Introduction Deciding the right feeding plan (between breastfeeding and formula-feeding) for babies is one of the critical resolutions expectant mothers can make. Presently, many health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Dietetic Association (ADA) advocate for breastfeeding of babies up to (but not limited to) six months (Dare
Information system Essay college application essay help
Implementation challenges in the case Children’s Health Fund (CHF) is a very ambitious initiative that will help ensure that the poor in this society get access to quality healthcare facilities. Its Mobile Medical Clinic (MMC) will enable the team of doctors to move from one location to another. However, it is important to appreciate some of the challenges that this project face during its implementation. One of the main challenges that come out from this case is the source of funding.
Well-wishers fund this project. This means that the capacity of this program to meet the medical demand is limited to the amount of funds it receives from this group. Another problem is that the medical officers can only be found at one location at a time using their blue van. This makes their service unreliable, especially in cases of emergency. Given that the service is offered in several states, the service offered by this firm will make minimal impact.
Some of the above problems can be addressed using technology. Health information technology (HIF) can be used to enhance information management. The management team of this firm can develop programs that will help process and store clients’ information in a protected database.
The database manager should be responsible for the management of client’s data to ensure that this firm is in line with the laws governing this sector. In order to have access to vital data while in the field, the mobile van should have a wireless communication system that will link the MMC’s database with the firm’s central database at the headquarters.
In order to enhance management consistency, MMC should develop decision support system (DSS) that will guide management officers while in the field. Their decision will be based on information available in the database of the firm. DSS can also help the medics determine what the patient could be suffering from, by comparing the current symptoms of the patient and available data on similar symptoms and the conclusions previously made (Brown, DeHayes, Hoffer, Martin,
Medical Office Management Expository Essay college essay help: college essay help
To be a Medical Records and Health Information Technician (MRHIT) requires a postsecondary non-degree education. This means one must undergo high school education and relevant education training in clerical work and language. An education in computer and electronic use is relevant in the mentioned profession. However, having a bachelor’s degree in a medical office management is highly recommended.
At Iowa, the state and national requirements for the profession are a high school diploma, an associate degree, and a bachelor’s degree. Additional certificates are a master or doctoral degree in a medical office management. According to Skurka (2012), these certificates must be issued from accredited institution or medical training facilities under the supervision of American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA).
State and national requirements for MRHIT certificate at Iowa include are certificate in computer technologies, medical insurance and coding. Others include a certificate in health information and medical records and basic knowledge in accounting.
The median salary for MRHIT in Iowa is at $14.71 compared to a national median salary of $16.42 per hour (U.S Department of Labor, 2013). In the same context, the annual median salary in the state is at $30,600 compared to $34,200 at the national level (U.S Department of Labor, 2013).
The fact that the American aging population is increasing, demand for MRHITs is also increasing. It is estimated that the job opportunities for MRHITs will increase by 21% in every 10 years (Mertz
Divorce through a child’s eye Term Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
First impression of divorce in a child’s eye
Family system theory and divorce
Attachment theory and divorce
Divorce and the social exchange theory
Introduction Children who are born and brought up in a family setup develop a special relationship with their parents. Each member of the family plays a critical role and a gap is recognized any time a certain member of the family is absent.
Depending on the relationship agreements, the parents divide roles amongst themselves and children learn to live within the social class of their parents. Obviously, each of the family members would wish that the life trend continues forever, but sometimes, that may not be the case. A time may come when the behaviors of either of the parents change completely.
The father, for example, may decide to become depressive and abscond from his duties. In such a case, the mother takes on the burden of caring for the whole family. If the father continues with the unimpressive behaviors, the mother would become tired and seek for a divorce. Some cases have happened where the mother turns to live a reckless life that forces the man to resolve to divorce. The later is a rare occurrence; however, regardless of the cause of divorce, the children are the immensely affected victims.
Children, especially those in their tender ages fail to understand why they can no longer live with both parents (Eisenhard, 2012). In this case, we have an interviewee who was a victim of divorced parents at the age of sixteen. The teenager was in denial since she could not believe or understand how she could just stop seeing her beloved dad. This paper will base its discussion on the interviewee’s answers to address the issue of divorce through the child’s eye.
First impression of divorce in a child’s eye When life begins taking the other side of the coin, there is a lot of confusion. The interviewee started experiencing many unexplainable ill signs. The parents began trash talking each other, and each side of the family despised the other. The family members from the mothers said ill things about their father and the father’s family that despised her mother.
The teenager was caught in confusion; she could not understand what was going on, neither could she tell whom to believe. At one point, the child watches his father sleeping with a cigarette in his mouth. This is a clear sign that her father was extremely depressed. On reporting the incidence to the mother, the innocent child gets blows the following morning.
Her father is extremely mad such that he throws his shoe on her. This is a very disgusting scene and the interviewee indicates that the confusion affected her grades. Her grades dropped drastically during this period, and her emotions changed instantly. She could get mad at people easily and start quarrels with her siblings for no tangible reason. Form this point of view, it is evident that divorce is a scenario that brings in a lot of confusion, disbelieve and denial of the whole truth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Family system theory and divorce The family system theory tries to bring out the exact relationship that exists between the family members. Each of the family members develops an interdependent relationship with the other. The relationships formed are so strong such that breaking the bonds proves to be very difficult (Bell, 2010).
The interviewee indicates that she could have her mother’s family members talking ill of her father. Whether whatever the family members said was true or not, she could not believe them. The interviewee started seeing her father less often, and they could only meet in special places for some limited time.
The divorce robbed the teenager of her beloved father. She really hoped that things would work out for her parents and they would get along. The innocent teenager could not comprehend the fact that divorce meant total splitting of the family. However, despite the immerse interaction patterns that had formed between the family members, the mother could not settle for less. She could not get along with the infidelity of her partner, and she opted for a split family rather than a family of distress and agony.
The interviewee mentioned that immediately after knowing that her parents were divorcing, she could not absorb the fact, and she kept on pushing the thought at the back of her mind. Her parents would fight at her sight and she kept on disbelieving what she saw. Although the interviewee found it difficult at first, she understood everything later on. After the divorce, each of the parents owned the teenager an explanation.
The father had a story that defended him, and the mother had her side of the story. Finally, she had to settle on one truth, infidelity is what made her parents divorce. She is currently twenty years, and she can understand the agony that her mother underwent to seek refuge in divorce. Despite the fact that her parents divorced, she is happy for them because there is a lot of calmness and everyone is happy.
Attachment theory and divorce As a family develops, strong emotional attachments form between the family members. Healthy emotional attachments between the family members enable the family to live happily. Parents who have a strong attachment to their families will work tirelessly to ensure they offer the best for the family.
The children develop strong attachments with their parents, and as they grow, strong emotional relationships occur (Mercer, 2006). After the age of six months, children are able to identify and sensitively respond to their caregivers. As children grow, they seek protection from the people around them and thus build a special attachment with their caretakers. The children grow up believing in their parents, thinking about them, and expecting a lot from them.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Divorce through a child’s eye specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The divorce scenario caught the teenager in surprise. Throughout her life, she had developed a strong attachment with both parents. The teenager developed a separation anxiety because she actually lost a special attachment figure. At first, the interviewee could not believe that she could be a victim of divorced parents, but it really happened. With disbelieve, the interviewee’s grades dropped at first as her mind was preoccupied with the thought of her divorced parents.
The interviewee had to develop an adaptive response, and she slowly gained back her confidence and developed increased strength that enabled her to score higher grades than before. The social life slowly changed and the interviewee felt like she would address her issues to her pals. As she grew, she developed a different perspective of life. She grew up knowing that a marriage commitment ought to be taken seriously.
From experience, the interviewee testified that individuals should understand that family splitting affects the entire life of the children. The interviewee was sixteen when the fateful incident happened, and four years down the line, she could comprehend everything. However, for her siblings who were very young when her parents divorced, it could take quite some time to comprehend everything that happened.
Divorce and the social exchange theory The social exchange theory is very interesting as it explains the individuals’ interest in a family. The exchange theory states that individuals enter into relationships to reap maximum benefit and minimize the costs (Miller, 2005). In a family setup, the exchanges between the parties involved ought to be fair and balanced, thus enabling the involved parties to reap mutual benefits. The individuals in a family express behaviors that generate the greatest reward.
According to behavioral psychologists, family members will repeat the gainful behaviors provided they reap the required fruits. The Unitarian economists state that human beings will research on the necessary information, and employ all behaviors needed to make rational decisions that would reap maximum benefit. However, in some cases, the more the individuals in a family receive the reward, the more the reward loses its value, and that is when relationships start becoming sour.
The interviewee’s parents stated losing value of their relationship benefits when she was sixteen years old. The father could no longer find value in the intimate relationship with his wife, and thus he decided to become unfaithful. On the other hand, the mother weighed the benefits and costs associated with an unfaithful marriage, and of course, the costs outweighed the benefits.
Probably, the father could no longer provide for the family as he did before. The attachment between the father, children, and his wife was lessened as compared to the early days when the father did not have a third party to attend. The woman could also encounter the risks and costs associated with contacting sexually transmitted infections if she continued to cling to the marriage.
There being no more benefits of confiding in the marriage, she opted for divorce. It took the teenager some time to comprehend the cost benefit analysis that made her mother settle for a divorce. It is after she reached her twenties that she understood the emotional sufferings that her mother underwent during those tough family moments. She is now contended and happy because regardless of the split family, everybody is living happily.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Divorce through a child’s eye by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the discussions, it is evident that children are greatly affected by their parents’ decision to divorce. However, it is necessary for people to take a stringent analysis of the underlying issue that forced one to seek for divorce before making judgments. Clinging to an unfaithful marriage would pave way to many life problems than resolving for a divorce.
However, if possible, parents should always try as much as possible to keep their marriages. They should try to apply the utilitarian theory that requires couples to find out the necessary information of the behaviors that reap maximum benefits in the family union. Each of the family members should take actions that benefit the entire union.
Divorce should be the last thing couples should settle for as it adversely affects the children as well as the parent who will be separated from their kids. As the interviewee stated, people who make marriage commitments should stick with the commitments since bridging the commitments affects the children as well as the entire community.
References Bell, D.C. (2010). The dynamics of connection: How evolution and biology create care giving and attachment. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Eisenhard, T. (2012). The D-Word: Divorce through a child’s eyes. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
Mercer, J. (2006). Understanding attachment: Parenting, childcare, and emotional development. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Miller, K. (2005). Communication theories. New York: McGraw Hill.
Jazz Music Report Report best college essay help: best college essay help
The day when I told myself that it had been a while since I last attended a jazz concert happened to be the pivoting point in my vision of New Jazz music. The concert featured the compositions that had been around for quite a while and seemingly had no surprises.
Nevertheless, because of a new and imaginative way to interpret the compositions known by millions of people for quite a while, the concert left a huge impact on me and changed my perception of the concept of the New Jazz music in general and the works of some New Jazz musicians in particular.
