Movie Characters And Their Influence On The Plot Essay Essay Help Online Free

Table of Contents Synopsis

O’Neil

Johnny

Conclusion

Synopsis Mr. O’Neil and Johnny appear to be the main protagonists of the movie. The two are brought out as having outstanding characteristics that define their true nature. The roles played by the two characters further make it easy for the reader to derive conclusions concerning their behavioral patterns.

O’Neil Mr. Robert O’Neil is a cruel person who appears to be selfish. He commands his assistants to discipline the slaves although the slaves have not shown any signs of rebellion. This was therefore uncalled for since he was still in control of the situation. This trait is further evidenced by the fact that he orders the assistants to give the slaves pieces of wood to serve as pillows. He does not treat the slaves as human beings since he feels that he owns them.

The narrator confirms that he (O’Neil) bought the slaves from the land of Ibibio with the consent of the king. He therefore feels that he reserves the right to mistreat the slaves. His cruelty is also seen when he asserts that it is healthy for the slaves to turn to their right when sleeping without considering that some people will not be comfortable in this position.

The famous slogan that ‘money is the source of all evils’ is confirmed in the movie. O’Neil happens to be a very rich person but through evil means. Money is never enough, despite that fact that he already has a great amount of wealth; he continues to be money-minded. When approaching the king with the proposal of buying the slaves, he alleges that he is ready to “get those annoying prisoners” from the land of Ibibio.

Here, he means that he can help the king to get rid of the prisoners; it is evident that his sole purpose is not to help the king; he wants to make more and more cash. His main aim is profit maximization hence he does not care if taking away the slaves will be a relief to the king of Ibibio or not. He is brought out as a rich person since he pays extra gold to buy them.

O’Neil’s’ callous nature makes him to order the assistants to direct the slaves to remove their clothes even though it was cold. He does not care if the slaves are going to be affected by the cold. The idea of ordering the slaves to remove their clothes was a way of ensuring that his vessel remains clean.

Even though these slaves are his main source of wealth, he does not care about their welfare. This trait shows just how self-centered he is since all he cares about is his money, it is ironical that he does not treat his labor source with respect even though it is through it that he has attained his current economic status. The slaves are denied their dignity since they are forced to stay naked, moreover, it is cold hence the slaves are forced to hold each other so that they can feel warmer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The assistants are made to torture the slaves in a ruthless way. This makes them to appear as cruel as him. They follow his orders regardless of how inhuman they may seem. He seems to be a commander who is able to control people under him. Everything that revolves around his world is less important as long as he continues to enjoy their services and wealth.

The slaves are overworked but the food given is not good. Johnny, one of the slaves, complains that the food given is not worth the labor they are giving. Since O’Neil is in control, he uses his powers to mistreat his subjects.

Johnny Knowledgeable Johnny is well aware that the future is not promising away from Ibibio land. He knows that he will no longer hold his head high; he will no longer have an identity since he will be reduced to an object of labor. He has a premonition that his life will no longer be the same again after this. He feels stressed since he knows that he has been ripped off his dignity. He is able to analyze the situation before the actual experience since it was clear that the new environment was not promising.

Optimism is depicted when Johnny and his wife encourage each other that they will find a way to free themselves from this situation. Johnny knows that optimism will help them hope for the unseen future.

This is despite the fact that no one is sure of what is in store, they have no idea of their fate hence they can only hope that things will favor them since they are helpless. Although they have been pronounced as Kane’s property, they still hope that they can free themselves from him.

He is aware of his rights hence he complains when any of them is violated. His comfort, food, respect and dignity are not provided sufficiently. He considers the new environment as unfavorable since he does not enjoy his rights. He is quick to realize that the future in this ranch is not promising since his life is made harder each passing day.

The rag which was supposed to serve as clothing could not serve the purpose of a cloth; it was tattered to the extent that it could not shelter him from the sun or the cold. He constantly complains about how poor the working conditions are because his basic needs are not met well.

We will write a custom Essay on Movie Characters and Their Influence on the Plot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Johnny is a skimmer. He skims on how to get to the staff quarters to see his newly born daughter. Although this plan does not succeed he had planned it in a way that could have assured that he could not be caught.

He however made a mistake by trusting a colleague who betrayed him. His skimming nature is also evidenced by the way he plans to escape from this land. This plan is successful since he does not get caught.

It was thoughtful of him to leave his wife and child behind since he was sure that they would not survive. He carefully plans his escape so that he could free himself from this misery. This time round, he was careful about the issue of trust. The narrator states that he was more careful about whispers along the route.

Conclusion The two protagonists appear to have distinct character traits, while O’Neil appears to be cruel, money-minded and callous; Johnny is skimming, knowledgeable, aware of his rights and optimistic.

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Culture in America Essay essay help online free

Culture The linguistic and cultural study of the Indians started in mid-nineteenth century; however, the classifications were based mainly on genetically defined linguistic families or stock, without paying attention to culture (Sturtevant and DeMallie, 20001, p. 1).

The American Indian culture is classified into geographical areas based on the U.S. National museum displays, with the plains Indians being artists by nature – for instance, the women painted their belongings for easy identification (Sturtevant and DeMallie, 20001, p. 9). According to Johnston (2006, p.9), the maintenance of the Native American art is suggested to aid students in maintaining their sense of belonging as well as attaining economic independence.

In addition, racial characteristics of American Indian mystical views are said to be engraved in the American culture, and are evident both in early European settler’s writings and in contemporary media. Indeed, the Indian culture is termed as a genuine virtue, which the non-Indians should strive to achieve (Snipp, 1989, p.29). This paper will discuss the Native American culture, as well as provide a comparison with the deaf culture.

Some cultural aspects of Native American culture Art

Art is one of the main fields that were used to incorporate the native Indians into the modern world mainstream. Art is a cultural tradition of the Indians and its interest to the non-Indians has made it to be easily incorporated into the modern mainstream as compared to other Indian cultures like dancing and hunting that are considered uncivilized.

In addition, art is an unimpeachably refined pursuit as demonstrated by handcraft projects of reformers’ (Johnston, 2006, p. 200). According to DeCora, “the artistic talent was inbred in Native Americans,” while the art skill is associated with the native’s superior understanding of the surrounding environment (Johnston, 2006, p. 203).

Cradleboards and moccasins are some of the traditional handicrafts that were suggested to be of high quality as compared to Euro-American manufacture products. Apart from the high standards of quality attained from products of Native American art, the contemporary artists working in literary fields is a source of pride (Johnston, 2006, p. 203)

Survival

According to Belgrad, the American Indian is branded as a positive symbol of survival in times of hardships that are oppressive mainly due to the endurance of the war in Europe and the continuing depression.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is suggested that the American Indian had proved an outstanding ability to cope with the surrounding environment in order to construct a well-managed community and a high culture in harsh environment. Indeed, these are some of the achievements that are commonly known and the contribute in defining an Indian’s place in the society (Belgrad, 1998, p.54)

Symbols

Native Americans culture is comprised of symbols that entail symbolic meanings. In 1940s Pollock’s work, the Inuit mask had a symbolic meaning and was purposely for effecting the dancer’s transformation into a spirit (Belgrad, 1998, p.66).

Adaptive

Belgrad asserts that several Indian painters converted into the alternative painting style of John Herrera as a solution to the commercialism of studio style. In addition, these artists sought to psychologically and socially create meaningful works by incorporating traditional cultures into present (Belgrad, 1998, p.69 and 70).

Culture of the deaf The culture of the deaf is surrounded by beliefs and practices that mainly evolve around the sign language in day-to-day life, a characteristic that distinguish a deaf person from a hearing person. The hard-of-hearing people are the people who lost their hearing abilities late in life, and though they do not use sign languages, they use various adaptive communications.

The deaf people are categorized differently, from the definitely deaf people to the ones who hear nearly well (Padden, Humphries, 2005, p.1). Language rights are also some of the major issues that the deaf people are fighting for, as they dislike to be viewed as medical objects; indeed, the modern deaf life is full of battles against dominance and control (Padden, Humphries, 2005, p.9).

In professional industry, the ‘deaf middle class’ has existed in the USA for a period of time although the situation is different in UK mainly as evidenced by the fact that barely a dozen deaf professionals could be accounted for by the year 1976 (Ladd, 2003, p.184)

Similarities between Native American Culture and Culture of the Deaf Adaptive: The two cultures, the Indian culture and the deaf culture, are both adaptive in nature. The Indians were adaptive by incorporating their native painting techniques into the modern style, while the deaf practices of seeing on the other hand are not logical and natural, instead, they have been heightened (Padden, Humphries, 2005, p.2). In addition to this, the hard-hearing people are said to use various adaptive communication methods (Padden, Humphries, 2005, p.1).

We will write a custom Essay on Culture in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Symbols and signs: Both cultures possess symbols or signs that represent a particular meaning. The Indian Americans for instance used particular masks to symbolize the transformation of the dancer to the spirit form (Belgrad, 1998, p.66); while on the other hand, the deaf culture used the sign language to communicate (Padden, Humphries, 2005, p.2).

Struggle: The element of struggle is depicted clearly in both cultures. The Indian Americans struggle to have their culture, which is termed primitive, to be recognized while the deaf are said to have day-to-day battles against dominance and control (Padden, Humphries, 2005, p.9).

Distinctions between Native American Culture and Culture of the Deaf Attainment of culture: Both cultures are different in the sense that the Indian American culture is mainly attained because of naturally being born in the Native society while the deaf culture is attained due to hearing disabilities of a person.

Passage of the practices: The passage of the practices is different in both cultures; for instance, in the Indian American culture, the practices are passed to a person through collective Indian community participation, while in the deaf culture, the practices are passed on in specialized institutions (Padden and Humphries, 2005, p.29)

Conclusion The Indian culture and the deaf culture are both cultures that are still present in the contemporary America. Although the native Indian practices have been diluted by modern world, that does not mean the culture has ceased to exist. The deaf culture on the other hand has improved with modern ways of communicating in different languages using the sign language. Moreover, the Indian culture is still eminent in the modern America media. It is presence in the origin of America is evident in the early European settlers.

References Belgrad, D. (1998). The culture of spontaneity: Improvisation and the Arts in postwar America. Web.

Johnston, A. P. (2006). Seeing high

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White Fang: “The call of the wild and White Fang” by Jack London Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of the Main Characters

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Jack London has been touted as one of the best writers of his time with an instinctive artistic ability of high order and an extraordinary set of skills with words. It should be noted that this book complements the themes advanced in his earlier publication “The Call of the Wild”, by showing how a naturally domesticated animal may revert to freedom present in nature and the wilderness. In view of this, this paper focuses on the attributes of the characters and their adaptability to different circumstances.

Analysis of the Main Characters White Fang is the main character of the story. This fact is emphasized by London’s decision to name the story after him. He was born of a mixed heritage, to a wolf paternity and a mother bearing a mixed heritage of wolf and dog. He shows unique attributes, which prompt his mother to care for him. He is naturally agile and strong, attributes which he transforms into fighting skills after other dogs become mean to him (The New York Times).

His conquests in the battle field underline his fierceness. He is an intelligent animal, a fact which helped him survive the challenges in the forest. Loosing all his siblings to the drought helps him sharpen his natural instincts. He is adventurous, a trait which enables him to learn the invaluable lesson of survival for the fittest. This helps him in the later stages of his life when he is handled by different masters.

His loyalty is portrayed when he opts to stick to his masters in spite of the misery he underwent on their account. This is as a consequence of fear instilled into him during his beatings and, he subsequently He toes the line in order to avoid retribution. This implies that his heart had not warmed to his master hence love was constituent in their relationship (London 172). Fang shows his obedient nature by staying within all boundaries established by his different masters (The New York Times).

White Fang’s resilience is portrayed by the attitude he adopts since his childhood. He is constantly teased by other puppies when they move into the human camp. After loosing several fights, he adapts to the situation and fights his battles with the resolve to win. Life in this camp also reveals his aggression.

He beats all his opponents before doing all it takes to beat his main tormentor, lip-lip. In the latter years of his life, he gains from this experience to fight when unleashed on other aggressive dogs. His last master, Weedon Scott reveals a sentimental aspect to his character. By showering him with affection continuously, White Fang becomes affectionate towards his boss. This fondness is genuine due to the love that is existent between them.

This transformation is shown by numerous instances in the book where he responds to the master’s word as opposed to sadism which he was accustomed. He develops affection for Scott, to the extent that he howls in pain and refuses to eat when the master leaves him behind. This attachment signifies loyalty that stems from love, in contrast to intimidation, as it was from his previous masters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weedon Scott bought White Fang when he faced imminent death while fighting. The difference in management styles between Beaver and Scott is evident. He is kind to the animal, and hence refrains from employing violent forms of retribution. Instead, he nurtures Fang into an obedient beast by showering him with endless affection.

He shows he is caring after he assumes liability of white fang by instructing his assistant to take care of the dog throughout the recuperation period. He exhibits perseverance every time the dog does not respond to his overtures. The dog gives him cold treatment time and again, barking viciously at him and declining to take meals, but he does not give up on him.

After much coaxing, he finally reached out to the animal using meat. He then decided to train the animal with the aim of domesticating it. After much work, the dog resonated with his voice, by developing the ability to decipher the different tones in his voice.

Scott is responsible since he agrees to travel with White Fang back to his home instead of leaving him behind with the servant. This also brings to light his compassionate attribute, because he only gives in after hearing the beast’s painful howls and seeing the magnitude of injuries he incurred as he tried to break free. It is noteworthy that Scott loves White Fang genuinely.

This is recorded as one of the main reasons why the beast finally warned up to him. This trait facilitates their forming of a strong bond which made the dog guard him and his property.

The she wolf Kiche is White Fang’s mother. She acts as the leader of the wolf pack despite the fact that she is a domestic dog. Her intelligence comes out clearly from the onset as she lures the sled driving dogs from Bill and Harry their masters into the woods (London165). She shows her dexterity and adaptability when she leads her cub into the Indian settlement, where “man is god” furthermore.

Kiche is also protective of her cubs and hunts in order to feed them. It is also on record that she fought a wolverine and a weasel in order to protect her only remaining cub. She is affectionate, an attribute which draws White Fang to her. It makes him look up to her as a teacher, guide and a source of protection. It is worth mentioning that Kiche’s attribute are seen when “the cub felt his mother soften at the sound.

We will write a custom Essay on White Fang: “The call of the wild and White Fang” by Jack London specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When she is taken away by an Indian for a debt owed, White Fang unsuccessfully attempts to pursue her before he is captured by beaver. When the fully grown White Fang meets her later in the book, she refuses to acknowledge him. In spite of this, respect he had for her is evidenced by the fact that he accepted the present state of affairs and upheld his respect for her as a mother and teacher.

Gray Beaver, White Fang’s initial owner is cruel to the wolf and tames him through beatings. Surprisingly, he treats him with fairness; in the same manner he does other dogs. The wolf considers him a god due to the extra chunks of meat he often receives from the Indian. It should be noted that Beaver was not a cruel man, but was socialized to believe that cruelty is synonymous with survival. Beaver’s gullibility is exposed when he falls for a scheme by Beauty Smith which sees him lose ownership of the dog.

He is tricked into alcoholism and his subsequent addiction ensures he trades the dog for liquor. White Fang escapes Smith’s home on several occasions and runs back to Beaver. He in turn returned him back due to his honesty. Despite all his shortcomings, Beaver remains loyal to the wolf as a master, playing the most crucial of roles in developing his strength, independence and intelligence.

Beauty Smith was another of White Fang’s owners. It is satirical for the author to name a man with such an appalling character beauty. His cruelty is evidenced promptly as he whips White Fang on several occasions. He kept the dog chained frequently and exposed him to many forms of maltreatment; this made the dog realize that it was subject to the master’s prerogative (London 276).

Fang submitted to him out of fear, and ran away on more than a few instances, but was brought back by Beaver. His total disregard for the dog is shown when he opts to watch the dog die in a fighting arena, before selling him off to Scott despite all the injuries it had incurred. He is exploitative, since he channeled the dog’s rage for his personal gain.

He unleashed him on other dogs with the hope of making a profit from bets placed during the fight. Beauty Smith employs treachery and gets Gray Beaver to sell him the dog. He is violent, since he exposes the dog to violence before unleashing him on other beasts for profit (London 183). He propagates the principle of gaining respect through fear and violence, with Smith being the main beneficiary of his exploits.

It is noteworthy that Mr. London brings out his best pieces when writing about the relationships between human beings and beasts. He aptly presents feral nature to be entirely distinct from human nature and lifestyle. This is illustrated by “London is condemned for espousing contradictory ideas and causes, his judges are, unknowingly perhaps, charging him with no greater error than being the representative of the world in which he lived” (Ross 57).

This story reveals how the beasts submit to human authority readily, in addition, to the adaptability of domestic animals to a change in their environment. He brings to light the fact that while beasts may not reason like humans do; they learn from the discipline of experience and are propelled by instinct on what to shun and what to seek.

Not sure if you can write a paper on White Fang: “The call of the wild and White Fang” by Jack London by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cub does not envision life as a voracious appetite due to the difference in perception between himself and mankind. He leads a single purposed life, driven by survival and the need to see out one desire at a time. By dwelling on the savage nature of the experiences the beast goes through in a bid to emphasize their fitness. He intimates that beasts experience pain and pleasure out of life in similar quantities as illustrated when he cries (London 183).

In his earlier publication, ‘Call of the Wild’, London talks about a Buck, a dog born in the civilized world, who is sold to travelers in need of sledge pullers (Tabor-Hann). The tale recounts the challenges he goes through in the wild, that bring out his wild side. His killer instinct is polished due to the hardships he undergoes while changing masters at frequent intervals.

Conclusion The same can be said of the lives people lead in the present times. While some adapt easily to difficulties, other persons experience difficulties in the course of transitions from their comfort zones. From the story, it is evident that remarkably few characters show the resilience and ability to adapt to new systems, and hence guarantee their survival. Those who refuse to discard their areas of comfort are rendered irrelevant due to their inability to cope with changing situations.

Works Cited London, Jack. The call of the wild and White Fang. London: Collector’s library. 2004. Print.

London, Jack. White Fang. New York: Plain Label Books, 1968. Reprint.

Ross, Dale. “Jack London: An American Dilemma”. Journal of American Culture. 1982. 5: 57 62.

Tabor-Hann, Kellie. Investigating Jack London’s White Fang: Nature and Culture Detectives. Edsitement. 2010. Web.

The New York Times. Jack London the Socialist—A Character Study; When and Why the Author of “The Call of the Wild” Became a Convert and Propagandist—His Literary Methods and Aims. 1906. Web.

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Frankie Lymon; I Can Still Hear Your Music Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers

The commencement

Frankie Lymon’s solo music career

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction ‘I can still hear your music’ is a phrase that best describes the connection that people have with good music as regards their memory recall. Human nature is a slave to good music, albeit resistance to it as a master can be pursued, it can never be achieved (O’Donell 1). Frankie Lymon is one such artist who at a very tender age sang good music that connected with his entire fans. His eventual passing on has left behind clear tunes in their minds as though his presence still subsists among them.

Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers Frank Joseph ‘Frankie’ Lymon was born on the 30th of September1942 in Harlem New York City of the United States of America. Frankie was of an African- American descent with a reputation of being the boy soprano lead singer of a group called ‘The teenagers’ (Solent communications 2).

The teenagers sang Rock and Roll and R and B tunes. The Teenagers’ originally comprised of three members who were African- American (Frankie Lymon, Jimmy Merchant and Sherman Games) with two additional members of Puerto Rican Descent (Herman Santiago and Joe Negroni).

Frankie Lymon and the teenagers took a very short time before wooing their fans with charm (Pan- African News Wire 4). After being a group for not less than two years, they were already recognized as one of the pioneer success cases of rock and roll music. Rogers, describes Frankie Lymon as the ‘trendsetters in the early days of rock and roll’ (1) a massive complement in the realm of music given to them would be that many young boys struggled to copy and try out their style of a boys group just so that they could gain public attention.

Pegue (1) articulated that any kid-group that posses the qualities of personality and exposure as compliments to great sound and arrangement would most definitely hit the jackpot as far as guaranteed success is concerned. There is no doubt that the Frankie Lymon and the teenagers possessed these qualities. Their triumph in music sensation as a boys group was consummate.

Their debut single in 1959 ‘Why do fools fall in love’ turned out top be their biggest hit due to a smatter strategy; using the services of Dj Allan Freed, whose popularity aide his introduction of Frankie and the teenagers to International audiences without much kick.

Further achievement was experienced when they eventually secured corporate network deals and business connection thanks to GEE and RAMA records owned by George. As if that was not enough, the group did a hit-movie called “Rock Rock Rock”, which consequently marketed their style globally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The commencement Frankie’s father, Howard Lymon, was part of a renowned gospel music group called the Harlemaires. Thanks to his father, Frankie, together with his brothers; Louis and Howie sang with the Harlemaires. Frankie was nurtured in to becoming a musician at an early age. Later on, in 1955, a New York corner quartet group called Emines was coming through.

Frankie, on developing interest in Music joined the group which changed names to Coupe de Villes, thanks to their Puerto Rico friends. Latter in the year, they became the Premires, recording their debut single ‘Why do fools fall in love’ which was released in 1956 under the new name; Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers (Schwalboski 1).

