The role of media is crucial for human lives nowadays. Much time, efforts, and knowledge have been already spent to improve this industry, and it is hard to stop contributing such spheres like movies, literature, television, and music. The investigations of Deuze and Steward show that a variety of the existed media channels abilities influence considerably our lives, and the point is about “living a life not with but rather in media” (1).
To learn more about the world of media, it is better to focus on the news and the main themes of the articles offered to the reader. One of the most captivating current issues is the future Oscar and the nominations which can win. In this paper, the article by The New York Times’ writer, John Collins Rudolf, about the unexpected nominee Gasland will be analyzed to prove that media may influence different aspects of our life.
There are a lot of investigations which are devoted to the problems of oil or natural gas drilling (Lyons 43) and the challenges which have to be overcome by humans. Under the current technological progress and the abilities available, it is possible to inform the whole world about the most urgent issues by means of different media channels.
Documentary film is one of the forms that aims at “reporting about world” (Rollyson 1) and about world’s achievements. In the article under analysis, the author admits that the promotion of such movies and the Oscar’s nod that is possible is a unique chance for the director and the author of Gasland to attract more attention to the problem.
Though people are aware of the problems caused by drilling and natural gases, they do not want to fall into details. Nowadays many people prefer to watch movies or news online and rely on the information provided. This movie helps many families “who’ve been hurt by drilling” (Rudolf) to declare about themselves and inform future generations about possible problems and threats.
With the help of this article, the reader will learn that there are many unsolved issues which deserve our attention. It seems to be dangerous for people to discover the truth that it is possible “to light their drinking water on fire” (Gasland), and this article as well as the movie the author of the article discusses is a good source to rely on and to understand how unreliable current living conditions are.
The global content (Deuze and Steward 7) of the article helps to localize such information around the whole world. This article does teach the reader and does show that it is not always easy to disclose a particular problem to public without media interruption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are many nominations for the Oscar this year: Inception, The Social Network, Black Swan, etc (Chaney). Still, are any of the movies mentioned or nominated as much crucial for someone’s lives as Gasland for people suffered from natural gas drilling is? Hardly! Of course, each movie is a unique chance of the director to introduce personal evaluation of opportunities.
However, the chosen for the article documentary film Gasland should be marked in the media industry as well as in human history as an attempt to call for action and understanding. If people accept the idea that media is an integral part of their lives, it is time to use media in order to meet the necessary goals and improve the conditions people have to live under like the attempt was made by Josh Fox, the director of the movie, and John Collins Rudolf, the author of the media article.
Works Cited “About the Film.” Gasland. 2010. Web.
Chaney, Jen. “Oscar Nominations 2011: ‘King’s Speech’ Leads with 12 Nominations; ‘True Grit’ Nets 10.” The Washington Post. 25 Jan. 2011. Web.
Deuze, Mark and Steward, Brian. “Managing Media Work.” In Managing Media Work. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2011.
Lyons, William. Air and Gas Drilling Manual. Burlington: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2008.
Rollyson, Carl. Documentary Film: A Primer. Lincoln: iUniverse, 2004.
We will write a custom Essay on Media Industry News Analysis: Gasland May Take the Oscar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rudolf, John Collins. “Industry Boos Oscar Nod for ‘Gasland’.” The New York Post. 25 Jan. 2011. Web.
SFSU needs to replace JEPET Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
San Francisco State University has one of the most dreaded writing tests by students. This test is known as Junior English Proficiency Essay Test, JEPET. JEPET test is taken after the first two years of study, upon successful 48 semesters and before their 80th semester unit to fulfill the graduation writing requirement. Those who fail must take the English 414 whish will satisfy the university that a student has fulfilled their writing requirement for graduation.
However a student must take JEPET before taking English 414. This is usually a timed exam handwritten and student must write a well organized argumentative essay on a given topic and base it on evidence provided. The only reference materials allowed are a dictionary, a thesaurus and a spell checker. This makes it a general writing proficiency test and students end up not learning writing skills in the subjects they are taking. This essay is therefore aimed at explaining why JEPET should be scraped.
The first major reason is that JEPET is a highly generalized one-time exam and not a writing course that only tests a student’s general writing proficiency. A one time exam is not a credible criterion of measuring a students writing proficiency. As it also only test a students general writing abilities and not subject oriented writing proficiency it therefore produces students “who cannot write” (Turner para 4). Therefore CFSU needs to replace JEPET with a more intensive and subjects based writing course.
Secondly, because JEPET is just an exam and not a course, there is a very high failure rate (Turner para 17). This is occasioned by the fact that student who fail JEPET have to sit for English 414, when passed qualifies a student for graduation. The problem with this provision is that it encourages failure as students do not have to re-sit JEPET therefore defeating the purpose of the exam, which SFSU has made mandatory for graduation.
Thirdly, JEPET is not in favor with SFSU students, many of whom prefer to have “ a course intensive training within one major as it would make passing easier” (Turner para 17). Students will be motivated to be more attentive as they are being trained on subjects they have more appreciation for rather than a “general English exam” as they refer to JEPET (Turner para 23). This boosted learning morale will improve passing rates therefore necessitating the need to rethink JEPET.
Last but not the least, is that JEPET is just an exam to facilitate exit from the university rather than test writing competence. A student must first write English 114 and English 214 before writing JEPET. JEPET seems to be a re writes of these two exams. If a student passes them but fails JEPET, it defeats the logic of SFSU refusing students to graduate until they write another exam (Turner para 34).
In conclusion, even though JEPET was formulated with the intention of giving students writing proficiency it has not been successful. This is because it defeats the purpose of its own existence as students are not adequately trained to write. Furthermore those who pass only have general writing skills and not the relevant writing skills in their major subjects. This results in graduates who cannot write and if SFSU has this reputation, its graduates will loose market value as they will be unemployable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Work Cited Turner, Jack. New Writing Courses Set to Replace JEPET by 2010, [x]press. San Francisco: SFSU Journalism Department. September 2008. Web.
Logistics Providers: Traditional and Virtual Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Comparison of Functions between 4PLs and 3PLs
Reasons why more Companies Rely on 4PLs
Importance of Establishing the Metrics in 4PLs
Logistic Solutions for Big Lots
Comparison of Functions between 4PLs and 3PLs Third party logistics (3PLs) and fourth party logistics (4PLs) have a number of differences in the functions and value they bring to the supply chain. When analyzed in terms of functionality, a 3PLs basically entails the outsourcing of logistical services (among other services) by a company.
Most of the time, a 3PLs system manages all logistical functions in the organization, ranging from purchasing, billing, online sales bidding and the likes (but such functions are determinant of the needs of a client, the financial provision and the infrastructural ability of the company) (Boaz, 2009).
A 4PLs on the other hand, is able to manage more than one company or company branches in any given environment. In other words, it is not only able to carry out logistical functions in one company, but a range of functions from subsidiary companies. For instance, if a company has three plus 3PLs and an additional transport company, the company is better placed using the 4PLs because it can combine the functions of both companies (Gail, 2009, p. 20).
Majorly, 3PLs have been used by most organizations to reduce inventory costs and improve customer service by making the organization more flexible and responsive to customer needs but a few organizations have been noted to use the 3PLs to achieve strategic and competitive advantages by capitalizing on the above benefits (Boaz, 2009).
The 4PLs however goes beyond reducing the costs of logistics because it manages several 3PLs at the same time. Also, 4PLs are known to have better management of resources and in the same manner, a better control of information technology in general.
Reasons why more Companies Rely on 4PLs More companies are relying on 4PLs because 3PLs have been observed to have a number of shortcomings. Many companies are therefore opting for 4PLs to avoid the shortcomings 3PLs poses. Boaz (2009, p. 3) notes that “3PL’s success factor no. 4, labeled “scope creep phenomenon,” has paved the way for the 4PL….the expectations companies have of the provider are now more in-line with the capabilities of the 4PL”.
However, it is important to note that the success of the 4PLs is based on the performance of the 3PLs but many companies have ignored this assumption, and concentrate on the fact that the 4PLs is more effective than the 3PLs (Gail, 2009, p. 20).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also important to note that many companies are currently expanding, and many more are realizing an increased need to integrate most of their expanded operations. In this case, the 4PLs comes in handy because it is able to integrate the functions of a number of companies all at once. These are some of the reasons why the 4PLs is increasingly being adopted.
Importance of Establishing the Metrics in 4PLs It is important to establish a metrics system in quantifying the benefits 4PLs brings to the supply chain system of an organization because many organizations already have different levels of utility through the current ways they handle their utility systems. In this manner, organizations can be able to quantify the benefit 4PLs systems bring to the organization’s supply chain, after translating its benefits into monetary advantages.
Moreover, supply chains systems are becoming increasingly complex and it is also increasingly difficult to verify the benefits 4PLs systems bring to the organization, viz a viz the 3PLs. It therefore becomes increasingly difficult to establish the appropriateness of a given supply chain system if it cannot be quantified using the appropriate metrics.
This necessitates the inclusion of a metrics system. Gail (2009, p. 20) also notes that it is important for the 4PLs system to incorporate metric systems because various companies have different supply chains and they are managed in different ways. Moreover, each supply chain system has its own unique way of reporting and therefore, it is important to include a metrics system to analyze the different supply chain systems.
Logistic Solutions for Big Lots Unyson’s solution for Big Lots can be said to be in line with the benefits 4PLs brings to supply chain management. Nonetheless, it is important to note that Big lots had been experiencing a problem of saving on transportation without compromising on the quality of service; improving shipment visibility for all supply chain stakeholders and improving efficiency through process improvement efficiencies (Uniyson Logistics, 2010).
Uniyson’s solutions to these problems were consistent with the objectives of 4PLs because from its recommendations, Big solutions was able to cut on transportation costs to register increased savings of up to 25%, without compromising the quality of service (Uniyson Logistics, 2010, p. 12).
This is one aim of the 4PLs (cutting on supply costs). This development was achieved through advancing transport management techniques and optimizing LTL shipments, which is also in line with the objectives of 4PLs, as observed by Boaz (2009, p. 9) who notes that “4PLs take a purely collaborative approach”.
We will write a custom Essay on Logistics Providers: Traditional and Virtual specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The collaborative approach identified here can be evidenced through coordinating the activities of management and LTL shipments (which was the subsidiary transport company for Big Lots).
Considering the speed Unyson was able to enjoy the benefits of an improved supply system for Big lots, it is correct to note that their strategy was in harmony with the ‘speed’ value 4PLs bring to the supply chain. In other words, through the utilization of 4PLs, a company is able to enjoy increased efficiency of the supply chain through speedy operations.
References Boaz, D. (2009). Global Logistics. Web.
Gail, D. (2009) The Rise of the 4PL. World Trade, Troy, 22(1), 20
Uniyson Logistics. (2010). Uniyson logistics Case Study. Web.
Role of Telomerase Reactivation in Slowing Senescence Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Impact of on evolution- Darwinian medicine
Abstract Ageing is considered as a process of extreme complexity that affects not only the individual cells, but also the body as a whole. This research thesis will hence focus on the effect of telomeres, organismal aging, as well as how telomere maintenance affects the genome stability.
The telomere is a fraction of the complex process involved in ageing hence this research will elaborate how DNA damage response and genome integrity influence postmitotic ageing. In addition to this, the genetic pathways that enhance the elongation of life and survival will also be elaborated.
Introduction In the modern world, the ageing population has become a topic of interest. The curiosity in this field has led to researches in terms of regenerative remedies where scientists tend to investigate whether there is a possibility of doing away with intrinsic instigators for the sole purpose of reversing, if not halting, the degeneration that brings about ageing.
There is accumulation of evidence over the years that indicate telomere damage as a key factor in bringing about decline in organs and disease risks that are associated with ageing. In humans, evidence obtained also indicated strong links between reduction of telomeres, high risk of attaining diseases associated with ageing and failure of organ system in terms of degenerative diseases.
According to Rudolph, ageing is has a huge impact on the lifestyle, disease prevention and patient’s care of individuals throughout the world. Main mechanisms of molecules that have an impact on ageing process are 1) reduction in the stem cell function of adults; 2) Alteration in metabolic pathways and gene expressions; and 3) increase in molecular damage thereby affecting the proteins and DNA.
Argument The alternative hypothesis in this research is that “telomerase reactivation slows down senescence” while on the other hand, the null hypothesis in this research is any other outcome of the research undertaken.
Upon conducting an experiment on an adult mouse to establish the effects of physiological telomerase activated throughout the organ systems and cell types, it was established that the G4TERT-ER mice possessed high degenerative phenotypes. In addition, the telomerase reactivation generated a restitution of the telomere reserves, while there was observation of suppressed DNA damage signaling and enhanced organ system with light cellular checkpoint responses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This experiment hence gives rise to speculation of tissue stem cells being retained in an intact quiescent form while at the same time they can perform normal repopulation function if the genotoxic stress at telomeres is eliminated. Carcinogenesis was not promoted in this experiment despite the instability in chromos caused by insufficient telomeres reactivation. In spite of this, there is a possibility that more reactivation of prolonged telomerase may lead to Carcinogenesis.
In addition to this, it was noted that the effects of age-associated in the brain functions of mammals are linked to “accumulation of DNA damage and the continuous reduction in myelination and neurogenesis”. On the data attained, it was established that telomere dysfunction together with telomerase reactivation in the mice had the ability to restore SVZ neurogenesis.
The results attained on conclusion of the test were relatively consistent with the test results previously conducted that portrayed the negative effects upon detecting the odor thresholds that resulted from extensive inhibition of neurogenesis in SVZ.
In summation, when vital organs of the body together with the central nervous system decline due to age-related factors, then this will mean evidence of telomere rejuvenation as means of diseases that are age related especially the diseases are driven by the accumulation of genotoxic stress.
According to Andrews and Tollefsbol, telomerase is normally in form of embryonic and germline as well as somatic stem cell although in this case they are hardly detectable in most of adult’s somatic cells. Replicative senescence is induced by actively division of somatic cells that results to shortening of telomeres with concurrently with each cell replication. In addition, this phenomenon has given rise to the notion that reduction in terms of expression of telomerase in somatic cells may trigger in motion an ageing process molecular clock.
Telomerase reactivation is essential particularly on proliferative organs thus making it a marked impact. On brain health, the benefits are major determinants of declining health due to progressive age. As brain in mammals’ ages, the brain tends to indicate the accumulating DNA damage. In addition to this, the neurogenesis is restricted progressively as re-myelination is impaired all because of a declined neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation.
The primary role played by mRNA is translation in the extension of life span or reduction of TOR signaling. In addition to this life span is increased by ribosomal proteins, translation of initiation factors and undertaking of ribosomal S6 kinase mutations
We will write a custom Term Paper on Role of Telomerase Reactivation in Slowing Senescence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Mariela Jaskelioff, by accelerating DNA repair is essential in reversing DNA damage, which is a common stimulus of the senescent pathways. Before the use of designer drugs, the balance between excessive proliferation and senescence must be considered carefully. In addition, extensive research on the nexus between damage and DNA transcription will aid in identifying targets that particularly link ageing phenotypes.
The information on attained from aging studies plays a major role in identifying and specifying cellular dysfunction that lead to various degenerative diseases. Further studies on stem cell science are also important in while dealing with approaches pertaining to ageing dysfunction.
According to the cellular theory, the human aging can be attributed to cellular ageing. An explanation of the mechanisms undertaken on measurement of cell division and in determination of the appropriate cessation of replication is indicated by the telomere theory. Cell senescence signaling is cited as a signal when telomeres shorten to a length that is limited. Evidence of ramification of cellular senescence is indicated by age-associated cardiovascular disease.
Telomerase enzyme plays a great role in senescence process. Chromosomes are protected by telomeres, which is one of their functions. The chromosomes are normally shortened after each cell division thus the shorter the telomerase the older the cell. The telomerase enzyme normally restores the telomeres to its original size after cell division. This means the chromosomal caps will hence remain intact thus giving the stem cells an eternal life. 
Reduced levels of cellular senescence is suggested to be the as the main effect of having caloric restriction. This outcome may result from the signaling suppression of S6K1 and mTOR.
Impact of on evolution- Darwinian medicine The human lifespan of evolution have been cut short by a number of factors. Some of these factors include; malnutrition, infectious diseases and accidents. Despite the traits being deleterious, in evolution, genes that influence fertility and survival are the ones that are selected. Recent evolution theories term ageing as together with its biological correlates as unpredicted aftermath of selection that are strong in early life operation than the life after.
In humans, the antioxidant defenses are used to remove the reactive oxygen species produced in the vivo although not all of it is removed. A few remain only to cause damage. Primarily, the main evidence of damage is usually witnessed in DNA where there the reaction is seen to cause mutagenic abrasion, leading to it being relatively dysfunctional.
According to evidence attained, there is use in free-radical production; “the white blood cells at inflammation sites release reactive oxygen species that is normally used in killing fungi and bacteria” as well as inactivating viruses. The natural selection would hence pick this important defense as the “preferable in evolution, as it will be essential in the prevention of early death due to infection”.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Telomerase Reactivation in Slowing Senescence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Crews, the multiple phenotypic variations of humans are structured quantitatively by influences of evolutionary forces that develop genetic influences. This genetic variability influences the life history of humans and the evolutionary forces have a detailed human life span and senescence. As mutation occurs, the DNA of organisms alters continually.
The Darwinian concept of fitness as a foundation of natural selection relies mainly on the relative net reproduction output of people within a population who are considered to be competing for resources that are limited. In this theory, questions on lifespan reproductive capacity are confronted. This will hence represent a value of the summation of reproduction throughout the existing population from maturity of individuals to reproductive senescence.
The main parameters are normally the number of offspring produced over the different ages, their developmental abnormalities, and their viability. Conclusively, genetics models in population dictate that natural selection normally acts to increase the intrinsic rate in a population.
According to Nomura, Takeda and Okuma, throughout a lifespan, aging is regulated by environmental and genetic factors in a multi-factorial manner. The effects of the different environmental factors on phenotype are hence clarified for the sole purpose of gaining a clear understanding of the aging process. These environmental factors include; nutritional status, various kinds of exogenous stress on phenotypes and microbiological condition.
Conclusion Despite the researches conducted on telomerase indicating that there may be presence of telomerase in senescent cells, the notion of having this enzyme present alone is not enough to avoid cellular senescence. According to the information gathered from aging studies cellular dysfunction is specified and identified as a cause to numerous generative diseases. In addition to this research on stem cell science is crucial especially when dealing with strategies that incorporate ageing dysfunction.
The enzyme telomerase has a major role to play in the senescence process. It is considered as an important target while dealing with increase in cellular life span. However many questions pertaining to the mechanism of cellular senescence remain a mystery. This dilemma arises mainly when considering the correlation between human senescence and cellular senescence. The answers to these unanswered questions may lead to the strategy of slowing down the biological clock.
Bibliography Andrews, Lucy
Logistic Service Providers – Wal-Mart Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Virtual logistics service provision entails organizing logistical systems in an efficient and easy to use manner. When using the system, it is important to note that the ‘information’ element of it is separated from its physical element.
In this regard, what makes virtual service provision unique is the fact that ownership and control of the logistical resources happens online (Clarke, 1998, 1). With this analysis in mind, this study seeks to analyze and point out areas of improvement in the way Wal-Mart utilizes its virtual logistics service system. This will be done in two phases as observed below:
Assessment Considering Wal-Mart has over 3,800 stores in the US alone and an even greater number overseas, the company has found it increasingly important to manage its growth (Kuehne-Nagel, 2010, p. 3). For this purpose, the company has put in place a number of fourth party logistics (4PLs) providers. The fourth party logistics providers give it a flexible nature to enable it manage growth and handle large inventories (Kuehne-Nagel, 2010, p. 3).
The organization particularly decided to put in place the virtual logistics service because it needed the system to help it quickly start up operations; give it the flexibility it needed to accommodate massive operations; estimate its distribution costs; create an infrastructure which could enable it properly manage seasonal demand and finally improve its inventory systems to be more efficient and reliable. These areas also define where the systems is applied.
Improvement Phase Though Wal-Mart enjoys immense advantages from its 4PLs, it does not mean the system does not have any room for improvement. Actually, Khosrowpour (2005) has observed that the system can be effectively improved through increasing the use of ICT tools in the organization.
In this regard, Wal-Mart can improve the input of more progressive information into its logistic systems to ultimately make it develop more sophisticated logistic networks which will ultimately improve the efficiency of the system and the overall security of the system.
It would even be more beneficial for the organization to further use appropriate ICT tools such as multimedia telebridges, virtual integrated services systems, and other similar tools which would also improve the speed and overall efficiency of the system (Kuehne-Nagel, 2010, p. 4). From this analysis, we can see that the efficiency of improving the logistics system does not only rest on the handling on the information but rather on the use of the latest ICT tools.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that Wal-Mart will benefit more from the adoption of the latest ICT tools in the market. Also, considering the efficiency of the information depends on its input, its timing, preciseness and reliability, Wal-Mart can further improve the efficiency of its four party logistics (4PLs) by making sure the information fed into its logistics system is up to the minute (Khosrowpour, 2005, p. 260).
Conclusion Wal-Mart has been a practical beneficiary of the advantages 4PLs logistic service gives to organizations. The system has been able to empower the company to control most functional areas of its operations. However, this study identifies that if it improves the reliability and precision of the information it feeds into its system, more benefits are going to be derived from it.
The basis for this observation stems from assertions that the logistics system is as good as the information fed into it. Finally, this study observes that the company’s virtual logistics service can be further improved if the latest ICT tools are used. If these recommendations are adopted by the organization, more improvements are likely to be noted in the working of the overall logistical service systems for the company.
References Clarke, M. P. (1998). Virtual logistics: An introduction and overview of the concepts. International Journal of Physical Distribution
Renaissance and the church Essay best essay help
The renaissance period is known to have had various effects on the Catholic Church, both positive and negative. This was the period when the Catholic Church gained a lot of popularity from people. However, it was also during this period when the church almost collapsed. This paper seeks to establish the various ways that the rise and the near collapse of the church were due to the renaissance period.
Despite the very many contrasts that were existent during this period, there was a declining influence of the Catholic Church. Most humanists thought that the church still had traditional rules, values and policies which they felt that they were getting outdated and should therefore change.
In the earlier periods, the Catholic Church was an imperative part of the structure that was based on the faithfulness between vassals of the feudal system and the lords. In the renaissance period however, there was a shift on focus from religious matters to money matters. The church had a hard time adjusting to this fresh philosophy. As a result the church had been accused on the grounds of corruption on several occasions, an act which gave the church a bad reputation.
The high regard of the church was also wounded as some church heads desecrated the biblical regulations they were delegated to uphold and existed no differently that the worldly merchants and political numbers.
This was additionally compounded by the comprehension by the new sovereigns that, in order to maintain supremacy, the church had to operate according to its traditional rules and regulations, practices that were fading in the church. This was because some church leaders were acting in a manner which was in accordance to the principles of the Catholic Church.
Although there was decline in the popularity of the Catholic Church during this era, there was some growth in religious matters. This mostly happened in the 14th to the 15th century in a period which later came to be known as The Reformation. It was more critical in the 16th century.
Decline of the Church The papal patio was mortified when, in the in the early years of the 14th century, the French emperor enforced them to Avignon. This strained move led the churches uppermost leaders to emerge as the subjects of France.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The church, in its place of providing religious leadership to the rapidly shifting society, became pre-occupied with its management of staff and procedures. The dilemma became even worse during the Great Schism, when opponent popes vied for power of the church. This was evidence of greed in the church. The ultimate outcome further lessened the political weight of the church.
There were commendable leaders of the Catholic Church for the duration of these times. Nicholas V and Pius II, who followed after the latter, were educated, devout and dignified heads of the church.
There were in addition other popes, like Alexander VI, who was pope in the year 1492, Julius II and also Leo X, who were primarily concerned with the political grounds, the endorsement of their families and the benefaction of the art. These popes additionally weakened the capability of the Catholic Church to have authority on the society and also in politics.
With its destabilized authority, the church established that its papal power was getting increasingly challenged, both in the vicinity and countrywide. These tests to the papal influence, known as “heresy”, burgeoned, and critics turned out to be more candid and copious
The Growth of Religion The worry of the churches situation was a consequence of the power of the church, not the flaw. The pressure of the Catholic Church was failing but there was yet increasing recognition of religion all the way through all regions of Europe (Barry, 11). Religion started to revolutionize. Preachers called on the sinners to ask forgiveness (repent). This association believed in straight revelations from God devoid of the church as an agent.
People who protested the Catholic Church, along with their contradictory beliefs, posed a menace to customary religion. Popular unorthodox movements sustained their growth and continued to dare papal authority. Some fractions of these movements happened to be so willing to have the whole Catholic Church done away with. For the duration of the 14 century, a British theorist, John Wycliffe started airing his grievances against the Catholic Church in his trainings and scripts.
These heretics grow to be popular due to their attacks, but they hang about as a small underground. The preponderance of the reformers expected to modify the Catholic Church, not get rid of it. There was a very significant theologian in the early times of the 16th century at the University of Paris who supported conciliar theory. This hypothesis aimed at making a reformation to the Catholic Church by eliminating the supreme influence of the pope and putting it in a common council.
We will write a custom Essay on Renaissance and the church specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The renaissance period can hence be seen as a period that meant a lot of trials and consequent tribulations to the Catholic Church as a whole. It kept the church in constant upheavals (Starn, 22).
Works Cited Barry, William. The Renaissance. The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. Vol. 12.