The impact that the songs left with me is very hard to nail down. On the one hand, the unique interpretations of the songs were a fresh breeze in the range of traditional reiterations of the already existing versions. On the other hand, some of the interpretations rubbed me the wrong way, perhaps, only because I was so much used to the traditional versions of these songs. Anyway, it was rather engaging to listen to the new ways of singing old time classics.
The shift from Fender Rhodes solo to saxophones trio in Gaviota might be considered too much of a risk for the band to take. Seeing how the song clearly sounded very differently from the traditional performance, the audience might have easily refused to accept the version suggested by the band. However, much to my surprise, the new vision of the composition did not cause any misconceptions or unwillingness to see Clare Fischer’s creation in the new light.
The change in the choice of the instrument, however, did lend the song a more lounge-like sound, which seems to go against the author’s intent. While Fischer’s original version chimed in with the charm of the Girl from Ipanema with its bossa nova style, the concert interpretation was clearly aimed at triggering associations with the style preferred in the XXI century, which blends the influences of the mellow, classic and lounge jazz.
The same cannot be said, however, about the interpretation of Joseph Kosma’s Autumn Leaves played during the concert; an obvious homage to the composer, the given version did not deviate from the one that was introduced initially. At some point, however, the idea of replacing the flugelhorn with a more upbeat trumpet can be considered a rather risky choice; because of comparatively higher range, the cheerfulness of the composition might be seen as somewhat out of place.
Michael Franks’s Tell Me about It was revamped rather successfully, too. Originally quite boring, for my taste, song that every single jazz musician needs to come up with at some point in his/her life for some reason, it gained a new meaning as it was performed by a female artist. Perhaps, owing to the fact that the performer’s voice did not match Franks’s pitch and let the song sink into a lower tone, the composition sounded more sincere and refined.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast to Franks’s performance, the interpretation provided by the female singer actually helped understand the lyrics better and feel the light sadness that the entire song was shot through. It was not that Franks could not perform his own song the right way – it was just that the new performer added another shade of meaning to Tell Me about It, and I happened to like that new meaning better.
The same cannot be said, however, about the next song that I was offered to listen to, Dizzy Gillespie’s Soul Sauce (Sutro 169). In contrast to the performances that came previously, it was rather jumbled. In contrast to the traditional version, which had a weird yet appealing rhythm to it, the concert version, which was clearly going for a much smoother version, yet tried to retain the original sound, was all over the place.
Palmer’s Leapfrog to Harlem, along with George Stone’s I’m out of Time, Too, was performed rather nicely, yet it clearly lacked the sound of trumpet, which help the original composition together and made it unique. By replacing the trumpet with the saxophone, the performers managed to add the composition a distinct scent of the “big city lights,” yet the replacement was deadly to the originality of the composition, turning it into another lounge jazz piece.
Arguably, the musicians were in a no-win situation – there was nothing that they could have done to revamp the song and leave it recognizable. If they had made too many changes to make it more palatable, the audience would have said that the new song sounded nothing like the old one; if the musicians left it intact, the audience would have argued that this was another pointless recycling of the “old gold.” Anyway, the rest of the concert was quite decent and even had a few pearls to be discovered ahead.
Abstract Image, a composition written by Fred Sturm, did not have any major surprises for me in terms of the choice of the instruments; however, the performance was rather neat, and the saxophone that replaced the original penny whistle was quite clever. Unless the musicians had made the given change to the song, the latter would have been completely out of place in the realm of the XXI century smooth jazz that the concert offered its visitors to plunge into.
For me, the given interpretation of Sturm’s most famous composition was, actually, a chance to take a new and unbiased look at the whole New Jazz concept (Clark 8). Previously believing that it was nothing but consistent attempts to bring postmodern chaos into the music that was not supposed to be orderly and follow strict rules by default, in contrast to, say, the classical music, I finally realized that the New Jazz era is a means to breathe new life into the genre that has so much potential in it and yet is forgotten so shamelessly.
Speaking of New Jazz, the interpretation of Matt Harris’s Snap Crackle snatched me out of the gloomily thoughtful mood. While the performers clearly made it sound more smoothly, it still created a charming atmosphere of carelessness. Followed by James Miley’s Three-Fingered Jack, it served as a means to switch from the process of quiet meditation to the state of musical delight.
We will write a custom Report on Jazz Music Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sammy Nestico’s Mind Machine added more whimsy to the concert. Actually, at this point, I felt the idea of introducing more whimsy to the concert rather redundant, since the atmosphere created by the musicians needed a heartfelt moment rather than a moment of vivacity; however, at this point, the idea of changing the tone of the concert was a rather welcome change of pace.
Horace Silver’s Peace was a logical solution to link the previous part of the concert to the point at which it was going to end. Sophisticated and slow, it led to Tony Martinez’s famous Pa’lo Latino, which was a perfect way to end a fairly good performance.
The concert definitely left me in a completely different mood from the one that I was when I arrived there. While I could not say that I liked every single interpretation of the compositions that had already become household classics by the beginning of the XXI century, they definitely offered a lot of food for thoughts and even more for aesthetic savoring of the moment.
Works Cited Clark, Andrew. Riffs
Trolley Problems Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
There are two cases presented for analysis in this essay; Trolley Problem I and Trolley Problem II. In the first case, a runway trolley would kill five people on its pathway. These persons can only be saved by pulling the switch in the train. However, pulling the switch would kill one person.
The dilemma is whether to pull the switch or not. In trolley problem II, a runaway trolley would kill five people on the pathway if it stays on its course. Again, pushing a stranger to the track is the only way to save these persons. The body of the stranger would prevent the train from hitting the five people. Nevertheless, the train would kill him. Again the dilemma is whether to push him or not. In both cases, the response is yes because in either way there would be loss of life. Therefore, it is better to save many lives at the cost of a single life.
Immanuel Kant was one of the most prominent philosophers. He is widely regarded as a key figure of the present philosophy. Kant argued that human beings should act in a way that upholds humanity as an end but not to meet certain goals.
According to him, rational beings should never be treated simply as tools for achieving certain ends. Instead, they are regarded as an end in themselves and their rational motives must be respected. Kant argued that there are some kinds of actions, such as murder, stealing, and dishonesty, which are totally forbidden, even if they would result into more joy. In applying Kant’s ethics to the trolley problem I and II, there are two queries that must be taken into consideration.
First is whether it is rationally justifiable for every person to act in a similar way. Second is whether the action upholds humanity and not simply using beings to meet certain goals. If the answer to both questions is no, then the action should be avoided. Apparently, in both trolley problems I and II, the act of pulling the switch and pushing a stranger to the train pathway would kill them and save the lives of five other people.
These acts would mean using human beings to make an end, preventing the death of five people. Per se, these actions would not be accepted by Kant. A reasoning being cannot sensibly accept being treated simply as an object to make an end; they are regarded as an end in themselves. The two acts contravene Kant’s ethics and are not acceptable. In addition, Kant would refute such acts if adopted by everybody.
Jeremy Bentham and Stuart Mill were the two philosophers who developed utilitarian ethics. Utilitarianism stresses on the outcome of actions, which are either pain or pleasure. According to the theory, the right action is that which results into greatest pleasure over pain. However, the consequences of an action are not considered only to a person but for everyone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the consequences of an action are analyzed based on its long-term effects. Utilitarian ethics claim that in any particular dilemma, the right decision to make must result into more joy and least sadness for most people (O’Donohue
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the recent historical incidences in the world
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world
Future pointers to the contemporary developments in the world
Introduction The different schools of thought in the field of political science denote that the world is a global stage on which the actors advance their activities. It is important to note that the world is not merely a stage, but a complex stage that is marked by complex actions from the states who are the major actors in the global stage, as well as other players.
This paper explores the critical developments that have taken place in the world over the past few years. Of greater essence in the paper is bringing out the factors that have shaped these developments and the use of theoretical foundations in the field of political science to paint a picture of the future developments and incidences in the global stage.
Overview of the recent historical incidences in the world The developments at the global stage from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time depict critical developments in the political and economic realms.
The past five years have seen the rise in the scale of global trade, growth in the issue of democracy and human rights that features in the global political uprisings across the Arab region, the increased scale of competition in national politics based on the dimensions of opinions on the events taking place on the global stage, the expansion of individual country capacities in technology, and the widening debate about the issue of economic development relative to the subject of environmental sustainability.
These developments are still eminent in the contemporary globalized political environment and they continue to influence the course of events in the modern globalized society.
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world As observed in the introductory note, the developments in the world largely denote aspects of competition, as well as the aspects of cooperation in dealing with the emerging issues at the global stage. The recent developments in the world are a pointer to the fact that both the tendencies of realism and idealism are evident in the interaction within and among the players on the global stage. However, the most important thing to note is that the world is confronted with a lot of political and economic issues.
The past five years have seen a heightened scale of restlessness across the Arab Region. Beginning with the revolution in Libya, followed by the revolution in Egypt, Libya and the recent developments in Syria, it is evident that concerns about democracy and the reconsideration of the systems and forms of governance have taken root in global politics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the Arab region has been marked with conflicts for a long time. However, the series of revolts in the Arab region and the resultant ousting of the longstanding political leaders and governments in the countries that witnessed the revolution is an important marker when it comes to the issues of democracy and the increase in the demand for political participation (Doyle, 2013).
A close observation of the revolutions that have been taking place in the Arab region reveals a similarity of a number of revolutionary features. The first feature revolves around the issue of autocracy and the elongated period of political leadership by a single individual.
The second thing about the political unrest in the Arab world is the limited space for political participation and the question of human rights and democracy. The third aspect of similarity, which largely features in the grievances of the rebels, is the deterioration of the standards of life due to the interconnectedness of the economic policies and political decisions (Twair
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Is Catholicism a Unique Religion? Catholicism refers to various doctrinal and theological traditions that characterize Christian entities in contemporary society. It embodies practices that define beliefs and ethical conduct with regard to Christians. Despite its general disposition, most people construe it as an embodiment of the Roman Catholic Church.
In certain instances, people view Catholicism as a description of Christian theological entities that bear witness to the teachings of Jesus Christ (Barron 11). In other aspects, the term describes a community of protestant churches whose hallmark lies in their contrarian approach to theological and doctrinal interpretation of scriptures and Christian beliefs (Barron 11).
There are experts who believe that Catholicism refers to the institution of the Roman Catholic Church that receives guidance and tutelage from church leadership in Rome, Italy.
According to this school of thought, Catholicism is distinct for its stringent adherence to institutional practices that promote retention of traditional practices with regard to functions within its jurisdiction. Due to its conservative nature, Catholicism enjoys exclusivity and ability to control various undertakings that define its essence in contemporary society (Barron 13).
Catholicism also asserts the essence of sacraments and their role in entrenching and upholding Christian values. Mediation and intercession is a key feature in Catholicism. Believers depend on mediation whenever there is need for divine intervention. Such practices explain the relevance of saints among Catholics. Saints act as intermediaries between believers and God, especially during moments of hardship and suffering (Barron 16).
Other important aspects of Catholicism include Holy Communion and the Holy See in Rome. Catholicism embodies various belief systems that define core values and practices. For instance, it supports celibacy and dedication to Christianity through prayer and service to humanity. Through such practices, the church endeavors to spread Christianity and demonstrate how God’s love serves as a unifying factor for individuals in different societies.