Frankie Lymon’s solo music career According to Schwalboski, Lymon left the group in 1956 to pursue a solo career (1). In his solo performances, Lymon was backed by prerecorded tapes. On other hand, the teenagers replaced Lymon without ever achieving success once more. Lymon’s premier solo release was called “My girl” and was not a success. According to Richard, Lymon tried out dancing with a white teenage lady in his performance, a venture which turned out to be a mega scandal that caused a set back in Lymon’s career (1).

On attaining adulthood, Lymon’s voice changed and made him loose his signature soprano voice, that saw his sales fall in to slow tapers. Either way, Lymon decided to adopt a falsetto which was very effective; it saw his solo hit “Little Bitty Pretty one” which eventually picked number 58 on the R and B charts in 1960 (Warmer 1).

Unfortunately, Lymon’s comeback was short lived due to the ugly fact that he got involved in to drugs. Apparently he had been addicted to heroin from the time he was at the age of 16. He got sunk more and more in to this habit that eventually saw the termination of his music career in 1961 wit Roulette records (run by Morris Levy) bringing an end to his contract. He consequently entered in to rehabilitation (Warner 1). However, in 1965, Lymon and the teenagers rejoined briefly with no results in recordings.

Conclusion Lymon was drafted in 1966 in to the US army and latter on married Emira Eagle in 1967. Surprisingly he had married Zolar Tailor and Elizabeth Waters in 1959 and 1964 respectively without divorcing either of them. He was therefore reputed a polygamist (Schwalboski 1).

Lymon died on February 27th in 1968 from a heroin overdose while awaiting a recording session in the following day. Nevertheless, his music is still sweet to the ear regardless of his dramatic departure from both the realm of music and life. He is regarded as one of the legends of Rock and Roll. Pegue expresses gratitude to his mom for allowing him to get a radio that would have him listen to Frankie Lymon (1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Frankie Lymon; I Can Still Hear Your Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited O’Donell Laurence. Music and The Brain. 2010. Web.

Pan-African News Wire. Frankie Lymon: A musical biography. 2007. Web.

Pegue Earl Richard. The best music of your life. 2010. Web.

Schwalboski M. Ann. Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers. 2010. Web.

Solent communications. Frankie Lymon. 2010. Web.

Warner Jay. Frankie Lymon

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Causes and Effects of Global Warming Essay best essay help: best essay help

Global warming is referred as the climatic change as a result of increased temperatures on the earth surface. This climatic change is caused by two factors, which include human activities on the environment, as well as the natural effects. This has resulted into adverse effects, thus calling for the environmental sustainability which can only be achieved from the sustainable development.

Human activities, which are referred as anthropogenic factors are the major causes of global warming as the natural factors are not known to account to the greater effects. The following discussion comprises of the effects of the global warming as well as the mitigating measures to be put in place (Houghton 20).

The global warming increases the temperature in the sea which in turn results to rising of the sea level. This effect result into flooding leading to the destruction of properties, vegetation, land, and loss of habitats to the wildlife and the displacement of people which increases the number refugees. Due to the high release of greenhouse gases such as chlorofluorocarbons, sulphur oxides and methane among others have resulted into depletion of the ozone layer (Union on Concerned Scientists18).

This has in turn led to direct reach of the ultraviolet rays into the earth surface where there have been increased cases of skin cancer. The vegetation has dried up in many areas thus causing desertification and also continuous occurrence of prolonged droughts thus starvation and loss of lives. Excess evaporation of water from water surfaces has increased due to increased temperatures thus lowering the water quantity and drying up of these sources (Weart 42).

The above effects can however be reduced through practicing environmental sustainability by every person. This can be done through promotion of reforestation in the cleared forest as well as increase of tree plantation in private land. Trees are known as natural carbon sinkers thus they reduce the carbon in the atmosphere which leads to reduction of green house effect by the carbon oxides.

Carbon oxides emissions from the fossil fuels and charcoal burning can be reduced by use of natural sources of energy such as solar and wind energy. Electric power can also be used on vehicles instead of using the fossil fuels and, promote use of bicycles and walking in small distances instead of driving (Weart 45).

Waste should be reduced as in its composition there is production of methane which is also a green house gas. Reduction of this waste can be done through recycling of materials for instance used newspaper as tissue papers. Waste can also be reduced by use of materials which are reused more than once. There should be minimization of equipments that emit chlorofluorocarbons like refrigerators in our houses, less use of sprays and air conditioners which are used to cool building during summer seasons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can be done by adding insulators in the buildings such as ceilings as well as building of thick walls to reduce the amount of heat getting onto the buildings. Human population should be controlled by family planning. As a result of population increase people have engaged themselves in clearing of the forest in search of settlements, (Houghton 54)

In conclusion, there is a need to promote environmental awareness on the environmental conservation. This can be done through carrying out of environmental education programs where people are exposed on causes and effects of global warming. Through this they should be taught on the various ways of reducing these effects.

Environmental policies should also be put in place like the polluter pay principle where individuals or industries are supposed to pay for their emission of the green house gases. To avoid this cost they will therefore prefer use of materials that are green house free (Union on Concerned Scientists 36).

Works Cited Houghton, John Theodore. Global Warming. London: Cambridge University, 2004. Print.

Union on Concerned Scientists. Global warming: Global warming 101. New York: Union of Concerned Scientists, 2006. Print

Weart Spencer. The Discovery of Global Warming. New York: Harvard University Press, 2008. Print

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Shelter for the mentally challenged Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The availability of basic shelter is critical in the life of mentally challenged persons. It is essential that this basic human need be availed to them because most of them are not in a position to provide it for themselves. The shelter should also be able to accommodate their shortcomings and protect them from discrimination by society. The provision of shelter goes a long way in aiding in the mental, physical and most fundamentally psychological development.

People that are mentally incapacitated are found to have difficulties in their personal hygiene. Personal hygiene has been identified as a huge factor in their discrimination in society. This discrimination significantly contributes to further damage in their mental and psychological status.

This is as a result of feeling unwanted and uncared for in the environment that they inhabit. However, establishment of shelters for them will be critical in ensuring that their body hygiene is maintained at acceptable standards. In so doing, the discrimination along these lines will be a thing of the past making them develop normally.

The day to day handling of daily events is significantly affected by mental instability. Routine habits are significantly upset in the life of the mentally challenged individual. The creation of a fixed program is, therefore, essential in helping them overcome this problem. The attainability of fixed program can be attained by setting up of shelters that are specifically designed for them.

The shelters will facilitate the enactment of thus routines that will help them in the regaining of their mental stability. The workability of the set up program will also aid in the psychological development of the affected persons. This is in the sense that programs being undertaken are repeated making them stick in one’s mind and being part of the system.

The provision of shelter to the mentally handicapped is essential in instilling a sense of belonging into them. Psychologically, this is critical to the stability of the mind of such persons and its subsequent development. It gives them a sense of identity and a point of association with the rest of the community.

For the mentally challenged individuals, it will provide a place called home, which is extremely critical towards their perception of life and society as a whole. In addition to that, it gives them an identity which lessens the discrimination towards them by other members of the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under a controlled environment, in this case a shelter, this person’s ability to integrate into society is significantly increased. Their association with each other makes them to accept their condition in relation to the state of mind.

The varying levels of deficiencies in the mind will go help them appreciate the conditions and work towards coming out of it. The communal life in the shelter will make it easy for them to be taught the basic, acceptable values in society. The discrimination directed towards them basing on such grounds will, therefore, be to a large extent reduced.

The establishment of shelters for the mentally challenged is essential in helping them improve and eventually overcome this state of mind. The shelters provide an almost perfect environment for the achievement of thus function.

They give these persons a sense of belonging, in addition to providing them with, an opportunity to learn societal values and norms. The acquisition of these kinds of education significantly helps in lowering of discrimination levels against them. The shelters are, therefore, critical to their mental and psychological state of mind.

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Ethics and Social Responsibility Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Why Businesses Should Operate in an Ethical Manner

Why Businesses Should Operate in a Socially Responsible Manner

Ethical and Social Responsibility Practices and Theories

Conclusion

References

Ethics and social responsibility play an important role in business management. Organizations, both public and private, feel the need to incorporate corporate responsibility in their organizational culture. Ethics deals with knowing what is wrong and what is right. Business ethics encompasses analyzing ethical decisions, beliefs, and actions inline with business activities. Organizations are expected to show ethical values and operate socially responsible.

The major issue is that business ethics integrates different sets of ethics. This is the reason as to why organizations should employ good individuals as workers. Social responsibility deals with business conduct in respect to the broader social values. It questions the duties of business to the entire society (Sims, 2003). In this light, this paper discusses the importance of ethics and social responsibility and various practices and theories employed in different organizations.

Why Businesses Should Operate in an Ethical Manner Businesses operate in such a way that their owners can realize some benefits. Business owners are also known as shareholders. Though, other stakeholders are part of critical components of decision making because businesses have to act in a liable and ethical manner and reflect on the potential effects of any choices made. Stakeholders such as dealers, customers, staff, owners, and communities are the integral part of business operations.

Customers, who are also citizens, require quality products which are affordable. Likewise, other stakeholders expect fair business engagements from organizations. Citizens need to know that right things are being done for the right reasons. This is because organizations target citizens in their plans for making profits and it is imperative that citizens observe the conduct of businesses in order to make the right choices (McNamara, 2010).

Knowing ethical and social norms help citizens to keep organizations in tandem with the society’s expectations. Businesses should work in a way that is lawful, beneficial, ethical, and inline with social commands (Johnson, n.d). Ethics in business enable organizations to maximize profits, utilize business resources, and create support in the market. Ethical values should command what is suitable to pay employees as well as to charge consumers.

An organization is therefore required to have a culture that enhances strong values. This will also attract good employees in the company. For example, companies strive to be included in the list of the top 100 firms in the United States issued frequently in Fortune magazine. The most common criteria used are analyzing profit sharing, bonuses, and stock markets. The list also incorporates policies and rewards that refer to work and enhance social responsibility (Griffin, 2008).

In the health sector, patients are supposed to trust physicians because hospitals are normally governed with good ethical conducts. This trust ensures that good medical care is offered to patients. Studies have found that trust is mostly related to patient satisfaction and therefore vital in selecting and applying treatment that is essential to patients (Thom

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Critical Research on “The idea on Latin America” by Walter Mignolo Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Critical analysis of “The idea of Latin America”

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Latin America is a part of America well known for its prevailing Latin languages, specifically the Spanish and Portuguese. It includes all the American regions formerly under the dominion of the Portuguese and Spain. All these regions depict similar socioeconomic backgrounds whose colonialism is either, formal or informal rather than cultural. The Latin America is thought to have emerged as early as 1830s, as posited by French people who claim that it was initially occupied by the Latin immigrants.

Then an idea arose that, based on the time of arrival of the Latin people to this part of America, the region should be favoring the Latin cultural practices more than any other group. It was postulated that that the chances of Latin Europe joining this regions on the expense of Teutonic Europe were high, an issue that was subject to discussion before it happened. This became now, ‘The idea of Latin America’, which is a public declaration, based on the economic geography of the powers of state.

This idea seeks the notion of Latin America, right from its European origin a few centuries ago, tracing its roots since then up to date. It shows the reason why the issues of the 19th centuries need to be damped to welcome new inventions.

“The idea of Latin America is a geopolitical manifesto that charts the history of the concept of Latin America, insisting on the need to leave behind an idea which belonged to the nation-building mentality of the 19th century Europe.” (Mignolo 78). This idea declares the century’s state of mind invalid and paves way to new ideas of the 20th century and the upcoming others.

This idea has triggered the minds of many, arousing the need to consider stories, which have been neglected. Mignolo, in his idea portrays the difference between Euro America and Latin America by pointing out the origin, state of economy and the insidiousness of the former. However, Mognolo’s work concerning this idea is subject to criticism, right from the topic. It is provocative and a probable attractor of racial discrimination originating from the Latin American region.

Critical analysis of “The idea of Latin America” Mignolo artistically chooses ‘The idea of Latin America’ as the principal topic of his book. He claims that the book is the basis of the imperial and colonial ‘notion’ of the Latin America. He shows how it will influence politics in relation to previous centuries and how this will give the present world a new shape. Building on this, the topic is quite provocative. It singles out one, on the expense of others, an issue that has served as a fuel to the prevailing conflicts.

People, in need of a change, cannot employ a topic that is liable of causing havoc. In addition, it is based on the assumptions that, exploitation is the root cause of the modern world. He uses Latin America as the one responsible of colonizing other countries in order to bring modernity. The results of colonialism are clear from the wars that people involved themselves in, in an effort to eradicate it. Therefore, it stands out that the topic is outdated and irrelevant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author has employed many assumptions in passing his claims. These render his works less accurate. Scientifically, they are, allowed but the few they are the more meaningful the research becomes. He posits that the future cannot be, achieved without capitalism. This is general and not well thought because many have arisen to disagree with this.

“The case for de-colonial global system, the system must be egalitarian and holistic in its approach. We have seen socialism fail and we have seen capitalism succeed in its self afflicted destruction…those who say there is no future without capitalism have been proven wrong…” (Quintero para 1). This response clearly addresses the issue of capitalism and is in contrast with Mignolo’s assumption.

Another argument arises in Mignolo’s use of the term ‘Colonialism’ without expounding on what it covers. Colonialism by itself is all, encompassing. It includes knowledge as well, a case that is highly controversial because once the knowledge is colonized, it blocks all the avenues of change and this calls for people to adhere with the present rules regardless of the impact it imposes on them. The author ought to have argued out this clearly not to cast doubts on the readers of his works.

The author goes on to include indigenous intellectual people in his works. He is entirely devoted to support them concerning the issue of Eurocentric and current/majestic intellectuals. These intellectuals have people they ought to represent from where they come.

The author does not take into account the probability that these people can fail to; appropriately stand in for their communities. He just assumes that this cannot be the case. In his complain about Occidentalism as the main issue behind the Latin Americans subaltern acquaintance, he does not take into account the impact of excluding them in his theory of colonization.

He wants to convince the reader that this is not of any significance, though in the real sense, it shows how the Latin America can be safe on the expense of the other countries, in case of any drawback from the theory. This then calls for clarification, failure to which an untimely catastrophe can erupt.

On the subject of knowledge, Mignolo points out the relationship between it and the modernity/ colonialism. He also mentions a change of the terms when developing theory concepts. By this, he wants to convince people that this will improve their efficiency. However, his intentions of locking the other countries that ought to benefit are clear.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Critical Research on “The idea on Latin America” by Walter Mignolo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The change in question is aimed at ensuring that the theories work well in some but not everywhere. According to him, they will be in favor of the Latin Americans. In his assumption that capitalism is a booster of modernity, he ought to consider the results. It goes hand in hand with industrialization, which the world is claiming will precede the third world war.

Conclusion Mignolo is taking people through the origin of the Latin America showing its connection to the western identity. It is depicted as a planned idea aimed at expanding the global capitalism, which on the other hand will bring a revolutionary shift, a mark of the cure of colonialism. Though driven by change, he fails to clarify its area of coverage as well as its impact to the entire word, and hence welcoming criticisms to his work.

Works Cited Mignolo, Walter. “The Idea of Latin America.” Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.

Quintero, Ramon. “The Idea of Latin America.” Word press: Blackwell, 2007.

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Mexican Politics, Culture and Drug Wars Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Politics

Culture

Drug wars

Conclusion

References

Introduction Mexico is a democratic country, whose democracy arose from the elections conducted in 2000, which brought about sharing of power in the government and a more transparent nation. Proliferation and forwarding of agendas by strong grassroots organizations to the forefront of political interests has rubbed the authorities the wrong way.

The democracy change increased the labor unions in the country. However, majority of these labor unions are co-opted by the government although the independent ones have become vigorous in protests.

Despite the welcoming news of a democratic state and transparent elections, more still needs to be done to straighten up the moral, political and social decay that have engulf the country. Corruption in institutions, weak judicial system, drug wars and the disparity between the rich and the poor are just but a few of the complex problems that are facing Mexico, and whose solutions are yet to be found. Moreover, social movements have arisen from strident voices that test the government’s commitment to change (Foster, 2010, p 241,242)

Foster suggested that political assassinations, uprisings, and high levels of corruptions are some of the factors that siphoned the country’s energy despite the country pushing for democracy (Foster, 2010, p 223).

Politics The 10-year civil war of Mexico that lasted from 1910 to 1920 is believed to be the key that opened up the doors to the new constitution of 1917. It is approximated that more than 2 million people died because of the war. New political structures were created and the birth of mestizo nation was delivered.

The revolution that started at that time destroyed feudalism as labor unions were created, and in addition to this, the revolution gave the people a sense of belonging and pride for their own culture which was referred to as mexicandad (Foster, 2010, p 161)

In the 1980s, the Mexican economy was contracting by 6% annually due to international debts. Upon negotiations, the Mexican government committed 53% o its federal budget to the repayment of the debt. This meant no economic growth was to be expected in Mexico in the following decades. The fallouts both politically and socially were enormous; indeed, this period is stated to be the most demoralizing period in Mexican history as majority of Mexicans suffered due to increase to food prices (Foster, 2010, p 215)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The PRI party had been the ruling party and in 1988, it faced its first challenge politically from Carlos Salinas de Gortari. The country during that time was facing recession and the IMF due to repayments of debts undertook its fortunes. Support for the PRI party decreased from populist groups as clamor for democracy went a notch higher and criticisms mounted by the public on PRI took toll when one key member o//74f the party abandons the party. PRI party later won the presidency amid calls of rigging (Foster, 2010, p 223-224).

The first president who was not a member of PRI was elected in July 2, 2000 in an election that was termed as a transparent and democratic. The PRI members cried foul as they fought amongst themselves. The results were declared as Mexico’s victory as they ushered in democracy in Mexico. Although the PRI party had been defeated, it was thanks to the combined efforts of the opposition parties (Foster, 2010, p 242)

The politics of Mexico however have been clouded by corruption brought about by the drug cartels. Raul Salinas, the brother to the former president of Mexico is said to have been arrested because of his participation in the covering up of Ruiz Massieu’s murder. His access to his brother made many to believe that the president was involved in one way or the other. This just indicated how far the levels of corruption could spread within the Mexican politics (Kirkwood, 2010, p 202)

Culture The aesthetic realm and the culture in politics are the two cultural complexes that attract foreigners to Mexico. The philosophers and the intellectuals of the nineteenth century were obsessed with the fascinating combination of barbarism and civilization (Henderson, Joseph, 2002, p1).

According to Joseph and Henderson, the murals painted on walls of public ministries and the evocative woodcuts of Posada, were all a powerful appeal to tourists (Henderson, Joseph, 2002, p2). Mexico being an extraordinary and unique country has the potential of shedding light on major problems facing it as a developing country once its culture, history, and politics have been examined (Henderson, Joseph, 2002, p4).

The Spaniard are said to have introduced new races in Mexico in the course of their colonization. An example of these races was the usage of the Blacks and the Indians to create a race. This mixture of races contradicted the ultimate goals of history of attaining cultures and fusion of people. Joseph and Henderson continue to state that by constructing an English world and doing away with the Indians to have a Northern Europe filled with Whites is one way of combating race (Henderson, Joseph, 2002, p17).

Religious cultures and cults are also part of the Mexican way of living. It stated that any Mexican Catholic is focused on the cult of the virgin of Guadalupe. The symbolic meaning this conquest of the two gods meant indicated to the faithful that they should return to their ancient feminine deities (Henderson, Joseph, 2002, p24, 25).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Mexican Politics, Culture and Drug Wars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Westernization of the Indians was termed as contradictory. This is because a clear line had to be drawn between the colonized and the colonizers. The colonial domination would have ceased to be if the Indians were to be fully incorporated into westernization; indeed, difference and segregation are termed as the basics of colonization.

In the nineteenth century, the birth of an independent Mexico state was directed along the path of civilization. Moreover, the independent nation was culturally homogenous when it was conceived (Henderson, Joseph, 2002, p30).

At the end of the Revolution, the new political leaders sought ways of unifying the various ethnic groups of Mexico into a national project. In Mexico, ethnicity is basically defined by the culture and not biological; by use of linguistic it has been found that there is approximately 60 different Indian ethnic groups in Mexico thus making their incorporation difficult (Buffington, Pasztor, Coerver, 2004, p17).

Drug wars Drug trafficking has been a hot topic in Mexico both domestically and internationally. Although the drug trafficking was a problem in the twentieth century, it escalated even more in the twenty-first century. It is stated that as early as the 1920s, some Mexican workers located southwest in U.S. were associated with the use of marijuana.

In addition to this, Mexico produced heroin and was shipment point for other drugs. U.S. drug agents were said to be operating in Mexico informally from as early as 1940s, while growing demand of drugs in the U.S. escalated the drug trafficking in1960s thus causing a concern to Mexico both internationally and domestically. In the long run, the drug trafficking complicated issues like trade and immigration.

The “operation intercept” that was a detail inspection conducted by the U.S. officials on vehicles crossing the international boundary resulted into chaos thus forcing the Mexican government to resolve to a permanent war on drugs. Despite efforts put in place by both the U.S and Mexican governments, the drug trade thrived in the 1980s (Buffington, Pasztor, Coerver, 2004, p145).

Increase in consumption of drugs in Mexico and drug related corruption in the law enforcement and political scenes led the country in the verge of being branded a “narco state.” The drug trade took a completely new level with the death of cardinal Ocampo in1993, who had condemned the drug trade and the assassination of Colosio, the presidency candidate of the official party, in1994.

