Reasons why Prophet Muhammad was chosen as last prophet Prophet Muhammad is believed to be the initiator of the Islamic religion and he is therefore referred to as the messenger as well as the last prophet of God. He is believed to be an active theorist who, according to the Muslim faith is seen as a driving force towards marvelous action .According, to the Muslim faith scholars argue that Prophet Muhammad was also called by the name “Peace be Upon Him|” and therefore, he is believed to have been chosen by God as the last prophet in the line of prophets.
God therefore chose Prophet Muhammad at a time in history when there was increased idol worship, social injustice but monotheism had reduced at that particular time. This in effect implies that God chose him to preach the gospel of True religion to the people who at that time were great sinners, “For We assuredly sent amongst every people a prophet, with the command: Worship Me (Allah) and avoid false gods” (Qu’ran16:36).
Since the Qur’an serves as the last revelation that God reveled to mankind, bearing in mind that other religious texts have other prophecies, it is clearly established that Prophet Muhammad was the last prophet. Furthermore, the Qur’an tends to contain the final revelation to the prophet hence properly justifying that Prophet Muhammad was the last prophet (Arafat, 9-21).
Evidence from Qur’an to prove Prophet Muhammad was the seal prophet According, to the Quran teachings Prophet Muhammad can be seen as the seal prophet from his background. The Qur’an notes that prophet Muhammad was a messenger of Allah since the Qur’an notes that “ he was the last prophet that Allah send on earth after other prophets like Moses sent by God in the Holy Bible” (Qur’an 33:40).
In the Muslim faith the seal of the prophet was a clear symbol showing that prophet hood had came to an end which thus it meant that no other prophet would follow Prophet Muhammad. God gave the last divine messages to Prophet Muhammad clearly showing that he is the seal of prophets as he was used to signify that the existing intermediation between Allah and his worshippers had seized.
From the Qur’an evidence shows that, Prophet Muhammad was the last prophet, “Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets” (Al-Ahzab, 33/40). This phrase from the Qur’an clearly shows that Prophet Muhammad was the last link in the line of prophets.
From the Islamic interpretation it indicates that Muhammad is the last prophet of Allah who ended further establishment of prophet hood and therefore he represented a divine seal which acted as an approval and evidence of what the other prophets had done on earth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The interpretation of the phrase “Muhammad is not the father of any man among you” clearly gives the evidence that prophecy was divine hence it was not to be a passed on from father to son, instead the other phrase “seal of prophet” sums up the idea that prophet Muhammad was actually the “last prophet” (Abdullah 128-150).
Another evidence can be extracted from the Qur’an verse “This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed my favor unto you, and have chosen Islam as a religion” (Quran 5:3) implies that, the improvements in the societal religion was actually achieved during Prophet Muhammad’s time. Evidently, it meant that no other prophet was anticipated to appear after Prophet Muhammad and his wisdom was to be followed keenly by all the people on earth (Walker, 20-26).
Importance of seal prophet in Islamic culture The sealing of the prophet has always been associated with strong elements of Islamic culture and belief. The seal of prophet is highly associated with the Islamic culture due the fact that it represents the final message of God revealed to the people through the last prophet Muhammad.
Consequently, this means that the Qur’an establishes messages through which peace and blessings are shown as the only way through which prophet hood has been closed. According, to studies done by religious scholars it evident that prophet hood came to an end with Prophet Muhammad since his prophetic was supposed to be everlasting till the end of time ((Abdullah 128-150).
Islamic religion therefore, is a clear representation of the prior religion of monotheism which was strongly emphasized by Prophet Muhammad that implied totally submission to God.
Since the Islamic religion revolves around peace that acts as a representation of nature, it means that Muslims strongly associate the seal of the prophet with their culture since the last prophet Muhammad was also called peace be upon him. Therefore, the main assignment of Prophet Muhammad was to bring peace upon the earth which currently is the central point of the Islamic religion.
That Prophet Muhammad was the final prophet to deliver the message that God had sent, deliver his teachings, forms the background for the true Muslim followers who truly believe in the Islamic faith. Normally, they tend to emulate the practices of the last prophet with the main emphasis on the fact that they should earn God’s pleasure first before it can be returned to Him (Christopher, 56-75).
We will write a custom Essay on Muhammd: as a seal of prophet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Critical questions The first question raised in this paper is the issue of why was Prophet Muhammad was chosen as the last prophet. From the analysis we tend to find out that prophet Muhammad was actually chosen as the last prophet after other prophets like Moses.
Therefore we analyze that since other prophets had passed away God then saw the purpose of choosing Prophet Muhammad as the last prophet so that he could preach the word of God to the people who had diverted from God’s ways to other ways. Since the people on earth had turned away from God’s ways to worshipping idols, there was need for God to send a prophet on earth who could preach the message to the people regarding true gospel.
In order to convince the people on earth to change and turn back to God there was need for a prophet who therefore God saw the purpose of choosing Prophet Muhammad as the last prophet. In addition God chosen Prophet Muhammad purposely since God had no other plans of sending another prophet after Muhammad therefore Allah treated Prophet Muhammad as the last prophet.
The second critical question is to analyze any evidence from the Qur’an which actually symbolizes Prophet Muhammad as the seal prophet. From the Qua’ran versus analyzed above it is clear that Prophet Muhammad was the seal prophet since he served as the last messenger who God had send to bring his message to the people on earth. Since God used him as the last messenger on earth it clearly gives us evidence that Prophet Muhammad actually was the seal prophet.