In light of the above submissions, it is important to note that Catholicism does not suffice in the context of a single denomination or theological entity (Barron 17). It should reflect the essence of universal Christianity as opposed to a specific reference to the Roman Catholic Church. Viewing Catholicism in a subjective fashion does not satisfy the desire to comprehend and articulate issues that relate to Christianity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, Catholicism refers to a community of believers who owe allegiance to teachings of Jesus Christ. In a broader sense, Catholicism covers institutions and denominations that practice Christian values and beliefs (Barron 21). The principle of Catholicism denotes universal Christianity and all aspects of its practice and propagation. It encompasses differences and similarities that manifest in universal Christianity.
It is difficult for anyone to define Catholicism as a unique religion because it represents numerous theological and religious outfits. The religious outfits that characterize Catholicism have divergent views and interpretations with regard to doctrinal and theological principles. Despite such differences, they profess Christian faith as their sole motivation and impetus for religious practice (Barron 24).
Is There a Single Universal Christianity or Several Universal Christianities? As earlier mentioned, Catholicism refers to religious groups that profess faith in the divine teachings of Jesus Christ. This definition exhibits contradiction that arises in reference to Catholicism as a unique religion. It is important to understand the essence of various outfits that profess belief in teachings of Jesus Christ.
Such outfits portend fundamental discrepancies in their interpretation and understanding with regard to religious and theological tenets. Doctrinal and theological differences do not affect their ability to connect and address believers whose concern revolves around Christian values (Barron 31). A single universal Christianity is nonexistent because there are numerous groups that suffice as catholic. For instance, there is a catholic church that that pledges allegiance to the Bishop of Rome.
Indeed, this practice is a key element among those who profess Catholicism. It comprises Eastern and Western divisions that serve as its core support base. This strain of Catholicism believes in the essence and rationale of apostolic succession. Apostolic leadership and guidance is an integral reality among Catholic believers (Barron 34). The Eastern and Western divisions cover different areas of command but claim allegiance to the church leadership in Rome.
Another group abides to orthodox beliefs and teachings. This outfit believes in apostolic leadership and guidance with regard to leadership on religious matters. They trace their religious foundations to ancient Christian practices and subscribe to early Christian beliefs. The Orthodox Church claims its allegiance to teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Two major outfits manifest with regard to orthodox beliefs and teachings (Barron, 35).
They include Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western wing that has slight alterations to basic doctrinal interpretation. Both orthodox churches differ on fundamental areas of interest with regard to religion and interpretation of scriptures. Other protestant and evangelical churches broke away from the original Catholic Church because of differences in doctrine and interpretation of scriptures. Examples of such religions include Anglican Church, Lutheran, and Reformed Catholic Church.
We will write a custom Essay on Christian Theological Entities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They all believe in the concept of apostolic succession and swear allegiance to the Bishop of Rome. However, they harbor major differences with regarding to traditional practices within the church (Barron 39). Most of their practices are identical to those of the Catholic Church but differ in certain areas such as celibacy and family issues. Other Christian entities believe and practice apostolic leadership but have no historical or documented link to apostolic tutelage, as evidenced in the early Christian community (Barron 43).
Due to this reality, the Catholic Church does not recognize their union and fellowship with regard to religious practices. However, it is important to note that such religious outfits are valid because they have members who subscribe to their teachings and practices. Other groups do not practice apostolic leadership but profess its essence in order to retain fellowship with Catholic leadership in Rome. Both religious entities have close relations with the Catholic Church, whose leadership emanates from Rome (Hellwig 21).
These complexities affect overall perception of universal Christianity because they present contradictions and anomalies that do not promote its image. For instance, universal Christianity presents gross disunity and inability to compromise on basic and fundamental areas of concern. Observers find it difficult to understand how religious entities fail to foster unity of purpose, yet they purport to represent similar interests.
Universal Christian entities fail to inspire confidence and trust because they seem to promote and articulate personal interests (Hellwig 23). Their areas of contention border on theological and doctrinal interpretations that do not have any significant impact on the overall disposition of the church. History shows that there have been numerous instances of disagreement among universal Christian entities. Such differences are responsible for current divisions and disharmony among universal Christians.
Whenever there are differences and misunderstandings, it is important for all parties to initiate dialogue in order to find lasting solutions (Hellwig 25). On the contrary, universal Christian entities are usually quick to break away and establish new frontiers for religious practice. Other religious groups are skeptical of universal Christian entities because they project an image of greed and inability to tackle important issues among themselves.
This reality does not promote positivity and hope with regard to these religious outfits (Hellwig 27). Therefore, most observers have negative perceptions regarding the role of universal Christians in promoting religious harmony in contemporary society. In absence of such efforts, universal Christian entities cannot achieve harmony and unity of purpose. It is important to note that Christianity has spread to various places across the world (Hellwig, 34).
In ancient days, Christianity was prevalent in Europe and other surrounding areas. Currently, Christianity thrives in continents such as Africa and Asia. Due to this fact, there has been emergence of religious factions that incorporate local values and patterns of behavior. For instance, Christianity in Africa derives influence from African beliefs and traditions. This scenario replicates in other areas that embrace Christianity (Hellwig 39).
Is Catholicism Compatible With Other Religions? In contemporary society, there is need for ecumenical cooperation between religious groups in order to ensure and guarantee appropriate dissemination of positive ideals and principles. All religious outfits have unique attributes and values that define their essence with regard to fostering positivity among its adherents. Religious groups are responsible not only to their members but also to society. This makes it necessary for various religious groups to cooperate in order to ensure realization of individual and collective objectives (Hellwig 41).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Christian Theological Entities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Universal Christianity should seek indulgence of other religious groups towards creation of positive values amongst individuals in society. Catholicism promotes morality and rational thinking with regard to various undertakings in society. In fact, it seeks to encourage positive thinking that ultimately influences human relations in society. In order to achieve this noble agenda, universal Christians should foster interdenominational cooperation.
After honing unity among various Christian factions, they should extend this to cover other religions such as Islam, Buddhism, and religious Jews (Hellwig 43). Although there are fundamental differences between doctrinal and theological interpretations, all religious groups can fuse specific positive values that promote societal wellbeing. For instance, Islam promotes communal values that seek to enhance interdependence amongst its members (Hellwig 44).
Islam requires its wealthy members to assist those who do not have a material endowment. Such values are important because they encourage rationality and pragmatic behavior patterns. Muslims are very dedicated to requisite religious practices that embody their doctrine and theological inclination.
They endeavor to follow religious teachings and practices that characterize the Islamic conviction. Their dedication to serving humanity is legendary because it forms a basis for religious practice (Hellwig 54). The aforementioned values are relevant and applicable to universal Christians because they promote positivity in society. Universal Christians should emulate such Islamic values because they serve as a guide for upright human living.
Religious Jews also have social values that seek to promote upright living in society. Jewish traditions and practices are proactive and mindful of individuals in social contexts. Jewish religious principles promote unity and cohesion in society (Hellwig, 57). Through various undertakings, the Jewish community supports humanitarian efforts in different parts of the world. Such efforts are similar to those undertaken by universal Christians around the world. Buddhism also supports peaceful coexistence in society.
Its religious principles revolve around non-violence and peaceful resolution of conflicts in contemporary society. These values are very important, especially because society continues to witness violence and upheaval. Catholicism should learn and appreciate the importance of ecumenical cooperation in order to foster positive engagements in society (Hellwig 57).
In order to promote its universality, Catholicism should embrace other religious groups that have similar objectives and motivations. By cooperating with other religious outfits, universal Christianity could expand its influence across the world. It is notable that certain observers argue against such cooperation. They fear that ecumenism could jeopardize values and belief systems within Catholicism (Hellwig 65). On the contrary, cooperation shall strengthen and entrench positive human values in society.
It is necessary for universal Christians to embrace other denominational entities in order to guarantee unity and ability to conquer negativity in society. By incorporating other cultural and religious belief systems, Catholicism strengthens its ability to promote positive action in society. Therefore, it is necessary for universal Christians to devise structural frameworks that support realization of such ideals and aspirations (Hellwig 69).
What is the Future of Catholicism? For a long time, Catholicism has had immense influence on societal existence and propagation of various undertakings. During early days of its inception, Catholicism had influence on society because it changed human understanding and approach to challenges that were present in communal settings (Rausch 44). Universal Christianity sought to overhaul and eradicate traditional forms of worship. In certain ways, proponents of universal Christianity succeeded in achieving their objectives.
The Christian influence in society continued to manifest in numerous engagements that characterized human existence in society. After entrenching Catholicism in Europe, proponents sought to spread its influence to other parts of the world (Rausch 44). This endeavor materialized after they managed to spread the gospel to far-flung areas such as Asia and Africa. Though Christian missionaries encountered hostility in areas such as Africa, they struggled to introduce and entrench their message to the local inhabitants.
Generally, this mission was successful because the missionaries overturned local worship systems in favor of Catholicism. Several decades after introduction of Catholicism in areas such as Africa and Asia, there is immense influence on their religious systems (Rausch 47). Such systems are predominantly Christian. However, the future of Catholicism is uncertain in areas such as Europe.
It is evident that people in European societies are increasingly shedding their Christian beliefs. Most people in these communities argue that Catholicism is not dynamic. Its conservative nature makes it impossible for members to adjust to modern developments that emanate from technological advancements and innovations (Rausch 49).
Due to its stringent nature and inability to accommodate change, Catholicism risks losing influence and support in Europe and other parts of the world. People find it difficult to conform to Christianity because of its inability to recognize and appreciate changes that are currently evident in society. Catholicism should embrace change in order to foster and enhance self-preservation (Rausch 54). In my opinion, Catholicism could fade and disappear because it fails to incorporate modernity into its belief system.
For instance, it should ensure and support revision of canonical statutes that do not reflect realities in modern societies. In absence of such undertakings, it will be difficult for Catholicism to foster relevance and hegemony in highly dynamic social contexts. The future of Catholicism depends on realignments and changes within its leadership ranks in order to support and appreciate change in society (Rausch 67).
Works Cited Barron, Robert. Catholicism: A Journey to the Heart of Faith. Newyork: Doubleday Religious Publishing Group, 2011. Print.
Hellwig, Monika. Understanding Catholicism. Chicago: Paulist Press, 2002. Print.
Rausch, Thomas. Catholicism in the Third Millennium. London: Liturgical Press, 2003. Print.
Gender Socialization Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Lorber on Gender Socialization
Introduction Feminists and gender experts generally agree that, at birth, there is no femininity or masculinity. It is through early gender socialization that infants become engendered according to their sex (Scott and Jackson 41). Gender is defined as “a social symbolic construction that expresses the meaning a society confers on biological sex” (Wood 320). From an early age, boys and girls learn different gender-specific roles in their environment as taught by parents, siblings or caregivers.
Lorber observes that “parents produce gendered children through the toys they buy… they also encourage them to play in a gender-appropriate way – girls with dolls, boys with action figures” (61). Thus, parents influence early gender socialization by controlling “the patterns of gendered behavior, which, not only become part of a child’s identity as a boy or a girl but also become embodied” (Lorber 63). Besides, parents, the media, peers and school also influence early gender socialization.