Involvement of key political persons in drug trafficking was evident in the investigation of Raul Salinas: the older brother of the former president of Mexico Carlos Salina. The investigation upon conclusion in 1998 indicated that part of the money owed by Raul was associated with drug pay-offs (Buffington, Pasztor, Coerver, 2004, p146, 147)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mexican Politics, Culture and Drug Wars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Military involvement in curbing the drug trafficking has not yield much success as incidents of bribe taking are evident. Optimistic officials both in the U.S. and in Mexico concur that the war on drugs is far from being won. This is due to the shifting of bases and routes by the drug cartels resulting from pressure from the authorities. One thing that is clear is that drug trafficking will continue to be a menace even in the twenty-first century (Buffington, Pasztor, Coerver, 2004, p 147)

Kirkwood indicates that violence in the state of Durango has escalated and murder has increased, with 235 murders reported between January and May the year 2009. The fighting between the various drug cartels caused these murders and violence.

However, the alarming issue is that the federals that are entitled with the responsibility of curbing this menace are having a life span of six months before they are corrupted by the drug cartels. The level of corruption is evident from the arrests conducted in May 2009 of 27 government officials, a police chief, 10 mayors, a judge, and a former police chief.

Power, influence, and resources are some of the factors that drug cartels have over authorities, which is evident from the escapes that have been propagated by the drug cartels. The astonishing issue is that the drug trade has penetrated the Catholic Church with allegations of donations offered to the church by the drug lords. Indeed, legalizing of some drugs e.g. marijuana is been considered in order to curb drug trafficking (Kirkwood, 2010, p 217, 218)

During the presidency of Fox, efforts of addressing the escalating drug production were stepped up and the number of arrests associated with drugs escalated.

It is approximated that about 50,000 arrests were conducted as the authorities also destroyed marijuana fields in a bid to curb the drug trade. However, the government also faced embarrassing moments with the news of the drug cartels leaders escaping from jail. In response to the government’s measures of curbing the drug, trade the drug cartels mounted escalating violence throughout the country.

In the year 2008, 6,300 people were said to have been murdered by drug related violence. In Ciudad, the situation has been termed as bloody as a record of 1,600 people was murdered in this city alone in the year 2008. In the year 2009, the violence had escalated as 2,300 Mexicans had been murdered as of May (Kirkwood, 2010, p 216)

On assuming office in 2006, president Calderon aggressively responded towards the drug struggle, with about 45,000 troops being employed to deal with this menace. In the bloody Ciudad, 8,000 troops were deployed to tackle the city’s drug trade. The policies of the Calderon government in fighting the drug trade earned him assistance from the then Bush government that offered $1.4 billion to aid in efforts of combating drug trade (Kirkwood, 2010, p 216)

Conclusion At the commencement of the second decade of the 21 century, the Mexican government faces numerous issues from all fronts. The main attention has been on combating the drug trafficking issue. Critics suggest that government attempts have failed in eradicating the drug war. In political scene, Mexico is striving to create a transparent democratic process since the obstacles surrounding the 1988 elections. Forward strides for a democratic process were marked in the 2000 presidential elections as it was marked as a political transition.

The 2006 elections appeals by Lopez Obrador were indications of the long journey a head before Mexico can become fully democratic. The 2000 presidential elections saw a candidate not from the PRI party win, mainly because of collective support from the opposition to oust the PRI from power. The elections were termed as transparent and democratic thus bringing a new dimension to the Mexican politics.

The indigenous cultural values of the communities in Mexico have been transformed by westernization culture to modern values. However, some of the cultural values like art have been maintained despite the change to modern cultural values. In addition to this, religious cultures e.g. the cult of the virgin of Guadalupe are still significant to the modern Mexico. It is suggested that some of the tourist attractions to Mexico are the murals painted on the walls of public ministries.

Politics and social decays like drug trafficking are two different entities that should be separated for the common good of Mexico. In addition to this, the penetration of the drug money to the Catholic Church is a situation that is not helping but instead justifying the existence of drug trafficking.

However, tackling the drug menace will mean better future in the politics and economy of Mexico that has been engulfed by the drug trafficking situation. The culture of moral decay that had been brought about by the drug menace will also cease to exist, thus liberating Mexico.

References Coerver, M. D., Pasztor, B.S, and Buffington, R. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. Web.

Foster, V. L. (2010). A Brief History of Mexico. Web.

Joseph. M. G, and Henderson, J. T. (2002). The Mexico reader: History, Culture, Politics. Web.

Kirkwood, B. (2010). The History of Mexico. Web.

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The case of PBC pollution in Hudson River Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The case of PCB Pollution in Hudson

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction PCB-Polychlorinated Biphenyls was a commonly used material in most industrial processes in the early 20th century until it was banned by the federal government in 1977. These materials have been known to cause cancer, reproductive, and developmental disorders when ingested by human beings. Cases of pollution in the Hudson River provide examples of a dispute arising between environmentalist and public utility corporations.

In the early 60s, the Consolidated Edison Company, a power generating plant that supplies power to the New York City was confronted by stiff oppositions from environmental groups. The Company had started constructing new power generating plants along the River Hudson. The environmental groups criticized the move as they argued that the power plants were harming aquatic life as well as causing aesthetic damage to the less developed areas of Hudson (Weisbrod, Handler and Komesor, 1978).

Environmental groups filed law suits in attempt to stop the plans by the company to build a pumped storage facility in the region. The environmental groups actions were intensified when Con Edison begun a project to build a nuclear plant at Indian point (Weisbrod, Handler, and Komesor, 1978). Some of them, solely concerned with aquatic life, asked the firm to minimize its environmental pollution. They succeeded to a significant degree.

The environmental groups concerned with the nuclear energy production required the firm to close down but did not succeed. This failure led to the need for environmental groups to integrate and fight for a common purpose which was environmental preservation. Their efforts were further promoted by passage of the national environmental policy act of 1969 that saw most of the barriers that hindered effective advocacy of environmental interests significantly diminished.

The case of PCB Pollution in Hudson From 1947-1977, a company known as General Electric dumped PCB into Hudson river and for years it fought against every attempt to clean up the river with every possible mechanism at their disposal. This included misinforming the public that dredging the river as a means to remove the PCBs would only stir up the toxic materials causing further damage (Natural resource defense council 2007).

By 2002, General Electric had dumped approximately 1.3 million pounds of the toxic PCB in Hudson River (NRDC, 2010). Presently, it is believed that traces of PCBs from GE’s Hudson fall plants are still leaking into the river. The company is responsible for the pollution it has caused under the Super fund law.

General Electric was ordered to create a plan to remove the toxic materials from the river by EPA- environmental protection agency. This provided a glimpse of hope as the concerns of the local people appeared to have triumphed over corporate interests. The fight to remove toxic PCB materials from the Hudson River had been taken over by modern institutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however lasted for only a short time as the project by EPA was blurred with uncertainties. EPA and GE made a settlement that allowed GE to back out after the first phase of cleaning having removed only about 10% of the PCB materials from the river (NRDC, 2010). This attracted a lot of criticisms from the environmental movements.

Natural resource defense council, quickly responded to the move and through the freedom information act, they obtained the detailed information bases of the move consequently filing a case against EPA.

Despite this controversy, the EPA-GE agreement was signed off in 2006 under the influence of top federal officials (Natural resource defense council, 2007). Although GE has begun preparatory plans for cleaning, it continues to look for loopholes to sue EPA over its authority requiring the company to proceed with the phase 2 of the cleaning.

This would impose a heavy burden to the American tax payer who will have to foot the bill to clean up the mess that was created by GE (Natural resource defense council, 2007). NRDC and its partners however continue to monitor the situation and are prepared to take all the necessary steps required to ensure that GE takes full responsibility for the clean up.

Other organizations that are commonly known for their participation in the Hudson River preservation include the Hudson River Sloop clear water. The organization mission is to inspire, educate, and activate the environmentalists of tomorrow (Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, 2010). The organization started its activities in 1969 and on that year launched a 106 foot heritage vessel to transmit environmental message along the Hudson River.

River keeper environmental organization also participates in issues concerned with Hudson River. Its core mission is ecological integrity of the Hudson River and its tributaries. Scenic Hudson organization aims to protect and restore river Hudson landscape as a national heritage and a great tourist attraction (Hudson River sloop clear water, 2010). They are known for saving the mount Storm King Mountain from destruction by Consolidated Edison Company.

When the analysis of the first phase cleaning up was conducted by EPA; the environmental groups submitted their reports and proposed several technical adjustments to ensure they achieve the goal in the next phase of cleaning up. These included banning decantation of water from the dredge bucket which allows the flow of PCB back to the river and using alternative dredging mechanisms to minimize the quantities of sediments stirred up in the water column.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The case of PBC pollution in Hudson River specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also suggested the addition of a surface absorbent mat to contaminated booms, enhanced capacity to unload barges carrying dredged sediment and advocated for additional core sampling in order to more effectively assess the extent of contamination (Hudson River sloop clear water, 2010).

The president of Scenic Hudson suggested that public war of words and competing theories of completion of clean up would not help them successfully achieve their purpose. Instead, the environmental groups needed to come up with a consensus that ensured compliance with USEPA 2002 record decision of completion (River Sloop Clear Water, 2010).

Conclusion Cleaning up PCB from the river is beneficial since it will not only improve the health standards of the people but will also provide expanded economic opportunities to the people living along the River. The government and the general public should therefore work together with the Environmental groups to ensure that the company takes full responsibility for its actions.

Reference List Hudson River Sloop water. (2010). Environmental Groups to EPA: Reasonable adjustments will ensure PCB Clean up success. Web.

Natural resources defense council. (2010). Historic Hudson River clean-up to begin after years of delay, But will general Electric finish the job? Web.

Weisbrod, B. A, Handler, J. F.

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“Cutting Roadside Tree”: Engineering and Construction for Road Safety: A Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

In the fast paced modern life, it had become almost equally complex to maintain road safety. Engineers and other authorities have come across many issues regarding safety of county roads. Similar case that had been analyzed in this paper is about the Verdant Country Commission (VCRC). This paper is a case analysis recommending some of the engineering and construction techniques that would help engineers regarding road safety.

Case Presentation The Forest drive had recently became the centre of attraction as the Verdant County’s population had been observed to be increasing rapidly. The increase in the population had been observed to be 30% in the past ten years according to the Verdant population statistics. The increase in population had automatically increased the levels of issue regarding road safety.

Traffic had been considerably increasing that is directly proportional to the increase in population of Verdant County. Forest Drive had thus become one of the main roads that transfer the heavy traffic towards industrialized city of Verdant (Online Ethics).

Verdant County Road Commission had assigned the responsibility to Kevin Clearing to solve the problem of Forest Drive as soon as possible. The urgency to go about the problem is due to the increasing accidents by cars and incidents of wreckage of cars due to the lush green forests by road sides (Online Ethics).

Analysis Previously it had been noted that Mr. Kevin Clearings had proposed the plan to cut down the trees alongside the road because the roads had become quite small in width. At first the plan by Kevin Clearings were accepted by the company but due to the admission of law suit by citizen environmental group, his plan had been questioned by both media and VCRC. The citizen environmental group had come up with petition signed by 150 citizens along with the protests that had been news from quite a long time (Online Ethics).

Many media persons and other social workers had claimed that it is due to the carelessness of the drivers that the roads are now being considered as small in width. The opposing groups have been claiming that VCRC must make sure that the driving rules and speed is being checked by the authorities rather than suggesting the cut down of trees which would be decline for natural habitat (National Academy of Engineering)

It is clear from the above noted case that the problem will continue to grow until or unless the trees are not being cut down. It is suggested that Kevin Clearings make use of the civil engineering theories that recommend engineers to keep a saturation flow values in situations such as Forest Drive in the chosen case.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The traffic in 3.5 meter wide road needs mapping that would allow landscaping as well as activities of pedestrians. It is also to be made sure by planning of Kevin Clearing that he considers the prospects of driving rules and regulations (Turner and Haraharp). The county governing authorities must file law suits against the drivers and not just amount as a fine.

The mapping and modeling of Forest Drive must undertake accurate saturation flow values to manage the increasing Verdant traffic. The citizen environment group also needs to understand that the road safety is far more important than the safety of animals and habitants. The cutting of trees could easily be replaced with landscaping which could be considered in the new modeling of Forest Drive.

Works Cited National Academy of Engineering. “John B. Dilworth’s Commentary on “Cutting Roadside Trees”” 8/17/2006 National Academy of Engineering” 17 August 2006. Online Ethics Resources. Web.

Online Ethics. “Cutting Roadside Trees.” 2005. Online Ethics. Web.

Turner, J and Haraharp. G. Simplified Saturation Flow Data Collection Methods. Berkshire: Department of International Development, 1993.

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The Ten Commandments versus the Five Pillars of Islam Research Paper essay help

Similarities The Commandments and Pillars of Islam form the foundation of the Christian and Islamic faiths respectively. These are set rules that present the blue print of what a Muslim and a Christian have to do in their contact with the Creator and fellow humans.

The contravention of these superlative laws is considered a sin that one has to seek deliverance from the Supreme Being, thus the call for an individual to acknowledge the dogma presented by the law. It is thus noted that these laws are restricted in the Holy Books of these two religions that is to say the Bible and the Quran. The denying of any one of the five pillars of Islam deliberately is grave and leads to unswerving excommunication from the religion.

The commandments and pillars are comparable in some ways as regards to the affiliation of man to man and man to God. However, some sharp differences also emerge as regards to these supreme religious rules governing the Islamic and Christian faiths. In as much as Islam and Christianity are distinctively dissimilar, they exude similar tendencies that govern relations among the faithful.

The initial pillar of Islam reckons faith in the existence of one superlative God referred to as Allah; consequently, it attaches importance to the presence and roles of Prophet Muhammad (Voorst 323). This implies that any individual professing the Muslim faith should hold belief in only Allah and no other supreme being.

Furthermore, the Muslims should pursue the teachings of the Prophet since Muhammad was Allah’s messenger and proclaimed applicable information from the superlative Being. The profession of this pillar forms the foundation of the connection between Muslim and Allah and under no grounds shall it challenged by any person professing comparable or dissimilar faith.

A telling comparison is drawn connecting the first pillar of Islam and the first two commandments as illustrated by Christianity. These commandments preside over the affiliation between God and man. The primary directive states that man shall not have any other god before Him (God). This commandment is inflexible and forms the basis of the faith of the Christians in the continuation and existence of one God.

The second commandment puts prominence on this by prohibiting the making of any article in the semblance of God and paying reverence to it. This law puts importance on the oneness of God and the ideology that only He should be worshipped. This is in line with the Islamic principle in the existence one superlative Being, Allah. The respect for the oneness of Allah is thus drawn across the different populations and religion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next pillar of Islam places a distinct importance on the art of prayer which is referred to as Salat thus applies to significant proportions of Muslims. These are five requisite prayers that are led by a person with the knowledge of the Quran. The prayers are said at dawn otherwise known as subh or noon, otherwise known as zuhr, mid-afternoon, otherwise known as asr, sunset, otherwise known as magrib and nightfall preferably in a mosque.

However, the prayers can be recited anyplace individually or as a group as long as due religious procedure is followed. These involve acts of episodic postures as illustrated by standing; furthermore, bowing, and prostrating during entreaty and facing a definite direction, known as qibla. The prayers engage reciting verses from the Quran as well as other prayer principles. The pillar also provides the Friday noon congregational prayers at the mosque where sermons herald the prayers.

The fourth commandment calls for human beings to repute the Sabbath day and ordain it for the worship of God. He thus demands that the very last day of the week be set aside for reverence in tandem with how he created the universe. The Lord further emphasizes on the relevance of this commandment to everybody. This is similar to the Islam version of the art of prayer which prescribes times throughout the week for the worship of Allah that also applies to all Muslims.

The third pillar of Islam establishes an unswerving association between man and fellow man with Allah playing a 3rd party but an all imperative role. This pillar provides course of action to the act of giving what Allah has blessed an individual as a form of spiritual investment. This act of obligatory charity by all who profess the Islamic devotion is called Zakah. It is applied on the net proceeds of a person after all deductions.

In most Islamic communities, it stands at a tenth of the proceeds and one-fortieth of twelve-monthly assets accumulated. In addition to that, enthusiastic Muslims can also pay sadaqa which is not obligatory as such. The funds collected as Zakah and sadaqa goes towards supporting the deprived, disadvantaged, novel concerts, employees, Muslims in liability and those involved in disciple work. This is a direct relationship between man and man with Allah’s indirect involvement.

The sixth, eighth, ninth and tenth commandments evidently specify the conscientiousness of the Christians to fellow human beings including non Christians. The sixth commandment proscribes Christians from committing acts of execution. It is to guide Christians in their dealings with one another with regard to the fortification life. The eighth commandment prohibits pilfering someone else of possessions.

This commandment is also indispensable in governing relationships between men, with God playing an oversight rule. It gives liability to humans regarding their neighbor’s assets. The ninth commandment opposes the bearing of false witness against neighbors. This is a communal compulsion that God bestows upon the Christians, and it guides their dealings with reverence to Him. It is thus noted that the last commandment asserts that:

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Ten Commandments versus the Five Pillars of Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s (The Ten Commandments, Para 10).”

This commandment plays a significant position in dictating the every day relations in the midst of the Christian brothers and sisters. It provides a central benchmark for interactions amid the different classes of people.

The third pillar of Islam and these commandments are intertwined in governing the affiliation between humans with the Supreme Being playing the role of an overseer. He is not directly involved in these human relations, but at the end of it, he determines the entire process. All the reverence goes to God or Allah since He sets the rules governing the relations and liability towards fellow humans.

Differences Despite all these concurrences among the Pillars of Islam and the Ten Commandments, there are more than a few departure points between these two sets of guiding rules. These differences account for the varying sacred schools of thoughts in these two religions. The differences lie in the finer details that are expressed by the Pillars and Commandments with regard to different religious perceptions.

The second commandment indicates that:

“You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath…. Am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and generations … (The Ten Commandments, paragraph 2).”

In this case, there is the talk about of heaven, which is God’s aboard and earth where man lives. This clearly depicts the limitations involving man and God in terms of their habitats. Furthermore, it shows an unswerving affiliation between God and man. God thus directly addresses the Christian faithful and instructs them on what to do in their association with Him.

However, in the Islamic Pillars, there are no cases in point among all the Pillars that Allah directly addresses the Muslim faithful. Furthermore, the instances where He also directly warns them against going against His commandments are absent.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ten Commandments versus the Five Pillars of Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More so, the penalties of going against the directives of Islam tend to vary amongst dissimilar Muslims for the reason that they are not divinely stated. The Islamic Pillars are thus based on the knowledge of the Prophet Muhammad who was Allah’s messenger thus making the Muslims consider them.

The fourth Pillar talks about fasting as an approach towards showing genuine adoration and loyalty to Allah. Compulsory fasting is undertaken once a year for about 40 days during the consecrated month of Ramadhan. During this phase, all Muslims who are psychologically and bodily sound abstain from consumption and sexual links from dawn to dusk.

Psychologically and bodily unfit people plus women undergoing their periods or nurturing babies are exempted from the fasting. The fifth pillar demands that each person professing the Islamic faith has to make a trip to Mecca at slightest once in their existence. In addition to showing adoration for Allah, it also shows dedication to the Islamic faith.

In Christianity, the adoration for God is depicted through worshipping Him solitarily. He clearly directs in the second commandment that He is an envious God who will let loose his wrath on whosoever endeavors to revere other gods. The 4th commandment demands that Christians tribute their parents in order to enjoy longevity and associated benefits. This implies that works of kindness from the God is gained from apt associations with affiliate human beings.

The contrast with Islam is that, in Christianity, it is the routine things that are done in association with God and fellow humans that show the depth of our faith. However in Islam, the dedication of one to the faith and to Allah is shown by sacred activities undertaken outside the habitual forms of worship. These incorporate fasting throughout the consecrated month of Ramadhan and making the journey to Mecca, in accordance with the final pillars of Islam. This provides the critical appraisal for a devoted Muslim in their fervor in Islam.

The Ten Commandments orbit around the association between man and fellow man compounded with man and God. The first four Commandments unconditionally states how the affiliation between Christians and God should be propagated.

The initial directive emphasizes on the oneness of God while the second one puts emphasis on this by prohibiting the worship of other gods (Fisher

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A Criticism of the Asch Conformity Experiment Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Findings

Criticisms of the Asch experiment

Conclusion

References

Abstract The ability of a single individual to influence the decision making structure of many has been in play for centuries past. The name given to this influence by various scholars and psychologists is peer/group pressure. The term refers to the situation whereby the voice of an individual affects the decisions made by others within a given group.

In the 1950s, a famous psychologist Solomon Asch conducted an experiment geared towards determining the extent to which pressure from a dominant individual affected the decisions made by other participants. In this critical analysis of the experiment, we shall focus on the various assumptions that surrounded the experiment.

Through the use of relevant literature, a detailed evaluation of the experiment shall be provided to validate or dismiss the conclusions reached through the Asch’s conformity experiment.

Introduction The study of individual conformity as a result of peer pressure has been in existence for many centuries but has only gained prominence in recent times. This can mostly to the experiment carried out in the 1950s by the famous psychologist Solomon Asch. The aim of this experiment was to gather valuable data pertaining to the reasons behind any act and behavior that was portrayed as a result of peer pressure (British Psychological Society, 2006).