The Qu’ran versus refers to Prophet Muhammad as not a father of any human being which indicates that he was a divine messenger of God which clearly indicates that he was the last prophet as his prophecy was never meant to be inherited from one generation to generation. In addition evidence from the Qu’ran tends to refer to Prophet Muhammad as a prophet of divine wisdom hence his religion is referred as a perfect one in the Islamic religion
The last question tends to give the reasons why the Muslims uphold the idea Prophet Muhammad as the seal prophet in their cultural expressions. Analyzing this question it is clear that the idea of Prophet being seen as the seal prophet is of much importance to the Islamic culture. This due to the fact that Prophet Muhammad is seen as the fore father of Islamic culture thus in Islamic culture he is always treated as the founder of Islamic religion.
With fact that Prophet Muhammad is seen as the last prophet then it implies he is the founder of Islamic culture this to Muslims is very important and they tend to associate their culture to the founder of the Islamic religion. Since Prophet Muhammad was the founder of the Islamic religion it indicates that Islamic practices should be based on the nature of the founder. This concept therefore is used by Muslims hence associated heavily with Islamic cultural expression
Works Cited Abdullah, Y. The holy Quran, Leicester, UK: Academia Press, 2005. Pp 128-150.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Muhammd: as a seal of prophet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Arafat, W. “Facts and fiction in the History of pre-Islamic idol – Worship,” Islamic Quarterly, Vol .12, 1968, pp 9-21.
Christopher, B. Islamic Tradition. New York: Harper
How Ethics May Have Played a Role in Enron’s Way of Doing Business Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact on stakeholders
Outcome and Fairness of Punishment
Ethics in the way Enron conducted business
Introduction Out of a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, Enron was formed in 1985 based in the United States. As an energy trading and communications company, at the start, the company was involved in construction, development and operation of power plants, pipelines globally.
Further, it was participating in the transmission, distribution of electricity and gas throughout the state and. Afterwards, Enron enlarged their wealth through marketing and promotion of commodities which included; power and communications bandwidth and related risk management derivatives as tradable securities.
Enron energy trading and Communications Company that was based in Houston, TX was well re-known for its accounting strategies a factor that allowed it to be listed as the seventh largest company in America (Molly, 2001). The company had a work force of about 21,000 employees grouping them among the largest employers in the country. In the same year, it was ranked number seven by the fortune magazine among first five hundred companies in the United States.
The energy company had made inventions in communications, power and weather securities and due to this it was expected to dominate the trading in these areas. However, in the year 2000, the company had claimed a revenue base of about with $101 billion but due of their trade activities. Despite all that, the company still ended up the biggest failure in the corporate history (Molly, 2001)
Despite the fame and wealth Enron had accumulated, the company stood on the verge of bankruptcy by mid November 2001 (Bryce, 2002). This had arisen from numerous scandals and collective failure between the company and its auditing firm which brought about by accounting irregularities that surrounded fraud. Poor decisions, mismanagement and individualistic type of management by Enron’s top were also major contributors in the collapse of the corporation.
At the same time, the value of investors’ equity per share in 2001 fell from $85 to 30 cents a fact that plunged the company into a disastrous loss. Discovery of the company’s source of profit which happened to be from deals with limited partners which it controlled was one of the factors that resulted to the company’s loss of value.
This loss and other similar financial conflicts, was not reported in any of the company’s financial report (Niskanen, 2005). More to that, the company had also devised a method to elude taxes and maintain anonymity by opening offshore accounts that allowed them easy currency flow. By the end of the year 2001, the firm’s European operations filed for bankruptcy and sought protection in the US Southern District of New York under chapter 11 (Hodak, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the year 2000 during the companies’ financial peak point, public investors were encouraged to buy stocks in the company since the prices were at their highest with a promise of further appreciation in their value in the subsequent year.
However the executive in the company knew of the looming loss that was to be experienced in the near future and instead of advising the public, they were in a hurry to sell out all of their stocks (Hodak, 2007). To the demise of the investors, the stocks plummeted causing a great loss across the board of approximately $102.
Later in the subsequent years, Enron was forced to sell out its assets since it had incurred a large financial loss. The sale was to be done since the company had to liquidate its assets and raise funds to aid in settling the creditors and investors who had not anticipated the collapse. However, Enron reopened again under a new name Enron Creditors Corporation after settling with most of its creditors except Citigroup (Hodak, 2007).
Impact on stakeholders Enron Company was composed of share holders that included both the private and corporate class. Since the company had a good reputation of its wealth and a large revenue base, the rate at which people invested was overwhelming.
Reports by Chris Penttila, (2002), indicated that the Enron’s mission statement dictated the four key values that the company prided itself in. These key values were: excellence, communication, integrity and respect. The purpose of this was to instill in the public the confidence that everything that happened in the company was fair and open a notion that was welcomed by the managers working for the company.
However, collapse of the company was partly allowed by the stakeholders since they were afraid of questioning the companies’ business activities and conflicts that they were always involved in. for example many of the stakeholders knew of the financial conflict of interest that existed between Arthur Anderson, Vinson, Elkins and the Enron’s board of directors.
The collapse of the company was met with a lot of negative reactions. The public was hit with a rude shock and immediately people stated pointing fingers to the systems that allowed the disaster to happen. According to (Bryce, 2002) the collapse affected all stakeholders from the big investors to the least employee in the company.
We will write a custom Assessment on How Ethics May Have Played a Role in Enron’s Way of Doing Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the social impacts included loss of lively hoods by small employees who worked in the company to billions by the investors, deaths, life savings and even imprisonment. In a meeting with the Congress former Enron employees witnessed that they had not only lost their jobs but also their retirement savings. Moreover, the threat of loss of employment was not only felt by Enron employees but even those at Andersen’s U.S. operations (Dugan and Spurgeon, 2002; Bryan-Low, 2002)
Loss of business by the partners and affiliates of the company was another major impact of the collapse. An example of this was Andersen which after indictment started to experience a mass exodus of its clients. This had a great effect on the revenue of the company and the public confidence.
