Modern concepts of marketing date back to the 18th century. Industrial revolution provided systems and infrastructure that allowed producers to manage the distribution of goods via the expanding mass media. Furthermore, mass production led to separation of goods and consumers.
Competition for customers increased in the early 20th century causing greater focus on strategies for communication and advertising to persuade customers in crowded markets.
In the 1950s, markets underwent significant saturation, which triggered intense competition for customers and led to the development of modern marketing strategies.
The need to adopt diverse marketing strategies in the hospitality industry arose as the industry expanded to incorporate mass tourism, package travel and new concepts on restaurant services, which led to increased competition.
Comprehension of consumer needs, identification of market segments and selection of appropriate tool for marketing is crucial in hospitality marketing. Market analysis provides business entities within the hospitality industry with information that facilitates adoption of strategies to attain strategic goals (Powers 28).
Properly formulated market analyses provide a clear understanding of the target market and potential competitors. Maximization of the impacts of marketing activities depends on the comprehension of factors that influence consumers to buy a hospitality product (Hsu et al. 65).
Marketing strategies that create consumer value and facilitate business entities to retain consumers increase profitability. In the hospitality industry, a company with effective and efficient marketing strategies successfully sustains a cycle of quality products, triggers consumer needs, and guarantees satisfaction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of consumer needs should highlight that the marketing strategies in use guides consumers in decision-making and do not pose threats to a company’s reputation.
A business entity with proper comprehension of consumer needs can plan effectively on intervention measures that guarantee profitability in both the short-term and long-term (Reid 75).
In addition, understanding consumer needs allows a company to target specific groups using hospitality products specifically designed for those groups.
Market segments in the hospitality industry are distinct by unique characteristics that depict their role in matters such as price sensitivity and growth opportunities (Hudson 132).
Therefore, business entities keen on determining profit potential and mistakes relating to a business venture must analyze individual market segments. Proper evaluation of market segments provides information on the disparity of primary demand between segments of interest.
Companies within the hospitality industry seek marketing tools with great impacts on consumers. An effective marketing tool should pay attention to the needs and preferences of consumers and facilitate high levels of satisfaction.
Customization of hospitality products and services is one aspect of paying attention to consumer wants (Knowles et al. 48). A company that makes consumers feel appreciated safeguards profit maximization.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Concepts of Marketing in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An advertising tool that is affordable to consumers significantly influences marketing activities. Brochures and magazines available to consumers on daily or weekly basis attract attention towards a company.
Arguments on the effects of relationships between human resources and practices in the hospitality industry highlight the importance of strategizing on the management of human resource to guarantee quality services and the profitability derived from a hospitality product (Kusluvan 41).
Customer satisfaction depends on human resource practices relating to training and communication. Satisfied customers have allegiance to a company and boost marketing activities by engaging in personal marketing.
A company that does not address consumer needs increasingly loses its market share to competitors and may eventually have to exit the industry.
Works Cited Hsu, Cathy H. C., and Thomas F. Powers. Marketing hospitality. 3rd ed. New York: J. Wiley, 2002. Print.
Hudson, Simon. Tourism and hospitality marketing a global perspective. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2008. Print.
Knowles, Tim, Dimitrios Diamantis, and Joudallah Bey Mourhabi. The globalization of tourism and hospitality: a strategic perspective. London: Continuum, 2001. Print.
Kusluvan, Salih. Managing employee attitudes and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality industry. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2003. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Modern Concepts of Marketing in the Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Powers, Thomas F., and Clayton W. Barrows. Introduction to the hospitality industry. New York: Wiley, 1999. Print.
Reid, Robert, and David C. Bojanic. Hospitality marketing management. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2001. Print.
Problem with Multigenerational Workforces Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Dealing with Multigenerational Workforces and Ageing Populations
Introduction Most companies today are faced with the problem of multigenerational workforces and ageing population. In general, the values and attitudes held by individuals towards work and relationships are largely determined by how they were raised and where they grew up (Werner et al. 2011).
Since the problem of multigenerational and ageing workforces is here to stay, it is becoming increasingly important for human resource professionals in modern day organizations to understand the various challenges encountered in dealing with the different groups so as to formulate appropriate policies and procedures that can enable them to satisfactorily address emerging concerns.
This is further complicated by the fact that not everyone shares the same values and attitudes within each generation. By nature, people are able to quickly fit into varying organizational structures guided by different human resource policies and procedure.
According to Hickman (2009, p. 15), the difference in values and attitudes towards work are as a result of the time in which they grew up. To effectively deal with the multigenerational workforces it is necessary for human resource professionals to assume that there are similarities that tend to bring the generations together while on the other hand, differences set them apart.
Human resource professionals should seek to understand the similarities and differences and consequently come up with strategies to deal with emerging issues. It is advisable for human resource professionals to devise policies and procedures that can cater for a wide variety of individuals.
Multigenerational Workforces Much has been written about the expectations of individuals in different age groups and generations. For employers, these varied expectations present challenges, especially given economic, global, technological, and other changes in the workplace (Weiss 2008, p. 54). In the United States, the commonly identified generational groups include traditionalists, baby boomers, generation X, and generation Y.
As the economy and industries have changed drastically, the ageing of the US workforce has equally become a significant concern for many. Workers over 55 years are now using different strategise to survive. They are notorious for delaying retirement age, and opting to work part time or retire in a phased manner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Economic conditions are the predominant reasons why these workers are bypassing the normal retirement age of 65. Certainly, employers will continue to face challenges of getting the right workforce as the older generation of more experienced employees go into retirement. Finding the right replacement for the retired staff will be a daunting task for employers.
According to Mathis and Jackson (2010, p. 113), young and old generation workforces tend to have a totally different approach to work, and this creates more challenges that must delicately be addressed by human resource experts. For example, many baby boomers and traditionalists are concerned about security and experience, while younger people have different concerns.
Generation Y expect to be rewarded quickly, use more technology, and often ask more questions about why managers and organizations make the decisions they do. Consider the dynamics of a traditionalist manager directing generation X and Y individuals, or generation X managers supervising older, more experienced baby boomers as well as generation Y employees.
However, it is crucial to be aware that stereotyping these individuals by generations may not reflect how actual individuals view their jobs and produce organizational results.
Clearly, it important for managers to fully aware of challenges as well as any possible opportunities associated with multigenerational workforces and ageing populations in an organization. Presently, many organizations are using numerous approaches in order to enhance multigenerational effective and improve approach to management of complex workforces.
Strategies include mentoring, employee recognition, organizing trainings that accommodate every employee with no regard to the generation he or she belongs to, using younger employees to support the older employees, creating an environment in which skills from the older employees can passed on to the younger employees, and establishing multigenerational work groups (Rowe 2010, p. 57).
The old age dependency ratio indicates what proportion of a country’s population is of retirement age and what proportion is of employment age (Pollitt 2006, p. 18). In 2005, the average old age dependency ratio for countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was 24 per cent. As time goes by, it is alleged that this ratio is likely to double and will lead to increased spending.
We will write a custom Essay on Problem with Multigenerational Workforces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In industrialized nations, employers have realized that a high number of employees belonging to the older generation will soon be retiring. Among other concerns is how organizations will be able to fill the result gap in their workforce. This is mainly due to the fact that the younger population may not be in a position to effectively handle responsibilities earlier handled by the retirees.
There will be a growing shortage of experienced employees able to step into the shoes of retiring senior leaders (Mercer et al. 2010). However, economic necessity is not the only driver. The legislation is underpinned by ideals of fairness, and a commitment to civil and human rights.
Although it makes financial sense for people to work longer so that they pay more taxes and delay drawing their state pension, law makers seeking to prohibit age discrimination and raise the age of retirement claim they are driven by moral and ethical imperatives, not just money (Froemming 2000, p. 31).
In general, people of retirement age are considered fitter and more energetic than in the past, making them better able to cope with the physical and mental demands of work. More importantly though, work gives a sense of purpose and meaning to life, a benefit that individuals ought not to be denied simply because they have reached a certain age.
According to Mercer et al. (2010, p. 22), the development of equality legislation has been justified not only in terms of increasing a nation’s global competitiveness and reducing its public spending, but also in terms of increasing an individual’s social or moral well being.
These same two drivers lie behind similar modern legislation outlawing other forms of discrimination. The existence of equality legislation helps to simplify and strengthen the complex anti-discrimination laws that have developed over the years.
Ageing Population Although the effects associated with an ageing population on the formulation of human resource policies and procedures can be significant, they can vary greatly from country to country (Spiers 2003, p. 13). A major challenge encountered when dealing with an ageing population is the commitment by the state to care for retired employees through pension funds.
Certainly, the cost of providing for the aged population increases as more employees retire from active employment. This in turn puts a strain on the economy and subsequently, the rate of taxation has to be increased, placing a huge burden on the tax payer. In general, pension funds come with heavy liabilities which can in turn greatly affect a country’s finances and consequently recruitment and remuneration policies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem with Multigenerational Workforces by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As noted by Smentek (2006, p. 26), there are numerous other problems brought about by an ageing population. To address the emerging issues, some human resource professionals advocate for effective succession planning. Generally, succession planning requires organizations to think ahead and devise effective plans for filling workforce gaps as older employees leave active employment.
Well informed human resource experts will ensure that as older employees advance in years and as they approach the stipulated retirement age, they are given a responsibility to mentor the younger employees. By equipping the young generations of employees with critical skills needed to work effectively, human resource professionals are able to guarantee continuity even after the older employs go into retirement.
Besides boosting the self esteem of the older employees, a well planned succession plan helps to build the confidence of younger employees and compel them to be more responsible and reliable employees. An approach adopted by most organizations involves the creation of multigenerational groups that create a platform where both the older and younger generation of employees can interact and freely share their skills.
Infertility and ageing are also to blame for work force problems experienced in some countries. Over time, the number of active employees goes down, putting these countries in a state where the available workforce can not satisfactorily meet the increased market demand for labor force. Other than requiring employers to pay high salaries to maintain the small work force available, the level of production also declines.
Ultimately, organizations that manage to survive are forced to operate at a loss. To address this problem, some countries such as the United States have relied heavily on immigrants.
On the other hand, the United Nations suggests that countries should make careers in public service more lucrative in order to attract and retain a high caliber of employees (UN 2005, p. 39). Although tried by some countries, the idea is yet to be implemented in most countries across the world.
In countries such as China, different strategies are being employed by human resource experts. One such strategy has been to turn to the use of tactics that enable effective use of a smaller work force.
Although strategies to make work in the civil service appealing to many have been used in some organizations, as suggested by the United Nations, the practice has not completely taken root as widely expected by most human resource professionals. Numerous efforts have also been made by various organizations in order to nurture talented individuals and prepare them for future responsibilities.
Another option suggested by the United Nations to deal with the scarcity of employees is to invite professional from other countries with desired skills to take up available jobs (Leibold
Analyzing Manchester United FC Competitive Advantage Using VRIN Framework Dissertation argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analyzing IKEA internal operations using VRIN tool
Introduction Manchester United FC abbreviated MUFC, is a globally recognized football corporation currently privately owned by the Glazer family. Since its incorporation, this football club has performed tremendously well with respect to profit generation, governance, and ownership structures, besides meeting the different expectations of the club’s stakeholders.
This paper employs the VRIN framework to analyze the competitive advantage that MUFC has over other premier league clubs. The framework shows how MUFC has been able to flourish despite the escalating debt burdens that this football club is yet to offset.
Analyzing IKEA internal operations using VRIN tool Valuable: According to Pearce (2010), the strengths of MUFC currently instigates from the distinctive resourcing, compactly directed logistics, along with inimitable blueprint aptitudes. The football club offers quality products and services namely players, stadia, managers, self-professed supporters, and lavish football patterns that are unique enough to give it global recognition as well as secure long-term financial resources and support.