Starn, Randolph. “A Postmodern Renaissance?” Renaissance Quarterly. 2007. 60(1): 1-24
The Concept of Otherness Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Otherness is the quality or condition of being different. In this world, people always come up with sets of differences that are based on the color of the skin, nationality, and even sexuality. These are the factors that we as individuals use to categorize ourselves as ‘us’ separating ourselves from ‘them’ or simply ‘the other’.
On most occasions, we give a lot of privilege to the group that we identify with in the society. We see the ‘other’ groups as irrational, immature, emotional, inferior and of a lower social status. Individuals categorized as the other are understood as lacking a sense belonging and generally different in some important areas. The other is usually seen as one who lacks some important characteristics that a group possesses.
In a society, the other usually has few or no rights at all, as such, he may be labeled as stupid or less intelligent or as one lacking in morals. He may therefore be treated as less human. Mostly, the other may be of a different, race, nationality, religion, or sex, and the group which categorizes the other may be a particular social class, a family, a community within a society, or the entire society (Melani, 2009).
Everywhere you go, you see him, in the market place in the banking hall and on the streets. Everyone seems to avoid him and ignore his existence. Even those who know him are hesitant to approach him because they know the consequences of doing so. The fact that he is not part of the crowd means that anyone acknowledging him will also be avoided or laughed at.
This is how Sherman (2011) has presented the concept of otherness. She explores the life of the Indians in the reservationists and the conflicts that occur in their daily life. We see that there are those who do not like associating with the old Indian lifestyle. They therefore regard those who are still practicing it to be behind, socially inferior, to lack something fundamental; they simply see them as the ‘other’ (Sherman, 2011).
Author’s perspectives Sherman relates strongly to this story. First he was born of an Indian mother; therefore, he was not a full Indian just like Thomas in the story. He was born with a brain complication and therefore, he was not expected to grow up normally. Just like Thomas in the story, Sherman also grew up on an Indian reservation. In an effort to find a better education, Sherman enrolled at Reardon high school in Washington where he was the only Indian.
This shows that Sherman has at one moment felt and treated as the “other” in his life as it happened to Thomas in this story. Judging from his success in life, Sherman used this story to show that categorizing people as other is wrong because these others can sometimes be more helpful than those we regard as one of us (“Biography”, 2010, P. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sherman (2011) tells the story of Thomas who has been categorized as the other. First, he is categorized as the ‘other’ by Victor while in line at the trading post. He says that he saw Thomas talking to himself as he always did.
That he was a storyteller that no one wanted to listen to. He was even surprised that Thomas knew of his father’s death. In fact, Victor was embarrassed to talk to him. The people at the trading post were also surprised to see Victor talking to Thomas. This means that Thomas was already placed in a category that we will call the other. He did not want to ask Thomas for help.
We are also told that Victor used to beat Thomas for no reason at all as the other boys cheered on. The girl who came to his rescue also wonders why it was just him that they picked on and not other boys. Victor is also embarrassed when Thomas starts conversing with a beautiful lady in the plane. He called him ‘that crazy Indian story teller with ratty old braids and broken teeth’ (Sherman, 2011, p. 1).
Sherman (2011) is quite critical about the way that the society treats the others especially when it is on baseless grounds. Through the story of Thomas he shows that treating others as the other is so bad that it makes people ungrateful to others. An act of ungratefulness is seen when Thomas gave a lending hand to Victor.
Even after Thomas had helped out Victor, he says at the end of the story that he knew that he couldn’t be friends with him. He acknowledges that it is cruel, but real. The whole society has categorized Thomas as the other (Sherman, 2011).
References “Biography”. (2010). Sherman Biography. Falls Apart. Web.
Melani, B. (2009). The other. Academic Brooklyn. Retrieved from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/other.html
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Otherness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sherman, A. (2011). This Is What It Means To Say Phoenix, Arizona. E Notes. Retrieved from: https://www.enotes.com/topics/this-what-means-say-phoenix-arizona
Media Industries Essential Economic Forces Essay cheap essay help
The media industry is a very influential economic force in the modern society. Thus, very paramount to understand how they function in order to appreciate on how they influence and transform people. Media industry has several functions such as source of entertainment, informative and for passing news.
Apart from those functions, the contemporary media has transformed to become a commercial enterprise that is thriving on advertisement. Media play a big role in reproducing information, communicating it and creating consumer society. Media is hence an essential economic force because it assists business in managing customers demand, creating needs and desires via adverts and entertainment.
Media and advertising The ability of media to advertise and entertain, results in effective promotion of products to customers in a more appealing manner. Furthermore, the media has become the main instruments of political and economical power offering a terrain upon which economic battles are fought and offering tools for economic manipulation and dominion (Durham
Social concepts Essay online essay help: online essay help
In sociology, social concepts are used in trying to explain certain events or happenings that are occurring around. From the definition, sociology in the scientific notation is the study of social interaction and organization that tries to define and understand the social action through citing explanations that have been sociologically thought of.
Hence, when analyzing an event, happening or an occurrence using the sociological imagination perspective, as an individual you are exposed to a whole new viewpoint of analyzing things. It encourages a person to look at the social environment in other new ways that are not just the common perceptions, as we look through these new perspectives, we encounter new levels of reality or new explanations to common social phenomena’s that relate to one another.
In sociology, the society is a comprehensive representation of more complex social structures, which people go into through characterized by the social organization. Most sociologists classify the societies in terms of people’s styles of living; a good example is the modern kind of living style and the traditional living style. In a given society, there are interactions involved among those present members of that particular society.
This kind of interaction is termed as socialization; people acquire some kind of behaviors that helps them become part of the society through participating in societal activities. Through socialization, an individual becomes part of the society, a process that is referred as becoming a social being. The act of socialization takes place in various social environments. From social eating areas, entertainment areas, work places and even the house holds.
There are theories that try to explain socialization one such theory is the conflict theory by Karl Marx who bases the theory on the basic principles of economic environments through which a society develops from. Marx’s theory states that the society is composed of two different individuals those individuals who have the wealth and own it, and those individuals who don’t have the means of creating wealth instead are used to produce wealth this creates a class conflict other theories include functionalist theory.
In for example a working environment, there are different people working in the same place. For people to be able to work In harmony to achieve the organization goal these people must have a way by which they understand each other hence communication is essential. Communication is the process by which people convey information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another. A working environment can be used to demonstrate how people are able to communicate together in efforts to attain the business goal.
Given a scenario where an employee is asked to carry out certain work activities (keeping inventory of items and reorder items in short supply) he is able to do the work with no problem as he is conversant with that kind of job, but after sometime this employee is not certain of what exactly is expected of him. He gets to do another job prescribed to him by his boss that involves management and at this point the employee gets confused as to which role he needs to perform for the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His previous work can be described as his prescribed job but the management work, becomes an issue to the employee as he sees a problem arising from taking the job without the specifications of roles. He becomes miserable because there are no clear role expectations from him that would be used by the management for workers assessment. He is concerned about how the rest his colleague’s would think of him, he is also worried about his relationship status at the work place.
From the above scenario it is clear that in a social place, there are boundaries for every individual. Peoples’ relationships are characterized by social ordering that can be defined through the status of a person. These statuses can be either ascribed like the ones assigned to individuals or achieved status that can be got through the basis of a competition.
Status can also be defined through roles. Roles are duties or rights expected to be performed by an individual. In a society, there are times when role conflicts arise especially when individuals’ are faced with conflicting expectations that arise from having two or more statuses. The new position given to the employee mentioned is not clearly stated and for this reason he is in a dilemma. He doesn’t know if he is expected to continue with the same old roles or embrace the new roles or perform both roles.
To him, the previous role maybe what he termed as his line of profession while he views the new job as not inline with his professionalism. This may be the reason as to why the employee is concerned about what his fellow work mates as it is usual in a work place for fellow workers to exactly know what their colleague is good at through socialization programs that are implemented in the organization.
In institutions or organizations there are prime social structures that help in the organization, management and executions of duties. It is hard for an individual to work in an environment that is full of people disrespectful towards you because of one reason or another but if the same person is placed in a place where his fellow workers are respectful then the individual would tell another different story. Sociological imaginations can be used to explain some of the occurrences’ especially those in organizations.
Change Management at Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Problem Solution Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
In today’s work environment, change is inevitable. To maintain a competitive edge, most organizations are currently undergoing dramatic transformation in terms of their strategies, structures, systems, boundaries, and of course their expectations of their workforce and managers. Thus, every modern organization must be prepared to pace up with the relentless business environment.
The environment is termed as relentless because of its ability to change at an exponential rate. Gabler defines change management as “the strategy of planned and systematic change, which is achieved by the influence of the organizational structure, corporate culture, and individual behavior, under the greatest possible participation of the employees” (as cited in Kneer, 2006, p.5).
In order to be effective, change management must be structured in such a way that the various expectations of the employees are shifted from a current condition to an anticipated future condition through empowering them to accept change in their current working environment. This paper discusses how Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., an American multinational corporation, is managing change in its operations.
In order for any organization to grow, it has to be ready to undergo important changes in various aspects of its development. However, in efforts of realizing change in organizations, there is usually a conflict between stability and movement. Stability usually makes the process of enacting beneficial changes to the organization to be difficult.
It is often caused when the reason for the change is not very well explained to the employees and when the proposed changes are seen as a threat that can alter the established patterns within the working environment (Hiatt
Comparison between Confucius and Han Feizi Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Confucius: Attitudes, Philosophies and Ideas
Han Feizi: Attitudes, Philosophies and Ideas
Opinion on Cause of Violence and How to Resolve Conflict
Introduction The two were critical thinkers of rulers during the eastern Zhou dynasty. The reign of this dynasty was in 771 BC after the death of the western dynasty. Confucius was highly critical of the kings that were leading in that time. He constantly bombarded them with policies that he wished would be adopted in ruling the people of the dynasty.
Most of the time, the king turned him away. When he realized that the administration was not heeding to his advice, he went ahead to tour the world and convince other kings to follow his ways. None of the leaders listened to him and later he returned to china’s eastern Zhou dynasty. Even after returning, the kings did no heed to the advice.
Han Fei developed his thoughts, Han Feizi, during that time. The thoughts bear his name for recognition. Han Fei was a member of a royal setting. He lived during a time when leaders had adopted so much Confucianism in their policies.
He was highly critical of that leadership, and even attributed it to the warring states war of 475-221 BC. Apart from the fact that he said Confucianism was responsible for the wars that were beleaguering the country; he also was extremely critical of morals and societal rotting that he witnessed. He also had ways that he wanted the kings to govern: the kings ignored it.
Confucius: Attitudes, Philosophies and Ideas Confucius was a great entrepreneur and was also a formidable force to reckon with on the political scene. He served in the Zhou dynasty for four years. He was later dismissed for he presented policies that were in contravention with the kings. He is renowned as the greatest educationalist in china and his ideas were followed and studied by many students in his time. On matters concerning politics, he was a fervent adherer to integrity and good morals.
He was against the wars that beleaguering the administration during that time. Therefore, he was an ambassador for peace and his kings, on the other hand, were advocates for war. In his teachings and his advice to the leadership of the dynasty, it is widely noted that human beings were the focal point of his attention. He always wanted good relationships to be formed among people. He also wanted the leadership to be responsible for their actions and inactions.
On the issue of development, he was categorical that it is morally bad to grow on that frontier and ignore other frontiers like cultural growth. He solidly believed that both should be seen to mature together as they are intertwined. At some point, he believed, the two will need each other and hence it would be best to grow simultaneously rather than individually. He ideally believed that the world is made in such a way that all should be in harmony.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, in his advocacy for this, he taught people to be kind, not only to their fellow human beings, but also to animals, plantations and all that existed within and around them. Han Fei believed there was no need to uphold things that were cultural and ritualistic. These two were largely mentioned by Confucius which puts him in sharp contrast with Confucianism. During his time, the cultural state of china was greatly respected and people associated with their culture.
Han Feizi: Attitudes, Philosophies and Ideas Han Fei died as a young man. He took poison in prison where he was held by the king for contravening his leadership. Before he died, the kind had realized his mistake and wanted to pardon him. Initially, he had been taken in by the king after the king noted his brilliant writings concerning leadership. Though the king was later advised by his aides that Han Fei was a bad man, he had confidence in him at first.
He had workable ideas concerning leadership. He advocated for rules and regulations and laws. The law of a country, Han Fei believed, was the main determinant of her strength or perceived weakness. Countries that upheld law were strong and those that did not were weak. The people in the country should be seen to have strict adherence to the regulations and laws that govern them.
When the public is content with the legalism of a nation, the country, Han Fei wrote, grows on many frontiers including economic, political and social. When a country lacks in legalism, it crumbles on those frontiers and institutions are not respected. There is also public grief towards leadership which may cause havoc.
He also pegged the security of a nation, on a number of areas, to how lawful it was. He said that countries where the private sector is regulated and correctly subdued, there was notable growth. However, if the private sector was rogue and uncontrollable, the country loses meaning and many of its institutions crumble. He also applied this to external threats saying that any country, whose internal legal system was credible, appeared to be strong to its enemies. The reverse is true for any country whose internal legal systems are weak.
In governing a country, Han Fei said it was important to have morals but they did not supersede the need for regulation. Regulation was the basis from which morality was born according to Han Fei. This is in sharp contrast with Confucianism and hence the reason why Han Fei was critical of leaders who employed during his time.
He also seemed to have a soft spot for leadership. He said that it was important for a leader to enjoy legal freedom so as to be able to govern. However, Confucius was of the opinion that leadership should be the initial demonstrators of good morals and hence punished first in case they contravened the same. In Han Fei’s opinion, this served the purpose of weakening them. During his time, there was little, or dwindling, regard for cultural ways of the Chinese.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison between Confucius and Han Feizi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Han Fei also said that commendation was very important. Leaders should employ it and use often to motivate its delegations. When a minister does something good he should praised and honored. On the contrary, Han Fei said this should go hand in hand with chastisements.
Ministers who violate the king’s orders should be reprimanded and possible relieved of his duties. However, his idea for chastisement was highly controversial. This includes torture, death and imprisonment. Commendation is in form of rewards, gifts and accolades. This style of leadership was very common soon after the death of Han Fei. The kings that ruled thereafter were very happy since they could easily pass on their helm to their family putting into consideration Han Fei’s easy ride to it.
Opinion on Cause of Violence and How to Resolve Conflict On many instances, it is noted that Han Fei and Confucius were on the same page on some issues. They agreed on government presence, but differed on structure. During their time there was violence and they developed different reasons that the violence was there. Han Fei attributed it to Confucianism saying it was wrong to think that it would help governments. He advocated for strict adherences to law with leaders having absolute power.
This manner of resolving conflict worked although it led to oppression of the people. In modern times, it is attributable to the dictatorships that followed. However, as radical as were the advocacies, the authoritarianism of dictators is no longer a recommended way of governing a people in the current world.
Confucius advocated for a harmonious living between people. The power he said was in the people. Everyone, including the leaders was under the umbrella of proper morals which he said was the linen from which the peace of the country was to be made. He advocated for utmost integrity.
This is still practiced in china and all over the world. Confucianism is a great way to govern people as it recognizes their rights. It does not oppress any one like is the case in Han Feizi. Leaders are held accountable for their actions and there is no absolute power. It also encompasses even the most recent concerns of our times like environment. Confucius advised people to live harmoniously with everything that were at their disposal, including objects.
Iraqi invasion to Kuwait Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction The attack of Kuwait by Iraq can also be referred to as “the Iraq –Kuwait War”. This was a serious war that involved Iraq and its neighbor Kuwait, which eventually culminated to a long stalemate of approximately seven to eight months. During the period of conflict, Kuwait was controlled by Iraq.
This conflict drew international concern and the USA government got involved by sending its military to go fight against Iraq. Iraq alleged in 1990 that Kuwait was secretly tapping its oil deposits through a process known as slant drilling. Apart from this, some sources from Iraq revealed that Saddam Hussein had planned to invade Kuwait far much earlier before the real attack. Many people felt that there were so many underlying factors that could have led to Iraq’s attack on Kuwait.
Causes of the Conflict between Kuwait and Iraq Accumulated War Debts
Before the “Iraq-Iran war”, Kuwait had a mutual relationship with Iraq and Kuwait even served as the main port of Iraq because Basra had been interfered with during the war. However, the cordial relationship between them turned sour soon after the war. This is because Iraq could not manage to settle the debt it had acquired from Kuwait during the war.
This was because its economy was extremely strained by the war expenses. These financial disagreements caused a greet tension between the two countries. Towards the end of 1989, they tried to solve the issue amicably through a series of meetings that were chaired by leaders from the two countries. However, they could not reach a consensus and this further worsened their relationship.
Economic problems in Iraq also contributed to the war. After the conflict between Iran and Iraq, Saddam came up with some dubious means to reconstruct the economy of his country, which by now had seriously been ruined. In this case he wanted to raise money for his debts by simply creating unnecessary shortage of oil.
This could consequently lead to high international cost of oil. Kuwait sabotaged his move by simply boosting its oil production capacity and this led to a significant fall in the oil prices internationally. These further destabilized the economy of Iraq which was already in bad shape. The government of Iraq so this as an “economic conflict” and there was also the question of the hotly contested oil field called Rumaila.
During Iraq-Iran war, it was noticed that there was a significant drop in oil produced in Iraq’s fields while that of Kuwait drastically increased. Iraq complained that Kuwait was tapping its oil without its consent and they ordered Kuwait to compensate them, but Iraq did not accept those allegations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hegemonic claims by Iraq on Kuwait
Iraq also envied the vast oil fields that were managed by Kuwait. They claimed that Kuwait was originally part of Iraq before the advent of European imperialism in the region of Middle East which had led to its division. They therefore claimed superiority over Kuwait. There was also a growing suspicion by Iraq that Kuwait was forging close ties with the West (USA) with a sinister motive of weakening its economy.
The course of the war At this level there was a high tension and on the second of August the year 1990, the first raid was made on Kuwait’s capital city by Iraq. This marked the real onset of the popularly called the “Gulf War’’ of 1990. Within the first few days of the war, the Iraqi troops managed to annex a large portion of the Kuwait capital. They used very sophisticated machines like fighter jets and tankers and within a short period of time they managed to bring Kuwait under their control.
After winning the war, Saddam Hussein stripped off the reigning Emir from power and substituted him immediately with another. The royal family fled into the desert for security and they stayed a way for several months. While in exile, the royal family pleaded with the international community to dislodge Iraq from its occupation of Kuwait.
The international community seriously condemned what Saddam had done and they ordered him to quit Kuwait. At this time the USA government was increasingly becoming weary of the possible Iraq conquest on Saudi Arabia. The UN gave Iraq a notice to withdraw its troops but it failed to do so. It is in this context that the international community mobilized military and financial resources to attack Iraq.
The US government managed to remove the Iraq troops from Kuwait after fighting them tirelessly. The US government had several motives for its engagement in the war. It made the following arguments. According to US, Iraq had undermined the territorial sovereignty of Kuwait which was really unlawful. Secondly, US wanted to defend Saudi Arabia which was of great strategic importance in the region.
This is because US depended on its oil exports which they did not want to lose. Iraq had also for a very longtime been violating the rights of citizens in the neighboring countries. The troops from Iraq were also engaged in several malicious activities during their occupation of Kuwait. For example they raided private properties of individuals and stole their valuables. They conducted careless torture and execution of the civilians in Kuwait.
Effects of the war The outcome of the war had far reaching effects on the people of Kuwait. For example very many Kuwait citizens ran away due to the effects of the war.
We will write a custom Essay on Iraqi invasion to Kuwait specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the process of moving to other places, they left behind their investments and properties which were ravaged by the war and some were looted. Several citizens were seriously wounded during the air attacks. By the end of the war several people had died and they were well over two thousand in number. Families that lost property and loved ones during the war endured much pain, and they suffered seriously from poverty.
Some of them up to day have never had the chance to restore their previous status. The government was also seriously disorganized and it took a lot of time before they could reorganize themselves. For instance the capital city was so much interfered with and several installations were damaged. This left the government with a huge financial burden to repair its ruined economy and infrastructure. The war also affected the foreign policy of Iraq. The economy of Iraq was also further strained by this war.
Conclusion The analysis of the Gulf War is today very much important in our history and it has always been used as appoint of reference when discussing the crisis in the Middle East. The current state of anarchy witnessed in Iraq and other neighboring Arab countries like Afghanistan are all examples of the long term stalemates which have never been solved.
The situation in Iraq at present is very bad and they have registered one of highest poverty indexes in the world. The government is also very unstable and it is always on the verge of bankruptcy. Suicide bombings have become part of life of the citizens. This is enough to explain the level of disillusionment in Iraq.
Several Arab countries are also becoming less stable. At present Egypt, Tunisia, Jordan and Yemen are all undergoing serious revolutions. These are enough indicators that democracy is still along term dream for most of the Arab countries. Despite the rich oil resources in many Arab countries they are likely to remain underdeveloped due to war. It is high time they changed their attitude toward war.
The World War 2 Positive and Negative Repercussions Expository Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction It all started on 1st September 1939 when Germany attacked Poland without warning and that was when the world entered into war with itself. For a period which lasted 6 years, manhood was under the threat of extinction as men slaughtered fellow men like goats and destruction of property worth billions took place (Bachrach 4).
The World War 2 began in the year 1939 and ended in the year 1945 after the United States of America dropped two atomic bombs in the two Japanese islands of Hiroshima and Nagasaki killing more than 120000 in the two islands and leaving thousands of others suffering from the radiation effects. Surprisingly, some Japanese soldiers, who were on the isolated islands in the pacific who never got the message that the war had ended or thought it was just but a trick, continued fighting even after the war had ended.
The war was the deadliest conflict ever experienced in human history with the figures of the possible lost lives being estimated at 50 to 60 million people around the world. Most of these people were civilians who were either killed, maimed or were left homeless by the aerial bombings. With most of the soldiers having gone to the war as young and energetic people, on their return time most of them came missing limbs and also suffering from several diseases.
The Effects Of The 2nd World War:
The fall of world major powers: The war did not just end, but it had some positive and negative effect to the countries both involved and those that were not involved with the main actors in the war suffering enormously.
To the Germans, with the defeat of Hitler and collapsing of the Nazi regime, its leaders were arrested and tried for crimes against humanity though Hitler, the leader, did not go through the trial as he committed suicide to escape the trial and the execution. Germany was then divided into four zones by the victorious ally sides.
Japan, another casualty of the war, was also in ruins due to the numerous bombings. The leaders were tried and the country was placed under the US rule for some years.
For England, having been bombed severally by its neighbors (Germany), the country economy relied heavily on the aid by the US to develop and prosper to its previous economic level. Centrally to the losses countries like England, France and Germany among others experienced, the Russians in the process of defeating the Germans had established a powerful army which now occupied most of the Eastern part of Europe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country’s vast resources made sure that the USSR along with the USA could emerge the superpowers. For the USA, the war stimulated the economy, new industries were built all over the United States of America due to the fact that the country had escaped the physical destruction that many other countries went through thus rather than building a nation it was increasing investments.
Struggle For National Independence With the main colonial powers coming from Europe, the 2nd World War left many weak and unable to manage their colonies due to the scarcity of resources. Many of them were preoccupied with own problems and the rise of anti- imperialist sentiments back at home easened the process of decolonization. The weakness of England and France and the defeat of Germany greatly encouraged the struggle for independence as these countries concentrated on rebuilding their economies.
War soldiers who had participated in the war came back enlightened and bearing the fact that they had seen white men also die in the war, the belief that whites were immortal was erased and the struggle for independence began. Colonies were not ready to be colonized again after what they saw during the 2nd World War.
Colonies that had helped their colonial masters during the war were granted independence after the war ended. For example countries that regained their independence were the Philippines from the United States of America in 1946, India from Britain followed in 1947, Ceylon and Burma in 1948 among others (Linter 1). The technologies on fighting diseases were advance and this reduced mortality cases leading to soaring populations.
Upon Science and technology, the World War II brought enormous technological changes for example the English developed the radar, there were also advancements in the world of electronics. The development of the atomic bomb not only did it transform the potential in future wars but also opened up the world of nuclear power industry.
The World War II also resulted in the use of women for comfort, especially in the Asian region. To reduce the stress and depression of the soldiers involved in the war, women as young as eleven years old were abducted and imprisoned where they were raped in the war camps. It is estimated that a single comfort lady could serve about 50 soldiers in a day.
Not only were these women harassed but they were also forced to procure abortions as they were not allowed to get pregnant. The small proportion that survived endured physical and emotional breakdowns through out their lives.
We will write a custom Essay on The World War 2 Positive and Negative Repercussions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disproportionate death of mostly young men who were involved in the World War II resulted in changes in sex ratios among the people left behind. This resulted in reduced number of marriages as well as low fertility rate with children born out of wedlock increasing.
With the war ending and human race threatening itself, the world swore never to fight against itself and in 1945, an international organization to oversee peace in the name of the league of nations was formed, which later transformed to the United Nations that had the full support of the world major powers. The World War II also led to the formation of the International Monetary Fund and also for the formation of international tariffs, which were to be regulated through the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT).
Conclusion The World War 2 had both its positive and negative repercussions. Though human losses cannot be equated with any economic or technological empowerment it is advisable to note that the world also got some benefits from the war. For example, the economies of countries such as the USA expanded and there was also technological advancements and exchange between countries.
Trade relations were also improved by the end of the war as there was formation of the body GATT to guide and ensure there was free trade, colonies gained independence due to the weakening of their colonial masters and there was also the emergence of United States of America and USSR as the world super powers and finally the increased investments in the field of nuclear energy not only for war but also for economy purposes.