Andersen then went further to loose the favor on settlement with the judiciary a move that was seen as suicidal if adopted by the other states, since it might preempt them to revote the companies license. According to Wynn (2009), other trading partners that were affected by Enron’s losses were ING Barings, Deutsche bank, Duke Power and American power who also suffered immense losses.
Other social impacts that were felt by the stakeholders involved deaths that were not anticipated for. Such an example is; Kenneth Lay who was an Enron’s CEO but died of heart attack in July 2006. The causes of the Enron’s CEO death were attributed to stress brought about by public unrest and legal pressures in the cases filled against him in the state (Palepu
Capacity Management in Business Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Need for company change For a company to prosper in change, its capacity should be highly considered. It should admit the challenges encountered with ease because its capacity enhances the development of a corporation. Lack of capacity brings about failure. Change enables a company to move a step forward in is day-to-day routine hence flourishing at the end of it all.
In line with Slack and Lewis, (9) a company should centralize on change more than any other field by emphasizing and having a positive focus towards it. It should also have new methods of passing information to enhance the communication pathways and to help working in partnership.
A corporation should be able to receive and admit views from different perspectives, this enables intermingling hence change of ideas is experienced. There ought to exist more interactions because the more the company interacts the more it acknowledges itself from different points. Change in a company does not necessarily depend on how much the company holds but on outweigh of the ideas they have came up with midst a tight schedule on their market conditions. In a company, their partners should have a know how of the change.
There should be interaction among different parties within a company, the smaller the capacity of a company the greater the chances of admitting the change because their interaction is limited within a small geographical area. In addition, the direct-to-direct interaction or the face-to-face interaction within a company brings about a common understanding of an issue from the same perspective thus brings change within that company.
Companies need to ensure constant changes to engage its employees into spending more time in understanding customer’s needs. (Edwards and Day, 5) This is one way of enhancing proper transformation of data. It also helps to determine probability of achieving goals, strengthening the relationship between the management and employees, and reduce extra costs or time of reinventing.
According to Slack and Lewis (12) proper implementation involves “effective planning cycles that need fewer ad Hoc interactions regarding operational decisions.”
Advantages and constraints of making a number of small changes in capacity rather than fewer large ones The company operation goals fall short because of failure to complement the strategic plan of the organization. The organizational strategic plan ought to start from the individual level whereby one should realize that their unique ideas contribute to the overall performance of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is not easy for the company to have these ideas collected, but in most cases, it works out when they are motivated to work together towards common goals. The company fails to translate because they try to implement the strategies all in a go instead of the small phases change over strategy.
Survey conducted on various company indicate that majority of the companies have a proper strategies to steer off the change but they lack the plan to do so thus very few end up implementing the strategies successfully. This is a clear indication that for a company to achieve strategic success, it has to promote the plan by allowing those responsible for currying out the plan.
To accomplish some advantages over strategic planning, one ought to execute the change over in a premeditate manner. Some of the advantages include attaining motivated leadership styles.
This is the ability to achieve sustained performance through personal planning and development, which acquaints employees with dynamic ideas. These leadership styles assist in business growth besides the complete effectiveness. Every employee should be aware of the overall business strategic plan to pick up his or her roles in the implementation process.
The second advantage entails turning the strategy into action. The phased approach provides the opportunity to link the identified performance factors to the strategic initiatives and projects whereby there is easy in achieving full optimization of individual and departmental activities. Thirdly, the phased planning also helps to complement all the other departmental goals and objectives. Lastly, there are chances to link all the units to work as a unit for the overall success. (Slack and Lewis, 22)
Some of the shortcomings concerning the implementation may entail the inability to understand the overall strategic plan fully due to the involved breakdown. The people involved such as the employees may not be in a position of know exactly what is required in order to accomplish the company’s plan.
There are queries concerning what ought to be created, refined or accomplished for the final achievement of the company’s plan. Some of the queries will include questioning such as, when to consider the implementation as a success and how it is measured emerges.
We will write a custom Essay on Capacity Management in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Single phased business plans and changes requires proper planning for instance, appointment of resources for the implementation process, assignment of responsibilities or any requirement process of renewal. Worst part of any job involves obstacles to change created by lack of constituency over processes, measurements and the general system. Implementing change ought to involve and convince individuals to modify their personal traits and check their compliance with the intended change.
Lastly, the major constraint involves the business complexity. Intricacy on an organization reduces chances for twist all the way through modification. “The complexity makes changes to be more tailored and focused therefore making it more difficult to redirect some of the interactions to the efforts required”. (Slack and Lewis, 22)
Sometimes change may call for the culling of some of the staff members from the system thus leading to early retrenchment. Effects on the traditional patterns of interacting during the change process may also be experienced.
Conclusion There is need to acquire more sophisticated tools and formally interactive systems, which are able to manage multiple aggressive situations as well as success factors. Today there is need for proper planning to avoid deadlock situations that minimizes space for growth.
These are because many companies are growing at an alarming rate and the merges are currently quite often. There is an obvious complexity regarding the mergers because of the various units, processes and measuring standards involved. The need for change or transformation potential is what leads to merging.
Works Cited Edwards, H. and Day, D. “Creating Passion Brands: How to Build Emotional Brand Connection with customers”. London: Kogan Page. 2007
Slack, N., and Lewis, M. “Operation Strategy”. London: Prentice Hall. 2008
A Case Resolved by the Britain Press Complaints Commission Essay a level english language essay help
This paper analyses a case resolved by the Britain Press Complaints Commission. The case analysis shows clearly that journalistic code of practice was not adhered to by the journal in question. Codes of practice or conduct are important self regulatory tools at the disposal of journalists. The complaints councils play an important role as arbitrator.