This strength has ensured that MUFC dominates the English premier league industry and steadily increases the market share in most countries including South East Asia (Pyle, 2010). Amongst the biggest football clubs in Europe, MUFC is ranked third after Barcelona FC and Real Madrid with respect to turnovers.
Besides, MUFC has performed constantly well in the English premier league winning eighteen premier league titles similar to those won by Liverpool. The football club reached two champions league final in the fiscal 2008 and 2009, but won the title in 2008. Most key players have longed to play for MUFC due to its remarkable performance and the never giving up spirit of the players (Pyle, 2010).
Rare: Throughout the English premier league history, MUFC has been able to produce new designs of stadia, managers, loyal supporters, and players besides offering quality products to other rival football clubs. In fact, MUFC is the only player in the English football industry that has been able to offer a variety of designs to the wide football consumer base found across the world (Conn, 1997).
For instance, MUFC is the largest football club in England with a stadium capacity of 75,691. Compared to the premiership rival clubs such Arsenal and Chelsea, MUFC offers the cheapest football match tickets allowing the club to be filled to its capacity in nearly all matches. It is rare to find other English premier league clubs having the longest waiting lists for the match season tickets as is the case with MUFC (Bond, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the side of playing, clubs such as Manchester City, Liverpool, Arsenal, and Chelsea have been making massive investments in football, yet these have not deterred MUFC from deriving massive successes from football. For example, MUFC accomplished its premiership league titles hat trick in the fiscal 2009 besides reaching two finals in the European Champions League in 2008 and 2009.
MUFC generated massive returns from the sale of Christian Ronaldo, the world’s most expensive player, and bought stars players including Michael Owen, Michael Carrick, Dimitar Berbatov, and Owen Hargreaves (Pyle, 2010). Besides the new signings, MUFC retains most of it key players such Ryans Giggs, Paul Scholes, Ferdinand, Fletcher, and Patrick Evra all of whom receive hefty salaries.
Finally, MUFC has hard dying fans and supporters who want to oversee how the football club is managed and the ownership structure (Stone, 2006).
Inimitable: As activities of value chain suggest, MUFC has a strong relationship with all its stakeholders namely players, financial supporters, managers, FIFA, UEFA, and fans starting from the premiership products offered to the services given. Most of the Premier League, FA, Carling Cup, Community Shield, and European Champions League competitors found in the football industry lag behind MUFC in terms of loyalty and global supporters only know a few football clubs that surface.
In fact, MUFC enjoys global recognition due to its ability to offer typical, but stylish football players and stars, stadia, managers, fans, financial supporters, low priced match tickets, and lavish football patterns with a sense of differing consumer needs (Bose, 2007).
MUFC operations, sales, and marketing strategies are also inimitable. This football club has continued to expand and increase its stakeholder’s base across all market segments including Africa, Europe, Asia, and America. MUFC is the only club in the English Premier Industry to attract supporter across the world without changing the original concept of management (Pyle, 2010).
This has been accomplished via creating inimitable merchandise designs founded on revered perseverance. MUFC has developed a durable partnership with football agencies and players most of whom are located in regions where MUFC wants to get players. Finally, MUFC has a pool of experienced managers including Sir Alex Fergusson, David Gill amongst others who spearhead the global development of MUFC brand.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Analyzing Manchester United FC Competitive Advantage Using VRIN Framework specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Non-Substitutable: The iconic aspect of self-assembly emphasized at MUFC is more of an imagination. The developments that have led to this football club’s achievement have taken years and the whole commitment of MUFC corporate leaders and other stakeholders.
Even if, other competitors found in the English Premier League industry tried to imitate the management and football approach employed by this football club, they will not only invest costly in building trust with stakeholders, but must do better than MUFC to dissolve the recognition the company has gained (Bond, 2010).
Conclusion Despite the presence and stringent competition from various English premier league clubs, MUFC materializes to be the most flourishing and illustrious UK football club. Compared to arch rivals namely Arsenal, Chelsea, Liverpool, and Manchester City, MUFC won its nineteenth premier league title in the fiscal 2009 among other trophies and financial returns. All the success attributes that give MUFC a competitive edge against its competitors are apparent in the inimitable, non-substitutable, valuable, and rare products and services.
Works Cited Bond, David. “Manchester United Owners Hit by Debt Payment Rise”. BBC Sport, British Broadcasting Corporation, 2010.
Bose, Mihir. Manchester Disunited Trouble and Takeover at the World’s Richest Football Club, London: Aurum Press, 2007.
Conn, David. The Football Business: The Modern Football Classic, Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 1997.
Pearce, James. “Old Trafford under the Spotlight”. BBC Sport, London: British Broadcasting Corporation Press, 2010.
Pyle, Steve. Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? Case Study, London: Sage Publication, 2010.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analyzing Manchester United FC Competitive Advantage Using VRIN Framework by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Stone, Simon. “Three more Glazer Siblings to Join United Board”. The Guardian, London: Guardian News and Media, 2006.
Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction Critical Essay college admissions essay help
Design and Methods Used In the Study A study by Aversa et al. to establish the effects of the drug vardenafil on obese men with sexual dysfunction uses all male obese subjects attending the outpatient unit of the health facility (2012). Exclusion criteria for participants include patients on certain medications such as antidiabetic, cardiovascular, statin, and other conditions as described in a previously administered questionnaire.
Twenty subjects participate in the study for 8 weeks by recording their sexual experiences during the study period in a questionnaire and a diary (Aversa et al., 2012). Bronner and Vodušek attempt to manage sexual dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) since this disease significantly affects sexual function (2011).
They suggest the introduction of dopaminergic drugs and the subsequent follow-up on patients diagnosed with PD. They also encourage the use of lubricants by female patients and timely counseling for all patients. Mastalir, Carvalhal, and Portal seek to investigate the outcome of the drug simvastatin in sexual dysfunction because of endothelial dysfunction.
Twenty one patients receive 20 mg of simvastatin while 20 others receive a placebo for a period of six months. Subsequently, they all get 10 mg of vardenafil on demand for four weeks. Tomlinson and Wright, in an exploratory qualitative study with semi-structured interviews, seek to explore the effect of treating SD using sildenafil (2004). The study uses 40 men with erectile dysfunction and questionnaires to get information on the sexual experiences of the participants.
Reis, de Angelo, Sakamoto, Ferriani, and Lara assess serum hormone concentrations, quality of semen, frequency of sexual intercourse, and erectile function in men with epileptic seizures taking carbamazepine (2013). The study uses semi-structured questionnaires and the IIEF-5 form to obtain patient responses.
Method of Analysis Aversa et al. use analysis of variance to assess disparities among treatment clusters (2012). A 50% increase in IELT (intravaginal ejaculatory latency time) is quantified using a two-sided alpha value of 0.05. The arithmetic mean IELT is compared with BMI using a multiple regression analysis. The study considers a P-value <0.05±s.d. as statistically significant and performs all analyses using SPSS and SAS computer statistical packages (Aversa et al., 2012).
Bronner and Vodušek analyze the efficacy of treatment on reported patient responses (2011). Tests such as “serum cholesterol, hormone profile, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF), and the ED Index of Treatment Satisfaction” are done after the treatment of patients with simvastatin, placebo, and vardenafil (Mastalir, Carvalhal,
Reynold Commercial Door Company Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Overview of Reynold Company and products
Key problems and issues
Overview of Reynold Company and products Reynold Corporation is a renowned family owned professional dealer of quality overhead door equipments. The company that started its operations in 1963 produces top quality garage and door equipments such as sliding doors and electric operators. The products are used in servicing the needs of residential and commercial consumers.
Since its inception, the company has recorded a tremendous growth in terms of structural expansion and financial performance. The growth is attributable to its effective management, production of quality items and effective distribution of products. The company’s excellent performance is also attributable to the quality of its workforce, innovation, teamwork and provision of timely services.
These elements have been the cornerstone of the company’s success over the years. Indeed, the company operates with a mission to servicing its customers to the best of its ability. Its workers are determined to ensure that customers are satisfied beyond their expectations. This element has enabled the company to record high financial turnover due to high sales and return purchasing.
It has also enabled it to establish its business portfolio and build a strong competitive edge over its rivals in the market. This has enabled the company to be recognized as the leading producer and distributor of overhead door servicing equipments globally. Currently, the company has embarked on an ambitious expansion initiative to cover new markets with an aim of expanding its global presence and improving service delivery to its customers.
Company’s vision The company’s key vision is to become the leading consulting service agency globally with strong business operating units. This is essential in enhancing customer satisfaction. It also seeks to be the leading distributor of overhead door equipments with an aim of providing unmatched solution to consumers.
Objectives To produced customized garage door equipments that matches the needs of customers with limited complications
To produce quality items that conforms to the required standards and customer specifications
To enhance its market share and performance through adoption of viable strategies that are economically sustainable
Key Individuals As noted, the company operates under effective and flexible operating structure that fosters its growth. Its flexible operating structure facilitates coordination of activities, control, organizing and building of viable work groups. In its structure, the company has three levels of operation that include the management, production officials and functional workers.
In particular, it has 15 mangers that coordinate activities in all its branches and subsidiary units. They are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that every activity is executed appropriately. The company also has about 250 to 260 employees who are well qualified and hold immense knowledge in the field of electronics. Consequently, it has 30 supervisors whose responsibility is to carryout performance assessment on key business units.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business variables Major business variable that threaten to impede the company’s performance include different customer preferences in terms of product quality, size and efficiency. Other variables include expansion of product portfolio, operating network and enhancement of efficiency in production. These variables are significant since they define the level of performance in any institution.
Key problems and issues As noted, the company is currently facing severe challenges and issues that require adoption of favorable operating policies. Firstly, there is lack of favorable working conditions and guidelines that creates less flexibility in operation. The company’s employees are complaining that they are working under unethical restrictions and poor terms of late.
The company is also facing a challenge in expanding its business portfolio due to financial implications. Therefore, the company’s management must do everything within their power to mitigate the effects of the challenges.
Financial Analysis – Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB) and National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD) are two leading banking institutions based in the capital city of United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi.
This report comprises of a financial analysis of both banks while taking into consideration financial information in the past three financial years, i.e. 2009, 2010 and 2011. The financial analysis presented in this report includes, profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, leverage ratio and solvency ratios of the two banks.
Overview of the Banks Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank was founded back in the year 1997 with the mission of conducting its operations in accordance with the Islamic principles as laid down under “Shariah Law” (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Bloomberg, 2013).
National Bank of Abu Dhabi was founded in the year 1968, and since then it has earned a great reputation not only in the region, but also in other parts of the world.
Today, National Bank of Abu Dhabi is regarded as the largest financial institution in Abu Dhabi as far as its lending operations are concerned (National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; Bloomberg, 2013).
Financial Analysis Following is a comprehensive analysis of the financial position and performance of the companies selected in this report:
Profitability ratios are determined in order to evaluate profitability of a business concern. Profitability ratios generally include, gross margin, operating margin, return on equity, return on investments, return on capital employed, etc. (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following profitability ratios have been determined for the banks selected for analysis in this report:
Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Return on Equity 1.51 % 12.62 % 13.48 % 14.77 % 15.27 % 14.05 % Return on Investment 0.12 % 1.36 % 1.55 % 1.53 % 1.74 % 1.45 % Net Profit Margin 7.26 % 43.68 % 44.31 % 60.72 % 61.16 % 56.96 % Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013).
The return on equity has increased significantly from 2009 to 2010 for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. The reason behind this substantial increase is the improvement in the bank’s earnings in 2010 and onwards.
Moreover, since there is comparatively lower increase noted in total equity of the bank, and therefore, resulted in higher return on equity in 2010 and 2011. Similarly, for National Bank of Abu Dhabi the ratio has shown improvement from 2009 to 2010, but declined in 2011.