The psychologist managed to do this by conducting interviews and studying a group of test subjects. The participants included seven confederate and one study subject. They were seated around a table such that they could not be suspicious. The participants were asked a series of simple questions and were expected to answer them aloud. These simple questioned would help the psychologist ascertain how group pressure influenced the answers provided by the subjects.

Findings The results of the experiment were very interesting. They showed that the answers given could to a significant percentage be influenced by peer pressure. The participants that were not subjected to peer-pressure gave the correct answers to all but one question. On the other hand the participants surrounded by the people giving wrong answers, invariably gave more wrong answers.

Brain (2000) claims that at least 75% of the participants gave the wrong answer to at least one question. In as much as this would have been ruled out as an experimental error, it was enough to declare that peer pressure indeed can lead to conformity among groups. In summary, the experiment proved that one voice can undoubtedly influence other people into conformity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Criticisms of the Asch experiment Despite the progress made, there were criticisms directed towards the experiment. The first criticism was based on the age of the participants which reflected their level of experience in life related matters. As regarding to the experiment, the participants were all male subjects. In addition to this, they were all considerably young.

Critics under this argument state that older participants would have provided better findings since they are more mature and have experienced different life situations. These accompanied by the fact that older people have more mental strength meant that they could have held to their convictions as regarding to what they believed was the true answers to the questions provided (Weiten, 2009).

In addition to this, the participants were undergraduates and therefore more intelligent than the target population. This may have had an effect on the results. According to recent studies, women have been seen to be more conformist than their male counterparts. In addition to this, the experiment was conducted on American subjects.

However, there is documented (Eysenck, 2004) proof that individuals from collectivistic cultures (Africans) are more likely to conform than their counterparts from individualistic cultures (Americans). These factors shows that the results of the experiment were not conclusive as they overlooked other variables as mentioned above.

According to Hill (2001) the Asch conformity experiment had no ecological underpinnings. This simply means that the experiment and the findings could not apply in most real life situations. This is because the environment under which the experiment was conducted was controlled and there was no room for influence from other factors such as emotions, morals and personal perception.

Further on, the experiment was disregarded by the findings of concurrent experiments which showed that the level of conformity was minimal if the participants wrote down their answers. The findings revealed that the satisfaction of being anonymous reduced the fear of being judged thereby making peer pressure invalid.

Wren (1999) articulates that the experiments were done in the fifties. As such, experiments conducted in recent times cannot yield the same results. The author attributes his opinion to the fact that conformity was more prevalent in the fifties. During this period, McCarthyism was widespread and the educational system followed a strict chain of command. This is so different from today’s society where people exercise their rights and are less ignorant.

We will write a custom Research Paper on A Criticism of the Asch Conformity Experiment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the proponents of the Asch experiment argue that unlike the sherif’s experiment conducted in 1935 was indefinite and can therefore be termed as the true test of conformity. In addition, they claim that the patterns utilized during the experiments have been used in other experiments and the experiment can therefore be termed as the ultimate guideline for doing further studies on conformity.

Conclusion Group pressure has been seen as the most prevalent cause of social problems because it leads to group think. This simply means that individuals feel obligated to agree to a dominant decision within a group. This leads to a situation whereby other opinions are suppressed and alternative solutions are not fully analyzed.

The Asch experiment tried to determine the extent to which this is true. However, flaws and benefits have been documented as regarding to the validity of his experiment towards the research and studies of conformity. If the flaws are addressed and the benefits utilized, the experiment will remain to be the foundation of other studies not only at present times but also in future studies.

References Brain, C. (2000). Advanced subsidiary psychology: approaches and methods. USA: Nelson Thornes.

British Psychological Society. (2006). The Psychologist. Britain: British Psychological Society.

Eysenck, T. (2004). Psychology: An International Perspective. USA: Taylor

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Social essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Today, the mass media plays a fundamental role in not only forming and reflecting the needs and opinions of people, but also connecting diverse perspectives to individuals and reproducing the self-image of society (Crowley, 2006).

When these roles are played back to the past, it is evidently clear that the ‘book’ as the first mass medium instituted some major transformations whose effects helped shape society in ways that inarguably influences our very own thought systems, values, and attitudes. It is the purpose of this paper to evaluate some of the social and historical transformations caused by the book as the first mass medium.

While it is known that the Sumerians were the first to write using words about five thousand years ago, and the codex – a traditional modern form of the book – has been around for about nineteen hundred years, the first known book not written by hand originated from China just around the ninth century AD (A History of the Book, n.d.). Later day technologies have enabled the ‘book’ to be mass-produced and mass-read using various formats and, currently, the convergence of technology has enabled people to read books online.

On the social front, the ‘book’ has caused many transformations, especially in availing a medium through which people from diverse cultural backgrounds could read books to share knowledge and improve their literacy levels (Crowley, 2006).

The adage ‘information is power’ has been well documented over the years, and the ‘book’ served well as the first mass medium to disperse knowledge to individuals across diverse geographic locations, thus giving them the power to not only make informed decisions and take control of their lives, but also to have a reference point through which they could effectively find solutions to the everyday problems. This is inline with the fundamental tenets of any form of mass medium.

The book, through the reproduction and distribution of standardized knowledge, can also be credited for initializing social coordination (Crowley, 2006).

To reinforce this point, books allowed people and societies to use standardized ways and procedures of doing things that had been developed by ancient thinkers through objective and elaborate means, and therefore instituted social coordination. Also, books brought into the fore the aura of enjoyment and excitement, especially to ardent book readers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the historical front, it is clear that the discovery of the book as the first mass medium led to the storage and transfer of knowledge that clearly informed the decisions made by political leaders, religious leaders and philosophers of that time. According to Frost (1998), “…sectarians in north and eastern Africa adopted the codex book as a medium for their literature as is exemplified by the fourth century Gnostic books found at Nag Hammadi” (para. 2).

The knowledge that the codex was also principally used by early missionaries and other sectarians to disperse the Christian teachings in areas such as the Balkan Peninsula, Africa, and Asia Minor has also been well documented. This lead to great historical transformations, which saw multitudes of people convert to the Christian doctrine and profess its faith, not because of what could be seen in the physical realm, but because of what was contained in the book (Frost, 1998).

Visionary leaders of the past have projected diverse political and social orientations that are unified by what these readers read in the books rather than their own personal perceptions and viewpoints (Frost, 1998).

For instance, it can be argued that traditional Russian political leaders such as Joseph Stalin and others were very much influenced by the writings of Karl Marx to an extent that they saw the establishment of a socialist state as the only true way to govern the populace. To date, such historical transformations still influence the political thinking of Russian leaders and the general population. As such, it can be safely concluded that the ‘book’ as the first mass medium caused profound social and historical transformations.

Reference List A History of the Book. (n.d.). Web.

Crowley, D. (2007). Communication in History: Technology, Culture, Society 5th Ed. London: Allyn

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Competition in Economics Term Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Perfect Competition

Monopolistic Competition

Oligopoly

Monopoly

Conclusion

Works Cited

In economics, the term competition refers to buyers and sellers striving for a bigger share in the market. Individuals and firms have some interest in the products and services within a market structure. Because of the differing levels of competition in the market, different market structures emerge with varying effects in the market.

Thus, Firms have to know not only about costs, but also about revenues when they make pricing and output decisions (Maurice

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Aspects of the Male Divine in Contemporary Culture Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Definition of the Male Divine

Origin of the Male Divine

Male Vs Female Divine

Article Overview

Conclusion

References

Introduction The aspect of gender difference has been a major debate since the historical age. Both the cultural and biological differences between female and male has a strong basis on the physical factors that determine appearance as opposed to personality.

The term “Sex” may have a projection towards the biological make-up, but the term genders has a stronger analysis of extra personal traits influencing character and behaviour. It is possible to superimpose different traits of personality and behaviour. Historically one of the characters imposed on men included leadership abilities.

They were strong and powerful family heads and breadwinners. Contrary, female were adored aspects that related to fertility, motherhood and gentleness. The emphasis on the female structural as well as character appearance has a basis on an attractive image and femininity. Arguably, these clear traits defining gender differences present the difference between the male and female divine in the contemporary culture.

Definition of the Male Divine The male Divine in the contemporary culture has various masks. The title has a strong back up of clear mythic narratives that present their responsibilities Leonard and McClure (2004). The Christian perspective presents the male Divine as a sacrifice for the rebirth of humanity through the creator. He is a companion of other earthly goddesses (Wildrick et al, 2008).

Origin of the Male Divine Various myths from diverse cultures define the origin and existence of the gods. Good examples include the pre-historical cave paintings or the baffling Jewish mythology known as Kabbalah. The ancient India had Vedas while the northern America had tales of Sioux. He also appeared as the sorcerer of the Cherokee Indians. The male divine additionally appears as Loki the trickster of the Norse people, Legba among the Yoruba’s of Africa and Krishna among Indian believers.

The Neolithic age brought about the rise of agriculture among settlements that had a choice of specialities especially for the role of male and female. They was various tales specifying roles of the male divine for instance, the Orisis who played husband to Isis, Baal among the Canaanites as indicated in Christians’ holy book, the bible and the Wiyot among the Indians (Wildrick et al, 2008).

Male Vs Female Divine Various tales therefore link the male god to the sky and portray him as the real comrade of the earthly goddess. The Iron god was more aggressive and thus separated from the Goddess to become the King god, Zeus. According to (Wildrick et al, 2008), arguably the divine is beyond gender, therefore cultural, religious and personal believes present the Supreme being as neither god or goddess, there is more clarity over the need for understanding the unified state of affairs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Article Overview Zeus in the Greek mythology represents stories of the gods and heroes. It is a clear presentation of the nature of the world, origin and connotation of rituals and cultural practices. The mythical Greek culture has a strong basis on narratives and artistic representations in an attempt to explain in details, the subsistence and escapades of gods.

The Greek literature presents myths in poetic forms accounting for the origin of practices. Artefacts are equally a good source of archaeological information concerning evidence and details of the Greek mythology (Wildrick et al, 2008). The common Gods and heroes feature thus prominently in such decorations.

Conclusion Zeus also comes out clearly as the main ruler of all the other existing Greek gods. He is responsible for the weather conditions, maintains order and ensures justified governance. In line with Karas, (2010), Zeus presented power to settle disagreements especially among the other existing gods. According to the Greek record, Zeus had other gods connected to him such as Hephaestus, Hermes, Apollo and Ares who were the sons while Hades and Poseidon were the brothers.

References Karas, B. (2010). Young Zeus. New York, NY: Scholastic Publishers. Print.

Leonard, S. A. and McClure, M. (2004). Myth and knowing: An introduction to world mythology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishers. Print.

Wildrick, Annabel and Appleseeds. (2008). The Busy Lives of Gods. 10997725, Vol. 11, Issue 2

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Comparing Gods and Goddesses Report (Assessment) essay help free

Introduction There is a very close link between the Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. However, there are various diversifications, evident on the Roman culture. The gods and goddesses of a given society portray the cultural image of that social setting, and cultural rule. According to Karas (2010), the gods of war exist in societies that reward good fighters thus emphasizing the value of fighting.

America is a patriotic country and this is easy to note because of the leadership style, which emphasize on the value of patriotism. The Greek and Roman mythology are some of the strongest establishments of the western cultures. They influence current styles of governance, ethics/morals, poetry, literature, and commitment patterns. The gods and goddesses from the two cultures present more humane aspects that were easier to deal with especially among the Greek and roman societies.

Elements and functions of gods and goddess myths The Greek mythology present living things as gods and goddesses with basic human characteristics but having some supernatural supremacy that humans adore. The other representation is that of creatures. These gods presents the animals or monster resemblances. Lastly are the heroes who have a closer link to human beings but stand out from normal human beings for the reason that they possess an extra gift. Different gods represent different stories that relate to various aspects of life or ability to influence performance on the earth.

Myths of male and female divine from the Greek and Roman cultures One of the important gods in both the Roman and Greek cultures was Apollo. “In the two mythologies, he has a reference of ‘Phoebus’, which means bright. In the Greek myths, Apollo was the son of Zeus and king to other gods. He represented the light, the sun or purity” (Leonard and McClure, 2004).

He played lyre at the Roman cultural setting where he represents a poet, musical performer, and a bona fide champion in the beauty industry. Ares was also a key aspect in the Greek myths as the god of war. Being the son to Zeus and Hera, he represented all the brutality and aspects of warship. He lacked the honorary respects because people never valued war. Both Roman and Greek myths describe Ares as a strong fierce fighter who was pleased by bloody engagements or conflicts (Leonard and McClure, 2004).

In line with Leonard and McClure (2004), “Athena was a goddess who represented… intellectual characteristics of warfare”. The Greek myths praise Athena because of the artisanship aspects she possessed especially spinning and weaving. This is cultural representation of a mortal female.

According to Leonard and McClure (2004), much of the Roman myths have a link from the Greek mythology. The Roman and Greek gods reflected various human qualities but basic myths of the gods indicate they interacted with humans to negotiate for sacrifices in exchange of the requests. They had various imperfections that were more comparable to human beings. For instance, Zeus the Greek God and father of other gods engaged infidelity on his wife.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The goddess, Hera was jealous and thus engaged other stories of marriage to deal with the mythical revelation regarding Zeus’s adultery instead of considering revenge. “The God and Goddess of the Greek, Zeus and Hera, have characterization… that mirrors the Roman god of Jupiter and goddess Juno” (Karas, 2010). The element of trickery is also evident from Hermes, the Greek god of thieves. He is the massager of the other gods and guide for the dead in some myths thus equating to Mercury (Karas, 2010).

Conclusion The need to learn and understand various elements and myths of gods and goddesses in various cultures is crucial since they present an illusion of civilization. The analysis of the past forms a strong foundation for the present or the future and this is important as people try to understand and appreciate human existence. There are various myths within the history of our cultures that assist in determining some aspects of life such as whom we are and what we shall become as a basic part of heritage.

References Karas, B. (2010). Young Zeus. New York, NY: Scholastic Publishers. Print.

Leonard, S. A. and McClure, M. (2004). Myth and knowing: An introduction to world mythology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishers. Print.

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Forrest Gump Movie Term Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Mental Retardation

Body Image and Self-Perception

Employment and Career

Social Barriers

Opinion

Conclusion

References

The movie was about the life and times of Forrest Gump a fictitious character who suffers from a disability known as mental retardation. The movie starts at the very beginning as a child growing up in Alabama and one who was brought up by a single parent. His mother took care of him and never gave up on him. Although the world sees him and treated him as a person with disability his mother refuses to back down and wanted nothing more but to see his son grow up, receive education and enjoy life as a normal person would.

She opposed everyone who said that her son will amount to nothing. It was her love that instilled in Forrest Gump the faith that everything is possible. Although he was mentally retarded Forrest Gump had another quality in him and it is the innocence and the graciousness of a gentleman. He only wanted to make other around him comfortable and because of that his disability never became a stumbling stone for him and instead it became a stepping stone to success.

Mental Retardation According to the World Health Organization mental retardation is under a group of health problem called developmental disabilities (WHO, 2010). It is generally understood as the failure of the brain to mature and grow correctly and as a result affects the whole person. In addition the WHO also pointed out that in mental retardation there is deficiency in all aspects of development such as: “…noticeable deficiency in the development of motor, cognitive, social, and language functions” (WHO, 2010). This definition applies to Forrest Gump.

Forrest Gump was slow to pick up with regards to conversation and absorbing information that would usually be of no concern to a normal child. As a result a young Forrest Gump is seen as slow in speech. He could not seem to answer correctly questions directed at him; however, the movie made it appear funny as if all the good breaks happen to him and so what was supposed to be a disaster turned out to be for good.

Aside from his deficiency when it comes to cognitive skills, as a boy Forrest Gump also had to endure a physical problem and it has something to do with his legs. It did not develop normally and so he had to use braces to support his lower limbs and for him to walk from his house to his school. It gave him a great deal of discomfort and it also pained his mother. This is a typical example in the life of a mentally retarded person.

Body Image and Self-Perception The consequence of mental retardation made Forrest Gump realize that he was different. His classmates treated him different and he knew deep down that there is something wrong with him or at least there is something odd about him. He became a target for bullies and the whole community made fun of him.

This was demonstrated in one continuous scene when bullies riding in a vehicle tried to hit him with stones and so Forrest Gump ran as fast as he could until his braces broke off and he ran straight into a football game and one spectator asked another who is this guy running like a wild man across a football field, to which his friend replied that Gump is the village idiot.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gump made the conclusion that no one really likes him or loves him because in one scene he opened up to an elderly couple and he said that he only had one friend in the world and her name is Jenny. This is probably the reason why he was intensely loyal to those who gave him the time of the day. For instance he was devoted to Bubba and Lt. Dan even if the former veteran was mean to him. Unfortunately Jenny will not reciprocate his love and it created a deep wound in him.

Employment and Career He experienced a great deal of trouble in his hometown, especially in his school and so one would probably expect him to face the same type of hurdles or even greater when he decided that it was time for him as an adult to find work. Surprisingly he did not have a hard time in the U.S. Army.

It was a place where his mental retardation became an asset rather than a liability. His disability allowed him to throw all inhibitions to the wind and he was not struggling when it comes to following orders and doing things that other normal enlisted men would complain about. He simply did what the drill sergeant told him to do.

It was like a drug for him that altered his perception. He viewed the world different. For example, the Vietnam War was not frightening for him. When it was time to rescue someone behind enemy lines he went there without thinking about his safety. And so he succeeded in his chosen profession.

If a case study is going to be made to understand the impact of mental retardation to employment and career this movie should not be a good starting point. It does not require a rocket scientist to understand that people with mental disabilities will have a hard time securing a job and be promoted. In this case however Forrest Gump received the highest honor that could ever be awarded to an enlisted army man.

Social Barriers One of the most difficult stage in his life as a mentally retarded person is the challenge of making Jenny fall in love with him. He wanted to be married to Jenny but the woman she fondly calls his “girl” is not ready to make the same commitment. But there were only a few things that can be considered as social barriers especially when he reached adulthood. The twist in the movie is how his disability became a blessing in disguise for him.

Aside from receiving the Medal of Honor from the president, Gump also became a household name when he did a fun run that became a national event. He became a ping-pong champion and product endorser. Aside from that he was able to capitalize on the idea that his friend Bubba gave him and with that he was able to establish a shrimp business. In short he was financially secure something that is almost impossible to achieve for someone with a below average IQ.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Forrest Gump Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opinion Needless to say the movie was not believable but it must be pointed out that the movie did not create a stereotyped character in fact it tried to show the opposite – a disabled man who became world famous and earned a lot of money.

The purpose of the movie was not to show what disabled people specifically what the mentally retarded people had to go through in life but to demonstrate the irony of life. The irony is this, those who are normal does not know how to live life but Forrest Gump who was mentally retarded succeeded beyond his wildest dreams.

Aside from that the movie showcased an admirable feature of the U.S. Army and it is to give opportunities to those who have disabilities. According to the official website of the U.S. Army, “…individuals with disabilities must be given the same opportunities as individuals without disabilities” (Graves, 2010). Their spokesperson also cited laws that were legislated to encourage this practice and one example is the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Graves, 2010).

Conclusion The main character in the movie had a disability he was mentally retarded. However, the movie did not focus on what normally happens in the life of a mentally retarded person. In the early phase of the movie one can see the typical scenes such as bullying, he experienced rejection from the people of the community and from his peers.

But immediately the movie left the stereotyped mentally retarded character behind and invoked in a make-believe fantasy world wherein the mentally retarded was able to amass wealth, fame and fortune. The saying that says it can only happen in the movies is very much exemplified in Forrest Gump. However, it can be used as an inspirational film for those who suffer from mental retardation.

References World Health Organization. (2010). “Mental Retardation from Knowledge to Action.” Web.

Graves, J. (2010). “Hire Individuals with Disabilities.” Retrieved from https://www.army.mil/article/40199/hire_individuals_with_disabilities_access_the_possibilities_part_two

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The Evolution of US Military Logistical Procurement Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction The history of the United States military has evolved over a period of two centuries since independence. The concepts of logistic and procurement has become the central pillars in military operations because their application form the basis of a strong army. Huston (2004) defines logistics as “the application of time and space factors to war.”

According to Haggerty and Wood (2010), military procurement must be agile and innovative having broader base of ideas from government, academia and industry. The extent of logistics and procurement of war material has proved over a period of two centuries to be the determining factor in a battle and not mere sophistication of the weapons.

Revolutionary War This war occurred in 1775- 1783 and led Americans gain their independence from their British colonies. Prior to the revolutionary war, the thirteen American colonies functioned independently having their own unprofessional armies who lacked efficient military training and had crude weapons. When the revolutionary war erupted, Continental Congress resolved to form a coordinated army so that they can fight their colonialist, the British.

George Washington was appointed the commander-in-chief of the continental army and he formulated the logistics of fighting the revolutionary war and eventually defeating the British army (Huston, 2006). George Washington combined both continental and local militia in his war logistics to combat British army (Palmer, 2004).

The continental army objective was to disrupt British logistical transport of the armies, weapons and food. According to palmer (2004), Continental Congress establish continental navy and equipped them through the “purchase, conversion, and construction of a cruiser navy ships” which constantly surveyed the sea and prevent British army from building their logistics and procurement of essential goods and weapons.

The success of the revolutionary war was attributed to the logistics employed by the George Washington as he coordinately combined the continental army and local militia and focuses his attacks on the weakest points of the British army in terms of disrupting their transport logistics in the sea and avoidance of engaging in decisive battles (Tokar, 2006).