When a complaint is lodged with the press complaints commissions or councils, they endeavor to resolve it amicably. The alternative is to press libel charges, which are often expensive to prosecute and defend. This paper, therefore, clearly points to self regulation and passing of friendly media laws as the only sure way of guaranteeing journalistic freedom.
Journalists are supposed to do their work guided by ethics or general principles that defines good practice. Every practicing journalist is often affiliated to a journalistic body which is bound to a given code of conduct. Codes of conduct aim at ensuring journalists seek only to establish truth in a fair, accurate and objective manner.
The other aspect of journalism that is often misused or compromised is accountability to the public (Alia, 149). Journalism is not supposed to serve any vested interest. Rather, the aim of journalistic endeavors should be feeding the general public with accurate, objective information.
Information helps create a public sphere or interaction between members of a republic. In the recent past, capacity to share information world wide in a fast and easy way has created a sense of international citizenship (Alia, 147). This is positive and desirable, however, any distortion of truth or misinformation bring to a public a lot of harm. Sometimes harm does not come to the whole public but rather to individuals; they loose a livelihood or reputation.
Journalistic codes are tools for guiding journalists wade through situations that present conflicting interests (Alia, 63). The codes contribute to self regulation of individual journalists in the media industry. In case of a dilemma, most codes indicate clearly what the most ethical course of action would be. Information on minors, reports on security and people suspected of crime have to be properly censored (Alia, 52).
The challenge is to balance between the need to keep the public informed while protecting the subjects from any possibility of unjust or unfair harm as a result of the report. If reports on a crime are not handled sensitively, they easily damage individual’s reputations or cost institutions a lot of money.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To entrench self regulation, complaints councils have evolved or been established within journalistic circles. These councils are guided by given codes of conduct in resolving complaints lodged before them. One council I am familiar with is the British Press Complaints Council (PCC).
The PCC defines itself as “an independent body which deals with complaints from members of the public about the editorial content of newspapers and magazines” (Press Complaints Commission, 1). Since its inception to date, the council has dealt with many complaints. The PCC website states that they dealt with 4, 698 complaints in the year 2008 alone. One of the recent complaints or cases they handled was called “A man v Press
The automobile industry in Hong Kong Essay essay help online: essay help online
Reasons for the problems encountered in the markets for automobiles The automobile industry as witnessed by the Hong Kong enterprise presents a host of problems that affect all the players in the industry. Firstly, the increased demand for automobiles has elicited increased input demand for Automobile Parts and Components (APC).
Because Automobile parts and components are produced by over 50 different industries, the variation in the expertise will transmit the spill-over effects of the automobile production to APC suppliers. Because the major APC have been imported, the local products therefore fail to meet the needs of the market. In addition, most multinational automobile producers import key items for their own use.
Entry into the automobile supply chain has been made difficult for new comers to penetrate because the players operate like cartels. Thirdly, competition in the market has been intensified by the considerable relaxation of import tariffs on automobiles. In this context, due to the pressure to review own supply chains force the local and joint venture assemblers to improve product quality.
Alternatively, their desire to minimize costs can be achieved through sourcing from quality but competitive suppliers. To the surprise of the entire market, the pressure is being transmitted up the supply chain from assemblers to first, second and third-tier suppliers. Consequently, the supply chain is undergoing reshuffling, in turn creating breathing space for new but competent, competitive suppliers like Hong Kong enterprises.
Fourthly, the small local consumer market fails to support an automobile industry, impeding the development of the APC. Although most assemblers tend to work in collaboration with APC suppliers to develop new products, it is evident that assemblers will not source from suppliers who cannot meet internationally recognized technological levels. On the contrary, a number of Hong Kong manufacturers carry out R
Ordinary Men Book Review Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Holocaust in itself goes beyond describing extermination of Jews; it describes crime against humanity in general. The damage that the Holocaust caused in Europe has not been matched in history.
Nevertheless, the big question remains today; who was responsible for the extermination of Jews? Well, many people believed, and still believe that, Adolf Hitler was the man behind the whole issue. Not until you read Ordinary Men by Christopher R. Browning. In the wake of the strong-held belief that Jews were responsible for the fall of German Empire, there was massive deployment of police officers to clear Jews from ghettos and exterminate them.
However, Browning throws in another issue; that, ordinary men; reserve-untrained civilians; fathers; brothers got involved in this atrocious act. Browning asks, “If the men of Reserve Police Battalion 101 could become killers under such circumstances, what group of men cannot?” (189).
The insinuation here is that, ordinary men got involved in the genocide. Browning traces how the Reserve Police Battalion 101 were sent to Poland; received their first command to kill at Jozefow and proceeded to exterminate thousands of innocent defenseless Jews in Erntefest.
Browning reveals how these ordinary men mostly from Hamburg in Germany, turned into cold-blooded slayers albeit being given the option of withdrawing from the exercise. “Each individual policeman once again had a considerable degree of choice” (Browning 27). Nevertheless, the big question remains: what made these ordinary men turn into killers?
These ordinary men did not kill because they wanted to kill. They killed because they came face to face with the victims. No wonder after they killed the first lot of Jews, “they were depressed, angered, embittered, and shaken” (Browning 69). There is the human instinct to dominate over other people when presented with the opportunity, and may be, these ordinary men opened fire impulsively to the Jews without such intentions.
However, the fact that these ordinary men had been given the opportunity to withdraw from the exercise, overrules this possibility. Nevertheless, it is important to note at this point that their commanders ridiculed those who tried to move out of the operation and this takes us to the next reason why members of Reserve Police Battalion 101 became executioners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Browning, the members of the Reserve Police Battalion 101 never knew that they would take part in killing innocent wretched Jews (56). Before commencing the operations, the commander in charge of the Battalion allowed those who could not handle the operation to step aside to take less demanding jobs.