One thing that should remain clear is that as the countries develop and compete with others never again should the world ever fight against itself? We should always find alternative ways of solving our problems other than fighting with fellow humans.
Works Cited Bachrach Susan. “History Of The Holocaust: An Overview.” Ushmm, 1994. 3rd Feb 2011.
Linter Bertil. “How World War II Shaped Burma’s Future.” Asiapacificms, 2005. 3rd Feb 2011.
Wildlife Management in Urban Areas Problem Solution Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Ecological and Social Impacts
Abstract In recent decades it has become clear that man has to learn to co-exist with nature. Even in urban areas it has become imperative to understand the principles of wildlife management. Ignorance and negligence of wildlife will one day lead to a rude awakening, of a world reeling from the impact of a major ecological imbalance.
This is because wild animals that are conserved and managed will play a significant part in the earth’s ecosystem. Urban centers need not be a place where wild animals are doomed. The community must learn to develop programs so that wild animals and human beings can co-exist in a world of biodiversity and beauty.
Human beings are oftentimes dictated by their impulses rather than sober thought. If there is a need for more land, they would not think twice in destroying forest cover or transforming farmlands into towns and cities. If they find other living things in that area that they believe is a pest or nuisance then there is no hesitation and once again irrational impulse leads them to kill and eradicate.
However, in recent decades it has become clear that man has to learn to co-exist with nature. This is why it is important that even in cities they should learn the intricacies of wildlife management. There is a need to understand these things because ignorance and negligence will one day lead to a rude awakening, of a world reeling from the impact of a major ecological imbalance.
It is understandable when humans act irrationally whenever they are faced with something they do not understand. Man would act on impulse especially when they are fearful. And there is nothing more terrifying than wildlife, such as carnivores with sharp fangs and vermin that carry diseases.
Thus, the next logical step is to exterminate. This is where man is greatly mistaken because wildlife, properly conserved and managed play a significant part in the earth’s ecosystem. A wanton disregard for the natural system that was built in to ensure balance in the ecological sphere will surely create catastrophic results.
Ecological and Social Impacts The end result of reducing the number of predator and carnivores in a given ecological system will cause an imbalance that allows organisms in the lower levels of the food chain to multiply to the point of becoming pests. Their population becoming a nuisance to others competing for the same resources. The same can create problems for humans living in areas wherein this delicate balance has to be maintained. In other words biodiversity will benefit every living thing whether in a national park or in an urban setting.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example is the efficient conservation and wildlife management of coyotes. Predators such as these limit the number of organisms that will grow and multiply in a given area. For instance, a coyote will serve as an ecological tool to control the prolific multiplication of a bird called grouse (MacDonald
Innovations: Planned and Unplanned Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction There has been substantial controversy on whether innovation is planned or unplanned. Both sides have attracted arguments supporting them, as well as arguments discrediting them.
A careful examination of real life examples of how organizations come up with innovations reveals that innovations are both planned and unplanned. This is the case despite the fact that planned innovations occur more often than unplanned innovations. Both innovations have advantages and disadvantages that complement each other due to the differences in their origin.
Unplanned innovation Unplanned innovations are innovations in which an organization discovers a new way of doing things in the course of its day-to-day activities. These innovations are not as common as the planned innovations because they are accidental per se. In most cases, they are discovered by a clever individual within an organization, who comes across or thinks of a new way of solving the problems of the organization.
Although these innovations build upon existing knowledge, they have substantial originality and thus they qualify the organization for acquisition of copyrights. In some cases, the individual who comes up with these innovations is not even part of the organization (McNamara, 2010, p. 1). The individual may be a professional who has a passion for problem solving. After identifying a problem common with organizations, the individual may approach the organizations concerned and present his solutions.
Advantages of unplanned innovations
The greatest advantage of unplanned innovations is that they are substantially cheaper than their planned counterpart. This is especially the case if the person who comes up with the innovation is a member of the organizations’ staff. If the innovation is from an outsider, the process is also cheaper since it involves a single individual who can easily be recruited into the organization, or persuaded to sell the idea to the organization.
Another advantage comes from the fact that unplanned innovations are more or less instantaneous. This is to mean that the innovations are not planned in advance and thus they do not take much of the organization’s time. Their implementation is thus time saving, and they do not have the risks associated with planned innovations.
Additionally, unplanned innovations tend to be more successful than planned innovations since, for them to be adopted, their usefulness to the organization must be established. In other cases, the unplanned innovations actually lead to planned innovations since after an individual comes up with an idea, the organization may desire to perform systematic checks of the relevance of the innovation and even repeat most of the steps of innovation carried out during planned innovation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disadvantages of unplanned innovations
Unplanned innovations may prove to be disadvantageous to an organization in that it may lack the holistic coverage of issues of the organization. This is because an unplanned innovation is mostly the creation of an individual and thus the individual may overlook important aspects of the organization.
This shortfall is minimized by customizing an innovation after its discovery in order to make it conform to the needs and circumstances of a particular organization. Another disadvantage is that unplanned innovations may be adopted inappropriately in cases where an organization adopts an innovation just because the innovation is available.
This problem comes about because, as stated above, most unplanned innovations are instantaneous and thus an individual may come up with an innovation in an area that does not require change within the organization (Knowles, 2002, p. 49). In such a case, the organization may face a reduction in its productive potential due to implementation of a new mediocre innovation.
Planned innovation This is the most common form of innovation. In this type of innovation, organizations identify the need to have a strategic change in their operations and plan on how to come up with an innovation that will satisfy the need.
Thus the innovation is participatory and it makes it easy for the organization to come up with an innovation that touches all aspects of the organization. In most cases, such an innovation is necessitated by competition from other organizations, and the organization may even be required to make use of prevailing ideas on how to offer services or make certain goods.
In most cases, the innovation is planned and developed by the staff in the organization, but in other cases, the organization may opt to hire a consultant to come up with the problem-solving innovation (Guy, 2010, p. 1). In both cases, the development of the innovation is consultative and thus it makes use of inputs from all stakeholders.
Advantages of planned innovation
Planned innovations are advantageous because they are developed as a response to a need in the organization. Therefore, almost all the planned innovations developed are utilized and have positive results. The positive results are even enhanced by the fact that, unlike unplanned innovations, planned innovations are focused and they have a holistic impact in the organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Innovations: Planned and Unplanned specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another advantage is the fact that it is likely to increase the competitiveness of the organization than its unplanned counterpart. This is because planned innovations take into consideration the shortfalls the organization is experiencing and thus the innovation takes care of those shortfalls in the best way it can.
For instance, if a company realizes that its rival is offering certain services that are making customers prefer the goods/services of the rival, the company can come up with a strategic innovation of providing other related services in order to gain a competitive edge (Anderson, 1992, p. 37). Therefore, planned innovations are more likely to increase the competitiveness of the organization than unplanned innovations.
Disadvantages of planned innovations
The greatest disadvantage of planned innovations is, perhaps, the high costs that are involved in developing them. For instance, if an organization decides to use its employees in the development of the innovation, the organization will spend money in wages, allowances, and also lose a considerable amount of time doing consultations.
On the other hand, if an organization decides to hire a consultant, substantial amount of time will be spent while making consultations and the consultancy fee will also be high. Another disadvantage is the fact that planned innovations may not come out as planned, and thus the efforts in developing a particular innovation may go down the drain.
Conclusion As evidenced in the discussion above, innovation may be planned or unplanned. The effect that a specific innovation has on an organization will depend on the nature of the organization and the need for a change in its operations. As much as the two forms of innovation are important, planned innovation is more advantageous than unplanned innovation because it is more focused and it tailors solutions to fit the needs of the organization. Planned innovation is thus more common than its unplanned counterpart.
Reference List Anderson, N. (1992). Organizational change and innovation: psychological perspectives. New Jersey. Wadsworth Publishing.
Guy, M. (2010). Planned and Unplanned Cultural change. Web.
Knowles, H. (2002). Organizational leadership of planned and unplanned change. Journal of Management, Vol 1, pp. 23 – 79.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovations: Planned and Unplanned by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McNamara, C. (2010). Organizational change and development. Retrieved from https://managementhelp.org/organizationalchange/index.htm
Beyond Good and Evil: What is noble? Essay college admission essay help
Key Characteristics that Comprise the ‘Noble Man’ Nietzsche exposes the wanting state of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’ moral rationale, highlighting the most challenging, yet simple, prescription of embracing the all unaltered natural law on the order of human existence – as the only credible solution which can restore man to self re-discovery and to realizing the initial moral code of expression (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 219).
It has hitherto been the concern of our aristocratic society to discover and define the various perspectives of exalting ‘man’ since time began, unknown to us that our society is stratified into varied ‘social status cocoons’ in a drive to define human worth (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 212). These social cocoons which have been handed down from generation to generation- currently still prevailing steadily mar the human society with such moral decadence as oppression, slavery, corruption and the vain embrace of vanity.
Societal moral decadence is best evidenced in the uninformed self justification, self righteousness, the ardent desire for self actualization and self realization, the drive for recognition, and the craving for power – even the earnest desire to retain power (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 212) .Hence, the once noble man has deteriorated in personal and societal degradation to the point of subjecting him/herself to weak and beggarly moral codes of justification standards.
Aristocracy has bequeathed us with records of the ever enduring and prevailing corruption trends, yet the aristocrat has forsaken his kingly prerogative and yielded to mere functions of loyalty (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 213).
This has paved the way for the popular fundamental principles of the world to take root and gain preeminence, which has indoctrinated man to blindly ape the strivings of men so that he/she may not suffer reproach, rejection or exploitation – culminating to the festering and incurable wound of sacrificing one’s own will; self denial. To escape these strong delusions, the noble man critically analysis their basis and resists all the loopholes which suppress man’s autonomy (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 213).
The prevailing diversity of moralities can be classified into two distinct forms; the master- morality and the slave morality, on the basis of who formulates societal moralities (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 214). The former originates from the ruling caste, who gladly assumes superiority over the ruled and the latter from the suppressed peasants.
Master- morality’s view of the ‘good’ regards the social status (order of rank), is exalted, parades itself and is of a proud disposition. The noble man, on the other hand, approves himself as the designer of moral values, he seeks no human praise rather he makes rational moral decisions upon examining all parameters (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 214).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In essence, he is not only true and kind to himself but also to his fellow humans. He is generous to the needy and refrains from doing those moral practices which are offensive to himself; for in so doing he in one way or the other declares the act offensive in itself to all humanity, thus guiding and protecting humanity from ills (Nietzsche 2004, p. 214).
Survival for the fittest’ has characterized the aristocratic community in all human settings, for instance, the aristocratic common wealth of Venice with men poised to power retention under all cost, with great struggle for resources- men seek their species to prevail lest they be exterminated (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 215). Yet the noble man conducts himself safely, in a good natured manner, is somewhat stupid and is prone to deception. He bears all the scone for slave morality, being at the threshold of being deprived his autonomous rights.
Universal moral trends are cross cutting and need to be within easy access to all human social strata, for instance, the fundamental desire for freedom, the instinct for happiness, and the autonomous liberty are as much a right to the slave morality as they are for the estimation of the aristocratic society (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 215).This is the underlying principle which demystifies the cross cutting passion for love in all moral settings of the human society.
Vanity is arguably one of the most complex and difficult things for the noble man to understand; it baffles the noble man’s mind on how vanity finds its authentic applicability in social and moral settings of the human community (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 216). One would readily deny it even when he is attached to and upholds it, upon examination through inquisitive interrogation.
While one may approve of the concept of vanity in human settings, there is a great risk of mistaken identity as pertains to one’s own values, yet at the same moment seeking a proper acknowledgement from people based on the precise estimation of his/her value (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 217).
Otherwise, the noble man would find him/her self in compromising situations whereby he/she would be compelled to concur with other people’s ideas centrally to his/her convictions. Thus, of necessity the noble man ought to understand that from ancient days the ordinary man was that, which he passed for. This would give him/her the audacity, courage and the autonomy to assert and uphold his/her convictions (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 217).
The human instinct of rank is above a true reflection of a higher rank to which all reverence should be duly and gladly ascribed. It is thus in accordance to tester of souls, with the noble aim of establishing the ultimate value of a soul, to let those things which are not of the highest rank occasionally occur and refine the unalterable rank of the soul (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 218).
We will write a custom Essay on Beyond Good and Evil: What is noble? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For, as surely as the highest order exists, even so would every object of defilement be expelled, when the soul yields to what is worthy all due respect. Contrary to the perceived notion that no one should touch anything, that there are holy experiences before which one must take off their shoes and keep away the unclean hand, the noble man recognizes his royal position of rank and goes right into the order of the highest rank (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 218).
The moral constitution in the soul of every child is subject to that of his ancestors and cannot be easily effaced, even so not now, thus a child draws the persistent plebeians of all times; varied offensive incontinences, sordid envies and clumsy self-vaunting from their ancestors as surely as bad blood (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 218).
A noble man is egoistic, belonging to the essence of the ‘high rank nobles’, to whom other beings must naturally subject themselves. On account of true justice, the noble man accepts the unalterable fact of his egoism without reservations for it is a true endorsement of natural laws (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 219).
The noble man also, does recognize and appreciate the fact that there are other equally favored as he, and thus liberates himself by taking his place in enjoying the natural endowments with fellow ‘high rank nobles’. He honors himself in other people by giving and sharing liberally as the natural law of requital prompts him, for even the law is within him (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 220).
The noble man is exalted, yet does not regard it. He is swayed humbled and brought low, yet he unflinchingly knows that he is at the top (Nietzsche, 2004, p. 220).
Works Cited Nietzsche Friedrich. Beyond Good and Evil. New York. Barnes
Sony BMG Music Entertainment Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Music production is one of the most lucrative businesses. It involves several activities from production, recording, distribution to sales. Music production requires professional expertise; most of the musicians do not have the expertise to do this. This is where record label companies come in.
A record label is a trademark company that records produces, distributes, sells, and promotes musicians. It also protects music copyright, scouts and develops new talents. Record labeling is one of the most lucrative businesses with stiff completion between record labels to win musicians’ signatures. This paper will discuss one of the most successful record labels Sony BMG Music Entertainment.
The formation of Sony BMG Music Entertainment was born out of the 2004 perilous merger between Sony Corporation of America and BMG Music Group. It became the second largest music recording company; universal was the first. Ownership was on 50-50 basis. Sony Corporation of America is a subsidiary of Sony Corporation, a Japanese investment giant, ownership held by several trustee accounts and Japanese banks (Anaswerbag para. 4).
It is the world leader in the production distribution and supply of electronic goods especially in sound, audio visual, communication and information technology (Sony Corporation of America para 1). It also has stakes in the financial sector and owns Sony Life Insurance Co., Sony Bank Inc., Sony Assurance Inc. and Sony Financial Investment Inc.
Sony BMG had other interest apart from music. It ventured into selling classic photos of famous personalities. The company acquired these photos from a gallery previously owned by Columbia Records, a company Sony Corp. took over in 1988 (Pompeo para 1). Sony Corp and BMG merger did not capture the expect market share and its fortune dwindled considerably culminating in BMG selling its stake to Sony Corp of America to form Sony Music Entertainment (SME) .
Illegal online music piracy threatened the music industry so much. As a result, SME sort to distribute music online via secure mobile phone technology. Together with Dada, they formed Dada Entertainment, each owning 50% share, to distributed music content via mobile phone platform; Dada was to provide the application technology while SME provided the music (Lawrence and McDaniel 99).
Similar partnership with Warner Music Group and a Chinese digital technology firm Access China created online music distribution platforms for mobile phone customers. It is currently working with Mobile Roadie to develop personalized mobile phone applications that will offer interactive services for musicians and their fans (Sony Music para. 3)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Financially it experienced a 16% drop in 2009 revenue, despite a 5% increase in its market share from 2008 (Peoples para 2). This was an impressive performance bearing in mind the challenges of dwindling returns occasioned by illegal online music piracy.
SME matches forward undeterred by the challenges it has faced in the past. Its management, lead by Rolf Schmidt Holtz, its hardworking Chief Executive Officer, has appreciated the need to embrace innovative ways to distribute content globally. This has lead to collaboration with software companies for online distribution. It also owns a photo gallery that sells classic photos of famous personalities to improve its financial outlook.
The expected Sony BMG challenge Universal Entertainment success in distribution of music content did not materialize. Analyst suggested that BMG Group was affecting Sony BMG performance and hence advised BMG Group to surrender its 50% stake to Sony Corp. of America.
Works Cited Anaswerbag. “Who owns Sony Corporation?” 2010. Web.
Lawrence, Gitman and McDaniel, Carl. The future of business essentials. Ohio: Southwestern Cengage Learning. 2009. Print
Peoples, Glenn. “Sony Music Revenue, Income Slips.” Biillboard. May 2009. 3 Jan 2011. Web.
Pompeo, Joe. “Sony to Sell off Iconic Photo Archive in the Face of Industry Slump” The commercial observer. May 29, 2008. Web
We will write a custom Essay on Sony BMG Music Entertainment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sony music. “Sony Music Entertainment to Develop Dynamic Artist Apps Using Innovative Mobile Roadie Platform.” 2011. 3 Jan, 2011 https://www.sonymusic.com/
Sony Corporation of America. “Overview.” 2011. 3 Jan 2011 https://www.sony.com/en_us/SCA/index.html
Schools of economic thought Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Economic schools of thought can be defined as the systems of beliefs that some of the historical economists held about economics. The different schools of thought or rather doctrines differ in their methodologies and assumptions that are made to describe a certain economic phenomena.
Among the major economic schools of thought include; Keynesian, Marxist, Neoclassical, Austrian, institutional economics and open economy macroeconomics just to mention but a few (Spiegel, 1991, p.102). It is essential that these schools of thought are put into consideration for the better understanding of economics.
Karl Marx together with Friedrich Engels developed the Marxist economic thought where they concluded that economic doctrine is based on the fact that the people in the society undergo societal developmental stages. These stages include; crude communism, slavery, feudalism and capitalism then finally communism with each stage leading to the next (Spiegel, 1991, p.123).
On the other hand the Keynesian school of thought explains economics in terms of integrating demand and supply to influence the decision makers who can be individuals or the government. The neoclassical school of thought is similar to the Keynesian doctrine with it having its focus on price, income and output determination. As a matter of fact, it emphasizes on maximising utility such that profit is obtained.
Of all the schools of thought, the neoclassical school of thought has had the most influence in my way of thinking. The neoclassical school of thought is said to have evolved from the classical doctrines. A close look at this school of thought it is depicted that it concentrates on how the rationality of an individual is affected by demand and supply together with their utility maximisation while neglecting the strong types of uncertainty.
This theory led to the generation of many mathematical equations to express economic terms (Strober, 2010, p.1). Due to the fact that neoclassical school of thought deals with allocation of resources as its major focus point, it has had a great influence in my way of thinking since allocation of resources is an important obligation for an individual as well as a nation.
This is because it is necessary that one knows which factor to allocate what amount of resources. Failure to do that leads to misappropriation or even lack of fulfilment of the obligations. The concept of free market is also rampant among neoclassical economists who believe that the free markets are what lead to the effective allocation of resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, neoclassical school of thought has led me into thinking big since it presents the economists with a choice to make between equity and effectiveness especially when allocating resources. In real sense it presents the economists with a moral dilemma. This way, one is indulged into critical thinking which broadens the mind hence applicable in other non-economic issues as well.
Studying this unit has led to a great transformation in my view of the application of economics in the social world (Strober, 2010, p.1). Despite neoclassical school of thought being the superior and most prevailing economic theory it is recognised for its normative and moral dimensions when taught in education facilities.
In my case it has socialisation since moral principles are important for socialisation to be effective. However, the neoclassical school of thought has been criticised for having much bias as well as not having actual descriptions of economic situations but instead dealing with unreal situations. All the same, the fundamentals it holds are what are important in the development of the minds of economics and the non-economics.
Reference List Spiegel, H. (1991). The Growth of Economic Thought. Durham
Reading Review About 3 Articles Related to Adult Literacy Essay essay help online free
Violence and literacy are closely related. The current state of research suggests that violence, physical and cultural, often serves the primary obstacle to literacy in different population groups (Horsman, 2006). The ways in which violence affects literacy are numerous and varied. On the one hand, violence limits women’s access to literacy programs (Horsman, 2006).
This is largely because injured women are denied and refused an opportunity to participate in such programs, because of their physical and emotional state (Horsman, 2006). On the other hand, women themselves perceive literacy courses as unnecessary and useless (Horsman, 2006).
Surprisingly or not, the link between violence and literacy resembles a two-way street. Simply stated, violence bears serious consequences on female literacy, whereas literacy, in its turn, has a potential to empower women and support them in their struggle against violence. Literacy has significant implications for reducing violence against women, and this paper explores the reasons behind and solutions to continued illiteracy in adult women.
That violence affects chances to enroll in literacy programs is a well-known fact. According to Horsman (2006), violence convinces women that they are stupid; as a result, they no longer want to attend literacy courses. What woman would want to attend literacy courses, knowing that any attempt to do so will inevitably lead to another episode of trauma and violence (Horsman, 2006)?
Violence against women, who plan to enroll in academic programs, is easy to explain: literacy is a powerful source of empowerment for victimized women. This is one of the reasons why violent spouses are extremely reluctant to let their women get an education. However, how can literacy be empowering?
Darville (1995) suggests that literacy gives way for releasing and exchanging human experiences. Literacy begins with the power of authorship, which transcends and reinforces the sense of self-competence through communication (Darville, 1995).
Literacy is empowering in that it creates a sense of inclusion and undercuts a belief that education belongs to others (Darville, 1995). Take a look at women in the Somebody’s Daughter program: they were hit by violence and suffered isolation, but the messages of encouragement support their female writers in coping with the difficulties in their lives (UNESCO, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Does that mean that literacy can effectively reduce violence? If it can, why does violence in all parts of the globe continue to persist? The reasons behind the failure of literacy to reduce violence and victimization are varied. Horsman (2006) writes that women do not enroll in education courses, fearing further violence and abuse. However, the real problem is not in that women have a fear of violence.
The problem is in that literacy programs for adults lack supportive elements, which could protect women from abuse. Collaboration and cooperation between literacy programs and social work professionals could improve women’s chances to become literate. Social workers could spread the message of adult literacy, its benefits, and its implications for female empowerment. Also, social workers could protect women from new acts of violence, if they plan to enroll in an educational program.
Darville (1995) is correct in that learners do not need to acquire the language and literacy of lawyers or bureaucrats, but they need literacy to deal with these bureaucrats and lawyers. Unfortunately, literacy opportunities for victimized adults will be increasingly limited, until literacy programs can communicate the broad message of learning, protect women from further violence, diversify the learning and education opportunities for victimized women, and empower them to cope with their life difficulties.
References Darville, R. (1995). Literacy, experience, power. In A, Manicom and M. Campbell (eds), Knowledge, experience and ruling relations: Studies in the social organization of knowledge, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 249-261.
Horsman, J. (2006). Moving beyond ‘stupid’: Taking account of the impact of violence on women’s learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 26, 177-188.
UNESCO. (2007). The alphabet of hope. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000152985
South West Airlines Analysis Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Introduction All business organizations operate in a dynamic environment that keeps on changing from time to time. This environment refers to all the elements that exist either outside or within the organization that affect the organization both positively and negatively.
Therefore, for an organization to ensure its continued survival, it has to adapt accordingly to these changes. Failure to which, it risks collapse. This paper, therefore, seeks to analyze ways in which an organization can implement changes so as to ensure its survival. Southwest airlines will be used as a case study for better understanding.
Changes That Could Occur Every business, irrespective of the industry in which it operates, faces the risk of change in the business environmental conditions. Some of these changes may be due to; changes in technology, political instability, terrorist threats, natural disasters, rising prices of energy, changes in consumer preferences, increased costs of production and many more.
However, since this case study is in the airline industry, only a number of those mentioned above will be applicable. Southwest Airlines is a renowned airline in Dallas which, due to the recent upheaval in the business environment, has had to come up with measures to ensure that it remains in business. It is one of the few businesses that have managed to make profits despite the constant changes (Kathleen, 2008).
Before going into detail, it is critical to analyze the problems that the airline industry encountered as a whole. Being an industry that heavily relies on energy, it is, therefore, normal that the fluctuating prices in energy, specifically oil, will be a significant set back. Fluctuating oil prices have been an enormous headache to the economy as a whole.
In the airline industry, a rise in oil prices means a subsequent rise in fuel prices. Airlines are, therefore, forced to transfer these increasing costs to passengers through increased air fare. As a result of this vicious cycle, airlines have been experiencing low demand for their services hence reduced revenues as compared to increased unit costs.
Another significant problem has been the rising inflation rates which have led to a general and persistent increase in the prices of labor, airport cost and maintenance costs. The current weather conditions have also been a dominant problem. It has led to losses in revenue in the airline industry due to cancellations in flights emanating from poor visibility. Others include increased competition within the industry and rising unit costs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Measures Taken by Southwest Airlines With this in mind, we shall now concentrate on the measures that southwest airlines have taken so as to ensure continued growth, profitability and customer satisfaction. One of the effective measures taken that has seen Southwest Airlines emerge as one of the most profitable firms in the United States is the low air fares that it offers compared to its competitors.
Southwest Airlines, unlike its competitors, chose to stick to charging lower rates despite the low demand of airline services by customers without compromising the quality of services offered. By using this strategy, it aimed at increasing the number of people who chose to fly with the airline despite the reduced demand. This has seen them increase their revenues as more people opt to fly with them especially in these hard economic times as opposed to their competitors (Kathleen, 2008).