The defeat of the British army has proved to the Americans “the importance of sea power” although the continental army was faced with the setbacks such as politicized commanders and incompetent soldiers (Palmer, 2004). Continental army was eventually disbanded due to political, economic and philosophical reasons in relation to the international diplomacy necessary for the growth of commerce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early National period After revolutionary war and disbandment of the continental navy, the war that broke in Europe in 1783-1815 and made the United States be interested with the international war since the French army seized her ships again threaten America.

President Thomas Jefferson proposed, “We ought to begin a naval power, if we mean to carry on our commerce. Can we begin it on a more honorable occasion, or with a weaker foe?” and other federalists also wanted a powerful navy army with the capacity of not only protecting the united states ships and cargos but also her international interests (Palmer, 2004).

The debate about re-establishment of the navy led to conclusion when the Congress passed an Act for the building of many war ships that were well constructed and heavily armed to overcome the dangerous sea cruise. These developments led to the growth of the United States shipping and trade industry since Britain and France were at war (Palmer, 2004).

The French army angered United States when they hijacked her ships leading to the Quasi-War between the two countries at the Caribbean Sea.

The leading commander was Benjamin Stoddert who employed various tactics to overcome the French army and protect their merchant ships at the Caribbean Sea (Tokar, 2006). Benjamin tried to eliminate the setbacks which the continental navy had encountered in that he removed incompetent soldiers and sought political support by defeating French army and coming out with an excellent reputation.

The success of the Quasi-War was due to the competent soldiers and the use of minimum force against French army that lead to diplomatic settlement (Palmer, 2004). In 1800, the United States experienced the shortages of fiscal resources and labor required to run and maintain naval army hence the country could not meet extra cost of expanding navy.

The successful defeat of the French Army during the Quasi-War led to political support to establish naval army in 1807 following impending war with the Great Britain in 1812. The Great Britain had constructed her fleet of ships which patrolled across Atlantic paralyzing the ports and the commerce of the United States and eventually raided Washington and captured White House in 1814 (Palmer, 2004).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Evolution of US Military Logistical Procurement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United States then pumped a lot of resources, money and labor in keeping abreast with the Britain advancement in the naval army and building of fleets of warships. The logistics of overcoming Britain, building of the fleets of warships and procurement of the weapons coupled with the paralyzed commerce across Atlantic made the United States to revive their naval army and international interests.

The 1812 war reminded the Americans the importance of “sea power” because the Britain army paralyzed their commerce and attacked their country despite the sophistication of the weapons and strong fortification they had in their country (Palmer, 2004).

The weakness was due to the lack of logistical urgency and preparation against any emergent attack from the enemies. There was a political consensus to support the establishment of powerful warship fleet to enhance their war logistics but the fleets of ship constructed were not used since the war ended in 1815.

Continental Expansion War This war occurred when the United States wanted to expand her territory westwards in 1816-1660. During this period the United States was a nation free of war threats, the sea was free of pirate since the Congress of Vienna agreed to end the war, and so the naval army did not have battles to prepare for and conquer.

Although there was no war during this long period of decades, the naval army worked very hard in order to keep abreast with the powerful countries like Great Britain and France and keep up with the ever-changing military technology. The technology then included invention of powerful steam engines, sophisticated military weapons and communication telegraph (Palmer, 2004).

In order to overcome the problem of incompetent soldiers experienced during revolutionary war and enhance professionalism in military, the United States in 1845 started an engineering college at Annapolis.

Professionalism in the military is going to enhance tactics, logistics and strategies for an effective and efficient way of winning a battle. In 1846-1848, the naval army attacked the Mexico when they needed more land for expanding due to population growth (Palmer, 2004). The army took the advantage of their “sea power” experience blocking Mexico ports and dominating their coast proving the effectiveness of the “sea power.”

American Civil War This war broke out when Abraham Lincoln became the president in 1861-1865. The war between the Confederate and Union states resulted from a combination of factors such as slavery, political, social and economic differences.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Evolution of US Military Logistical Procurement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the war occurred abruptly and both warring factions were caught unaware, the Union had an upper hand because they dominated the naval army hence over power the Confederate states by utilizing the “sea power” and the inland Mississippi river in the logistics and procurement of food and weapons (Palmer, 2004).

The Confederate states army was faced with the logistical challenges as the Union states navy patrolled their sea therefore blocking them. The respective States both struggled with the logistics and procurement of enough food so that they can feed large number of armies engaged in war.

The confederate States procured several swift cruisers in order to counteract the Union navy army who have taken the advantage of the “sea power” and blocked the sea ports making the Confederate States to deploy thousands of troops against small number of naval army who were cruising the sea.

The successful defeat of the Confederate states of south by the Union states gave the naval army a good image and enhanced the political support in building stronger naval forces in the United States.

After the civil war, the Americans, both the Confederate and Union states were tired and had exhausted their resources on war, resolved to build their nation economically, socially and politically. The naval army then focused on the protection of their merchant ships and used diplomacy in order to explore and expand the United States markets internationally.

World War I World War I occurred in 1917-1921.During this war the United States was passive but supported the Britain and France logistically by deploying her soldiers and resources while using their equipment. Germany logistic systems in terms of men, equipment and horses surpassed the threshold estimates compelling the government to reconsider their logistics. (Antill, 2001).

The British army had logistical problem since they were caught unprepared and they experienced shortage of ammunition supply due to underestimation and transport difficulties.

According to Antill (2001), “the First World War was a milestone for military logistics” since the British solders experienced shortages of the ammunition and there was no elaborate transport system, hence there were greater difficulties in the supply of the necessary materials to the soldiers on the move.

The use of horses proved inefficient in the transport and British then realized the importance of the motorists, seaports and railway system as the means to enhance their logistical and procurement support from the United States.

World War II At the beginning of the war in 1939, the United States participated passively by supplying weapons and giving financial support to the United Kingdom, China and the Soviet Union. In 1941, the United States entered into the war after Germany and Italy declared war on her. When the United States lost several battles, she had to reconsider her logistics of “sea power” into utilizing airplanes and submarines in addition to the railway, sea and motorists order to conquer her enemies.

Antill (2001) described Second World War as “logistically in every sense and the most testing war in history.” This is because the cost of technology and industrial potential to produce were not the limiting factors but the limiting factor was logistical transport of raw materials into the industry and the supply of the required ammunitions and other consumables to the soldiers in the field (Huston, 2004).

The United States surpassed her enemies due to the proper logistics and procurement abilities since her armies and allies never experienced any shortage of war materials despite threatening power of German armies that used huge amount of ammunitions. The United States maximized her logistical transport and attack in terms of warships, railway, submarines, airplane and motorists.

Antill (2001) commend the United States that “the principal logistic legacy of the Second World War was the expertise in supplying far off operations and a sound lesson in what is, and what is not, administratively possible.” The logistic and strategic lessons out the World War I led Americans again realize the importance of the “air power” in addition to their “Sea power” experience in making them emerge as world’s superpower country.

The outcome of the World War I shaped both political and military aspects worldwide as the United States begin to collaborate with the United Kingdom in terms of military technology, intelligence and procurement of necessary materials to equip their armies.

War on Terrorism The war on terrorism resulted from the September 11, 2001 when the terrorists attacked the World Trade Center. In a great response, the United States marshaled all her resources and cumulative logistical experiences over the past wars she had participated and headed for Afghanistan and Iraq in search of Osama Bin Laden and Saddam Hussein respectively, who are the perceived leaders behind the terrorism worldwide.

According to Huston (2004), “logistics is the principle element in the support of military operation” and it involves procurement, transportation, storage and utilization of the military materials during war.

On counter terrorism, the United States had managed to exploit and maximize her logistics when her armies went into Afghanistan and Iraq. The combination of numbers and logistics lead to the successful fight of the Al-Qaeda. To enhance the logistics, the United States had wide range of equipment: the biggest navy ship and submarines to provide the “sea power,” warplanes to provide the “air power” and military tracks for underground fight and sophisticated communication equipment.

With all these factors and competent soldiers, coupled with logistical plans, has enabled Americans to win the war on terrorism (Tokar, 2006). According to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), there are five principles of logistics: foresight, economy, flexibility, simplicity and co-operation (Antill, 2001). The United States had to plan the logistics and procurement of war materials before embarking on anti-terrorism.

Conclusion The concepts of logistics and procurement are the fundamental applications in military in order to successful defeat an enemy without exhausting the estimated military resource.

This can be termed as economy of war, knowing how to fight efficiently and effectively in a logical way as logistics is to have the right thing, at the right place, on the right time and comprises four aspects: procurement, transport, storage and utilization of materials. Logistics has proved why the United States become a super power and is still very determined to wage war on terrorism worldwide.

References Antill, P. (2001). Military Logistics: A Brief History. Military History Web. Retrieved from

Haggerty, A.,

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I Stand Here Ironing Essay essay help online

I stand here ironing is a story that tackles numerous societal problems including mother daughter conflicts, gender roles, diligence, personal effects of national economic struggles and the challenges of single parenthood. These themes make the story relevant today as it was during the time of its writing

Theme in “I stand here ironing” The prevailing theme in the book is challenges of single parenthood. Olsen is a single mother who is faced with the task of bringing up a sickly child Emily on her own. Things are further complicated by the fact that she is very young and quite poor – having come from an immigrant Russian family herself. Throughout the book, one cannot help but wonder what would have happened to Emily if her father had been around.

Olsen lacked the strength to confront the social workers who recommended the placement of Emily in a sanatorium. Perhaps things would have been different is Emily’s father was around because two people would definitely feel strong enough to challenge the health workers; especially if their instincts went against them.

Emily ended up being very happy in the health facility because of her mother’s decision and this may have changed if she was not a single mother. The story illustrates that single parenthood often puts parents in a position where they cannot cater to their children’s needs thus compromising on what they become in the future.

Emily’s mother found herself in these difficult circumstances after her partner opted out of the marriage when Emily was less than a year old. Providing for her child on her own made it quite tricky to Olsen so she had to send Emily to relatives (Olsen, 6).

These circumstances were somehow beyond Olsen’s control because she had tried all she could to make things work. Eventually, she had to accept that she could not be there for her child and subsequently sent her elsewhere. Olsen is filled with lots of self doubt in subsequent parts of her life over her choices concerning Emily and the manner in which she chose to raise this child.

Mother daughter conflicts (or parent to child conflicts) are also an important theme in the book. As Olsen narrates the story of raising her first born daughter, one can see the guilt and loss of time that she feels concerning this matter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship between mother and daughter in this narrative is quite complex thus leading to the negative feelings that Emily has towards Olsen. Emily feels that she missed out on some of the critical factors of growing up. She did not get much attention from her mother and this makes her act out against her and the rest of society.

In fact, at the beginning of the narrative when Olsen receives a call from an external party about Emily needing help, she starts to wonder what the problem was and what she could have done to prevent those problems. In a certain way, Olsen contributed towards Emily’s resentment of her because she did not offer her child stability. Minor signs of affection such as smiles (6) were a virtually unknown to Emily.

This relationship between mother and daughter is therefore characterized by continual reflection and bitterness over the past and what could have been done. Emily longs to enjoy a normal life but may feel that too much has been said and done to allow her this (Olsen, 8).

Her mother also goes through numerous reflections on the past and realizes that she could have offered her daughter a better life if she had been more knowledgeable or if she had been wiser. This story therefore places the mother daughter conflicts in perspective by illustrating the origin of these problems. Motherhood in the story is not presented in the usual romanticized manner that most people have grown accustomed to in that era. The author was bold enough to present a realistic picture devoid of any alterations.

It is essentially a story about internal struggles that a mother faces and the need to redefine herself and her understanding of this role as she reflects on the life of her daughter. It shows how members of that society often struggled with selfhood and therefore had to sacrifice some of their other roles in order to meet these perspectives head on.

Indeed, this story illustrates how a mother’s love for her children is very real it was. Olsen wishes that she was in a position to give her daughter a better life than the one she lived when she was young. This is the reason why Emily’s mother is filled with regret when she thinks about the choices and the life she accorded her daughter (Olsen, 8).

As one goes through the narration, one can evidently see that most of the tough times this family went through were inevitable and that it was nobody’s fault that what happened actually did. Olsen had the best intentions and actually did what she could at those times. Also, as one thinks about Emily, one gets this image of a girl who wanted an ideal parent and this was not possible at the time.

We will write a custom Essay on I Stand Here Ironing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The poor and strained relationship between this mother and daughter therefore illustrates a deep history between these two individuals. Emily is overwhelmed by her past which was filled with a lack of involvement by her mother and also lack of affection from the same individual. This story shows that when relationships do not look as good in the present, then they have probably been brought on by a series of past incidences and events.

All in all, it can be said that the book was responsible for bringing out a fresh perspective on motherhood. Stereotypical images of happy American families were challenged through this short story and therefore contributed to an understanding of motherhood as being an immensely personal and unique experience to all individuals.

Another emerging theme in the story is the personal effects of national economic downfall. The story’s setting can be traced back to the nineteen thirties during the economic depression.

Families all over America had to contend with economic challenges and nowhere were these forces more evident that in the single parent homes. Olsen found it hard to make end meets at such difficult times. The kind of jobs she could secure required her to sacrifice her time away from her family or the things that mattered most to her. This eventually affected her parenting abilities.

In fact, the story revealed how the economic history of the country affected lives of Americans personally. The predicaments faced by this young mother would have been much less if her external environment had been less harsh. In fact through Olsen’s eyes, it is possible to see the inevitability of certain situations. Life may sometimes be determined by factors that cannot be controlled by specific individuals.

In such circumstances, all one can do is try and cope with the challenges rather than resist them and deal with the consequences later. As one reads through the story, one realizes that Olsen was a victim of circumstance. First, she had to abandon the plans that she had for her education. At the tender age of sixteen, Olsten could no longer go to school because her family needed her to make economic contributions to their income.

This put Olsen at a serious disadvantage because the lack of education meant minimal access to great economic opportunities and hence a life of poverty (Olen, 4). The fact that her family members were refugees from Russia did not help either because it was this difficult situation that caused them to resort to child labor from their daughter in order to make ends meet. External factors are therefore critical in determining how the lives of individuals eventually play out.

Olsen also got involved in communist centered movements such as the Warehouse union and the Young communist league. She probably got involved because she was a member of the working class. The unfairness and difficulties inherent in the class system were a harsh reality to the young Olsen. Her involvement in these movements was therefore a way of protecting her interests as a working class mother and member of an exploited class.

Not sure if you can write a paper on I Stand Here Ironing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender roles are also another important theme in the book. The book was written at a time in America’s history when the feminist movement just started picking up. In this regard, there was a need to highlight the plight of women who were confronted with unfair situations.

Olsen was abandoned by her husband and left to fend for her family at an early age (Olsen, 5). It did not matter that both these adults were responsible for bringing Emily to the world; it was a woman who was left to handle the responsibility alone. Indeed the story of Olsen was one that was rarely told in fictional tales at the time. This explains why it became a reference point for explaining how women were often ignored during difficult times.

Olsen had been abandoned and had to find a way of coping with poverty. This illustrates that American society at that time was quite tolerant of runaway fathers who do not take responsibility for what they had done. Furthermore, society had not instilled certain social support services such as welfare and the like. This meant that the biting realities of poverty were quite inclined to one gender over the other. Additionally, the image portrayed of women in this story is one of an unfair economical system.

Throughout the story, one does not find any description of women who happen to be economically successful. Even the narrator herself appears to hold insignificant jobs in her life. At the time when she is reflecting over her life as a mother, one gets the picture of a stay at home mother who has not gotten an opportunity to make a substantial contribution to her country’s economy. This could be an illustration of how unfair the system was to them.

The issue of persistence in the face of turmoil is also an important theme in the short story. As Olsen thinks about her early life with young Emily, she creates an image of very difficult circumstances. She talks about all the poverty that they had to deal with. Furthermore, she highlights how difficult Emily herself was.

She used to complain a lot of times and was never happy with the way they lived. In addition, Olsen was left by her spouse. Some individuals facing such hard times would simply decide to give up and let go of their responsibilities. However, Olsten persisted through all these problems.

Eventually, she was able to come out of her difficult predicaments and thus show some optimism for the future. A number of issues crop up as one looks through the life underwent by Emily’s mother. First, she was lonely; at the time of her spouse’s departures, she had no one to give her support, to share her struggles with or even to look up to but she still overcame this problem (Olsen, 4).

Emily’s mother was also very vulnerable. Because of the nature of her background, she was not in a position to stand up for her rights. This was probably why she got convinced by Emily’s father to get involved with him. Her economic situation made her settle for less even when she knew that she deserved better.

Conclusion I stand here ironing is a personal and rich piece of literature owing to the fact that its subject matters have not been presented as black or white; they each have their own flaws and inadequacies. However, through the use of theme, readers can identify with their circumstances and hence understand the source of their troubles.

Reference Kelly, Joseph, ed. I Stand Here Ironing by Tillie Olsen The Seagull Reader Stories. New York: W.W. Norton

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Vaquita – Endangered Species Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social and Reproductive Life

Reasons for its Decline

Conservation Efforts

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The vaquita is a small marine mammal found in the Gulf of California which seems to be endangered. Very few people have gotten the opportunity to see this species and many people may not be able to see it now that its existence is becoming extinct.

The vaquita looks like a star curved stocky porpoise and it is the smallest of all the porpoises in the world. Its length is esteemed to be 150 centimeters which is equivalent to 4.92 ft. and weighs not more than 50 kilograms. Most parts of its body are grey in color and it has a smaller skull as compared to other porpoises.

It lives in shallow water (not more than 30 meters deep) found on the shoreline. It is even believed to survive in lagoons where the water can hardly cover its back. Most Vaquitas are found on the northern part of the Gulf of California within Colorado River. This paper will give more information about the vaquita, explain some of the reasons that are causing its decline, and highlight some of the steps taken by the Mexican government to conserve this rear species.

Social and Reproductive Life The Vaquita appears to be a comfortable porpoise that like swimming but most of the time it is found relaxing leisurely along the shoreline. However, it is subtle and afraid of boats of all kind. If a boat appears near it, it either hides under water or moves to a different position. The Vaquita rises to the surface of the water to take in fresh air and then goes under water for a long period of time.

It likes feeding on fish species especially the smaller ones although it is known to be a nonselective feeder and can feed on almost anything that crosses its path. Vaquita either lives alone or in a group of not more than ten individuals; often they live in groups of three.

The Vaquita gives birth to its calves during spring and gestation normally takes about ten to eleven months. It is believed that Vaquitas mature sexually at the age of three to six years and female gives birth every year to a single calf. New born calves weigh about 7.5 kilograms and they are 2.5 ft long. Vaquita is believed to have a life span of about 21 years (Jefferson, et al 2008).

Reasons for its Decline It is hard to find a person hunting Vaquita because many people do not know much about them. Actually their existence was realized in 1958, after a survey was carried out by dedicated scientists. Since then, other scholars have developed an interest on this rare species and are carrying out research to understand more about them and how their survival can be enhanced.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, their existence is being threatened since they are normally trapped in gillnets that are used for fishing the totoaba which is also found in the Gulf of California. It is good to note that, this species reproduce very slowly because they are very few in number and therefore if one female Vaquita is trapped in gillnets, it poses a very great threat to their survival (Leatherwood, et al. 1988).

The population of the Vaquitas has been declined at a very high rate (15% every year). Their existence is mainly threatened by commercial fishing which take place within Colorado River. Commercial fishery for totoaba was recognized in 1970s but ceased in late 1970s. However, other species are being fished and this threatens the survival of the Vaquita. It is estimated that; the population of the vaquita may be declining at a rate of about eighty percent for the next 20 to 30 years which may render the species extinct.

Commercial fishing still stands as the greatest threat to the survival of the vaquitas although there are other threats such as habitat degradation, pollution, and inbreeding given that they population is very low. A lot of non environmental friendly waste is being damped in Colorado River which is a threat to the security of the vaquita. Many vaquitas have died from suffocation (given that they stay underwater for a longer period than they stay on the surface) and they are still facing the threat of environmental pollution.

Agricultural farming has also increased around the area with many farmers using water from Colorado River for irrigation (Reeves, et al. 2002). This has resulted in a decrease in the volume of water in the river thereby interfering with the habitat of the viquitas. Apart from the use of water, the use of fertilizers and pesticides is on the increase and most of these chemicals find their way into the river. This does not only cause death to the Vaquitas, but to all other aquatic animals.

Inbreeding is also a major reason for the decline of the viquitas. As seen earlier, a single calf takes about six years to mature and be able to reproduce. Also a female vaquita can only give birth to a single calf and this takes place annually especially during spring. Let’s assume there are about 100 female vaquitas out of the total population, this means that less than 100 calves will be born each year because the gestation takes almost one year and not all this vaquitas may be able to survive through out the year.

If then 70 calves are born each year, after six years we will have about 420 new vaquitas (holding all other factors constant). However, it is estimated that, the rate of death can go up to 84 individuals meaning that, all the calves may die before they are able to reproduce. The number of females may also decline or become extinct. It is therefore clear that, urgent conservation measures have to be taken if the population of the viquitas is to be maintained.