At this point, Schmike withdrew from the group but commander Trapp lambasted him (Browning 57). For fear of being scolded, majority of the ordinary men stayed back save for twelve more men who joined Schmike. This fear might be a major contributory factor as to why many ordinary men agreed to take part in the extermination operation. To some extent, this was an act of free will as Browning posits, “Human responsibility is ultimately an individual matter” (188).
Human beings are logical beings, they can make legitimate decisions, and given the fact that, these men were given the opportunity to choose between joining the executions and quitting the same, it shows that they were willing to kill and this is the third reason why these people turned into ‘willing exterminators’.
Finally, among other duties, the Police Battalion 101 had to put Jews into trains and transport them to death camps. They could bundle tens of thousands of Jews into trains and inspect them on their way to concentration camps (Browning 59). Faced with this opportunity to rule over helpless individuals, the Police Battalion 101 became accustomed to exterminating Jews for they had the mandate.
These reserve civilians also had to hunt for Jews who were on the run and flush them out of forests. In this hunting operation, many Jews lost their lives in the hands of these ordinary men. At times, the Police Battalion 101 would joke about the ‘hunting expedition’ (Browning 65).
Moreover, this Police Reserve Battalion did not face any opposition from any other group and this fuelled the killing. Human power, especially when being applied by untrained people under no control, can run out of hand. This is exactly what happened in the case of the Reserve Police Battalion 101.
The participation in the executions was not something that could only have taken place at this historical time and place; it is an example of broader issues and concerns. These executions portray an opportunity that had matured. Browning states that,
We will write a custom Essay on Ordinary Men Book Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The fundamental problem is not to explain why ordinary Germans, as members of a people utterly different from us and shaped by a culture that permitted them to think and act in no other way than to want to be genocidal executioners, eagerly killed Jews when the opportunity offered.
The fundamental problem is to explain why ordinary men–shaped by a culture that had its own peculiarities but was nonetheless within the mainstream of western Christian, and Enlightenment traditions–under specific circumstances willingly carried out the most extreme genocide in human history” (222).
Browning has continually contended that the extermination, which many call the ‘final solution”, resulted from “cumulative radicalization.”
Works Cited Browning, Christopher. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
To what extent are liberal theories of humanitarian intervention complicit with imperialism? Essay a level english language essay help
This essay looks at the background to liberal theories, especially in relation to main theoretical rival, Realism, before examining in detail the doctrine of humanitarian interventionism, so often, associated with liberalist theories, and criticisms from, among others, Noam Chomsky, who see it as little more than the continuation of Western-style ‘imperialism’.
In recent years, in the field of International Relations studies, as well as in the broader study of the Social Sciences, a range of new theories have emerged to challenge the ‘foundationalist’ school of thought, in which traditional ideas, such as Realism and Liberalism, feature as main components’.
These new theories, which include, ‘Post-Modernism’ and ‘Social Constructivism’, however, are most often used as a means for criticizing ‘foundationalist’ or ‘traditionalist’ theories, rather than (as traditional theirs are said to do), form firm criteria for analysing ‘real world’ international relations, between nation-states.
In this, traditional theories such as Liberal Internationalism, which forms the basis of discussion in this essay, have also undergone a revival; particularly since the end of the Cold War, when with the failure of the leading traditional theory, that is, ‘Realism’ to predict the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, often seen as the symbolic event marking the Cold War’s end, led to a revival of its main rival, ‘Liberalism.’ Ironically, it was at the expense of Liberalism, that Realism arose earlier in the twentieth century, largely in the failure of the Liberalist project, after the First World War, and the inevitable onset of the Second World War.
In the study of International Relations theories, this fall of Liberalism and rise of Realism was most associated with the work of E.H. Carr’s 1939, classic text The Twenty Year Crisis (Cambridge, 2001).
This inter-war period, might also be seen as a time when ‘Imperialism’, reached its high point, that is, when the world’s major powers, mainly the United States and the UK, both, not coincidently, victors in the First World War, looked first, to further their own interests, over what was billed as the championing of self-determination and liberalism, over the old realist ideas of self-interest and what might be termed ‘might is right’.
While, the United States at this time, stood as the champion of anti-imperialism’, this stance, right throughout the United States’ existence, has served only to mask its own imperialistic ambitions, notably, as Alex Callinicos, in his Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009), states, in the early twentieth century and the neo-conservative policies under the presidency of George Bush Jnr.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, for many, the Liberalist project died with the failure of the League of nations, set up in 1919, and supposedly the international body, through which the much-trumpeted ‘new world order’ would come into being. The ideas behind the League however, did not die out entirely, and indeed, were in some ways revived and retried, in the early years marking the end of the Second World War in 1945, through the creation of the United Nations in 1949.
As mentioned however, Liberalism’s revival did not take place at the same time, but rather developed at a time, when in the West, at least, the collapse of Communism throughout Eastern Europe, was attributed to the triumph of Western values, and not, as argued since, largely, the result of the internal problems underpinning Socialism, as practiced in the former Soviet Union.
In the new wave of optimism this created among Western Powers, a new doctrine, to replace the old Cold War ideologies, arose, namely, championing the idea of ‘humanitarian intervention’, as part of creating a new ‘Liberalised’ way of solving international crises’ and dealing with the new style of intra-state’ conflicts that marked the end of the Cold War, was forwarded.
This, in essence, championed ‘human rights’ issues, over and above traditional boundaries where ‘sovereignty’ lay alone with a ‘nation state’, and its right to act as it so willed within its set borders.