It is evident that gender socialization is intertwined with culture. In patriarchal societies, “society is organized around certain kinds of social relationships and ideas” (Johnson 78) that seem to favor men. However, this “does not mean that all men – each and every one of them – are oppressive people” (Johnson 76).
Rather, it is the social system that breeds social oppression and male dominance that characterize patriarchy. It is through understanding the larger social system that society can identify the positive gender roles that can promote gender equity and reduce oppression. This paper reviews the arguments for and against early gender socialization, patriarchy and its effects, and the effect of engendered society on gender roles and performance.
Patriarchy Gender identity plays a big role in social stratification in many cultures including the American society. Typically, a patriarchal ‘system’ assigns males and females distinct heterosexual roles, a practice, which serves to perpetuate male dominance.
However, Johnson holds a different view; he views patriarchy as a system that “includes cultural ideas about men and women, the web of relationships that structure social life, and the unequal distribution of rewards and resources that underlies oppression” (84). He encourages society to view patriarchy as a system that all people participate in, not as an embodiment of masculinity.
From an early age children are taught, via explicit or subtle means, to conform to societal gender constructs (either feminine or masculine) in their behavior, looks and actions. Dworkin views this as a cultural product where “women live in fairy tales as magical figures, as beauty, danger, innocence, malice, and greed” (32). Culture creates distinctive and appealing identities through fairy tales – the wicked witch, the beautiful princess, the heroic prince – to define who we are” (Dworkin 32).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, patriarchy is intertwined with cultural norms, gender roles and identities in a given society. In many societies, social inequalities are attributed to patriarchy. This implies that, in such societies, more men than women occupy powerful positions and well-paying jobs in business, law and government. In light of this, Johnson defines patriarchy as “male-dominated, male-centered, and male-identified” (84).
A male dominated society places men in dominant and influential positions, a practice that increases social inequality in the society. Such a society is often organized around social control, with men, through oppression and threats of violence, exerting control over women, who need male protection and supervision. A patriarchal society is male identified when most socially valued attributes and personal qualities are associated with men while devalued qualities and roles are associated with women.
This explains why patriarchies feel threatened by movements related to class, race or sexuality/gender. A patriarchal society is also male-centered. In such a society, men and boys are the center of attention while women are pushed to the periphery. Moreover, men and masculine roles are the center of focus or public attention in patriarchal societies.
Allan Johnson’s definition of the term patriarchy dispels common misconceptions surrounding oppression. He contends that society erroneously associates patriarchy with males, which often leads to the conclusion that men are oppressive. However, he argues that patriarchy is “about standards of feminine beauty and masculine toughness, images of feminine vulnerability and masculine protectiveness, of older men coupled with young women, of elderly women alone” (84).
It is the patriarchal “system that encourages men to value women primarily in terms of their ability to meet men’s needs and desires and to support men’s self-images as potent and in control” (96). Thus, people should learn to distinguish between the individual male and the patriarchal system.
It is by recognizing this difference that people can begin to address the actual causes of gender violence and social inequality. In view of this, bias based on gender, race or social class is not oppression per se, but “the sum of individual failings on the part of blacks, women, and the poor, who lack the right stuff to compete successfully with whites, men, and others who know how to make something of themselves” (76).
Thus, to eliminate social inequality, it is important that people understand the misconceptions surrounding patriarchy. Patriarchy revolves around social relationships and structures, which may limit an individual to some extent. It is worth noting that, through his argument, Johnson’s gives a new perspective on patriarchy, whereby he portrays men not as villainous as commonly portrayed by gender many movements.
We will write a custom Essay on Gender Socialization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The social norms define how people act or behave, which explains why people make the decisions they make in a patriarchal context. Johnson observes that the symbols in our culture “make up the patriarchal culture” (84), which, in turn, “affect the structure of social life” (87). Thus, it is our culture that creates power relations and gender roles, which then shape people’s behavior and values in patriarchal societies.
Collins/Anderson Today’s dynamic society requires people to recognize that gender is closely intertwined with other social aspects in “a matrix” of social domination. In modern societies, gender, race and economic class shape the issues of inequality and power relations. Also, social identity is largely organized around social domination, stratification and oppression. Therefore, in order to reconstruct the role of race, class and gender in society, it is important to examine them in the context of power relations.
Sociologists, Andersen and Collins, have developed a framework for understanding these social categories. First, they propose that the three categories are not absolute as they are constructs of social interaction (76). Second, the social categories create binary social groups, not social identities. This means that individuals can either be male or female, poor or wealthy, etc. It is through these power-based groupings that power relations are played out in the society.
A third concept in Andersen and Collins’ framework is that the three categories, besides directly defining group identities, their effects result in distinct social structures in the society. In this way, they contribute indirectly to identity formation. The fourth element of this framework relates to the fact that the three categories affect social interactions, social institutions and each group’s consciousness in the society. Based on this framework, it is easier for people to understand the significance of the three categories on gender socialization.
In the modern American society, it is often thought that people are no longer classist, racist and/or feminist. It is generally believed that a person’s gender, class or race does not disadvantage him or her in the society. However, Andersen and Collins argue that these social groupings are still significant as “the system of privilege and inequality (by race, class and gender) is less visible to those who are more privileged” (78).
That is why women complain about male dominance while men believe that patriarchy does not exist. It shows that the American society tends towards the status quo, which favors the groups in power. In contrast, the other groups/categories are marginalized, making them victims of social injustice.
The dominant forms of knowledge help perpetuate this trend by stating that racism, sexism and classism does not exist in the modern society (Scott and Jackson 67). It is no wonder social inequality continues to persist in modern societies. Therefore, an understanding the role of gender, class and race in power relations would help unravel the issue of social domination.
Andersen and Collins note that the three categories affect social domination, which then influence “social interactions, access to power and group consciousness” (77). It is clear that the individual categories do not work in isolation, but rather their combined effects help define an individual’s social experience. Therefore, oppression, in power relations, is a product of the interconnections between the social groups in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender Socialization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On her part, Dworkin, unlike other sociologists and gender experts, criticizes female oppression, pornography and sexual violence in her analysis of fiction books. In her work, entitled “Woman Hating”, she explores gender socialization in fairy tales and sexist writings.
She argues that cultural symbols and images are some of the way power-based gender relations are established and maintained in the society. To illustrate how cultural stereotypes are created, Dworkin writes that fairy tale characters “Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Snow-white and Rapunzel – all are characterized by passivity, beauty, innocence and victimization… they never think, act, initiate, confront, resist, challenge, feel, care, or question” (42).
From a social perspective, only good women have these attributes. Also, in fairy tales, females “are characterized by passivity, beauty, innocence, and victimization” (42). The same trend occurs in gender roles, whereby from an early age “culture predetermines who we are, how we behave, what we are willing to know, what we are able to feel” (35). Thus, culture has shaped women’s behavior and actions to conform to ‘acceptable’ social standards. They have to do what is deemed ‘good’ in the eyes of men and society.
Because of this, “women strive for passivity, because they want to be good” (48). It is the same ingrained mentality that “convinces women that they are bad, the bad need to be punished and destroyed, so that they become good” (48). The women, therefore, view oppression and male dominance as acceptable in the society. Dworkin’s arguments echo similar arguments made in many masculinity and feminine studies.
Scott and Jackson state that, in most societies, gender roles are fixed right from birth with each role viewed as a discrete and pure trait (51). People create a set of masculine and feminine traits, which they attribute to a particular gender (male or female trait). For example, being tough is considered a male trait, whereas being sensitive or caring is a female trait. In this regard, the traits or values are portrayed as mutually exclusive and nobody can possess both the male and female traits.
Lorber on Gender Socialization Lorber holds the view that gender is a construct of human interaction, hence, like culture, relies on sustained social interactions. Lorber notes that gender socialization is created early in life.
From birth, children’s perceptions regarding masculinity and femininity are largely shaped by the body images they see. Even at birth, infants are perceived differently: “little boys have strong grips and hearty howls… and little girls have dainty fingers and gentle cries” (61). According to Lorber, parents create socially gendered children through the play toys they give them.
Parents buy action figures and Barbie dolls for their boys and girls respectively. They even encourage the kids to use the toys in ways they consider to be socially acceptable. In this way, younger children learn to act and behave in gender-appropriate ways. It also plays a role in shaping the children’s gender identity early in life. Lorber argues that parents influence early gender socialization through the naming of their newborn baby, mode of care and dress.
The children’s interactions with same-sex and opposite-sex siblings and relatives shape their self-identity in the context of gender. It is their cognitive development that allows children to identify and apply their actions in gender-specific ways and avoid inappropriate behaviors.
With regard to early gender roles, Lorber observes that the young children “perform of gender roles in ways that constitute them as two separate, opposed groups” (67), a trend, which is reinforced by “the adults’ approval of children’s performance of difference” (68).
The children interpret the adults’ approval of their gender-specific actions as an inherent difference that exists between male and female. Referring to the gendered roles he observed in children’s games, “Barbie Girls vs. Sea Monsters” Lorber observes that, in gender relations, the gender boundaries are clearly marked such that children have to “affirm their commitment to difference” (68) from an early age in their personal interactions.
Lorber regards gender as a social platform for assigning social statuses, responsibilities and behaviors. It is through early gender socialization that a social stratification system is created resulting to social inequalities that continues throughout one’s life. The gender socialization process creates distinct ways of differentiating a “male” from a “female”.
The early social interactions, children learn roles and behaviors expected of their gender, a trend that continues well into their adulthood. It is through social encounters that human beings learn to behave and act in a gender-appropriate manner and to object to differing gender norms.
Gender-based expectations or behaviors are enforced by peers, the media and other social platforms. Lorber notes that, “in sports, extreme body modification, in particular, steroid use to build muscle masses” (72) is a common trend among the youth because this action is considered a standard of excellence in sports. Thus, daily human interactions in sports build gender-based expectations for both male and female bodies.
The gender socialization process institutionalizes gender roles creating gender-stratified relations. Lorber’s argument that early gender socialization through play toys and body modification emphasizes the need for people to realize that gender constructs are products of human interactions shaped by culture and individual perceptions.
Boys and girls usually engage “in sports to emulate professional athletes who use extreme body modification, in particular, steroid use to build muscle mass” (71). Therefore, coaches and parents should focus on improving the children’s behavior patterns, taking into account their personality differences, rather than creating distinct gender roles and behaviors for their children.
Works Cited Andersen, Margaret and Collins, Patricia. Race, Class,
“Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell Analytical Essay online essay help
The book “Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell is story on heroism. The author begins by explaining how he became the commander of the infantry platoon at the age of twenty-four. This paper explores how Sean Parnell lived and displayed three army values as he describes in the book. The three values identified from the book include “duty, respect, and personal courage”.