The reason behind these fluctuating trends noted in return on equity for National Bank of Abu Dhabi is fluctuations in net income during the past three years.
Similar to the trends noted in return on equity for the two banks in the past three years the return on investment for the two banks showed similar trends.
Also, net profit margin also followed similar patterns for both banks. Due to significant increase in revenues of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, the net income increased considerably, the impact of which has been ultimately depicted in the net profit margin during 2010 and 2011.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Financial Analysis – Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Liquidity Ratios
The liquidity ratios determine the ability of a company to meet its short term borrowing obligations through its internal current sources. Liquidity ratios generally include current ratio, quick ratio, cash ratio and net working capital ratio (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).
Following are the current and cash ratios determined for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi for the past three financial years, i.e. 2009, 2010 and 2011.
Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Current Ratio 0.25 0.30 0.33 0.28 0.32 0.33 Cash Ratio 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.13 0.09 0.11 Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013)
As can be observed in the table above, there is no major difference noted in the current ratios of the two banks over the period of past three years.
The current ratios of both banks have improved from 2009 onwards due to significant improvements noted in the current assets of both banks and a comparatively lower increase in the current liabilities, particularly short term borrowings by the banks.
On the other hand, cash ratio for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank has shown a similar trend in the past three years, whereas for National Bank of Abu Dhabi, the ratio has been observed as fluctuating during the past three years.
In 2010, the cash ratio of the bank reached at its lowest point in the past three years, due to fall in cash and cash equivalent reserves.
The leverage ratio, such as debt to equity ratio, determines the extent to which a business entity’s operations and activities are reliant on debt financing as compared to equity financing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Analysis – Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In other words, it also shows the extent of debt over equity in a business’ balance sheet (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).
The gearing ratios for the two selected banks in this report are determined as follows for financial periods 2009, 2010 and 2011:
Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Gearing Ratio 1.44 0.58 0.79 0.58 0.94 0.74 Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013)
The gearing position of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank has shown consistent fluctuations over the past three financial years. As for instance, in 2009, the gearing level of the bank is seen at its highest level due to increased preference for debt financing of banks operations rather than opting for equity financing.
This situation changed significantly in 2010 due to a comparatively higher increase in equity of the bank as compared to increase in debt. However, the situation changed once again in 2011 due to significantly higher increase in debts of the bank in contrast to the increase in equity.
On the other hand, gearing situation for National Bank of Abu Dhabi is completely opposite.
The gearing level of National Bank of Abu Dhabi increased from 2009 to 2010 and then declined in 2011; the reason being about a 100 percent increase in debts of the bank and a low increase in equity level. In 2011, total debts slightly declined due to which gearing ratio also came down in comparison with the previous year.
Solvency ratios determine the ability of a business enterprise to survive in future (Helfert, 2001; Siddiqui, 2006).
Following are the solvency ratios determined for two banks for the past three financial years:
Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank National Bank of Abu Dhabi 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 Debt to Assets Ratio 0.92 0.89 0.88 0.90 0.89 0.90 Cash Flow to Debt Ratio 0.40 0.76 0.42 17.72 7.21 8.38 Source: (Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2011; Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, 2010; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2011; National Bank of Abu Dhabi, 2010; Bloomberg, 2013)
The debt to assets ratio for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank can be observed as declining during the past three years, but with small differences. The primary reason behind this decline is that the bank’s assets have increased, not in proportion to the increase in debt, which shows that there is less increase in assets due to debt.
Similarly, for National Bank of Abu Dhabi, the ratio declined from 2009 to 2010, but improved in 2011. The reason for the decline is same as has been noted in case of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank.
On the other hand, cash flow to debt ratio for Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank increased in 2010, but came to the same level in 2011 as it was in 2009. The primary factor, which has resulted in fluctuation in this ratio, has been operating cash flows of the bank.
On the other hand, cash flow to debt ratio for National Bank of Abu Dhabi has been noted as significantly lower than that of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. Moreover, the ratio has declined from 2009 to 2010, but slightly improved in 2011. The sharp decline in 2010 is due to significant increase in total debts of the bank.
Conclusion From the financial ratio analysis of Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank and National Bank of Abu Dhabi’s financial statements for the financial years 2009, 2010 and 2011, it has been observed that there are varying trends and patterns in the past three years for both banks as far as their financial performance is concerned.
The profitability ratios for the two banks have revealed that Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank has performed much better, as indicated by significant improvement in net income, as compared to National Bank of Abu Dhabi.
On the other hand, the liquidity positions of the two banks have remained more or less similar in the three years period under consideration. As far as leverage positions of the two banks are concerned, it is concluded from the analysis that both have shown volatility in this respect.
As has been noted, there is no particular pattern is followed in maintaining a certain gearing level by both banks. Moreover, the overall gearing level for both banks remained at high levels from 2009 to 2011, due to high levels of debt financing.
Lastly, the review of solvency position of both banks concluded that the debt to assets ratio for both banks remained at the same level in the past three financial years, primarily due to the fact that the increase in debt and increase in assets for both banks remained proportionately similar.
However, significant differences have been noted in cash flow to debt ratios as there have been significant differences in the operating cash flows of the two banks.
Reference List Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank.
Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank. (2011). Annual Report 2011. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank.
Bloomberg. (2013). Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank (ADIB:Abu Dhabi). Bloomberg. Web.
Bloomberg. (2013). National Bank Of Abu Dhabi (NBAD:Abu Dhabi). Bloomberg. Web.
Helfert, E. A. (2001). Financial Analysis Tools and Techniques: A Guide for Managers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
National Bank of Abu Dhabi. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Abu Dhabi: National Bank of Abu Dhabi.
National Bank of Abu Dhabi. (2011). Annual Report 2011. Abu Dhabi: National Bank of Abu Dhabi.
Siddiqui, S. A. (2006). Managerial Economics And Financial Analysis. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.
Multigenerational Workforce in Modern Business Environment Essay college essay help
This essay explores the impact of multigenerational labour force and the ageing workforce on human resource management in the current business environment. The paper also seeks solutions to the human resource management issues that emanate from the multigenerational and ageing workforce.
In this paper, it is argued that the contemporary work environment is faced with significant pressure and complexity due to the existing generational gap. This paper begins with the explanation of what constitutes a multigenerational workforce and ageing workforce. The paper also looks into the impacts of these two types of workforce on human resource management in business environment.
This is followed by an exploration of the mechanisms that are being deployed to iron out the complexities of a multigenerational workforce. In the discussion, the paper brings out the issue of best practices in the application of job design strategies and motivational theories in managing a multigenerational workforce.
According to Dwyer (2009), the generational differences in the contemporary work environment have challenged the management of the workforce. The modern work environment faces the challenge of attaining compatibility of employees. This is caused by the fact that there are variations in the age and character of the employees (Tulgan 2004).
This increases the difficulty of uniting employees on work practices in organizations (Hatfield 2002). It is, therefore, important to understand the issues that surround a multigenerational and ageing workforce in organizations to solve the complexities.
It is critical to understand the real meaning of a multigenerational workforce and an ageing workforce. According to Kunreuther (2003), a multigenerational workforce implies that people of diverse characteristics prevail in the same work environment. This denotes the differences in the nature of the generations that are prevailing in the contemporary economic environment.
The most notable way in which the generational gap is defined is by basing on age difference. The age differences bring out a number of developmental features of the employees. For instance, the people in the workforce who were born in the later years of the 20th century are often associated with information technology advancement (Pitt-Catsouphes
Benefits of Employee Motivation Term Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison between tradition and motivating companies
Benefits of employee motivation
Charts on factors of employee motivation
Introduction One may wonder why organizations take their time to come up with employee motivation strategies, but the objective is to retain the employees. Employees are a vital asset of any organization and if they fail to commit themselves to organizational goals, it means that the organization does not offer them some incentives.
A study by Ramlall in 2004 found that at least 86 percent of institutions work hard to attract new employees and 58 percent of the organizations encounter difficulties in retaining their existing staff.
According to Millette and Gagné (2008), whenever an organization loses ten employees, the affected organization loses millions of dollars. Besides the financial loss, the organization also loses the expertise and knowledge the employees may have, which comprises one of the valuable assets of any employee.
Employee motivation could facilitate in avoiding chances of an organization incurring these costs.
There are numerous reasons for emphasizing on employee motivation. Among the reasons include making sure that the employees accomplish organizational and personal goals (Shanks, 2007).
There are significant differences between traditional and motivating companies with respect to how the two handle the issue of employee motivation.
Traditional companies use their management teams to identify the staff to recognize while the motivating companies consult their staff when making decision on the employees to recognize. Using the motivating factors, organizations come up with various methods of employee motivation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some organizations work to enhance the relationship between the employees and their -supervisors (Millette
Sidra Digital and Social Media Strategy Proposal essay help
Additional comments These are additional comments whai are based on the digital and social media strategy presented to Sidra Company. Generally, this strategy is developed to assist Sidra in enhancing efficiency in its operations by increasing contact with customers and employees through social media interaction. This is an important strategy due to the increase in the Internet usage and subscription.
Moreover, the strategy is important because customers and employees use the social media frequently, which makes digital and social media the best place to communicate with employees and customers freely and easily.
Additionally, digital and social media strategy will enable the company to enhance public relations because it will provide the organization with the possibliity to respond quickly to inquiries from clients. It will also enable the company to conduct reliable and quality survey research based on customer feedback (Wasserman and Kibani 67).
How to secure the social media accounts The use of technology is on the rise, this has led to negativity and an increase in hacking. Several companies and individuals have been victims of hacking, which affects the operation of business organizations in the social media networks. The organization should make it a priority to secure the social media accounts to verify that customers and clients trust their communication through online channels.
There are several methods that the company may use to secure its social media accounts, for instance, assigning a specific employee the duty to manage the accounts. Social media accounts should be managed by one person in the organization to ensure the administrator of the page is the only person who knows the password. This will protect the password from easy access by unauthorized persons.
Secondly, creating a sign in seal will also improve safety of the account. Additionally, sign ins from other devices whach are not authorized by the organization should be detected and alerts ahould be sent to the administrator’s account. These will certify the safety of the accounts (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 73).
How to integrate social media with website contents Integration of the social media and website should be a priority for the organization. Integrating social media with the website content increases traffic and communication in social media. We will design and integrate social media icons on the website that will lead to the official social media pages of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will enable clients and other interested parties to easily interact with the company from their official social media accounts and pages. We will also design a page section displaying recent and important communication from the social media to enable customers who visit the website to view the trending topics about the organization on the social media (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 81).
Social media account set up Setting up a social media account is challenging because customers communicate with the company using Arabic and English. Social media accounts allow communication in any language because translation is available using Google.
Therefore, the organization will have to register with Google to be on Google maps, and enable the administrator to use Google translator to translate any communication from other languages he or she does not understand well.
Moreover, liaising with other social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook will be important because it will enable the organization to gain authority to use icons and logos of these social media sites on the organizational website.
Generally, the organization has to subscribe with Google affiliate and other social media companies as a business, thus it will be required to incorporate their icons and logos on the company’s website to enable easy access and communication between the company, employees and customers, as well as among other stakeholders (Wasserman and Kibani 28).
Engagement with audience Monitoring engagement with the target audience on the social media is a challenge that most people face and companies is not an exaption. Companies use social media networks as a way of enhancing efficiency in operation. Similarly, Sidra intends to increase efficiency in operating by improving communication with customers, employees and other stakeholders.
We require a program that monitors traffic on the site and social media sites, account and pages of the company to record engagement with clients.
We will write a custom Proposal on Sidra Digital and Social Media Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Determining the level of engagement with the target audience is important because it will enable the organization to evaluate the impact of the digital and social media strategy that is in use. Moreover, it will enable the organization to easily review the impact of the strategy and make relevant and necessary changes to maintain quality operations (Wasserman and Kibani 94).