In the eyes of those who oppose this idea however, one major point of argument raised, is that, whatever ideals are championed, that in practice the right to intervene in another state’s affairs, amounts to nothing more than the West’s renewed pursuit of ‘Imperialism’, especially, as practiced during its height, in the nineteenth century.
Here, often, the right to intervene and then govern foreign territories was based on arguments of ‘civilization’ and the duty of Western powers to bring good government to uncivilized countries. A major champion of this view is the scholar Noam Chomsky, who has attacked the policy of humanitarian intervention from the beginning of the early 1990s, and the first test case of its kind, in the breakdown of the former communist Yugoslavia, in the Balkans.
Chomsky, saw this interference, and the use of the West’s combined military might, supposedly to end the ‘genocide’ taking place there between the warring factions, as based on the false pretence of ‘humanitarianism’, its real agenda, to enforce Westernized’ values and extend the West’s powerbase in Central Europe. As it stands today, the debate concerning the West’s true intentions extends to the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the invasions of Iraq, in 1991 and 2005.
We will write a custom Essay on To what extent are liberal theories of humanitarian intervention complicit with imperialism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chomsky’s continued considerable influence, in asserting his position as exposing the hypocrisy at the heart of the humanitarian argument, shows how, outside those states which stand opposed to Western interference, the doctrine is a controversial one, even within, western circles.
This highlights then, how contrary to what supporters of ‘humanitarian interventionism’, such as United States President during the 1990s, Bill Clinton, and UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair, at the time of the Kosovo intervention in 1999, say, that the doctrine represents a ‘moral stand’ and a refusal on behalf of Western governments to stand aside while governments around the world abuse human rights, that for those who stand against this position, the arguments hinge not on issues of liberal morality, but old-fashioned means for establishing ‘imperialist’ designs on the non-westernized world.
This view, in particular, finds support among those who opposed the recent Iraq and Afghanistan invasions, and consequently, for those, holding this opinion, liberalist arguments, are more than complicit, but lead the way in how the West’s international relations policies of today, are no different from those practiced during the height of ‘imperialism’.
To conclude, therefore, as does, the scholar, Alex Callinicos, in his recent study, Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009), which especially focuses on the United States, as chief among these complicit Western Powers ‘imperialism is far from dead.’
That is to say, the ideas put forward by supporters of humanitarian interventionism, that the principle underlying it, that is, the sovereignty of human rights, as belonging to a new age, or new world order, one not beholden to respect nation-state borders, that until now, remained sovereign, remains hugely contested.
That whether these ideas are cloaked in liberalist rhetoric or not, and regardless of their legitimization through international bodies such as the United Nations, that the underlying principles remain profoundly Realist, and represent only what the Great Powers in the West, have always sought, their increased power throughout the sphere of international relations.
Works Cited Callinicos, A., Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009).
Carr, E.H., The Twenty Year Crisis: 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (Palgrave Macmillan, 1939, 2001).
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Mental Health best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Origins of Overweighs and Eating Disorders
Causes of Eating Disorders and Overweight
Preventing Eating Disorders and overweight
Introduction Eating disorders are superficial expressions of cavernous emotional or psychological confusion. Sufferers resort to eating as a means of conveying personal difficulties. The concern appears to be about food projected to a deeper level. The problem expresses an essential unhappiness originating from a number of dissimilar sources. Therefore, it is fundamentally not disorders of eating but indicates and expresses a troubled perception of personality.
Eating disorder is not a unique illness but an unfavourable habit among the close friends of the victim and to the person having the habit as well. It is a mock to the standards of beauty but ends up mocking the person with the habit more that the surroundings or situations at hand. It would be equitable to a protest against the normal cultural standards associable to beauty but eventually as portrayed, eating disorder flourishes from a disturbed mind. A person would wish to have some safety; stay alive and contained but when one ends up doing the opposite, then the problem arises creating conflict between the mind and body.
The Origins of Overweighs and Eating Disorders There is a close relation between diet and health to the psychological, emotional and physical well-being of a person. According to O’Brien, (2007) Psychological factors influence the eating habits and eventually the problem of overweight. Boredom, stress, strain, anger, depression and anxiety are some of the psychological factors that aggravate weight problems by triggering the impulses for one to engage in overeating.
If taken into deep considerations, this is a way of getting rid of the emotional distress. The comfortable foods preferred during the youth as the junk foods or those offered when one was ill are more preferable at such states. These foods are often associable to the soothing effects thus the close link between the moods, foods and eating habits.
The emotional arousal is another factor contributing to the unhealthy eating habits. It disrupts the ability to offer personal care such as having physical exercise program or sticking to particular diet. The depressed and anxious mind sabotages one’s efforts to loosing weight thus leading to the weird feeling of hopelessness and the good efforts or intentions capsizes leaving one to the option of the detrimental food choices, and inactivity that kills the need to ever try the activities again.
The problem of overweight or obesity has close link to many other factors besides the emotional disturbance. For instance, a person may be susceptible to some environmental factors that promote overeating, one may have some generic susceptibility or the psychological stress can also exacerbate an already existing problem. (O’Brien, 2007)
If the efforts to loose weight fail to work out, one may end up suffering from frustration, weakened feelings of competence or lowered self-esteem. Others suffer from weigh related discrimination or prejudice. Anxiety and depression are some of the problems that come about because of excessive and constant helpless mood, stress and incessant emotional agony.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mental and physical disturbance often classifies to the emotional disturbance often leading to overweight and obesity that habitually contributes to stress and other psychological disorders. Medically it may be very difficult to determine whether overweight is a symptom associable to another disorder or just a causative factor.
