assessing various options to come up with a sensible decision over what makes sense and what does not. Consequently, Albl posits that faith and reason are actually inclusive of each other and one requires the other to achieve its maximum potential. He puts it succinctly in the statement, “balanced Christianity needs a body of reason animated by the fire of faith” (Albl 38).
This makes clear the jeopardy of being an extremist. Feudists are scholars who restrict the understanding of divine attributes to pure faith and they include theologians such as Tertullian and Soren Kiekegard among others. This school of thought is of the opinion that logic muddles up a person’s understanding of God (Hart and Fischer 87).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their critics are quick to assert that the same God created man a rational being, and expects him be rational about everything, including religion. On the other extreme end are rationalists who believe in cold reasoning at the exclusion of faith. They include philosophy scholars like Rene Descartes and Immanuel Kant among others.
However, a modernist view that most people embrace nowadays posits that faith and reason interrelate, with each complementing the other for a fuller understanding of spiritual matters. Albl captures this as “faith seeking understanding” (33). Thomas Aquinas proposed that anyone seeking to strengthen his or her faith should find an authority upon which to base this faith. For Christians, he proposed the scriptures and by extension the Quran for Muslims.
Reason is a necessary ingredient in theology as it enables scholars to apply mental processes while interpreting scriptures and other religious teachings. Employment of rational thinking of logic further strengthens a person’s conviction that whatever they are studying is true (Hart and Fischer 99).
This is because people tend to trust what they have deduced for themselves better than what they do not understand. The connection of reason with faith makes it an even more important tool. It takes faith in the rationality of the world to accept the results one obtains from employing reason to deduce truth.
Faith and reason are supplementary qualities whose development needs to be at par. When one exceeds the other, one risks acquiring dangerous perspectives that are extremist and close-minded in nature. Theology as a study of religion requires both in equal measure. Reason will enable a scholar to pass judgment on the accuracy of various points of view, whereas faith will turn him or her into believer.
Works Cited Albl, Martin. Reason, Faith and Tradition: An Exploration in Catholic Theology. New York: Saint Mary’s Press, 2009.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Fathers of the English Dominican Province, Christian Classics. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1981.
We will write a custom Essay on Using the information from Albl, define both faith and reason specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Descartes, Rene. Rules for the Direction of the Mind. Descartes, Rene. Philosophical Essays: Discourse on Method; Mediation; Rules for the Direction of the Mind. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill, 1964. 192.
Hart, Thomas and Fischer, Kathleen. Christian Foundations: an Introduction to Faith in our Times. New York: Paulist Press, 1995.
Lewis, Carl. Surprised by Joy:The Shape of My Early Life. New York: Harcout Brace, 1955.
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants
Medicinal Uses of Plants
Importance of Plants in different Cultures
Introduction Plants have many uses in people’s lives and are essential in many aspects of human life. In the prehistoric times, man relied on natural plants to satisfy his basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. Prior to the development of agriculture and domestication of plants, the hunter-gatherers derived their livelihoods directly from wild plants.
In addition, plants and plant materials bear a close relationship with many aspects of human culture. Indigenous people use plants for spiritual and ritualistic purposes whereby plants play a pivotal role in material culture within the religious context.
On the other hand, many indigenous plants, both in the past and presently, serve as an important source of food resources to people around the globe. Most importantly, wild plants, especially medicinal plants are indispensable sources of medicine for treating various human illnesses.
In many cultures, various plants are used for medication, consumption, and narcotic stimulation purposes. In particular, different plants serve as food, fodder, fuel, timber, and medicine for various communities. Thus, the uses of plants vary from culture to culture depending on the culture or tribe, indigenous knowledge and the plant species endemic to the region. In the US, there are rich indigenous and exotic plant species used differently by the tribal groups of the American continent (Glenise, 1992, p.199).
However, the traditional knowledge on the use of plant species, particularly medicinal plants is fast disappearing due to disintegration of cultures and exploitative deforestation. The indigenous knowledge on plant species influences the tribal uses of plant resources.
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants Although the uses of plants vary from one culture to another, plant uses fall into three general categories: nutritional, medicinal and cultural or ritualistic uses. In the prehistoric times, the important occupation of the hunter-gatherers community was the search for food.
People of various cultures had to possess the indigenous knowledge of the various plants in their locality with regard to their use as food. In particular, knowledge of edible plants as well as poisonous plants, gained through experience, was important. Through experimentation, some plants with no nutritional value were found to possess valuable medicinal properties for treating various diseases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The nutritional needs of today’s global population largely depend on plant products as their source of food. Out of over 350,000 plant species in the world, 80,000 are suitable for human consumption. However, of the edible plant species, four principal plants viz. maize, rice, potato, and wheat are essential food crops consumed by the majority of the world’s population (Glenise, 1992, p.202).
Plants form a vital source of proteins and carbohydrates for humans. As a result, most of these food crops are cultivated on a large scale to provide sufficient food to meet the nutritional needs of human beings. Legumes (Leguminosae) such as beans and peas and grasses (Graminae) such as maize, sorghum, and millet provide the highest percentage of food for the world population.
Berries such as the Blackfeet Savis berry contain high amounts of Vitamin C and their seeds have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Fruits species, both wild and domesticated, are also a significant source of Vitamin C.
Root vegetables that encompass the tubers, corms, bulbs, and the rhizomes are a valuable source of carbohydrates among various communities. Most of them are rich in starches and sugars for human consumption in many communities (Heiser, 1993, p. 201).
Plant roots are rich in minerals such as calcium and sodium, vitamins, and fibers. On the other hand, plant stems, flowers, and leaves are also rich in vitamins, but have lesser minerals and carbohydrate content. Grains such as maize and rice are stable food products for all communities around the globe.
Plants are also sources of essential products for human use. Trees provide timber for furniture and as building materials for houses and tools. Tree species such as black walnut, pines, fir, and hybrid poplar are significant sources of quality timber for construction, furniture, and paper (Laird, 1999, p. 144). In most cultures, plants are a source of fuel as charcoal or firewood for domestic cooking purposes.
Additionally, certain plant species such as johnsongrass and miscanthus are a source of plant-based bio-fuels, an alternative to petroleum fuels. Food crops including corn and sorghum are also cultivated in some countries such as Brazil for biodiesel for industrial use. Rubber derived from the rubber tree is used in making surgical gloves, machinery parts, tires, shoes among others. Cork derived from the bark of the Mediterranean Oak tree is used as an insulator against sound, stoppers, flooring materials among others.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different plant products are used to make clothes, ropes, and cosmetics for human use. Sisal, cotton, hemp, and rush are common plants that produce fibers yarn into cloths and garments for wear. Cellulose fibers are biodegradable plant materials derived from grasses and leaves used in the production of clothing, ropes, strings, and other products. Natural plant dyes derived from plant seeds, leaves, tubers or nuts are used for dyeing cloths and yarns (Heiser, 1993, p. 204).
The cosmetic sector also relies on plant-derivatives such as anti-oxidants and colors for hair and skin care. Aromatic plants including the jasmine, roses and cinnamon produce aromatic compounds to improve fragrance. Traditionally, in ancient Egypt, incense and myrrh were used in healing rituals and as a fragrance for women (Laird, 1999, p. 146).
Other plants frequently used in the cosmetic industry include soya because of it has anti-aging properties, chamomile, Aloe vera, and lavender. The plant extracts are incorporated into soaps, oils, lotions, creams and other cosmetic products.
Medicinal Uses of Plants Since prehistoric times, plants with active components have been used in the treatment of various human illnesses. In general, traditionally, medicinal plants treated a broad range of diseases such as skin diseases, stomach ailments, and many disorders but their use varied from culture to culture. Traditionally, the active principles in medicinal herbs were isolated through steaming, boiling or burning.
Modern methods are able to isolate and characterize these components and make prescription drugs for treating various human diseases. The use of plant-derived traditional medicine by people across the world as remedies for the treatment of diseases is immense. According to Glenise, over 80% of the world’s population relies on herbal medicine for their primary care needs (1992, p.208).
Medicinal plants have antiseptic, analgesic, anti-parasitic, and anti-helminthic properties, which make them potent against common human diseases. Most medicinal plants are potent when used topically i.e. externally, orally or snuffed in case of dried ground plant parts such as leaves. For example, the Cedarwood (Thuja occidentalis) plant native to Asia and the Americas is used topically in the treatment of skin diseases such as warts and psoriasis (Glenise, 1992, p.217).
Its extracts are applied topically as paste on the skin to cure skin warts and other skin problems. It also serves as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism and muscular pains when taken orally as boiled extracts. Some properties of plants, including anti-inflammatory, emulsifiers, decongestant, and antiseptics make the plant extracts beneficial for topical use.
In addition, plant species with anti-inflammatory qualities are useful in pain relief and treatment of rheumatism. Herbalists use extracts from rhizomes and plant roots such as Chickweed to treat skin diseases when applied topically. In the American continent, over 25 species of Chickweed have emollient and vulnerary properties hence used to make ointments for the treatment of ulcers (consumed orally), boils, and eczema (Cocks, 2006, p. 451).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The American coneflower, native to Missouri, is another significant source of traditional medicine in the Americas. The dried plant parts including the leaves and roots are used in the treatment of snakebites and dizziness. Its fresh leaves are bound on wounds to relieve pain and prevent inflammation. Medicinal plants are widely used globally especially in Asia where the practice is widely spread. In India and China, the practice of herbal medicine is highly developed as a source of foreign income through export.
In Africa, traditional medicines are preferred to conventional medicines for treatment of various illnesses. The use of herbal medicines is fast increasing in North America and Europe as an alternative treatment of illnesses and ways of maintaining appropriate health. In recent times, Artemisia annua, a Chinese plant, has been discovered to have anti-malarial properties while Prunus africana, which has anti-carcinogenic properties, is incorporated in prostate cancer drugs.
Importance of Plants in different Cultures Ethnobotanical surveys reveal essential plant species within a particular cultural and geographical context. In most cultures, plants are used for nutritional purposes while non-nutritional plant metabolites are used as medicines. The cultural significance attached to given plants revolves around the medicinal-food plant uses (Cocks, 2006, p. 448).
Cultivated crops common to a particular geographical region often have nutritional or medicinal value. In the Mediterranean region, food species with high cultural significance include vegetable species eaten as salads in spring such as fennel (Feoniculum vulgare) and calamint.
Plants also serve as medicines and sources of drugs in many cultures. In Asia, the traditional Unani medicine, which is common in Pakistan, relies on wild medicinal plants and animal products for the treatment of human diseases (Glenise, 1992, p.218). Glenise (1992, p.212) identify 50 species that are a source of herbal medicine for indigenous people in Pakistan. Other indigenous treatment systems such as Ayurveda, Allopathy, and Siddha rely on different plant species to treat various illnesses (Laird, 1999, p. 147).
The Siddha and Ayuverda systems are alternative medicine practiced India uses herbs and meditation to treat various ailments. In India, over 20,000 plant species are used for curing different ailments affecting the traditional communities. Allopathy medicine is a Western medical model common in Europe and America and relies on active biological components in plants to treat various illnesses. In Africa, the plant-derived medicines are widely used among the different cultures compared to conventional medicine.
The traditional Chinese medicine practitioners utilize medicinal plants and acupuncture to treat many conditions. The Chinese traditional medicine dates back to over 5,000 years and relies on natural products including herbs (Moerman, 1998, p.231) Different plant parts such as seeds, flowers, roots and stems are made into teas, powders and tinctures for treatment of various conditions. The effects of the Chinese herbs range from heart-clearing, cooling, and warming effects on patients.
Herbal plants such as Panax ginseng are used in the treatment of diabetes, Momodica charantia, and Psidium gnajava, whose leaves are taken as tea or an infusion to treat hyperglycemia (Laird, 1999, p. 150). Jamaican cultural groups, as well as Afro-Brazilian communities, root tonics and bitters serve as preventatives to common illnesses. Additionally, among the African people, various forms of bitters are used to remove body toxins, treat impotence, improve circulation, and maintain virility.
Certain plant species are used to fulfill ritualistic and religious needs of various cultures. According to Cocks (2003, p. 445), over 50% of wild plants in South Africa are used for spiritual and cultural purposes. In this regard, sacred sites that are of a high spiritual value have distinguished animal and plant biodiversity. Traditional brooms derived from grasses serve as a ceremonial gift for the bride in Xhosa culture, South Africa.
The brooms are used to splash medicine known locally as ‘amayeza’ as a ritual to sanctify the home of the newlyweds (Cocks, 2006, 446). Additionally, African communities use medicinal plants for healing purposes within spiritual, religious, and cultural contexts and in many non-traditional settings such as urban areas.
Conclusion Plants and many cultural practices are intertwined in many respects. Plants and their products primarily serve as food, human medicines, sources of drugs, and objects of religious or spiritual purposes. In most cultures, main food crops such as rice, maize and legumes are highly domesticated to meet the nutritional needs of the people.
Most importantly, herbal medicine is widely used as an alternative to conventional therapeutic medicines. However, the exploitation of plants for various uses depends on the indigenous knowledge and cultural contexts.
Reference List Cocks, M. (2006). Bio-Cultural Diversity: Moving Beyond The Realm Of ‘Indigenous’ And ‘Local People’. Human Ecology, 34(2), 445-451
Glenise, M. (1992). Medicinal Plant Review. Aust J Med Herbalism, 4(4), 199-221.
Heiser, B. (1993). Ethnobotany and Economic Botany. Flora of North America North Of Mexico, 1, 199-206.
Laird, A. (1999). Forests, Culture and Conservation. London: UNEP.
Moerman, E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. New York: Timber Press.
Boxing vs. MMA Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Boxers as Superior Athletes
Introduction For more than a hundred years, boxing as a game has significantly evolved to become one of the most popular sporting activities in the world. This evolution has seen a wide range of personalities join it resulting into a massive support from all parts of the world. Boxing has given birth to heroes who can be compared to the ancient gladiators that were famous during the Roman Empire.
Together with mixed martial arts fighters, they have fully transformed fighting into a professional game across the world (Arrenquin, 2010). Although some people assume that mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters are better athletes than boxers, this notion lies far below the truth. Backed with a myriad of evidence and facts, boxers have remained the most admirable, best and breathtaking personalities.
Boxers as Superior Athletes What makes boxing more appealing than MMA is the manner in which boxers master their moves and employ the right technique timely and accurately. Boxers study and grasp their opponents before making any move. This allows them to combat them in a twinkle of an eye before the other person realizes that they are in a fight.
The study of opponents gives boxers the ability to take on different characters without any fear. Besides mastery of style and analysis of the opponent, boxers ensure that they are never caught in the same position during the fight (Arrenquin, 2010). This makes it hard for the opponent to understand possible moves or position of attack.
Their swift ability to move and change of locations gives them an upper hand in understanding the tricks of the opponent and not vice versa. The most outstanding of all these is the fact that boxers hit but they are never hit. This technique remains an uphill task to MMA players who end up receiving countless punches despite their movements.
What about endurance? Is there any MMA fighter who can withstand the brutality and pain that boxers go through? Too many if not all MMA players and funs, boxing is committing suicide, yet boxers are able to not only withstand it but also overcome it and make history.
The average number of punches which a boxer receives during a fight cannot in any way be compared to countable touches that land on MMA fighters (Blower, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, it has to be mentioned that some boxers have succumbed to the ring punches, resulting into public outcry concerning the safety of the game.
Additionally, boxing may result in injuries leaving players with pain or permanently injured (BBC, 2011). Astonishingly, this has never deterred boxers from scaling to become highly recognized athletes among fighters. It therefore suffices to note that boxers are usually driven by passion and interest in the game regardless of the perceived danger.
Another reason which makes boxers outstanding and more superior than MMA fighters is the rigorous training which they go through before engaging in a fight. Although MMA players do practice and exercise, the nature of boxers’ training is by far challenging and demanding compared to that of the MMA.
Ranging from starvation to road work, boxers are required to undergo these processes in order to meet the standards defined by boxing rules (Blower, 2006). Can MMA fighters endure starvation as a way a fighting prerequisite? This is common to boxers who are expected to be within a given weight range depending on their weight category. They also endure countless sparring round, running and carrying heavy bags among other strenuous exercises without getting weary or giving up (BBC, 2011).
Conclusion To give credit where it is due, it would be prudent to acknowledge MMA fighters as tremendous athletes in the world athletic history. They stir and excite crowds, they have funs around the world but are not superior to boxers. Based on brutal training, sacrifices and longer fighting sessions, boxers are with doubt ranked higher than MMA fighters.
References Arrenquin, A. (2010). Notebook: Why boxing is better than MMA. Appeal Democrat. Retrieved from: https://www.appeal-democrat.com/notebook-why-boxing-is-better-than-mma/article_cfb1504a-b674-5f15-96bc-87854d29f752.html
BBC. (2011). Health: Boxing. BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/
We will write a custom Essay on Boxing vs. MMA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blower, G. (2006). Boxing: Training, Skills and Techniques. New York, NY: Crowood Press.
The Structure of a Literary Work Shapes Its Meaning Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents The main characteristics of a good novel
Defining the main laws of fiction
The inner working and proportion of novels
Henry James in his work “The Art of Fiction” and Joseph Conrad in his “The Task of the Artist” touched upon the problem of measuring the aesthetic value of a work of fiction by certain criteria. The outstanding theoreticians of the English literature Henry James and Joseph Conrad concluded that a novelist is free to use unnumbered ways for showing the glimpses of truth to readers, but should comply with the fiction laws. The structure, sounding and any detail can have impact upon readers’ perception and shape the meaning conveyed in a novel.
The main characteristics of a good novel Discussing the relationship between the morality of novelists and their artistic sense, Henry James and Joseph Conrad concluded that writers have certain moral obligations and need to take into account the possible readers’ reaction to the form and content of their works. James explains the excessive jocularity of certain novels with the negative consequences of an old superstition concerning the admissible wickedness of the literary works.
Though this outdated misconception has been left in the past, its spirit still lingers on and has impact upon stories which are perceived as only a joke (James 856). James disapproves the writers who do not attempt to enhance the gravity of their novels and do not consider the opportunities of competing with real life. Certainly, novelists cannot be compared to historians looking for the absolute truth, but they need to pay attention to collecting the evidence and presenting it to readers to appeal to their feelings, intelligence and common sense.
Writers can make readers to take their works seriously by speaking authoritatively to the minds and feelings of their potential readers. Comparing novelists to historians and other scientists, Conrad stated that writers look for the truth, but use it as a source of inspiration and interpret the facts of real life in their unique ways.
A novelist can manipulate the readers’ feelings, including those of their fears, ambitions and aspirations, but always counts upon their credulity and takes the advantages of it (Conrad 870). However, counting upon the credulity of readers can be rather hazardous because their individual reactions and prior experience are unpredictable.
For this reason, James distinguished between bad novels appealing to the credulity of generation and good ones which can be regarded as true works of art.
The main assessment criteria chosen by James for distinguishing between the two categories of novels include whether the novel is interesting and whether it produces a strong impression upon the audience (James 858). Thus, the main obligations of a good writer are to make his/her novel interesting and to impress readers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Defining a novel as writer’s “personal impression of life” (James 858), the theoretician raises the question of the techniques which should be used for intensifying this impression. The quality of a particular novel can be measured only by readers’ perceptions and impressions from it.
A writer who tries to explain the methods of achieving success in literature faces serious difficulties because it is almost impossible to put into words the individual artistic sense and aesthetics. James claimed that the ways for improving the quality of fiction are innumerable because they depend upon the writer’s personal experience and talents.
Still, a novelist, who can also be referred to as an artist writing a book, should learn from the experience of other writers, analyzing the tones, plot lines and composition of their novels for complying with the main laws of fiction.
Defining the main laws of fiction Though literature cannot be compared to exact sciences, fiction has its unique laws and novelists should comply with them. Literature is all about creativity and individual temperament, but novelists should pay proper attention to the structure and sounding of their works for improving the inner working of the text and hypothesizing the possible impression produced upon readers.
Conrad compared the process of creating a novel to the mechanism through which one individual temperament appeals to a great number of other temperaments (Conrad 872). The variety of possible interactions cannot be predicted. For this reason, in some cases readers can see the meanings which were not initially implied by the author in the text.