Response to feedbacks Using social media sites is challenging because clients may post positive as well as negative feedbacks. These are important to the development and growth of the company sinse complany will be able to adapt to cliens’s demands and thus improve its services. Furthermore, quality improvement is based on the feedback given by customers. It is easy for customers to provide feedback through social media communication.
The administrator of the account should respond to both positive and negative feedback. It should be the priority of the organization responding to negative feedbacks. Response to negative feedbacks is a credit to an organization because it is an easy way to clarify on the issues. We will install a program that filters negative and positive feedback to ensure that the administrator of the account easily views the communication in categories.
Negative feedback should be responded first to establish clarity and enhance public relations with the clients. It is a negative feedback that can affect the operation of the organization, therefore, they require prompt response to maintain good relations with the customers and the general public, while enhancing efficiency and increasing levels of returns.
This plan will enable the administrator to respond to both positive and negative feedback appropriately. Moreover, we will develop specific responses to some feedback to assure timely response. Responses such as ‘thank you’, ‘you will receive a response from the administrator’, and ‘thank you for contacting us’ among others (Wasserman and Kibani 103).
How to address concentration on a specific social media account or site Traffic and use of social media sites depend on the preferences of the customers and the target group. However, the organization will have to subscribe to an account with the available social media companies. This will enable the company to address the needs and concern of all customers across the region.
It is likely that the social media site that has the highest number of subscribers who are the customers of the organization will lead to active activities and communication between the customers and the organization. However, the most common social media sites used by organizations in communicating with clients and its employees are Twitter and Facebook (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 38).
The organization may notice over concentration on a specific social media account, for example, Twitter. This can be a challenging situation for the organization. Basically, before implementing this strategy the employees must undergo training on how to integrate this new way of operation into the normal operating method and techniques.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sidra Digital and Social Media Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Receiving more response from the target group from Twitter than Facebook will be an evidence for the organization that a large number of the target group are actually subscribed to Twitter.
This will enable the organization to increase its activity on Twitter account to cinch prompt response to inquiries that need quick reply from the organization. Furthermore, the organization will therefore have to encourage its employees to use Twitter to enhance communication with the customers (Wasserman and Kibani 75).
Examples of social media contents The digital and social media strategy that the organization intends to initiate and implement targets different regions of the globe. Social media sites enable organizations to interact with customers across the globe. This will compel the company to make sure that the contents of the social media being used are relevant to the target group.
The groups that we target are from the European region, Africa, Middle East and Asia among others. Regions such as Canada, Europe and America are not aware of Sidra. Therefore, the media content shared with these regions will focus on informing them more about the organization to enhance their understanding and knowledge.
Although countries in the Middle East are aware of Sidra, they are ignorant of social media. Therefore the contents we share with the customers in this region will be educating them on the importance of using social media and encouraging them to increase subscription to social media (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 118).
Marketing plan Marketing is the process that organizations use to inform customers of their new, existing, and future products. Organizations require an effective marketing plan to guarantee addressing the needs of customers as soon as possible. As a company, we will recommend Sidra to establish an effective marketing plan to ascertain that this strategy is appropriately and effectively implemented.
Establishment of an effective marketing plan will require Sidra to conduct extensive research, which will require the services of specialized marketers.
As a company, we cannot offer a marketing plan for the organization, but provide a strategy and it is upon the organization to decide on the company to seek services based on their financial strength. Therefore, the cost of the marketing plan will depend on the provider that Sidra decides to seek services from (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 110).
Engagement with influencers Influencers will play an important role in ensuring that the strategy is successfully implemented in the organization. Sidra will engage with them directly to build a direct association. The influencers that Sidra will engage with directly will be the social marketing agencies in Europe, Canada and America to increase awareness about the organization (Wasserman and Kibani 43).
Ketchum Company input and contributions We, as the organization in charge of developing the strategy, assure Sidra quality services due to the nature of our business and experience in offering such services. We have a good monitoring system that enables the organization to successfully evaluate and supervise the strategy. Our system will enable the organization to communicate with customers in any language.
Communication with any language via the support services will be possible through integration of the Google translator in the system. Moreover, the storage capacity we offer will enable the organization to store reports for the purposes of weekly, quarterly and annual status checking.
Additionally, our program will assist the company in establishing a strategy to aid in client reviews, online status reports and conference calls (Erik, Muntinga and Moorman 107).
Works Cited Erik, Cambria, Daniel Muntinga and Smit Moorman. Principles and Practice of Marketing. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Wasserman, Todd and Shama Kibani. Contemporary Marketing Strategies: Digital and Social Media. London: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Gender Communication Differences between Men and Women Case Study essay help online
Abstract This report addresses the gender communication differences between men and women working for a particular organization. Communication is an important aspect in every organization as it directly affects the way it carries out its operations.
For that reason, communication is one of the factors that influence the success of an organization. The gender communication differences are a negative aspect of communication, which adversely affect an organization’s operations.
This report looks into a number of factors that contribute to gender communication differences between men and women. Some of the factors discussed include the thought process, giving feedback and problem solving.
This report also discusses all the major communication management principles; these principles are necessary in organizations as they help to enhance communication among the managers and workers.
Some of the communication management principles that have been discussed in this report include engagement and motivation of employees and the maintenance of effective team relations between them and their managers, and among each other.
Lastly, the report illustrates the way in which the communication management principles can be used to harmonize the gender communication differences between men and women employees.
The differences can be harmonized by empowering both male and female workers, availing the right communication tools to them, ensuring that the managers are available when they are needed by the junior workers, and constantly reminding the staff about the objectives of the organization so that they can work together to achieve them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All these factors should be incorporated into the management system of the organization to increase their impact on the employees and the management.
Introduction Background Information
Communication skills are among the most important attributes required in every individual, not only for building up relationships at home, but also at the workplace. Communications skills are among the first things that people learn during childhood and proceed with them to adulthood.
The skills are nowadays considered part of organizational talents, which assist in enhancing the success of an organization. Lack of proper and strong communication skills in an organization can result in poor performance and even significant losses (Pincus, 2006).
Some organizations overlook the importance of enhancing communication in their employees; such firms argue that with the current advancement in technology and communication, very little time needs to be spent on training employees regarding communication skills (Miller, 2012).
Such organizations certainly forget that the employees are their spokespersons outside the company and so, they need to be adequately informed on all the products and services.
The main communication and management skills require organizations to regularly motivate and engage their employees to be effective communicators. Organizations also need to formulate and maintain effective team relations between them and their employees as well as among the workers (Pincus, 2006).
Although it has been proven that men and women tend to work closely together in various organizations these days than ever before, there are still a number of differences that appear to pull them apart.
We will write a custom Case Study on Gender Communication Differences between Men and Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the main differences relates to the way they communicate, which is seen to cause a sharp distinction between men and women at workplaces (Miller, 2012). Major gender communication differences are evident between men and women and this makes one of them to be seen as superior to the other (Pincus, 2006).
In order to bridge the gap caused by the communication differences, every organization should incorporate all the key communication skills into its management system.
The information given in this report was collected purely through literature review. The issue of gender communication differences between men and women has been addressed by many scholars and so it was easy to find the information in academic sources.
In order to obtain valid and reliable information, more academic journals than books were used.
Gender Communication Differences There are a number of factors that can cause gender differences, especially in relation to the way men and women communicate while at the workplace. The first factor is the thought process, which refers to the different ways by which men and women think over an issue.
Women appear to think more ideally with a lot of associations, while men tend to be factual and liner thinkers. Women tend to connect their thoughts to some real things that exist in the world, while men simply think of the way things happen without necessarily linking them to any phenomenon (Miller, 2012).
The second factor, compartmentalizing, refers to one’s relationship with the people they work with. Men can work with anyone, including people they do not like.
On the contrary, women tend to make associations even at their workplaces and they do not find it easy to work with people they hate or disgust (Griffin
The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
This paper was initially meant to be a presentation in an event hosted by the American Political Science Association. The association commissioned the study and it owns the copyright to this research. The paper is a study focusing on the impressive growth of the Malaysian economy and its origin. The presentation is titled “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” and it was first presented in 2002.
The presentation covers various political and economic activities in Malaysia beginning from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. The article pays special attention to Malaysia’s New Economic Policy (NEP) of 1969. The paper’s main argument is that “the pursuit and achievement of equitable development is largely a function of political dynamics”1.
The article begins by noting that Malaysia has had an impressive rate of progression. This progression has led to a stable economic growth. According to the article, this growth is as a result of both social and economic policies that specifically target the poor in Malaysia. In addition, it is noted that the New Economic Policy is at the centre of the integration between social and economic policies.
The article continues by noting the two goals of the NEP that were spelt out in the Second Malaysian Plan. The mode of inequality eradication in Malaysia is compared to that of China. The paper states that unlike in China, poverty eradication did not focus on a single policy. It is noted that among the policies initiated through the NEP include social spending, rural development, industrial restructuring, and human capital2.
The article then continues to explore each of these policies independently. The presentation’s main goal is to investigate the role of political dynamics when Malaysia was pursuing equitable development. The article lists the records of economic growth in Malaysia from 1971 to 2000. The incidences of poverty in Malaysia between 1970 and 1993 are also listed.
The list indicates declining incidences of poverty and a sustained economic growth. The study then explores the structure of the NEP. According to the paper, the NEP was initially meant to steer the country’s economy and reduce incidences of poverty across Malaysia irrespective of race or ethnicity. The NEP was representative of both the interests of the poor and the capitalistic class.
The article then discusses the rural development policy. It is noted that rural development in Malaysia mostly focuses on the agricultural sector but also spreads to healthcare and institutional support. The taxation and public expenditure policy is also addressed in this presentation. This policy is said to have been successful in redistributing wealth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article goes on to explore the role of health and educational policies as tools of poverty eradication. By formulating effective educational and health policies, the Malaysian government was able to demonstrate an equitable redistribution of resources.
The article concludes by restating the main argument and listing the challenges associated with the Malaysian political and economic actions. The ignored areas of growth are also listed in this presentation. The strong points of the implemented policies are then restated.
One of the elements that I found to be of importance in this presentation is the multi-layered policy implementation by the Malaysian government. Most countries always tend to rely on a single policy to effect significant economic, political, and social change. This presentation details an ensemble of policies that were used in countering inequality and poverty in Malaysia.
This means that this “East Asia economic miracle” did not depend on a single enforcer or policy but it was a collective effort3. Most of the other countries that have successfully dealt with the inequality issue have had to rely on communistic policies. For example, the Communist Party in China reformed the land policy in order to deal with the issue of inequality once and for all.
Although this policy was largely successful, it undermined the spirit of capitalism. However, none of the Malaysian-based policies directly undermines capitalism. This makes the Malaysian case to stand out from most of the other recorded economic turnarounds.
Some policies such as institutional support and capital grants are always employed in communist economies. However, they are mostly structured in such a manner that they support communism. This was not the case in Malaysia because even capitalists benefited from the NEP.
The political aspect of the battle against inequality and poverty in Malaysia presents an interesting angle to this paper. This is because the marriage between effective economic and political policies is rarely witnessed. In Malaysia’s case, the dominant political party had a substantial capitalist representation. This group would have wanted the status quo to remain in order to safe guard its capitalistic interests.
We will write a custom Report on The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is why the effectiveness of the NEP is often referred to as an Eastern Asia Miracle. There are those who argue that the success of the NEP was occasioned by the 1969 ethnic riots. This group argues that the government was hard pressed by the unfolding events and something drastic had to be done.
However, the sustainment of these economic policies refutes such claims because the government could have undermined the policies after the situation reverted to normal. The “miracle” element of this economic turnaround is also highlighted by the economic situations in other developing countries.