To ensure its survival and its continued market dominance, Southwest airlines also introduced new products, which included the “early bird check in”, and a package that allowed passengers to travel with their pets at an affordable rate. The “early bird check in” gives passengers the luxury of checking-in in advance.
These new products have contributed to increased revenues, due to an increase in the number of passengers using the airline as it has given them an edge over other airlines. To deal with the increasing rise in costs, the airline, instead of downsizing in the normal way, the airline has come up with a plan that gives the employees an option to retire earlier than they are required by law.
This move has worked to their advantage as a number of employees have welcomed this plan. This has enabled the company to reduce the number of employees to a reasonable size without causing any conflict between senior management and lower level employees. This has also ensured that the employees remain loyal and highly motivated towards their work (Hewlett, 2006).
The airline, in these turbulent business environmental conditions, has given great importance to financial management. It has done this by ensuring that it maintains healthy cash balances by constantly looking at a new way to generate revenue. It has also resorted to selling and leasing some of its aircrafts as a way of raising more money to cater for the rising unit costs.
The airline is also keen on maintaining a minimum level of debt so as to reduce chances of insolvency. Due to the ever changing consumer behavior and preferences, the airline has introduced a range of new products so as to enhance customer loyalty and attract new customers. Some of these products were mentioned above.
We will write a custom Research Paper on South West Airlines Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They include the “early bird check in”, the package that allows passengers to travel with pets, and an internet package that allows passengers to browse while on board, a Wi-Fi enabled aircraft and not charging the passengers for their luggage. This has seen an increased market share and has warded off some of competition from other airlines (Hall, 2008).
In these turbulent business environmental conditions, the airline recognizes that it does not have enough capital at its disposal and has, therefore, taken to postponing the expansion of the airline. It has instead identified the unprofitable areas in the business and ceased their operations with the aim of transferring this man power to areas that are more profitable. This has led to a significant increase in the airline’s revenues.
It should, however, be noted that there are certain elements that are beyond an organization’s control. In our case, they include; natural disasters, unfavorable weather, for example, the recent case of snow which has seen many airlines cancel their flights and lose billions of dollars in revenues, and political instability (Yilmaz, 2008).
Kotter’s Eight Step Change Model One can use Kotter’s eight step change model to describe the changes that have been implemented by the airline. Kotter’s model recommends that the first step to change is dependent on the top management identifying the need for change and subsequently creating pressure and urgency for the change to occur.
With respect to this, it is clear that the management of the airline identified the current turbulent business environment conditions and quickly created the urgency and need for change as they realized that change was necessary if they were to thrive in the airline industry. The second step in this model is to educate and communicate the need for change to other subordinate employees so as to minimize chances of resistance in the implementation stage (Global Literacy Foundation, 2010).
Based on the successes of the strategies that the airline implemented, it can therefore be said that they successfully carried out the second step of Kotter’s model of change. Kotter then goes on to give the third step as generating ideas or coming up with a vision. This idea or vision could be a model or a concept that could be implemented by the organization.
In the case of the airline, the changes that were implemented in the end were the ideas that were generated in this step (Global Literacy Foundation, 2010). Some of them include; the introduction of new products by the airline, sticking to their low air fares policy, coming up with the voluntary early retirement policy and many more.
The fourth step is communicating the ideas to every one in the organization to allow for debating and also to ensure that everyone in the organization is involved and catered for so as to avoid future resistance especially in the implementation stages. Still, given the success of the changes that were implemented by the airline, it can be safely assumed that this step was also carried out successfully (Hewlett, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on South West Airlines Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fifth step, according to Kotter involves eliminating the objects or the people who are resisting the change. This can be done through educating the people who are resisting the change and allowing them to air their grievances. The organization should also ensure that the leaders in charge of supervising are qualified for the jobs.
This step still falls in the planning stages of Kotter’s model for change and, therefore, we can only assume that it was a success for the airline given that they were able to see their visions and ideas to the end. The sixth step according to Kotter is to create short term goals which are achievable. It should be noted that it is of vital importance for these short term goals to be achieved by the organization.
Failure to achieve these goals will only prove the critics and the people resistant to the change right. This will in turn make it very difficult for the organization to progress with its plans hence making it vulnerable to failure. It is also a very important step as the achievement of short term goals motivates the employees of the organization (Hall, 2008).
Southwest Airlines in light of this ensured that they put in place short term goals. These goals were in the form of quarterly reports, which were supposed to show the airline’s progress in terms of it financial position, its market share, its efficiency in managing its finances and whether its aim to reduce capital spending had been achieved. The seventh step entails seeking to improve the changes already realized through the short term goals. This plays a key role of ensuring that the organization remains keen on continued growth and improvement.
Using the Southwest Airlines as an example, it can be seen that the airline did not stop at the successes that were achieved as shown by their quarter year reports. They went the extra mile and looked for more ways in which they could improve the changes already implemented. They did this by looking for more products that they could offer the passengers, more ways of raising more capital that they could use for other profitable ventures (Yilmaz, 2008).
The last step according to Kotter’s model is reinforcing and implementing the change into the organization. It is the responsibility of management to ensure that the changes are accepted and internalized by everyone in the organization. This step requires the change to be introduced on a large scale level, with the result being its absorption into all parts of the organization.
In addition to the reinforcement, there should be a regular follow up of the changes that have been implemented, so as to ensure that things continue to run smoothly and also to provide room for improvement. Using the Southwest Airlines as an example, it can be noted that these changes were reinforced and they became a part of the airline. Some of these changes have largely contributed to the airline’s success (Yilmaz, 2008).
It can be seen that the airline made the strategy for charging low air fares a part of it and the airline even became popular because of this. In addition, it adapted a plan that gave its employee the option of leaving employment voluntarily even before they had reached the proper retirement age.
This brought about a culture of respect among the employees and management. The new products that were introduced by the Southwest Airlines for example “the early bird check in”, the package that allowed passengers to travel with pets and the package that made it possible for passengers to access the internet also became a part of the organization. The importance that the Southwest airlines attached to proper financial management also became a part of the organization (Hewlett, 2006).
The Effectiveness of the Changes Implemented by the Southwest Airlines Every organization is always faced with a dilemma when it comes to change. This is because of the uncertainties that change brings with it. However from the above analysis, it is evident that for an organization to survive in the current turbulent times, change is inevitable. The effectiveness of the changes implemented by the Southwest Airlines can be seen in their annual reports.
The airline’s returns have greatly improved despite the current poor economic conditions. The company recorded losses in the first quarter. However, the airline was able to turn this around and report profits unlike it competitors. The effectiveness of these changes can also be seen as passengers have increasingly become more loyal to the airline compared to others. The airline has also recorded an increase in new passengers who now prefer the airline as opposed to other airlines (Hall, 2008).
Southwest airlines have also experienced a reduction in operating costs due to the measures that it put in place to curb the rising costs of operation for example the postponement of expanding the airline, introducing a voluntary retirement scheme for the employees, and looking for different ways to deal with the rising energy costs.
Due to its insistence on the need for proper financial management, the airline has been able to maintain very low levels of debts hence eliminating the possibility of insolvency. It has also been able to find new and innovative ways to improve its liquidity position. Therefore, when all is said and done, the changes that the Southwest Airlines implemented have been more effective than disadvantageous (Kathleen, 2008).
References Global Literacy Foundation. (2010). Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model. Web.
Hall, A. (2008). Organizational Pay Analysis: A Case Study of Southwest Airlines. Web.
Hewlett, R. (2006). The Cognitive leader. London: Rowman
Music Harmony Studying Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Forms of harmony
Introduction Music harmony is the art of simultaneously employing pitches and chords in the enrichment of sound. The study of music harmony, therefore, entails unveiling the intricate characteristics of chords, the way they are built and the principles of their connection.
Harmony is the opposite of melody since the latter is taken as the horizontal characteristic of music while the former is taken as the vertical characteristic of music. Some definitions of harmony even include the word melody such as; “Harmony is anything that accompanies the melody” (Serge, 1998, p. 1).
Forms of harmony In many cases, listeners of music are unable to distinguish harmony from other components of music because it is always the intention of the composer of the harmony to hide it from them. Therefore, an explanation of the different forms of harmony may seem like theory despite their practicability.
Some of the forms that harmony takes include chords. These are a combination of notes that are played together. Broken chords can also be used to achieve harmony. Broken chords in this case mean the notes in a given chord that are strategically played one after the other in order to achieve harmony. Among the most basic and the commonest harmonies in music are the triads.
The major triad is a perfect example that can be used to make people understand the nature of triads. It produces a nice sound and thus it is used in major scales as the basic chord. Also usable in exemplifying triads is the minor triad which is used in a minor piece as the basic chord (Serge, 1998, p. 1).
Harmonic progressions Chords are, essentially, meaningless if they do not help in making the music sound better. This fact is what necessitates the use of harmonic progressions. Harmonic progressions are created as composers of music move from chord to chord in a bid to make the music sound better and create some kind of continuity in the music.
There are a myriad of harmonic progressions in music today, and more harmonic progressions are continually developed by creative artists. Cadences are one of the commonest types of progressions in music. They are utilized before sections end since they give the listener a thought-settling feeling. The two main Cadences that are widely used in the music industry are the authentic and the plagal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have similar and simple composition and thus composers have an easy time using them. However, most composers avoid using them because they may give a listener the impression that the music is ending while it is only the section that is ending (Schneider, 2002, p. 1). Due to this concern, most composers are fond of using cadences when the entire piece of music is ending in order to have that appropriate impression at the end of the music.
Inversions Inversions are almost the same as harmonic progressions in their nature. However, they do not bring a change to the triads and thus they are disqualified from this classification. Basically, inversions are formed by changing the order of the notes within a given triad. This statement means that after the inversion of the notes, the triad is not changed and hence my aforementioned point.
Inversions are useful if the composer would like a given note to be isolated within the triad making it stand out in the music (Schneider, 2002, p. 1). For instance, when playing a piano, the top note has to stand out since it is more audible than the others. To achieve the objective of making certain desired notes stand out, composers usually form the top of their triads using melody notes so that the note can be easily heard.
Conclusion Although this discussion is a perfect description of the theoretical intricacies of what goes on in a composers mind when composing songs, the theory discussed cannot be successfully used to compose songs. This is because, as we all know, music is largely experimental, and in order to learn harmonic progressions and their chord counterparts, there is need to experiment with less involvement of the mind.
Thus the ears should be worked more than the mind in any efforts to learn harmonic progressions and chord progressions. If you go through harmony theory posted on a website or written in a book, the theory will make you think of music harmony as an undecipherable code that one must spend a lot of time internalizing. This will be a misleading conception because in practice and with experimentation, music harmony is much simpler.
Another important thing to note is the fact that personal preferences are important in music harmony. This is to say that what will be to one person a perfect harmony may not be that appealing to another person. The reason for the application of tastes in music harmony is the fact that harmony is composed of dissonant and consonant forms, each of which may be pleasing to certain people and not to others.
Reference List Schneider, E. (2002). The four elements of music – melody, harmony, rhythm, and dynamics.
We will write a custom Essay on Music Harmony Studying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Serge, M. (1998). What is music harmony? Retrieved from http://ababasoft.com/music/teory08.html
Business Management and Leadership Research Paper essay help online free
The following essay will entail an overview of the application of business management and leadership in a process of recruiting a manager to a service division of a newly found organization.
For any recruitment process to be successful, the company should build good relationships among the recruiters right from its foundation since the recruitment process should not be undertaken by a single individual (Clark, 2009; Amos, 2004). Now that our organization is new, it should start creating a firm foundation to ensure its recruitment program maintains quality through its future.
Our client is new and very fast growing organization that is seeking to engage a dynamic and result oriented individual to oversee the operations of its service division that will lead to excellent customer services. The service division is a new division in our organization and requires a dedicated person who will lay a strong foundation for the future of our organization.
The suitable candidate to fill this position should be conceptual to enable him have a general overview of the organizations so that he can solve the problems facing the service division in manner that will benefit the organization (Higgins, 1994).
The service division deals with customer issues, thus the individual should possess excellent communication skills to ensure efficiency when communicating with the clients. Communication is just one among the various interpersonal skills that we are looking for in the suitable candidate to fill this position.
The manager will be having subordinate staff that without interpersonal skills, he may not be able to conduct this division as we want. Thus the manager should be the role model to his/her juniors through leading and motivating them as well as inspiring them, and creating trust among them. Above all, the manager should be effective in his line of duty so that the rest may be equally productive since they are led without biasness (McNamara, 2011).
Applicants for this position must have experience in the following areas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Planning: This is required to enable the individual to come up with the organizations goals, missions and objectives and find means to accomplish them (Higgins, 1994).
Organizing: Experience in organization will enable the manager to establish an organizational structure in this division. This will give him a better ground to distribute authority to his subordinates, so that he can be able to coordinate tasks and information within the department (Higgins, 1994).
He should have experience in leadership since this will be the topmost position in this division and it will require quality leadership. Leadership skills will enable the individual lead the staff into high productivity towards the company as they continue building their careers (Higgins, 1994).
Controlling: This will enable the candidate always direct people towards firm objective, evaluate performance regularly and be able to take the necessary corrective and preventive measures (Higgins, 1994).
The following are some of the questions that will be used in the interview to help identify the right candidate for this position
Tell me something about yourself
When working as a manager, do you prefer to be liked or feared?
What relevant experience do you have in this field?
Has anything ever irritated you at workplace and how did you handle it?
Have you ever suggested something and it was implemented?
Tell me something about team work
In conclusion, the above preparation was very important in this process of recruiting since it will enable me settle down on the best candidate in this position.
References Amos, J. (2004). Handling Tough Job Interviews: Be Prepared, Perform Well, and Get the Job. London, Oxford: Oxford.
Clark, C. (2009). Creative Nursing Leadership and Management. Canada, Ontario: Jones
Political Protest for Change Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Orange Revolution in Ukraine
The Tunisian Uprising
Political protests date back to over two hundred years ago with the aim of bringing about institutional change in political and social-economic cycles. Notable examples include the American Revolution that took place in the late eighteenth century and more specifically, the French Revolution of 1789. The revolutions indeed set a precedence and foundation for the various forms of political protests to realize the essential institutional changes especially against authoritarian regimes.
However, it is imperative to note from the outset that this approach should be instituted after all other diplomatic avenues of conflict resolution have failed to yield fruit as demanded by the aggrieved parties. Further, it should be noted that it is a fundamental human right for citizens to hold public gatherings and even demonstrations provided that all the constitutional requirements have been met (Ackerman and Kruegler 19).
Famous leaders of civilian groups notably Mahatma Gandhi of India, Leo Tolstoy and Luther King Junior of United States advocated for non violent protests to realize the required institutional changes. The organization and actualization of such protest has indeed brought forth the anticipated results with a high rate of effectiveness. As a matter of fact, it has been authoritatively asserted that such protests have brought about over sixty transitions from dictatorial regimes (Gene 6).
Countries such as Philippines, Lithuania, France, Israel, Liberia, Trinidad
Concept of sexuality Essay essay help free
Somerville studied the concept of sexuality and how it influenced equity in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. He attempted to explain how the concept of sexuality was developed and used to classify human beings as either homosexuals or heterosexual and the influence that this classification had on equity (Somerville, 1997). Somerville’s arguments on homosexuality and its relationship with racism and equity will be discussed in this paper.
Somerville used several concepts to explain the relationship between homosexuality and equity. According to Somerville (1997), homosexuality was considered to be a deviant behavior and was thus unacceptable. The heterosexuals who were against it focused on the use of various forms of punishments to discourage sexual acts between individuals of the same sex (Somerville, 1997).
Their decision was based on the concept of dominance whereby a person or a group attempts to gain control over another for their own benefit. However, the perspective of the heterosexuals did not take into account the rights of the persons who proclaimed same-sex sexuality.
This is because their freedom to engage or not to engage in sexual activities of their choice was limited. Drawing from Marxism theory, Somerville argued that sexuality was used to perpetuate inequality by classifying human beings according to their sexual orientations (Somerville, 1997). According to Marxism theory, social and economic determinants are used to classify individuals. Thus the homosexuals were classified as perverts due to their sexual orientations.
He also argued that the methodologies and symbolic representations that were used in comparative anatomy aimed at identifying specific physiological characteristics that formed the basis for classifying human beings (Somerville, 1997).
The use of physiological and social attributes thus became a widely accepted principle for illustrating the differences between individuals from different backgrounds. This principle was thus used by sexologists to distinguish the ‘homosexual’ body from the ‘normal’ body (Somerville, 1997). This means that the principle formed the basis for identifying the differences between the homosexuals and the heterosexuals.
Somerville (1997) says that medical perspectives on sexuality considered homosexuality to be a natural condition that was perceived to be a normal sexual orientation by those who engaged in it. This perspective was later adopted by sexologists to articulate the various forms of homosexuality (Somerville, 1997).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the weaknesses of both medical and social perspectives on homosexuality, sexologist decided to adopt the psychological paradigm to explain the relationship between racism and sexuality. In this case, “unnatural sexual desire” (Somerville, 1997) was the main indicator of perversion. Besides, interracial sexuality was considered to be analogous to same-sex sexuality.
The misconceptions on homosexuality thus describe the power struggle between the proponents and opponents of same-sex sexuality. The proponents consider same-sex sexuality to be a normal condition that should be accepted. On the other hand, the proponents believe that same-sex sexuality is pervasive and should not be accepted.
Somerville’s ideas on sexuality can be compared to Foucault’s theory. He agrees with Foucault that sexual acts that involved persons of the same sex were believed to be pervasive in the early nineteenth century (Somerville, 1997). However, during this period, the individuals who engaged in such acts were not labeled as homosexuals. They agree that the concept of homosexuality was developed in the late nineteenth century when homosexuality was accepted as a condition and a form of identity.
Reference Somerville, S. (1997). Scientific racism and the emrgence of homosexual body. In R. Lancaster,
Thinking Sex: Notes for A Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality Essay essay help: essay help
Gale Rubins article is about a radical approach to understanding the politics of sex. Her opinion and ideas on how policymakers and the general public must come to understand sex is welcome news for those who belong to the minority when it comes to sexual orientation.
She also seem to support those whose sexual practices are currently considered as illegal, unlawful, and unnatural. Rubins asserted that by creating laws that benefit a particular group of individuals and punishing a few segments of society means that sex is no longer a simple topic that must be relegated to politicians and religious leaders. She believes that it is time to rethink how the world understands sexuality and she is hoping that in the future people will have a more enlightened view regarding the topic.
The author firmly believed that like gender, sex is political (Rubins 171). She explained this theoretical framework when she wrote that there is a system that exists within society that is selective when it comes to punishment and rewards when it comes to sexual behavior (Rubins 171).
She added that the legal mechanisms in place is a is a broken mechanism that desperately wanted to block the path of progressive thinking (Rubins 171). She gave examples such as the possibility that a person can be imprisoned by simply carrying a picture of a nude friend. She also cited laws that can be used to harass homosexuals and lesbians. Her goals were clearly to provoke people to question and protest against what she called as harsh laws (Rubins 157).
It is understandable why Rubins reacted this way. It can be argued that she favored homosexual and lesbian relationships. However, the theoretical framework that she presented was vague and there were no limitations given with regards to the freedom that she wanted people to enjoy.
For example she criticized the kind of power that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) wielded when it comes to their capability to dictate sexual norms. She said that it was a significant breakthrough that the APA dropped homosexuality in their list of mental disorders.
She was probably correct with this one however she said something that suddenly created confusion and possibly weakened her position because immediately after that statement she asserted that the APA must also change their minds when it comes to fetishism, sadism, masochism, transsexuality, transvestism, exhibitionism, voyeurism, and even pedophilia (Rubins 151). Does she mean to say that pedophilia must be added to the bill of rights?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is clear that Rubins theoretical framework was an eye opener to many people. The author was correct in pointing out the harsh laws such as those that can empower police officers to arrest homosexuals must be overhauled. On the other hand it must be pointed out that she did not give evidence to prove that these are recent occurrences.
For example she wrote that in San Francisco police and media waged war on homosexuals throughout the 1950s (Rubins 145). However, this is no longer true today. There are places where gay marriage is allowed making this statement irrelevant.
Rubins wanted freedom but to what extent. She did not provide boundaries. It is very much possible that she is biased towards homosexuals and lesbians. The whole article gave the impression that only a few benefited from sex laws.
Does she mean to say that parents will be glad to see sexual predators roam the streets? If this is true then this means that her rhetoric regarding the rights of sexual deviants is just a smokescreen for the benefit of gays and lesbians. However, she is treading in dangerous waters because her desire for sexual freedom knows no bounds.
Works Cited Rubens, Gale. “Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical theory of the Politics of Sexuality”. Culture, Society and Sexuality. Eds. Richard Parker
Ethical Issues with Performance Enhancing Drugs in Professional Sports Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
The Spirit of Sports
Abstract Enhancement of human capacity has become possible following technological advancement in the field of health. Currently, scientists have the capacity to manipulate physical and physiological mechanism of the body to perform unusually. In sports, performance-enhancing drugs benefit sport professionals by improving the strength of the muscles, increasing degree of endurance, and efficiency in sporting. Despite these benefits, the uses of performance-enhancing drugs have serious ethical issues regarding health and sports.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs threatens physical and physiological health of sport professionals and distorts the sporting spirit. The spirit of sports emphasizes on the biological potential, fairness, and justice to the competitors; nevertheless, the use of performance enhancing-drugs undermines the same. The escalating cases of doping among sport professionals, casts great doubt on the preservation of health and ethical values in sports
Introduction With the advancing technology in health, scientists are now able to manipulate physiological mechanism of the body through various ways of human enhancement. Scientists have found out that human enhancement is possible in areas such as physical enhancement, life extension, cognitive enhancement and, personality enhancement amidst other emerging enhancements.
Physical enhancement is one of the ways of human enhancement that has found extensive application in professional sports. The use of performance enhancing drugs in professional sports has elicited a lot of debate and controversy concerning ethical, social, and legal implications in the society. The alarming increase in the use of performance-enhancing drugs pushed the former United States president, George Bush to voice his concerns on the same.
He said, “the use of performance enhancing drugs like steroids in baseball, football, and others sports is dangerous, and it sends the wrong message that there are shortcuts to accomplishment, and that performance is more important than character” (Schieffelin, 2007, p. 966). The escalating cases due to performance-enhancing drugs in professional sports have unforeseen negative effects to the society, hence ethical issues and concerns.
Health Issues Although performance-enhancing drugs have health benefits of increasing muscle strength, endurance, and efficiency in sports, the use of performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids has serious health repercussions. The Controlled Substance Act of the United States classifies anabolic steroids as illegal class of drugs that are very harmful to the health.
Scientific evidence demonstrates that, “steroids threaten the physical and physiological health of anyone who uses them for non-medical purposes … and pose even greater danger to adolescent individuals causing reproductive disorders, fluid retention, depression, and long-term physiological damage” (Schieffelin, 2008, p. 968).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the physical health benefits associated with performance enhancing drugs, the negative side effects of continued use of the drugs outweigh its benefits, thus generates ethical issues. Due to health concerns, it is not ethical to encourage the use of performance-enhancing drugs in or outside the sports.
Proponents who encourage the use of performance enhancing drugs cry foul that their critics have exaggerated the health risks posed by the drugs. The proponents argue that the harmful effects of these drugs “…have been overstated, that health risks are an athlete’s decision to make, that using drugs is part of the evolution of sports … and that efforts to keep athletes from using drugs are overzealous, unproductive, unfairly administered, and bound to fail” (Wyler, 2008, p. 3).
From their argument, the proponents of performance-enhancing drugs imply that they are not concerned about the health of the sport professionals; all they need is to enhance performance in sports. To argue that it is an individual’s decision to decide whether to use performance-enhancing drugs or not, contravenes the very core ethical values of the society. It is ethical to protect and advocate for preservation of the health conditions of sport professionals rather than leaving them at the mercy of their winning desires.
The exponential trend on the use of performance enhancing-drugs among youths is quite shocking. The statistical estimates released by The National Institute on Drug Abuse reveal that, “more than a half million eighth- and tenth-grade students are using steroids, and University of Michigan study showed that between 2000 and 2004, the Nation’s eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-grade students experienced peak rates in annual anabolic steroid use” (Schieffelin, 2008, p. 970). This trend is setting a bad precedent to the young children who are aspiring to attain unrealistic achievements of their elders who are using performance-enhancing drugs.
The most important thing in the current society is to preserve and maintain ethical issues that will stand the test of time for the sake of physical and social health. Hence, if the use of performance-enhancing drugs is encouraged or goes unchecked in the light of the current trends, the physical and social health of the sport professionals would be irreparably damaged due to the bad culture of enhancing human performance.
The Spirit of Sports According to World Anti-Doping Agency, its mandate is to ensure that sport professionals adhere to the sporting ethics that provide a level ground for healthy and fair competition in order to protect the sporting spirit.
Bostrom and Roache argue that, “athletes who use performance enhancing drugs are cheaters who gain an unfair advantage, violate the spirit of competition, send the wrong message to children, and unfairly diminish the historic achievements of clean athletes (2007, p. 8). It is unfair to rank sport professionals who use performance-enhancing drugs equally with those who do not use the same drugs.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Ethical Issues with Performance Enhancing Drugs in Professional Sports specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sport professionals who use performance-enhancing drugs have obvious advantage over the rest who do not use them thus negating the vital spirit of competition. For the spirit of competition to thrive well in sports, a level ground is prerequisite for just and fair competition, which is ethical; otherwise, unfair competition attributed to the use of performance-enhancing perverts sports.