From the book, it is notable that the author displayed and lived most of the army values. The first value that comes out clearly from the book is that of “duty”. After the platoon arrived at their base in Afghanistan, “the insurgents attacked them with rocket fire” (Sean 12). The fire killed and even wounded several children. As a soldier, Parnell ran into the village to help one of the little girls. He grabbed the girl and sprinted towards the First Aid Station.
The girl was bleeding in his arms. Afterwards, “the image of the bleeding girl came back to him when he was in bed” (Sean 15). Parnell had to accept the situation and move on with his life. As well, he believed that the other soldiers in the platoon must have had experienced a similar scene. This shows clearly how the soldier lived the value of duty. It is also a sign of commitment towards helping civilians and children. The value of “duty” requires that the soldiers do more than what is required of them.
The other value that is evident from the book is that of “respect”. According to this army value, soldiers are supposed to treat other people well and with respect. Through respect, soldiers are able to appreciate the best in all the other people. During the 16 months in Afghanistan, the author explains how he encountered the noblest attributes of human spirit. Through respect, the soldiers were able to develop the best bonds amongst themselves.
Although this was the only way for the men to survive, Parnell upheld the value of “respect” thus developing the best relationships with the soldiers. The author goes further to explain how they worked as a team. Parnell clearly understood that every individual had something to contribute towards the success of the operation (Sean 104).
The book goes further to present the value of “personal courage”. Personal courage is one of the oldest values associated with the American army. During the 16 months, Parnell was always ready to face adversity and danger. The team endured physical challenges and risked their safety in order to help others.
The approach made it easier for them to attack the insurgents. According to the author, the platoon was fighting a strong infantry. The insurgents were seasoned and properly armed. It was only through courage that they would survive and win the fight. For instance, Parnell describes how he courageously helped one of the solders by the name Garvin after an attack (Sean 182).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The insurgents had no mercy because their objective was to “behead the American soldiers” (Sean 128). Although the insurgents did their very best to overrun the American soldiers, Parnell explains how their team remained strong in order to survive and go back home alive.
This is a sign of personal courage. With courage, faith, and love for each other, most of the soldiers were able to return home alive. Together with the soldiers, Parnell displayed and lived most of the army values thus making the infantry platoon successful despite the challenges and obstacles encountered (Sean 126). In conclusion, Parnell’s book is a story of courage and selfless commitment.
Works Cited Parnell, Sean. Outlaw Platoon: Heroes, Renegades, Infidels, and the Brotherhood of War in Afghanistan. New York: William Morrow Paperbacks, 2013. Print.
Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The History of Narrative Film The history of narrative film is traced back to more than 100 years ago in the late 1800s. Simple basic filming devices were invented and were used during this period. Narrative films spread to all parts of the world within twenty years. The spread led to the development of complex technologies and the rise of a major industry.
The industry became widely accepted as a form of entertainment. It attracted numerous artists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and scientists (Cook, 2004). However, the film industry has constantly been dependent on factors beyond its control. The dependency raises important questions, which include: What are the effects of technology on the filmmaking industry? How has industrialization affected the creation of narrative film?
According to Gunning (1991), the narrative of the film was the most important aspect of this art. Editing, composition, and lighting were all designed to assist the audience in understanding the story in the late 1910s. The characters in these stories were created through increased editing. In addition, performance and dialogue subtitles helped the audience in relating the images to the scenes.
Editing was increased and the distance between the cameras and the actors decreased. The change contributed to the development of the star system due to recognition of actors and the emphasis on facial expressions. Editing was used to display the internal thoughts and emotions of a character, as well as to clearly show instances of psychological intensity.
The filmmaking industry experienced a rapid growth and expansion during the first thirty years of its operation. The then unfamiliar experience quickly spread across the globe, attracting an ever growing audience in all the places it was introduced. The growth made it a very popular form of entertainment, displacing other forms of entertainment.
The rapid growth in audience led to an increase in the number of locations where films were shown, competing with opera-houses and theatres for excellence and opulence. The length of the films increased from a few minutes to hours, which controlled the world’s screens for a long time (Cook, 2004).
Among the countries credited with the invention and development of filmmaking are French, America, Germany, and British. The French and the Americans played a major role in the distribution of filmmaking in other parts of the world. They led in the development of artists and talents. Russia, Italy, and Denmark also played a role in developing filmmaking before World War I. By following a strong export policy and advancing its markets, the US became the largest consumer of films (Gunning, 1991).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Americans dominated the world’s film market by the beginning of the First World War. The American filmmaking industry continued to grow during the war, developing new technologies and strengthening its control. The US filmmaking industry moved to Hollywood and films from the new studios filled the world’s market after the First World War. Hollywood led the filmmaking industry artistically and industrially (Liesegang, 1986).
Factors Contributing to Creation of Narrative Film Technology
The history of filmmaking began with devices and experiments designed to present images in a sequence. The earliest technology in filmmaking involved producing an illusion of continuous movement. The illusion was achieved by passing a series of pictures in quick succession in front of a light source.
Later, the moving pictures were projected on a screen. Each picture was briefly held in front of the light source and replaced by the next one. If the process was quick enough, it provided an illusion of movement, where the discontinuous pictures are perceived as continuous (Elsaesser, 1990).
Various experiments seeking to analyze the movement of pictures and their reproduction were performed. The experiments were aimed at naturally reproducing movement by showing pictures at the same speed used to take them. A mechanism was developed to allow the pictures to be displayed in the camera in quick succession.
The pictures were projected in a similar manner. The technology resulted in the development of film rolls. The roll was placed in the camera and quickly moved down while holding it very still. The process had to be repeated when the film was being shown. The process was enhanced by the development of a loop placed in the threading of the film. The loop was situated where the film passed in front of the lens (Liesegang, 1986).
The film was developed and spread in a material invented by Henry M. Reichenbach. The material was made up of a semitransparent and flexible celluloid base. It was divided into strips that were 35mm wide. The material was first adopted by Thomas Edison in 1892 for his Kinetoscope.
Kinetoscope was a device that allowed one person at a time to view brief segments of a film. Riding on the success of the Kinetoscope, other machines developed to reproduce pictures in movement employed the 35mm technology. The Eastman Company supported this process even though their photographic films were 70mm wide. To produce films of the required width, the company had to cut the photographic films lengthwise (Abramson, 1987).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the late 1800s, colored films came into existence. They were created by delicately hand-coloring the frames using very fine brushes. The resultant film was spectacular due to the glow of the pictures (Cook, 2004). However, these films had a limitation since the colors occupying a particular place could spread to other areas of the frame.
The problem was addressed by giving each frame a uniform color. Uniformity of frames was achieved by tinting, toning, or a combination of both. Eastman Kodak invented the first color-sensitive emulsion around 1915. His invention was promoted by the trademark ‘Kodachrome’. Although Kodachrome was still a two-color system, it provided a basis for remarkable developments (Gunning, 1991).
Most early narrative films were accompanied by some kind of sound. The films had lecturers who commented on the pictures shown on the screen, expounding on their material and meaning for the spectators. In addition to the speech, most films were accompanied by music. Accompanying music was produced from a piano or specifically commissioned for the film. At times, music was used together with noise effects.
Noise effects were usually produced by performers using a large display of objects that reproduced natural and artificial sounds. Inventors of moving image desired to synchronize films and discs to print sound directly on the film. It was not until 1926, however, that Warner Bros., a Hollywood Company, presented a film using sound synchronization (Elsaesser, 1990). The film was produced by Don Juan and John Barrymore.
Though it had started as a mere novelty, filmmaking turned into an established industry by 1913. The earliest films evolved from moving snapshots, about a minute long, to about five to ten minutes long by 1905 (Cook, 2004). The films also used change of camera position and change of scenes to convey a message or to show different themes. With the development of longer displays, a new set of methods for making complex narrative films emerged in the 1910s.
By this time, large-scale businesses had come up to offer services of making and showing films. The companies acquired specialized venues exclusively used for showing films. The venues were supplied with films by various production and distribution companies. Such companies started by selling the films to the exhibitors, but later started renting them out. In the late 1910s, Hollywood became the most important supplier of films (Abramson, 1987).
A number of countries claim that they were the ones who invented the moving pictures. However, filmmaking cannot be traced to any of these countries. The reason is because, like many technologies, filmmaking cannot be traced to any particular moment. In addition, the birth of filmmaking cannot be credited to any particular country or person. In the late 1800s, entrepreneurs strongly pursued avenues to project pictures that continuously moved on a screen.
Such ventures led to the presentation of moving pictures to a marveled audience in various parts of the world (Gunning, 1991). Although filmmaking had spread to different parts of the world, some European countries and the United States retained their dominance over film production and exhibition. The French, however, were the first to dominate local and international markets. In addition, they were arguably the best in stylistic innovations, though they competed with the United States and Britain on this front.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among the initial innovators in France were the Lumie’re brothers. They are said to be the first to show moving pictures to an audience for a fee. The brothers operated a photographic equipment factory where they experimented with a camera design called the cinematographe. However, depending on how one looks at it, the first show of moving pictures can be traced to Edison when he developed the Kinetoscope.
The Lumie’re brothers faced competition from other film makers, such as Georges Melielis. Since the brothers primarily dealt with documentary material, Melielis became the leader in the production of fiction films. However, due to competition, Melielis was forced into bankruptcy in 1913. One of the major competitors at this time was the Pathe Company, which outlived the Lumie’re and the Melielis (Abramson, 1987).
According to Cook (2004), the film industry in some European countries and the United States began coalescing into industrial capitalist enterprises in the early 1910s. Specialization and division of labor was established in the industry by separating exhibition, distribution, and production sectors. Films became longer in size and exhibitors demanded a regular supply of new items. The development led to increased demand for production of high standard films.
Such production required increased division of labor, specialization, and standardized practices. The emergence of permanent exhibition venues also contributed to the rationalization of separating exhibition from the other areas of filmmaking. Specialization and division of labor enabled the industry to maximize profits, making it more stable. Since profits depended on the turnout at exhibitions, producers in most countries were forced to make short films to accommodate the different tastes of the audience (Gunning, 1991).
The attempt to rationalize distribution of films resulted in maximization of profits. As a result, US manufacturers who had initially concentrated on the domestic market only began expanding into international markets. According to Elsaesser (1990), Vitagraph was the first company to establish a distribution office in Europe in 1907. Other major companies followed by establishing distribution agencies in Britain. They became America’s distribution centers in Europe.
On its part, British filmmakers mainly concentrated on the distribution and exhibition of films, rather than on production. Half of the films showing in Britain were American, with French and Italy films constituting a significant portion of the remaining 50 percent. Germany also benefitted from the distribution of American films. The US replaced the Europeans as leaders in the film industry in 1914. At this time, the Europeans were reeling from the effects of World War I (Liesegang, 1986).
By 1908, the film industry was well established and flourishing like never before. However, the industry was still very disorganized. Neighboring exhibition venues competed for similar films or rented similar items, which forced them to compete for the same audience. Some distributors supplied exhibitors with films that had been shown for so long that they contained scratches that obscured the image.