In other case, the symbols can be misinterpreted and the novelist’s moral messages misunderstood. Every text is viewed in the context of not only its epoch, literature genre and writer’s heritage and achievements, but also readers’ personal experience.
Therefore, the same text can create different associations in different readers and produce different impression upon them. However, by paying special attention to the composition of the novel and its inner working, a writer can enhance chances for achieving success with the audience.
We will write a custom Essay on The Structure of a Literary Work Shapes Its Meaning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sincerity and gravity of a literary text are the main principles of making readers to feel, hear, see and believe a novelist. Conrad recommended other novelists to catch glimpses of truth and show them to readers with all their colors, sounds, movements, vibrations and ongoing modifications.
Simmons (2009) stated that Conrad was a proponent of an objective method of withdrawing a novelist from the world of fiction for overcoming the problem of a telling weakness (182). Therefore, the main task of a novelist is not to tell, but to show the plot lines in their development, not expressing the judgments directly, but providing readers with an opportunity to form their own opinions.
Revealing the substance of truth and competing with reality are the main laws of fiction according to the aesthetics of James and Conrad. Conrad criticized the principle of Art for Art and admitted that this sort of literature is deprived of its immortality.
Thus, analyzing the works of these theoreticians, it can be stated that the main laws of fiction are to make it believable and present the realistic picture of life in its dynamics for reaching the responsive emotions of readers.
The inner working and proportion of novels Though exact data and formulas cannot be applied to writing novels, writers should pay attention to the inner working of their texts and intuitively feel the inner balance and proportion of their works for intensifying the impression produced upon readers. Every word and every line of a novel can be significant for the inner working of the novel and appealing to the readers’ feelings.
The inner balance of all the elements of the composition and plot of a work of literature is important, and a strong artistic feeling is required for feeling the entity of the novel and preserving it. Like an artist working on a painting can spoil it with only one unnecessary stroke, an artist working on a book can spoil it with only one unnecessary detail or character.
James emphasized the importance of the inner working of a novel and referred to every new character in a novel like to a new problem in proportion of the whole text (Berland 51). Therefore, a character should be shown in its development, but at the same time to be in the harmony of the rest of the novel.
The form of a literary work can have a significant impact upon the readers’ perception of the text and shape the meanings implied by the authors and created by readers on their own. Working on their books, novelists are free to use their creativity and unnumbered ways for expressing their ideas and appealing to the feelings of readers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Structure of a Literary Work Shapes Its Meaning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, on the other hand, their freedom is limited by the laws of fiction. There are no exact formulas for evoking responsive emotions in readers, but novelists should pay special attention to the inner working and proportions of their literary texts if they want to intensify the effects produced upon readers.
Analyzing the theoretical recommendations of Conrad and James, it can be stated that the work of a novelist is full of challenges and riddles. Creating unique worlds in their works of fiction, novelists need to take into account not only the possible reactions and feelings of readers, but also the relationship between the elements of the text itself which can shape the meaning.
Conclusion Analyzing literary theories of James and Conrad, it can be stated that a novelist should give serious consideration to every detail of a novel, including its structure, inner working and proportion because these aspects can influence the readers’ perception and shape the meaning of the whole text.
Works Cited Berland, Alwyn, Culture and Conduct in the Novels of Henry James. Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Conrad, Joseph. “The Task of the Artist”. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. 870 – 876. Print.
James, Henry. “The Art of Fiction”. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. 856 – 859. Print.
Simmons, Allan. Joseph Conrad in Context. Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Chester: The company’s strategy Report a level english language essay help
It is sad that many organisations fail to make strategies until an emergency strikes, which is met with much opposition. As a result, Chester settled on corporate-business-functional strategy that included three levels of management.
To start with, corporate strategic level defines the market situation of the products. Much survey was done in order to come up with diversity of goods especially new good which were distributed to different geographical markets. Business strategic level sought to navigate the market situation in terms of competition.
In fact, this strategy made changes that made the company to have more competitive benefits over the other products and in the market. Lastly, functional strategic level did support the activities carried out by corporate and business strategies. This strategic level employed the contributions of information systems, labour as well as production processes to fulfill the activities of business and corporate strategies (Thomas 1).
Effectiveness of the strategy in achieving the company’s strategic and operational goals
Initially, the goods met a lot of competition but Chester decided to maintain its traditional segment as it was providing the greatest amount of positive cash flow, until funds were available to expand market share within the industry. To penetrate into the market with all the products offered by Chester, the supply was monitored so as not to exceed demands while still offering a competitive price.
The modern nature of Chester aimed to produce and sell goods that fulfilled customers demand on technology based products. With improved technology, the company through internet services such as emailing and social sites received orders online. This allowed the company to make more sales to customers online which excluded the middlemen hence minimizing costs.
Strategy’s change expectations in the future to improve operations
This strategy helped in determination of the long-term changes of the organisation under the corporate level. At this level, organisational planning, diversification and specialisation of the company occurred. “Chester developed policies aimed at becoming and maintaining the lowest cost distributor in the industry under strategies based on Cost-leadership” (Thomas 1). Since this company was venturing into market, it enjoyed advantage of selling unbranded products as a start.
Differentiation is yet another strategy that reduced firm’s products susceptibility to cost forces impacted by competitors. The uniqueness to customers attracted their attention and willingness to pay extra to have the product that met their demands. Focus plan assured the organisation victory over certain customers through basing their production on particular system in a given geographical area. The company was strict on the channels of distribution and each stage of production process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under functional level we efficiently incorporated experts who improved the organisation through advertisement, promotion, and marketing research. This was carried out in marketing, inventory control, and shipping production activities. This allowed functional strategies interconnect with other levels and to sum up, this level purposed to increase sales and to make the company outdo the other companies (Thomas 1).
Competitive factors that influenced the timing and outcome of the company’s decisions
Competitors dominated a segment of these sales. The company must have lost battle to their competitors since the inventory records exceeded the minimum requirement of $2 million. It was unfortunate that the situation was not adjustable at the time when this simulation was done.
In conjunction, there was imbalance that posed risk of losing customers to our competitors since stock outs against the expenditure of carrying additional inventory could not meet demand expectations. Given the employed information systems, the company was able to reach more customers who increased our sales. In addition, this must have motivated us to produce more since there was ready market. Some competitors who kept their traditional means of production might have faced a low production (Thomas 1).
However, this overwhelming production might have exceeded the inventories. This in response discouraged some customers who opt to buy from other organisations. The stock price complicates future profitability of the organisation. For instance, liquidation of plant might have brought in cash though shareholders who may wonder about the long term competitive consequences.
The financial factors that influenced the timing and outcome of the company’s decisions
It is evident that if inventory exceeds more than a sixth, there is a possibility of expending more cash that would have declined the performance since the organisation had to obtain emergency loans. These loans are known to have reduced the profit margin.
The company optimistic nature led to surplus in market segment. Had our company exceeded the average product, our sales would have increased. Average product is a key factor on demand level since the demand average requirement should range from 50% to 150%.
From the cash flow statement it was evident that the company had many liabilities that reduced the cash flow. These llabilities almost summed to same ratio to assets in all rounds. Had this ratio been less in favour of liabilities to assets we would have expected a higher ranking.
We will write a custom Report on Chester: The company’s strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was observed that the ranking would have been better since in this duration, the stock prices raised by $ 9.38, which might have been attributed to performance, asset base, debts among others. Quest to expand and automating the organisation might have increased difficulties in debt piling to shareholders. Excess stock price more than $15.00 signifies danger of high debts, loss of market share due to price adjustment and loss of 1 year of production of a new product.
Comparison between the total liabilities total equity and the total cash in $ ‘000 in first three rounds
Work Cited Thomas, Joe. “strategy levels.” Encyclopaedia of business, 2nd ed. Referenceforbusiness. n.d. Web.
The Significance of Early Cinema for Our Study of the History of the Cinema Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
The field of cinema is made up of some media which include; motion pictures, film and movies.The history of cinema, also known as film, traces back to over one hundred years ago from the beginning of the 19th century to date.
The cinema has been its development from its abstract form and today it is the most important means of communication. Since its innovation, motion pictures have a huge impact on arts, technology and politics. This paper discusses the significance of early cinema for our study of the history of the cinema.
In cinema development, the most significant endeavor has been to recreate and present reality through various artistic means which have been developed in line with cinema technology. In art history, we get to learn that cinema was not invented overnight and thus, it is a product of a gradual accumulation of insight and the technology which was available at different times.
The early cinema evaluation in cinema history takes the learner through the pioneering work of many people who inspired Auguste and Louis Lumière to come up with a Cinématographe system, which presented moving pictures in 28 December 1895.
Cinema historians has it that there were many inventions which preceded Cinématographe such as the moving image projections and shadow plays, which traces their origin in Java and India thousand years ago. These included creating a silhouette by manipulating some leather puppets using rods and placed beyond a translucent material. The technology of shadow plays has been adopted, effected and fitted into today’s cinema and are being used.
After this technology of shadows; there was the invention of the magic lantern which was made from a box, a candle which could be enclosed inside and a drawn image. From this invention, there was still the element of projection which is still in use today. The magic lanterns became more prevalent in the 19th century and they came with sophistication as they deployed a number of lenses.
This technology became very popular and the lanterns were present in most parts of the world by the 19th century. Early cinema gives us the knowledge we would never had in the way the technology evolved and the early inventors in the field. In the study of any history, there must be some traceable path of development of the subject matter and so is the history of cinema connected to early cinemas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As early as 1888, Alva Edison posited that, “I am experimenting upon an instrument which does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear, which is the recording and reproduction of things in motion” (Robinson 138). In this line Edison invented his favorable phonograph and as his initial point, the model of a cylinder was not so promising and so Edison resorted to using a strip of transparent film, a technology borrowed from Marey from Europe. By 1892, two great innovations had been made by Edison namely; Kinetograph, which was used to record images and the Kinetoscope, which was used to view them. But it was soon after that the machines were making a lot of money and he realized that some inventions were threatening their business. This was Edison’s first invention to get into commercial and it fared very well and this can be evident from his statement quoted here, that;
We are making these peep show machines and selling a lot of them at a good profit. If we put out a screen machine there will be a use for maybe ten of them in the whole United States. With that many screen machines you could show the pictures to everyone in the country – and then it would be done. Let’s not kill the goose that lays the golden eggs. (Robinson 39)
Lumière brothers on the other side of Europe are credited for inventing the motion picture and this followed many pioneers who made numerous contributions during that time. The significance of these inventions in the early times is the seeking of knowledge which could be advanced today to produce more accomplished inventions.
The knowledge of early cinema can help those who take film production career especially in the designing and making of films. For example, it was from the early cinema that Henri Langlois recreated movies and from them he won an honorary award in 1974. Langlois showed different early films every night and those who liked his films were amazed at his programming ability.
Langlois had films from the Nazis, which he recovered and refined them and he invented from early films a job which no one thought of before. Therefore, early cinema can be very helpful in enriching today’s entertainment and information industry thus significant to cinema historians. The phantom of the Cinematheque reveals Langlois’ quest for the art form which resembles Lumière’s shadows (Robinson 39).
Moreover, it was Adre Bazin who prospected that film has its foundation in photography and thus possesses the realistic aspect of it. Therefore, he believes that film; as in early cinema, has the ability to capture the real world. This makes us see the sense in the fact that early films captured the reality of the time more than anything else.
The study of the history of film therefore enables students of cinema history to capture the reality of the world when they were being made. Since history reflects many common social aspects which have been carried to today, it is possible to reflect the reality of yesterday in today’s communication and entertainment. This cannot happen without the availability of the early cinema as well as their study.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Significance of Early Cinema for Our Study of the History of the Cinema specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, early cinema cannot be taken lightly in their contribution of today’s film industry. The cinema has evolved from Lumière brothers, to Cohn Brothers and by today we have seen Hollywood give rise to Bollywood and the technology is still in the way of its growth to high heights. Therefore, the inventions of early cinema were more than just a technology at that time and it came along centuries leaving strong foundations.
The film industry, which is leading in offering entertainment, information and education, could not have the way it is today were it not for the efforts of the inventors of cinema. Most of the materials which are incorporated into the film today can be traced back in the cinema error and they act to enrich each other.
This could not have been possible without the knowledge of early cinema innovations. Early cinema therefore plays a significant role not only in the study of the history of cinema but also in its assessment, appreciation and adoption.
Work Cited Robinson, David. Realising the vision: 300 years of cinematography, in Cinema: the Beginnings and the future, edited by Cristopher Williams. London: University of Westminster Press, 1996. Print.
In the Eye of an Advertisement: Reading Between the Lines Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Tracing the Minotaur: The Legend Revived
The Wordplay That Seizes Imagination
Happy Mascots and the Napalm Attack
Tracing the Minotaur: The Legend Revived Enticing the people of higher culture with the products of mass consumption, one has to go with rather specific approaches, mixing the everyday mundane life with more epic issues. Targeting both the middle-class public and more privileged people, Merino wool company decided to create a fusion of the pop-culture imagery and an obvious reference to the Greek mythology.
Hence, the less sophisticated part of the audience was lured with the “sex sells” context of the advertisement, while the higher class could indulge into the associations induced by the image of a beast reminding of the mythological Minotaur.
Taking a closer look at the advertisement, one can see the distinct allusion to the legend of Minotaur. However, in the very picture, the bull’s head, which was the necessary feature of the Greek beast, was replaced with the head of a sheep, which targets the audience’s attention on the required goods – the wool, to be particular, thus, offering a peculiar pun for the people who are acquainted with the ancient mythology.
As Gibbons (76) had predicted, the mixture of the real and the surreal became one of the major features of the advertisements that included an artistic element.
It is obvious that the advertisement comprises the imagery of the Greek culture and the ideas of the modern era which uses the physical attractiveness as the main asset for providing the cover of expenditure for the advertisement and promoting tangible priorities.
Supporting the cultural hegemony, the advertisement at the same time reminds of the alternative for the existing culture. In contrast to the modern image of a successful, self-assured business woman, the advertisement offers a picture of a fragile, adventurous beauty, whose nakedness looks quite controversial, yet fits in with the general mood of the picture.
The Wordplay That Seizes Imagination In contrast to the advertisements aimed at the high-class public, which require the images and ideas that relate to the corresponding layer of culture and need that the implications of the advertisements should be rather subtle, the commercials for the middle-class people are supposed to be more persuasive and contain vivid imagery that is quite easy to intertwine with the slogan of the brand in question. Hence, the advertisement created by Gatorade proved to be one of the most successful brands ever.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to the brilliant legend behind the advertisement, that exercised the idea that practically anyone could become another sports idol if buying the drink, the company also made an efficient use of the slogan. Like many advertisements referring to the popular culture, the Gatorade commercial has also put into practice the idea of using puns as the main attraction.
Discovered not so long ago, the principle of inserting a pun into an advertisement to make it more colorful is one of the basic ideas for creating a mass-culture advertisement, as Danna emphasizes: “Puns are appropriate for ads since they are easily recognizable as humorous, and they are short. These kinds of puns are most celebrated in the ads” (119).
Hence, the combination of the saturated green, red and white, the recipe for the instant success that the brand offers, and the catchphrase used as the slogan for the advertisement work wonders promoting the soda. Moreover, it is evident that the advertisement supports the hegemony, helping people to make a successful career, which tunes with the ideas of the famous American Dream.
Happy Mascots and the Napalm Attack Despite the controversy and the hidden implication of the intense violence, as well as the reminder of the tragic mistakes of the past, the advertisement created by Banksy, the famous street artist, is truly shocking and at the same time frighteningly attractive. The image of Phan Thị Kim Phúc, burnt by the napalm, running down the street and being accompanied by the most cheerful mascots one can ever imagine, Ronald McDonald and Mickey Mouse, has a lot to do with the political issues.
In fact, the entire advertisement is a blend of societal perspectives, consumerism and cultural identities – or, rather, the remnants of the ones Vietnam was left with after the war with South Korea. Indeed, as Beasley and Danesi wisely mentioned, “the use of advertising in the political arena seems to know no bounds” (2).
Even though the advertisement seems to be suitable for all grown-up people to think of the deplorable effects the war between Vietnam and the South Korea had, the message between the lines of the advertisement is aimed at the U. S. foreign politics and at the country’s political leaders.
Criticizing the actions undertaken by the then United States President, Richard Nixon, Banksy lunged against the policy of the government. Delivering the message of the suffering the Vietnamese had to take, Banksy revealed the political and social facts people were unaware of, which made the advertisement controversial and headed against the then hegemony.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on In the Eye of an Advertisement: Reading Between the Lines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, advertisements above tell a lot both about the culture of the nation and the relationships of the latter with the rest of the world. Being another reality that mirrors the world people live in, advertisements can be both encouraging and criticizing. One of the means for people to see their own selves, advertisements cannot change the culture, but can show the ways to shape the existing tastes and tendencies.
Works Cited Beasley, Ron, and Marcel Danesi. Persuasive Signs: The Semiotics of Advertising. Berlin, DE: Walter de Gruyter, 2002. Print.
Danna, Sammy Richard. Advertising and Popular Culture: Studies in Variety and Versatility. The Upper Midwest, WI: Popular Press, 1992. Print.
Gibbons, Joan. Art and Advertising. London, UK: I. B. Tauris, 2005. Print.
Plastic Types and Manufacturing Report best college essay help
A plastic material is among the extensive collection of artificial or semi-synthetic organic materials that are used in the production of industrial products. Plastic materials are characteristically polymers with high molecular mass. In addition, they may contain additional substances that help them to improve their performance and/or cut down the cost of production.
The most likely plastic used Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is the most likely used type of plastic.
Why this plastic is selected
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
PVC is highly reliable because of its durability, light weight, flexibility and low cost. In addition, it has a high resistance to out-of-doors exposure as well as high mechanical strength PVC is also very good in reducing solar heat gain. Depending on the additives, PVC combines strength with transparency or color (Ronald and Baird, 1986). This addition of white and colored additives improves the weathering resistance of the PVC materials and products as well as their process-ability. These are some examples of the huge demands made on Polyvinyl Chloride.
What are some alternative plastics and why?
Some of the alternative plastics that are in use today are:
Fiberglass (Glass Re-enforced Polyester, GRP)
The characteristics of the refined GRP compound material are dependent on a large number of fabrication and compositional factors (Blaga, 1978). Some of these factors include resin formulation, curing conditions, filler, fabrication process, the amount and type of strengthening, workmanship, and coupling agent (Blaga, 1978). Glass reinforced plastic is a polyester resin reinforced with glass fibers. It can be used as a structural material by the artist. Fiberglass can be molded into various shapes which add strength to the work of art.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This material is durable and light, which makes it suitable for delicate applications in works of art. Fiberglass can easily be reinforced by adding more layers to harden it. Although not strong, this material is cheaper to manufacture (Ronald and Baird, 1986). A Glass Re-enforced Polyester material has found use in applications that require corrosion resistant materials at reasonable costs.
Therefore, Fiber glass materials can be employed as lining materials for conventional pipes that are exposed to chemical or galvanic corrosion (Blaga, 1978). GRP materials are non conductors of electricity and are therefore, induction flows do not have an effect on them. In addition, fiber glass materials have high tensile strength, durability, better strength and low density. Also, the materials have very strong stiffness characteristics. Lastly, as a result of their structure, GRP materials have very long life times.
The most popular acrylic plastics type is Polymethyl methacrylate and it is usually tough and highly transparent. It is also characterized by high resistance to weathering and ultraviolet radiation. Polymethyl methacrylate can also be drilled, formed, colored and molded easily. This quality makes it ideal for many applications in art (Dominick, 1993).
In view of the fact that Acrylics do not form crystalline resins when they are heated, however, they are converted into a shapeless blob that is referred to as an amorphous resin; acrylics have a grand “mold to size” capacity but their resistance to chemical corrosion is poor. In addition, they are fragile and easily broken. This is why they are constantly sprayed with certain types of fiber glass materials so as to stiffen them.
This material is highly reactive and pure. It is also relatively cheap. Formaldehyde plastics have good Color retention properties, and offer moderate water and heat resistance. In addition, they offer good chemical resistance and have excellent dimensional stability (Whitfield, Brown, and Low, 2007).