Although it is plausible to level the ground of competition by encouraging all sport professionals to use performance-enhancing drugs, the spirit of sports measures sporting potential based on biological potential and not enhanced potential.
The spirit of sports is about preserving sporting ethics and values of ancient times, by testing biological strengths, and skills of the sport professionals. Bostrom and Roache assert that, “if biological potential is what the spirit of sport is about, then performance-enhancing drugs certainly go against it, since athletes can achieve things with the aid of drugs that they would be unable to achieve based on their natural potential alone” (2007, p. 9).
Therefore, the test of biological potential provides a level ground for competition, unlike the use of performance-enhancing drugs, which complicates the parameters of competition, since varied dose concentration, would give concomitant enhanced performance. Therefore, in performance enhancement, unequal dose of a given drug would result into unfair competition among competitors.
Since professional sports ultimately aim at making economical achievements, then the means of attaining economic gains matters. Despite the efforts of World Anti-Doping Agency to protect the spirit of competition, many sport professionals still use performance-enhancing drugs in order to edge their competitors and unfairly claim the prize. It is unethical for sport professionals to use unfair means to deny their competitors a chance of winning prizes they really deserve.
According to ethical theories of sports, “no person or group must be favored over another … not just whether to commit a strategic foul in terms of good consequences for one team, but the opposition and the good of the game” (Culbertson, McNamee,
Italian Immigrant Community Report (Assessment) custom essay help
Table of Contents Italian Institutions
Italian Institutions Italians immigration in to Canada since 1497 has been creating attention among the native Canadians since time immemorial. During the World War II, most Italians allied with the Germans against the Canadians and this caused havoc and great enmity among them. They were discriminated against in many social economic activities especially job allocation and this triggered them to come with their own organizations and institutions in order to solidify and fight for their rights in Canada.
Italians created several organizations with time which were meant to give them cultural identity as well as room for social economic practices in order to solidify their roots in Canada. These institutions were also meant to voice their issues in places where they were facing discrimination especially in the job market and in businesses. Such institutions included “newspapers, churches, schools, associations and others commercial scene such as hotels, shops, boutiques” (Anon 11) and such like.
The reason as to why Italians created these institutions in Canada was due to their conservative nature in that they still held unto their clubs, rituals and customs when they migrated to Canada (Lacoveta 9). Some of the organizations and institutions created had mutual benefits to the Italians such as helping individuals during the time of illness, pain or death.
COSTI In 1961, Italians created a social institution called COSTI (Magocsi 803), which was used as a centre for Italian schools. This institution was created due to the effects of World War II whereby most of the established institutions were vandalized due to their fascist alliances (Mormino 22). This agency was meant to rehabilitate and retrain those who were adversely affected during the war. It also catered for Italian interests in the national politics.
Church was another important institution among Italian immigrants in Canada. Most native Italians were Roman Catholics and they did not drop their religious beliefs when they migrated to Canada.
However, some Italians used to believe in Madonna and saint cults alongside their commitment to the Roman Catholic Church, a practice that was not well received by the parish fathers. The church fathers also discouraged them from being involved with pagan influenced religious festivals that involved parades, picnics and games that were meant to honor patron saints (Lacoveta 9).
Other Organizations Other Italian organizations were meant to cater for their working conditions such as negotiating against exploitive wages. For instance, most of them were members of the Industrial Workers of the world and United Mine Workers of America.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most Italians were viewed by their employers as poor and ignorant capitalists and consequently they were subjected to poor working conditions with exploitive wages, an action that triggered them to join such organizations in order to fight for their rights (Lacoveta 7). With time, Italians become significant players in the construction industry and they started hiring as well as acquiring leadership posts in the unions while the women obtained white collar jobs thus enabling them to own homes.
Conclusion In conclusion, the base that the Italians have formed in Canada is due to their endurance in the process of creating institutions and organization that voice their needs. Today, Italians form a large percentage of Canada’s population whereby they have established themselves through permanent settlement in the region. If they did not come up with means of identifying themselves through such institutions and organizations, they would be unheard of in the regions especially after World War II.
Works Cited Anon. The Italians in Montreal. Geography McGill, 2004. Web.
Lacoveta, Franca. Italians in Canada. J rank Organization, 2011. Web.
Magocsi, Paul. Multicultural History Society of Ontario. Encyclopedia of Canada’s People Toronto. Toronto: University of Toronto, 2009. Print.
Literacy Poses in Paulo Freire’s Philosophy Essay online essay help: online essay help
Literacy poses a continuous challenge to educators and scholars. Dozens of theories and propositions were developed, to support learners in their way to developing effective literacy skills. In this context, Paulo Freire’s philosophy of education is one of the popular topics of discussion. Freire was able to conceptualize the idea of learning through dialogue and experience.
He suggested that traditional education could not be effective, as long as it imposed dry rules and empty conventions on the learners. This paper will examine different propositions about the ways to teach adult literacy. This paper seeks to prove the thesis that literacy education is about creating a dialogue between educators and adult learners and maintaining a reasonable balance between rules of language and learners’ knowledge and experiences about the world.
How to teach adult literacy has long been debated by scholars. Paulo Freire’s philosophy of education remains one of the most frequently discussed topics in adult learning. Freire (1988) wrote that educational practice, including adult literacy solutions, required the development of some theoretical stance. Simultaneously, theory alone would never guarantee successful learning.
Objectively, it is through the interpretation of the world and people in it that theories can help to enhance adult learning outcomes. The process of human development and orientation is not limited to the association of senses and images but necessarily involves thought-language (Freire, 1988). Therefore, teaching adult literacy is impossible without engaging adults in a continuous dialogue and discussion of their learning and life experiences.
Darville (2009) is correct in that teaching literacy is essentially about aligning learners’ experiences and perceptions with their needs for better literacy. Learners must (a) understand what literacy holds for them and (b) have a clear vision of what it takes to be literate (Darville, 2009). In this sense, Kate Boudin’s teaching example is very demonstrative. Literacy needs to be embedded into a meaningful context of ideas and experiences, married to the learners’ intellectual capacities and lives (Boudin, 1993).
However, not everyone agrees with this point of view. The validity of “teaching as experience” ideas is constantly debated (Torres, 1997). Even if Freire’s ideas about literacy and learning “leave us a legacy that is much greater […] than any educational theory or any literacy method” (Torres, 1997, p.7), is it enough to assert that Freire’s ideology is the most reliable criterion of effective teaching?
Probably, it is not, as far as the study of literacy must involve some aspects of rule-learning. At the very basic level, literacy requires understanding the principal rules of spelling and grammar that apply to daily conversations and explain the standards of written communication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Simultaneously, the ways in which these rules are taught must be situated into and fit in the context of meanings and beliefs, with which learners are familiar. So, where is the golden middle? The golden middle in adult literacy education is in being able to transform the theories and rules of language into the forms and meanings that are understandable to learners. Such approach to teaching adult literacy is equally effective and affectionate (Boudin, 1993). The only question is in how much of rules and experience is a norm.
Given the growing diversity of adult learners, the concept of “norm” is hardly applicable to adult literacy. On the contrary, it is through individualization and personalization of literacy courses that adults can improve their language-thought abilities and learning outcomes.
Freire (1988) wrote that an effective learning process necessarily involved rational planning, teaching methods and learning objectives. Therefore, the principal obligation of an educator is to shape approaches to adult literacy that align experiences and meanings with the rules and standards of language learning and turn these experiences and meanings into an instrument of achieving the key learning outcomes.
References Boudin, K. (1993). Participatory literacy education behind bars: AIDS opens the door. Harvard Educational Review, 63(2), 207-233.
Darville, R. (2009). Literacy as practices, teaching as alignment: A message in a bottle. Literacies, 10, 14-18.
Freire, P. (1988). The adult literacy process as cultural action for freedom and education and Conscientizacao. In E.R. Kintgen, B.M. Kroll
Rise of Nationalism Research Paper college essay help near me
Introduction Nationalism can be defined as the attitude or feeling that people from a given nation have in regard to their national identity or the actions taken by people of a particular nation in an effort to establish their identity and self determination (Anonymous, 2001).
Nationalism has various effects to the people involved and this paper looks into the effects of nationalism on the roles of the working class, women, and minorities in an effort to achieve political power through both peaceful and violent revolutions during the period of 1789-1871 and the implications of the changing roles in various countries in Western Europe.
Background Information Nationalism was a concept that existed in most parts of Europe and is considered to be very important in the history and development of Europe to the current state. It is considered to be primarily a phenomenon of Western Europe. It started in Germany and was later adopted in Italy, France, Spain and England.
There was the formation of many nationalistic and socialistic political parties in places like Spain, Romania, Germany and Italy among other places. Most of the parties however were not very successful and failed after a short time with some exception of those in places like Italy and Germany.
This is as a result of use of violence by most of the parties a practice that led to intervention by law enforcers where actions were taken to stop the parties’ activities as they were considered a threat to the society. Many revolutions were involved in the spread of nationalism ideologies, for instance, the French revolution and more revolutions kept on emerging the most notable one being those that took place in 1848 (Leoussi, 2001).
How The Rise Of Nationalism Affected The Efforts Of The Working Class, Women, And Minorities To Achieve Political Power By Both Peaceful And Violent Revolution During The Period Of 1789-1871
The rise of nationalism had both positive and negative effects to the nations in which it was experienced. This was mostly seen in different people in the society in their efforts to attain political power for instance those who held different working positions, women and also the minorities in the nations. The political power was meant to be achieved through peaceful revolutions and also through revolutions where some violence was involved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The French revolution of 1789 marked the beginning of the effects of nationalism in Europe. Liberal nationalism brought about the issue of right to vote. The right to vote and get political power through election was only granted to the working men or those who owned property. In most instances, women were reduced to the level of minors and were expected to respect and work under the authority of men such as their husbands and fathers.
The women were also given the roles of mothers and protecting the health of family and faced a lot of bad treatment for instance beatings, torture, rape and even sometimes murder. This led to the formation of opposition movements by the women and the men who owned no property throughout the nineteenth century and in the early years of the twentieth century. The movements were aimed at fighting for equal political powers and rights (Chimisso, 2003).
Nationalism also affected the minorities as it became a critical political aspect in which everyone in the nations was interested especially in regard to fighting for political rights and powers. As opposed to the traditional way where the minority ethnic groups sought to preserve and keep for themselves their attributes for instance in regard to political, cultural, religious and even linguistic practices they now had the urge to join efforts by coming together so as to fight for their rights and privileges in the nations.
They became aware of the importance of attaining political autonomy and the creation of distinct and independent nation-states and hence they fought for the same although it was not granted immediately since the European integration lessened the opportunity and chances for separate statehood and transfer from one state to another.
However, there have been many parties formed by the minority and they have had a major impact on the territorial organization of sovereign states in Europe especially Western Europe as they have become very strong and successful and their presence cannot be ignored or underemphasized (Musgrave, 2000).
Although the effects of nationalism in Europe seemed to be positive at the beginning of the various revolutions, there were negative impacts that were associated with it and towards the end of the ninetieth century, the ideologies of nationalism seemed to have lost their positive motives and the energies they had in the beginning. Most of the nationalist movements and groups had conflicts and could not tolerate each other and chances of war among them were very high at all times (Anonymous, 2009).
The Changing Roles of the Working Class, Women, and Minorities during this Period There are notable changes in the roles of different people in the society for instance the minorities, the women and the working class during the period in which nationalism took place and also thereafter as they all became enlightened and were aware of their social, economic and most importantly the political rights and could hence fight for them whenever they were denied through the movements and unions they had established and developed.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Rise of Nationalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The women were rated very low in status and they were discriminated in many aspect of life including cultural, social, and political fields. The role of women towards the end of the eighteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century changed drastically and they became more important and public as opposed to when they were associated only with domestic affairs like marriages, child bearing, and taking care of their husband and family and nothing of public importance.
They also had very limited freedom on matters of political and economic essence as they could also not be involved in economic issues or activities that would generate some income for them or even secure job opportunities in the major fields of the economy in their respective countries. They also had no right to vote or acquire property even after marriage and were liable to beatings from their husbands as they were considered subordinate to them and hence under their control.
Nationalism brought with it some form of independence to the women and their domestic responsibilities changed along with their economic independence. The women could now demand greater political presence to compliment their raised social standards. They could also secure job employment and deal with both the domestic and office responsibilities which were not permitted in earlier centuries.
The role of the minorities including the refugees and the small ethnic groups also changed significantly as they now had a voice in the affairs of the nations as opposed to when their rights were denied and faced discrimination from the majorities. Their power was based on their unity through the groups, movements and parties they formed as a means through which they could demand for their rights.
They now could have voting rights and enjoy other political rights and privileges as they became actively involved in the nation’s activities. The roles of the working class and the men did not change greatly as in the first place they also had political freedom and the only change here was to accept that the minorities and the women had also gained power and freedom.
Implications of the Changing Roles in Different Countries The changing roles of the women, the minorities and even the working class were not without implications in the different countries or nations where nationalism was experienced. The general implications of the changing roles of different people in the society were attainment of some degree of equality among the men, women and the minority where everybody archived some form of social and political freedom and could therefore not be undermined by the majority in any way.
It also led to increased productivity in the different countries as everyone became actively involved in the activities that led to development in the economic, social and political sectors of the nation. There was also added pressures to the governing forces as they had to incorporate the political changes especially the running of the new formed nation-states into the central structure of the government (Chimisso, 2003).
Reference List Anonymous (2001). Nationalism. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism/
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise of Nationalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Anonymous (2009). Nationalism in Europe. Web.
Chimisso, C. (2003). Exploring European Identities. New York: Open University Worldwide Ltd.
Leoussi, S.A. (2001). Encyclopedia of Nationalism. London: Transaction Publishers.
Musgrave, D.T. (2000). Self- Determination and National Minorities. New York: Oxford University Press.
Human trafficking Essay essay help online
Introduction Human trafficking is a rampant crime in both the North and the South. Men, women and children are trafficked in this dirty activity. However, women and children are the most vulnerable when it comes to abuse of their human rights.
The scale of women and children trafficking is very large but difficult to put a figure on the actual number of women and children trafficked all over the world. The trafficking of women and children has increased in the recent past and become a major social problem. The problem is borderless but very organized crime and very difficult to combat (Ghosh, 2009).
The crime of human trafficking is very secretive and remains a clandestine activity. Many cases of human trafficking are not reported while many of those reported are untraced. The problem of human trafficking is deep despite there being international initiatives to push governments to take action against the vice. Women and children are the easiest victims of human trafficking due to their vulnerability. The vulnerability of women and children makes them an easy target for traffickers.
Definition of human trafficking Human trafficking is the movement of children, women and men against their will using force or deception with the purpose of exploiting them sexually and economically. Some are forced into the sex industry, forced labour or domestic servitude (Bernat
Managing for Organizations Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Emotional Intelligence and Positive Work Environments
Being the Manager and Employee Motivators
Organizational Decision Making and Job Characteristics Analysis
Functional and Dysfunctional Control Systems
Essentials and Techniques of Quality Management
The Impact of Management in Personal and Professional Contexts
Introduction The purpose of this research paper will be to integrate all the readings and class discussions into work and life experiences as well as apply the theories acquired during class discussions in real world applications. The discussion within this paper will be based on the understanding and knowledge that has been gained from management studies and coursework.
The paper will focus on the various aspects of management that have been acquired during the course of the studies and these aspects include emotional intelligence and positive work environments, functional and dysfunctional control systems within the organization, the essentials of quality management and the techniques that are associated with quality management, functional planning, employee motivators, organizational decision making, job characteristics, being the manager of large and small organizations, personality differences, and organization analysis.
Emotional Intelligence and Positive Work Environments The concept of emotional intelligence and its impact on work environments is relatively new since it was introduced in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer after deriving the concept from Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences which included interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.
Salovey and Mayer used Gardner’s theory to develop their definition of emotional intelligence which is the ability to monitor and regulate an individual’s personal feelings and also use these feelings to guide one’s thinking and actions. Under this definition five dimensions were identified and these include being aware of one’s emotions (self-awareness), managing one’s emotions (self-regulation), motivating oneself, recognizing other people’s emotions (empathy) and handling either work or personal relationships (Luca
Sociology for Educators Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Pierre Bourdieu and masculine domination
George Die and Racialization
Introduction The issues of racism and male dominance; have lived with us since days in memorial. These issues are central to performance of any venture.
It has a unique trait that involves its practitioners being in denial as well as its prevalence being differentiated over time. This affects many sectors; in this paper however we narrow down to its impacts on education. On the other hand, the issue of male dominance as written by Pierre Bourdieu; is also a key aspect that this paper has looked at; together with its significance to education (Dillabough 33).
Pierre Bourdieu and masculine domination Pierre Bourdieu in the late seventies influenced the approach in the study of gender in education. At that time there was the code model structure; that had a basis in laying down structures that shape governance of the state/social institutions as well as exerting masculine power through capitalistic relations. This formed the basis for His contributions
Masculine domination concept as advocated by Pierre Bourdieu; is one of the central concepts he wrote about. Bourdieu focused on the historical and social conditions that enhance masculine privilege. This privilege deeply entails the relationships between structure in the processes of cultural reproduction as well as the culture itself as its own entity.
He advocated that this concept involved particularly the gender and class categories. In this sense, it is with regard to the social division of labor. This is the primary evidence of masculine dominance (Dillabough 41).
Further study, exposes the contribution of physical expressions such as talking with others or even the walking traits. It is important to note that gender performance was not tagged to transgression of authority but it can be traced back to historical ideas.
The masculine domination is expressed in many ways such as through the communities’ social structures, discourses, the social relationships, and even the representation of the body.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The expression of this masculinity comes in different ways over time. Language and discourse carry more weight in transforming this domination. This affects the education sector in many ways such as; use of language to communicate, the quality of education that the different classes get as well as the disrupted psychological abuse that comes with it (Dillabough 38).
George Die and Racialization George Die has done a lot with respect to anti-racism and racialization concepts. He advances that anti-racism has both theoretical and analytical bit of it that must we well looked upon. He advances further of the tension that exists today between the deep desires to move beyond race altogether and the shear recognition of what the racially privileged have in possession (Sefa Dei 57).
It is vital for educators to note that; the daily struggle to validate, disseminate and produce knowledge should be geared to resolve the matter. In this matter of racialization; silence doesn’t show of ones neutrality or disinterest in the mater. Therefore it is essential to understand oppression and its relation to racism; and more important those that are institutionalized, for they have more impact to the society.
This concept; brings a number of questions clearly. Can there be racism minus race? And can we experience racism without racists? The answers to these questions speak much about the matter.
Racialization therefore involves the gradual differentiation of positioning of particular groups in a social order. This concept as advanced by George Die; is that it refers to the ideological and symbolic significance of groups in the images seen by the dominant groups. Racialization is extended from individuals to groups in the highly competitive world markets.
This affects social institutions such as schools, courts as they are never neutral. In Racialized communities’ social meanings are described from the social images, symbols that are evident in such societies (Sefa Dei 54).
Therefore, in the educational concept; the focus should be on accepting the existence of racism and that its practices are real. There should be focus on transformation education; where schooling should be radical in nature and learner’s participation is highly appreciated or positively criticized. This is because racism affects the nature of studies, the growth among the learners and the culture within a society. Properly planned curricula would address the issue adequately.
We will write a custom Essay on Sociology for Educators specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, these two issues when adequately addressed; they can streamline the inequalities in the society and build up a just society. It is essential to begin with acceptance of the denial character among the practitioners of these vices. This should be done objectively as opposed to a subjective approach to solve the matter; as most of these behaviors have historical backgrounds.
Works Cited Dillabough, Jo-Anne. (2009) Assessing Pierre Bourdieu’s Theoretical Legacies for Feminist Sociology of Education: Culture, Self and Society. In C. Levine-Rasky’s (ed.), Canadian Perspectives on the Sociology of Education in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Sefa Dei, George. Anti-Racism Education: Theory and Practice. New York: Fernwood Publishing Co., 1996. Print.
The Magnetic Tape Recorder, Its History and Technological Advancements Term Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Connection to Humanities
Introduction Man has been able to store knowledge in form of codes. Coded information is quite helpful especially for the future references. In this paper, we are going to look at the history and technological advancements of the magnetic tape recorder.
History Man started carrying out research on the nature of speech and sound early on in the 18th and 19th centuries. He wanted to know whether it was possible to create a mechanical device that can produce them. These included efforts from De Kempelein in 1791 and Scot in 1857, which paved way for the invention of a phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877. This phonograph was able to record speech and sound on wax or a foil to be played later.
The invention of the telephone served to prove that sound can be produced using electricity. The relationship between magnetism and electricity was discovered in 1820 by Hans Oersted. There followed many inventions including Faradays about the interchangeable nature of magnetism and electricity that showed that electrical current can be produced by magnetic fields. James Maxwell later in 1873 established the electromagnetism theories that are still in use (Magnetic Recording, 2004).
Oberlin Smith published a detailed description on how magnetic recording can be done in 1878. The basic theory showing how magnetic sound recording is done was described. He however, did not build the device. A telephone technician from Denmark, Poulsen also managed to discover magnetic recording principles on his own without knowledge about Smith’s theory in 1894.
He went ahead and built the first magnetic sound recorder which he demonstrated at an exhibition in Paris. It was said that the first voice, that of Emperor Franz that was recorded that day, is still intact today. This recorder was similar to that of Edison. The quality of sound was natural, but the volume was low because sound amplification had not been discovered (Magnetic Recording, 2011, p. 1).
Progress Records show that the “Poulsen’s patents were acquired by the American Telegraphone Company in 1905 and sold as dictating machines” (Magnetic Recording p. 1). The machines received competition from the “wax cylinder phonographs that were louder, reliable and not expensive” (Magnetic Recording p.1).
Two inventions; electronic amplification and AC biasing, revived the use of magnetic recording. AC biasing was useful in producing recordings that were more permanent and with a lower noise when sued with a various magnetic media. Changeable reels were later introduced as an improvement to the steel wire as a recording medium.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fritz sought to patent the use of “magnetic powders to a film or strip of paper” (Engel
Identity theft and e-commerce Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Abstract Since the internet was introduced, e-commerce was born but with it came the danger posed by hackers. The internet has become an integral medium through which criminals can access personal information on individuals and use such information in the same medium to carry out their personal objectives. Online identity fraud has increased over the years due to inefficient privacy laws and lack of policies that direct businesses to safeguard personal information on individuals.
Identity theft occurs when someone’s personal information is illegally obtained by an individual and subsequently used by the individual to obtain financial resources or benefits by posing as the victim. Such a victim is normally left unaware of the stolen identity or misappropriated resources until it’s too late. Such victims are then left to tackle the high debts ran on their credit cards and other bills emanating from the use of their identity.
The economy and e-commerce in particular, has been negatively affected by the rising cases of identity theft, with businesses and individuals losing billions of dollars per year. Online businesses have felt the blunt of decreased business since customers are hesitant to engage in e-commerce since they associate increased risk of identity theft to online transactions. The internet has also been blamed for the rising cases of identity theft.
This study finds that there are ways of preventing against the possibility of becoming an identity theft victim while still carrying out online transactions. The government, through the FTC (Federal Trade Commission) is implementing mechanisms that protect against identity theft, and educative campaigns aimed at consumers that teach ways of preventing and handling cases of identity theft.
Each year, millions of Americans are affected by identity theft, with the figure reaching an estimated 11 million people in 2009 alone, costing businesses and the economy some US$56 billion according to The Washington Post. Criminals use social security numbers, financial records and other personal information to assume, or “steal” the identity of a person and conduct transactions without the knowledge of the victim.
Victims are losing thousands of dollars to compensate for the damages caused by the identity thieves, and also spend a sizeable amount of money to restore their lives. In addition, each theft averages a cost of $600 victim. For this reason, more and more consumers are becoming wary of e-commerce transactions, with some avoiding it altogether to the detriment of the industry.
Companies that rely on e-commerce should ascertain to consumers that their personal information will be handled with integrity and that their transactions will not pose a danger for them in the future (Smith 111).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Congress should enact laws, which would persuade businesses to protect customer confidentiality and allow for fast and well-organized corrections of credit documents. Legislation could also make it easier to detect identity theft criminals, and severely punish those that commit this from of fraud.
There are a number of ways that fraudsters use to acquire and exploit victims’ identities. One of the traditional methods is by stealing credit cards, identification cards or tokens by pick pocketing victims, or even through housebreakings.
Criminals could also use dumpster diving, as the term implies, which involves rummaging through a person’s trash in order to seek personal information from undestroyed documents. Criminals may employ dumpster diving to retrieve preapproved credit card applications that the victim may have discarded without tearing or shredding the document.
Some criminals eavesdrop on unsuspecting victims when they are giving their credit card number to a hotel or car rental agency over the phone. Criminals could also hack into a company’s database and steal personal information on the company’s employees (Hayward 60). In such a situation, there is little that individuals can do to safeguard their personal details.
The internet has supposedly made it easier for fraudsters to illegally acquire personal information from internet users. Information acquired from victims ranges from passwords, social security numbers to banking information. Hackers become more experienced in the internet field, continually upgrading their craft.
Many people are caught unaware and respond to spam messages that request some personal information from the recipient. Criminals make these spam messages irresistible to some, promising future benefits if they cooperate, whereby the criminals end up obtaining large amounts of personal data from the victims (Hoffman and McGinley 64). Criminals mostly use personal data obtained from victims for their personal gains.