Causes of Eating Disorders and Overweight Although the eating disorder presents the problem of compromised self-esteem or prejudice, in most cases the victims do not suffer from any psychological disorder. In line with O’Brien, (2007) those with a mild obese may try working out without much success and end up suffering from eating disorders, which brings about the depression and compromised self-esteem. These people loose their eating behaviours and end up consuming abnormally in terms of quantity over certain duration.
According to Alexander et al, (2009) the leading causes of the eating disorders are stress and depression. One can trace the problem to the impulsive responses of behaviors that are spontaneous to hatred or other related mental difficulties such as nervousness or lack of self-confidence, which make one to isolate themselves from others into an inactive lifestyle this enhancing bad feeding habits that lead to gaining of weight and eventually to obesity.
This is a good indication that the physical disorders coexists with some mental hysteria such as the need for substance abuse, anxiety, depression, loneliness, depression, lack of control and a wide range of other interpersonal and social problems.
Eating disorder is therefore a problem that is deeply rooted into the interpersonal issues as opposed to preoccupation on the food and psychological factors. Some of these issues entails family interrelation problems, expression related problems especially emotionally, sexual abuse, feeling of taunt, tease and ridicule over size, appearance, shape or weight.
Other factors entail the social dynamics for instance people would be having a specific body size and weight as their standard measuring unit such that, when one is not conforming to the specifications, then they lack the factors for a “perfect body”. They are mainly concern with the person’s physical appearance. The pressure from the public reinforces the problems by reactivating the psychological concern enhancing stress due to the negative feelings especially in females. (Alexander et al, 2009)
A more complicated origin points to temperaments and its interaction with the mental/psychological, social and interpersonal factors. The mental health professionals indicate the temperamental propensity as “perfectionism, compulsiveness, impulsiveness, behavioral, cognizance, and emotions linked to bad eating habits.
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The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US Research Paper cheap essay help
Abstract The issue of the executive pay raises heated debate today considering the gap differences in the civil income. For instance, assuming example of the U.S. government, President Obama governance faces public fury over the huge pay packages accorded to the executives. (Andrews and Bajaj, 2009) The issue of prohibiting extra bonuses for the top executives beside their hefty basic pay and other stock dividends is therefore under high consideration beside the rules imposing reductions. If imposed, the rules will be the toughest ever forcing the executives to accept deep reductions.
Arguably, considering a $500,000 annual compensation would be draconian considering the lack of bonuses or annual dividends. The recruitment process would be very difficult due to competition especially from the private sector offering over $1 million.
The U.S president seem to advocate for the pay regulations considering that this is the time the government is struggling to bail out prominent collapsed financial institutions. According to Andrews and Bajaj of the Times Newspapers (2009), the National Economic Council is considering pay restrictions to all the companies under the Federal help of economic recovery.
The executive’s compensation ware not under particular specifications, the rule applied earlier on bailed out banks failed because of the government’s failure to impose a strict follow up mechanism thus living the executives to reward themselves with the heft bonuses without considering the deterioration of the economy. The question many people ask is whether the executives should make the much they do.
Introduction The high pay may appear to be very little in comparison to the huge company’s profits the top executives deliver at the end of the financial session. In line with Daft et al, (368) when the company’s profits measure up to the executive’s pays then it seems too low and therefore reasonable. Probably it would make sense to reward the executives who are directly involved with the capital of the company.
They are usually under a lot of pressure to deliver and although it may seem ironic, their pay is excessively little, compared to what they deliver. This might be the only logical way of rewarding these employees for their tremendous work. It motivates them to ensure success and future developments. Payment should always reflect performance and this is most certainly the reason why the American government advocates for pay regulation especially among the financially assisted companies.
Thesis Statement “Reasons behind the hefty pays of the Chief Executive Officers”
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This paper explores the issue of the compensation that the top executives receive the reasons behind the pay and it offers the suggestions for improving the system.
Do the top executives deserve their pay?
It is evident that top executive receive exorbitant remunerations and most people feel that majority do not deserve the compensation. Some of the executive end up performing a mediocre job and still manage to rip off the taxpayers because of their titles. Common feeling indicates that these individuals should receive their compensation depending on their performances.
Literature review While the arguments against the pay are viable to certain levels, the other side of the coin indicate that these executives earn and deserve every penny of their paychecks. (Mackenzie and Traynor, 132) They undergo enormous amount of pressure to ensure companies deliver profits. They have to make tough and important daily decisions, which are the key measures of whether the company prospers or fails.
The failure of the company compromises their jobs therefore their careers are at constant risky measures. Most of the CEO did not just become what they are but had to move up the ladder systematically to the top positions. They have total endurance and strong business backgrounds and knowledge to steer the company through maintenance of an effective workforce. (Daft et al, 342)
According to Daft et al, (556) there are very few people with enough knowledge and experience to guide or control the performance of big, especially financial companies to their performance value. This aspect makes the executives an important and valuable part of the company hence the reason why they deserve the high pays. The public seem to base their arguments over the executive pays on half the picture. The profits earned by the companies are excessively high in comparison to their remunerations.
A good example is the ATT Company chief executive officer who is arguably one of the top paid officials. (Mathias and Jackson, 137) People’s view over the executive’s move to layoff 40,000 employees and still enjoy his increased pay seems greedy and illogical. At a close range, his laying-off of excessive workers brought great benefit to the company as well as to the customers who benefited from better services at a proficient timeframe and lower cost by smaller but improved workforce.