Over half of the developing countries in Asia and Africa have at one time or another attempted to undertake an economic policy similar to the Malaysian NEP. Many of these policies fail due to lack of political will and the fact that most politicians are the main beneficiaries of social inequality.
It is also important to note that in the course of over four decades that the Malaysian economy has flourished, the country’s economic policies have not received any major threats from the political class. All these facts make this Asian economic miracle seem more impressive.
The manner in which this presentation is structured leaves little room for errors. However, the presentation should have compared the developments of the Malaysian economy to other economies outside the Asian continent. This is because some economies in South America and Africa bear striking resemblances to the Malaysian economy.
Comparing Malaysia with China and India is somehow out of line because of the obvious differences in population and GDP. On the other hand, several countries in South America and Africa resemble Malaysia in terms of population, GDP, reliance in Agriculture, and low industrial development.
The researchers should have been able to make this connection. In addition, most of these countries have used Malaysia as the case study for formulating their own economic policies.
This article offers an insightful presentation on the role played by politics in effective implementation of economic policies in Malaysia. The presentation offers a detailed account of the events that have transpired over the course of four decades since the NEP was formulated.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in
Malaysia.” Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002.
Footnotes 1 American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” (Presentation, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002).
2 American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” (Presentation, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002).
3 American Political Science Association. “The Politics of Equitable Development in Malaysia” (Presentation, Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 28-31, 2002).
Commercial Activity in Alkhober Thesis college admission essay help
Al-khober is a massive urban city in the Eastern frontier of Saudi Arabia. The city’s is located along the Persian Gulf coast line. Such attributes make this city a hub of commercial activities in this nation and also in the larger Middle East region. The city has a population of about half a million. The city is part of the larger Dammam metropolitan region.
The surrounding area provides adequate support for the city robust commercial activities. The city seems to serve as an opening to the eastern frontier of this nation owing to its strategic location. The key reason that made me opt to undertake my research in this city is that it is my hometown. As such, I will be at ease when undertaking my research. Additionally, am well versed with the city and all activities undertaken.
Al-khober, a coast town attracts many tourists owing to its weather, beaches, culture and hotels. Therefore, tourism seems is a key activity. There are numerous modern hotels that host guests form various nations. Tourism requires infrastructural support such as roads and airports. The King Fahd International Airport is about fifty kilometres form this town and provides easy access to this urban centre.
Furthermore, the Dammam highway provides access by road into this town. Initially, the town began as trading centre for merchants. The town has not lost this aspect. Al-khober is a preferred location for various multinational entities in the manufacturing and mining sector.
This city is characterised by large shopping complexes that serve the tourists and residents. Overall, this town is a business hub where many of the local residents have invested. Among the investors are women who are key in this research.
Challenges experienced in gathering data In undertaking my research, I experienced numerous challenges. First, many of the respondents were unwilling to participate in the research. In the research design, interviews was one of the means of amassing data. Moreover, the research was also to utilize phone calls and emails. Despite the elaborate data collection methods, the research was hindered by lack of cooperation.
During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were reluctant to provide accurate details. They felt that the researcher would utilize the information for selfish purposes. Additionally, other respondents were unwilling to share information since they seemed not to trust the interviewer. They had reservations about the interviewee’s real agenda. Hence, the details provided were not precise, but based on generalizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above research requires precise data. Precise information will enable the researcher make accurate inferences. Generalized responses contain many assumptions that may jeopardise the research. During the research, many emails were sent. The emails contained queries that interviewees should answer.
Nonetheless, many of the participants failed to reply to the emails. The means that a large proportion of the target population was unwilling to participate in the research due to varying reasons such as lack of time and laziness. Due to the above events, the creativity was required. Visiting some of the entrepreneurs that were unwilling to reply to emails and text messages had significant success.
Some of the businesswomen accepted to undertake the interviews. Nonetheless, some of the respondents were still unwilling to participate in a face-to-face interview. In lights of the above details, the researcher should utilize diverse methods of amassing data if the nature of the research permits.
Post Modernism and Nursing Science Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Gone are the days when people took any point as being true as was told. Nowadays, people question how a given statement can be true. This is due the fact that people have learnt that under different conditions, even scientifically proven truth can change. People have embraced the idea that nothing is static, not even the truth.
There are many perspectives from which an idea can be looked at. There is a lot of information found nowadays. Technology has also advanced and has led to many discoveries. Due to this, it has come to the knowledge of people that there exist multiple levels of reasoning in any area.
More importantly, is the discovery that there are limits to everything including science inquiry. This wave of post modernism has swept through all areas of humanity including the nursing science. It is important to note that post modernism is both a benefit and a deterrence of nursing as a science.
Post modernism has brought to the view the idea of holistic therapies where people believe that medication has to go beyond diseases. Health should be more of the patient that it is about the disease.
It is the belief of holistic therapies that healing should begin with the individual first setting his or her mind that he or she needs healing. With this in mind, post modernism has helped in fostering the theoretical view of nursing that treatment is within the power of an individual.
Nursing science takes it that nurses are just supposed to give psychological, physical and to some extent spiritual support which will evoke the inner force within the patient.
It is important to note that just like post modernism, nursing science has come to the view that there is some inner force that helps to heal patients. In this regard, post modernism has actually helped nursing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, post modernism places a lot of emphasis on the patient and safety. The two are the pillars of nursing. In nursing, the patient is the core and safety of the patient is the main focus. Similarly, post modernism looks at the patient as the epicenter of healthcare.
Consequently, patients have been lately included in the recording of events regarding adverse drugs thus enhancing credibility of the information. Moreover, post modernism has enabled nurses to approach issues objectively knowing that truth is not fixed.
This has helped in solving many problems which were quite different from classical ones. It is important to note that every case in nursing is unique thus no laid down principle or precedence applies. This is the same principle that post modernism brings to the board.
On the other hand, post modernism has also hindered the prospects of nursing. To begin with, the idea that truth can be challenged brings about great problems because people challenge every step the nurses take. Moreover, due to the availability of almost any information on the internet, patients are becoming risk averse.
Patients are unwilling to use various medicines due to the negative information about the medicine. It is important to note that some of the information is actually contradicting and also wrong.
This makes the work of nurses difficult because they have to start by changing the minds of the patients who have very low confidence in nurses.
Post modernism has led to increased cultural interactions which have come with a lot of complications. This has complicated the nursing science which now has to take into consideration the cultural diversity in its approach to healing.
We will write a custom Essay on Post Modernism and Nursing Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, holistic approach to healing becomes problematic when diseases involved require express medication. Similarly, healing is not all about some improvable force from inside the patient. It sometimes has to involve immediate and active medication.
Nursing also needs the application of pragmatism. It is important to note that though truth exists in the world, being certain when it is found is difficult. Consequently, pragmatism requires that nurses should constantly be searching for the truth.
Pragmatism has led to a lot of improvements in the nursing sector by leading to new ways of taking care of patients.
Arguably, geriatric nursing has highly benefited from pragmatic approach. To begin with, the idea that there is no perfect way of containing pain that old people go through has led to new improved ways of managing pain.
On the same note, it is important to point that geriatric nursing has been left behind technologically and requires research to come up with quality services to the old. Moreover, the elderly exhibit unique symptoms which are distinct from one another.
Therefore, geriatric nurses especially in home settings have learnt to approach each case objectively leading to discovery of new ways of taking care of various conditions. It is important to note that in home settings, geriatric nurses have minimal access to most hospital equipment.
As a result, pragmatic approach is very crucial since these nurses need to devise methods of handling different and sometimes new conditions.
Review: “Interventions Studies on Forgiveness: A Meta-analysis” by Baskin T. and Enright R. Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Summary
Interaction with the article
Application of the information in the article
Summary The article explores various aspects of forgiveness on the victims of unfair or inconsiderate acts. The article discloses that forgiveness is vital for the psychological well-being. Once a victim deals with the resentment, he/she can progress on in life. However, most victims are unwilling to open up and forgive.
As such, they project their resentment as anger towards other people in their lives. Thus, many victims who are unwilling to forgive have difficulties creating lasting relationships in their lives. Forgiving is a process which requires a cautious approach.
The specialists assisting victims should facilitate the process by assuming a cautious approach, which will enable their victims express their feelings at their own convenience. Examples provided reveal that forgiveness is a psychological remedy for some of the emotional strains that victims of offensive acts encounter.
The article investigates various clinical methods that would assist people in the process of forgiving their offenders. Initials research had unearthed three methods (Baskin
Arab Diaspora in the USA in the Novels of Diana Abu-Jaber Arabian Jazz and Crescent Dissertation essay help free
Introduction The American society can be described as a melting pot of culture with different people of different nationalities with different cultures coming together to form a nation. The history of America depicts a continent that is sparsely populated by the Indian tribes of America who are the original residents of the continent and whose existence is in jeopardy due to assimilation.
The dominance and identity of the different races in the American society can be attributed to the time of their arrival in America and their numbers as well thus giving them a strong position in being accepted in society. This issue has been the biggest challenge to the minority groups that came to America late, and whose numbers are still low compared to other communities.
Thus, they have tended to be made to look like outsiders in a country where their ancestors came and were buried. One minority group that has suffered the stigma of not being easily accepted in the society is the Asian group and specifically the Arab society. Most of the Asians who have migrated to America have tended to stick to their culture thus further alienating themselves from the community that is so diverse.
This issue has therefore affected the reception of the Arab American literature and its acceptability in society because it ropes in their cultural practices and beliefs, which are not subscribed to by other communities as Hassan (‘The Rise of Arab American Literature’ 248) reveals.
As the study reveals, in a bid to change this situation, authors such as Abu-Jaber have come up with novels written in a form that would integrate the peculiarities of Arab literature with the mainstream American forms of writing as a way of finding acceptability in the American literary world. The study therefore provides a detailed review of the Arab literature using Abu-Jaber’s works as the basis of argument.
Reading Arab American Literature America’s nature as a melting pot of culture is rich in different forms of literature that tend to identify with different groups. This diversity has been the only way for many different groups making up the American society to retrace their steps and curve out an identity for their society.
As Majaj finds, by so doing, different communities in the American society have turned to literature as a way of expressing their culture and practices as well as a way of preserving the same for the future generations (69).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effect of a mosaic society is that the cultures of the groups in that society tend to fade with practices that are more acceptable across the board remaining firm as the only ways the society has for a common ground.
Many writers in America have therefore focused their style of writing on what is perceived to be acceptable to their ethnic or racial communities as a way of selling or educating the larger society of their culture.
The success of literary writers in society has therefore been pegged on the perception of the society on the community of the specific writer and its attitude towards the style of writing the writer will adapt (Hassan ‘Arab American Autobiography’ 9) because the levels of tolerance for different communities’ practices differ. In most instances, these practices are informed by culture.
Strong and rigid culture has been known to attract resentment due to its nature of not conceding anything in exchange for acceptability. Acceptability of culture in society has always been hinged on the universality of the practices making up the culture as well as practices that are tolerable. This one aspect about society has gone a long way to determine the acceptability of literary works in the American society.
The different ethnic groups in the American society play a big role in promoting the works prepared by the members of their community through the numbers in the sales of books. Communities with big numbers tend to promote the sales of one of their own thus reflecting the outcome as a success.
Minority groups can only attract sales from their own, which in the end will be too little to count. Therefore, the population number in the society of given communities counts so much when it comes to success in writing unless the writers’ work is not a reflection of the society from where they are coming.
Arab American literature has gone through so many challenges since the first Arab writers started to publish works in the United States of America (Hassan ‘The Rise of Arab American Literature’ 247). To date, the Arab American literature is still in a state of transformation in such a way that it cannot be definitely defined.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Arab Diaspora in the USA in the Novels of Diana Abu-Jaber Arabian Jazz and Crescent specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In her interview with Abu Jaber, Shalal notes that most Arab American writers have struggled to penetrate the American society beyond their communities because of literary, social, and political issues that have for a long time acted as an inhibition to their growth. Arab American literature comes across as work meant to preserve and defend a culture as well a society where most cultures have been melted together.