Criminals may duplicate credit cards using the victim’s personal data or request new credit cards while assuming the identity of the victim. Criminals may withdraw large amounts of cash from the victim’s bank account, and use the victim’s identity to run credit purchases for expensive items, in the process accumulating to the victim’s debts. Some criminals use the personal information to acquire loans and other benefits such as medical care by use of the victim’s insurance information.
We will write a custom Report on Identity theft and e-commerce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People may not be aware that they are victims until a considerable amount of damage has been caused by he fraudster. Criminals take careful considerations to ensure that their new found source of wealth lasts as long as possible (Khosrowpour 129). and this includes measures aimed at keeping the victim in the dark.
Criminals may take steps to divert the incoming postal mails from reaching the address of the victim. In so doing, the victim may not get a chance to view his bank statement or credit card bills. In transactions that take place online, all the criminal has to do is fill out personal data obtained from the victim, which is easier than having to forge a signature (OECD 21). By the time the victim learns about the identity theft, he will have to deal with the piling debt levels and a ruined credit rating.
Statement of purpose
This report will review the effects of identity theft on both companies and e-commerce consumers. The report will also evaluate the trends in identity theft, ad what is being done to protect consumers and businesses from the crime. By the end of the article, there will be recommendations and suggestions on how cases related to identity theft can be minimized. Scope
The study focused on published findings and observations from the US and Canada, whereas noted laws and legislations are those found in the US. Publications on the topic, as well as ongoing educational campaigns by the government and businesses, have made data on the subject easily accessible.
This section seeks to determine the root causes for the increase in identity theft crimes, and reasons that make the fight against identity theft difficult. In the tough economic times, more and more individuals are lured into the possibility of getting easy low risk cash. Most of the thieves are people that the victim knows, and people who have easy access to the victim’s personal information.
People are generally unsuspicious when it comes with dealing with relatives and friends, sharing information freely and thereby making it easier for these criminals to use the information for illegal purposes. The 2006 Federal Trade Commission reports that pin-pointing the origin of the identity theft is also difficult as most people do not know how their identities were stolen (Biegelman 274).
The internet has also made it easier for people to access information, and subsequently increased cases of cybercrimes. More and more businesses and individuals are connected to the internet, and with the increase of readily available hacking software on the internet, people are becoming more skilled in the art of online identity theft.
Organizations that fail to follow adequate protocol in implementing their systems are an easy target for experienced hackers to breach their weak security systems. Mail systems that have weak security systems make it easier for criminals to divert the victim’s mail, hence making the victim unaware of the rising credit bills.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Identity theft and e-commerce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The popularity of online social sites also creates more opportunities for cyber criminals to access personal information. Risk exposure is increased for individuals who do not follow their social networking safety preferences, thereby exposing their information for anybody who is capable of accessing it. The internet is also a major limitation in the fight against identity theft since it aids criminals to make purchases or order for new credit cards without the need to phone or visit a store physically.
Interstate jurisdiction issues cases a delay in the fight against identity theft, especially when the victim and the criminal are in two different states. Police in the different states are usually unsure on who is to investigate the crime. The time wasted to get around the red tape is usually enough for criminals to get away.
Also, time consuming jurisdictional processes between countries further frustrates the fight against cybercrime. The fight against identity theft is further frustrated where the criminal is in a country that has not implemented any form of legal infrastructure to combatant against this form of crime. Unfriendly countries may be reluctant in sharing information that may lead to the arrest of an identity thief.
This study is both exploratory and explanatory. Exploratory research delves on the rise of identity theft in the US while the explanatory research looks at the causes of identity theft and its impact on e-commerce. Extensive library and Internet research was carried out to build on more knowledge on the latest developments in the respective field. Information obtained was subjected to qualitative analysis. Qualitative data was based on descriptive statistics using non statistical technique on subjective statements and explanations.
Findings Impact of identity theft
Identity theft can have an emotional impact on the victim, where they end up feeling vulnerable and depressed when trying to recover from the theft. These victims are more likely to engage in e-commerce transactions in the future since they are afraid that the incident may befall them again. Individuals may have their credit score affected before they even realize that they are victims of identity theft, and have to keep close contact with credit reporting agencies in order to make sure that frauds in their names have stopped.
Victims continue to endure hardships when the identity fraud has ceased when they are applying for new financing or bank accounts. Although the former victim may follow all the correct procedures, he may be subject to additional scrutiny since a theft flag has been raised in their reports, thereby creating inconveniences for the individual.
In this regard, undoing the damages caused by identity criminals is a daunting process. Identity theft also has a negative impact on the economy. Businesses suffer losses due to fraudulent transactions and decreased online purchases as a result of risk-averse consumers.
Effect on E-commerce
E-commerce has been negatively affected by the increasing cases of identity theft. The main reason behind this is that consumers are avoiding online transactions due to the negative perception of increased risk exposure emanating from online transactions. Consumers are fearful that no matter how careful they are, they might become identity thief victims.
Although, according to reports that criminals opt for traditional forms of identity theft, more and more consumers are avoiding online transactions. This means that companies such as e-bay, Amazon and Pay-Pal that rely heavily on online transactions are reeling from the diverse effects of identity theft.
Merchants who conduct online sales may end up paying higher transaction fees and rates for accepting credit cards than if they had accepted these cards physically in a store. Merchants may also spread anticipated losses on the prices charged to consumers, thereby making e-commerce expensive (Bradley 162).
Where the card provider has a chargeback at the time of the fraudulent purchase, then the merchant will have to bear the loss of the product or service provided to the criminal. This causes the merchant to exercise discrimination in order to protect their position. In so doing, the merchants may bar honest consumers from making legitimate transactions, and lose potential revenue in the process.
Merchants, in their effort to prevent against financial losses, may establish restrictions on shipping products to customers. A merchant may provide that all products should be shipped to the billing address used by the card provider. This becomes inconvenient for honest buyers who want the purchased item shipped to another address, such as their offices, even though the merchant has created additional security for both himself and the cardholder.
Even though the merchant may take stringent measures to ensure security against would be identity thieves, they will still be held accountable if they permit fraudulent transactions even though they had good intentions (Collins 173). In such a case, the merchants lose both the merchandise and the associated revenue since they have to forfeit any funds received.
To prevent this, merchants are becoming PCI (Payments Cards Industry) compliant, which involves setting up more mechanisms to ward off fraudulent transactions (Wright 44). Merchants have to bear the costs associated with becoming and remaining PCI compliant, which reduces profits from the business. Prevention of identity theft
There are several procedures that individuals can engage in to protect themselves from becoming victims of identity theft. Although it would be seemingly impossible to ensure 100 percent protection, these strategies will make it harder for a criminal to steal a person’s identity and such criminals will move on to easier targets.
Individuals can practice being selfish with their personal information (Mitic 218). By using a need to know approach, individuals can ask themselves whether they really need to provide their personal information in certain transactions.
Individuals should also net respond to spam messages that ask for personal information in exchange for a job opportunity or other benefit. People should also not follow links provided in spam emails. Instead, they could open the site through another window to determine the authenticity of the email. Ensuring that the computer does not store or remember passwords is another way of preventing against hackers.
Different passwords should be used for various online accounts, while strong passwords provide extra protection. Alternatively, people could purchase firewalls for their computers to ward off hackers. Protecting the computer ensures that sensitive content stored does not fall into the wrong hands.
Individuals should regularly ask for their credit reports in order to keep up with all the transactions carried out with their credit cards (Hammond 92). Where the individual fails to receive a credit report or a bank statement, then he should be suspicious and contact the bank or credit company to enquire about the delay in postage.
In case a criminal has already diverted the victim’s mail, then such victim could learn early about the identity theft. The individual should also make sure that he checks his bank account balance periodically, which may help identify suspicious withdrawals. These steps help prevent and quickly identify possible identity theft crimes, thereby limiting the damages.
Conclusions and recommendations Summary
Identity theft could affect Americans, and could ruin their financial life in the process and the American economy as a whole. Statistically, identity theft costs the US economy billions of dollars annually, with millions of Americans and organizations been affected.
Fraudsters are increasingly adopting new mechanisms to rob people and live off other people’s identities and unless the government acts fast, this trend is likely to continue. Most police agencies are developing financial fraud divisions to tackle the growing cases of identity theft and credit fraud. Even though criminals target almost anyone, there are strategies that individuals can use to prevent becoming victims, or identify fraud in the early stages.
The likelihood of becoming a victim of identity theft decreases the extent an individual protects his or her personal information. Consumers should be careful in their online transactions, instead of avoiding e-commerce, given its convenience benefits. In case a person thinks he is a victim of an identity fraud, he or she should act quickly to minimize the damages that may be caused by the criminal.
The individual could report to the FTC (Federal Trade Commission), or contact other suitable agencies that may aid the individual. Consumers should feel more safe conducting transactions online now that the government is continually developing new laws to fight against cybercrime.
Works Cited Biegelman, Martin T. Identity theft handbook: detection, prevention, and security. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.
Bradley, Tony. PCI compliance: implementing effective PCI data security standards. Cardiff, CA: Syngress Publishing, 2007. Print.
Collins, Judith M. Preventing identity theft in your business: how to protect your business, customers, and employees. New Jersey:
John Wiley and Sons, 2005. Print.
Hammond, Robert J. Identity theft: how to protect your most valuable asset. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 2003. Print.
Hayward, Claudia L. Identity theft. Carbondale, IL: Nova Publishers, 2004. Print.
Hoffman, Sandra K. and McGinley, Tracy G. Identity theft: a reference handbook. Goleta, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.
Khosrowpour, Mehdi. E-commerce security: advice from experts. Palm Desert, CA: Idea Group Inc (IGI), 2004. Print.
Loberg, Kristin and Silver Lake Publishing. Identity theft: how to protect your name, your credit and your vital information- and what to do when someone hijacks any of these. Los Angeles, CA: Silver Lake Publishing, 2004. Print.
Mitic, Scott. Stopping Identity Theft: 10 Easy Steps to Security. Berkeley, CA: Nolo, 2009. Print.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Online Identity Theft. Washington D.C., DC: OECD Publishing, 2009. Print.
Singletary, Michelle. “Identity-theft statistics look better, but you still do not want to be one.” The Washington Post 9 Feb 2011.
Smith, Gordon Edward. Control and security of E-commerce. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2004. Print.
Wright, Steve. PCI DSS: A Practical Guide to Implementation. Cambridgeshire, UK: IT Governance Ltd, 2008. Print.
The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass Essay essay help
What role does religion play in Douglass’s account? The technical definition of religion is belief, feeling and recognition of super power that has the control of human life. According to Frederick Douglass, God has the power to control humanity; he is able to observe what the people are doing. Righteous people need to reason and perform their duties according to the will of God.
In his speech, he challenges the ruling class and wishes that his concerns could be answered with the intervention of God. He portrays that despite the oppression that the slave had undergone, there was superior power that they could lean on to soften the hearts of their lords (Foner).
In the third paragraph of his speech, he laments that he was invited to an occasion of joy but he should be mourning of the oppression the slaves were getting from the American leaders. He recognises that the class differences occurring in the society was God given where different allocations of power wealth and strength. He condemns the oppression the slaves underwent, at the end of the speech he recognised that the deed of the Americans mocked God; they brought shame to holy spirits as they were not human.
According to the speech Douglass was a Christian by religion; he made some quotes from the bible that portrayed oppression in the Jews community and brought the same picture to the situation in America.
According to him, religion was supposed to bring people together and control the way they do things; it should be a form of constitution with a solution to all problems of humanity if well understood and practiced. The teaching of the religion called for no oppression of either group, the haves should not mock the southerner’s slaves but they should be guided by the bible to give them their rights and respect (Foner).
How does he describe the effect of religion upon Southerners, particularly slaveholders? Douglass felt that the lords made rules and regulation with the need to oppress the Negros, he was of the view that the American Lords had developed the religion of Christianity and enforced it to the Negros buts they did not practice the religion. He was of the opinion that the Americans could do the Negro good not to enforce Christianity practices among the Negros if they were themselves not practising the religion.
The felt that religion was used to justify means that the misfortunes in the life are of the Negros and the Lords were hiding behind the religion as they oppressed the slaves. On the other hand, there is a book called the bible that governs the religion; in case believer does not comply with the requirement of the bible then the God’s power is supposed to punish the individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This rule was operated in exemption where the Negros could be made to suffer if they went out of the religion but the Americans Lords could not be punished for violating the rules of religion (Foner).
Comparison of religion No single definition can capture the full meaning of religion; the technicality of the definition is when we talk of religion everyone who belief in it thinks religion is only what she or he beliefs. The Christian talks of you being religious he will only think of you as a fellow Christian and not a Muslim; in the case of Douglass, Christianity was the religion practiced, it is the religion the American and the slaves abided to however, it was taken for the advantage of one party as the other was oppressed.
Despite that, there are some generally accepted elements that each religion seems to belief in, the same religion can be used to oppress and benefit a certain group in the community at the expense of another. The Americans had enforced Christianity to the Negros so that they can have a soft way of controlling and misusing them.
Each religious belief recognizes the existence of a super national force or power that have control over men and the activities that man do; with this notion in mind, Douglass could have thought that the American could have seen the oppression they are subjecting the Negros to and in the spirit of religion they would have treated them better.
Religion is used to give justification why some people have more Liberty and power in the community. It also is seen to enforce inequality. A common characteristic found among all religion is that they present a complex of feelings and attitudes towards mysteries in life. Thus, religion comprises of systems of attitude, beliefs and symbols, which are based on the assumption that certain kind of social elements are sacred and supreme. There is also a structure of activities governed or influenced by this system (Petton 12-56).
Why or how would there be any differences? In the case of Douglass, he felt that there was need to respect, practice and keep religion as holy; he felt that the religion has been enforced to slave workers by their lords so that the lords can have an easy controlling point. He felt that the religion was used to enforce inequality and justify the differences that existed among the communities. The haves, Americans had ignored the religion they purported to practice so that they can oppress the Negros.
In normal situations, religion is taken as a social movement and belief that held people together and gave them an identity as they recognised themselves with supreme beings. The belief that there is supernatural power that oversees and controls the functions of human beings should be used to hold people together and solve the differences that they might have. The role of religion as we know is different from the way Douglass had portrayed it to be. He saw it as a making for the benefit of the Americans (Murrin 205).
We will write a custom Essay on The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why would Douglass describe religion the way he does? The tone of the speech made by Douglass could tell the pain and oppression that the slaves had. The tone shows the hypocrisy that the Americans had and the way they hide behind religion. He describes religion as evil since he saw it as one of the most effective tools that the American lords used to oppress and exploit Negros.
The pain that the Southerner’s slaves suffered was justified by religion; he saw Christianity to have been moulded to justify the differences and inequality existing in the then American community. In the poem, Douglass, refers to Christianity as the source of hope for the slaves only if the American lords could respect and practice Christianity as they purported to (Foner).
Works Cited Foner, Philip. The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Volume II. Pre-Civil War Decade 1850-1860. New York: International Publishers Co., Inc., 1950. Web.
Murrin, John et al. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People, Volume I: To 1877. Kentucky: Wadsworth-Thomson Learning, 2005. Print.
Petton, Kimberley .Religion of the Gods, ritual, paradox and reflexivity. New York: Oxford press, 2009.Print.
Starbucks as a Leading Coffee and Coffeehouse Company Essay college essay help: college essay help
Starbucks is a leading coffee and coffeehouse company. It has outlets in more than 55 countries; the company success has been attributed to its appropriate marketing strategies (Starbucks Corporate website). This paper takes an analysis of industrial and company factors affecting it.
An industrial analysis undertakes an analysis of external factors affecting the company and likely to affect its operation. To undertake an analysis of Starbucks, the paper will focus on Porters five forces of industrial analysis.
Starbucks is respected as one of the international companies that have developed a good relationship with its suppliers. It ensures that the suppliers are paid in good time and they have good repo. Other than meeting the expectations of suppliers, it has programs targeted to ensure there is constant supply of coffee beans to the company. On its part, it ensures it gets quality form suppliers where a test of quality at delivery is conducted in every 250 bags; three samples are taken for quality test.
Barrier to entry
The coffee industry has many players who have different approaches to remain competitive. Starbucks success has been attributed to continuous improvements of its products and coming up with new products so that it can effectively enter different markets.
Threats of substitutes
There are different substitutes for coffee available, they include tea, cocoa, soya, soft-beverages alcohol among others as well other flavours by coffee companies. To ensure that it has remained competitive, Starbucks have embarked on good internal processes that ensure that quality coffee is roasted at the right temperature and desired blending is done accordingly. The company has also invested in coming up with new tastes to create a pleasant experience to its customers.
Customers are the most important part of a business, the relationship that a company has with its customers determines the success of the company. To ensure that the company enjoys from positive buyer perception, it has embarked on improving its products, prices and promotional process. It is with the same spirit that it has come up with different tastes as it expands to different countries and strategic locations.
The result of the above factors is the level of rivalry that the company has had; it has been successfully to be the world leading coffee and coffeehouse company respected for its environmental conservation programs (Paley 12).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Company Analysis
Company analysis focus on internal factors affecting a company; as much as the company has been favoured by internal processes, it is only able to take advantage of the external processes because of its effective internal processes.
The company has a positive-to -success organisational culture; all employees for the good of the company support the culture. It believes in giving good services to its customers; this is only possible by having effective human resource management who are well motivated.
To do so the company conducts training seminars and provides appropriate working conditions to its employees. One policy that the Company has been respected for is environmental policies, the company grades and prices its raw materials from the production method used point of view.
A farmer who produces with minimal environmental damage gets high returns from the company. The company has enhanced good supplier’s relation. Innovativeness has been respected in the company were employees are encouraged to give inputs on the way forward for the company (Hooley and Saunders 72).
BCG portfolio Analysis
The model of analysis divides a business into four different areas; it looks as follows;
Starbucks have had increased sales in different tastes and blend of coffee. The company has embarked on innovations and developments of tastes to ensure that its main line of business is operating well.
The company has developed a strong brand name that it is offering a higher rate of returns from its assets than what is expected by the industry. To remain competitive, it has developed new tastes pin the market. The returns to its shareholders are higher than the industry rate.
We will write a custom Essay on Starbucks as a Leading Coffee and Coffeehouse Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Question marks
They are areas that can be exploited for the benefit of the company. The company is facing an increased investment in new developments to ensure that it makes products for that beat its competitors. Such areas of concerns are in snacks development and trying of new tastes and blends.
They have low market share and demand; in Starbucks, it occurs when new products have been developed, it may take relatively long time to fully get into the market but when finally it gets into the market it becomes a cash cow.
Conclusion The success of Starbucks can be attributed to effective internal processes, which have enacted mechanisms to understand external factors affecting the company and devised appropriate mechanisms. The company undertakes internal and external audits as a tool when making strategic decisions.
Works Cited Hooley, Graham, and Saunders John. Competitive Strategy: the Key to Marketing Strategy. New York: Prentice Hall, 1993.Print.
Paley, Norton. The manager’s guide to competitive marketing strategies. London: CRC Press, 1999. Print.
Starbucks Corporate website. Starbucks. 2011. Web.
Successful Team Building Essay best essay help
A team comprises of people who come together with the aim of reaching a common goal. For a team to be successful in its mission there are various issues that have to be addressed at the onset of the mission. A team brings together people from various departments in an organization. Besides, they each have unique abilities and skills which must be utilized for the benefit of the organization. This paper focuses on the fundamentals of raising successful teams.
A team leader should consider explaining the mission of the team to the members because if he/she assumes that they understand it, he/she will be surprised later on because people understand things differently and this can hinder the success of the whole team. The main objective in team building is to create a setting where the members embrace each other regardless of their diversity in skills and abilities.
Members should have a strong bondage with each other because this is what keeps the group intact. If they do not accept each other it will be very difficult for the group to carry out tasks that require collective responsibility. Furthermore, if they have personal issues with each other they will not perform effectively.
This is because some will think their efforts will benefit their rivals. In team building personal issues must be put aside for the purpose of accomplishing the mission ahead. This means team members have to develop friendship for the sake of the organization and if they wish to go back to previous enmity they can do so after they are through with the team.
At times the organization’s administrative unit becomes a stumbling block to the efficiency of the team. They do this by undermining the ideas brought forth by team members. This includes declining to approve the suggestions presented to them by the team, which in return discourages the team members from making any suggestions at any given time.
The only way that team members can be motivated into coming up with new ideas is by implementing those that they have already forwarded. This will create an impression that the administrators appreciate the efforts of their teams.
When a team is being developed there are five approaches that can be applied. The first approach is called interpersonal approach and it entails establishing relationships among team members. This is accomplished by making them mingle and engage in personal conversations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conversations here are intended to help them understand each other. At times the mingling will help them identify each others strengths and weaknesses. This will make them develop strong linkages with the group hence they will feel like they are one family.
The second approach is based on the functions and norms of members. In this approach members are assigned to various duties and are formally briefed about what is expected of them. The roles can be allocated according to personal skills and experience and they are distributed in way such that the efficiency of the team is dependent on how every individual performs their tasks.
The third approach entails having a common awareness in the team, but this does not refer to their personalities. The key issue in this approach is to make sure that all the members have a common knowledge about the team’s mission. This is quite helpful because when all members are aware of what the team is set out to accomplish they will be in a position to dedicate themselves to the accomplishment of the mission rather than when they think they are in the team just for the sake of being united.
The fourth approach is based on the skills that are possessed by the team members and how those skills and abilities can be utilized. In this approach duties are assigned according to an individual’s skills and abilities. This is because people perform better in their field of specialization. This ensures that team members will be able to overcome the challenges that will face them in their respective roles due to their top-notch skills in their area of specialization.
The fifth approach entails establishing targets and the timeframe in which they must be met. The tasks in this approach are allocated timelines and the team manager has to keep an eye on the progress of the team and thus constantly remind them how much they have already finished and the remaining duties.
In this light, establishing team communication is beneficial to the whole team and the entire organization. The communication allows team members to express themselves concerning the relevant issues that bother them. Communication in team building is a two way traffic which means that the manager must be willing to listen to the team members and the team members must also be willing to listen to their manager. In this kind of communication listening is the most crucial element than talking.
The History of 3-D Film Making Essay college admission essay help
3-D film making, a movie art form that gives the viewers realistic sense of a films actual depth perception, traces its earliest roots to the 3-D movie process patent filed by William Friese- Greene of Great Britain. Using 2 film projectors to project side by side images on screen, a stereoscope was used to merge the images fir the viewing public.
But due to the difficulty in using the said technology, film makers shied away from this format and it was not heard from again until June 10, 1915 when Edwin S. Porter and William E. Waddell presented an anaglyph film to audiences at the Astor Theater in New York. These test reels included rural scenes, an excerpt of John Mason in Jim The Penman, and a clip of Niagara Falls. Although the reels created a buzz, the cost of filming on the format kept the movie producers at bay.
By the 1950’s Hollywood decided to take a chance on the 3-D format. Known then as the anaglyph image, these films were viewed using glasses with red/green and red/blue lenses that were designed to give off depth perception while screening the movie. According to the History of 3-D Film Making from Wikipedia.org, the effect was achieved by using 2 images which were then:
superimposed in an additive light setting through two filters, one red and one cyan. In a subtractive light setting, the two images are printed in the same complementary colors on white paper. Glasses with colored filters in each eye separate the appropriate images by canceling the filter color out and rendering the complementary color black. (Wikipedia.org)
Unfortunately, there was still no viable way of bringing down the cost of 3-D film making during that time, so, they had to pull back on mass producing such films.
The tide seemed to turn in terms of 3-D film making on November 26th, 1952, when the first commercially succesful film of its kind was released. Bwana Devil was released by Paramount theatres in Hollywood and Los Angeles, with the public enjoying the immersion rich story based upon true events that happened in 1898 at the Tsavo River crossing in Kenya while the railways were being built.
The mad scramble among the titans of Hollywood film making was on, with each production studio trying to out to the other in terms of the 3-D spectacle being presented. Each producer also hoping to finally set the industry standard for 3-D film making since each studio was struggling to control the stability of the projected films, which was causing a massive headache among the movie goers after or during viewings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But just like all innovative products in the market, if it gets too expensive to produce, production will cease. When it became too expensive for the exhibitors to rent the 2 prints necessary to produce the special viewing effect, the format began to lose ground.
The distributors wanted more money for their films, but the exhibitors could not pass on the cost to the viewers at the time. the movie going public was not just about to pay twice the amount for a movie, specially since, after the novelty of the special spectacles wore off, people decided they would rather see a movie in wide-screen anyway. So by the 1960’s, the 3-D format was considered to be all but dead. With 3-D movies being shot in anaglyph format few and far between.
There were also some health concerns that later on had to be considered by the movie producers wanting to use the format. Such were the negative effects on the eyes of the viewing public that health professionals all voiced concerns and still continue to voice their concerns regarding the effects of the movie format on the eyes of the viewers. In fact, some health professionals still advise avoiding watching films in 3-D if possible due to the still undetermined health hazards it may be posing.
Towards the latter part of the 60’s movie producers tried to go back to the 3-D format with the advent of Space-Vision 3-D and Stereovision in 1970, with the 1970’s versions showing more inventiveness and a specialization in the horror film field. This trend carried through to the 1980’s with classic films such as Jaws 3-d, Amityville 3-D, Firday the 13th part 3 all filling cinemas to capacity with everyone wearing the famed 3-D glasses in order to “get into the movie”.