Polyethylene is highly reliable because of its durability, light weight, flexibility and low cost. Polyethylene is also very good in reducing solar heat gain. Depending on the additives, Polyethylene combines strength with transparency or color. A good number of grades of Polyethylene have outstanding chemical resistance and do not liquefy at room temperature as a result of their crystalline nature.
Different from acrylic materials, Polyethylene materials have better elasticity, and would not break before bending. They are closed cell materials similar to Styrofoam, which do not absorb water and emit any gaseous odors or fumes. In addition, they are tough, electrically insulating, offer poor weathering resistance, have low strength, and have a relatively low friction coefficient (Callister, 2004).
We will write a custom Report on Plastic Types and Manufacturing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is the most likely process? Used
There are many processes that make it possible for plastics to be changed into a number of useful shapes. These processes, which are employed in the molding or shaping of thermoplastics fundamentally, make the plastic material softer so that its injection into a mold, or flowing via a die, or forming over or in a mold can be done easily. These processes more often than not permit any scrap materials or parts to be chopped into pieces and reused. The most common process that is used is casting.
Casting is the process of art which involves making of an art form from a hollow mold by pouring molten plastic into the mold and leaving it to harden. This technique can be done in various ways. Lost-wax method of casting for instance begins with coating of the model surface with lacquer among other proactive substances.
The model is then placed in a retainer mold where pouring of liquid elastic takes place. To reveal the negative impression, the flexible mould is gently removed from the model when it solidifies. Application of meted material is done from the inside of the flexible mold. Core of investment material is then poured following solidification of the material. To reveal the wax positive, the two halves of the outer plastic retainer molds are removed after solidification of the mold (Dominick, 1993).
Steps in creating a sculpture using direct modeling method of casting
The process starts by preparing your framework of art. The plastic material is simply poured into a box where the artist wants the artwork to carve from. For this illustration, a human head will be used. To start with, a picture of a person’s head is sourced. The next stage that follows involves building an armature.
This is the frame where building of the sculpture takes place. This can be build from any rigid material such as a steel of a wire. A small welder can also be used to make a basic steel frame. The frame is the essential outline upon which the sculptor holds the materials. To build an armature, the artist can use nails and tacks to build together pieces of woods. The length of the wood should be slightly shorter than the length of the head that the artist intends to make.
The wires are then nailed on a piece of hardboard. To make a round shape as intended, the wires are blended together. The wires are then attached to a central position on the piece of wood. This consists of the basic structure of the head. Knowledge of the right mixing ratios of the plastic material is required for the subsequent stage. This stage involved mixing of the plastic materials.
Mix the plastic materials properly to form a resilient material the moment it dries up. When the plastic material starts reacting chemically and hardening, the next step which involves inserting the hand gently into the mixing materials is started. The aim of this stage is to capture any clumps of solids and breaking them up. This stage also helps by bringing the air bubbles to the surface to ensure uniformity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Plastic Types and Manufacturing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The next stage involves completion of the armature. Some old rags are torn into small strips and dipped into a mixer of the plastic. The strips are then twisted around the wire support. This process creates a strong support along the wires, and the sculpture starts to form. The strips are then left to dry. Depending on the humidity in the air, this process takes about an hour. Having done with the armature, the final shell is thrown to form the sculpture.
The versatile material is molded till the general shape of the head is built up. In order to get high quality, significant process control is required in this process. Examples of products that are made using this method are slabs, rods, tubing, and sheets (San Diego Plastics, n.d). Examples of materials that can easily be cast include nylons and acrylics (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
One of the advantages of this process is that the artist can continue to add the basic shape even after the paste has dried up. This is because materials can be mixed and casted onto the areas that the artist feels that some elements have been left out. For example, if the artist feels that the nose is smaller than intended; more materials can be mixed and casted to add up the size of the nose. It is however important to avoid adding up more paste when the earlier one is too dry because it may not adhere well. Grooves can however be cut into the dry paste to increase the level of adherence (Raymond, 1990).
This process is frequently employed in the making of complex and intricate shapes, which would otherwise be uneconomical or difficult to make using other methods (Degarmo, Black, and Kohser, 2003).
The better properties of the products that come from permanent mold casting are usually determined by solidification in the metallic mold. This include: superior mechanical properties, homogeneous chemical composition and grain structure, as well as low gas porosity and shrinkage. In addition, the art forms have good surface quality and low dimensional tolerances (Kopeliovich, n.d).
Alternative Processes Thermoforming
This process of thermoforming involves heating a cast or extruded sheet, draping it over a mold, in addition to allowing it to cool so as to fabricate a component (San Diego Plastics, n.d).To ensure that the material better conforms to the profile of the mold, vacuum is used to haul the material downwards.
Air pressure can also be used to blow up a shape or a bubble (San Diego Plastics, n.d). On the whole, these two processes call for the softening of the material in order to allow a low force to be applied so as to shape the component (Harper, 1996). Some examples of components made from thermoforming are motorcycle and boat windshields skylights, signs, and bubble packaging (San Diego Plastics, n.d). An example of this process is vacuum forming.
Epoxy resin and Crystic polyester can both been used with fiberglass to mold solid castings. Vacuum forming, a method for molding thin plastic sheet, can be used for three-dimensional plastic surfaces. This thermoforming process uses through the application of heat and pressure to mold castings (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
This is applicable where identical motif is required in multiples for recurrence within a sculptural arrangement, for instance in Oldenburg’s Profile Airflow (1969; New York, Museum of Modern Art); Richard Hamilton also used this procedure to make plastic imitations of the Guggenheim Museum in New York. In the mid- and late 20th century, plastic have been built into a variety of forms of sculpture, assemblage, montage and collage (Edward, 1994).
Vacuum forming (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
Comparatively deep parts are usually formed when the form-able sheets are pneumatically or mechanically stretched before bringing the sheets in contact with the surface of the mold and before the vacuum are applied (Throne, 1999).
The process of vacuum forming is employed in the production of plastic parts many industries; these include cosmetic, food, medical, entertainment, electronics, toys, household products, automotive, athletic equipment, appliance, clothing, office supplies and packaging industries (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
Some of the products formed by vacuum forming are inserts, blister packs, clamshells, and trays. This processes’ production time is usually short and this increases the detail-oriented features of production’s time. Many products produced by vacuum forming are sharp and precise detailed, hence making this process a desirable alternative to other molding methods (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
Some advantages of the process include being economical for petite to medium fabrication units, low cost of tooling, quick startup, and effective prototyping. In addition, there is no need to paint the art forms since texture and color are formed in (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
The modeling is a sculpture process which is additive and it involves materials building up to create/generate a final product/form. It is mostly done on an armature. The sculptor uses their hands to mould the material, which must be pliable.
This process, which is occasionally referred to as matrix transfer molding, is a practice frequently employed during molding. The process starts with the creation of a firm outer shell. This is then followed by the introduction of a softer and more liquefied molding material into the rigid shell and the model. Matrix molding is regularly used to create intricate shapes from composite materials such as glass/ceramic and glass composites (Mazdiyasni, 1990).
According to Mohr et al. (1973) and Agranoff (1975), matched-die molding is among the new processes that are currently in use the process allows for increased automation, and makes use of sheet molding compound (SMC). Molding of complex large art forms is facilitated by SMC.
This includes those that have differences in thickness, sharp radii, molded-in ribs, threads or bosses, comers and inserts. Art forms fabricated by this process have smooth molded surfaces. Many automotive applied products are made using this process (Blaga, 1978)
Injection molding is a process of art used to make detailed three dimensional art forms (San Diego Plastics, n.d). Placement of the material inside the machine’s hopper (Injection molding machine) starts the process. After the placement, the material is then taken to the melting cavity where it is heated.
Injection Molding (Kailas, n.d.)
When the material melts, it is then taken to the pressured mould, fitting into the cavity’s outline. When the cooling process is over, opening of the mould takes place. Afterwards, the mold is closed and waits for the subsequent shot. During injection, mold clamping is critical since the pressure of the cavity rises to 5,000 psi at times. Usually, the molds are made from hardened steel, epoxy and aluminum and are carefully finished (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
Squeezing toothpaste from its tube can be likened to extrusion. This process brings into being continuous shapes that are two dimensional. The technique is particularly adapted to production of continuous lengths that have constant cross-sections (Gowariker, Viswanathan, and Sreedhar, 2001). Some of these products are gasketing, film, pipe, sheet, and tubing.
The process involves feeding the material into an extruder where it melts and is then pumped out from the extrusion die. The die and the take-off line can control the ultimate aspects and the shape of the cross-section as the material cools. The extrusion equipment is created and regulated to generate melted plastic at very regular pressure and temperature that control the quality and size of the extruded products (Harper, 1996).
Extrusion (Kailas, n.d.)
This process is used to produce bottles, for example the gallon milk bottle (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
As noted by Gowariker, Viswanathan, and Sreedhar (2001), the calendering process frequently makes use of four heated rolls that are revolving at slightly distinct speeds. In this case, the material is delivered into the rolls, where it is heated and melted. Shaping of the material into films or sheets then takes place. Many products, commonly made from Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), are usually fabricated using this process (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
The process of compression molding usually involves placing a suitable charge of polymer material containing additives into the hollow space of heated male and female mold components (Callister, 2004).
Compression Molding (Kailas, n.d.)
After the material has been poured into the cavity, the mold is closed in anticipation of material cross-linking. Heat and pressure are constantly applied. This makes the plastic material to acquire the preferred mold shape.
Hand lay-up process
The hand lay-up process, which is the oldest technique and the one that calls for a minimal number of equipment, is currently used to fabricate large, hand lay-up and exceptional parts, as well as a fairly small number of miniature components, whose sizes and/or quantities would not validate the cost of production (Blaga, 1978).
This technique entails impregnation of the fiber glass reinforcement using a thermo-settable resin liquid in a gaping mold made from reinforced plastic, wood, concrete, or plaster, and cure is induced at room temperature (Parkyn, 1970; Mohr et al., 1973). A little external or no outside pressure may be applied (Parkyn, 1970; Mohr et al., 1973).
When catalysts are added, cross-linking or hardening of the material occurs at room temperature (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
Filament winding is a process of art forming that is said to be an automated edition of the hand lay-up method (San Diego Plastics, n.d). In this process, support filaments are coated using a resin and subsequently wrap around a mandrel. Layers and orientation’s number is dependant on the component’s bearing weight. Only strong and thin hollow pieces remain after the mandrel’s removal. Some examples of parts made from filament winding are street lighting columns and storage tanks (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
Depending on the size and the intended use of the products, there can be no “perfect substitute” for plastics. Although metals could be melted and cast into several shapes, they are bulky and some are very expensive. Wood can not be a substitute for plastics because it can neither be molded nor withstand high temperatures. All the above materials and processes are environmentally sustainable if proper care is taken when dealing with each one of them.
References Agranoff, J., 1975. 1975-1976 Modern Plastics Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill, Znc.
Blaga, A., 1978. GRP composite materials in construction: properties, applications and durability. Industrialization Forum, 9 (1), pp. 27 – 32.
Callister, W.D., 2004. Materials Science and Engineering – An introduction. Sixth edition. New York: John Wiley
Group Behavior in Organizations Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Human attitude and behavior
Information processing at group level
Individual and group effectiveness
Characteristics of an Effective Group
The social system in organizations consists of complex sets of human relationships with a variety of associations with each other, as well as the external environment. People in organizations willingly join groups according to shared work practises, habits and interests, just as they belong to other social and cultural groups, into which they are born.
These groups have an effect on the members, including: work traits; mannerisms towards seniors; and quality of work patterns. The groups subconsciously or consciously impose expectations and rules on their members, and it is therefore important for an organization to arrange for either formal or informal training of these groups on organizational goals, in order to achieve positive and aligned work behavior (Davis
The selection process of candidate Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The selection exercise
Factors influencing the selection process
Introduction It has also been an opportunity for me to learn various issues surrounding the selection exercise. The selection process involves such issues as job application, short listings and interviews in order to settle down on the right candidate.
There are various factors that are considered before settling down on the right candidate as we will see in the reflective essay below. The basic areas of concern during the selection exercise are the selection decisions, validity and reliability of short listing and interview practices as a component of the selection process.
The selection exercise is mainly not a single individual’s task but it is rather an exercise carried out by a panel of professionals mainly the human resources managerial team. Decision making is therefore based upon some laid down policies which are agreed upon by the code of ethics or by the selection panel since depending on individuals’ responses may at times bring about contradictions.
The selection panel must therefore carry out adequate prior preparation concerning the exercise whereby it is more appropriate to involve professionals in this field. This is because there are many trained professionals in this field and the selection criteria for various candidates are based upon closely related factors.
However, different interviewers have different interviewing approaches thus though there might be structured approach of the selection process, the interviewee ought to be adequately prepared and flexible in order to convince each member of the panel that he is the best candidate (Hackney and Kleiner, 1994, p. 8).
The selection exercise All human resource professionals appreciate the fact that attracting and retaining the best manpower for a specific job depends largely on the effectiveness of the recruitment, short listing, selection and interview criteria. These are the exercises that largely constitute the selection process.
There are a number of factors that affect the effectiveness of these stages and hence the decisions regarding the “best applicant.” The success in every of the stages depends on both the job seeker and the employer through the human resource section (Buckley, Norris, and Wiese, 2000, p. 116).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in filling any vacant post is recruitment. It involves advertisement of the vacant post either internally, i.e. within the company or publicly, through the mass media. This step allows the qualified and the interested individuals to make application towards the advertised post.
Individuals make their application depending on the interest in the job and their belief that they have the required skills, abilities, and other talents required to do the job well (Catano, 2009, p. 235).
However, due to the high rates of unemployment in many nations and other reasons, it is very likely to find individuals who may not be meeting the specified requirements applying for the vacant position. Furthermore, applicants are mainly beyond the required number in most cases thus calling for the short listing exercise.
The selection panel puts various factors into consideration, as we will see, in order to shortlist only the individuals who are likely to add value to the company in question.
Once the candidates have been shortlisted, personal interviews are carried out to further identify the most suitable candidate since the short listing process may only consider academic and the experience qualifications while the one on one interview enables the selection panel to in identify an individual’s potential.
While I have been participating in this exercise, there are various things that I have learnt from observation and interactions with the rest of the members of the panel that I was not able to learn while I was doing my research paper.
This has enabled me to enrich my knowledge especially on the fact that academic and other kind of testimonials are not enough proof to settle down on the right candidate thus personal interview is always important in order to combine academics and experience with the right character.
We will write a custom Essay on The selection process of candidate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors influencing the selection process Considering the participation I had on the selection process coupled with the knowledge and the experiences I have had with my own research and lectures, I have realized that there are several factors that determine the kind of a candidate that fits a certain job.
One of the factors is the kind of questions that will be asked during the interview (Class notes, 2011, p. 1). Before an applicant qualifies to sit down with the interviewing panel, it means that the individual application is worth short listing thus he processes the relevant skills and qualifications for the post in question.
The kind of questions that he will be asked and the kind of answers he is likely to give will determine his potential for the post in question. In the job market today, there are professionals who are wholly meant for the selection process and the questions asked in the panel are mainly tailor made to fit the needs of the given company (Barclay, 1999, p. 138).
There are three main types of questions “structured interview, unstructured, and behavioral interviewing style” (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002, p. 21) which can be categorized into the main subjects of interest such as:
Intrinsic and motivational factors, skills and abilities, knowledge of the organization, career goals and objectives, experiences in the desired area, extracurricular activities and college experiences, academic programs and achievements, hypothetical questions, accomplishments and achievements, geographic preferences, and salary and benefits. (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002, p. 21) This enables the panel to get the right picture of the interviewee thus settling down on the best candidate.
Gender is another major factor that influences decision making in a selection procedure (Radford, 1998, p. 108). In many cases, men have always been considered superior to women and this has also been reflected in job allocation thus affecting the selection process.
You will realize that the ratio of men to women in most shortlists varies a lot in many nations with the ratio of men being higher than that of women. Though there is a perception that some jobs are best suited for men while others are best suited for women, jobs that can be done by both genders well still are highly influenced by men superiority complex.
Some of the causes of gender bias in many nations include “parental expectation of children, education, advertisement if vacancies, self perception, nature of the assessment methods, attitudes and the perceptions of the assessors among others” (Radford, 1998, p. 108). This is passed on to the employer “gender discrimination” (Radford, 1998, p. 108) as well as the job seeker “e.g. in education and self selection” (Radford, 1998, p. 108) thus altering the whole selection process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The selection process of candidate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender differences and discrimination may not necessarily be structured within the selection process but may be an overall reflection of the selection process. First, the pool of applicants is usually determined by the individual’s decision to apply for the vacant position.
Due to the various forces surrounding the two genders, there may be gender differences in this pool of applicants. The successful candidate is usually a product of the selection process. Both the decision to apply and the selection process usually results to a successive reduction in the pool of applicants. The job definition has a lot of influence on the final selection of candidates which may be further influenced by the number of applicants from each gender (Radford, 1998, p. 108).
The physical factors surrounding a job are another major factor that determines the recruitment and the selection process. Individuals decide to apply for a certain vacant position depending on the desirability of working in a particular organizational environment (Catano, 2009, p. 235).
Some of the physical factors that applicants may consider include the location of the company, size of the enterprise and the kind of industry the job is categorized under. This is influenced by the age of the applicants, accessibility, and whether the job provides autonomy, and opportunities for self development.
Conclusion The selection process is one of the areas that determine the quality of the workforce in any organization. In the world we are living today, people have gone an extra mile to achieve academic excellence thus it is important for the selection panel to be a little bit keen on other qualities of a candidate. Such attributes are mainly achieved through behavioral interviewing style in order to settle down on the best candidate from the pool of academically qualified applicants.
References Barclay, J. (1999) Employee selection: a question of structure. Personnel Review, 28 (1
Death in The Shipping News Research Paper essay help
Introduction A Pulitzer-prize winning novel The Shipping News, written by E. Annie Proulx is a story of a young but dispossessed newspaper reporter, who is constantly searching for his lost self. The affection and sympathy for a flawed human being makes Proulx’s novel distinctly different from the prevailing majority of contemporary works.
Trapped within the gendered reality of his life, this disenfranchised and dispossessed personality resembles a figure of Don Quixote, as he is fighting against wind mills: his efforts are all in vain until death comes into his life. In Proulx’s novel, death exhibits a profound symbolic meaning.
It is equally astonishing and fascinating. It puts an end to someone’s moral tortures and, simultaneously, paves the way to someone else’s successes and achievements. For Quoyle, death is just the beginning of a difficult fight for his own self. In E. Annie Proulx’s The Shipping News, death exemplifies an act of moral capitulation and subsequent revival, equally painful and inevitable, which is leading Quoyle through the moral and spiritual salvation to love.
E. Annie Proulx is one of the most outstanding writers of our times. Her works are equally unusual and fascinating. Her characters uncover their talents and values through re-articulation and re-birth. The Shipping News is no exception: a Pulitzer-prize winning book, The Shipping News presents a dramatic story of a disenfranchised man looking for his self.
Quoyle, the protagonist of Proulx’s novel is trapped within the gendered reality of his tragic being. Constantly torn between his unfaithful wife, sick parents, and work and, as a result, disentangled, Quoyle is just a fragment of the surrounding reality, with no sense of selfhood (Flavin 240). In her book, Proulx observes how Quoyle is fighting against the realities of life. In The Shipping News, death comes as a form of salvation. It gives him Quoyle a second chance to win the game of life.
Quoyle, his wife Petal, and his parents are the major players of the death game. Quoyle’s life is a sequence of failures, which no one can break. “From this youngest son’s failure to dog-paddle the father saw other failures multiply like an explosion of virulent cells – failure to speak clearly; failure to sit up straight; failure to get up in the morning; failure in attitude; failure in ambition and ability; indeed, in everything. His own failure.” (2)
This tragic picture of never ending failures is further supplemented with the image of Petal Bear, Quoyle’s wife, whose sexual desire for Quoyle turns into detestation once they are married (Proulx 13). Quoyle brings his children around, while his wife is searching for sexual adventures (Proulx 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Petal travels in the U.S. and pretends not to recognize her children when she comes back home (Proulx 15). A life full of torture – this is how readers see Quoyle, his life and his family. Yet, even then Quoyle does have a chance to cope with all his troubles, if not for his parents.