Conservation Efforts Today, the number of Vaquita estimated to be alive varies from one hundred to three hundred. In 2000, a research was conducted by the Vaquita recovery committee which discovered that, about 40 to 80 Vaquitas die every year in the hands of commercial fishermen (Shirihai

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Post incarceration syndrome Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Operational definition

Symptoms

Reducing incidences

References

This is has been confirmed to be a problem that causes relapse in former inmates who might be mentally ill and addicted. Research has proven that, at the moment, 60% of inmates have been in jail before and post incarceration syndrome is evident to be the cause of this behavior. The concept of this syndrome has been developed by clinical consultation work together with other related programs. These programs include those dealing with currently incarcerated prisoners and released prisoners (grassian 1451).

Operational definition Set of symptoms present in existing incarcerated inmates and recently released inmates caused by prolonged confinement in areas of castigation with scares opportunities for occupation training, therapy and tutoring.

However, the symptoms have been evident to be severe in inmates who have served long sentences and those that have undergone stern abuse while in prison. There are number factors that determine the severity of symptoms; one is the duration an inmate is imprisoned. Similarly, the number of times an inmate is abused also contributes a lot.

It is noteworthy that coping skills prior to the imprisonment of the inmate is also a factor that determines the severity of the syndrome in an inmate. Another factor that contributes towards this cause is the number of times the inmate has been jailed. In addition, the degree in participation in therapy, tutoring and vocational programs also determine the severity of the symptoms (Gal, 750).

Symptoms One symptom is the institutionalized personality traits caused by residing in a tyrannical surrounding that dictates on compliance to the authority, acceptance to the forbidden deeds in life, the abolition of individuals autonomy to make decisions and forceful alteration of an individual’s lifestyle.

Another symptom of post incarceration syndrome is post traumatic stress disorder caused by the horrific experiences before imprisonment and the abuses undergone during confinement. There is also a symptom is antisocial personality traits caused by the behavior developed during imprisonment as a mental defense mechanism.

Furthermore, the individual might develop the social-sensory deprivation syndrome as a result of the protracted confinement; thus, isolation and memory loss. In some cases reactive substance use disorders is also developed as most of the inmates were drug addicts before imprisonment and did not undergo treatment, some develop their addiction while in prison. These inmates continue their addiction through illegal acquirement of the drugs while in prison (Grassian, 1450).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reducing incidences This syndrome has been evident to be caused by the programs in the correctional department. Where as these programs are directed at stopping crime and correct the inmates behavioral at times they end up making the individual worse. Hence, this can be reduces and eliminated in future by changing the policies that govern the correction departments (grassian, 1453).

References Grassian, Stuart, Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement, American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1450 – 1454 (1983)

Gal, Reuven

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Historical US Relationships with Native American Cause and Effect Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors that led to bay area diverse Native American community

Objectives of activists during Alcatraz occupation in 1969

Impact of Alcatraz occupation

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Bay Area is the region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in North California in the United States (Curtis 10). It is mostly urbanized and well known for high cost of living.

The Bay Area is well known for its rich cultural history and heritage. Majority of the population in the Bay Area consist of mainly the Native Americans consisting of distinct tribes and ethnic communities mostly of Asian Origin. The Native American community can be said to be the native people that were living in North America long before the Europeans came in that land, with their offspring (Curtis 34).

The Native Americans come in many groups, each varying in their traditions, religious beliefs as well as the communication comes in diverse language. The Native Americans mostly reside on western states (48%), south (29%), and the mid West (6%); this distribution reveals the outcomes of the historical pattern of settlement and relocation of the American Indians to the western and southern regions of the country (Curtis 67).

Factors that led to bay area diverse Native American community The diversity of the Native American community in the Bay Area is due to many factors which are historic, political, economic and social (Margolin 20). The history and heritage of indigenous people who inhabited the American continent forms a significant part in the American and Native American history.

The Bay Area’s Diverse Native American Community is due to the fact that the people who discovered the Bay Area were early Christian Indians presently known as the” Ohlone”, and Spanish explorers and missionaries (Margolin 24). The Indians primarily practiced hunting and gathering.

The availability of extensive land and its proximity to the ocean compelled them to begin farming as their way of life thus resulting to their permanent settlement in the Bay Area. The outcome of their agricultural endowment was that it facilitated their spread and diversification into many distinct cultural tribes (Margolin 34).

Another factor that led to the development of Bay Area’s diverse Native American community is urbanization; the urbanization of the American Indians has been taking place for a long period of time, this has led to a large number of Indians moving into the Bay Area metropolitan regions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early urbanization of the Native American was as a result of the US pursuing a policy of domestic colonialism, this helped to transform them from rural farming to urban industrial farming which in turn accelerated their urbanization process. Urbanization helped to diversify the Bay Area’s Native American community (Margolin 45).

The assimilation of the Native Americans in the late 18th century contributed to their diversity. Assimilation was an effort by the US government aimed at transforming the Native American way of life to the European-American culture. This transformation enhanced civilization among the Native Americans which in turn facilitated their diversity in the US particularly in the Bay Area (Margolin 45).

They were integrated into the larger American community. This involved relocating the Indians from reserved area to more urbanized regions. The Bay Area was well known as a trade destination for many, and this offered an opportunity for the Native Americans to carry out business in the area.

Another reason for diversity of native community in the Bay Area was that the Bay Areas Indians continually maintained their cultures despite the persuasion by US government for Indians to abandon their culture; they formed social and political organizations through which they could express their rights. This resulted in the San Francisco Bay Area’s Native American community as being one of the most organized American Indian communities in the United States (Margolin 57).

Objectives of activists during Alcatraz occupation in 1969 The relationship between America and Native Americans was not good during the first half of the 19th century. This was after a series of failed policies by the US government, which resulted in Native Americans organizing a movement that protected the rights of the Indian people.

In 1969, Indians publicly protested against violation of their rights through occupation of the Alcatraz Island which was a federal land by then (Troy 30). The take over of Alcatraz Island was one of the most successful American Indian protests and activist movements of the 19th century which facilitated the modern Native American activism

One of the key objectives of the Alcatraz occupation was to have the island under their ownership so that they could establish a study center for the Native Americans, an American Indian religious center and cultural center and a Museum which was to be based on Indian cultural value.

We will write a custom Essay on Historical US Relationships with Native American specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The building of the cultural centers was aimed at maintaining Indians cultural values, traditions, spirituality, and identity amidst calls by the US government to transform the Indian way of life to the predominant European-American culture (Troy 49). It also aimed at making sure that the Indians religious freedom was not impaired by the United States and ensuring that Indians cultural values remained observed.

Another objective of the occupation was to bring the Indians rights to the attention of United States government and to the public. They demanded fairness and justice towards the Indian population living in the United States because the laws by then oppressed the Native Americans, and were willing to fight for the course.

The activism was aimed at restoring of rights and civil liberties of the Native American community in the United States. It sought recognition of Indians rights and freedom. Restoring the pride of the Indians in the United States was amongst the activists’ objectives (Troy 56).

The occupation served the major purpose of turning attention of Indians towards a reversal of bad policies of the United States. It was a fight against the bad United States government policies that oppressed Indians.

Some of the bad policies that were being fought against by the activists included the termination policy which was aimed at eliminating all the rights and freedom of the American Indian tribes (Troy 68). The policy was also aimed at relocating thousands of Indian people to cities so as to make them loose touch with their Indian culture, which was very devastating to the natives.

Another objective of the occupation of Alcatraz Island was alerting the US government to honor treaty obligations; by providing education, housing, and health care and elimination of poverty (Troy 35). It was aimed at fighting for reviewing of treaties and treaty violations and they demanded that all Indians be governed by treaties that bounded them to the United States.

The activism was an effort aimed at restoration of Indians cultures, the Indian tribe sovereignty, and political treaty amongst the tribes. The organizers and activists also demanded Indians inclusion in the educational institution while retaining their Indian culture (Troy 36).

The occupation was more than just resettlement of the American Indians; it was a matter of human rights, it was more than just a political movement. The occupation was used to spotlight issues affecting the Native American community (Troy 38).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical US Relationships with Native American by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Impact of Alcatraz occupation The occupation had an impact on the lives of Indians living in the United States, it served as the foundation for the restoration of Indian culture, identity, tradition, and spirituality (Stuart 26). Through the occupation the rights of the Indians were put into considerations. New policies were adopted that brought justice and fairness to the Indian community.

During 1970 to 1971 the US congress sitting passed 52 legislative proposals to support the policy of tribal self rule aimed at achieving Indians cultural survival as a distinct tribe and help protect the rights of Indians living in the United States. Funds for Indian health care were doubled and an office for Indian rights was established (Stuart 28). The occupation laid the foundation for the next stage in regaining the Indian sovereignty and self-determination.

Conclusion Generally, underlying objective behind the Alcatraz island occupation was to awaken the American public to the suffering caused by the US government’s failure to observe treaties and promises and the need for Indian self determination. Based on this, the occupiers were successful (Curtis 78).

Though the occupation was short term, it was successful for the American Indians eventually. Indians lost the official ownership for the island later; the Alcatraz occupation helped them to independent and gave them the hope for the future and facilitated later occupations up to date. In as much as the occupation appeared a success, it came with many challenges, the inhabitants of the island experienced hardship such as lack of water and electricity (Curtis 80).

Works Cited Curtis, Edward. The North American Indian: Johnson Reprint Corporation. 2006. Print

Margolin, Malcolm.The Ohlone way: Indian life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area: Book Services inc. Salt Lake City, 2003. Print

Stuart, James. Historical dictionary of the 1960s: green wood publishing group Inc. Westport, 1999. Print

Troy, Johnson. The Occtwation of Alcatraz Island: University of Illinois Press, 1996. Print

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Size 6: The Western Women’s Harem’ Essay essay help: essay help

‘Size 6: The Western Women’s Harem’ forms part of the Moroccan feminist Fatema Mernissi’s works, published in 2001. Size 6 is a sarcastic article Fatema employs in explaining how she wanted to purchase a size 6 skirt from a U.S saleslady, contrary to the veils their culture restricts. It does not fit her, though she knows what their Muslim men cannot allow them to wear such skirts. Fatema’s childhood is not as she wishes it be because she grows enclosed in a Harem where she hardly gets a chance to even walk outside the house.

She can only get out of the place once a week to the bathrooms, escorted and covered not to be seen by other people. In her article, Fatema wants to show how the mid-East and Western cultures perceive the beauty of women. She wants to depict the difference between the appearance of a beautiful woman in her culture’s point of view and that the western.

The writer is a Muslim woman in a veil, as accepted by their beliefs, but is demanding to purchase a skirt from a girl who holds a different culture, that size is a factor worth considering when a woman is buying a garment. Following their conversation, it stands out that the two differ when the saleslady unfolds the reason behind size 6 as on women in jobs.

The writer realizes that it can be more of trouble wearing the skirt compared to her veil. It becomes clear that western men demand that their women should wear particular sizes of clothes to appear beautiful before their eyes, a case that makes them secure higher job positions, not based on performance or experience, but dressing. They also differ when it comes to the issue of women weight and diet. It is not a matter to the Muslim women as it is to those from the west.

The origin, intention, and the impact of dressing mode, as portrayed by women, form the major purpose behind Mernissi’s article. She wants the reader to know the significance of the dressing style used by the present women. Although it’s now everywhere, it was started by the western people. It is their culture that women ought to dress in a particular manner to please their men. It has been imitated by many non-U.S. people, both married and unmarried.

She wants to show how dressing can turn out as a disaster, a case that is evident today. It is the style that prostates have acquired to capture the attention of men into sexual affairs. On the other hand, she purposes to show how women can also avoid this. She illustrates the Muslim culture as conservative when she opts not to purchase the skirt owing to the intended purpose and results. She shows how Muslim attire ought to be adopted rather than the westerns’.

Muslim culture holds that a woman ought to stay strictly in the house not to be seen and abused by other men. This is more of torture that their western counterparts cannot tolerate because they view people as social beings holding that both male and female ought to interact with one another freely.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, muslin culture asserts that their women ought to wear veils throughout, whether hot or cold. They are forced to remain this way under all circumstances, unlike the western women who exercise freedom of dressing as they wish. This is the freedom that the Muslim culture needs to welcome rather than enslaving their women in the name of love.

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Dizzy Gillespie and Louis Armstrong: Jazz Music Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Louis Armstrong

Louis’s Contribution to Jazz and the Society

Dizzy Gillespie

Gillespie’s New Ideas on Jazz Music and Contribution to Society

Comparison and Contrast

Reference List

Footnotes

Introduction Jazz music has its origin dating back to as far as the beginning of the 20th century with an African American origin. Louis Armstrong is described to be the man best known around the would as the founding father of Jazz (Louis Armstrong house museum, 2008) while on the other hand, Dizzy Gillespie is reputed to have music that is a major contributing factor to the development of a modern jazz known as “bebop”.

Louis Armstrong Lois Armstrong was born in the American poverty stricken neighborhoods called “Battlefield” on the 4th of August 1904 in New Orleans, Louisiana. At age 12, Louis fired a borrowed pistol while celebrating the New Year (1913) that saw him arrested and taken to the Colored Waifs’ home for boys. He eventually got influenced by Peter Davis, the musical instructor of the home, who taught him singing, percussion and ultimately the trumpet.

On his release at age 14, he sought for bars in the Storyville district to listen for jazz bands that were at the time just arising. On developing interest on Joe “King” Oliver’s music, Joe become Louis’s mentor, as Peter Davis had been before and by age 17, Louis was already playing in numerous bands with his horn, of which he had bought at the age of 7.

Louis joined King Oliver’s band in 1922 in Chicago, and that is where he me his wife, Lillian Hardin who was the group’s pianist[1]. He played the second cornet in the band for two years where he gained much popularity to surpass Oliver’s within few months. His style displayed improvisation, making him to be a major influencer on the initiation and progress of melody in jazz during the 20s[2].

Louis went on to organize several bands, with the most eminent being “The original hot five” and “The hot seven”[3] (St. George, 2009).1n 1964, Louis recorded “Hello Dolly”, a song which was his biggest hit to gain the number one spot in the USA. In addition the songs “Mark the knife”, “All of me” and “On the sunny side of the street” remind his fans about him. His dedication saw him make at least 300 gigs around the world every year, consequently gaining international popularity and fame and nickname “Ambassador Satch”.

Louis’s Contribution to Jazz and the Society According to[4], many musicians and Historians have confirmed that he was the most influential personality in the birth of jazz. Additionally, he appeared in a total of 28 full length movies with a couple of short features from 1931 to 1961. This escapade contributed a great deal in popularizing jazz to an international level.

Furthermore, his acting career in movies struggled to win respect to jazz against classical music with its corollary themes[5]. His movies were shot at the time when racism was eminent in the USA. They therefore went a long way in stating up the African American History in the cinema.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Louis being born August 4th always insisted that his birthday was in July 4th[6]. Jazz, was latter termed as music that eventually contributed to the American culture. Thanks to these two facts, in April 2001, US governors decided to officially declare April as a jazz recognition month in their states. St. George (2009) [7]quoted President George W. Bush (2003) who said that educational institutions, media houses and musicians should develop programs that will explore, promote and honor jazz as a national world treasure.

He endured humiliating racial discrimination thought his career and derived dignity by an ethic of self- help and accommodation. He every now and then “Popped off” about current affairs on the TV, thus making a foremost contribution to the ladder of racial justice that was even more eminent than Martin Luther Kings[8].

Dizzy Gillespie Dizzy Gillespie was born on the 21st of October1917, in Cheraw South Carolina. He was the last of children born to John and Lottie Gillespie.

He grew up hard and strong due to his father’s strictness and abusiveness[9]. Gillespie got introduced to music at the age of 10 by his English teacher, just after his father had died leaving his family in hard financial trouble. He primarily played the trombone, latter on switching to the trumpet, after trying out and training himself using his father’s instruments then latter on playing to audiences under local bands.

Gillespie received a music scholarship in 1913 at the Laurinburg institute in North Carolina. He studied harmony and theory for two years until when his family moved to Philadelphia in 1935. He continued playing with local bands, where he eventually picked his nickname “Dizzy” due to his vigorous style of music[10].

By age 18, Gillespie had moved to New York and his talent had already been noticed by several bands. Gillespie tried to play his trumpet with more youthful energy than ever before. He would play each trumpet solo faster than he did with additional notes from the previous [11]. Further more, on trying out the piano, he sounded good too without doubt. Gillespie would sit with bands, where he eventually met with Mario Bauza, a Cuban trumpeter who latter introduced him to Latin tunes and rhythms.

Gillespie’s New Ideas on Jazz Music and Contribution to Society By age 19, Gillespie had already become famous among the New York musicians who couldn’t help but notice his new vigorous take on the jazz music: He made use of the upper register of notes above C, playing with a super- fast speed using new rhythms and chord changes. Dizzy, is termed as one of the greatest trumpeters of the 20th century[12].

We will write a custom Research Paper on Dizzy Gillespie and Louis Armstrong: Jazz Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He is known for his vigorous on- stage movements that brought innovativeness to the trumpet players that were characterized by “jolting rhythmic shifts and ceaseless harmonic explorations” while playing the instrument. These explores saw the gradual and initial change of the American jazz from “swing” to “bebop”. The bebop tunes gained a vast recognition of being “modern jazz.”

Dizzy’s music survived the times of strong racial discrimination. He was personally involved in world tours in 1956 to inspire public diplomacy (Rice, 2006 as quoted by the USC center on public diplomacy)[13]. Dizzy’s creativity was able to reach out to people of different races, classes and culture. His involvement in the creation of music that spoke freedom to thin, innovate and speak. His famous tour, created a land mark event in the founding of a tradition of cultural diplomacy.

Comparison and Contrast Louis Armstrong is recognized by many as being the founder father of Jazz music. He channeled his interest to become innovative and create something new in the musical; realm, On the other hand, Dizzy Gillespie was a pioneer as well. He brought a new feel in Jazz music that saw it shift in to a more vigorous style (bebop).

Both Louis and Dizzy used their careers to reach out to the society and denounce racial discrimination. Today in the United States, Jazz is recognized as the major contributing factor to the attaining of public and cultural diplomacy. The only contrast between the two jazz legends is their style of music. While Louis loved to make smooth Jazz music (swing), Dizzy was more jubilant and vigorous in his music style (bebop).

Reference List Galupo, Scott (2010, April). King Louis and all that Jazz. Web.

Gentry Tony (1993). Dizzy Gillespie: Performer, Bandleader and Composer. New York: Melrose Square pub. Co.

Krakow Airc (2006). Louis Armstrong

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Albert Fish – the Serial Killer Essay cheap essay help

Albert Fish was born as Hamilton Howard Fish in Washington, D.C. on 19 May 1870. Most of his family members had a standing history of mental instability; for example, his uncle suffered from religious obsession, a brother was admitted in a mental hospital, another brother had suffered from hydrocephalus, which had made him to pass on.

More so, his sister had a mental affliction, three “other close relatives suffered from chronic mental illnesses, and his mother was believed to suffer frequent aural and/or visual hallucinations” (Chamblee, 2004).

Fish’s mother, forced to look for another source of livelihood due to her inability to take care of her son following the death of his father, took him to Saint John’s orphanage in Washington. While here, Albert together with other boys could be frequently battered and whipped in front of one another by their teachers. He eventually came to relish physical pain from the communal beatings and related sadistic acts of brutality.

By 1880, his mother got a fairly better government job and was able to take care of him; however, his behavior started to take a negative twist more so due to the kind of relationships he established, for instance, he adopted weird practices like taking human urine and “visiting public baths where he could watch other boys undress” (Wilson (1988).

By 1890, Fish had arrived in New York City, where he became a male prostitute; and at the same time began defiling and murdering young boys, a crime he kept committing not necessarily seeking sexual gratification, but because he enjoyed feeding on flesh of children (Hopkins, 2003, p. 3).

First incarceration Even after starting his professional life as a house painter, Fish’s ‘appetite’ for assaulting young children especially boys continued to grow; moreover his attention turned to mentally ill men, with a case in point being the relationship he had with a mentally impaired man, who at a given time he attempted to castrate. As if this was not enough, Fish started visiting brothels frequently where he could be whipped and flogged; and in 1903, “he was arrested for embezzlement and was sentenced to incarceration in Sing Sing” (Kray, 2007).

In 1917, Fish’s wife left him for John Straube, a rejection that caused him to start indulging in self-harm; for instance, he would always insert pins in his groin and removing them, a behavior that persisted until he could no longer remove the pins he had inserted (Newton, 2006, p. 78). Moreover, his psychological problems that involved elusions and hallucinations grew so much that he began to abduct, castrate, and torture young boys, a practice he claimed to have been directed by spiritual voices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early attacks and attempted abductions Fish happened to commit his first attack on a child, Thomas Bedden in the years 1910, and nine years later, he stabbed a mentally retarded boy in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. However, the most astonishing case was witnessed in the 1920 when Fish turned cannibal by kidnapping, killing and subsequently feeding on flesh of a ten-year girl (Philbin and philbin, 2009, p. 7).

Apparently, many of his intended victims would be either mentally disturbed or black Americans. However, his efforts to murder Beatrice Kiel were futile when the latter’s parents noticed his ill intentions and kept him off.

Second incarceration, arrest and trial Fish remarried in 1930, in New York; however, this marriage could not as well last for long as he eventually divorced his wife within seven days of marriage. In addition, Fish was later arrested in May 1930 for “sending an obscene letter to a woman who answered an advertisement for a maid” (Wilson, 1988). This was after a psychiatric observation Bellevue psychiatric hospital in 1930 and 1931 for observation, following his arrests; but two years before this, Ford had kidnapped Grace Budd, which led him to be arrested six years later.