The Arab American society has been defined along cultural, political, and religious lines, which have been resented by the larger American society (Orfaela 117). The need by the Arab Americans to maintain their culture has been expressed in their literary works thus becoming a defining point of their work.
This case has made it difficult for the larger society to be attracted to the work because it pursues a narrow community’s hegemonistic interests that may not be the interest of the whole society in general. The earliest Arab American publications were newspapers that leaned on religion, which in this case is Islam and politics in their countries of origin in the Middle East.
Naaman indicates that this was all done with the belief that the Arab community will one day go back to its homeland and hence the need to preserve its Arab identity (267). The need therefore made this kind of literature a preserve for Arabs who would want to one day go back to their motherland. There is no way that the works would have elicited any interest in the larger American society or commanded acceptability.
Reading Arab American literature requires one to first understand the Arabic cultural practices that provide the tone for the writings. Thus, without this understanding, one may not be able to understand the thoughts or messages as they are being delivered.
Transformations in Arab American Literature The Arab American literature has gone through so many transformations for many years since its advent because the styles and themes employed were narrow in such a way that they were specifically meant to capture a specific audience, which was the Arab community.
Therefore, according to Rana, the authors were whatsoever never interested in capturing an audience beyond their community thus leading to their works being limited in scope (548). The need to uphold a form of filial piety in their works led to the Arab American writers concentrating more on a writing tone touching on their culture and in turn simply making their writings look like an Arabic translation.
The wider American society thrives on the independence of the mind and utmost liberty, which does not expect one’s mind to be tied by cultural beliefs and laws that act as a prohibition to being a creative mind. This case therefore made the Arab American literature produced by early generation Arab Americans seem more of a critique of the American society’s practices as Ludescher (96) finds.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Arab Diaspora in the USA in the Novels of Diana Abu-Jaber Arabian Jazz and Crescent by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the Arab American literature continued to grow, it grew to a sort of nostalgic tool that would be used for craving for home by the writers. The use of Arab tradition as a defining tool for Arab American literature was simply a way of reconnecting with their homeland by the writers thus making it difficult for their literature to find acceptability among the masses (Ludescher 103).
On the other hand, the need to gain acceptability by the masses has led to a change in tact by Arab American writers. In fact, they have had to come up with works that resonate positively with the society they live in because the acceptability of their works by publishers has been limited due to societal expectations and stereotypes that the larger society holds towards the Arab community.
As Abu-Jaber confirms in an interview with Aljadid, her work has been limited largely concerning what is acceptable for publishing. She has been forced to edit and re-edit some of her works numerous times until they have lost the lustre the writer had intended for them (Shalal Para. 2). Arab American literature has always had two themes that are identifiable with their work. These themes are religion and politics back home.
These two constitute the sensitive issues in the American society because the larger American society is always on the other side of the divide when it comes to matters touching on Arabic politics and religion.
Therefore, Arab American writers have been inhibited with these factors whenever they want to express them in their literary works because most publishers would not want them expressed in their publications. More so, they would receive condemnation from the lager society (Shalal Para. 3).
In search of acceptability, the Arab American literature has had to continuously transform itself over time with the hope that it would create resonance with the American society. Much still, most of the early generation Arab Americans are now gone. In their place, there is a new generation of Arab Americans born and brought up in America, and with distant roots and touch with their motherland.
This group has most of its people identified as Arabs who cannot speak a word in Arabic. Just like the black community in America, all they know of their motherland is that it was where they originated but have no roots completely. This group is at last producing writers who do not have too much attachment to their Arabic culture but in essence trying to create a balance between the two communities to which they belong.
Most of the young Arab American writers have been critical in their writing, a fact that has endeared them to the public. Their criticism though has been balanced in that they criticise both communities. Previous Arab American writers were reluctant to criticise their community because, being in a foreign land, they felt that it would be disloyal to disown their practices.
This view according to Allen has not been so with young Arab American writers who do not feel compelled by the filial piety their customs demand (474). They tend to air their views in an American fashion. Their belonging to the American society has made them understand what the society wants to hear. The big challenges that the previous Arab American writers had can still be traced to the present-day upcoming writers.
The issue of politics as well as religion in the Middle East can be described to be part of any Arab identity. Arabs of all generations passionately hold and express the views.
The American publishers have not tolerated the criticism of Israel in their works since they will be otherwise branded anti Semitic, a fact, which would have much harsher implications from the American public, which has a substantive number of the Jewish population (Shalal Para. 2).
Reading the Arab American literature therefore can be interesting in that the writers employ different forms of writing that they are hopeful will endear them to the public thus making the Arab American literature a form of mosaic that cannot be defined in one way.
Challenges in Arab American Literature Different writers employ different styles that they hope will identify them as Arab Americans because no single writing style has established a foothold in the Arab American society. The continuous transformation of the styles can be attributed to a need to find a foothold.
Therefore, according to Albakry and Siler, the latest style by younger Arab American writers that tends to be critical of their own society is just one of the ways that are being followed to find a standing point for the same (113). A critical point that should be noted about the Arab American literature and acceptability in society is the political situation around the world.
Though the Arab American literature had started picking up, it was upset by the 9/11 events that have since opened new doors for alienation and stereotyping. Most Arab American writers have found it difficult to convince the literary world to look at them with a different eye thus extending the case to their work (Metres 3).
The larger society tends to look at them with a suspicious eye thus resenting any form of writing that is defensive of the Arabic culture or one that seems to be promoting it. Reading the Arab American literature, one finds that more women dominate this field than would be expected of the Arabic culture.
As Naaman points out, women have used Arab American literature to find their lost voice in a society that is believed to be patriarchal (269). It has been identified as one way that women have found a platform to communicate their problems to the larger society, which for a long time has been shut out of the goings in the Arab society or which has been disinterested in the Arabic culture.
The difference that comes out is that most Arab American male writers have tended to lean towards the status quo because they are the beneficiaries of the system at the end of the day.
Cultural Integration Abu-Jaber has employed symbols in different ways in her novels to reveal the theme of culture. They can be identified in the way she has portrayed her subject and the main themes that come out of her work. The division of cultures is identifiable in this work. The motif here can be described as half-half experiences by the characters (Limpar 483).
This technique is metaphorically presented in her work when she portrays her characters as belonging to two worlds to which they are torn apart in identifying with. In the Arabian Jazz, Matussem’s family is seen to belong to two worlds that refuse to fuse comply. The characters are made to shed so much of either world to be accepted in one world.
Nora complains of her life in Jordan where she suffers from gossip from other women. Her two worlds refuse to integrate completely because her American descendants granted her freedom while her new life as an Arab wife is meant to take away the free will (Limpar 485). Matussem too has a division of the two worlds when he marries an American wife.
He learns and admires the American lifestyle thus ending up gravitating and finally relocating to America. Jemorah is a representation of two halves with one being an American half while the second one is an Arab half. These two halves are represented in her race as well as her culture whereby she cannot fully define herself as American nor Arab.
Her origin and skin colour describe her as Arab while her home, the American home country, defines her by the American culture, which she is supposed to identify with. Jazz music too has been defined into a half- half. In the Arabian Jazz, the music whose origin is African American has been called Arabian jazz thus depicting it as being found in two worlds.
Sirine who is the protagonist in The Crescent has also been depicted as belonging to two worlds. Thus, her existence is half – half. Her half Arab and half American have been used to show the confusion that Arab Americans face especially the young ones with very little connection to the Arab world.
The American influence is so strong that it is difficult to ignore or simply do away with while the Arab influence too is strong and emanating from the family. The half–half world is full of confusion as the characters strive to fit in the two worlds while at the same time trying to find a sense of belonging.
Abu Jaber’s book, ‘The Arabian Jazz’ strategically presents the theme of seeking self-identity for Arab Americans especially the immigrants. The author writes from an Arab-American point of view by bringing out the situations that many Arab Americans experience in their live away from home. The Arabian Jazz explores the different ways Arab Americans have tried to integrate themselves into the American society.
This integration has more so been driven by the need to find a new home and a sense of belonging now that circumstances have driven them away from home. The author has chosen fiction as the best way to bring out the story of the Arab American society in America because the use of fiction can allow her to expand her narration and include so many different experiences in one text (Cherif 215).
Retelling a real life story sometimes limits the author to specifics that happened. This case might just inhibit the way the author wishes to tell the story. This argument reveals why Abu-Jaber in the Arabian Jazz has chosen to use fictitious characters to retell a story that so many Arab immigrants undergo (Hartman 160).
Abu-Jaber uses music as a meeting point between two cultures that have a few commonalities in the American society. El-Hajj and Harb find that she uses jazz to marry the Arab and the African, American communities, which are known to be the owners of Jazz music (139).
Due to the need to seek identity in a society that is racially prejudiced, the author portrays a society that is trying to find a starting point for its acceptability in a new civilisation. Matussem finds himself at a loss on what he should do to become fully acceptable as an American because the best linkage he had to the American society was his wife who is now demised.
The picture of an Arab man trying to raise two daughters in a foreign culture makes the story more interesting to read. Abu-Jaber has fused the two cultures through music when she indicates in the book that the racial card used against Arabs made them try to find a definite group to identify with it.
In this case, the issue of Arabs not being defined as white nor black leaves the characters in the book hanging in between therefore forcing them to find on their own the closest group they can identify with (Fadda-Conrey 189). Therefore, for not being white enough to be fully accepted to be white, the characters choose black as the group to be identified with as one that they seem to have common tribulations.
Thus, jazz has been used to connect the two groups together as a form of identity search. Jazz in this case can be viewed as a metaphor to portray a person who identifies himself or herself with something he or she is not. Jemorah seeks to find her identity in this case.
She settles for black as her identity because she is not acceptable as a white though her mother was white while her father was of the Arabic origin (Abu-Jaber ‘Arabian Jazz’ 294).
Music as a Cultural Tool The author has used music to create a bridge between two communities. In this case, jazz has been chosen because it is the music originating from the black community, which the Arabs are leaning towards in search of their identity. While responding to her employer’s ridicule, Jemorah says that her paternal grandmother was black and that she used such roots to identify herself as black (Abu-Jaber ‘Arabian Jazz’ 295).
Thus, this identity with blacks can only have a common ground in music because, at the end of the day, the Arabic and the black culture seem to have a distant meeting point. Music is sweet to the ears since it tends to attract attention from all. Music beats from any community are danceable by people from all societies without even understanding it.
Therefore, the author’s employment of music as a platform for marrying the two cultures is a seamless way of integrating the Arab story into the American society without making it look foreign. The author has used music to integrate the Arab culture into the American culture in the conservative Arabic way. This strategy can be found in the choice of jazz as the music to integrate the two cultures.
Arabic culture is very conservative in nature and hence the reason why Arab Americans have taken too long to integrate into the American society. On the other hand, jazz as music is acceptable across the board. Its appeal does not seem to offend conservative groups and hence its acceptability within the Arabic setting.
Therefore, the choice specifically of jazz has been deliberate due to the need by the author to relate the black culture and the Arabic culture. The use of music also fuses well with Arab oral tradition, which is one of the ways the Arabs use to pass their culture down to the next generation. Thus, its use in this case cannot be viewed in the extreme of being just Arabic but as an entertainment topic.
Therefore, music has been used in this book by the author to create a common ground between the Arab American community, the African American community and the larger white American community. More so, it fuses the Arab American community and the African American society.
Food as a Cultural Tool Food has been used as a cultural symbol in the Arabian The Crescent as noted by Fadda-Conrey (194). Food for Sirine and Hanif is their private language since their words flow into eating (Abu-Jaber ‘The Crescent’ 266). Food in this case is a bridge that brings together the different communities not only the Arab communities.