“First the father, diagnosed with liver cancer, a blush of wild cells diffusing. A month later a tumor fastened in the mother’ brain like a burr” (Proulx 17). Readers do not realize that the gruesome picture of Quoyle’s life is just a preparation stage of his journey to salvation.
Death will become the turning point in his returning to the community and his self. In Quoyle’s situation, death is the only and, probably, the best way to personal happiness. Death will give him the freedom he needs to move on the course prescribed by his inner desires and not his family or wife (Flavin 240). It may even give him a sense of satisfaction for being a personality.
It goes without saying that Quoyle’s life is invariably associated with the changes that happen in his community. Stakeholders play one of the major roles in creating and reconstructing Quoyle’s life. Inherently submissive to the conditions and circumstances of his existence, Quoyle accepts community stakeholders and their decisions for granted.
It is not until he loses his wife and parents and moves to Newfoundland that he succeeds in actualizing and articulating his best human features (Stewart). These are stakeholders that affect the direction of his moral and spiritual evolution. At the beginning of Proulx’s novel, even the best Quoyle’s features, including his striving to care for his family and children and his sensitivity to failures, carry profound negative connotations. Once in a new community, these features pave the way to Quoyle’s personal happiness.
Quoyle’s aunt Agnis Hamm becomes his salvation: the main stakeholder and one of the main characters of Proulx’s novel, Agnis Hamm says: “You’ve got a chance to start out all over again. A new place, new people, new sights. A clean state. See, you can be anything you want with a fresh start” (Proulx 27).
Aunt Hamm gives impetus to Quoyle’s restoration and rebirth. The novelty of the community surroundings is like a fresh breath to Quoyle. He gradually moves from the sense of inadequacy to the sense of community belonging. He develops a voice needed to articulate his emotions and concerns.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Death in The Shipping News specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He is no longer silent; nor is he a failure to himself and the rest of the community. The new community provides Quoyle with a unique opportunity to re-establish himself as a personality who deserves respect and love. This way is thorny and paved with tears, but what he gets at the end turns death into the source of new, unique opportunities for Quoyle. It seems that life itself gives Quoyle a second chance to win the game of life.
In Annie Proulx’s novel, the topic of death is important, since it exemplifies an act of capitulation and revival, equally painful and inevitable, which is leading Quoyle through spiritual and moral salvation to love. Death marks the beginning of Quoyle’s profound restructuring through self-exploration and self-analysis.
It is not an easy task, as the man cannot proceed to self-analysis before he comes back to his family and community history. Death turns The Shipping News into a unique source of knowledge about Quoyle’s ancestry. It allows Quoyle to understand the hidden causes of his personal and family failures.
This spiritual journey to inner peace and balance is associated with the pain of realization that Quoyle’s family “was a savage pack. In the olden days they say Quoyles nailed a man to a tree by ‘is ears, cut off’ is nose for the scent of blood to draw the nippers and flies that devoured ‘im alive” (Proulx 97).
This knowledge creates a moral controversy and a gap of misunderstanding between Quoyle and the rest of the Killick Claw community. Death reflects and emphasizes the need for a profound mental restructuring, which will take out the best features and leave violence and sexual abuse of Quoyle’s grand-relatives behind.
Without knowledge of his past, Quoyle cannot become a whole with his identity and selfhood (Flavin 240). While learning his past, Quoyle reconstructs himself and becomes honest and assertive (Flavin 240). He learns how to be happy and how to keep this happiness in his hands.
From the lowest point of disenfranchisement, through self-analysis, Quoyle finally achieves the ultimate point of completeness, where love is possible without pain and torture, and where it is not wounded and wrenched and comes only once (Proulx 234).
In Proulx’s The Shipping News, death is the end of Quoyle’s silence and the beginning of his voiced, well-articulated future. Seiffert writes that Proulx’s The Shipping News is essentially about Quoyle’s development of voice, followed by the sense of identity and belonging (515).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Death in The Shipping News by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He begins his journey through Proulx’s book as a silent giant, a heap of flesh, with his marriage a painful disaster and his parents in the state of a death climax. He falls short of words, unable to express the complexity of feelings and emotions.
He silently listens to his wife as she is having with her new boyfriend in their living room: “He did not get up but lay on his back, the newspaper rustling with each heave of his chest, tears running down into his ears” (Proulx 16).
Following his wife’s drunken death, Quoyle becomes the sole decision-maker in his family. The life of his children is in his hands. He can finally envision his own future. He is no longer tied by circumstances. He is no longer trapped in his home place.
This is when he finally feels as if he had lost silence (Proulx 321). His voice becomes his guidance – an expression of his intuition and an articulation of his desires and thoughts. He is finally capable of expressing of his deepest feelings and thoughts. He can finally release his sentiments and passions without being judged for them.
Death in Proulx’s novel reflects Quoyle’s connection with stakeholders, since death is the main factor of homecoming and returning to the community for Quoyle. This is where the connection between Quoyle and stakeholders becomes particularly important.
This process is traumatic but effective – the pain of coming back to forefathers is further compensated by the triumph of knowledge and self-awareness. In Polack’s words, Quoyle’s life after the tragic deaths of his wife and parents reflects the “symmetry of redemption”, when the pain of loss causes and encourages purification from the sins and failures of the past (93). Quoyle’s new relationship with Wavey Prowse intensifies his sense of community belonging.
This sense, in turn, facilitates Quoyle’s transition to a new stage of self-creation and love: “Quoyle and Wavey side by side, feeling sympathy for each other. Herry breathing down their necks. The car moaned up the hill through the rain, away from the school” (Proulx 183).
Wavey is a point of connection between Quoyle and the new place he is in (Stewart). She is the source of harmony and balance between Quoyle and the rest of the community. This sense of belonging teaches Quoyle the skill of love, of which he was not capable before. This love turns into the main factor of Quoyle’s embeddedness and strong foundation in his new community (Stewart).
Proulx leads readers to the point, where death no longer looks formidable. Proulx reconsiders death from a new perspective, which gives it new meaning and life. It appears that death is not against life; rather it is the beginning of everything.
Cruel as it may sound, for individuals like Quoyle who surrender themselves to the circumstances of life, death is the only way to spiritual restoration and relief. This representation of death is equally complex and unique. It gives the reader some food for thought. We should care about this unique representation of death in Proulx’s novel, as it is never too late to reconsider even the most tragic events in a different, positive light.
Conclusion A Pulitzer-prize winning novel The Shipping News is a story of a young dispossessed newspaper reporter, who constantly tries but cannot find his lost self. Proulx’s novel is essentially about what death can bring and what effects its causes on people.
In E. Annie Proulx’s The Shipping News, death exemplifies an act of moral capitulation and subsequent revival, equally painful and inevitable, which is leading Quoyle through the moral and spiritual salvation to love. Death is the end of Quoyle’s silence and the beginning of his voiced, well-articulated future.
Death in Proulx’s novel reflects Quoyle’s connection with stakeholders, since death is the main factor of homecoming and returning to the community for Quoyle. Proulx leads readers to the point, where death no longer looks formidable. We should care about this unique representation of death in Proulx’s novel, as it is never too late to reconsider even the most tragic events in a different, positive light.
Works Cited Flavin, Louise. “Quoyle’s Quest: Knots and Fragments as Tools of Narration in The Shipping News.” Critique, 40.3(1999): 239-247. Print.
Polack, Fiona. “Taking the Waters: Abjection and Homecoming in The Shipping News and Death of a River Guide.” The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 41.1(2006): 93-109. Print.
Proulx, E. Annie. The Shipping News. USA: First Touchstone Edition, 1994. Print.
Seiffert, Rachel. “Inarticulacy and Silence: Annie Proulx’s The Shipping News.” Textual Practice, 16.3(2002): 511-525. Print.
Stewart, Robert Scott. “Tayloring the Self: Identity, Articulation, and Community in Proulx’s The Shipping News.” Studies in Canadian Literature, 23.2. Web.
Speaking in Tongues in Acts Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Acts 2: 1- 4
Acts 10: 44- 46
Introduction Speaking in tongues is an interesting phenomenon with Christianity. In many occasion, people who witness this phenomenon for the very first time would find it funny, amusing, or even annoying. Such a reaction can be understood easily since this matter has also proven to be complex even to Christians and Theologians.
It seems to be an issue that is beyond the natural means of human understanding. Besides this mystical understanding of the phenomenon, there are various cultic Christian groups that strongly use this phenomenon to pray. The phenomenon is commonly used during prayers and it is evident with particular denominations in the Christian religion.
Considering all the confusing circumstances that surrounds the idea, it is necessary to have an in depth look at the topic with regards to what the Bible says about it. The topic can be found in the books of Acts of the Apostle and the book of 1st Corinthians. In this paper, the understanding of this topic in a biblical perspective will be based from the book of Acts of the Apostle.
The book of Acts of the Apostle was authored by Luke and he is the first one to account on this issue in the Bible. During Pentecost after the ascension of Jesus Christ, speaking in tongues was first experienced by the disciples of Jesus when the Holy Spirit came upon them. This happened seven weeks after Jesus’ Crucifixion1. Before leaving, Jesus instructed the disciples to wait in Jerusalem for the coming of the helper. This was a promise to bring a helper to mankind who is the Holy Spirit. This was the beginning of the first church.
This instant and another occasion in the book of Acts do we see people speaking in tongues. The other place in the Bible where this topic is touched is the letter that Apostle Paul wrote to the church at Corinth. In Acts this was a symbol that God used to prove that the Helper, Holy Spirit has arrived. During this day, everyone in the room in which they were praying received the Holy Spirit and began to pray in incomprehensible tongue.
Some churches and believers believe that this sign has to occur in somebody in order for them to be sure of the full filling of the Holy Spirit. Just like in the book of Acts, they emphasize on an evident to show that true baptism has occurred. At the same time, there are other churches that though it is permissible to exercise the practice, they never lay so much emphasis on the phenomenon. Other churches on their part, do not allow this.
One of the major questions that come into our minds whenever we hear of this topic as Christians is that is that, should every person who claims to be a Christian speak in tongues during baptism of the Holy Spirit?2 There are so many people who just find it difficult to practice the phenomenon.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More And at the same time, there are people who equally find it easy to speak in tongue. The other issue of concern is whether speaking in tongues is the proof that the Holy Spirit has descended upon somebody. Thirdly, there has been this issue of linking spirituality to tongue speaking and people have always wondered whether practicing this phenomenon makes someone closer to God.
Acts 2: 1- 4 Speaking in tongues has a purpose in the church and in the book of Acts of the Apostle it says that tongues of fire rested upon each of them “…a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them”3.
From this passage in the bible, a few things could be noticed. First of all this was the beginning of the first church and they needed the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Just as Christ had promised them that He would send them a helper, they could not begin anything without the arrival of the helper. The evidence that the helper had come, had to be something sensible. People could see the actual tongues of fire as they descended upon everyone in the room. This was after a violent wind sounded like coming from heaven and filled the whole room.
It is also clear that the different tongues were the enablement of the Holy Spirit4. Nobody spoke something that the other was speaking. Each tongue was different. This is not a common thing nowadays because the congregation normally tries to emulate the tongue that their pastor uses during prayer.
The tongues were different foreign languages. It is argued that the Jews in that room represented the different native languages of the world. And when the Spirit came upon them it gave them the ability to speak in these foreign languages. The people who came by to watch them were amazed to see fellow Jews from Galilee speaking in their own native language.
This whole scenario then became misinterpreted by the on lookers. They thought that these people were drunk because they spoke in strange tongues that no one could understand. This made Peter to come out explaining what was happening. Peter had never had confidence to speak in public with such authority as he did on that day.
This authority is also part of the evidence that the Holy Spirit had filled him. The Holy Spirit gives confidence once it fills a human soul. It may be unnecessary to use the evidence of speaking in tongues to prove that the Holy Spirit has come upon you but once a person shows confidence in the gospel of Christ and speaks without fear or shame.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Speaking in Tongues in Acts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the day of Pentecost, there were three events that took place sequentially. The first one was the sound like a wind which was followed by something that looked liked fire that settled on each one of them. Lastly there was the speaking of tongues.
Peter rose to speak, he did not use tongues to address the people; he only preached and called for baptism of the Holy Spirit and repentance. Also from the passage it is unclear whether the Peter advised the people to be baptized and speak in tongues or just to be filled with the Holy Spirit. It was unclear whether the manifestation is the Holy Spirit filling people’s hearts or the speaking in tongues.
Acts 10: 44- 46 Other passage in the book of Acts where this phenomenon is displayed is Acts 10: 44 – 46. In this passage there is introduction of a non Jew5. Ever since Jesus ascended into heaven, the church has been composed of Jews only. Peter had gone to the house of a gentile on invitation.
Then Peter began to speak and preach to the entire crowd that was gathered there. He spoke about Jesus Christ and forgiveness. Just as he was speaking the Spirit of God came down on everyone who was under his voice and they all began to speak in tongues, both Jews and non Jews.
This was an amazing phenomenon to the entire Jewish community that was there because to them they had never witnessed Gentile speaking in tongues. In this context, it can be understood that the miraculous power of God which was manifested by the Holy Spirit coming down on the entire non Jew group, was not only meant for the Jews6. This power was extended to the whole world and the entirety of humanity. He used this miraculous sing to make it clear to the Jews the love of God and his acceptance to the whole world.
Lastly, in the chapter 19 verses 1 to 6, the final passage on this topic is displayed. In this passage Paul is in Ephesus, and he meets some disciples of John the Baptist. They had no idea about the gift of the Holy Spirit. So Paul taught them about the Holy Spirit. In the process of preaching, the Holy Spirit filled each one of them leading to the manifestation of speaking in tongues7.
In conclusion, this topic of speaking in tongues is not a requirement for one to be filled with the Holy Spirit. These circumstances told in the book of Acts, had special significance. The first case was the beginning and expansion of the church to the entire world. The second case had the significance of God showing his love to the entire world; meaning that everyone is accepted by God.
Bibliography Brawley, Robert L. Luke-Acts and the Jews: Conflict, Apology, and Conciliation. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1987.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Speaking in Tongues in Acts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Barrett, C. K. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. ICC. New York, NY: T
Information Systems Management Report cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
ICT in the UK: Public Services
Labour and conservative ways to technology
Comparison of other Government’s ICT with that of the UK
Challenges of ICT
Introduction Information communications technology is a general term that explains more about the integration of management systems. These systems include: intelligence, telecommunications and systems of audio-visual, which are currently used by information technology.
It involves all the technical ways of handling information and enhancing communication. It consists of telephony, audio and video transmission, broadcast media, network-based monitoring and control functions. ICT can be viewed as the combination of audio, visuals and networks enhanced by a link system. Economic incentives that result from this merging of network systems are large as they promote cost saving and effective organizational growth.
ICT in the UK: Public Services The UK government does not have effective information technology schemes. This is as a result of low allocation of budget share to the ICT and public sector. However, the government has come up with a strategy, which is expected to deliver public services in a better way at low costs.
The strategy involves sharing and re-use of ICT appliances. As stated by National Audit Office, (2007) this is intended to improve efficiency and productivity thereby reducing wastage and chances of project failure. Online transactions are scheduled to be opened for citizens and firms so as to promote policy debate and good collaboration during public service delivery.
Supply of government ICT is focused in a way that small and medium organizations are allowed to participate in an attempt to reduce bureaucracy. This is facilitated by creation of common ICT infrastructure that is built on mandated common standards. Transparency is enhanced through publication of government contract’s details so as to attract the necessary attention from all interested enterprises.
Current prediction of the UK’s public service ICT indicates that the sector is likely to experience a marginal decline. This is nothing compared to the wider cuts on spending, which should be reversed to ensure growth in a given short period of time. The total spending for 2010-11 financial year is estimated at 17.99 billion pounds.
This is expected to decline in the next financial year to stand at 17.75 billion pounds and later a mild decline throughout 2012-13 financial year. The sequence will overturn and see the spending rise to 18.27 billion pounds in 2015-16 indicating an increase of 1.5%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The processes of cutting operational costs bring about maintenance, increased spending on managed services as well as outsourcing. Rationalization of investment and infrastructure technology in the working of mobile is another form of saving.
This contributes positively to the hardware investment maintenance, offsetting of pressure so as to increase the lifespan of printers and Pcs resulting from the new spending on mobile devices. Cutting of government’s expenditure is seen as the main factor in use, but there has developed a new move to bring reforms in the public services.
The reforms are expected to be initiated by the local government followed by radical reforms in health sector. This will generate a considerable ICT investment by reversing the current spending trend. Businesses of various government branches have been joined together after the central government engages itself in a quest to reduce spending. This will see it spending more on outsourcing and reducing the overall cost of ICT in Whitehall. Other departments such as defence, transport and criminal justice are also expected to recover slowly.
Labour and conservative ways to technology Labour and conservative are two parties in the UK, which have persistent differences in policy formulation and in the ways society should be shaped. The two parties have clashed in economic sector on the cause of deficit and the appropriate method of handling it.
Conservatives condemned the growth of private debts, which were allowed by the Labour party. Butler, (1994) commented that the Labour opposed the review on spending and advocated for the need to delay cuts on expenditure.
In the public service, the set plans to distribute power to GPs have received a description, which portrays it as a dangerous experiment when public spending is reduced. The parties have differed in the education sector where: the labour party have analyzed the idea of free schools critically and opposed the move to raise tuition fees in universities to 9000 pounds, the cutting of funding for school sports and the ending of EMA payments of 16-18 year old youths.
The party has also opposed the planned educational reforms describing it as a backward move that makes the development strategies stagnant. Concerning the welfare reforms, the labour party has criticized the alleged move to cut housing benefits and elimination of child trust fund claiming that, it would cause poverty.
We will write a custom Report on Information Systems Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from having disagreements and distinct points of view, the two parties enhance democracy in various ways: They allow people to participate in elections freely, provide information to the public that might not otherwise be made public, enhance accountability and allow the existence of opposition to act as a watchdog.
The parties have also shown unity of agendas assumed to be brought about by the internet. Both have taken common grounds on how the government requires change although from different philosophies. There is a developing consensus of the parties, which will enable the adoption of long-term reforms in terms of state operations and its relationship with the citizens. Through their technological proposals, it is clear on how the two parties view the future status of the state.
This is because they have capitalized on the internet as the only medium of communication between the citizens and the government. The internet is perceived to offer people a chance to reinvent democracy and enable them to make decisions thereby influencing public policy. The conservatives have also developed a competition that will create a platform of tapping wisdom and ideas of dealing with tough policy challenges.
In the council of Barking and Dagenham, there is evident democracy in the way they hold elections and later form opposition. The mayor must be an existing councilor and assumes the role of conducting ceremonies in the borough. The council of Kensington and Chelsea has a united local government and a common town hall as well as administration.
There is equal representation of all citizens in the council governance signifying a well-developed democratic system. The council of Barnet has majority of councilor elected in the local government being conservatives. This has made them dominate the council and at times make decisions with no one to oppose. This also made them lose money in investments with a report showing that the procedures followed were not genuine.
Comparison of other Government’s ICT with that of the UK The government of the UK has the worst IT schemes in terms of effectiveness. Ross, (2003) argued that comparing UK with governments such as Canada, Japan, New Zealand and US, the government of the UK lags behind in many ways. There is recorded poor performance of e-government and a series of failed ICT projects with most of them based on public sector.
Allocation of contracts to a limited number of suppliers has caused problems in the UK. This has contributed to lack of expertise and poor ICT as compared to other nations.
Challenges of ICT For ICT to be fully adopted there must be affordable access created and infrastructure such as electricity which might not be there. Introducing ICT in education would mean a change in methods of teaching, re-training of teachers and added costs of purchasing new teaching equipment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Information Systems Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As people continue using the ICT, their culture is likely to change with respect to the technology in use. ICT brings about dissemination of indigenous knowledge, which when published on the internet gets exploited without economic benefit to the poor owner.
According to Cooke, (2007) most people with skills end up losing jobs and as ICT seem to create jobs; they are always different from the disappearing ones. ICT pollutes the environment since most of them contain toxic substances. Disposal of electronics waste proves a great challenge in waste management.