The new developments created the need for film censorship and regulation (Cook, 2004). The Edison and Biograph companies helped the producers to form the Motion Picture Patents Company in late 1908. The MPPC was formed in an effort to stabilize the industry and look after the producer’s interests. In addition to the producers, the MPPC incorporated foreign distributors in the US. It later agreed to regularize the issue of new films and to standardize the price per foot for their films (Elsaesser, 1990).
The production of films in major countries was characterized by specialization and division of labor. The sector changed from a collaborative enterprise to a specialized field with the emergence of specialists. Such specialists included property men, script-writers, and wardrobe mistresses. All of them worked under the director. The director was required to make one reel per week using their own cast and crew.
The requirement led to the emergence of a new category of producer who was charged with overseeing the whole process (Elsaesser, 1990). At the time, the film industry put emphasis on speed and quantity of films. However, a few films, especially those made to promote cultural values, were exempt from the rule. According to Gunning (1991), Vitagraph, the largest American studio, hired G. W. Griffith as its sole director. The director was hired in 1918. However, by the time he left in 1913, there were six directors under his supervision.
Conclusion By mid 1910s, the American film industry had improved in terms of better and permanent exhibitions, internal censorships, and the production of respectable forms of entertainment.
Conditions had improved from the early 1900s when the industry was in a crisis. A large audience could now comfortably enjoy watching films in an elaborate movie exhibition venue. The films produced during this period were different as well. Narrative emerged as an important aspect of the films at the time. Such factors as technology improved editing, composition, and lighting in the production of films.
Specialization and division of labor also impacted on the production, distribution, and exhibition of narrative films at the time. In addition, specialization and division of labor maximized profits in the filmmaking industry, leading to its stability. However, the distribution and exhibition sectors in the US hindered the process of changing the industry to multi-reel film producer.
The reason is that most exhibition venues had a small seating capacity. In turn, limited seating capacity led to the exhibition of short films featuring a wide array of subjects to attract more audience and increase profits. Due to this, the impetus to shift the focus of the industry to the production of multi-reel films came from Europe. The reason is that the distribution of imported films was not subject to MPPC controls.
References Abramson, A. (1987). The history of television, 1880 to 1941. Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Cook, D. A. (2004). A history of narrative film (4th ed.). Virginia: W W Norton
The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The Articles Analysis
Introduction Nowadays, we have the opportunities to be the active participants of the social problems solving. In the past, people struggled for gaining these opportunities. However, it does not mean that the nature of social issues changed dramatically. Quite the opposite, the nature is, essentially, the same but the methods of their solving and the attitude of public towards them have undergone changes.
The aim of this essay is to analyze the newspaper and magazine articles devoted to the problem of social inequality and economic welfare.
The Articles Analysis The first article, which I am going to present, is The Future of Fair Labor by Jefferson Cowie. The author gives the overview of the historic process of the labor legislation reforming. Cowie emphasizes the importance of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s legislative act addressed to the employers and workers.
The President’s initiative laid the foundation of the modern employment legislation. “It outlawed child labor, guaranteed a minimum wage, established the official length of the workweek at 40 hours, and required overtime pay for anything more” (Cowie n.pag.).
However, the author of the article states that the current situation in the field of employment regulation and legislation is rather vulnerable. It seems that the current legislation is too flexible in the sense that it gives to the employers the opportunity to find the loopholes. As a result, the substantial part of employees works the abnormal hours and does not obtain the appropriate remuneration. The author claims that it is the role of the government to ensure the efficiency of the current employment legislation.
The second article is The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem by Timothy Noah. The economic inequality is the major theme of the article. The author touches upon the problem of social stratification based on the differences in the economic welfare of the American population.
Although he indicates to the significant gap between the wealthy individuals, whose weight in the total population accounts for only 1%, and the other part of the population, the weight of which is 99%, he argues that the problem should not be considered only in the context of the average income.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Noah claims that the access to education is the crucial factor of the social and economic welfare. The rise of the educated class should be taken into consideration (Noah n.pag.). The problem is twofold: on the one hand, the gap caused by the income inequality narrows, and, on the other hand, the educational gap widens.
The Cuts that Keeps Bleeding is the third source, which deserves the special attention. It presents the statistical information on the dynamics in government spending on education. According to the data presented in the article, the funding of the education has been reduced by 28% since 2008 (“The Cuts that Keeps” 11).
It is clear that the decrease in financing affects the quality of education. The statistics shows that the number of course offerings has decreased by 15% since 2008. The data support the opinion regarding the educational gap increase. It is not surprising as the cuts in spending limit the access of people to the higher education and they contribute to the social and economic inequality.
Conclusion In summary, the analyzed articles are devoted to the problem of social and economic inequality. The authors emphasize the role of government regulation. Although the situation improves in certain areas, there are still the urgent problems requiring the legislative changes and government initiatives.
Works Cited Cowie, Jefferson. “The Future of Fair Labor.” The New York Times. 24 June 2013. Nytimes.com. Web.
Noah, Timothy. “The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem”. The New York Times. 18 May 2013. Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com. Web.
“The Cuts that Keep Bleeding.” By the Numbers, 30 (2013): 3. Print
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Eyes on the Prize Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Roles of Civil Rights Movement
Change and Civil Rights Movement
Racial discrimination has been the most contentious issue in America. The issue has been highlighted by various tools of communications such as books, movies, articles, and periodicals. One of the remarkable communication tools on this subject is ‘Eyes on the Prize’ movie. The movie brings into perspective the topic of racial discrimination and roles of civil rights movements in attaining equality in America (Hampton, 1986). This study seeks to highlight the issue of racial discrimination in reference to the above mentioned movie
Roles of Civil Rights Movement To achieve the desired transformation towards equal treatment of all races, America needed civil rights movement. The movement not only played the role of communicating information on racial discrimination, but also changed the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of all Americans towards the issue.
From the movement, Americans were able to embrace tolerance. For instance, in volume 2 of the movie, the African-Americans were ready to endure the mistreatments in the jails while most of the whites were ready to accommodate them in the community (Hampton, 1986).
Change and Civil Rights Movement Civil rights movement was the major element that facilitated change in America. Without the movement, change could have been difficult to attain. The movement not only prompted the government to take actions, but also cultivated the sense of responsibility among Americans (Hampton, 1986).
Racism Discrimination is a common problem in America. Racial discrimination dominates the list of discriminating practices. However, it is cognizant to note that the magnitude of racial discrimination in America has greatly reduced. This can be attributed to the roles of civil rights movements and affirmative actions taken by the government to promote racial equality (Hampton, 1986).
Reference Hampton, H. (Executive Producer). (1986). Eyes on the Prize: Ain’t scared of your jails, 1954 to 1956. Boston: Blackside Inc.
Atrophy of the Muscles Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Atrophy of the muscles is a condition that occurs when the muscles have been in an inactive condition for a long period of time. The cast on the leg is the major cause of muscle atrophy. It reduces muscle activity and causes loss of the tissues. The major effect of the cast as indicated in this case is weakening of the leg muscles and reduced level of activity.
The cast restricts the movement of the muscles (Sandri, 2008). Restricted movement of the muscles leads to reduced muscle tone. The patient therefore develops movement difficulties, which may exacerbate the condition (Hannah, Andrew
The American Way of Dining Out Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure
Is Eating Out Healthy?
The Economics of Eating Out
Introduction For most Americans, dining out is a favorite pastime. Americans dine out when celebrating an event, when on a date or just to have a new dining experience. But, in the aftermath of the 2007/2008 economic downturn, people are dining out less often, instead preferring to eat at home to save money. This trend is already having a toll on hotels and restaurants. Nevertheless, on average, American’s prefer eating out to eating at home.
A survey by the United States Department of Labor [DoL] found interesting facts about the American’s way of dining out. A significant proportion of the respondents (63 percent) reported having dined out at least once the previous month with 53 percent of them dining out in fast food restaurants, 18 percent in full-service restaurants and 9 percent in other food restaurants (DoL Para. 2).
What is worrying, however, is that most of the foods consumed away from home tend to be energy rich but less nutritional compared to home prepared foods.
Though patrons may not like to eat unhealthy foods, they opt to eat out due to convenience, diverse meals on offer or simply for entertainment reasons. The argument presented in this paper is that, when it comes to eating out, Americans neither base their dietary choices on nutritional quality of the meals nor do they consider their budgetary constraints. Their restaurant choice and frequency of dining out is based on the prospects of entertainment, convenience and a variety of dishes on offer.
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure Nutritionists advise people to adopt healthy eating habits, which, along with physical exercises guarantee a healthy and quality life. However, it is not clear whether this message and the consumers’ desire for a healthy life influence their eating behavior or dietary choices when eating out.
The Department of Labor reports that, on average, the daily energy intake of an American when eating out rose from 18 percent in 1994 to 32 percent in 1996 (Para. 3). This indicates that eating out increases one’s caloric intake significantly. The same survey established that consumer spending on restaurant foods had increased with consumers, in 1996, spending over half of their dietary expenditure on restaurant foods. The rise in the number of consumers eating out implies that dining out is a preferred pastime for most Americans.
With regard to food expenditure, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that, on average, in 2010, restaurant spending by each American stood at $2,505 (DoL Para. 5). In comparison, in the previous years, 2009 and 2008, the average restaurant spending was $2,619 and $2,698 respectively (Para. 7). The drop in consumer spending in 2010 is attributed to the 2007/08 economic downturn. Nevertheless, Americans enjoy dining out often as opposed to eating home-cooked meals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers attribute their eating out habits to public suitability, entertainment value and availability of many dishes in restaurants. However, from the DoL statistics, eating out increases the consumers’ calorie intake, as restaurant foods tend to be calorie-rich but nutritionally deficient. Eating out more often increases one’s body fat level in adults leading to elevated body mass index. It is no wonder eating out has been associated with obesity and overweight especially in adolescents.
A survey by Technomic Inc. that interviewed a number of restaurant owners found that most restaurants are not keen on providing healthy foods for their patrons. They do not feel that providing healthy meals would increase the number of customers visiting their establishments. Some held the opinion that “most customers’ attitude is ‘when I go out to eat, I want to eat what I want’” (33). Nevertheless, the hotel executives felt that creating consumer awareness about eating healthy would help in the management of obesity.
To manage obesity, which has become an epidemic, nutrition educators have employed a number of approaches to promote healthy eating out habits. They educate consumers on nutrition and healthful diets that one can get in restaurants when eating out.
They sometimes incorporate aspects of consumers’ preferences, convenience and entertainment when providing the nutrition information to influence their eating behavior. One such campaign technique is the “5 A Day” program that encourages Americans to eat a minimum of five servings of vegetables/fruits daily (Stewart et al. 522).
The “Power of Choice” program is another example of these programs that aims at educating adolescents to eat healthy and engage in physical activities to stay healthy (Stewart et al. 522). Although these nutrition-education programs have the potential of promoting healthy eating habits among Americans, their impact largely depends on the patrons’ own knowledge on nutrition and whether they apply it when making choices on the type of restaurant or food to eat.
Is Eating Out Healthy? The statistics given by the United States Department of Labor show that more Americans prefer eating out to eating at home despite the low nutritional quality of restaurant foods. But, what factors influence Americans to continue to eat out despite the increased health risks associated with fast-foods?