It can be defined as a unifying factor for foreigners seeking to create an identity of their own in a country where their race is prejudiced. Food is the common ground for others who wish to mix with other cultures. It is seen when the two police officers who love the Arab stew become identifiable with foreigners at the restaurant. It simply depicts them as different persons in their community who are also bended on affiliating with groups that are not their own.
The Arab restaurant is a melting pot of culture. Arabs from different parts of the world are seen to come together and shed their ethnic and tribal identities to adopt a single identity that they will further on be identified with while in a foreign country (Fadda-Conrey 189).
Abu-Jaber employs the use of Arabic terms in her work thus giving it a tone that leaves the reader in a form of suspense. The suspense leads the reader to connect the meaning of the foreign words used in the text from the whole text thus drawing him or her to read further.
Food has been used by Abu-Jaber to mean the glue that binds people. The closest the characters in The Crescent have come to have a common ground has been through food. The author has avoided the use of politics and religion as the common ground for her characters due to the reaction that these two subjects evoke when it comes to Arabs and America (Shakir 42).
Therefore, the author has cleverly brought in the subject of food as a means of creating a ground where characters in the work meet. Food can be viewed here as a metaphor more than what it is, food. It can also be used to describe a form of ethnic belonging for a given group of people.
The author has used it to bring together the different Arab groups from the East, West, South, and North. Around food, these people find a common ground since it depicts an emotional bonding session for a group of persons far away from their motherland (Bardenstein 165). The attachment that the characters have towards the traditional food means that they have failed to detach from their motherland.
Longing for their motherland food can be construed to mean longing for their motherland. Though the characters in the stories are in America and are expected to be automatically Americanised, this case does not happen as so. Sirine can be viewed differently from other immigrants coming to the café where she works.
Whereas these other characters in The Crescent can be described as first generation immigrants, Sirine is not one because she was born and brought up in America. However, her attraction towards identifying with her motherland drives her to find work in an Arab restaurant. The confusion that she goes through makes her fail to get married until late when she meets her Arab crescent in the form of Hanif.
Conflict in Need for Identity Abu Jaber’s work explores a situation in a society where two cultures are meeting despite their being incompatible. The American culture is full of freedom and liberal tones while the Arabic culture is full of conservatism and old order, which is affecting a generation of Arab American children who are torn between being Americans and fitting well in society or sticking to their Arab culture to live in the old order one.
Matussem is divided on what to follow when he marries an American woman and/or when it comes to the need to follow his Arab roots. This division of thought drives him to leave for America after he falls for the American dream, which means freedom but which is opposite to what his mother would expect of him as an Arab.
Therefore, he leaves his country to a place where as, Abu-Jaber puts it, “he could recreate himself” (‘Arabian Jazz’ 260). The characters in the book are divided on what identity to conform to since the forces around them seem too strong to betray.
Fatima dissuades Jemorah from going back to Jordan- a country where she was brought up in and where the real Arab culture thrives because of her memories of suffering that she encountered. When she flashes back her life then and her life now in America, she finds America a better place to stay. The conflict is therefore brought in the mind of the characters on what to choose from between the two societies.
They are torn between their two new cultures with one that takes away their freedom and the other one that restores the liberty. The Arab culture is discriminatory in this case because it gives men all the freedom.
As Matussem’s aunt puts it, “a man could let himself fly into the world like an arrow” (Abu-Jaber ‘Arabian Jazz’ 99) meaning that men would be allowed to do anything as compared to women who would not be allowed to break any rules. In the Arabic culture therefore, women were the preservatives of culture as they were supposed to observe it strictly.
In The Crescent, the main character (Sirine) is an Arab American who fails to psychologically accept the American culture thus choosing to uphold her Arabic culture. The dream of the character can be found in the Iraq exile Hanif with whom the character falls in love. Hanif can be described as Sirine’s crescent and an answer to Sirine’s cultural dilemma because Sirine refuses to be identified with the American culture fully.
Her leaning towards her Arabic culture seems to be controlling her choices thus leading her to finally fall in love with a real Arab. While observing culture in the two books, the distinction that comes out is that the Arabian jazz tends to portray characters willing to be identified with the American culture while the crescent leans towards characters who are conservative wishing to preserve their culture as much.
Food has been used in The Crescent as a symbol of unity and identity because it is believed to bring Arabs of different origins together to the café.
The Role of an Arab Man The writer uses imagery in describing the Arab man as being like an arrow that shoots into the air to depict the amount of freedom that Arab men enjoy at the expense of their women. In the Arab setting, women are supposed to be obedient and submissive to their men. They are also not supposed to break any rules pertaining to their culture as depicted by Fatima when she describes men as having been born lucky.
They can do whatever they want. They are not supposed to be reprimanded or criticised especially by women. Matussem has all the freedom to make decisions on where he wants to settle down. Thus, he goes away from his homeland to settle in America. Though he has chosen America as his new home, he is divided on whether to bring up his daughters the American way or bring them up strictly in the Arabic culture.
This confusion shows the freedom men have in making their decisions and at the same time depicting the limitations they are supposed to put in a woman’s life (Albakry and Siler 112). Matussem according to his native Arabic culture is supposed to bring up his daughters in a purely Arabic manner though he is not tied by the same culture.
By choosing to play jazz music, which is black American, the writer depicts the freedom of choice that Arabic men have in deciding their destiny. Matussem chooses jazz as a way of integrating himself into the American society though Jazz is a Black American music and not Arabic music. He could have chosen to play Arabic music if he wanted. However, due to the freedoms he has, like an arrow, he shot where his heart sent him.
The Subject of Tragedy The author’s portrayal of Fatima is that of a custodian of the old order. Fatima is meant to represent the Arabic culture in its real form as traced to her views on the American culture. She was simply meant to come to America to keep an eye on Matussem so that he does not stray from his culture.
The experiences that Fatima has gone through portray the patriarchal society that the Arab community is when she narrates her experiences as a young Arab girl, which include her witness to her sisters being buried so that Matussem being male is able to enjoy a better upbringing (Abu Abu-Jaber ‘The Crescent’ 119).
The use of narration in this case with folklore opens up the closed Arab culture that a reader might not understand and make the reading of the work more interesting. The narration of Fatima’s experiences can be traced in the short lines that the author employs to create breaks in her narration giving it poetic sounds.
Tragedy has been employed to narrate Fatima’s story and to further reinforce the picture that the author wishes to paint on the differences of the two communities. Fatima in this case is trying to run away from the memories of her childhood as well as those of her motherland, which haunt her.
Therefore, to protect her fellow Arab woman who has not experienced the same from going through what she went through, she opens up her painful childhood secrets that have never given her peace. She narrates to Jemorah these scary childhood experiences as a way of dissuading Jemorah from going to Jordan.
Conclusion The author Diana Abu-Jaber has been able to transcend the two cultures that she belongs to in the effort to come up with very strong literary work. The author has used her writing skills to paint the picture that Arab Americans especially the younger generation born in the United States of America go thorough in their pursuit of identity.
Abakry and Jonathan find that, through her fictitious characters, the author has been able to construct the lifestyle of typical Arab Americans, their culture, as well as their challenges (118). The advantage that the author has is that she is able to narrate her stories from an insider’s point of view thus giving an almost true story or real life story.
The Arabian Jazz can be directly related to herself because it is a reflection of what she has gone through in her life living as an Arab American in both Jordan and the United States of America. The mixing of literary styles has brought about uniqueness in her work. Abu-Jaber has employed both English and Arabic literary styles to give her stories.
The story about Arabs in the United States of America can only be best told in a mixture of both Arabic and American context to capture the attention of the intended audience without losing the plot (Majaj 71). Most of the present Arab American population is made up of generation of Arab Americans who have loose connections to their heritage.
In her interview with the Al Jadid paper, Abu-Jaber talks about a generation of Arab Americans who can neither speak nor understand Farsi nor Arabic. Therefore, it would only be prudent for any writer targeting this group to factor in these issues. The contrast between Abu-Jaber and previous Arab American writers is that she chooses to write in English ostensibly to attract a bigger audience to her work.
Works Cited Abu-Jaber, Diana. Arabian Jazz. New York: Norton and Company, 1993. Print.
Abu-Jaber, Diana. The Crescent. New York: Norton and Company, 2003. Print.
Albakry, Mohamed, and Jonanthan Siler. “Into Arab American Borderland: Bilingual Creativity in Rand JAR RAR’S Map of Home.” Arab Studies Quarterly 34.2(2012): 109-121. Print.
Allen, Roger. “The Happy Traitor: Tales of Translation.” Comparative Literature Studies 47.4(2010): 472-486. Print.
Bardenstein, Carol. “Beyond Univocal Baklava: Deconstructing Food as Ethnicity and the Ideology of Homeland in Diana Abu-Jaber the Language of Baklava.” Journal of Arabic Literature 41.1-2(2010): 160-179. Print.
Cherif, Essayah. “Arab American Literature: Gendered Memory in Abinader and Abu Jaber.” MELUS 28.4(2003): 207-228. Print.
El-Hajj, Hind, and Sirene Harb. “Strandling the Personal and the Political: Gendered Memory in Diana Abu Jaber’s Arabian Jazz.” MELUS 36.3(2011): 137-158. Print.
Fadda-Conrey, Carol. “Arab American Literature in the Ethnic Borderland: Cultural intersections in Diana Abu Jaber’s Crescent.” MELUS 31.4(2006): 187-205. Print.
Hartman, Mitchelle. “This Sweet/Sweet Music: Jazz, Sam Cooke and Reading Arab American Literary Identities.” MELUS 31.4(2006): 155-165. Print.
Hassan, Wail. “Arab American Autobiography and Reinvention of Identity: Two Egyptian Negotiations.” Journal of Comparative Poetics 22.1(2002): 7-35. Print.
Hassan, Wail. “The Rise of Arab American Literature: Orientalism and Cultural Translation in the Work of Ameen Rihani.” American Literary History 20.12(2008): 245-275. Print.
Limpar, Ildiko. “Narratives of Misplacement in Diana Abu Jaber’s Arabian Jazz, Crescent and Origin.” Hungarian Journal of English and American Studies 15.2(2009): 483-488. Print.
Ludescher, Tanyss. “From Nostalgia to Critique: An Overview of Arab American Literature.” MELUS 31.4(2006): 93-114. Print.
Majaj, Lisa. “Arab American Literature: Origins and Developments.” American Studies Journal 52.2(2008): 63-88. Print.
Metres, Philip. “Arab American Literature after 9/11.” American Book Review 34.1(2012): 3-4. Print.
Naaman, Mara. “Post Gibran: Antology of New Arab American Writing.” MELUS 31.4(2006): 266-271. Print.
Orfaela, Gregory. “The Arab American Novel.” MELUS 31.4(2006): 115-133. Print.
Rana, Swati. “The Production of Nativity in Early Syrian Immigrant Literature.” American Literature 833.3(2011): 547-570. Print.
Shakir, Evelyn. “Mothers Milk: Women in Arab American Autobiography.” MELUS 15.4(1988): 39-50. Print.
Shalal, Andera-Esa. Diana Abu-Jaber: The Only Resonse to Silence is to Keep Speaking, 2012. Web. www.aljadid.com/content/diana-abu-jaber-only-respnse
Group Analysis Report Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Changes normally disrupt the normal work process of an organization. Such changes are likely to remain permanent. Changes result from both internal and external factors, which relate with an organization. Therefore, organizations must find ways of adapting to such changes.
In most cases, we experience conflicts because of changes that occur from both internal and outside the organization. As a result, organizations must adjust their management and communication strategies in order to cope with changes.