Recommendations Establishment of government policies would give guidance to the procurement of ICT systems resulting to the involvement of smaller companies in the business. Hall, (2010) suggested that, the government should provide enough ICT facilities in school to facilitate easy learning and adoption of e-learning.
Proper waste management should be put in place in order to control environmental pollution. Political differences should be kept aside when it comes to formulation of development related policies so as to enhance unity in the process. Countries should define boundaries of what qualifies to be published in the internet. This would prevent exploitation of indigenous knowledge from poor people.
Conclusion From the report it is evident that the government of the UK has undeveloped ICT system due to its practice of cutting ICT expenditure. The rivalry that existed between labour and conservatives greatly hindered development and adoption of ICT in the UK. The UK has a poor ICT system as compared to ICTs in other countries hence the call for improvement.
There are many challenges related to ICT and they range from education, through cultural to economic well-being of the society. However, ICT can help countries tackle their health, social and economic problems leading them to the realization of millennium goals.
References Butler, G. (1994). British Political Facts, 1990-1994, UK: Macmillan publishers.
Cooke, P. (2007). Regional knowledge economies market, cluster and innovation, Cheltenham: Edward Edgar.
Great Britain: National Audit Office. (2007). improving the Disposal of Public Sector Information, Communication and Technology. UK: The stationary office.
Hall, D. (2010). The ICT handbook for Primary teachers: a guide for students and professionals, UK: CRS press.
Ross, S. (2003). Britain since 1930, UK: Evans publishing group.
The “Modern Times” Movie Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Examination of the Movie
Introduction The movie “Modern Times”, widely considered to be Chaplin’s greatest work follows the adventures of Chaplain as he attempts to find a suitable job despite various unfortunately events and high jinks causing him to lose jobs one after the other.
While the movie itself is a comedy it does have various hidden metaphorical meanings which lend the film a greater brevity and meaning as compared to other silent films of the era. One theme which is expanded on in a comedic fashion is the effect being incarcerated has on an individual and his ability to adjust to society after being imprisoned for such a long period of time.
Examination of the Movie Towards the middle part of the movie people can see that Chaplain, after being released from jail, finds himself longing to be sent back to prison and being so far incapable of finding a proper job for himself. In reality this particular scene can be reinterpreted as the experiences newly released ex-convicts have when they are released from jail.
For a majority of them social reintegration is a harsh reality after years of being in a prison system where all their needs were taken care of (Coakley, 18). For them, reintegration is a harsh and arduous affair wherein due to their history of being a felon they are often derided against or shunned due to their past history.
As a result, this causes them to lose the ability to gain a stable means of employment resulting in them turning back to a life of crime either to survive or to be sent back to jail where they can at least be provided with somewhat decent living conditions.
It is this very experience that lies at the heart of “Modern Times”, while the film does express sentiments akin to the life of people during the modern day era it also reveals how due to societal changes in this era of ours people who have previously been incarcerated have no choice but to continue a cycle of crime as a result of the attitudes of the local populace.
While the film is comedic in nature it actually reveals the flaws of today’s modern society wherein people have to act in a certain way, be a certain type of person or behave in a prescribe manner in order to be accepted in society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Chaplin’s decidedly awkward actions are actually a parody of how people learn how to conform to a society where being “different” often times leads to uncomfortable if not harsh circumstances. In fact it can be stated that the film itself shows how society itself has created prisons for the various individuals who live in it wherein they are unable to escape from the roles society has created for them as a result of their need to conform in order to survive.
Conclusion Based on my interpretation of the film it can be said that one of the reasons why “Modern Times” has been so critically acclaimed is due to the fact that it was able to explore several themes regarding society with the main character saying little if nothing at all. In fact it can be stated that the depictions shown in the movie, though comedic in nature, are startlingly accurate to the way in which people in society have become so fixed in acting in such a particular way that they don’t even realize the prisons that they have created for themselves.
Works Cited Coakley, Sarah. “Jail break. (cover story).” Christian Century 121.13 (2004): 18.
MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.
BMW Luxury Cars Essay essay help online: essay help online
The core customer value for BMW luxury cars are prestige and hi-tech performance in their endeavors. Having full understanding of the specific needs of their target group, BMW has largely considered the psychographic factors of its customers.
As it has been revealed, BMW targets active individuals who have achieved success at their early age, desiring prestigious and super-performing luxury cars like themselves. Notably, the customers of BMW are technology oriented and very active in their life-time, as they pursue success in their ventures. In this regard, the brand seeks to establish strong relationship with its customers by providing them with the driving experience they desire in their life-time.
As it has been revealed, the luxury cars having the BMW brand name are in three series including MBW 3, MBW 5 and MBW 7. These three series of the MBW brand are the ultimate core aspects for maintenance of customer loyalty to the BMW luxury cars.
More specifically, the MBW 3 series provides its users with extra-ordinary performance as it is made to facilitate self actualization among the customer target base. Precisely, BMW 3 series seeks to establish trust and loyalty with its customers by offering splendid personalized experiences with the product. After the users of BMW 3 advance into more experience with BMW luxury cars, they move further to acquire BMW 5, which is more expensive, but maintaining the outstanding performance of BMW luxury cars
. On the other hand, BMW 7 series is meant for the already established customer base for BMW luxury cars as it propels higher the user-oriented experience with the BMW products through its advanced features to facilitate prestige and higher performance than 3 series. It is important to note that, 7 series is much more expensive that 3 series since it is mainly meant for company’s loyal customers who have had prior experience with the former series.
Following the currently competitive global markets, the development of products to achieve competitive advantage forms a real of success among brands marketers. Since the customers’ needs of BMW products are based outstanding performance, more innovations of the existing products need to be done to come up with more superior luxury cars capable of competing with potential competitors like Mercedes Benz among others.
More so, powerful advertisements based on psychographic factors of the customers’ needs to be made. For instance, creation of short films showing the uniqueness of BMW products on the context of other competitors may be quite appealing. Since visual advertisements are more accurate and highly effective, the films will be able to attract target customers’ attention largely. As a result, success and efficiency in marketing BMW products will be realized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, a variety of channels in marketing the BMW luxury cars would be more appropriate to reach wider customers base. Since the target customers for BMW are always busy and very active, the use of precise and direct advertisements over the internet would be quite effective so that the customers don’t waste time interpreting information of the advertisement.
It can also be recommended that, the product promotion uses the internet to collect information about the needs of their customers with respect to the specific aspects of the luxury cars which need to be improved. By having enough data about the accurate needs of the target customers, it would be easier for the company to modify the cars to intersect with the specific needs of the customers.
How do ethnic minority married women compare their life in the UK to the life they had in their own country? Research Paper college admissions essay help
Aim and Objectives of the Study The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how the quality of life of married minority women in the United Kingdom compares to their life before migrating to the country. Other objectives of the paper will include:
Factors that have led to a change in their lives in the UK
The role of marriage in changing their life in the UK
Role of gender equity programs in influencing the life of ethnic minority women in the UK
The influence of race relations in their lives in the UK
Literature review Before doing any analysis on the status of ethnic minority married migrant women in the UK, the paper will carry out an overview of what the situation of ethnic and migrant women in the country is. The Women and Equality Unit (2004, p 2) asserts that there is a discrepancy skewed to whites favor when it comes to job attainment.
According to Dustmann
HIV/AIDS by Allan Whiteside Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents The Problem
Dimensions of the Problem
The Problem HIV/AIDS is a disease that is easily transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and pregnancy. The HIV virus weakens the victim’s immune system and after some point the disease becomes the medical condition known as AIDS. At this point the body can no longer counter the effects of infection.
But the worst part of all is the fact that there is no known cure. Thus, the disease can spread from one village to the next and from one city to the next to overwhelm local governments and health officials. It will eventually become an epidemic if nothing can be done to stop the spread of the disease.
It is a lethal medical condition that once infected the carrier of the virus is expected to die but this does not have to be the case for most people, if only they can have access to treatment that can mitigate the impact of the disease.
Dimensions of the Problem The problem with HIV/AIDS is not only limited to the mortality rate and the epidemiology of the disease but also the social problems that it brings. First of all AIDS can easily shorten the life expectancy of the patient. This is especially true in places where there is no adequate healthcare system that can help in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS.
In addition to the healthcare aspect of the problem there is also the social side of the issue. In the early years of its history, HIV was linked to homosexuals and drug addicts. Thus, when the community finds out that a person has AIDS then the inevitable isolation and persecution can occur.
In addition there is still widespread ignorance of the disease and therefore the fear of infection is high even if scientifically speaking it is impossible for a person to get infected unless specific conditions are met.
Evaluating Evidence The study used scientific data as well as historical data. The study traced the emergence of the disease as well as the response of different nations. There was a section that provided an overview of the organizations and the personalities involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aside from science and history the study also used textual evidence, specifically literature, to show that the concern for AIDS/HIV has gone global. The study highlighted an advertising campaign with the catchphrase “Don’t Die of Ignorance” and it was printed on a leaflet that was distributed in every household in Great Britain (Whiteside, p.103). The study also mentioned the use of multimedia to enhance the campaign against the deadly disease.
The study was carefully put together and as a result there is almost no way to misinterpret what the author tried to convey. It is clear that the cause of the problem is HIV/AIDS and that the impact of the disease is the reason why other issues emerged such as poverty, gender inequality, corruption in government etc.
However, if one will ask why there were so many preventable deaths then there is indeed another side to the story. The reason is not just the virus but other social forces as well that help exacerbate the problem.
The widespread impact of AIDS/HIV especially in Third World countries cannot be solely blamed on the epidemiology of the virus but also on the social conditions that exist in a particular nation or geographic area that help explain the spread of the disease and the high mortality rate.
This is the major focus of the study. Although the discovery of a cure is the most important issue when it comes to HIV/AIDS, the need to improve preventive measures and how to enhance treatment has occupied the thoughts of many people including those that have the resources and influence to make an impact in the fight against HIV/AIDS. It has become very clear that the problem is no longer local but global.
Conclusion There are three major issues when it comes to HIV/AIDS. First of all there is inequality when it comes to access to information and treatment that could easily reduce the impact of the disease. Secondly, the HIV/AIDS epidemic cannot be contained by quarantine or other measures that can prevent the spread of the virus (Fee
Children as Future Consumers Essay college essay help
Introduction Materialism and consumerism may not seem like a problem to many, but it defines majority of the current population. The most gullible group is of course the children, whose innocence captures advertisers and marketers, who in turn force parents to spend on the products being sold.
There are a variety of factors leading to a lot of consumption by children, for example, advertisement and peer influence. This paper will deal with the topic of materialism and consumerism; the positive and negative effects of consumerism especially on children; and finally mitigation strategies to be undertaken to ensure that children are better future consumers.
Materialism and Consumerism Materialism has been defined as the tendency to be materialistic i.e. have the desire to spend the resources one owns on material things and attaining a comfortable lifestyle in general. Consumerism on the other hand puts a direct link between how many things one owns and their happiness (Chapter7, 2009, p. 1).
These two go hand in hand and the distinction line between them is very thin. Both go beyond the necessity of satisfaction of needs and they create the desire to want to own more and consequently create an image. Hence majority of the reference in this paper will be on consumerism, though the terms may not be used interchangeably.
Capitalism is heavily influential on consumerism (Chapter7, 2009, p.2). A capitalist economy will have the mindset of creating more market for themselves, ensuring “same consumers buy more of the same” or having innovations that will definitely increase demand (Kapur, n.d. p.1).
When there is an “economic crisis”, government will go to the extent of ensuring that people consume more just so as to sustain the economy (Chapter7, 2009, p.3). Thus consumerism is a concept that goes beyond the individual and has far reaching effects even to the economy of any particular state. As Kapur (n.d., p.1) stated, “children were invented as consumers” (Kapur, n.d., p. 1), a sad but a real truth and fact, and they are serving their purpose in fuelling the economy.
Children between the age of 9 and 14 are more susceptible to being materialistic and hence end up being heavy consumers (Goldberg, 2002, p.1). This age group has been called the “tweens” a name given because the 9-year-olds have not reached puberty while the 14-year-olds are past puberty (Goldberg, 2002, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children are majorly targeted for the following reasons: they have their own money, they determine how their parents spending trend and they are the major future consumers (Zoll, n.d. p.1). In the US, $36bn in sales per year, is directly connected to children consumers (Goldberg, 2002, p.1), while in the UK, £30bn is from the child market (BBC, 2008, p.1).
In Australia, a lot is invested to advertisements targeting the “tweens” to the point that when they are young adults, their sense of choice has been heavily corrupted and they can barely make independent choices without being influenced by brands (Hamilton, 2006, p.8).
In the past, there was a huge difference between goods or services available to the ordinary people and those who could afford the highly priced ones; not anymore indicates Hamilton in what he called “democratisation of luxury” (Hamilton, 2006, p.1).
The poor are competing with the wealthy as regards their consumption (Hamilton, 2006, p.1). A definite sign that consumerism in the society has increased, can also be observed from the number of cars owned by individuals, the cars they drive, mobile phones, different home devices, entertainment gadgets, obesity in children among others (DeAngelis, 2004, p.52).
In an article by Zoll (n.d., p.1), she quotes a clinical psychologist who states children are so inclined to their friends possessions and how their desire is to make money when they grow up or become older (Young, 2011, p. 1). How did children become so obsessed with their looks and possessions? What has led to the increase of consumerism?
Factors Leading to Increased Consumerism Advertisement
Advertisement in this day and age is part and parcel of our world and its effect is felt everywhere, from online sites, to mobile phones to billboards on the streets, to commercial breaks in between television shows. They not only promote products but also sell “cultural practices” for example it’s the in-thing to have this or that (Nordicom, 2006, p.110).
These advertisements are geared to lure the consumers, especially children who watch about “25,000 ads a year” in the US (Chapter7, 2009, p.1), while in the UK, the numbers are much lower at about 10,000 (Shah, 2010, p.1).
We will write a custom Essay on Children as Future Consumers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children are also a prone target since they will not only enhance current markets but also enhance continuity since they will be identifying particular brands (Shah, 2010, p.1). Children are expected to nag their parents to the point of driving them to buy the advertised good (Chapter7, 2009, p.4). Marketing and advertising is not a concept that appeared out of the blues, but it’s been evolving with time, meaning in the future it may even get worse (Abela, 2006, p.3).
Past History and Peer Pressure
Children with a less fortunate background are also prone to materialistic behaviour, in a sense to try and make up for their misfortune (DeAngelis, 2004, p.1). In the UK, as stated in an article by Bennett, over 69% of “poorer children” desired jobs with very good salaries and were more involved in shopping as compared to 28% of the children who came from well-to-do families (Bennett, 2008, p.1).
A different study also showed a connection between low income and “mental health problems” in children: for weekly incomes below £100, 16% of children were affected, for £300- £499, only 8.6% children are affected and for incomes over £700 only 5.3% (Bennett, 2008, p.1)
. When the children themselves were asked they admitted to wanting to fit in with all the latest fashions or technologies (Bennett, 2008, p.1). Peers use commodities to gauge the value of their opponents a trend to “keep score with each other” (Lawson, 2006, p.1).
The blame should not only be placed on outside influence but parents are also considered to have a part to play (Shah, 2010, p.1). There are those who will encourage good values to their children and hence to some extent shield children, but its generally hard for them to beat the advertisers and marketers who even have qualified professionals to make sure that advertisements achieve the desired effect (Shah, 2010, p.1). Absenteeism of parents is also another thing to be considered since they are normally busy working in order to give the child a better future but in the process, it leaves the child unattended and unshielded (Nordicom, 2006, p.117).
Education and Consumerism
The school institution which is supposed to be a safe haven for children has become otherwise and education has been “commercialized” (Shah, 2010, p.1). All fields have been infiltrated from trips to school materials that are sponsored by different companies who ensure the children are aware of the products that are on offer for them (Shah, 2010, p.1).
“Educational news programs provided free to schools contain advertisement” (Chapter7, 2009, p.4). A case in point is that of a company in Britain which had the promotion that “the more chocolate one ate, the more sports equipment one gets” all in an effort to get the kids to be actively involved in sports (Shah, 2010, p.1).
For instance, “a basketball would be about 170bars of chocolate” a very ironic promotion since the children would now have health risks and issues to deal with (Shah, 2010, p.1). The same case goes for the US, where the “education system” is a booming business netting around “$650bn” (Shah, 2010, p.1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Children as Future Consumers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With all the aforementioned factors leading to increased consumerism among children, there are visible effects that act as a signal. The positive and negative effects of consumerism are discussed below.
Positive and Negative effects of Consumerism Consumerism is mostly associated with the negative aspects, which are quite many in comparison, but there are positive aspects to be considered. Among them: a country’s economy is heavily influenced by the spending power of the population, hence the higher people spend, the more a country benefits; higher productivity; availability and variety of goods and services offered; creation of job opportunities; better lifestyles, among others (Shukla, 2009, p.1).
The many negative effects include: children being exposed to environments not appropriate for their age, hence very detrimental to their growing up (Goldberg, 2002, p.1); the saving culture especially in the youth, is destroyed and replaced with a spending trend (Goldberg, 2002, p.1); high risks of depression, “less happiness”, and various “social pathology” (DeAngelis, 2004, p.1).
There are increased rates of crime, especially among the youth, due to the gap between those who have and those who don’t (Lawson, 2006, p.1). In order for “failed consumers” to obtain what the “rich have”, they will definitely result to theft (Lawson, 2006, p.1). There is also a connection between “materialism and a reduced well being”, since people will be chasing after desires instead of meeting their necessities (Abela, 2006, p.2).
Another detrimental effect is the impact consumerism has on the environment (Chapter7, 2009, p.2); lands are used to build houses, malls, warehouses (Verdant, n.d. p.1). The pressure is also put on natural resources due to the ever increasing production of various commodities (Shah, 2010, p.1).
Debt is also not far off from individuals who are trying to maintain a lifestyle that they cannot afford; this is especially in reference to parents who turn to credit cards for solutions (Chapter7, 2009, p.1). This is no wonder why children cannot learn the saving culture since the credit card has taught them the concept of buying now, and pay later (Chapter7, 2009, p.1).
Current Policies Children should be taught from an early age that they should not chase after what the advertisers are out to sell, but should in fact place more value to who they are rather than what they own (Bennett, 2008, p.1).
Different states and nations are trying to curb the effects of advertising since it is the one that heavily influences consumerism to children: advertising in Sweden has been stopped since the year 1991, especially during “children’s prime time”; in UK, as of 2008, “junk food advertising” shown to children during their television program time below 16 has been enforced (Shah, 2010, p.1).
Greece for instance has also banned the “advertising of toys to children between the hours of 7am and 10pm” while Quebec put a stop to all advertising targeting children under 13 years of age (Zoll, n.d. p.1). Despite all these restrictions gaining a lot more popularity in Europe, in the US it’s not so because marketing to children are seen as a First Amendment right.
The industries themselves have not been left behind in trying to take up control measures to ensure that children are well guarded (Nordicom, 2006, p.111). Some of the products that industries have taken initiative to “self-regulate” are to do with alcohol, tobacco, junk food among others (Nordicom, 2006, p.111). As for the entertainment industry, parental guidance has been promoted but only with so much success (Nordicom, 2006, p.112).
Dr. Elliot Barker, who is a Canadian psychiatrist and child advocate, offers the following recommendations with regards to the current consumerism: meeting children’s emotional needs so as to eliminate the need to substitute this by being materialistic; families participating in activities that are “non- commercial”; effective parenting, among others (Hunt, 2004, p.1).
Young also proposed focusing on “spirituality, relationships, philosophy, learning and ethics” as the greater solution to not falling in the trap of consumerism (20011, p.1). Other than these methods that are aimed at increasing the persons value, different methods have also been proposed including: “higher gasoline taxes”, “progressive consumption tax” i.e. the more one consumes, the more they are taxed, and tax is exempted for money that is saved, improving public goods and services so that people do not fall back on privatized goods and services (Chapter7, 2009, p.13).
Conclusion The children are definitely to be protected from all the “insanity” of advertisement and they are to be allowed to grow up in environments that allow them to make independent choices as consumers and not to be arm-twisted per se.
When children follow the right path of consumption, then future generations will not be enslaved by consumerism since they will have good examples to emulate and hopefully positive values will have been instilled in them.