Fish’s trial started in 1935 during which he defended himself alleging that he was insane. After much examination and trial, he was found both guilty and sane by the jury after which he was sentenced to death, followed by an execution a year later (Wilson, 1988).

Underlying cause for the evidence for the cause of Albert Fish’s behavior An analysis of Alvin Ford serial killer’s case is very closely related to that of Albert Fish. In 1986, the “United States Supreme Court used Florida’s procedure for determining mental competency for execution as a test case for banning execution of the mentally ill;” indeed, under Ford v. Wainwright “the eighth amendment prohibits the state from inflicting a penalty of death upon a prisoner who is insane” (Miller, and Radelet, 1993).

Although Florida’s procedure may now be constitutional on its face, in practice, Florida continues to execute the mentally ill. In 1974, Florida charged Alvin Ford with murder, after which he was sentenced to death. At the trial level, Ford raised no competency issues but after imprisonment, he showed symptoms of delusion, confusion, and psychosis.

A fourteen months examination by a defense psychiatrist revealed that Ford was suffering from paranoid Schizophrenia with suicide potential that hindered him the potential to defend his life. Other three governor- appointed psychiatrists examined him for only thirty minutes and discovered that although he exhibited mental disorder, he understood his total situation including his death penalty and the implications thereof (Wilson, 1988).

We will write a custom Essay on Albert Fish – the Serial Killer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the defense psychiatrist examined Ford, he concluded that Ford suffered from paranoid schizophrenia; however, although the examination of other three governor-appointed psychiatrists revealed that Ford suffered from mental disorder, they concluded that he understood his total situation, including his penalty and its implications.

When the case reached the Supreme Court, the Court’s plurality observed that no states allowed the execution of mentally retarded persons. The Justice in concurrence with Ford suggested a procedure used by Florida today that does not require full sanity prior to execution and an individual’s need to assist the counsel in his or her defense.

Even though the court left the standard and procedures open-ended, it clearly indicated that Florida’s procedure totally violated the eighth Amendment in three ways. (1) by denying the prisoner a mechanism to challenge the findings and impeach the findings of the governor appointed psychiatrists, (2) by placing the entire competency determination in the hands of the governor and (3) by preventing the condemned from playing any relevant role in the quest for truth (Chamblee, 2004).

Conclusion In comparison to Albert Fish’s case, Dempsey termed Fish as ‘a psychological phenomenon’. Psychiatrist Wertham also examined and found Fish to be obsessed with religion, cannibalism, and communion.

Fish himself pleaded insanity; however, although the jury found him sane and guilty, the reports, and examinations from other psychiatrists, rendering him insane should have been put into accurate consideration (Wilson and Seaman, 2004, p. 176). Fish’s activities totally reveal that he was mentally retarded, and if this is true, then the jury totally violated the United States Supreme Court’s eighth amendment.

References Chamblee, L. E. (2004). Time for a legislative change: Florida’s stagnant standard governing competency for execution. Web.

Hopkins, A. (2003). This Cannibal loved Kids – Literally. Weekly World News, Vol. 24, No. 19. Web.

Kray, K. (2007). The world’s worst crimes of 20 killers and their 1000 victims. Brooklyn, John Blake.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Albert Fish – the Serial Killer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, K. S. and Radelet, M. L. (1993). Executing the mentally ill: Criminal Justice System and the case of Alvin Ford. Michigan, Sage Publications. Web.

Newton, M. (2006). The encyclopedia of serial killers. Edition2. NY, Infobase Publishing. Web.

Philbin, T. and Philbin, M. (2009). The Killer Book of Serial Killers: Incredible Stories, Facts and Trivia from the World of Serial Killers. Texas, Sourcebooks, Inc. Web.

Wilson, C. and Seaman, D. (2004). The Serial Killers. London, Virgin Publishing Ltd.

Wilson, P. (1988). ‘Stranger’ child-murder: Issues relating to causes and controls. Forensic Science International, Volume 36, Issues 3.

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“The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Deceptiveness of appearance

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Written by Guy de Maupassant in 1881, The Necklace is a captivating short story that ends in a surprise. It is the most eye-catching work of Maupassant with all words contributing to the events that the narrative unfolds. It has garnered him a lot of acknowledgment.

The tale is set in Paris, France specifically covering Loisel’s home and the neighborhoods, ministry of education inclusive. Employing the elements of literature, Maupassant has used characters like monsieur Loisel, a clerk in the ministry of education, Mathilde, Loisel’s wife, Madame Jeanne Forestier, Mathilde’s neighbor and friend, Housemaid, Mathilde’s house servant, among others.

The writer takes the reader through the life of these characters and in particular, the poor family of Loisel and the rich family of Forestier. It unfolds that the kind of life depicted by these two categories of people is far from the reality. This illustration builds up the prevailing theme of the narrative ‘the deceptiveness of appearance’, which the writer employs to show how people are deceived by the appearance of others.

Deceptiveness of appearance Mathilde is a reasonably attractive girl regardless of her unfortunate family backgrounds. She regrets much owing to this poverty because she always compares herself with the other girls from well up homes. For instance, Forestier’s family is rich. She gets married to a mere government clerk. The ministry of education organizes a party for all its staff members, giving them a chance to invite their wives or husbands.

Ironically, thinking that this would thrill his wife, Loisel on delivering the invitation, realizes that it is more of a stress than joy to her. “Instead of being delighted, she threw the invitation on the table with disdain murmuring…” (Maupassant 39). The reason behind this is that she lacks elegant dresses and necklaces like other women, a case that makes her imagine how odd she can be if she attends the occasion.

They end up borrowing these from Forestier, but unfortunately the necklace gets lost after the event, an incidence that costs Loisel’s family virtually everything as they toil for ten years looking the money to purchase another one. They finally buy 36000 francs worthy necklace but on returning it to Forestier; she reveals its cost as just 500 francs. They are now in a severe financial crisis, though had they realized the truth, this would not be the case.

A major problem that the writer fails to clarify is whether Forestier resells the necklace to refund the extra money in order to reduce the debt incurred or not. This paves way to criticisms of his story, though he has managed to develop the dominant theme of the story. Mathilde stands out in the party as a rich and a high class wife owing to the diamond-appearing necklace that the people fail to realize that it was borrowed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Still on this theme, Forestier’s family is depicted as financially stable. It can afford some of the expensive things that poor families imagine of. Forestier has, not only one but many of them, unlike her counterpart Mathilde.

She wears them when attending great occasions, a case that earns her a good deal of recognition from other people. This is what Mathilde is yearning for. She wants to appear like her friend. She wants people to view her as rich. The writer shows how she longs for a recognized family name as well as an expensive dowry. By this she feels that she will appear like other rich families.

She is pictured as one, who is ever working towards achieving this reality, though what she publicizes is not what is on the ground. For instance, in the party, she appears the most elegant, a situation that makes all people want to chat with her, owing to what they are seeing, an expensive looking dress and a diamond necklace, but little do they know about the truth of the matter.

Following the issue behind Forestier’s necklace, it stands out that it is not made of diamond as people perceive. Though what appears in their eyes is the diamond look on the necklace, the story ends when Forestier reveals that it is just a mere coating. To strengthen his theme, the writer wants to show how the rich end up deceiving other people through their possessions.

Most of them appear costly before the eyes of people but rarely are they in their real senses. The value attached to some items, owing to their appearance, turns out to be many times different from their real values. For instance, the necklace appears 72 times expensive. The writer succeeds in showing how people mistake the rich people.

They have been portrayed as just appearing as if they are rich, which is not the case. Worthy noting is that the writer does not clarify about the child who appears to walk with Forestier. It is not clear whether he is intending to elaborate his theme further by introducing images of people who are not real characters, or not. This again welcomes criticisms to his works.

Conclusion Though dead and forgotten, Maupassant works speak volumes of his existence. The ideas behind his Necklace narrative stands out clear today. The issue of appearance is now everywhere with people struggling to hide their real selves in order to mislead others. Items have been manufactured bearing a false identity of others only to trick people. This is the kind of life that the writer was prophesying through the use of his major theme ‘the deceptiveness of appearance’ that he develops through the different characters.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Maupassant, Guy. “The Necklace” France: Word Press, 1881. P. 38-44.

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History of the Finger Printing Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents History of Finger Prints Since 1950

Scientific Changes and Methodologies

Critical Analysis

Advances in Technology and Limitations of Evidence

Predictions and Importance in Forensic Science

References

History of Finger Prints Since 1950 Prior to and after 1950 fingerprinting as a biometric method of identifying criminals in the field of forensic science had been settled upon as one of the most reliable methods of identifying criminals in the criminal justice system. One striking case where fingerprinting vindicated itself was when two men who looked exactly alike could not be differentiated until fingerprints were used to identify them.

They were later known to be Will and Willam West. When Willam West was sent to jail at U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth it was discovered that another look alike and with similar names had been imprisoned instead of the real Willam (Volokh, 1997).

The Bertillon system had been used to erroneously identify the victim. However, upon a thorough investigation and use of the fingerprinting system to distinguish between the persons, it was established that the wrong person had been sentenced in place of the actual criminal. That event caused the Bertillon system a serious blow as to its reliability. Apparently, the two men were discovered to have been identical twin brothers.

Though finger printing had been developed as a technique for the purpose of criminal record keeping, later centuries saw this technique being used as a tool for conducting forensic investigations. According to Volokh (1997), later fingerprinting led to the establishment of a database to facilitate their access and retrieval for criminal investigations.

Sir Francis Galton, described as one whose acuteness of understanding was unequaled in the field of statistics in his time, outstandingly pioneered fingerprinting, a technique that saw wide acceptance into the twentieth century. This was after the eugenic movement he had founded for criminal identification. Galton’s classification of fingerprint patterns was into three categories of loops, arches, and whorls. This approach was based on manual searches of identifying identical fingerprints.

Though Galton’s work continued to receive improvements and wide usage in the criminal justice systems in various countries, it was not until other agencies such as the FBI adopted the use of fingerprints in identifying suspects for criminal records. Computerization added impetus to fingerprinting with the establishment of fingerprint database systems.

In the early 1940’s and 1960’s, data processing technologies for fingerprint imaging were developed. This technology was the foundation upon which FBI processed several million fingerprints in 1946. Using the automated fingerprint identification system (AFCS), the FBI is said to have computerized fingerprints into two categories. One category was for criminal files and the other for civilian purposes. This was based on the newly acquired knowledge on data processing techniques.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Subsequent years saw other countries adapting this system and creating systems like the 1977 fingerprint society.The Finger Print Society had an international scope. The 1977 world’s certified fingerprint system by the Latent Print Society Certification Board was established with an overwhelming vote from delegates who attended a fingerprint conference at Louisiana on 1st August 1977.

At this conference, it was generally agreed that practitioners do make mistakes, concerns that could be addressed by the Latent Print Certification Board. Other later establishments included the 2005 Interpol’s Automated Fingerprint Identification System, and the 2010 advanced fingerprint database operated by the Department of Homeland Security (Volokh, 1997).

Scientific Changes and Methodologies Warden (2003) asserts that in the scientific mind of the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries, fingerprints were known to posses the unique attribute of remaining the same with time in addition to being known to be unique to each individual. Scientist had settled on fingerprinting as a system for identifying and categorizing fingerprints for identification purposes. Methods developed for this purpose included fingerprint identification, classification, capture, and detection as discussed below.

Fingerprints are classified into exemplar, plastic, patent, latent, and electronic prints. In the criminal justice system, exemplar fingerprints are taken by rolling them from one edge of the finger to the other of a criminal suspect. The most frequently used finger collection method is live scans or paper cards in this case.

On the other hand latent fingerprints can be made visible through chemical, electronic, or physical processing methods. These techniques exploit contaminations in the form of a stain, sweat, ink, or any kind of dirt. Latent finger prints had the disadvantage of being distorted during the collection and analysis phases.

The plastic print category had the critical attribute of making such friction ridge impressions on a body. This makes fingerprints easy to collect using a camera without any enhancements. However, possibilities of criminal accomplices’ fingerprints getting collected when investigating the principle criminal’s finger prints on surfaces that have clear impressions can be done by employing other techniques.

Such other methods include the electronic print. This approach is where someone sending electronic data also sends parts of his or her finger prints in the process, an impeccable source to capture and reproduce the finger prints for purposes of criminal investigations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on History of the Finger Printing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among the methods developed that have been developed in the early twentieth century and twenty first century include the ones discussed below. This method of capturing finger print images through the fingerprint capture and detection methods involved the use of Livescan devices.

This is a more modern method that provides a good quality fingerprint image when measuring the difference between the physical ridges and valleys of a finger. A sensor captures these differences from a suspect’s finger when a finger is exposed to a sensing area.

The latent fingerprint detection uses enhancers which can be powder or other chemical agents. These chemical reagents produce such degree of contrast as to render a clear definition of fingerprint ridges.

Among the most frequently used methods in criminal justice systems in the world today are laboratory techniques. This uses the vacuum metal deposition technique. The item under investigation is evaporated in a vacuum which is used in micro-fabrications. The principle processes involved here are substrate evaporation and condensation of substances. Though the resulting vapors are fuzzy, reliable results can be established from these tests. Complex equipments are used in the process.

Critical Analysis An analysis and criticism of the fingerprint classification method clearly shows the system to be prone to a high percentage of error when conducting comparisons between fingerprints. This method demonstrates a low degree of clarity, less details and content when compared to the actual ridge and groves.

Other methods could produce inconsistencies due to varied applications of pressure by a suspect this varying the actual outcome. The outcome depends on the pressure, physical orientation of the suspect, and variations in the shape of the elastic skin when a finger rolls on a surface, thus leading to inconsistencies in images captured from a suspect, a view held by (Ward, 1998).

An analysis of the latent fingerprint detection method indicates the method to be dependent on organic deposits such as water and inorganic salts to enhance its effectiveness. However, contaminations are bound to interfere with fingerprint findings. These contaminations result from the execration of sebaceous glands from the forehead.

These contaminations are further accelerated by man’s common behavior of touching the head or the forehead. This method can further be used to identify fingerprints in laboratories from items removed from a scene of crime. In the recent past and up to 2010, this method had registered a 50% success when used with other sophisticated techniques in investigating advanced crime scenes in laboratory environments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Finger Printing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, laboratory methods suffer from the element of unreliability. Some chemicals used in the process increase the unreliability of the results. Among the chemicals include the use of zinc and gold. The results are not specific when analyzing items from a scene of crime.

This has been due to a thin layer of up to one molecule thick formed for in the analysis for detection. Further still, the method suffers from the disadvantage of the greater percentage of a fingerprint evaporating in the process and leaving only 10% of its weight.

However, more advanced and complicated laboratory techniques have been developed with more reliable results. These include the fluorescent detection technique that is widely used all over the world today. This method has a further advantage in that inherent finger prints can be detected from an item collected from a scene of crime in the process of analyzing fingerprints from a principle criminal.

Advances in Technology and Limitations of Evidence The adequacy criteria to convict or not to convict a suspect criminal based on the use of no-intimate methods also referred to as fingerprinting relies on the probability of the significance of matches. A study by Collins and Jarvis (2008) on the wrongful convictions of forensic science reveals the free ride this field has enjoyed for over 50 years.

Systematic failures have been noted with these techniques due to either fraud or malpractice. One case study is that one of Professor Garrett. A research by Professor Garrett had led him to fail to give credit to the findings of forensic science. A suspect who was thought to have been involved in a carjacking incident in 2005, James Ochoa, who was later acquitted due to faults with forensic evidence presented during his trial later proved erroneous.

Another instance of the miscarriage of justice was witnessed when Ray Krone suspected of having a hand in a crime was prosecuted on evidence based on fingerprints. Krone is said to have maintained his innocence despite glaring forensic evidence. This case continued in the face of incompetent forensic evidence until an Attorney uncovered inherent problems with the forensic evidence adduced in court at the time.

In more modern times, the validity and reliability of fingerprinting has been questioned. The paradigms to evaluate, validate, and verify the degree of consistence and authenticity of fingerprints to assure validity of results is a question. That was what happened to Krone before other examinations were done to acquit him of the judges facing him.

In addition to that, tests done to verify the validity of forensic science as a reliable and flawless method of identifying criminals has been thrown into doubt. Objectively focused investigations have revealed glaring faults with this system.

Examinations and presentation of results in different lights have thrown the justice system into a quagmire of doubt regarding the incomplete and faulty outcomes. However, notwithstanding the few events of misconstrued and poorly analyzed fingerprints, success and reliability have been asserted by this science (Warden, 2005).

With the impetus gained in the use of fingerprints in identifying criminals, it has become evident that governments of the world have emphasized on the use of this method to identify criminals. Fingerprinting has found its way to being the most fundamental tool for identifying criminals and the civilian population within policy agencies and the criminal justice systems.

Fingerprinting has also in modern times been identified to be more reliable compared with other methods such as DNA analysis. The extent to which this method could be relied upon facilitated the formation of international organizations such as the International Association for Identification. This facilitated the birth of other forensic disciplines with different certification programs.

Several instances have discredited and reduced the confidence and reliability of forensic methods for criminal convictions and acquittals. One of these was a case involving Brandon Mayfield. During the Madrid bombing, Mayfield the lawyer was identified to be one of the criminal perpetrators.

This error was based on a finger print match by the FBI. To assert his involvement, matches were shown to be completely positive. The Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) had been used to analyze the fingerprints. However, the Spanish National Police’s identification system found Mayfield to be the wrong suspect. Mayfield had already spent two weeks in police custody.

Wasby (1983) presents a case that involved René Ramón Sánchez. On July 1995, the immigrant was charged with driving while under the influence of intoxicants. At the same time, a man known as Leo Rosario convicted of trafficking in cocaine had his fingerprints being processed concurrently with those of Sánchez which had been placed on a card with the name social security number.

Then, on 11th October, 2010 while returning from Jamaica, Sánchez whose physical descriptions were not anywhere near those of Rosario was mistakenly apprehended by policy who were satisfied they had held Rosario. However, Sánchez was later released after having spent time in police custody.

Zalman (2005) asserts that several other cases such as that of Stephan Cowans who was mistakenly convicted of attempted murder in 1997 had been identified. The conviction was based on the testimony of a witness, a fingerprint on a glass the purported criminal had drunk from. It was until DNA evidence was adduced in court that Cowan was released from prison after six years in jail. Sadly, Cowan died a few years later.

Predictions and Importance in Forensic Science Forensic science plays a key role in the criminal justice system. Certain cases require minute details that can only be made available through the advanced use of forensic science. The field has over the centuries grown in importance with more advanced techniques being developed to enable investigators pin point actual criminals from scanty evidence for all law enforcement agencies.

However, forensic science suffers from severe limitations. Among them is the reliability and validity of findings. In addition to that, some individuals mutilate their fingerprints when under investigations to destroy evidence. Investigators are prone to make errors as evidenced in the above case studies, an error that can lead one to erroneously serve a jail sentence.

References Collins, J

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Middle classes in America Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Expectation of the American middle class

The reality of the American middle class

Conclusion

Introduction The American middle class is not comprehensibly defined in the social classes of the US. Splitting this social class into two makes it easy for one to understand it better. There is the high middle class and the lower middle class Americans. The high or professional middle class comprises of educated professionals who hold high positions in the organizations.

The lower middle class also comprise of skilled professionals but those that hold lower managerial positions in organizations. In other words the lower middle class people can be termed as semi professionals.

Expectation of the American middle class The middle class persons are commonly expected and known to live in comfortable standards of living. Considering they have what can be termed as stable ways of earning income they are significantly economically secure. The American middle class individuals rely on their expertise to sustain themselves hence they can be able to have a progressive sustainable lifestyle.

They are people of substantial work autonomy which helps them to venture in sustainable businesses in their areas of expertise which gives them outlets to advance their living standards immensely. According to the majorities expectation the middle class people are supposed to live in spotlessly clean houses have at least two cars and one of the individuals should have a job in a corporation. The advanced in prosperity mighty are in possession of luxurious items like televisions etc.

The lower middle live in places next to the working class people and they live relatively comfortable lives. According to the salary range, American middle class individuals are people who build up great strong pillars in the economy therefore they should be able to build stable and strong lifestyles. The expectation is well feed and economically stable individuals offering a hand in nation building.

The reality of the American middle class Though the above is what many people would look for in identifying the middle class, a lot has changed in terms of expectation. The American lifestyle has changed and many people live together yet they are not married. Divorced people end up getting married again. These have contributed to high burdens of keeping up these big families.

These families have become common among the American middle class and hence they are progressively been accepted. Comparing the past and today, women today are employed and work as professionals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In reality most American middle class calls double income or two incomes for upkeep. To maintain the living lifestyle they are accustomed to. Keeping up their families especially those with children from other marriages which is a common occurrence in the American middle class needs two income to maintain the standards of living and the lifestyles they are used to.

Conclusion In conclusion the expected lifestyle for the American middle and what is happening on the ground are two different worlds. The American middle class are going through hard challenges trying to keep up with their lifestyles which are due to high standards of living and hard economic situation in the world. They should therefore learn to keep up with what they can handle and encourage two income to maintain their standards.

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Up from Slavery Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The historical issues often are rather controversial. Any historical fact can give rise to doubts of the historians and become a subject for scientific debates. An autobiographical work Up from Slavery by Washington Booker describes the relationships between the black and white people in the United States before the Civil War from a new unexpected perspective of the actual participant of the events.