Comparing the executive’s pay of 20 million dollars, which seem too huge to the company’s earning, it would equate approximately to 1/3,450th of the gross thus validating his pay against performance. If split among the workers, the executive’s pay would equate to $500 which is a pay equitable to a just a couple of days pay for a low-level employee.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Executives need to be very keen in their decisions, less it bring down the whole company crumpling to losses. They ought to ensure transparency over all their moves or decisions since they affect a magnitude and the economy at large. (Daft et al, 557) The superfluous amount of tension and pressure evident today is due to these factors and thus the reason why not every CEO can be able to handle their tasks as per the requirements.
What guarantees good performance of the CEO? The huge amount of money involved in compensating the executives is a good indication that there is no good assurance for their performance. The pay acts as a great motivator to performance. Without a good pay, they would probably find better paying jobs or one without much strain but having an equally good pay package.
It would be a great risk for a company to engage an executive and pay them poorly because that person would not get involved as required and therefore the probability of a collapse is high. Other than collapse, the company can easily experience weak profit margin compared to other business rivals. (Mackenzie and Traynor, 102)
The executive’s thrive to venture deeply into the industry depends on the payment received. Good focus on goals elevates the business into great heights.
When a company makes good investments such as the hefty pays for the executives, then the company’s performance elevates to a good performance. The CEO is able to put much emphasis on the firm and tolerate smaller margins for errors thus ensuring great profits. They suffer negative affects or enjoy positive rewards depending on the performance of the business. (Mathis and Jackson, 35)
The plausible reason why the American executives receive more money than other countries is that they work out tasks at larger scales compared to others. From this perspective, the companies should therefore not be concern with the payment but focus on the delivery factors.
It is easy to find qualified people to work at the same capacity at lower wages but they are not able to cover the same magnitude of the job. This means that there is a need to analyse and reward the executives in relation to their inputs. The businesses ought to acknowledge that the executives deserve pay equivalent to their inputs.
Need for quality workers may make a company to find it reasonable to hire executives from other countries and therefore outsourcing does not mainly mean the company want to find someone for he top job with minimal and more reasonable wage rates as most people may think.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company is responsible for the high wages and not the worker. This negates the reasoning that finding such employees at a reasonable rate is not possible. The company decides on the payment rather than the employee demanding for the same. Pay should reflect performance and for this reason, the company or those in the industry have the right to decide on the amount of remuneration to offer. (Mathis and Jackson, 35) this is an indication that the executives deserve their pays.
Problems with systems that support the hefty Executive’s Pay Most of the executive wages are not reflective of the employee’s performance and hence the basis for this debate. The executives receive the same treatment regardless of their poor or very prolific performance. This means that the company may be losing huge amounts through such pays as the persona benefits, especially when their no good procedures for investigating performance and linking the compensation to the firm’s profit margins.
When an executive has room for enjoying power and good pay while reciprocating nothing on the other hand, then when taken to consideration, this is abuse of power and they will not attempt to do a good job. There is need to have a correlation between the qualities of the work and the hefty pay that the CEO receives.
Most collapsing businesses today lack proper monitoring systems over performance especially the government run firms. The top managers continue delivering bad jobs while they still enjoy good constant pays and probably have power to award themselves bonuses and rises. According to Daft et al, (342) It may cost a lot to get rid of bad employees particularly those at the top levels, but overtime, the losses incurred as the company hopes for recovery my eventually be the root cause of collapse.
Most of the CEO jobs are under contract basis, this means that if the period is cut-short, then the law protects the officials and the company must compensate them for their early removal. This is another reason why many companies fail to terminate the executives. The need to avoid court cases makes the company to hold the unwanted personnel until their terms expire.
There is urgent need to incorporate a link between the compensation package and the business performance record and probably include the same in the contract forms as an incentive to produce more. Executives can have an offer with the basic pay and allowances but the bonuses be rewarded in line with the performance or business profit margins. Amazing facts indicate that human performance has a main basis upon monetary rewards. (Daft et al, 372)
Conclusion Top executives make hefty pay packages but most deserve the remuneration they receive because of the business performance. They make key decisions every day, work under pressure to deliver and their jobs and titles are arguably the greatest all over the world thus they are internationally competitive. Assessment however indicates that only a fraction performs as per the requirement and thus the need to regulate the pays.
The issuing of a basic salary and adjustable pay rise depending on the company’s performance would work fine. This would be a way of having a distinction between the best performing executives from the rest.
The government should consider more legislature of the workers pay as per the performance levels as a measure of guaranteed routine by the top executives. Companies are in a position to give a breakdown of performance through the accountants as the foundation for remuneration just as the taxation processes. This would be an excellent measure to curb loopholes.
There ought to be an internationally standardized payment levels for the top executives to enhance balanced competition. The contraction procedures also need to integrate means of escaping the clauses that bring about allegations if the company breaks the contract before time especially when the employees perform below expectations.
These measures ensure only the best executives remain in business and thus making the companies to be more productive as well as successful. The aspect of highly paid executives would only be acceptable without disputes or controversies with the implementation of the important ideas discussed herein. Most importantly, the pay ought to reflect on business performance.
Companies are tying to embrace these aspects as evident with the Mercer Company whose recent advertisements for a top executive post specified ability to “generate revenue through development of new client relationships, cross-selling to current clients and extension of current client engagements”.
Works Cited Daft, Rechard .L., and Marcic, Dorothy. “Understanding Management” Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008.
Edmund, Andrews, L. and Rajaj, Vikas. “U.S. Plans $500,000 Cap on Executive Pay In Bailouts” The New York Times. (2009). Web.
McKenzie, Steven, J., and Traynor, William .J. “Opportunities in human resource Management careers: VGM opportunities series” McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001.
Mercer Human Resources Consulting, Job Description for Senior Executive Compensation Consultant, Mercer web site. 2009. Web.
Mathias, Robert, L., and Jackson, John, H. ”Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives”. South-Western Cengage publishers, 2008.