References Abela, A. V. (2006) Marketing and Consumerism. Web.
Bennett, R. (2008) Pressures of Consumerism make Children Depressed. Web.
Chapter7. (2009) Consumerism. Web.
DeAngelis, T. (2004) Consumerism and its discontents. Web.
Goldberg, M. (2002) Children and Materialism in the New Era. Web.
Hamilton, C. (2006) Marketing and Modern Consumerism. Web.
Hunt, J. (2004) The Natural Child Project. Web.
Kapur, J. (n.d.) Rehearsals for War: Capitalism
Standardization of language Expository Essay best college essay help
Necessity is the mother of all invention, this is a common phrase and it applies to language. The need to communicate led to the development of languages. With time, these languages have developed to suit the requirements and preferences of the people. These changes are responsible for the various languages and accent that are available worldwide.
Change in language is therefore an inevitable and a natural process (Crystal). Although change in language is unavoidable, people always want to stick to their known ways and methods of speech. The issue of what is the correct language remains a big issue.
If there is a perfect language, to what standards should it be. People have expectation on their language and they make a judgment. This essay therefore begins by looking at standardization followed by language expectations and finally the judgment on language use.
Standardization of language is the process through which a language has been codified, this process also include grammar and spelling development. It is also through standardization that writing of a language in an official format becomes possible. Standardization is of great benefits to a language.
Through standardization learning and teaching of a language is facilitated. The benefits that results from standardization of a language are numerous but the main issue that follows standardization is who is responsible for standardization of a language. The next issue is of course the need for standardization and if there are some persons responsible for standardization.
In the past, language standardization process has been hijacked from the hands of linguistics. In fact, the process has been utilized as a way of creating identity for a state or a group of people. Institutions of learning have also been linked with language standardization process.
Politics have also played a big role in standardization of language with the bottom line being the creation of dominance. Different standards in language have also been responsible in the creation of social classes that are present in today’s world. Language has been viewed as a cultural capital and that it create the differences between social classes, the educated and the uneducated (Finegant PBS. Org).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deresiewicz emphasized on the role language standards play in society classification by stating that “mastery of standard English language was the ticket of cultural admission” (New York Times). This shows that although standardization of language is important for development of the language and people’s culture the process has often been misused.
In order for the full benefits of standardization to be realized then it is important that standardization of a language be done for promoting the language.
As stated, the natural process of language change still applies in standardization of a language and therefore the people should be the main stakeholders in the standardization process. The process should also be a natural process, which implies that the process should not be influenced externally.
Expectation of a language to people goes beyond a tool or means of communication. People therefore have varied expectations for their language. With language, people expect to share their personality and to express their message beyond their words. As claimed by (Baron PBS. Org) people expect their “language to express their solidarity or group identity.”
For this reason, people expect language to create a distinction between genders, educated and uneducated. Expectation on language variation across gender is of great interest compared to the other expectations.
The main reason for this interest follows from the fact that there is a variation in language across gender even if other factors that cause language variation among people are constant. In the English language, for example “men are said to swear a lot, to be more coarse and casual.
Studies claim that American women know more color terms and men know tool names; that women use more qualifiers and diminutives” (Dennis Baron PBS. Org).
We will write a custom Essay on Standardization of language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Language change and use is subject to people’s judgment, people therefore judge a language as a bad and good language. How people use and judge a language determines its effectiveness and development. This in turn determines the survival and continued use of a particular language. As noted by (Nunberg PBS. Org) “the English language will survive its current critics complain.”
This shows that even though the English language is under harsh judgment it has a well-established structures that will ensure its survival. Survival of a language should be therefore the key factor that should govern its standardization, expectation and judgment.
Conclusion The use of any particular language reflects the changes that have taken place in the language. Language change is an inevitable natural process and people have not readily accepted these changes. Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason.
People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. After all is said and done language remains a subject of judgment from the people , where the judgment should be aimed at development of the language.
Works Cited Baron, Dennis. Language
Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Usual Diwali Celebration Style
Diwali Celebrations in Other Countries
The European and Australian Diwali
Festival Celebration in USA and Canada
Diwali in other Parts of the World
Incorporating Diwali in other Traditions
Introduction India is a beautiful country. It has unique festivals one of which is Diwali, otherwise known as Deepavali, the festival of lights. This festival is undoubtedly the most popular of the Hindu festivals.
Like most of the festivals celebrated mainly by Hindus, Diwali has a mythology and a historical basis behind it. Legend stories purport that Hanuman, the monkey god, crucial devotee of Lord Rama, brought the long-awaited message, declaring Rama’s return to his kingdom following an exile of fourteen years.
People refer the festival to as the festival of Sweets. Giving sweets is an activity that has become a tradition in these celebrations.
Usual Diwali Celebration Style Hindus, Sikhs, and Jains celebrate the festival that lasts for five days. The dates vary based on the Indian lunar calendar (Robinson 123). The celebration has extended outside India to the Diaspora.
It is a mainstream in Britain and countries like Indonesia, the United States, Malaysia, and Singapore. They have incorporated the festival in their local traditions (Robinson 123). Besides eating Indian food, most people outside India are still unfamiliar with the usual Diwali food.
The most common food during this celebratory period is sharing and eating sweets. Indians and other people celebrating the festival eat plenty of sweets during that time.
They also prepare confectioneries, desserts and sweetmeats, which come between snacks that people eat all the time. The sweetmeats or ‘Mithai’, as popularly known, are the most common and the favorite foodstuffs. It is hence the foods, which capture Indian cookery psyche outside India.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In India, it is customary for family members and friends to come together in the celebration. They also exchange gifts. In most cases, they exchange sweets, candy, dried fruits, and other snacks (Robinson 124). People dress up well for the occasion. They share, and exchange gifts of clothes and perfumes as customary activities.
Diwali Celebrations in Other Countries Since Diwali is significant to Indians as Christmas is for Christians, its celebration is extremely essential. During this celebration, people have their homes lit up with candles. They decorate the streets and businesses with lights.
The European and Australian Diwali Hindus in other parts of the world celebrate Diwali in a unique way. In the South East Asia, and Indian populations elsewhere in the world, people celebrate the Diwali somewhat differently. Where the Hindus are fewer, they only put on lights and celebrate it in their homes.
On the other hand, when they are many, they take the celebration seriously. The Indians make the celebration seem like a tremendous cultural scene. The United Kingdom has a well-established Indian demography, which allows the country to conduct bigger public events (Richman 67).
Since there are many Indians in Australia and Europe, people conduct the large-scale Diwali events like carnivals and fairs in cities. In Australia, the celebrations are common in Melbourne and Sydney. In the United Kingdom, they are mainly in London (Richman 67).
Featuring in these events are fabulous firework displays, public music and dance performances, stalls that provide services mainly painting henna, stalls selling assorted Diwali sweets, herbs, savories, and people often burning an effigy of the demon King Ravana (Plum-Ucci 12).
People also dress up nicely for the occasion with women wearing their best jewels and silk outfits. Some put on mehendi, temporary decorations of henna on their palms. Since people also refer the celebration to as the celebration of lights, they light various lights: candles, and lanterns, at the event, in houses and even around homes (Plum-Ucci 17).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The women present sweets on shiny, silver trays and garnish the dishes with candlelights called diyas and some time with jewels and flower petals (Plum-Ucci 55).
The Indians in Britain are usually enthusiastic about this festival (Richman 69). They clean their homes, decorating them with lights, mainly candles and lamps. The most salient part is that they also exchange gifts. This tradition goes back to the harvest time when people could offer gifts of their harvest.
Today, they give sweets. The common sweets are barfis and laddoos. Different Hindu communities come together in a central place like in London for the celebrations (Richman 69).
As the event has become more popular, people have observed non-Indians also joining the Diwali festivals. Sometimes the festival of light falls on same dates as the British Bonfire Night on fifth of November. This inspires joint celebrations, which are thrilling (Richman 71).
In Australia, Diwali is not a public holiday recognized across the country. Nonetheless, there is always traffic during the event. Parking places remain fully parked during the period of holding the event. Most Indians close their businesses for the celebrations.
Their Indian community has sent a request to make Diwali a public holiday in the country. In Australia, it is customary for families and friends to share and exchange gifts. In most cases, these gifts are sweets, dried fruits and candy. However, during the main festivity, elaborate food takes center stage.
There is also exchange of perfumes, clothes and soaps as gifts. Other appropriate gifts are lamps, candle stands and fireworks.
Festival Celebration in USA and Canada All the communities with Indian populations, or those who identify themselves as Hindus, always celebrate the festival of lights (Plum-Ucci 18). The celebrations here are mostly in homes. In Canada, some families organize trips to Niagara Falls in Ontario where the festival of lights takes place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This often happens because the winter festival and Diwali often fall on the same dates (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232). This Niagara festival is usually a spectacular event with an amazing display of lights and fireworks. There is usually adequate entertainment for families ranging from food, music and dance among other activities (Khandelwa 61).
In America, there are some cities with large populations of Indians and Asians. Hence, these communities sponsor large Diwali events (Shah 43).
For instance, Cupertino in California has set a day aside for which the celebration of lights takes place. There is usually, music and dance, cultural performances, foods and gift vending and many other forms of entertainment in cities (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232).
In cities, where there are diverse populations, people honor the event. The celebrations take place in Hindu temples like New York (Khandelwa 61), Phoenix, Chicago and Minneapolis. These communities still honor the celebration of lights by lighting up their houses just to celebrate the victory of Rama against demon king Ravana (Torpe 7).
This symbolizes the victory of light over darkness (Plum-Ucci 23). Hindus believe that, during this day, the goddess of happiness roams the earth during the day of celebrating Diwali.
She looks for the purest, cleanest and brightest house, which she enters. It is apparent that the celebration differs in different parts of the world. However, they maintain the general spiritual meaning. That is to increase awareness of the inner light.
Diwali in other Parts of the World In Asia, especially Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, people celebrate Diwali by placing lamps and candles on banana leaves together with coins and incense sticks. People then float these lights on a river. The view of thousands of candles along a river is always spectacular during the evening of the Diwali celebrations.
In Thailand, one can describe the Diwali celebration as insanely huge. They refer it to as Lam Kriyongh. In Singapore, people refer the celebration to as ‘Deepavali’. The government recognizes it as a public holiday. Its uniqueness is that, a light-up Little India District typically marks it.
The celebration is almost as Diwali customs in India where people come out exchange gifts, have merry performances. Distribution of sweets is the best part of the celebration, as it involves the giving out of sweets of different types.
In Nepal, people refer Diwali to as ‘Swanti’ or ‘Tihar’. The celebrations last for five days just like in the other countries though traditions done during the celebration slightly vary from those done in India.
People decorate the entire country with various lights and lamps in celebration of victory of Rama (Torpe 8). Women prepare exceptional foodstuffs especially sweets of different forms for making this festivity (Ganeshram, and Velloti 135). There are also lively performances, fireworks and crackers everywhere.
In Mauritius, Africa, people celebrate the event with considerable passion. It has been an age-old custom. The native believe the celebration begun even before the return of Lord Rama (Plum-Ucci 6). Diwali here holds a distinct significance for the natives for the coronation of Rama as King.
People celebrate by lighting earthen lamps in lines that make images and they worship Lakshmi (Torpe 6), the goddess of earth (Shah 41). They also burn crackers to scare the evil spirits roaming the earth.
Incorporating Diwali in other Traditions In the western nations, Diwali celebrations are evidently not as typical as they are in India. There are often some little variations from the traditional way of celebration (Shah 41).
In most cases, the elements of the Hindu culture, which may relate to Diwali, are also present in the celebration to highlight Indian customs and culture. Dances and songs prevalent in Hindu culture often find their way into the celebrations (Khandelwa 61).
For example, it is not a surprise to find men and women performing the ‘Dandiya Rasa’ dance in Diwali celebration outside India. This dance features wooden sticks. Besides, in other places, one has to see Punjabi Bhangra songs and Bhangra dances that people perform during the festival of light (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 233).
The dance and songs date back to the eleventh century. During that time, the Punjabi farmers would celebrate the coming of the harvest season by dancing to Bhangra folk dance.
The Punjabi musicians who have travelled to western countries popularized the folk dance hence causing the dance to be a popular culture in certain aspects of the western society.
Bhangra is currently popular in the United Kingdom and Canada. Because of the zeal to popularize the Indian culture during such fairs and festivities, there are numerous Indian merchandise also sold during these events besides the food not related to the festival (Khandelwa 61).
Therefore, the festival of lights in countries abroad forms a frightfully convincing way of knowing the Indian culture and understanding Hindu religion. In fact, some places the celebration is all about getting to know the Indian tradition.
The Diwali is a prominent religious celebration for three religious groups – the third largest celebration in the world (Torpe 4). Buddhists, Hindus, and Jains celebrate it. The festival is becoming more popular across the worlds, as more people from different nationalities, ethnicities, and races join in the festivals (Khandelwa 62).
When joining a Diwali festival, it is indispensable to expect more than just gifts. There is usually colorful pomp with elaborate meals, singing and dancing, as well as many other activities associated with the culture.
The goal of Diwali is to teach a tremendously significant lesson to everyone. That ‘good’ always triumphs over ‘evil’ the same way Lord Rama won the battle (Torpe 4).
The festival reminds people of the importance of thanksgiving. It helps in teaching family values and friendships, thus, persuading people to value these things.
Above all, the ceremony teaches people to be charitable to the less fortunate in the society. At this time, it encourages people to share and offer gifts to others. During Diwali, people usually salute one another in English as ‘happy Diwali’ (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232).
Conclusion From the Diwali celebrations across the world, it is evident that without sweets, then the event will not qualify as Diwali. The sweets sweeten the ceremony for everyone attending it.
The sweets are exchanged among everyone: young and old, and male and female. Hindus also share the sweets with other people from other religions, mostly those connected to them. The habit of giving gifts is also encouraging, as it spreads joy to every person involved, whether in India or abroad.
Works Cited Coward, Harold. Hinnells, John, and Williams, Raymond. The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. New York: Suny Press. 2000. Print.
Ganeshram, Ramin, and Vellotti, Jean-Paul. Sweet Hands: Island Cooking from Trinidad
Four Functions of Management Theory Essay scholarship essay help
Management involves the effective organization of organizational resources in a way that is likely to help the organization in the achievement of its policies and objectives and aspired goals. Management is therefore a vital aspect of any organization.
Responsibility of management is normally left on the hands of managers who act as the stewards of owners interests in the respective organizations (Griffin, 1996). Managers in all organizations almost perform the same basic functions.
These functions entail; planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Buffett
Population Pyramids Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison of the three pyramids
Introduction The current population of a country is a product of the past trends in the population of the county under investigation. Consequently, this population will determine how the future population of the country will be. This has been demonstrated by a comparison of the population pyramids of the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Ethiopia.
A part from the past population trends in a country, other factors determining the current population of a country include the economic level of the country, influence from other countries and the effects of globalization.
This paper will discuss the effects of the current population in the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Ethiopia. This will be achieved by comparing the population current population pyramids of these countries. From the population pyramid, the paper will give an insight on the future expectations of the population in the countries under investigation.
Comparison of the three pyramids The current United Kingdom population pyramid indicates a fare distribution of people across the ages. The number of people in each age group in the United Kingdom is almost the same. From the pyramid, it is clear that this population is made up of more middle aged people than young people.
It is, therefore, possible to conclude that the United Kingdom has an old population. This can be attributed to the effects of civilization and modernization which brought about the issues of family planning. The pyramid indicates that most of the people in the unite kingdom are in their fertile age, yet the number of children is less compared to older people.
With this population trend, the population risks a drastic decline in future. The small percentage of young people as indicated by the pyramid will not be able to maintain the population after the current people in their fertile age bracket will be aged (Ehrlich, 2001).
From this population pyramid, it is clear that life expectancy n the United Kingdom is high. This can be attributed to the good health care of the people living in the United Kingdom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike in the United Kingdom, there are more young people in Ethiopia as indicated by the pyramid. A close analysis of the Ethiopian population clearly indicates that majority of the people in the country are young people.
The pyramid presents Ethiopia as having a young population. This can be attributed to the fact that Ethiopia is a third world country. In its efforts to develop, the Ethiopian government has been able to provide adequate medical services to its people.
The people of Ethiopia have started applying modern farming techniques and this has in turn resulted into more food being produced to feed the population (Connelly, 2010). The presence of few old people in Ethiopia indicates that life expectancy in the country is low. Many scholars attribute this to the many tropical diseases in Africa.
With adequate medical services, the motility rates in Ethiopia has reduced significantly and this has been reflected by the population having many young people. In addition, the introduction of science and technology in food production has ensured adequate food in Ethiopia.
Consequently, the availability of food in Ethiopia has raised the fertility of the people, thus high birth rates as indicated by the pyramid. Going by this population trend, one can conclude that the population of Ethiopia has a very high potential of growing in future.
Many people in Ethiopia are below the fertility age as indicated by the pyramid. This means that by the time these young people reach their fertility age, the population is bound to grow tremendously (Weeks, 2011).
In Indonesia, the population pyramid indicates a gradually increasing population. From the pyramid, the difference between the young people and the middle aged people is not big. This indicates a stable population.
We will write a custom Essay on Population Pyramids specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This stability can be attributed to the fact that Indonesia is a developing country that is affected by the effects of modernization and development. For instance, the people of Indonesia have started to embrace scientific methods of birth control.
Indonesians are also affected by polices adapted by other nations to check its population. The effect of this to this is that the population of Indonesia will grow gradually despite having a large number of young people (Pearce, 2011).
A close analysis of the population pyramid of Indonesia indicates a higher life expectancy as compared to that of Ethiopia. This shows that there is a better lifestyle in Indonesia than in Ethiopia.
Conclusion In conclusion, the above is a discussion of the current population of three countries. From the discussion, it is clear that all of them have a unique population trend depending on the past population and other factors that have been indentified as influencing the population trend.
Consequently, the future of the population in these three countries will depend on the current population. For instance, mature population as is the case with the United Kingdom means a population decline in future while a young population as is the case with Ethiopia will result into population increase. The population of Indonesia may not indicate any significant change in future.
References Connelly, M. (2010). Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population: London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Ehrlich, P. R.
Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls Proposal college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction It is certain that drug misuse and addiction is viewed as chronic diseases in western society. However, the views of drug use have taken a variety of forms over the centuries. Initially, the drug use was positively feted but this view changed gradually and drug use became condemned as evil.
The reason for the changing attitudes does not always bear any logical explanations as to why a particular attitude was adopted at a given point in time. Nevertheless, it is easy for majority of us to agree that the current view of drug abuse is a logical one.
A hundred or so years ago, drug use was legal. Anyone could have walked into a high street store and buy cannabis, or cocaine or whatever else one wanted over the counter.
By this time, drugs were freely available throughout history and across cultures in the western societies. The idea of prohibition that was pressed forward largely by the aim of alcohol elimination from the society was an ultimate disruption with the traditional wisdom of public policy.
In the beginning of the 19th century, the only familiar drugs available to the west were alcohol and opium but, by the early years of the 20th century, a constellation of substances that form the modern category of illegal drugs –opiates, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants and psychedelics- all found their way into the society. This was partly as a result of the international trade and scientific discoveries.
Today, modern western societies based on complex industrial and commercial systems loathe and prohibit the use of drugs for other uses other than for therapeutic reasons. This is built on the fears of loss of individuality as a result of addictions to a drug or the sensations it produces.
It is also based on the fears of the impacts of the drug use, concerns over the reduced productivity that’s likely to cause harm to the user and the society and so on. In general, drug use and misuse touches on concerns for safety, well-being, progress and the condition of the addict and the society at large.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Question What are the psychological effects of chronic marijuana use in young women and girls?
Literature review Gender and ethnic differences in drug use
Wallace et al (2002) examined ethnic differences in legal and illegal drug use among American senior grade students and focused on girls. In this study that applied cross-sectional data from large, multiethnic, and multinational representative samples, Wallace et al administered questionnaires to total thousands of girls and boys in senior grades.
Results of the study showed that marijuana was the most widely used illicit drug by American girls. On average, 20% of 8th graders, 38% of 10th graders and 45% of 12th graders admitted to using marijuana. Between 1-3% of the girls admitted to using it on a daily basis while 19% admitted to using it in the last 30 days.