By the mid 1980’s, the Canadian film company IMAX began producing the newest generation of 3-D films called 3-D IMAX. This particular version of the technology set the standard for the image projection. The company was able to minimize eye fatigue by using a larger viewing screen thus making the viewing experience more enjoyable for the viewers.
The excitement over the 3-D IMAX films, which were shot specifically for special IMAX 70mm film projectors, accompanied by the advent of computer generated imagery, digital film cameras, digital video capture, and specialized 3-D cinemas literally broke barriers and opened the door for 3-D films to finally become competitive and cheap enough for Hollywood studios to consider making more films in the said format.
The sudden re-emergence of the 3-D format in film also has to do with the fact that we now have a new generation of movie going public. All of whom have been weaned on computer graphic images and consider technology part of their everyday life. 3-D films to them, are just another part of a technology that they enjoy, and will pay big money to do so.
We will write a custom Essay on The History of 3-D Film Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Judging from the release of at least 3 3-D films a month this year, it seems that the 3-D format is here to stay and finally take its place in film making history. Movie producers have finally discovered a way to shoot films in 2-D format and then successfully converting it to 3-D format in post production. Some of these films, which are post converted to 3-D format include the upcoming final chapter of the harry Potter movie series, Thor, Captain America: The First Avenger, and the Star Wars film series.
References Hayes, John. You See “Them With Glasses!… A Short History of 3D Movies”. Wide Screen Movie Magazine. 2002. Web.
“3D Film”. Wikipedia.org. Wikipedia, n.d. Web.
Legal and Illegal Tax Shelters Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Legal tax shelters
Abusive tax shelters
Introduction Tax shelters refer to any technique of trimming down taxable proceeds or returns and this ends up in a decrease of imbursements to duty gathering organizations. These entities include civic, state and central administrations. The techniques used in carrying out this out differ in accordance to home and/or global tax regulations.
The KPMG tax shelter disgrace entailed purportedly unlawful United States excise shelters by the firm which were brought to the fore at the commencement of 2003. Later on at the start of 2005, the US affiliate organization of KPMG International, KPMG LLP, was charged of dupery.
This was carried out by the US Department of Justice and the sham involved selling of obnoxious income tax shelters. Under an adjourned hearing concurrence, KPMG LLP made a clean breast to illegal acts in crafting counterfeit tax shelters to aid well-off customers evade $2.5 billion in dues and concurred to shell out $456 million in fines (Tax shelter frauds, 2003).
As a result, KPMG LLP will not appear for any unlawful trial as long as it acts in accordance with the conditions of its accord with the government. On January 3, 2007, the unlawful plot accusations in opposition to the firm were thrown away. On the other hand, the national trial lawyer who presided over the hearing affirmed that the accusations could be re-established if the firm could not keep up to putting forward continual monitorial all the way through to September 2008.
Legal tax shelters These are tax shelters that do not deny the government revenue and are thus allowed. Such tax shelters are crafted by the government to endorse a given advantageous activity(s), normally a long-run venture. On the other hand, such shelters may be a way to prop up societal behaviors.
Flow-through shares are an example of such shelters. Another commonly used name for this is limited partnerships and they apply to specific entities like mining firms. These one normally take a number of years before they begin to put forth constructive returns. Some of them usually collapse.
This usually puts off investors who seek speedy or safe incomes. To egg on such ventures, the American government makes it possible for the searching expenses of the firm to be doled out to investors as excise subtractions (Donaldson, 2007, p. 730). In this arrangement the shareholders are recompensed in two ways; the first one is the almost immediate tax savings while the other one is the probable huge returns in the case that the firm discovers the mineral.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another legal tax shelter is the retirement plan. In a bid to cut down on the load of the government-financed retirement schemes, administrations may permit citizens to devote in their own annuity. The put in proceeds will not be taxed at the moment, but will be taxed when the contributor stops working. The benefit of such arrangements is that funds that would have been deducted as duty are now amalgamated in the account waiting when the money will be taken out.
Abusive tax shelters An illegal tax shelter is generally a venture design that lays claim to cut down on returns tax whereas it does not alter the worth of the user’s returns or property. These shelters hold no financial benefit but diminish the central tax that is supposed to be received. In most cases, these ventures move monies through trusts or joint ventures to evade taxation.
These questionable tax shelters come about through a number of ways. The foremost manner is through offshore corporations. As a result of conflicting income tax charges and regulations in each nation, excise reimbursements can be taken advantage of.
For instance, if firm A purchases commodities worth $1 from Sri Lanka and puts these good up for sale for $3, the income tax they will be required to pay is on the $2 profit. On the other hand, excise paybacks can be taken advantage of if this same firm is to institute an offshore auxiliary company in say Comoros Islands to purchase the same commodities for $1, sell the commodities to A for $3 and put them up for sale once more in the local market for $3.
This makes it possible for firm A to account taxable returns of $0, reason being that the commodities were bought for $3 and put up for sale for the same amount. Thus, they will pay no duty. Whereas the auxiliary will need to pay duty on $2, this amount is owed to the tax collecting firm of Comoros Islands. If the Comoros Islands has a company excise charge of 0%, no duty is payable (US Corporate Tax Shelters, 2010).
Another illegal way for tax shelters is through financing agreements. If one pays unduly far above the ground interest charges to an associated entity, he or she may trim down the returns of a venture by great magnitude(s). In fact, this can end up in a loss, while at the same time, it will generate a huge capital return the moment one takes out the venture. The duty benefit here arises from the actuality that investment growths are levied at a lesser charge than the usual asset proceeds like interest or share.
The defects of these dubious excise shelters are normally that deals were not accounted at just market rate or the interest rate was excessively elevated or too little. In a broad-spectrum, if the aim of a business deal is to cut down on tax accountabilities but if not contain no profitable worth, and in particular when positioned between associated entities, such deals are in most times regarded as unscrupulous (Donaldson, 2007, p. 734).
We will write a custom Report on Legal and Illegal Tax Shelters specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Donaldson, S. (2007), Federal Income Taxation of Individuals: Cases, Problems and Materials (2nd ed.), St. Paul: Thompson West .pg. 730-734.
Tax shelter frauds: should KPMG be ‘sheltered’? – case details. (2003). Retrieved from web
US Corporate Tax Shelters. (2010). Web.
Standard life’s recruitment college essay help near me
Introduction The rapid rate of globalization has come in hand with many challenges for most companies such that they have to fight their way so as to cope with the highly competitive and changing world. Among the challenging sectors in any organisation is the human resource.
Most employers in a bid to evade these challenges have resulted to automation of their systems so as to completely do away with the human resource. However, because of the fact that it is not possible to replace all human operations, human beings still become an important part of the company. This paper is an analysis of the process of selecting and recruiting by the Standard Life Company.
The Human Resource Strategies applied by Standard Life in its practices Each and every organisation is required to strategize its human resource section so as to ensure sustainability of the entire organization (Adiele, 2009, p.1). The organizations are therefore required to set plans on how to ensure the achievement of the six main strategic themes which include;
Attracting and recruiting
Engagement of staff
Reward and Recognition
Learning and development
Leadership and management development
Management of performance
In all the aforementioned strategic themes the organisation is aimed at maximising the potential and talents of the staff (Adiele, 2009, p.1). The Standard Life Company is no exception as it is trying to apply the above strategic themes in its selection and recruitment procedures.
Attracting and Recruiting
To begin with is the fact that Standard Life is recognised globally for its excellence in the human resource operations. This makes many job-seekers want to be associated with such a company hence attracted to it (Hardy, 2002, p.1). In addition to this, as way of encouraging recruits, the company staffs move to various leading universities and other education institutions in a bid to distribute leaflets, brochures and application forms that the willing applicants will use to get more information about the company as well as make applications.
Engagement of Staff
Engaging staff is some of the operations and decisions of an organisation is another important human resource strategy (Graziano and Woehr, 2001, p.20). In Standard Life Company, this is achieved when the potential recruits share a luncheon with the company directors and managers. This is done to see if they are in a position to handle the situation and the small talk which in turn depicts the individuals’ ability to communicate and relate with others.
Reward and Recognition
It is important that all organisations recognise and reward their human resources once they have done recommendable work. This could take the form of salaries, bonuses and promotions just to mention but a few (Hardy, 2002, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a bid to apply this human resource strategy, Standard Life Company offers the successful recruits a package of £ 10, 000. It also achieves recognition by ensuring that there transparency and fairness in the recruitment process by incorporating a recruitment consultants to perform the exercise hence preventing bias.
Learning and Development
This is another strategy that the company adopts in its human resource department by giving the applicants the responsibility of leading a session which could be a problem-solving exercise or a business game (Heathfield, 2000, p.1). This ensures that the successful candidates will have achieved the desired learning required by the company hence achieving its objectives.
Leadership and management development
The development of leadership and management is of essence to any business enterprise that is concerned of its progress and future (Graziano and Woehr, 2001, p.20). An organisation ensures this by properly planning for succession and career progression.
The Standard Life company makes this use of this strategy through the interview procedure which entails looking at certain qualities such s communication skills, problem-solving, leadership creativity and courage among others. By examining these qualities in the individuals, it ensures that the qualified recruits are those that will ensure the progress and success of the company.
Management of performance
This strategy is achieved through the integration of all the other strategic themes whereby in the long run the company will use the talents of the recruits to upgrade its performance (Heathfield, 2000, p.1). The company does this by recruiting individuals who they know will contribute to the overall success of the company.
The actual Standard’s life strategy
From the above, it is seen that the company practised the major human resource strategies in its selection and recruitment process. In the real situation, Standard Life Company has a very effective human resource strategy. The company ensures that its staffs are aware and make use of the operating principles therefore applying them during internal meetings.
It also ensures competence in its leadership development and succession management. The strategic plans established in their human resource are such that each part of the HR is in the alignment of the business practices and objectives. Last but not least, the human resource strategic plan also ensures that it focuses on the changing culture and future by creation of additional ways of dealing with change.
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Aspects of Team and Leadership Behaviour Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Aspects of Team and Leadership Behaviour entail communicating verbal and nonverbal messages in the most appropriate manner to lessen resistance. The research features the importance of words in the communication process.
The research focuses on the importance of communication in the group’s goal accomplishment process. The research centers on communication as the catalyst in a leader –follower relationship. Leadership and the group’s organizational behavior are important factors to the accomplishment of the group’s goals and objectives.
Hotel group reporting
Person Sex Age Position Character Leader Male 26 Student Leader of group Group Member 1 Male 22 Student Reporter Group Member 2 Male 23 Student Reporter Group Member 3 Female 21 Student Reporter Group Member 4 Female 24 Student Reporter Table 2
Person Speaking Transcription of Interaction Leader Fellow members of the hotel marketing case group, after scrutinizing your abilities, it is the consensus of everyone that that Member 1 will report on the strengths of the hotel. Will you agree? Member 1 I agree. Leader, will member 3 report on the weaknesses of the hotel mentioned in the case study? Member 3 No, the leader prefers member 2. Leader That is right, member 1. Friend 3 will focus on Threats. Member 2 I eagerly accept your instructions to focus on the weaknesses of the hotel, leader. Member 4 Leader, does that leave me to report on the opportunities in the hotel case study? Leader You are perfectly right, Member 4. Member 4 I accept the responsibility to give my best present a high quality report. Leader Group members, we will meet after 3 days for a brainstorming session. All members are required to contribute their comments suggestions, recommendations, and criticisms in order to craft a high quality hotel industry report. All members Ok, leader, we will comply with your instructions. Analysis and Theories of Leadership and Group Behavior George Goethals (2006) emphasises the group leader in the case can quality as a dynamic leader. Peter’s dynamicity includes acting as moderator for the group. The leader is very successful in persuading the group members to do their best in presenting their individual parts during the presentation of the hotel industry case study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Phillips emphasised (2008) the leader focuses on maximizing the diverse talents, abilities and expertise of each group member. The leader ensures that each member’s report or action complements the reports or actions of the other members of the hotel industry report.
The group leader excellent synergises every group member’s talents, abilities, expertise, and behaviour to accomplish the group’s goals and objectives. This is in compliance with Robert Lussier’s (2009) theory the successful leader leads the members of the group to achieve the group task with flying colors. As responsible members of the group, the members willing comply with the instructions of the leader. The leader’s management style is very effective.
From the answers of the members, there are no complainants. The questioning statement of member 1 regarding the assignment of the report topic to member 3 indicates that member 1 is comparing the topics assigned to him and the topics assigned to member 3, member 4, and member 2. The united answer shown in the last statement indicates the members are obedient members of the report organization.
In addition, member 1’s statement brings out one particular team member behaviour that can be interpreted or misinterpreted as proud and insulting to the other members of the group. Member 1 seems to underestimated the capacity of the other members to contribute their own beneficial share to the betterment of the hotel case study as well as the enhancement of the group’s brainstorming and other group analysis.
Further, member 3’s immediate respond to the member one’s questioning the capacity of member 3 to produce a high quality report is rebutted by member 3. From the sound of member 3’s answer, member 1 seems to rate member 3’s research and reporting ability as a mediocre classmate scouring helplessly though the university library for books pertaining to the topic of weaknesses of the hotel discussed in the case study.
Silently, member C does not to prove to member 1 that member 3 can easily come up with a high quality report on weaknesses after four hours of scanning several books on opportunities, Member 2 is clearly proud of being chosen to report on the weaknesses part of the hotel case study.
The leader prefers member 2 to report the weaknesses because the leader has a personal opinion or judgment member 2 is the best person I the group to present a tough topic such as fish. The leader chooses member 2 to report the weaknesses compared to member 3 because of openness.
We will write a custom Essay on Aspects of Team and Leadership Behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leader chooses member 2 to report the weaknesses because the leader believes that member 2 is the best reporter in the group. The leader feels that member 2 can easily comprehend the complexities of the hotel case study task. The leader believes that member 2 can be counted upon to research on the weaknesses of the Hotel discussed in the case study.
The leader assigns each member a topic to discuss. West reiterated (2008) each member understands the leader’s instructions to research the university library for each assigned topic grounded on the hotel case study. The leader understands that all the four members are well versed in using computers to search for relevant information. The relevant information focuses on the members’ ability to locate the most appropriate materials to back up the group’s SWOT analysis.
Naturally, each of the four members of the hotel case study group will automatically use the online library to search for related secondary resources on the topic threats. Using the internet and the university library for relevant literature on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is a natural consequence of good leadership style.
The good leadership style takes into consideration the culture of each member. The good leadership style takes into consideration the time saved in searching relevant resources. Good leadership style takes into consideration the time needed to accomplish each task assigned to the members of the hotel case study group.
Instructing the members to find resources under tedious or physically draining alternatives may discourage some members of the group to give their full cooperation, loyalty, or dedication. Consequently, some of the disgruntled members may not give their full support to achieving the leader’s instructions as well as accomplishing the group goals and objectives.
In addition, Lelie Barksick (2007) emphasised the leader’s assignment of the topics was perfectly executed. The responses of the four members clearly show that they are happy with the leader’s decision making activities. The majority of the group members do not feel any bias in the leader’s instructions to allow member 2 to report on the weaknesses of the hotel case study.
All four members feel satisfied with the leader’s instructions because each member of the group is given an equal burden, weight, or work. Each member is given similar opportunities to achieve the group goal of presenting a very excellent case study solution. Each member feels happy that they are not given exhausting assignments or tasks. The members eagerly said yes to the leader’s instructions because they members feel the can easily perform the assigned tasks of researching their individual topics.
Knapp (2002) reiterated the case study clear shows that the leader is very adept in his task to bring out the best from each group member. The leader’s success is grounded on the group’s members’ reactions to each instruction given by the leader. The leader in the hotel case study exhibits a positive outlook on the group members.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Aspects of Team and Leadership Behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The members feel positive or enthusiastic because the leaders trust the group members. The leader in the hotel case study does not blurt out threats or endanger the lives or property of the group members. The leader in the case study does not act in a way that results to the resignation of the strong or intelligent group members (Knapp 2002).
In terms of Berne’s transactional analysis, the leader communicates as a father to four children. Member 1 acts like a parent by questioning the leader’s hidden agenda. Member 1 believes the leader’s hidden agenda is to humiliate member 1. Based on member 1’s questioning the leader’s intentions, the other members look at the other members as similar adults.
In addition, member 3’s answer stating the leader prefers member 2 over member 3 creates a slight animosity between the group members. Here, member 1 brings a distorted interpretation of the leader’s preference as to who will report on the weaknesses portion of the hotel case study (Hargie 1997).
Member 1 interprets the leader’s instructions as tinted with bias (Konjin 2008). Clearly, there are several variables that influence how the group member interprets the leader’s commands, orders, or talks. The receiver’s culture may distort the original message.
The group members’ personal factors include the message receiver that include age, gender, race, and other factories that the biases of each member of the group or the human players may taint the original message. The group member receives and interprets the messages from the leader based on the group member’s own culture, language, or background. Likewise, the receiver may interpret the messages based on the interpretations of other parties (Hargie 1997).
According to Robert Lussier (2009), the more advanced leader, just like in the current hotel case study, leads the group members to achieve the group’s task with flying colors. The research shows that group leader must make each member complement the other members.
The leader must incorporate each member’s diverse talents, behaviour, abilities, wants, and needs in making group instruction. The leader must act in the best possible way to bring out the best in each group member. The group leader should synergise every group member’s talents, abilities, expertise, and behaviour to accomplish the group’s goals and objectives.
Conclusions Based on the above discussion, leadership and team organizational behaviors are important variables to the accomplishment of the group’s goals and objectives. Words and actions are important in the communication process. The communication process involves using tact when leaders approaching diverse group members.
The communication contributes to the favorable and unfavorable behavior of the group members. Indeed, leadership is a very important factor in the communication process between the leader and the subordinate (member). Indeed, aspects of team and leadership behaviour include sending both verbal and nonverbal messages in the most appropriate manner to reduce resistance.
Recommendations In terms of recommendation, the leader and the group members must break the behavioural resistance between the group members and the leader in order to achieve a synergysed group goal and objective to present a high quality SWOT analysis report. The leader must have a heart to heart talk with the group members to dispel any inner misgivings or differences within the case group. Failure to comply may prevent the accomplishment of the group’s goal of presenting a high quality SWOT analysis report.
References Barkasick, L. (2007) Unlock Behavior, Unleash Profits. London, McGrawHill Press.
Gill, R. (2006) Theory and Practice of Leadership. London, Sage Press.
Goethals, G. (2006) The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership. London, Edward Elgar Press.
Hargie, O. (2006) The Handbook of Communication. London, Taylor
The Analects of Confucius Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Confucius: Thoughts and Beliefs
Applicability of Analects
Confucius: Thoughts and Beliefs The thoughts and sayings of Confucius can be referred to as analects of Confucius. They enjoy readership from generation to generation. They also remain quite relevant to today’s leadership. His teachings were quite phenomenon and applicable. Many of these teachings reflect on his life as a child. Also, most of his teachings are a reflection of his desire of how life should be in all aspects. This includes his views on leadership, social life and people.
He was against the leadership of the day. This put him in collision with the leadership of the day. He fled to another country. He served in the government of the day but for a short time. After returning, he set out his desire to pass down to his followers his teachings. Many people listened to the teachings of Confucius. He later died and his teachings enjoy readership in history lessons as classics as noted by Norden (45).
The teachings of this ruler, who was exceedingly revered in his reign during the Zhou dynasty, are quite applicable in today’s world. Confucius advocated for a harmonious living between people. The power he said was in the people. Everyone, including the leaders was under the umbrella of proper morals, which he said, was the linen from which the peace of the country was to be made. He advocated for utmost integrity.
This is still practiced in china and all over the world. Confucianism is an excellent way to govern people as it recognizes their rights. It does not oppress any one. Leaders are accountable for their actions. There is no room for absolute power. It also encompasses even the most recent concerns of the current times like environment. Confucius advised people to live harmoniously with everything that were at their disposal, including objects (Norden, 13).
On the issue of development, he was categorical that it is morally unacceptable to grow on that frontier and ignore other frontiers like cultural growth. He solidly believed that both should be seen to mature together as they intertwine. At some point, he believed, the two will need each other and hence it would be best to grow simultaneously rather than individually. He ideally believed that the world is made in such a way that all should be in harmony.
Therefore, in his advocacy for this, he taught people to be kind, not only to their fellow human beings, but also to animals, plantations and all that existed within and around them. Confucius believed there is a need to uphold things that were cultural and ritualistic. These two were largely mentioned by in his teachings and writings. These teachings are other wise called analects of Confucius. During his time, the cultural state of china was greatly respected and people associated with their culture (Norden, 3).
Applicability of Analects These teachings of Confucius are quite applicable in the current world. His fervent beliefs in matters like environment are a headache to governments at the moment. Most governments are grappling with the problem of global warming and it remains to be the most challenging governments’ affair in the next century.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, his belief that people should live harmoniously with the environment is manifesting itself big-time. He was also a crusader for transparency in governments and public institutions. This also remains quite a challenge for governments. This is especially true in third world countries. These countries are grappling with the problem.
His ideal style of leadership which vests power in people is still practiced the world over. It was the reason for revolutions that were witnessed thereafter the world over. This was because people wanted to gain the power. He also wanted people to live in peace and have constant realization of the environment in which they lived in.
Confucius believed that people should also uphold their cultures. Lack of that, Confucius reiterated, led to lost identity. This is quite true in many countries who keep trying to uphold their identity. This is in forma of many ways including setting up museums and cultural centers (Norden, 23).
Overall, the analects of Confucius continue to shape the leadership of the moment in many ways. His societal dimensions in teachings are quite manifest in the world. His presence is felts in all aspects on human living. The leaders of his time ignored his teachings and at some time threatened to jail him.
However, he still rules as his values and teachings are the basis of policy making and leadership style in many countries. Compared to leaders of Sayers of his day like Han Feizi, his teachings have continued to stand the test of time. He had workable ideas concerning leadership. He advocated for rules and regulations and laws. The law of a country, Han Fei believed, was the main determinant of her strength or perceived weakness.
Countries that upheld law were strong and those that did not were weak. The people in the country should be seen to have strict adherence to the regulations and laws that govern them. When the public is content with the legalism of a nation, the country, Han Fei wrote, grows on many frontiers including economic, political and social. When a country lacks in legalism, it crumbles on those frontiers and institutions are not respected. There is also public grief towards leadership which may cause havoc.
He also pegged the security of a nation, on a number of areas, to how lawful it was. He said that countries where the private sector is regulated and correctly subdued, there was notable growth. However, if the private sector was rogue and uncontrollable, the country loses meaning and many of its institutions crumble. He also applied this to external threats saying that any country, whose internal legal system was credible, appeared to be strong to its enemies. The reverse is true for any country whose internal legal systems are weak (Norden, 45).
We will write a custom Essay on The Analects of Confucius specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In governing a country, Han Fei said it was important to have morals but they did not supersede the need for regulation. Regulation was the basis from which morality was born according to Han Fei. This is in sharp contrast with Confucianism and hence the reason why Han Fei was critical of leaders who employed during his time.
He also seemed to have a soft spot for leadership. He said that it was important for a leader to enjoy legal freedom so as to be able to govern. However, Confucius was of the opinion that leadership should be the initial demonstrators of good morals and hence punished first in case they contravened the same. In Han Fei’s opinion, this served the purpose of weakening them. During his time, there was little, or dwindling, regard for cultural ways of the Chinese according to (Norden, 47).
Han Fei also said that commendation was very important. Leaders should employ it and use often to motivate its delegations. When a minister does something good he should praised and honored. On the contrary, Han Fei said this should go hand in hand with chastisements.
Ministers who violate the king’s orders should be reprimanded and possible relieved of his duties. However, his idea for chastisement was highly controversial. This includes torture, death and imprisonment. Commendation is in form of rewards, gifts and accolades. This style of leadership was very common soon after the death of Han Fei. The kings that ruled thereafter were very happy since they could easily pass on their helm to their family putting into consideration Han Fei’s easy ride to it.
Confucius advocated for a harmonious living between people. The power he said was in the people. Everyone, including the leaders was under the umbrella of proper morals which he said was the linen from which the peace of the country was to be made. He advocated for utmost integrity.
This is still practiced in china and all over the world. Confucianism is a great way to govern people as it recognizes their rights. It does not oppress any one like is the case in Han Feizi. Leaders are held accountable for their actions and there is no absolute power. It also encompasses even the most recent concerns of our times like environment. Confucius advised people to live harmoniously with everything that were at their disposal, including objects (Norden, 45).
Conclusion Confucius was the father of Confucianism which is majorly practiced the world over. It is especially true in china. Chinese people revere Confucius for the manner in which he has shaped the politics of the nation up to date. Although he may have been unpopular with the leaders of the yester years, he is remarkably popular with the current leaders who look up to him for leadership ways.
He also remains to be the most popular. He spirit lives on and is manifest in the many ways his teachings affect people, both socially and leadership wise as noted by Norden (14).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Analects of Confucius by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Norden, Van. Confucius and the Analects: New Essays. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
The Problem of Evil: Religious and Apologetic Way Analytical Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction The problem of evil is simply the disagreement of how such a great God can exist and evil still dominates a greater part of the world he created. It seems quite logically incompatible the extent of evil and the existent of a benevolent God. According to John Scott (2008, 2), the fact of suffering with no doubt is one of the greatest challenges for the Christian faith. The authenticity of evil and anguish is the biggest obstacle faith.