Conflicts and their challenges have become major sources of concerns in many organizations. Conflicts are responsible for massive wastage of resources within organizations. In most cases, people only focus on negative impacts of conflicts. However, we can rely on conflicts to achieve good results.
Feedback from conflicts can be sources of opportunities to improve communication and relationships within the work team.
Conflicts provide opportunities for organizations to formulate effective means of communications, address challenges within the group, and change workplace strategies. Specific conceptual frameworks and theoretical models can address conflicts with an organization.
In this case, the organization must understand the concept of workplace dynamics. As a result, an organization can continue to work in an optimal manner and achieve best results.
The purpose of this report is to address the issue of work team problems, perform group diagnostics, and analyze results relative to the ideal of conflict management and workplace dynamics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Overview of the workplace group (committee): Rup Landscape Company Rup Landscape Company has served its clients and gained national recognition based on the quality of its landscape and management services it provided in the United Arab Emirates. The company has over 30 years in landscape management.
The management has transformed the company and created a complete commercial landscape company with both construction and management services. The drives for this reentry were to enhance the growth of the company and provide customers with complete range of landscape services and management.
Throughout the history of the company, Rup has provided services with cutting-edge practices and has attracted contracts from various prestigious organizations like the government agencies, Dubai Police, City Center, Dragon Mart, Union properties, GEMS, and Rotana among others.
Most members of the management team have served the company for more than 20 years. They have continued to ensure that Rup remains the industry leader in the UAE landscape industry.
The company has dedicated itself to excellent services. It also offers opportunities to excel and grow their careers. The company has unique work values, culture, and practices.
The company has various committees with various duties. The organizational committee on focus deals with project development processes. The roles of the committee include:
Providing information to the company on maintenance and repair needs
Reporting landscaping needs in the area
Making recommendations to the management for seasonal improvements
Recommending and deciding on the company to award contracts
Approving projects for action
Conflict Resolution In all organizations, there are conflicts. Hence, we have to accept conflict as a part of group dynamics within the organization. Elements of conflicts reflect such ideas of antagonism and undesirability within the committee. However, we have to notes that not all forms conflicts are dysfunctional.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Group Analysis Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Depending on how a firm handles its conflict, there are productive aspects of conflict that can bring in new solutions to a situation, clarify roles and power relationships within committee members, bring irrational aspects of conflicts into the open, and provide a way of solving conflicts.
If a group engages in destructive conflict, then the outcomes can result in loss of the main objectives in the quest for sub-group interests, encourage the committee members to be defensive, and may results in a collapse of the committee.
According to Condliffe, “conflict has three vital components, which include interests, emotions, and values. Conflict processes go through stages of perception, realization, avoidance, flashpoint, intervention, strategy, and evaluation” (Condliffe, 2002).
Conflict models allow people to understand what conflicts are, their root causes and avoidance strategies. However, such models cannot provide all the solutions to conflicts. Rather, they provide us with better ways of understanding conflicts and resolution methods.
We shall use the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Model (Swinton, 2006) in an attempt to understand the conflict within the committee of Rup Landscape Company.
The committee has been involved in conflict on several occasions. In few cases, the results have been unsatisfactory and cause disharmony, fallout, and distractions from the core duties of the committee. In addition, the organization also experiences losses attributed to productivity (Tillett and French, 2006).
Figure 1: The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument
Conceptual frameworks and group diagnostics Rup is a formal organization that promotes landscape services and management in Dubai. The committee shares common goals and values. Consequently, Rup has beliefs, values, and norms for its group members.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Group Analysis Report by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such values, norms, and beliefs rest on the ideology of developing and promoting success of the organization and career growth of members. Therefore, collaboration within the committee is paramount. The belief system consists of a strong belief in the development and use of best practices within the organization.
The organization instills the value of collaboration and community of practice (Hislop, 2005). It has formal work systems, which members interact through open communication systems.
Conflicts usually occur due to differences in decision-making on awarding contracts and allocating scarce resources to projects, values, and goals. Such conflicts have repercussions for the organization.
The organization has used opportunities from conflict resolutions to build a strong community, reinforce its beliefs, values, and norms. In addition, it has strengthened teamwork within the committee.
Fig 1: Conceptual Framework for Rup
Belief in best practices, values, norms, and goals Rup believes in promoting best practices, values, norms, and goals in the landscape industry. The committee members believe in using Rup’s goal and practices for guidance. Therefore, members can collect, organize, recommend, and award tenders to other stakeholders.
The organization aims to promote develop such values, practices, and achieve its goals through its committee. However, the belief in using, developing, and promoting the use of formal practices varies among members.
There are members with strong beliefs in developing and promoting best practices while other have moderate view about formal practices of the organization. This was according to some of the responses from members of the committee (see appendix).
Members who had a strong belief in promoting best practices, values, and norms in order to achieve organizational goals did not express conflicts.
On the other hand, members who had moderate views about formal practices in the committee had conflict with other members of the committee. These divergent views led to conflicts among members.
Achieving goals The committee members worked together in order to achieve the organizational strategic goals. Goals had two aims, which were to promote the growth of the company and its employees. Such goals enhanced formal approaches to tasks. However, roles and desire to achieve goals differ based on what different members prefer.
The organization had fix deadlines and assigned projects to its members. At the same time, members had the freedom to select the best formal practices of accomplishing tasks.
Most members believed that the committee had to use both formal and informal practices when allocating resources, awarding tenders, and reporting on the progress of various tasks while other members insisted on the use of formal practices in order to enhance the image of the organization.
Collaboration among members In most cases, the committee had to collaborate in most projects. This was the only formal way to grow the organization and achieve both personal and organizational goals. Therefore, the committee had to develop a strong sense of collaboration because of its belief in best practices within the industry.
Conflicts arise when other members of the committee preferred informal aspects of managing certain roles of the committee. Ultimately, the committee worked as a team in order to resolve conflicts in belief systems and strengthen its membership.
Collaboration creates value for the committee The committee collaborates in order to provide best services to clients and ensure the growth of the organization. Committee aims to create a strong community because of its collaborative approach to issues.
Members can make their contributions and expect positive criticism on the best methods to adopt towards a given projects. The committee hopes that collaborative approach will allow all members to contribute and enhance teamwork.
This is a way of reducing cases of conflicts within the committee. The committee leadership promotes collaborative approach towards issues.
Open systems The committee encourages open systems in communications among members. Committee members have the freedom to express their opinions about some decisions about projects. The committee keeps records of important decisions that members make about tasks.
This enables members to track their decisions and improve on areas with faults. The committee encourages its members to refer and report any failures in the decision-making processes that can lead to failure in a project. It encourages open criticism in project management.
Some members believe that the organization can use both formal and informal approaches when making decisions in order to facilitate processes and eliminate bureaucratic tendencies, which cause delay in project completion.
On the other hand, some members promote formal approach for accountability of processes in decision-making.
Formal management system The leadership of the committee relies on formal management systems. The committee has developed from a community of practice because of organizational shared goals. There are no formal contracts within the organization. The committee aims to create formal systems in the company.
The committee can only realize this goal through collaboration among members with divergent views. Thus, it can integrate different ideas in order to strengthen formal processes within the organization.
Formal processes aim to instill accountability within the organization. Thus, committee members can feel that they have personal responsibility for organizational goals.
Group Diagnostic Developing the committee
Hislop (2005) notes how a community of practice evolves among members, and such shared interests can create a strong committee. Members usually share common goals, values, and similar outcomes. In such communities, members should resolve their differences without any external interference.
The committee has been able to solve its disputes as they arise, and members can trace resolutions in the communication log and archive. The committee may have constant conflicts, but its leadership must resolve such conflicts in collaborative ways in order to strengthen the committee.
The committee uses a collaborative approach to solve all conflicts it experiences. Conflicts emanate from different views on decision-making processes. Collaboration allows members to adopt moderate views in projects for a win-win situation for the organization and its clients.
In the end, the committee aims to achieve formal processes in decision-making.
Conflicts occur because the committee considers formal processes as bureaucratic and time-consuming. Therefore, some members prefer informal processes of decision-making. The resulting conflicts take a great amount of time to solve because the process must account for views all members of the committee.
It is important to note that solutions usually result in a strong committee with a reinforced belief in organizational values and goals.
The committee also displays elements of group dynamics just like in any other group. Committee members have diverse behaviors and attitudes. Concepts of group dynamics relate to both formal and informal organizations (Luthans, 2005).
The group dynamics enable us to understand how the committee co-ordinates its structures, functions, process, and conflict resolution mechanism.
The committee works together with the aim of achieving a common goal of developing and promoting the best practices. However, informal processes interfere with the progress achieved and affect choices of projects and periods of completion.
The formal nature of the process requires members to have specific duties based on their expertise and competence. Some members do not observe formal organizational practices in decision-making and distribution of resources, which result in conflicts within the committee.
However, the committee resolves such conflicts through a collaborative process in which all committee members express their views. The aim of conflict resolution is to strengthen teamwork and belief in organizational best practices and formal approach to processes.
Effective conflict resolution within the committee encourages teamwork. Members look for various solutions to their problems by expressing their ideas in an open system. Opinions on whether the committee should still depend on its old informal practices or implement changes that focus on formal processes differ.
Collaboration has formed the basis of resolving such conflicts within the organization. The committee promotes teamwork by inviting contributions from all members in problem solving.
Changes for improvement Landscape services and management industry has become competitive in UAE. Many companies have emerged to compete for the same clients. Therefore, only organizations with best practices shall succeed. This is the aim of Rup.
A collaborative approach in conflict resolution has created a strong team that aims to promote best practices within the organization. In addition, it has reinforced the belief in organizational values and goals. Conflicts will emerge as Rup finds the best ways of providing services through effective decision-making processes.
However, some conflicts take a lot of time to resolve. Therefore, the committee should improve on time management when resolving conflicts. It should adopt gradual change processes to ensure that members adopt formal practices within the organization.
Members’ satisfaction varies based on the adoption of formal practices within the committee. Some members promote the use of both formal and informal processes in decision-making, reporting, and awarding tenders. On the other hand, some members advocate for formal processes.
However, the committee aims to solve such problems by adopting a collaborative model. This has ensured that the committee considers contributions from all members and makes decisions on the best interests of all stakeholders.
The committee must understand its own weaknesses in order to improve on adopting changes and decision-making process. The committee leadership should rely on scenario-based models in order to choose appropriate conflict resolution model that can serve the organization under time pressure.
The committee should not overuse the collaborative model to the extent that leads to compromise of goals, values, and long-term goals of Rup.
Conclusion Changes in the modern industries are responsible for many conflicts. Therefore, conflicts are inevitable in such organizations. Rup shows that conflict can be favorable for creating effective outcomes, teamwork, and a strong community.
The organization has been able to achieve such results because of a collaborative approach to conflict resolution.
However, the committee must improve on change and time management because members are reluctant to adopt best practices and values. As a result, conflict resolution is time-consuming processes that delay other projects.
Appendix Contributors Beliefs Satisfaction Leadership Conflict Resolution 9 Members believe in community of practice (COP) Achieve best practices, values, and goals Some members have strong formal processes only Others adopt moderate view on the use of formal and informal processes in decision-making Most members are satisfied conflict resolution outcomes Formal approach because of the aim of the organization to instill best practices within the company Enables great collaboration among members Encourages an open system of communication Encourage the development of a community of contributors Reinforces belief, teamwork, and great collaboration Members are satisfied with the conflict resolution mechanism References Condliffe, P. (2002). Conflict management: a practical guide. Sydney: Nexis Butterworths.
Hislop, D. (2005). knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.
Luthans, F. (2005). Organizational Behavior (10th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Swinton, L. (2006). Workplace Conflict Management: Strategy for Successful Resolution. Web.
Tillett, G., and French, B. (2006). Resolving conflict: a practical approach, 3rd edition. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
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