The findings also revealed that ethnic differences in drug use among girls existed. Drug use among Native American girls was higher than Mexican, Puerto Rican, and white girls. It was even lower among the African American, the Latinas, and the Asian Americas (Wallace et al., 2002).
On gender differences, the data indicated that boys are more likely to abuse drugs in each of the grades surveyed. Very high rates in alcohol use were recorded among girls in all grades. On average, 1-2% of the girls were daily drinkers.
The trend observed in marijuana use among girls in ethnic diversities was also recorded here. Native American girls led the pack with the Asian Americans trailing. Similar results were reported for cigarettes.
An important limitation of this study was that it researched on high school seniors alone leaving behind the onset of drug use among the young people and those who dropped out of school before they joined the senior year. Another limitation is that the research was carried out about 10 years ago (2002).
We will write a custom Proposal on Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current trend data reveal that although there was a considerable difference between boys and girls drug users, the prevalence of drug use has now converged with time.
In 2003, Bryant et al carried out a survey to establish how academic achievement, attitude and behaviors influence drug abuse during teen-age years. The group collected biennial data regarding alcohol cigarette and marijuana use among people of between 14 and 20 years (Bryant et al., 2003).
On cigarettes use, it was reported that females smoked more than males. It was higher for the white students than it was for the African American and Latino students. Instances of cigarette smoking were higher for students with lower academic achievements than it was for those who performed better.
In terms of motivation and school attitudes, a comparable development was reported. While predicting variations in change in drug use over time, results showed a linear increase in cigarette use from age 14-20 being high among the whites than for African Americans and Latinas.
It was much higher for those with lower academic achievement in the eighth grade (Bryant et al., 2003).
Still interesting was the realization that alcohol use was higher for females than for males and still higher for white students than for African American students. A similar trend to cigarette use was reported for alcohol use for misbehavior, loneliness, motivation and school attitudes.
Regarding quadratic growth, female’s alcohol use accelerated at a lower rate from age 14 to 20 compared to their male counterparts. Similarly, results were consistent for marijuana use as a higher progressive increase was reported among females than among the males.
Like in other researches, this study was limited as it was based on adolescents’ self-report and researched on three drugs alone. Cannabis, which is in high use among girls, was left out.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a research to establish conjoint developmental trajectories of young adult substance use, Jackson, Sher, and Schulenberg (2008) used the national representative data from Monitoring the Future Project to reveal developmental courses of heavy drinking, smoking and marijuana use (Jackson, Sher and Schulenberg, 2008).
They applied 4 waves of data ranging from ages 18-26 in a multicohort young adult sample. In this study, they examined comorbidity by cross-classifying group membership in drug use trajectories.
In the final stage, they examined the extent to which risk factors such as sex, race, delinquency, alcohol expectation, and academic achievement and so on influenced the combinations of comorbidity happened in much greater extent than was by chance.
Their results identified four courses of substance use that were in agreement with those occurring in the literature.
According to their probe, heavy drinking, smoking and marijuana use highly increased the patterns of comorbidity. The inquest showed that delinquency, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies and religion predicted a combination of comorbidity that featured an early onset of chronic high use.
Cross-sectional relationship between cannabis and other drugs
In general, their report indicated a high cross-substance use over emerging adulthood revealing a similar developmental timing to use. This was largely due to experience of developmental transitions that are likely to influence the use of different drugs.
Individuals have a tendency to use multiple drugs due to a common vulnerability to each and not as a result of directional relations among drugs such as cross-tolerance.
Approaches of Business Strategy Concept Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Today there are a lot of different approaches to understanding of the concept of business strategy. If we consider the problem from a contemporary perspective, this concept can include the peculiarities of the process of adopting of appropriate action plans and distributing of the resources for carrying out the plans to meet the desired objectives.
Moreover, there is the problem of determining of the most effective and significant approaches to examining of the principal theories for the strategy development.
There can be defined two approaches which require further studying with the references to the peculiarities of the modern business tendencies. They can be considered as the prescriptive and the emergent approaches (Mintzberg 1990).
Referring to the peculiarities of the emergent approach as the ‘hustle as strategy’, Bhide (1986) affirms the critical importance of this approach to strategy in a financial services business firm.
Embracing this approach to the strategy development, he presents a scenario where the firm can take the advantage of transitory opportunities. Bhide affirms that flexibility, agility, and hustle are more important than a fixed plan.
Employing the processual view of business strategy, he postulates that the strategy is a continuing process of negotiation and adjustment of routines, as a way to make sense of the chaos in the world (Bhide 1986).
Thus, such strategies are seen as ‘emergent’, with their coherence accruing through the action and perceived in retrospect, while successive small steps eventually put the organization ahead in terms of customer focus, profit maximization and market leadership (Harfield
Seriousness of Global Warming Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Global warming is considered to be one of the most significant problems. The problem touches upon the rise of temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere as well as the influence of gaseous emissions and combustion gases, which are the reasons for the ecologists and scientists’ concern. Therefore, the anthropogenic factor comes into effect.
There are a lot of scientific articles as well as books and other sources which are devoted to the ecological problem. Generally, global warming is described as a rise of temperature. One of the authors who studied this ecological problem carefully, the author Cline (1992) states that “the most serious general problem is that the reports—especially their policy aspects—focus too much on climate change up to a fixed date, 2030, instead of giving equal emphasis to the longer-term changes that will result from human actions between now and 2030.” (p. 44)
The consequences of global warming which influence the future must be taken into consideration, but if one thinks about the present, there will be no need to anticipate things. The question which the ecologists ask themselves is what is to be done next? The actions of those who give consideration to this global ecological problem are not coordinated, as their quantity is not enough to affect others. Of course, it is easier to think about negative consequences which will take place in future, but not to take measures now.
There are many factors which are related to the origin of the ecological problem. However, global warming depends mostly upon the so-called greenhouse effect which is re-radiated towards the lower atmosphere. (NOAA Satellite and Information Service, 2007) The above-mentioned effect is the most important factor of the Earth’s temperature regulating.
In most cases it is the anthropogenic factor which is considered to be the principal reason of global warming. A carbon dioxide which is the main element of the greenhouse effect exceeds its norms by numerous times. For instance, various combustion gases influence the increasing of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Earlier, people thought that the climate changes depend upon the solar influence; however, today this point of view is recognized to be outdated. On the one hand, the statement makes sense; on the other one, the impact of solar effect is recognized to be rather small in comparison with greenhouse influence, so, the earlier statement is negligible.
Today, it is possible to predict the results of climate changes. Thus, computer technologies allowed to create the so-called climatic system to determine the interaction between global warming and greenhouse effect. The strange thing is that it is not the concentration of greenhouse gases which causes the climate changes, but their interaction with various physical processes does.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One may say that there are no visible results of the ecological problem. It is a wrong opinion. The negative consequences of global warming are noticeable on small islands. The problem touched the human health as well, so there is a strong necessity to find the solution to the problem. The global ecological problem is related to every person who lives on the Earth. Thinking about global warming and its possible consequences, is the first step of the problem solution. Underestimating the global warming is a mistake.
Reference List Cline. W.R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/read/99472197/the-economics-of-global-warming
NOAA Satellite and Information Service. (2007). Global Warming. Web.
Joy Daycare Marketing Plan Report custom essay help
Joy Daycare pricing strategy Consumers within Joy Daycare target market are most likely to be concerned with quality than price. As identified previously, this target market consists of young parents who are sensitive to quality care for their children, and less concerned about pricing issues.
This implies that, although penetration pricing is the easiest for while introducing a new product, it might not be effective under these circumstances (Iacobucci, 2011). The latter author also underscores that penetration pricing (setting lower prices) is extremely risky since competitors’ might decide to retaliate.
Furthermore, reduction in price conflicts with Joy Daycare product and branding strategies. Consequently, premium (skimming) strategy will be adopted based on the belief that quality will mitigate price sensitivity among consumers.
According to Iacobucci (2011), skimming involves setting the pricing above the current market rates at the initial stages of introducing a new product. However, this strategy is short lived because it attracts other firms into the market.
Pricing tactics Cost based vs. value based pricing
According to Rao (2009), pricing is a significant, but delicate component of marketing mix. Apparently, pricing can either make or break a product, thus optimum care is necessary while making this significant business decision. This is because for a product to survive, it must be tolerable to the target market to promote profitability.
This implies that, the most fundamental pricing tactic should aim to satisfy cost and value criterion. On the same note, pricing for Joy Daycare services will consider the cost and value aspect, commonly referred as ‘cost-based pricing’ and ‘value-based pricing’(Rao, 2009).
As epitomized elsewhere in this marketing plan, Joy Daycare will strive to hire the best caregivers to ensure that children receive quality training. Obviously, this is going to increase business operation costs; hence, penetration pricing cannot work in our favor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, we also have to consider the perceived value of Joy Daycare services before settling on a certain price. Rao (2009) underscores that, value-based pricing is founded on the customers’ perspective about whether consumers considers the price to be reasonable.
Discounted and/or differential pricing
Similarly, Joy daycare will offer some discounts to parents who enroll two or more children to the center. Moreover, to promote word of mouth advertising we are going to offer some special rates to those who refer their friends to the center.
According to Rao (2009), differential pricing is not a unique phenomenon and most marketers have utilized it to promote customer royalty. Similarly, Iacobucci (2011) utilizes the term ‘target pricing’ whereby different prices are charged to customers within the same target market.
However, although this strategy might work in the business’ favor, it might be ineffective in the long run especially when one child attains pre-schooling age.
This implies that, the business will face an immense public relations challenge while trying to convince such parents to adjust their payments upwards. Nonetheless, the business will have to bear those costs since the benefits of discounted pricing are likely to be more than the costs involved.
Legal and ethical issues of pricing tactics
Noticeably, competition among businesses has become the biggest hurdle towards success. Against this background, some unscrupulous marketers may misuse the pricing aspect to shove off their competitors out of business. Moreover, some tactics might be exploitative to customers.
On this notion, several business laws have been put in place to eliminate unlawful and unethical pricing strategies. As a result, it is imperative to explore some ethical and legal implications of the pricing tactics adopted by Joy Daycare.
We will write a custom Report on Joy Daycare Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, discounted and/or differential pricing might be perceived as discriminatory since the consumers are purchasing a similar service, but at different prices. However, as long as Joy Daycare can prove that the strategy does not favor some customers at the expense of others, then the tactic is neither illegal nor unethical.
Joy daycare distribution channel
Daycare service is a unique product that defies the norms of marketing distribution channels. Iacobucci (2011) accentuate that distribution channels are adopted depending on the desired promotional and place marketing mix aspects.
Since daycare service is consumed at the place of purchase, the wholesaler/distributor/ retailer relationships are not applicable in this marketing plan. Consequently, Joy Daycare services utilizes exclusive distribution channel because the service is restricted to a centralized location.
This is implies that, the producer (Joy daycare center) interacts directly with the consumer (parents) without the necessity of middlemen services. On the same note Iacobucci (2011) adds that good/service that adopts exclusive distribution channels demands additional promotional aspect in order to educate the target market on the availability and advantages of those products.
As epitomized elsewhere in this marketing plan, quality and excellent service is the core differentiation strategy for Joy Daycare business. The key to the business success calls for heightened efforts to generate consumer delight at the point of service delivery in order to achieve the stipulated marketing objectives.
Consumer delight will enable Joy Daycare to cultivate consumer loyalty; thus increased enrollment will enable the business to achieve the targeted growth rate of 10% p.a. Moreover, brand image will also benefit from the cultivated loyalty.
References Iacobucci, D. (2011). Marketing management: 2010 custom edition. Mason, OH: South- Western Cengage Learning.
Rao, V. R. (2009).Handbook of pricing research in marketing. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Language and Communication for Business and Commerce Essay essay help site:edu
Communication in any organization is a very important aspect as it can make or break an organization. Companies generally do not have a public language (Lang, 2010). It is of great importance that when the hiring is taking place, there is absolutely no tribalism or nepotism going on and that people are hired purely on a merit basis. Cultural identity helps in facilitating an extensive role in organizational interpersonal relationships hence being of great relevance when it comes to cultural identity.
Culture is often defined as “the coherent, learned and shared view of a group of people about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, furnishes attitudes about what things are appropriate, and dictates behavior” (Jameson, 2007, p. 5). When it comes to organizations, people or groups of people are known to be the main components of cultures.
This is evident in that when individuals want to spend a substantial amount of time in an organization working together, they end up thinking alike and sometimes taking up the organization’s cultural practices though not necessarily.
If one was to study different organizations and the different professionals involved, one would understand this concept. For example in the defense force, the culture of hierarchy is very well displayed in that they themselves can tell the ranks that their fellow officers are in and they have a way or some form of respect for those in high ranks. This is evident when one watches them in their places of work.
This is a culture that was developed and has been passed on thus not an easy form of culture to disband. Most professions require that before you are indicted into the profession formally, you ought to sign a code of ethics and conduct stating that you will adhere to the laid out guidelines and procedures in a bid to live by the governing code (Coopl, Etzion
Positive Psychology Chronicle: A Retrospective at the Results Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Positivity Ratio Assessment
Satisfaction with Life Scale
Strengths Finders Assessment
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Because of the negative factors that have the most deplorable impact on most people nowadays, positive psychology as a means of letting a certain amount of positive emotions into people’s lives is absolutely inevitable.
Once considering the specifics of one’s character and realizing the issues that prevent the given person from efficient work and the relaxation, one can come up with specific ideas on how to improve the existing situation. With the help of the given chronicles, the mechanisms of people’s emotions and the change in the latter can be approached.
Thus, analyzing the peculiarities of people’s strengths, one is likely to come to certain conclusions about the role of positive psychology in the modern life and its impact on people.
Positivity Ratio Assessment Allowing me to assess the emotional state that I am most often in, the given activity offers rather fruitful discoveries concerning my own character and the main features of the temper.
Although the given test suggests only the figures that imply quite concise information, the Positivity Ratio Assessment is a perfect way to learn if the situation requires certain improvement.
The Positivity Ratio Assessment allowed me to evaluate the degree of positivity in my vision of the world. Providing a statement and offering me to evaluate how close to the truth the given statements are, the test allows to single out certain features of my character. The test helped me to figure out how positive my thinking is.
It is important to mark that in the given assignment, it is quite essential that five variations of answering the question are offered so that the results of the test could be more precise and, therefore, more credible. However, it is still worth keeping in mind that, even answering the questions of the test, one might not be sincere enough.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the obtained results, the score equals 1.17, which means that certain improvements should be made. Positioned as the “tipping point” (Fredrickson 2009) of the test, score 1.17 presupposes that certain progress towards a more positive life perception can be made.
Satisfaction with Life Scale I must mark that Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire presupposes much more room for specific clarifications and comments on each of the questions, and, thus, a larger variety of results.
The score that was the result of answering each of the questions made 31, since the points from 1 to 6 were labeled as “Strongly Agree” (as cited in Snyder, Lopez
Democracy in Canada Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Democracy in Canada
Canadian Democratic Gap
Introduction Democracy is a form of government where people have equal rights, make decisions concerning their lives and have a direct or indirect participation in the social, economic, cultural and political pillars within their country. This represents a political system where the choosing and replacing of the government is done by use of a free and fair election where there is active participation of citizens both in politics and civic life.
Democracy in Canada Canada is not only a federal state, but also one of the most developed economies in the world and in a world democracy audit of 2010; its democratic stature saw it clinch position 8 worldwide (1).
This represents a strong standing within its democratic structure and governance. In a nut shell, Canada is an independent constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy where the government is steered by a parliamentary system which consists of elected members of parliament. Canada also has a number of political parties and the government is headed by a Prime Minister.
Canadian Democratic Gap Though Canada is among the countries which are highly ranked in the realms of democracy around the world, it has a number of limitations and in-adequacies within its political system. Over the last decade, there have been a number of intensified calls for reformations within the democratic political institutions within Canada. This is in regard to how the democratic institutions serve to confer legitimacy upon the power of the Canadian state.
This democratic gap has been as a result of the populist tradition which is in dominance. The populist tradition holds that democracy is instituted by the practice of voting hence ignoring that these democratic societies are characterized by a number of other factors such as the rule of law, individual rights and protection liberties, freedom of press.
One of the challenges that the Canadian democracy has been facing is the lack of conforming to the Westminster parliamentary system especially when it comes to the administration of democratic procedure. This is as a result of the wide spread ignorance among the people and institutions on how the Canadian political system functions.
According to populists view, politicians are supposed to serve as public agents who propel the values of the population, but in Canada this is not the case because the public is divided on a number of interests that are related to pluralism of fundamental values (2). This is visible in that, the political tradition runs from the old Social Credit party, cuts through reform (The Canadian Alliance) and finally to the Conservative party.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aids the proponents of the populist tradition who hold that all political legitimacy should be anchored through a popular vote. This proves that there is a deficiency of knowledge and information among Canadians who are misconstrued by the government’s opinion poll. Thus, most of them do not understand and are ignorant on the mechanisms within which the government operates in the tenets of economic and political systems.
This has encouraged irresponsibility within the formations of political opinions as well as biasness in putting social preferences in order. For example, the fact those voters have to choose between parties while voting in respect to the current Bill which prefers Liberals to Conservatives and Conservatives to NDP party.
The other prevalent problem is the fact that the current democratic model supports and encourages a strategic orientation to the political process that it is inclined to serve the individual private interests as opposed to the Canadian population. This has decapitated the population from actively participating in political agendas. This shows the extent to which parliament has aggravated to individualist mode of rule as opposed to the public interest mode of approach.
Another pressing issue in the Canadian democratic structure is the mode of leadership approach. Democratic politics central function is to create government which is the same primary mandate for the parliament. This is not the case in Canada because parliamentarians blindly endorse whatever legislation that is tabled by the cabinet such as same sex marriage legislation in 2005 which brought a lot of issues within institutions, parliament and from the population.
The first-past-the-post system in Canada has had a number of negative effects where it has greatly promoted regionalism. It has also promoted the formation of majority governments in the provincial level where some of the parties which did not have a popular vote have been instrumental in creation of these majority governments (3).
The fact that the Canadian senate members are appointed rather than elected has led to low levels of popular legitimacy and representation of a number of people such as Aboriginal people. This has also brought in a compromise within the senate where small provinces have taken advantage of the reform to create a fifth column for provincial interests within the federal government.
Conclusion Issues pertaining to Canadian democracy raise the arguments as to whether Canada still stands to be among the most outstanding democratic states around the world. But in counter to this, it has had a number of commendable amendments which also propels it to be among the best. For instance, the Canadian government initiated a new youth program that is meant for the youth to be actively involved in the country’s politics.
We will write a custom Essay on Democracy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List 1. World Audit. (2010). World Democracy Audits: World Audit Website, Web.
2. Daniele A. (2004) Cosmopolitan Democracy and its Critics: A Review, London School of Economics
The ‘Obesity Epidemic’ and the Analytic Model of Bio-power Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The unhealthy child
Bio-power and Obesity
Introduction Childhood obesity is a term used to refer to children who are overweight by virtue of having excessive body fat, which can negatively affect their health and wellbeing. In light of the increasing number of children who are overweight and the embedding risk of young people developing complicated health problems, obesity in children has been referred to as an epidemic (Aphramor 2005, p. 315).
As a result, school health syllabuses, community resources, websites, television programmes, and health/physical education textbooks have been widely used to target young people in campaigns and intervention programs aimed at teaching them various ways of living healthy.
In so doing, societies and popular media have achieved to influence the way young people are thinking about their bodies and eating habits (Bordo 2003). In this paper, we will look at the various ways the society and popular media construct ‘the unhealthy child’ relative to the notion of bio-power.
The unhealthy child As mentioned earlier, one of the major discourses driving the changes in the way people think about their bodies and eating habits is the ‘obesity epidemic’. Here, the notion of biopower has been used to create certain ‘truths’ or ‘imperatives’ about childhood obesity, which are now widely accepted and used to regulate bodies and certain desirable qualities of health among the young people (Aphramor 2005, p. 317; Bauman 2001).
These ‘truths’ are explicitly delivered through various avenues including physical/health education in schools and communities. Therefore, through various media and information sources, people are led to believe that there is a clear causal relationship between overweight and obesity, which in turn affects one’s health.