From an economic perspective, a consumer’s preference and nutrition knowledge would affect his or her dietary choices. Thus, consumers who have knowledge on the nutritional value of foods would be expected to evaluate restaurant foods before placing an order. Food prices also influence the consumers’ dietary choices.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Way of Dining Out specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides income and food prices, the consumers’ demographic characteristics can be used to explain the trends in consumer behavior. In the American context, psychological factors such as attitudes, information, perceptions shape consumer behavior, and by extension, the demand for restaurant foods.
In light of this, it is clear that the Americans’ rising demand for restaurant foods is shaped by the desire to eat healthy in a convenient location that provides entertainment value. Thus, when choosing among eating in a restaurant, eating at home and eating in a fast-food café, an individual will often consider each option’s entertainment value and convenience. Consumers with limited funds and/or time will tend to choose the option that is cheap but offers greater pleasure.
The Americans’ way of eating out can be explained using the traditional economic theory. This theory describes how consumers make decisions when they have limited product information at their disposal. The FDA specifies that “if a restaurant claims that a particular menu item is ‘low in fat’… then this requirement is satisfied by adding: ‘low fat – provides less than 3 grams of fat per serving” (Technomic 8). However, the FDA does not require restaurants to disclose a meal’s specific nutrient content.
Therefore, restaurants can choose to give the complete nutrient content of the foods sold or simply provide the mandated information. Nevertheless, if the majority of consumers want menu items with healthy nutrient content, the hotels/restaurants may give the complete nutrition information of the foods sold.
As restaurants always compete for customers, marketing themselves as providing healthful foods can give them a competitive advantage. Some popular restaurants voluntarily give complete nutrition information of the foods they sell.
A good example is the Subway restaurant, which supplies the caloric content of its popular sandwiches and compares them with the sandwiches sold by the other restaurants such as McDonald’s and Burger King. McDonald’s and Burger King, on the other hand, give pamphlets containing the details of the nutrient content of foods sold. However, other restaurants provide no such information making healthful eating away from home almost impossible for Americans.
The incomplete nutrition information provided by most restaurants can be attributed to the need to retain consumers as knowledge of a meal’s dietary composition may affect demand for foods with undesirable nutrient content. Thus, when little information is provided, the consumers cannot make an informed choice when eating out.
However, those who have nutrition knowledge can assess the nutritional quality of the products sold by restaurants. Even for those who prefer to eat at home, they are motivated by the need to save money, not to eat healthy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Way of Dining Out by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it can be argued that, most Americans’ eating out choices (where to eat, what to eat and how frequently to eat out) are largely dependent on entertainment and convenience, not on the nutritional value of the foods. In view of this, people with a good understanding of nutrition can effectively determine the restaurant food types that are healthful compared to those with little or no nutrition knowledge.
The Economics of Eating Out Although a third of Americans report reducing how often they eat out, 1 in every 10 people in America dine out more often (DoL Para. 4). A further 70 percent of Americans cook at home to cut down their food expenditure while another 57 percent believe that eating out is an unnecessary expense.
Interestingly, about 29 percent of Americans claim to have reduced their expenses in other areas to sustain their eating out habits (Para. 6). These statistics imply that Americans’ restaurant spending has, to some extent, been affected by the sluggish economy. Therefore, Americans have not changed their dining out habits; they have only reduced how often they eat out. The economic downturn has seen more Americans eat out less often with some shifting from eating in major establishments to casual food outlets.
Now with constrained budgets, many Americans have resorted to eating at home and when eating out, price consideration takes the center stage. They prefer casual restaurants when eating out because their prices are often low. This explains why popular casual restaurants have gained in profits over the past few years while the profits of full-service eateries have declined. For instance, The Cheesecake Factory gained 2.44 percent in profits while the McDonald’s profits declined by 12 percent in 2010 (Technomic 9).
The implication here is that consumers are increasingly becoming selective with regard to where to eat out due to budget constraints. But, what drives eating out habits besides prices? It is evident that cravings for exotic and foreign cuisines, restaurant location, entertainment value, healthy dishes offered and variety of food choices motivate Americans to eat out as opposed to cooking at home.
This indicates that the American way of eating out is not influenced by the need to eat healthy. Rather, entertainment value, convenience and variety of dishes available in restaurants drive many Americans to dine out in restaurants.
Conclusion Dining out in restaurants is a favorite pastime for most Americans. Most Americans prefer to eat out to eating at home because restaurants offer convenience, in terms of location, they offer a variety of meals/dishes and most offer entertainment for patrons.
Despite the recent economic downturn and the poor nutritional quality of fast-foods, most Americans still enjoy dining out. Therefore, until Americans recognize the high nutritional value of home cooked meals, eating out will continue to be the norm, as fast-food restaurants continue to rake in profits.
Works Cited Stewart, Hayden, Blisard, Noel, Jolliffe, Dean and Bhuyan, Sanjib. “The Demand for Food-Away-From Home: Do Other Preferences Compete with Our Desire to Eat Healthfully?” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30.3 (2005): 520-536. Print.
Technomic, Inc. Trends in Healthier Eating and Fruit and Vegetable Usage in Chain Restaurants. Wilmington, DE: Produce for Better Health Foundation, 2006. Print.
United States Department of Labor [DoL]. Economic News Release: Consumer Expenditures– 2012. Web. .
Chinas History and Relations Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations
How China Affected the Asian Countries
Spread of Buddhism
How Asian countries influenced China
China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations The Yuan Dynasty was one of the most influential authorities that reigned over the Chinese territory and preceded other dynasties which included the Song and Ming. The Yuan dynasty used Marc Polo to communicate with other countries. In regard to the relationship between the Yuan dynasty and its neighbors, it incurred a lot of rebellion from its rivals such as the Mongols.
During this struggle, the rebels could terrorize the allies of Yuan Dynasty and free them to China (Ebrey et al. 179). In the same light, the author reveals that the continuous rebellion by the neighboring countries led to the formation of anti-Yuan dynasty which aimed at conquering it (179).
The dynasty did not only solve its conflicts through war but also using diplomatic means. In this regard, they could use travelers to communicate with the European countries such as Italy. For instance, they sent Mac Polo to deliver a letter to Italy in order to create ties with the dynasty. The dynasty could also receive visitors such as John of Montecorvino who was a missionary from Italy (Sen and Victor 75).
Ebrey revealed that the Ming Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang who had experienced the plight of poverty during the Yuan Dynasty which had imposed a lot of disorders in China (227). In fact, Ebrey stated that Zhu had started his life from the bottom of society (228).
The author further states that the founder’s attempts to bring order on the society of the Chinese people were mostly considered as a draconian act (227). However, although the people were not always positive towards his acts, the author elaborates that 30 years of the Ming dynasty transformed China in a great way (227). This achievement was attained against many odds including intensive rebellion from the royalists of the Yuan government (Ebrey et al. 228).
During one of the struggle for power, the Yuan government troops burnt down the temple of Zhu showing disrespect (Ebrey et al. 228). The continuous military attacks show that the Chinese territories were not used to solving their difference in a diplomatic manner. Instead they used their power to outdo, conquer, and colonize other territories.
The song formed a separate and critical dynasty in the Chinese history. The dynasty was founded between 860 and 960 when the forces were devolved to deal with the local issues (Ebrey et al. 91). The author reveals that during this period any local man who was capable of organizing defense teams against the rebels could be declared as the king (91). This defense was quite crucial considering the strong rivals of the song dynasty who included Liao and others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How China Affected the Asian Countries China had profound effect on the various aspects of Asia countries including culture, religion, and political factors. For example, Ebrey stated that the expansion of Han dynasty in China incorporated the Peninsula’s north western part.
This expansion increased the interaction among Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese people leading to spread to Chinese culture and technology (Ebrey et al. 98). In this regard, the Korean gradually embraced the Chinese ideologies such as Buddhism, writing skills, and Confucianism as a result of the increased interaction.
The author then stated that in the fourteenth century, the outpost fell of Chinese dynasties evoked the creation of three different states of the Korean territory which was established in China (98). However, Ebrey elaborated that the domestic production of silver in China decreased significantly in 1430 requiring them to acquire it from the neighboring countries which produced the metal.
As a result, they bought about 50 percent of the Japanese silver as well as the one transported by the Portuguese ships in order to satisfy the demand (Ebrey et al. 267). In the same light, they also relied on Russia, which is one of the Asian countries, for silver that was mined in Mexico. It is thus evident that the Chinese influenced the Russian economy profoundly owing to silver trade that took place between the two nations.
Additionally, China affected the economic development of Japan following the trade between the two countries. In this regard, the Chinese monetary system used to sliver to make currency making it an important commodity in China (Ebrey et al. 267). The Chinese trading experience is revisited by Lockard when he stated that Chinese and Arabs were quite skillful in the technology of sea transport which enabled them to become active in the Southeast Asian trade (63).
He then stated that the trade between China and other countries continued to grow during the 700 to1500 era. While elaborating the role of China towards economic development of South Asia, he revealed that the Chinese were the main people who captained the ships which sailed to Japan and China (90).
This implies that the Chinese were probably the drivers of economic development in this region owing to the early technological knowledge. The author further focused on the spread of Chinese trade to the Arabian countries. In this case, the authors revealed that in 1296, Angkor conducted active trade with the Chinese merchants owing to the support provided by the Chinese ambassador in Angkor (39).
We will write a custom Essay on Chinas History and Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ambassador then left a detailed description concerning the society’s conduct as well as its authorities in order to create way for the future unions between China and Angkor (39). Further, Lockard described China as a country that inspired the development of trade in other countries. Between 1400 and 1650, the author revealed that China entered into an age of commerce where they practiced trade across the Indian Ocean (64).
This initiative increased the demand of the Southern Asian demands which probably inspired other Asian countries to enter participate in this trade. It is thus evident that China a perfect example of a country that motivated others Asian Countries to adopt trade. Moreover, China was a major threat to Vietnam especially when considering the political stability of this country. In this regard, Lockard pointed out that since the Chinese authorities frequently sent their forces to Vietnam, the Vietnamese could not ignore their sporadic attacks (62).
Spread of Buddhism Buddhism has already existed in the world for approximately 2500 years, and it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama who was a prince of a tiny Indian realm (Lockard 22). Siddhartha was also well known as the Buddha (“enlightened one”) (Lockard 22). According to historical records, Buddhism had been highly praised during the time of India’s Mauryan empire by its third king Ashoka who himself devoutly believed in Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
During the period of Ashoka’s governing, Buddhism carried forward and flourished extensively (Ebrey et al. 57). According to historians, king Ashoka took advantage of the mechanism of his kingdom to widely promote Buddhism within India (Ebrey et al. 57). As a devote Buddhist, he banned animal sacrifices, and made an approximately one-year long pilgrimage to all the holy places of Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
Nevertheless Buddhism declined after 1200 C.E., it spread to the neighboring world due to Ashoka’s dispatch of Buddhist missionaries to the rest of Eurasia (Ebrey et al. 57-58). Thus, India established relationships with its neighboring world on military, trade, religion, and culture. Due to the fact that it is the birth land of two religions: Buddhism, which spread to Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia ((Trautmann 8).