Bookers’ memoirs do not contradict the descriptions of 1890s in The Awakening by Kate Chopin or The Strenuous Life by Theodore Roosevelt but add new significant information to them.

Instead of criticizing the opposition between the black and the white, Booker emphasizes the interpersonal relationships between the masters and their slaves, emphasizing the devotion of the latter to the white population.

Anyone attempting to harm ‘young Mistress’ or ‘old Mistress’ during the night would have to cross the dead body of the slave to do so… there are few instances, either in slavery or freedom, in which a member of my race has been known to betray a specific trust (Washington 28).

In this point Booker’s perspective is opposed to the widely spread bias concerning the hatred of Afro-Americans towards their odious masters. In a number of situations the relations were rather warm and some of the slaves got accustomed to their position and did not want to change their life style.

Giving rise to readers’ doubts concerning the generally accepted view on the confrontation between Afro-Americans and white population, Booker motivates them to get rid of their stereotypes. Pointing at another shift in public consciousness of Americans in 1890s, Kate Chopin sheds light upon the first signs of feminism in the society, choosing a woman struggling for her rights as the main protagonist of her book The Awakening.

“The years that are gone seem like dreams… Perhaps it is better to wake up after all, even to suffer, rather than to remain a dupe to illusions all one’s life.” (Chopin 292). The idea of awakening is rather broad and can be used to define various changes in the country of the period under analysis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Up from Slavery by Washington Booker can be regarded as a part of the 1890s America explored by Roosevelt emphasizing the same ideas of universal values which preceded the decline of slavery.

The outside world does not know the struggle that is constantly going on in the hearts of both the Southern white people and their former slaves to free themselves from racial prejudice; and while both races are thus struggling they should have the sympathy, the support, and the forbearance of the rest of the world (Washington 220).

A similar idea is proclaimed by Roosevelt who points at the significance of ensuring equal rights for all the citizens for demonstrating the level of development of the state and entering the world community as a civilized country. “In the end the slave was freed, the Union restored, and the mighty American republic placed one more as a helmeted queen among nations” (Roosevelt 5).

Thus, describing the phenomenon, both authors point at its devastating effects for further progress of the United States, while the decision to get rid of it was similar to getting rid of a burden that prevented the development.

Up from Slavery by Washington Booker views the situation in America of 1890s through the eyes of an Afro-American, adding a new perspective to the descriptions of the situation in the country in The Awakening by Kate Chopin or The Strenuous Life by Theodore Roosevelt, without contradicting or opposing to them.

Works Cited Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. New York: Bibliobazaar, 2008. Print.

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2006. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Up from Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Washington, Booker. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. New York: Bibliobazaar, 2008. Print.

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Necessary Target: Theatre Essay a level english language essay help

The Necessary Targets is a play that had been written by Eve Ensler. The highlight of the play is about the role of women in the society. The play had remarkably convinced readers to think about the women when it comes to warfare. The author had claimed that the first idea that one gets when we talk about war is man and the weapons but no one had ever tried to understand what happened to the women in the wars had affected humanity since the beginning of human’s life time.

The play Necessary Targets could be a very interesting play for the students to perform and equally experience it as an audience. It is being proposed that the projection of the play for school Theatre Company would be a great source of joy and legendary salute on the upcoming Women’s History Month.

Characters The published play tells the stories of many Bosnian women who had to go through the aftermaths of the war. The use author had mentioned that even though there were a lot of destructions in the era and many women had lost their brothers, sons, fathers and husbands, those Bosnian women did not want to take revenge. A number of female students can take part in the play and tell the stories of different women as mentioned in the published play (Ensler).

Character I:

The first character that could be projected in the theater could be of Azra who according to the author’s writing was the oldest woman. The character of Azra needs to be very sophisticated. The dialogue delivery will automatically take the grasp of audience’s attention. The character of Azra is more of a woman who does not have any reason in life to live. Azra had been shown to complain a lot in the course of the play. Azra would be the first character to be shown on the stage as she is most experienced about what happened in the war (Ensler).

Character II:

Saeeda is the next important character of the play as she is portrays the character of a very helpless mother. The character of Saeeda is more of a psychology imbalanced woman who had lost her only child while she was running from the men during the war. The person who would be playing the character of Saeeda must wear a bag made up of bundle of clothes where she tried to hide her baby daughter Doona.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Character III:

The third character would display a stronger woman named Jelena who is one woman who tries to calm the women in the group (Bovard). The character of Jelena would ultimately help the audiences to understand the emotional capacity of women.

Character IV:

Nuna is the fourth character of the play who is a young girl in the group. She does not have the idea how crucial the situations for girls would be because in the course of the play her attention is diverted towards the American women who had come to rehabilitate them. Nuna must be portrayed as a character that is greatly influenced from the American ladies and tires to ask questions from people to gain knowledge (Ensler).

Sets

The set should be set as the real scenarios of Bosnia. The set must be floored with soil and stones. Two camps would surely compliment the story as the author had written some scenes where the women told their stories while starring outside the camps. The camps are required to be khaki in color. It would be best if the camps are stitched with different pieces of clothes as the women are poor and had no one to provide them with basic needs (Morgon).

The set would also include a bathroom that would show the filthy condition in which women after the war had to live. A room must also be set up on the stage as it would be shown that the American women who came for women rehabilitation lived comfortably.

Costume

The costumes for the play are suggested to be very traditionally Bosnian. In Bosnian traditions, women are supposed to wear one long veil like robe. The fabric that will be used for the robe must be worn out. The clothes must be torn from the bottoms that will show the poor conditions of the women as they had no homes. The costume for the American women for rehabilitation services must be trousers and dark colored shirts with caps to wear on heads.

We will write a custom Essay on Necessary Target: Theatre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lights and Sounds

The sounds and the background music should be selected from the genre of mellow music as it will compliment the overall scenario of the play. Moreover, lights will be dim but it could be make brighter at the end of the play as it will enhance and the visibility of the characters while delivering the desired message to the audiences.

The portrayal of the play in the school theatre would be very interesting for the local audiences. Through the usage of proposed sets and theme, it would be easy for the audiences to understand the living conditions of the women during the war. In this way, the audiences shall also be able to understand the tradition of Bosnian women. The play will overall be a very excellent projection specifically for the women history month.

Works Cited Bovard, K. “Necessary Targets Review.” Theatre Journal 54.4 (2002): 642-643.

Ensler, E. Necessary Targets. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 2003.

Morgon, R. Sisterhood is Forever: The Women’s Anthology for a New Millennium. Washington DC.: Washington Square Press, 2003.

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China: The next hegemonic power? Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

China’s Strengths

IR theoretical framework

China’s weaknesses

Methodology

Reasons for Selecting the Above Methodology

Reference List

Introduction Global hegemony is a term mainly used to refer to a state in world affairs in which one nation exercises authority over the others because of a concentration of various powers in the former (Atasoy, 2009). The take-over of global dominance by the United States from Britain after the end of the World War I has revealed that there is one main reason as to why a country can cede supremacy over other nations. This reason is mainly overspending by the nations in power; a phenomenon sometimes known as imperial overstretch.

The United States has for a while now been the single most powerful nation in the world. However, as time progresses, other contenders are gradually emerging for the same title with China leading the pack.

This paper seeks to analyze the strengths that China has which could well be used to place it in a position of global politico-economic supremacy as well as point out the weaknesses that are pulling back the country in this regard. Aside from this, a brief detailing of an International Relations theoretical framework that can be used to explain China’s ascent into global supremacy shall be provided.

China’s Strengths The Chinese economy has been confirmed to have grown ten-fold in the last thirty years and that in the past decade its gross domestic product per capita has doubled. Between 50 and 60 percent of the country’s GDP is taken by the nation’s manufacturing sector and one notable example of this is the steel industry (Vogelmann, 2008). Between 1995 and 2005, China’s production of steel had grown by over 290 tones; a figure which translates to a yearly growth of 39%.

Such figures genuinely show that China is well on its way to a complete industrial overhaul. However, for China to rise to the level of making a mark as far as global hegemony is concerned, the impact of its growth has to be substantially appreciated by other nations across the globe. This growth will only make an impact if it is sustainable without sparking conflict between China and other superpowers.

China commands a great portion of the world marketplace meaning that it has a substantial say in most monetary issues (Vogelmann, 2008). For instance China recently declined to let its currency appreciate claiming that it wanted to keep its trade balance away from world knowledge.

This clearly illustrates that China is not willing to have other nations influence the decisions it makes on financial policies. As the country grows wealthier and in a sense becoming a key player in global economics and politics, its leaders will have to find ways of fostering peaceful relations with other nations, an aspect that will force them to downplay their nationalistic sentiments (Vogelmann, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another factor that could contribute to China upsetting the United States from global dominance is the sheer size of its military capabilities (Scobell, 2007). China is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and it therefore has unchallenged power over any issues that go through the organization’s chamber (Scobell, 2007). The country is also known to invest heavily in its military with its budget for this increasing by 15% last year.

IR theoretical framework One theoretical framework of international relations that can be used to explain the concept of hegemonic power is Neorealism sometimes known as structured realism (May, Rosecrance and Steiner, 2010). This is theory was fronted by Kenneth Waltz and it is basically an advancement to ideas engulfed in traditional realism schools of thought. This theory holds it that in order to explain how a state conducts itself, the structure of the society in which particular states operate must be taken into account.

According to this framework, structure is explained in two basic descriptions. The first is anarchy which is organization of global political and economic systems in alignment with one supreme power (May, Rosecrance and Steiner, 2010). The second is the emphasis on the military supremacy of nations that command worldwide authority in classifying the powers of countries as opposed to a combination of all state strengths.

This theoretical framework can definitely be used to explain China’s rise in the 21st century particularly because it holds that for a country to grow to such a position that it commands great authority in the world it must have a strong military base and even greater financial supremacy, aspects which are well present in China.

China’s weaknesses The greatest issue at the moment that would make China not get to the point of global dominance that it desires is that the country is basically viewed as a security risk (Vogelmann, 2008). It is generally acceptable that as a country’s economic supremacy grows, so does its tendency to want to meddle into the affairs of other nations by trying to maintain order world wide.

Chinese leaders are known to be prone to surrendering to nationalistic interests and if this submission is to occur with the country as the hegemonic leader, it could spark conflict, the size of the last world war. As a matter of fact China has a below par record when it comes to the issue of human rights and the country’s oppressive policies on the media rights have contributed to the country fairing badly in this issue (Scobell, 2007).

Methodology The research will be based on secondary data collection. Data will be extracted from various journals, articles and books. The criteria of selection for the literature will be the relevance to the research topic as well as the year of publication. Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries will be visited in order to access the data.

We will write a custom Research Paper on China: The next hegemonic power? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field. Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay. The possibility of China rising to global hegemony cannot be effectively analysed without obtaining information on the various strengths and spheres of influence of the country as far as world issues are concerned.

These strengths have to be compared with those of the United States which currently exercises global supremacy and Britain, from which the United States took over. This will definitely make for some interesting research and in as much most of the information will only be used for reference purposes, it will effectively came round to form the back-born of the paper.

Information from the books will serve to provide explanation as regards the internal machinations of global hegemonies. This will be very crucial information that will make the research report appeal to both professionals and the general public. For the latter, it may require that some of the information obtained from the books and other publications be broken down into simple language and at the same time illustrations drawn from the past and present manifestations of single-nation global dominance.

Empirical data will be collected from recent studies with numbers and figures used to show the costs and economical impact of a Chinese global hegemony and how it could effectively be used to serve as a guide for other nations that would like to rise to such levels of influence. Like with any other professional field of study, International Relations researches have to be conducted in such a way that the offer credibility to the practitioner.

In such a scientific field, the strength lies in the figures and particularly the numbers obtained from real life scenarios to support collected evidence. With this knowledge in mind, effort will be made to obtain relevant information to the particular topic in question and this will be accompanied by proper citation.

Reasons for Selecting the Above Methodology For any professional topic, chances are that extensive research has been carried out by professionals in the field before. Consequently, in order to establish the backbone of a given research project, it is only necessary that extensive review of literature be carried before identifying seeking first hand information from the field.

The latter, i.e. information collected from the field is also necessary since it helps give professional credibility to the project. Combining results from both sources would serve to foster their symbiotic relationship with one offering background information and the other presenting up-to-date information on the topic.

Reference List Atasoy, Y. (2009). Hegemonic transitions, the state and crisis in neoliberal capitalism. United Kingdom: Taylor

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Drug and Alcohol Testing Report essay help free

Drug Test A drug test is a scientific examination of a biological sample like urine, hair, blood, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva to establish the existence or absence of particular parent drugs or their metabolites. Deborah et al, (1998)stated that “one of the significance of drug test is testing for the presence of substance and detecting that encourages steroids in sports or drugs prohibited by laws, like heroin, cocaine and cannabis”(p. 32).

Urine Drug Screen

When an employer demands for a drug test from a worker the employee is characteristically informed to go to a gathering site. The employee’s urine is taken at an isolated position in a particularly designed protected cup, conserved with a tamper opposed to tape, and sent by means of express liberation service to a laboratory that is used in testing to monitored drugs.

The first stage at the testing site is to divide the urine into two separate aliquots. The first is used to test for drugs with the use of an analyzer that performs immunoassay for preliminary screening.

If the urine screen indicate positive, then a different portion of the sample is used to verify the presence of drugs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology (Lennart, 1991). All the test results are transferred to an MRO for extra and appropriate medical reviews on the collected results. If the result of the screen indicates negative, the MRO reveals that the worker has no plain drug to detect the presence of urine.

Thomas and Ulrike (2008) also explained that “the test result of the immunoassay and GC-MS are non-negative and confirm a concentration level of parent drug or metabolite above the well-known boundary, the MRO contacts the worker and to decide if there is any genuine reason for medical treatment or recommendation” (p. 6).

On-site direct drug testing is getting more extensively used in states permitting it as a more cost-efficient technique of efficiently identifying drug abuse that exist among employees, as well as in treatment programs to scrutinize patient evolution. Deborah and Joseph (1998) explained that these instantaneous tests can be used for both urine and saliva testing (p. 19).

Though the exactness of such tests depends on the manufacturer, some kits possess enormously high rates of correctness, associating directly with laboratory test results. Jim (2006) explained “about 5% of all the pre-employment urine samples tested positive for drugs”(p. 14). The effects are much higher for post-accident and logical suspicion test.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hair Testing

Analysis of hair samples has numerous rewards as an introductory screening method to test for the existence of drugs. The significance of hair testing include the non-invasiveness, reduced cost as well as ability to resolve a great number of possibly interrelated, toxic and physically essential elements. Particularly in the United States hair testing is becoming more and more useful for employers to test employees for possible prohibited drug use (Cathryn and John, 1989, p. 49).

Testing for the presence of both FAEE and ETG levels have been used in UK courts and hair testing for alcohol makers is now conventional in both the UK and US legal systems. There are strategies for hair testing that have been made available by the Society of Hair Testing that identifies the markers to be tested for and the cut-off concentrations that require testing.

Alcohol

Effective differentiating between other drugs consumed and alcohol, alcohol is not set down directly in the hair. The method used in this test ensures that the test procedure directs and generates products of ethanol metabolism. The most important part of alcohol is oxidized in the human body and it is given out as water and carbon dioxide, and this reacts with fatty acids to generate esters. Mireille (2003) explained that the amounts of the reflection of four of these fatty acid ethyl esters are useful in the indication of the alcohol use (p. 19).

Hatala (2003) stated that “the quantity found in hair is calculated and measured in nanograms though with the advantage of modern technology, it is likely to detect even very small amounts” (p. 43). In the testing of Ethyl Glucuronide, or EtG, testing can detect amounts in picograms.

Conversely, a significant difference exists between most drugs and alcohol metabolites as explained by Jim (2006) “in the way that they go through the hair, also, other drugs like FAEEs go straight into the hair through the keratinocytes, and this is the cell that is responsible for hair growth”(p. 43).

Mireille (2003) also explained that, “these cells structure the hair in the root and then grow through the skin exterior taking any essential materials along with them” (p. 22). As a result, the sebaceous glands secrete a substance in the scalp and then flow together with the sebum along the hair shaft (Jim, 2006, p. 14).

Drug Testing Methodologies Various kinds of drug tests come in different ways. Before a sample is tested, the tamper-evident seal is tested for consistency. If it emerges to have been interfered with or was injured during transportation, the laboratory will reject the sample and will not test it. Johnathan (2008) explained that, “one of the first steps for all drug testing is to make the sample to attain a testable state” (p. 45). Urine and oral liquid can be used for some tests, but other tests necessitate the drugs to be removed from urine earlier.

We will write a custom Report on Drug and Alcohol Testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threads of hair, scraps as well as blood must be organized before testing. Jim (2006) said that “the purpose of washing hair and keeping it clean is to get rid of second-hand sources of drugs on the external surface of the hair, after which the keratin is broken down with the use of enzymes”(p. 3). Sweat scraps are opened up and the sweat compilation element is drenched in a flush to break up any drugs available.

Laboratory-based drug testing is performed in such a way that it makes use of two different types of testing methods. The first is identified as the screening test, and this is functional to all illustration that passes through the laboratory.

The second is known as the confirmation test, which is only useful to samples that test positive throughout the screening test. Johnathan (2008) asserts that “screening tests are naturally executed by immunoassay (EMIT, ELISA, and RIA are the most common)” (p. 16). A measuring stick drug testing method that could at some prospective point provide screening test potential to field investigators has been developed.

After testing the positive sample, the sample is made standard and tested again by the confirmation test. Negative samples are screened, thrown away and described as negative.

The confirmation test in most laboratories is conducted via a mass spectrometry, and is enormously accurate but also moderately costly to run (Mireille, 2003, p. 35). False positive samples gotten from the screening test will be harmful on the verification test. Samples testing positive throughout both screening and confirmation tests are described as positive to the body that regimented the test.

A lot of laboratories save positive samples for some period of months or years in the occurrence of a doubtful result or court proceedings. During testing in a work environment, a positive result is usually not recognized without a reassessing the product by a Medical Review Officer that will question the subject of the drug test.

Drug Testing Methods Urine Drug Testing

Urine drug test kits are accessible as on-sight tests, or laboratory analysis. Mireille (2003) asserts that “urinalysis is the most common test type and it is used by federally authorized drug testing programs that are considered as gold standard of drug testing” (p. 43).

Urine based tests have been maintained in most courts for over 30 years, though, urinalysis conducted by the department of defence has been questioned for consistency of testing the metabolic nature of cocaine. However, Johnathan (2008) explains that “there exist two connected metabolites of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZ) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), the first (BZ) is produced by the existence of cocaine in an aqeous solution with a pH greater than 7.0, while the second (EME) is generated the actual human metabolic process” (p. 47).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drug and Alcohol Testing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The existence of EME verifies genuine intake of cocaine by a human being, while the existence of BZ is suggestive only. Oral fluid is not measured as a bio-hazard except there is observable blood, though; it should be handled with extreme care (Thomas and Ulrike, 2008, p. 46).

Spray (Sweat) Drug Testing

Spray (sweat) drug test outfits are non-insidious. It is very simple to collect the specimen that no bathroom will be required for collecting the specimen. The detection window is extended and can typically detect drug use up for a number of late. These drug tests are comparatively tamper proof since they are very difficult to influence and it usually does not require a laboratory for analysis.

Mireille (2003) stated that huge differences of sweat assembly rates of potential donors make some results questionable. There is not much assortment in the drug tests since they are not as well-liked as urine or saliva drug testing kits (p. 42). Their prices are normally higher for every test performed. One major drawback of this testing method is the inadequate amount of drugs that can be distinguished, and the capability to create instant results.

Hair Drug Testing

Hair drug testing is capable of detecting drug use over a very long period of time and it is often used for highly safety significant positions where there is zero acceptance of drug usage. Standard hair follicle screen extends to a period of 30-90 days. The growth of hair is typically at the rate of 0.5 inches per month. If the hair on the head is not available, body hair can be used as a suitable alternative (Miller et al., 2009, p. 34).

Even if the person being tested has a bald head, hair can also be collected from roughly any other part of the body like facial hair, the underarms, arms, and legs. However, it is always claimed that hair test cannot be interfered with, it has been made known that this is basically incorrect. For instance, THC does not voluntarily put down inside epithelial cells so it is likely for superficial and other forms of defilement to lessen the amount of testable cannabinoids that exists in a hair sample.

Legal, Ethics and politics of Mandatory Drug Testing

Drug testing is likely to detect cannabis users, since THC metabolites are fat dissolvers and have the ability to stay longer in the body than those other drugs that are broadly measured as very dangerous like cocaine and heroin. Thomas and Ulrike (2008) explained that this can help direct possible cannabis users to switch to drugs that are less harder, most of which normally have considerably shorter detection period or are less expected to be tested for (p. 24).

It has also been observed that regular medical tests are prone to errors of the same type that intimidate the correctness of drug tests, but medical tests are neither accidental nor obligatory, and are typically performed in test boards that provide the physician with a number of results to infer together, with abnormal combinations normally resulting in retesting and a hunt for other supporting verification. Also, drug tests are not parts of such panes, and other verification is often not obtainable.

Conclusion Drugs and alcohol testing are forms of medical testing that can be used to detect the presence of drugs or alcohol in one form or the other in the body. Therefore, it is very important that that drug testing is carefully performed so as to arrive at the exact or correct test.

References Cathryn, J.

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