In most cases, obesity and overweight have been used interchangeably, which then follows that one major instrument of measurement (Body Mass Index) has been used for both concepts.
Besides the body mass index (BMI) scales for characterizing overweight people, the children’s weight has been directly linked to various behaviors including playing computer games, lying around on the couch, and watching too much television among others (Jutel 2000, pp. 113-125).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, unhealthy children are also associated with poor eating habits such as consumption of sugary foods, less fruits and vegetables, and foods high in saturated fats. All these are major ‘truth’ claims, which are implicated in the way the society views overweight or obese children.
In the long run, it is common practice to have overweight or obese children being stigmatized and victimized because they are referred to as the ‘other’. And the most immediate risk of objectifying overweight children as the ‘other’ revolves around the way in which other groups of children relate or treat them.
Various surveys document that most overweight people get accosted in streets or reprimanded by their personal physicians for their poor health practices.
These and other acts of humiliation suffered by the overweight people lead them to blindly accept the imperatives underlying the obesity epidemic and the need to change their bodies and lifestyles in order to fit into the normalized social health prescriptions (Jutel 2000, p. 120).
Bio-power and Obesity According to Foucault (1997), the notion of bio-power involves certain truth discourses regarding the desirable attributes of human beings, authorities with the ability to hold the truth, intervention strategies to sustain life and health, and modes of subjectification, which allow people to work individually or collectively for the benefit of life and health.
As a result, the significant aim of bio-power is to improve life through seeking productive control over individual or collective life. Accordingly, the elements of bio-power highlighted in the foregoing discussions play a role in sustaining the idea of obesity epidemic in the society and popular media in many aspects.
Here, the obesity epidemic is treated as a ‘truth discourse’, thereby occasioning the popular intervention strategies delivered through various information channels such as health promotion policies, school curricular, and the media (Rabinow
Models in problem formulation and identification Essay essay help online: essay help online
There are several approaches to problem formulation and identification. Most of these models employ the use of various techniques. A person can choose one model over the other depending on the nature of the problem to be identified, and solution to be formulated.
Problem identification and formulation is rather a creative process. Therefore, this essay shall focus on creativity models used in problem formulation and identification. These models rely on problem definition as the key to its solution.
The simplex model use creativity to provide a practical method for a collaborative win-win problem solving model. The underlying technique in this process is the deliberate use of creativity in defining a problem. The model approaches a problem situation with a joint creative problem definition to provide a room for win-win results.
The model has four stages. The first stage involves the generation of the problem and fact finding, and then conceptualizes of potential definition, and idea of the problem. The next stage involves optimization of ideas, and the preferred action plan. Finally, the parties gain acceptance and implement the solution (Bateman
The role of the line manager in managing under-performance Report essay help online free
According to Swamson, 2009, human resources are the most precious factor of production that an organization has; to benefit from their intellectualism, an organization need to manage them effectively.
Human resources department has the role of ensuring the right number of staffs in terms of quality, quantity, and experience are maintained within an organization. to conduct their role effectively, personnel managers need the support of the entire workforce particularly those in management positions.
Line managers have the role of heading revenue-generating departments and are responsible for achieving an organization’s main goals; to effectively undertake this task; they need to manage their human capital effectively.
When managing their immediate subordinates, line managers play a crucial role in enhancing performance among the staffs; they act as team leaders, mentors, coaches, and team players (Armstrong, 2006). This paper discusses the role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs.
Human resources performance management Performance management within an organization refers to activities undertaken by an organization to facilitate the attainment of their corporate goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner.
The focus of effective performance management is to improve an entire organizations performance; it may focus on a certain area, department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service with the sole aim of ensuring that efficiency has been attained in an organization.
The concept of performance management was coined by Dr. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s where he looked at an organization from a scientific angle; he suggested that there is need to focus on total improvement of the organization for both behavior and results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human resources need to be managed effectively to facilitate the improvement of efficiency in the organization; the rate of performance as well as the processes they are using to attain high results need to be vetted to improve them accordingly.
Performance management aims at attaining three main corporate objectives as facilitating financial gain of an organization, enhancing and growing motivation in the workplace, and improving management control.
Performance can be seen as the difference between actual results verses desired results; it is always the desire of a company to record high actual results than the desired results/budgeted result.
Performance management is a continuous process that entails not just evaluation of the rate of performance of an organization but enacting such measures that enhance the improvement of processes within the firm.
Other than focusing on human capital, performance management aims at improving structures, infrastructures, and physical components of an organization; it involves partnering of teams of workers for future improvement.
To improve future processes and results, there is always the need to measure, gauge and analyze past and present performance of an organization (Bandt and Haines, 2002). Performance management can be analyzed into four main stages as:
At this stage the management has the role of setting goals and objectives to be attained with a specified period of time considering the available factors of production.
We will write a custom Report on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When setting the standards of the company, the management has to be very genuine on how it will evaluate the outcome of the organization; this calls for vetting the resources available and making the right combination of available assets.
The standards can only be attained if processes are improved and people skills enhanced to facilitate high performance. Performance indicators should also be placed and indentified as they assist keeping the company accountable of its current performance (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010)
With set standards and expectations, leaders should develop performance measurement indicators, the measures enacted include gap-analysis (gap analysis involves considering the difference between the set standards and the actual standards attained), outcomes of data systems, and statistical responses.
Reporting of progress After comparing the outcomes of a performance management process, the next most crucial aspect is to make regular reports to analyze the progress of the process.
There are times that the process may give mixed reports likely to suggest that the business is not keeping pace of the standards expected; in such an event the management have the role of enacting remedies to the process.
quality improvement process
With the standards set and the right pathway determined, the next most crucial exercise that managers should do is to document the determined right path of operation. It is through the documentation that changes can be effected within processes and human resources training and learning exercises are set.
Line managers Line managers are mandated with the role of managing micro-teams within an organization that accomplish a particular exercise in an organization. In current management strategy, tasks are divided among different task forces that are mandated with the role of giving a certain output to the organization.
For example a manufacturing company may have the following departments, manufacturing, processing, human resources, supplies, procurement, sales, marketing, finances among others; the above departments may be lead by departmental heads assisted by line managers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In small organizations, departmental heads can double up as line managers. Line managers have the role of improving their employee’s performance through their actions and leadership skills (John, 2004).
The role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise. They manage underperformance through:
team spirit enactment and reinforcement
Line managers are team leaders of the sections they head; they have the role of ensuring that their team is effectively managed.
Effectively managed teams have the capability of enhancing the growth of strong team spirit that leads to efficiency, innovation, invention, and creativity within teams. there are different management practices that line managers should enact to facilitate the growth of team spirit, they include enacting effective communication systems where team leaders and members can discusses issues freely, creating a favorable working environment, and acting as the linkage between subordinates and top management.
Management experts have suggested that one of the most causes of underperformance or poor performance among staffs comes from lack of team spirit and ineffective teams. When teams are weak, opportunities are lost and businesses exposed to risks.
The understanding of this major role of creating a favorable working environment is the parting-point that line managers need to understand and take effective measures as a result.
Orchestrate teams are created when line managers have effective teams management strategies thus issues affecting his team are addressed effectively to avoid chances of failure; orchestrate teams are highly productive.
line managers and talent management
Under performance within an organization can be managed if human capital talents and intellectual capabilities have been managed effectively. At the level of line management, managers at this level need to understand how to handle their employees to facilitate the growth of their talents and intellectualism.
Line managers should take their time and understand the strengths and weak points of their team members and enact such policies that combine strengths and weaknesses optimally for high results.
One area that results to low human resources performance is when their talents, skills, and strengths fail to be matched with the kind of job in their company; they tend to become bored and unsettled.
When tapping human capital talents, line managers should have the skills, professionalism, and right attitude to build a winning team. An organization made of well managed talents has a competitive advantage over its competitors as this is an asset that is limited to individuals.
Other than managing talents, line managers should have the capability of combining their human capital effectively; the combination should be able to take advantage of human capital strengths and mitigate against any human resources risks.
Morale and attitude of employees is determined by the kind of relationship the company develops with its employees. When morale and attitude is low, it follows that the employee’s production is low and inefficient.
When managing a large team, line managers should have the team further divided into smaller micro teams on a certain basis, this helps in dealing with matters from a micro-angle which is likely to bring better and more satisfying results to the company.
involving employees in decision making
Decisions are the driving force of an organization, organizations that have effective, quality, and timely decisions have strong competitive strength. In contemporary management systems, management gurus are emphasizing the need to make decision via scientific decision making process; scientific decision making process requires that management involve their subordinates when making business decisions.
The inputs of subordinates are considered crucial as they might have some insight information either derived from experience, education or their intellectualism. When human resources are engaged when making decisions, they develop ownership to the decision and work hard to ensure that it has been attained.
By itself, engaging human capital when making decisions results to highly motivated staffs that are willing to work an extra mile for the benefit of the company.
In the event of failure, the human resources are willing to learn from the past activity; they take it as if it is them who wronged thus they are willing to take up the entire blame. Since line manager is the person on the ground or who is close to the subordinates, he should be the first element to involve his human capital in decision making.
He should learn how to guide the subordinates in giving their views, how to disregard that information that is not essential, and how to differentiate quality input by employees without hurting either. With such a policy, the human capital become motivates and willing to give their input to the organization.
Looking at involvement from another angle, when subordinates are involved when making business decisions, and the decision give rise to better working condition and improved performance, they become motivated and willing to learn. the satisfaction that subordinates derive from the knowledge that their input has given positive results is enough motivation to assist them work harder and improve their performance in terms of efficiency and loyalty.
With this in mind, line managers have the responsibility of ensuring they have structures that involve subordinates in decision making and communicating the results of the decisions with time.
Any challenge that comes along should be discussed and solution sort for the same. as a manager, line managers should be given some float to assist them arrange some social activities like team building with the aim of thanking subordinates and involving them when forging the way forward for the organization (Swanson, 2002).
enhance learning and training in the organization at micro-level
Business processes are changing fast, for competitiveness and high competition, organizations need to have employees who are dedicated, experienced, and well versed with the changes in their industry. Line managers’ act as coaches, trainers, and mentors in their departments; the extended role of line managers means they need to be knowledgeable of what changes are taking place in their industry as well as how to handle the situation.
When training, mentorship, and coaching is well embraced, leaders learn the weak areas of their subordinates and make such efforts that will assist them improve in the said area.
Line managers have the role of establishing the training needs in an employees and enacting such measures that enhance training by the subordinates; by so doing the line manager is assisting human resources and top managers enhance performance and productivity in the company. training can be done by internal parties who are experienced in a certain area or can involve third parties like experts, gurus, and professionals in particular areas of interest.
line managers in recruitments, promotions, demotions, and performance appraisals
When making decision on the employee to deploy, human resources managers should consult line managers who advise them on the right candidate to deploy in terms of education, experience, age and gender.
It is through recruitment that an organization is able to get the right caliber of employees who can handle the business situation of the company effectively. In the event that line managers fail to offer such quality advice, they are likely to mislead the company and get employees who are inefficient, inexperienced and who have little input to give to the company (Pause, 2009).
When the right candidates have been selected for a particular position, line managers have the role of orienting them to the company systems and organizational culture. With the move to include them in organizational culture, the companies need to have a positive culture that will enhance production.
Positive organizational culture involves having structures that facilitate the development of favorable working conditions and informed decision making procedures.
After recruitments, line managers should be actively be involved when appraising employees, the appraisal model should be a balance score board system as it assists the management know the exact strength of its human capital and make decisions on the kind of interventions they can make to facilitate an orchestrate team.
When appraising line managers should give their recommendations on what they think is fit for the company and the employees at large. the appraisal method adopted by a particular company can break employees or build them, in the event they are appraised by a person they are sure understands their issues, they are likely to give some personal business related information that can be of much benefit when making decisions.
Sometimes differences occur between the appraisal gotten by an employee and what the employee think its right for him or her, in such cases, the employer has the right to determine the right approach not to discourage or de-motivate the employee.
In most cases, appraisal comes with an appreciation or an acknowledgement to the staff; the right performance appraisal is thus important as it will assist the company give the right appreciation to the right person for the good of the company.
Line managers play a direct role when choosing the kind of employees that have to be deployed in their organization; they need to advice the management on the right candidate and enact such policies that will see them get the employees on board.
The growth of a candidate in an organization is determined by line managers thus they need to be fair and just to their subordinates. When the right employees have been deployed, chances of under-performance will be reduced; there will be structures that will enhance staff skills development for the benefit of the company.
Management gurus have suggested that one of the best methods to ensure high productivity in an organization is to have the right number and quality of employees at all sections (McGoldrick, Stewart and Watson, 2001).
line managers and fulfillment of psychological contracts
One area that many organizations have ignored is the appreciation that they have engaged in some psychological contracts with their employees; they are affected by the psychological and emotional well-beings of their human capital.
Human beings have different attitude, potential, emotional intelligence, and perceptions; the differences need to be professionally managed as it affects the performance of employees. effective line managers ensures that the psychological contracts of their employees have been fulfilled; in the book, “Organizational Behavior” by, MeShane, Olekalns, and Travaglione, the writers are of the observation that for a highly motivated staff, managers should look into their psychological, emotional, and intellectual well-being; this looks into the social aspects of employees and assists keeping them at peace with the system.
The advantage that line managers have is that human behavior can be predicted as well as molded; the most important thing is to know the right intervention to make to facilitate positive behavior reinforcements. line managers assisted by policies enacted by human resources management should enact policies that will facilitate the growth of positive behavior in their organization; the right method create an environment that enables a favorable working condition where employees feel their emotional and psychological needs are respected (Legge, 2004).
In managers in top management decision making and advising their subordinates When making corporate goals and decisions, line managers have the role of participating in the decision making and making sure that the right decisions have been made.
When in top management meetings, line managers should understand that they are representing a certain section so any decision that is likely to affect the section negatively should not be made. In this case, the line manager should understand that he is a link between the top management and subordinates staffs thus should keep a top gear approach which looks into issues from all sides.
Underperformance may result from decisions that are not attainable; this means that it might be optimism on the part of the management as they might not understand what is actually happening on the ground.
Line managers should be up to the challenge where they advise on the attainable targets as well as advice on what should be done to make the attainment of the goals even easier.
For instance they might recommend the adoption of a particular technology, buying of machinery or any other business action that will facilitate the attainment of corporate goals and objective.
It adds no value for line managers sit in top management positions without offering insight details that can assist in making the right attainable targets for their team. Despite this, the attainment should be justified and one that will ensure that the talents, capabilities, and skills in the team have been utilized effectively (MeShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2020).
Conclusion Line managers have the role of managing micro-teams within an organization; they are team leaders mandated with the task of enacting policies that fit their organization model. The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise.
To manage underperformance line managers should work with top management and subordinates to determine their organizations strengths and weakness.
With an understanding of their organizations strengths and weaknesses, line managers should actively be involved in decision making to ensure their team’s interests has been considered. Some of the management practices that the managers need to take include talent management, skills development, psychological contracts fulfillment, and performance appraisals.
References Armstrong, M., 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. New York: Kogan Page.
Bandt, A. and Haines, S., 2002. Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.
Beardwell, J. and Claydon, T. ,2010. Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
John, B.P., 2004. Organizational Behavior, from theory to Practice. New York: Wiley.
Legge, K., 2004. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
McGoldrick, J., Stewart J.,
Intercultural Awareness Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages of Intercultural Communication
Introduction Culture implies different things to different groups. For example, anthropologists define culture as the way people live. Others define it as the system that incorporates the biological and technical behaviors of community within their verbal and nonverbal systems.
NASW (2001) defined culture as “the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communication, actions, customs, beliefs, values; and the institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group” (NASW, 2001, 1).
It is the totality of behavior passed from one generation to the other. Intercultural awareness campaigns try to figure out how people understand each other irrespective of their cultural differences (NASW 2000). 21st century living is described as a multicultural society in a global village.
Therefore, one may ask, what kind of communication and interactions are required to create a climate of respect, diversity tolerance with unified common goals? More so, one may wish to find out whether it is possible for neighbors to embrace their cultural differences (NASW, 2007).
Bennet outlined a great scenario on how a group of primates gathered around a bonfire would fight or take off on the sight of another group of primates heading to their fire place. This is exactly how it happens even to the more advanced primates Homo sapiens.
Arguably, our ancestors avoided people from other cultures in the best way they could. If all measures to avoid their interactions were unsuccessful, they opted for other measures such as converting them into their way of life.
Those who became stubborn to assimilations were ripped out of existence through killing; there is evidence of genocide from the history. Therefore, dealing with cultural differences, understanding it, embracing it and respecting it is vital to intercultural awareness and especially communication (Bennet 1998).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Intercultural Perspective Understanding objective culture is very different to understanding a foreign culture. There exist perspectives, which view that learning about other cultures, their social, economic, political way of life, their linguistics, arts and so forth are sufficient to understand culture.
However, there are professors, in such sectors as linguistics, who still are unable to communicate with people from that particular community irrespective of how broad their knowledge is. Understanding objective culture merely adds knowledge about the foreign culture but does not generate much cultural competence.
On the other hand, understanding phenomenological features that define a group, and the way the group reasons and behaves will mark a step to identifying with the culture of that group. It is defined as subjective culture.
Subjective culture is defined by Bennet (1998) as “the learned and shared patterns of beliefs, behaviors, and values of groups of interacting people” (p. 1). This type of perspective is said to be more likely to lead to intercultural competence. However, it requires understanding objective culture to understand subjective culture and to have social reality (Bennet 1998).
Many people ignore the advantages of cultural orientation. Most of them, view intercultural communication as the grammatical rules applied in spoken and written practices.
To some, learning about cultural practices poses a threat to their values. Some of the non verbal perspectives of communication from various cultures are picked from TV programs and movies, which have very little for communication purposes or, which may be of faulty conceptions (Bennet 1998).
Another problem with cultural perspectives is stereotyping and generalization. For example, it is very common to take notice of people discussing that a certain lady is not behaving like a Latin woman and so forth. This is so especially with the Arabic culture and Islam where gender roles are strictly divided.
We will write a custom Essay on Intercultural Awareness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is hard to find women from such communities in leading positions in politics or other fields. Stereotypes occur when behavioral assumptions are held by all members of a particular culture as shared traits. Such characteristics assumedly common can be respected by the observer (positive stereotype) or be disrespected (negative stereotype).
Either of the stereotypes is negative in intercultural communication because they often give false conceptions regarding the community or have partial truth in them. Secondly, stereotyping is an act of encouraging prejudice among the cultures.
However, it is important for a culture to develop identity to make a cultural generalization. Assuming that each person is an individual may lead to naive individualism (Martin
Process Analysis and Problem Solving Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction The level of competition in different industries in which organizations operate today is high and calls for increased competitiveness. In order to improve the competitiveness, firms could engage in different firm activities that may include process improvement.
This may call for analysis of the problem and seeking different ways of solving the issues. In order to improve business processes, an organization needs to have the necessary knowledge and expertise. The business process could be attained through establishment of change such as business process reengineering.
In spite of the good intentions of the changes, there is always resistance to change that could lead to project failure as examined in this paper. In addition, this paper examines reengineering as an example of process improvement in organizations.
History of Process Improvement Change is a constant element in organizations given the dynamic business environment that firms operate in. Organizations operate in many business environments that are characterised by free entry and exit, increasing competition and technological advancement.
In order for organizations to maintain their competitiveness, they need to embrace change and improve their manufacturing processes, service delivery and operations. Process improvement has occurred in firms over many years.
Over many years, quality improvement in firms was done using regular inspection and changed over time to total quality management and the modern six sigma approach. Process improvement concept was first used by Harrington James in 1991 when he published in his book on process improvement.
The method involves redesigning and reengineering business process in order to improve quality of an organization’s output while gaining a competitive edge at the same time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since its introduction, process improvement has been able to be applied in many firms. The application of information technology in the process is a vital ingredient that will revolutionalize the future of process improvement in firms.
Process Improvement in Firms The improvement of business processes in an organization has not been smooth for most firms. As the management of an organization introduces change in the company, there is always resistance to change with most employees opting to remain with the current processes of the firm.
According to Hammer