For East Asia, one propagation path was northwest through Central Asia to China, which explains why the first Buddhist text was translated in the language from Central Asia rather than the language from India (Ebrey et al. 58). For Southeast Asia, the route started from east to Sri Lanka and then to most of the Southeast Asia (Ebrey et al. 58).
Though language diversity occurred along the path of the dissemination of the Buddhism, some translators like Kumarajiva made huge contributions to unify the language of Buddhist text and thus made the spreading of Buddhism more smooth (Ebrey et al. 59-60).
According to the research of some scholars, it was during the Han Dynasty that Buddhism was initially brought into China by the Buddhist monks travelling from the outside world with the development of diplomacy and trade. However, the development of Buddhism was quite limited due to the prosperity of Confucianism in Han times. After the decline of the Han Dynasty in 220 C.E., Buddhism started to flourish in 300 C.E. (Ebrey et al. 70).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinas History and Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buddhist emphasized that the quality of “kindness, charity, the preservation of life, and prospect of salvation” was significantly important (Ebrey et al. 70). Such emphasises attracted not only male followers but also female followers since becoming a nun emancipated women from being repressed in their traditional role in the ancient Chinese society (Ebrey et al. 70-71).
How Asian countries influenced China The Korean states appeared in China through the Tang Dynasties from Han such that they were in close contact with the people of China (Ebrey et al. 98). The author then stated that since the Tang and Sui authorities attempted to sabotage the Koreans, they developed a lot of resistance against the two governments in order to secure their livelihood in China (98). This evoked a lot of competition against the expansion of the two Chinese territories considering that the three territories wanted to expand geographically.
Additionally, the Manchurian were one of the most important dynasties which sahped the history of China and its culture. In this regard, the Manchus fought against the Chinese Ming dynasty so that they could rule China (Ebrey et al., 255).
Ebrey argued that conquering China was one of the Manchus’ priorities since they considered it as resourceful country as compared to its counterparts including Korea (255). After the conquest of China by the Manchus Qing reigned over the land Chinese territory seeking political ties with Joseon who helped them to extend their campaign in China.
Following the weakening of security in China, Qing expanded it by conquering other territories around the Chinese vicinity. This obviously led to the geographical expansion of China leading to the increased security. However, Ebrey pointed out that during an attempted conquest of Joseon, the Korean state proved it strength by portraying its resolve as a nonthreatening territory which could remain autonomous (255).
Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia, Anne Walthall, and James Palais. East Asia: a cultural, social, and political history. 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2012. Print.
Lockard, Craig. Southeast Asia in world history. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Sen, Tansen, and Victor Mair. Traditional China in Asian and world history. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Trautmann, Thomas. India: brief history of a civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
The Eighteenth Amendment Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The United States common tradition did not rule out the use or acquisition of any alcoholic drink. However, the Eighteenth Amendment proscribed the shipping, rummage sale, and production of alcohol. The devoted faction strived to support the control of alcohol purchase and consumption based on several reasons. In fact, the group discerned the direct association amid the inconsiderate social conducts and alcohol.
The faction believed that domestic violence and child abuse transpired from the uncontrolled alcohol consumption. According to Shay (2004), the pessimistic crash on the US labor output resulted from hysterical alcoholism (p.67). The dilemma of alcoholism was thus tossed into an act following the emotion of Anti-German. This occurred during the Second World War. This paper describes and analyzes the account of the eighteenth amendment.
Main Body The asylum seekers from Germany alias alien enemies controlled most of the United States breweries. The feeling of the Anti-German was not to manufacture alcohol but to feed the military using fashioned grain. Conversely, some other groups such as the NPR (National Prohibition Reforms) and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment) battled the growth of this project.
At the onset of the fiscal 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment got ratification from the Congress in spite of the attempts of anti-Prohibition factions. The prohibition of transporting, importing, exporting, selling, and manufacturing alcoholic drinks came into effect in the year 1920. The Amendment augmented when nearly twenty nations (65%) countrywide had banished alcohol.
The already stored wine cellar had to bother less since the Amendment had put a stop to the crouch of individual exploitation and ownership of alcohol. Therefore, the US central government grabbed the aptitude to enforce the ban through the Act of National Prohibition. The vital Amendment delineated the extent of intoxicating alcohol, usage exceptions, and penalties against the violation of law. The officially authorized and utmost value of alcohol in any drink was 0.50% percent (Shay 61).
Ratification of the 18th Amendment
The achievement of the Eighteenth Amendment approval occurred in early January of the fiscal 1919. The ratification cropped up after three hundred and ninety four days in over three quarters of the US nations. Ten days prior to the ratification, a formal certification by the stand-in Secretary of State ensued.
Besides, there was a time limit for the ratification following the necessitated number of states by the 18th Amendment. The Amendment could not come into effect provided few nations had ratified the Act in a period of seven years. Historically, there was a challenge on the legality of the Act with the inclusion of time bounds in the proposed constitutional amendment for the first time. In the mid 1921, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of the Eighteenth Amendment (Wheeler 91).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 18th Amendment had three sections with the first and second sections proving to be the relevant part for the implementation and proscription of alcohol. The first section prohibited the exportation, importation, transportation, and production of alcohol for drinking purpose in the US or any territory under jurisdiction.
In order to enforce the Amendment through suitable legislation, the second section provided for the states and Congress to possess powers that concurred. In the last section, the editorial provided that if the parliament endorsed the revision in seven years founded on the legal requirements form, the submission date by the senate would make it out of order. Thus far, the specificity of the amendment and its enforcement did not come clear in the statements of this article (Blocker 1237).
The enabling legislation (1919 Act of National Prohibition) provided a resolution to the itching issues of alcoholism. According to Wheeler (1919), the Act was famous as Volstead Andrew who sponsored the legislation and chaired the committee on Senate Judiciary (p.45). Besides, the Congress superseded the President’s veto after he alluded to the constitutional and moral objections in October 1919.
The official entitlement of the Volstead Act strived to endorse scientific research and indemnify abundant supply and usage of alcohol in industries, drying, and energy growth. The Act aspired to control the sale and usage of high proof alcohol, production, and manufacture of spirits. The Amendment commonly aimed at forbidding the intoxicating drinks. Even though the 18th Amendment seemed short, its implementation was not easy as it was confusing and intricate in interpretation.
The effects of 18th Amendment
The implementation of the Amendment under certain exemptions existed as unlawful. In fact, particular illegitimate alcohol production industry substituted the legal businesses. Violence and murder engulfed between criminal gangs, organized criminals, and minor marketplace operators in rivalry over market rheostat. The consumers succumbed to painful fatalities, sightlessness, and paralysis given the haphazardly prepared bootleg drinks that contained creosote.
In effect, the Prohibition made consumers to switch to unsafe stuffs like liquid heat, hair tonic, cocaine, and opium that had adverse effects on their lives. Similarly, the prohibition led to dishonesty as bootleggers and moonshiners paid off the custodians of Prohibition Bureau, sheriffs, and police in order to carry out shoddy business (Blocker 1237). The spread of corruption in most cities and towns generally facilitated disrespect for the rule of law. Further, assassination and hostility transpired given the failure to use bribes.
On the other hand, the Amendment forced individuals to gulp alcohol given the obnoxious, intense, and infrequent consumption. The proscription saddled the taxpayer and depressed the returns generated by the government due to elevated confinement, courtyard, and decree enforcement operating costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Eighteenth Amendment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The involvement of prohibition touched almost 70% of the entire expenses of national government. Taft asserted that the disenchantment came with Prohibition over a period of five years (p. 55). Actually, he wrote that reverence for the law had shrunk instead of intensifying and the government expenditure was higher. Moreover, journalist engraved that there was no condensed amount of mental illness, transgression, and drunkenness in the entire nation given that they were even more.
The Repeal of 18th Amendment
The United States continually suffered from the bottlenecks of the Eighteenth Amendment with threats evident in welfare, financial system, ethics, security, and health sector. The prohibitionists emphasized on the possibilities of repealing the Amendment despite its ratification. Over the years, the tribulation of Prohibition augmented to increase antagonism from the populace. A call for the Repeal of this article ultimately came from the diverse supporters of the Act.
Interestingly, a longevity abstainer called Rockefeller John felt the effect and consequences of the prohibition and supported the Repeal of this Amendment (Taft 61). The WTCU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) was essential in national Prohibition since they coveted to guard kids, women, and families from the cruel consequences of alcoholism. Women supported the Repeal owing to the fact that Prohibition did not meet their endeavors.
The command for Repeal from numerous organizations increased attributable to the discontent and disenchantment in the US. These associations encompassed VCL (Voluntary Committee of Lawyers), WMU (Women’s Modernization Union), URC (United Repeal Union), and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment). Nevertheless, specific organizations that supported the Prohibition were against the upsurge of Repeal.
These included, the Temperance Strategy Board, World League against Alcoholism, and Methodist Board of Temperance. The plank of anti-Prohibition along with the year 1932 election guaranteed by President Roosevelt of the Democratic Party came from such prohibitions (Barry 72). Merely a solitary US nation opposed the Repeal while the citizens casted off the Prohibition by seventy four percent of the ballots in favor of Repeal against the opposing twenty six percent.
In the year 1933, Repeal of the 18th Amendment occurred in December with the 21st Amendment. The Congress Act in the late 1935 saw the Repeal of the first and second sections of the Volstead Act. Separate Repeal of the laws of federal Prohibition took place in different provinces and localities.
The Volstead Act reprieved the influential funding of the Congress by the 18th Amendment. As such, the Act turned out to be unenforceable and illogical according to the Supreme Court in the US. In general, discharge emerged from the infringement of the Volstead Act pending the verdict of certainty before the Repeal date (Barry 54).
Conclusion After the Second World War, the temperance progress (neo-Prohibition) was latent and surfaced with fresh and customized ideologies as well as characteristics. Indeed, over the last quarter of the 20th century the consumption of spirits, wines and beer has radically begged off.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Eighteenth Amendment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The supposition that people are not trustworthy when making suitable choices in their lives cuts across the rehabilitated progress. The government is likely to employ legislations that impose restrictions on the liberty of an individual to safeguard the public or citizens from their ingestion actions. Instead of ascertaining strict legal prohibition, the administration ought to exercise tactics such as marginalizing the alcohol consumers and making liquor less communally allowable. This is what the eighteenth amendment is intended to do.
Works Cited Barry, James. The Noble Experiment, 1919-1933: The Eighteenth Amendment Prohibits Liquor in America, New York, Florida: Watts Press, 1972. Print.
Blocker, Jack. “Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment.” Journal of American History, 82.3(1995): 1235-37.
Shay, Gene. Amendment 18, Prohibition: Amendment 21, Repeal of Prohibition, Lawrenceville, NJ: Cambridge Educational, 2004. Print.
Taft, William. The 18th Amendment, Detroit, MI: Henry Joy Press, 1930. Print.
Wheeler, Wayne. The Eighteenth Amendment, Chicago, IL: National Conference of Social Work, 1919. Print.