For the Christians themselves it becomes hard to comprehend how the great good God who created them allows them to suffer, and to some deep and hurting ways. The disillusionment increases with multitude of Christians been fed with information on exaggerated expectations of wealth and health.
Evil can be classified in to two major categories: the moral evil and natural evil. Natural evil are the consequences of natural happenings like the floods and earthquakes. Moral evil are the actions of human being that bring about this results for example rape, theft and others.
The problem of evil can be viewed into broad ways: the religious way or the apologetic way. The apologetic way analysis skeptically, challenging the possibility of the existence of God who cause people to suffer. Religious is the problem of evil approached from a believer’s point of view whose faith many a times has been tested through temptations (Clack, 2008, 127)
Is the presence of evil in the world compatible with the existence of a benevolent God? The compatibility of presence of evil and the existence of a great God has been logically and evidently challenged by philosophers. According to Rood (1996, 1), a good and an all powerful God is able to do away with evil, and if evil cannot be destroyed then there is a possibility the good and powerful God exists not.
His statements show of how difficult it is for a good God to exits alongside or together with evil, for it is certain the powerful God should destroy the evil. David Hume, a philosopher in the 18th century, ‘God might be willing to prevent evil, but have not the ability? Is he able but not willing? Or is He both willing and able? The nature of God as depicted in history, his existence and power should not allow evil to subsist.
I would argue out that the existence of an all powerful God and presence of evil compatible for the possibility of evil makes the munificence of God whole. The completeness of the compassion of God calls for a freewill among the human beings which necessitates the existence of evil. From a glance the existence of evil is a great challenge to the existence of God’s compassion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because evil in the lives of God’s people shows lack of humanity in God’s benevolence. Evil is the opposite of good and so if evil would not exist, it would mean there would be no good hence people would be denied the opportunity of freewill and making choices; for there is no good without choice.
Man is one creature that has the ability to chose good, and also he can decide to choose the opposite. The absence of good in a man replicates to absence of good in the world. This cannot be termed as absence of God or him being all powerful for out of his infinite goodness that he has poured upon man, man has decided to choose evil.
Taking the completeness of God’s benevolence and compare with Aristotle’s argument on completeness of justice which is a virtue; its completeness is found in its full exercise. Therefore complete benevolence of God will be achieved by allowing full practice of choice which will mean there will be existence of evil.
The presence of evil should not be measured by the existence of a great God in the world. For God’s plan was to peacefully and with complete unity exist with man. The freewill God gave man was a replication of what exactly he had and wanted for man in order for his to accomplish the good intended for him. The existence of God allows man to be able to accomplish good in the presence of another option.
Therefore evil should exist as a possibility for humans but should not be actualized in their lives. Many a times that Humans choose to do evil and God chooses not to intervene and remove the evil; yes indeed he watches to see the consequences for if he would interfere it means choice is not good and could no longer be free. Therefore i strongly believe that the existence of evil is purely compatible with the presence of a benevolent God; for God’s completeness in his benevolence depends on the human actualization of what is good.
According to Genesis, everything that God created was good, and all things existing in the world are either creatures of the creator. And God is creator of all things; therefore we can say God is the creator of evil.
But according to Kreeft (1988, 58) evil is not a thing but it is a choice that human beings make therefore, God is not the ultimate creator of evil as it would be argued but God created choice men made wrong choice which consequently makes evil. For no evil will or has ever existed as a thing but always as wrong choice or the aftermath of those wrong choices.
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Evil: Religious and Apologetic Way specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The situation at hand implies that God does not exist but this is more so a conflict which can be resolve. Rich (1996, 2) in his view suggests that one of the key solutions is to understand that the fact that God is all powerful is not a suggestion that he has the ability to anything imaginable.
The reality in the scripture is that ‘with God all things are possible’ (Mt 19:26). But the same scriptures identifies that some things God cannot perform. Good example is Tit. 1:2 which clearly states that, ‘God cannot lie’. Things that are way out of God’s character of righteousness he cannot do. God cannot do something absurd for the sake of a rational world.
The responses to the problem of evil are quite a number but not many are satisfactory. The first response is freewill defense this is because we are the creators of evil. Indeed most evil are those imposed by men. When God created the earth he gave human beings an ability to make choices on their own without manipulation.
Men have in return paid it back with misuse of this freedom. God would be able to finish evil by making an automated human being or world which he would control as per his wish. Having in mind some evils are natural it brings us to another solution for the problem of evil (Kreeft, 1988, 58).
Some traits in the society would not be evidence if evil was wiped out of the world. Compassion is of so much value in our society but it cannot be seen or experienced without suffering. Bravely is also only evident in the presence of danger. God created us in a way we would create room for each other in our lives.
Suffering and some evils in the world has taught us to have a heart of self sacrifice. Some evils act as stabilizers of the state of the nation hence without them the world would be at a miss.
Having in mind God would not undo the past for the sake of this rational world. From his argument he concluded that God would not have eliminated evil for its existence is more so a way of letting the world exist on a stable platform. God’s creation was done in his own image, which gave room for an interpersonal existence with him, choice is therefore vital in this case to allow human beings to freely love him and without being force.
Those who disbelieve in the compassion of God due to the evils that exist in this society Hick says, they are people under a great misconception that God have created the world that we may exist like animals in a zoo. This implies he created to make us pleasant and comfortable as possible; however God was not creating a paradise where humans would enjoy minimum pains and maximum of pleasure (Clack, 2008, 127).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Evil: Religious and Apologetic Way by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To some extent people may argue out that the moral evils are human creations but the natural evils goes way beyond human understanding. Why would a great and caring God full of mercy allow his children so severely suffer to points of losing their lives? This sounds interesting especially being a question to a father from a child.
The human nature over the years has changed from thankful and obedient beings to forgetful and disobedient humans. Some of these evils we have no control over are ways that God is using to remind us of his existence when we are home and dry, contented in our comfort areas he strikes to remind us of his existence.
Conclusion In conclusion the existence of a benevolent God and existence of evil though many a times they look incompatible and their reality no as expected, they are very much compatible. In relation to the argument above the existence of evil makes the benevolence of God complete. For compassion is not extended neither is it seen without suffering.
Evil brings suffering which in return attracts the compassion of God. The ability of Human beings to make choices which God fully designed in his creation cannot be fair if God restricted human to good only. If you can make a choice it means there exists something of a lesser quality of bad which in other terms is evil.
Reference List Clack, B., 2008. The Philosophy of Religion: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press
Rick, R., 1996. The Problem of Evil: How Can A Good God Allow Evil? Plano, TX: Probe Ministries
Kreeft, P., 1988. “The Problem of Evil.” Chapter 7 in Fundamentals of the Faith. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.
John, S., 2008. The problem of evil. US: WordPress. Web.
Paradigms in Social Science Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Constructivist-Interpretive Paradigm
Constructivist-Interpretive Paradigm The proponents of this paradigm assert that reality is not fixed and therefore knowledge is not fixed waiting to be discovered by social scientists (Travers, 2010, p.22). There is emphasis on the individual both the subject and the researcher. There is a sensitivity to the other person’s world view. For example, there is a need to realize that indigenous people question why researchers always take the position of dominance while the natives are expected to be nothing more than the object of their research (Smith, 1999, p.119).
Another researcher succinctly explained in this passage: “We do not construct our interpretations in isolation but against a backdrop of shared understandings, practices, language, and so forth” (Travers, 2010, p.22). It can be argued that this paradigm will enable researchers to work closely and effectively with the target group, be it the people living in the poor section of a city or indigenous peoples living in a remote area.
In the Mackenzie Valley pipeline inquiry, the commissioner could not rely on mere analysis of what is normally believed to be the highest form of information or “truth”, this is what is commonly attributed to empirical evidence that is the result of extensive use of techniques derived from the scientific method of knowing. However, it is clear in the results of the inquiry that the Dene, Inuits and the Metis are people with a different mindset .
A business only approach to the study of the viability of the oil pipeline will provide no insight to the extent of the social and economic cost of the proposed project. Therefore, the ideas that will be generated for problem solving purposes will not be enough to address all pertinent issues to the satisfaction of all those who are involved in the construction of the pipeline.
The people behind the construction of the pipeline are experts in engineering and the business aspects related to an expensive and risky venture.
Therefore, it can be said that it is not their first time to build a pipeline. They may have constructed one in the United States, the Middle-East or even in Europe. There is therefore the tendency to look at the proposal to build the Mackenzie Valley pipeline as another one of those projects. The engineers and the project managers will simply use the same methods employed in other sites and expect success.
But it can easily backfire as pointed out by one researcher who said that the establishment of oil and gas industry “could deprive the people who live in the frontier of their rights to the land, and it could offer them employment for reasons that have nothing to do with their needs” (Berger, 1988, p.170). This means that the project team will have to work closely with the natives to understand their dilemma, their fears and even their aspirations. They will be able to develop a better plan. This is the importance of using this paradigm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Feminist Paradigm This paradigm was developed based on the ontological assumption that this world is dominated by men (Travers, 2010, p.27). Those who favor this view are working hard to rectify what they call is an injustice or an erroneous way of looking at things. They also believe that “conventional knowledge production is a tool men use to maintain and naturalize this dominance” (Travers, 2010, p.27).
For example one analyst said that in some indigenous cultures women are seen as assertive and confident and if this is the case in the Northern Frontier then project managers will have to be informed with the way community makes a decision especially with regards to a proposal that will forever change the lives of the indigenous peoples (Smith, 1999, p.96).
In the case of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline inquiry the feminist paradigm comes into play when one will consider the research design and what was the rationale as to why these issues were the main focus of the said inquiry.
It seems that the focus was only on the breadwinner of the family which are the men or the father of the household. There was an extensive discussion with regards to the impact of the pipeline to the local economy but these issues were discussed with the head of the family in mind and how this can affect their role and responsibility as the provider of the family.
No emphasis was given when it comes to the impact of the men’s jobs on their family such as separation from their wives and children (Berger, 1988, p.178). There is therefore limited information when it comes to the women of the household, but a feminist perspective can help widen the scope of inquiry.
The absence of a feminist paradigm makes it easier for researchers to fall into the trap of conventional thinking. For example, in the Mackenzie Valley pipeline inquiry, the voices of women were rarely heard, if at all. As a result no one knew what the women really felt about the project. This is unacceptable because women have a role to play in shaping society and their inputs are valuable when it comes to creating a plan that will ensure the success of the pipeline.
In the Mackenzie Valley pipeline inquiry there was very little information with regards to the role that women play in the event that outsiders come pouring into the said region because of the presence of an oil pipeline. The feminist paradigm will help encourage the planners to be more conscious about women and what they can contribute to the said endeavor.
We will write a custom Essay on Paradigms in Social Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More importantly the focus of the inquiry was on the male members of the indigenous population. This does not mean that there is male-bias as suggested by the adherents of the feminist paradigm nevertheless it is important to get more information regarding the impact of the project to the women, mothers, and daughters. This will create a more credible report.
Constructivist-Interpretive Paradigm There are at least five aspects of this paradigm that makes it an effective tool in research when it comes to the subject matter of Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland. The first one is the idea that knowledge is not fixed.
It is a crucial piece of insight regarding the acquisition of knowledge because it immediately acknowledges the fact that the researcher is not infallible and that there are still many things that he does not know about. The researcher comes into the scene and project the idea that he or she is better than the natives. The researcher may not be aware of but it will certainly affect the findings of the research process.
This is because the researcher armed with his so-called proven techniques comes into the area with the belief that he or she can discover the truth. However, no one really has the ability to see the truth in its entirety and this is the beauty of the constructivist-interpretive paradigm because it makes the researcher aware of his or her limitations and yet firm in the conviction that it is possible to acquire knowledge.
The second most important facet of this paradigm can be seen in the idea that knowledge is the byproduct of interpreting information gleaned from the research but not using tools and models and rules but according to what the person says.
This was clarified even further by one researcher who revealed that, “When using figures, you do not have to consider the reality of what is happening on the ground; with pages of text, flow charts and graphs, you can express ideas about cash income and gross domestic product and avoid all consideration of hwat is really occurring among the families of the native communities” (Berger, 1988, p.178).
With this paradigm researchers are made aware of the other important aspects the project that has to be studied and empower them to report what they had discovered in the field.
The third facet of this paradigm is that knowing is not a passive process. This means that the researcher can never be fully objective while doing research. When an information is relayed and digested in the mind the person is affected by that information and at the same time his past experiences, knowledge, and training comes into play and affect the way he or she interprets data.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paradigms in Social Science by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is why it is important to understand and acknowledge that this process occurs while doing research and instead of suppressing it a much better alternative is to use the researcher’s interpretation of reality and fuse it with the worldview of the subject matter. In this case, the indigenous people.
Finally, the fourth aspect of this paradigm that would make an appropriate tool for research in the Northern Frontier is the insistence that “there is no material reality that exists outside of interpretation” (Travers, 2010, p.22).
This means that researchers are the final arbiters. They cannot rely on formulas and they cannot say that a technique or model has allowed them to discover the truth. It is their interpretation of the data based on a thorough examination of what the indigenous people had relayed to them when it comes to the way they perceived the outside world around them.
All the four aspects of the constructivist-interpretive paradigm are crucial in understanding the indigenous people of the frontier. If they go to the site with a prior understanding of the Mackenzie Valley, of its people, and a fixed belief system on how humans behave then they will simply discover ideas and behavior patterns that will conform to their own biases.
For instance if they believe that the indigenous people living in this region are uneducated and primitive then they will see their traditional way of life as somewhat barbaric and must be transformed in accordance to Western lifestyle.
Here lies the danger because they had sealed-off their minds from information that has the potential to radically impact their inquiry. Yet, since they are no longer willing to absorb information by attempting to understand the indigenous people’s point of view then there is not stopping their error-prone ways.
Outsiders trying to exploit the natural resources of a particular region comes into the territory with a bias towards technology. Nothing is important except the technology that is believe to be the savior of the world (Smith, 1999, p.99). It is like going into a territory with blinders and insensitive to the needs, fears, and aspirations of the people. This is why researchers will never understand why there is conflict and that they cannot gain the favor of the natives.
As explained by one social scientist, “The most fundamental clash between Western and indigenous belief system … stems from a belief held by indigenous people that the earth is a living entity” (Smith, 1999, p.99). The investors and project managers may be able to separate the people from their natural habitat but the people will resent this. There is therefore conflict that will not be resolved because one of them operates within a system that does not accommodate this kind of worldview.
The constructivist-interpretive paradigm has one last final facet that has to be pointed out in this study. The fifth aspect when it comes to this paradigm is its capability to utilize the best in other paradigms.
In other words the scientific approach used by those who believed in the positivist paradigm can be adapted here. An aspect of the feminist paradigm which is the need to acknowledge the place and contribution of women in society can be also be adapted into the constructivist-interpretive paradigm without compromising its core principles. There is therefore a great degree of flexibility.
A researcher can still use the data gleaned from scientific studies. For instance, a researcher is aware that the indigenous population will greatly benefit from the successful recovery of petroleum products, however he is also aware that the process must be sustainable in order to minimize the impact to the environment (Berger, 1988, p.168). The researcher who uses this paradigm will come to realize that the natives are not only after the wages for they also value the natural resources that for them is not only raw materials but a source of life.
The use of this paradigm will not limit the researcher. He or she can even use other paradigms and other methods of knowledge acquisition but will never feel confined to a particular methodology. More importantly those who use this paradigm will be able to know exactly th concerns of the people.
They will be able to articulate these issues to the project manager or even the investors. As a result there is a way develop an action plan that will ensure success and happiness to all concerned not just the big companies who comes in to exploit and profit from the destruction of a region and its peoples’ culture.
References Berger, T. (1988). Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. British Columbia: Douglas
Nike Company’s Business Model Report custom essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Customer Relationship Management strategies
Supplier Relationship Management strategies
Executive Summary This report is supposed to explore how organizations manage their multiple relationships with key suppliers and business customers which is a critical strategic issue that faces all organizations. This is to be achieved by identifying one organization that is involved in such business-to business transactions and use it as an example on how it is involved in the various organization buying situations as well as what strategic relationships it can use on its suppliers and customers.
The report identified Nike Inc. an American company which was founded in 1962 by Philip H. as an importer of Japanese shoes, then known as Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS). It has over the years grown to have over 20, 000 outlets in 110 countries worldwide.
The company deals in designing and marketing of sports footwear and apparels as well as selling its branded items. Most of its raw materials are imported from other firms outside the US which the company has contracted to provide the goods and services. As a result the company is involved in various buying situations with its suppliers. These include: Straight rebuy situation, which involves purchasing with the same specifications as the previous ones.
Modified rebuy situation, which refers to purchases made but with adjustments compared to the previous one. Lastly there is new buy situation, which involves, purchasing which has new specifications meaning that no such purchase has been made by the organization. Nike Inc. is involved in all these buying situations either with its upstream business suppliers or with down stream business customers.
Nike Inc. has a business model that describes how information flows between the company and its customers, suppliers and competitors. The model also shows how physical goods and services move between the parties involved. The business model makes the suppliers and customers visible and as a result, it enables Nike Inc. to come up with measures that it can use to secure more value from customers and suppliers compared to its competitors.
In order for Nike to be competitive it needs to identify attract and retain strategic suppliers and customers that will ensure that it realizes continuous growth in profits. Therefore this brings out the need for the company to formulate and implement supplier relationship management strategies and customer relation ship management strategies.
Introduction Business-to-business relationships refer to transaction, collaboration other interactions trade between business ventures, whereby goods are exchanged not for consumption but for production of other goods and services or for the buyer to pass them to the end consumer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such businesses include transactions between a raw material supplier and a manufacturer, manufacturer and a whole-seller and lastly a whole-seller and a retailer. Nike Inc. features as one of those entities that are involved in business-to business transactions (Hutt
Wal-Mart’s Management, Distribution and Sales Techniques Essay scholarship essay help
Wal-Mart is the largest private sector employer company in the world. The multinational company started in 1962 in Rogers, Arkansas as a group of small stores and now has 8400 stores in fifteen countries these includes operations in diverse consumer markets like China, United Kingdom, Brazil and Mexico.
The company has two million employees and serves in excess of two hundred million customers and members each week. In 2010 Wal-Mart International reported a US $ 100 Billion net sales mark. Growth of Wal-Mart has been driven by the theme of buying for less, operating for less and selling for less.
This essay looks at the innovative management techniques, distribution methods and sales techniques employed by Wal-Mart and how they have affected the landscape of the retail industry and influenced government policy toward business. Wal-Mart operates in a retail industry characterized by competition from national or regional drug stores, variety and specialty stores, warehouse clubs, supermarkets and departmental stores, internet-based retailers among others for prime locations, quality employees, and customers.
Significance of Wal-Mart in the context of the period under study and business history in general Apart from innovating new ways of doing business in the retail industry, the company has also driven the level of efficiency in distribution and store operations to the highest levels and is now considered a trend setter in the industry. The management techniques first developed by Sam Walton, who started the company, are refined by senior management and are the reason behind the success of the company.
Innovativeness is notably observed in the Wal-Mart’s employee management. Employees form the human resource cost of all businesses and Wal-Mart is not an exception. The company is considered a low-paying environment in comparison to its market. With over 2 million employees, one wonders how the company manages to maintain its competiveness in the retail industry.
Sam Walton founded Wal-Mart on the presumption that it was the consumers right to have “Always Low Prices” and the success of the company brought democracy to shopping in the same way Caesar brought democracy to Rome as it is argued by Henderson.
To managers and employees of Wal-Mart take it as an obligation and subject themselves to the task of providing the customer with goods at always lower prices. They understand that in today’s consumer democracy, votes are cast by wallets, mobile money and credit card money and any other form of payment. High prices are regarded as the evil to be fought, and by offering lower prices for the consumers, the company’s employees know that they raise the standards of living wherever Wal-Mart stores are created.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This moral obligation might be the reason why despite low wages and very small charitable giving by the company compared to other big sized companies, The Swiss Management Center report by Henderson says that “at a recent store opening in Evergreen Park, Illinois, 25000 potential employees applied for 325 store positions, a ratio of approximately 77 applicants for each position available.”
The company maintains a healthy relationship with its employees and refers to them as associates. Apart from relying on surveillance cameras in its stores to check on shrinkage, the company rewards a check at the end of the year to associates who ensure shrinkage below target.
There has been a significant change in the retail industry since the entry of Wal-Mart and other large chain stores in the 1960s. A new competitive edge has been identified and is responsible for Wal-Mart’s run-away success; having the capacity to do what competitors cannot do. Wal-Mart’s adoption of new technology has enabled it to expand rapidly and reduce operating expenses as a fraction of sales. The company has a culture of experimenting new strategies on a pilot basis using a few stores and if the strategy proves successful.
It is implemented fully on all stores thus saving the company unnecessary losses on capital expenditure on a large scale. Stone writes than one positive impact of this strategy was the introduction of point of sale (POS) scanner checkout in 1981. As a result, there was an improvement in inventory control since each time an item was scanned at checkout, inventory levels automatically reduced accordingly and reorder levels could be noted quickly.
This technology was then implemented in the whole company system by 1984. Later in 1987 Wal-Mart fully operationalized a communications satellite system to provide two-way data and voice transmission and one way video broadcast from headquarters to the stores and distribution centers. This was necessitated by the lack of state-of-the-art telephone systems in the small townships.
Capacity advantage shows up again in Wal-Mart’s history after the decision to deploy a satellite system proved to be a futuristic one when the company added credit cards authorization feature to the system so that all authorizations were secured in less than seven seconds.
The system brought in great time savings as other competitors were still relying on slower transmissions over public phone lines. Another technological milestone was reached when the company started controlling the heating and lighting of its stores from the central headquarters eliminating the need for constant attention by store personnel, who now had time to attend to other roles.
We will write a custom Essay on Wal-Mart’s Management, Distribution and Sales Techniques specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of technology has enabled Wal-Mart to take efficiency in logistics, data mining of customer information and supply chain integration to a level that very few other companies can match thus ensuring that it stays ahead of its competition in terms of cost structure. Prior to the existence of Wal-Mart, no other retail company had a symbiotic arrangement with their suppliers.
It is an intelligent business model that allows Wal-Mart to find new methods of efficiency extraction through the ceaseless study of its supply chain. The company shares customer information with its suppliers so that they are able to have a “just in time” inventory. Suppliers deliver goods to Wal-Mart’s warehouses for selection, repacking and subsequent dispatch to stores. The whole process takes about 48 hours and goods don’t sit in inventory. It’s a unique logistic technique known as “cross-docking.”
In this system the company purchases truckloads of goods and avoids unnecessary inventory and handling costs thus achieving massive economies of scale. Costs of sales for Wal-Mart are 2 percent to 3 percent lower than the industry average as a result of running 85 percent of good through the company’s warehouse system. Wal-Mart therefore does not need to run promotions and has an added advantage of having more predictable sales due to stable prices.
Cross docking is very difficult to manage and this alone has given Wal-Mart a virtual monopoly in use of the technique. This would be unattainable had the company not invested in the communication satellite system since cross-docking demands that there is a permanent connection among distribution centers, suppliers and all points of sale (POS) so that there is a timely consolidation and execution of orders, usually in a few hours.
Wal-Mart beats the industry norm of two weeks by replenishing its store shelves twice a week because it has a fast and quick to respond dedicated truck fleet that allows shipment of goods from warehouse to store in less than 48 hours. Wal-Mart has demonstrated that it is possible for a retail chain with 8400 stores around the world, central management of stock inventory is possible, a feat that smaller retail chain stores are having difficulty to achieve.
Considerations on the Larger Impact of Wal-Mart on the Social, Cultural and Political Assumptions The mammoth store concept pioneered by Wal-Mart has resulted in the availability of a commercial space equivalent to nine times what was available in 1960 and this has become one of the greatest crises in the community economics of American history. Main streets in the U.S. cities have a glut of commercial space and even if no more is built, it will take decades to absorb the current supply.
Retail pricing in America has been transformed as a result of the elimination of wholesalers by stores with massive distribution network like Wal-Mart. Almost 20 percent of all department-store-type-merchandise in the United States is now sold by Wal-Mart.
The company has driven out small stores from the main streets of major cities where it has stores located. This has been inevitable because Wal-Mart does not pay union wages and buys very large inventory and to enjoy massive economies of scale and can therefore source products at the lowest possible cost and sell them cheaper than supermarkets. In this case, the supermarkets struggle to keep up and eventually collapse.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wal-Mart’s Management, Distribution and Sales Techniques by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company has demonstrated that big is better in retailing business where the amount of time consumers spend in a store or supermarket is proportional to the amount of money they spend. It has been reported that customers spend up to two hours in Wal-Mart stores shopping.
The effects of Wal-Mart have been felt beyond the retail industry and prime commercial space frontier. Now business schools are putting retail trade as the focus of their attention as a result of Wal-Mart’s success.
Bosshart writes that Harvard Business School now sells Wal-Mart case studies to other business schools all over the planet, he further writes that in 2003, Wal-Mart’s war-like surge into the neighborhood food market and displacement of local chains was published as an in depth study; further reinforcing the fact that Wal-Mart has become synonymous with retail trade.
The American consumer now enjoys low prices and power to influence prices of commodities, a responsibility that was not available prior to the 1960s. Moreton writes that with Wal-Mart Americans created enlightened consumerism; something better than communism, socialism and capitalism.
Negatively, Wal-Mart has created new social problems associated with shopping. As shown above, the large amount of choice present in the mammoth stores of typically 120,000 to 130,000 square feet filled with goods makes choosing a painful task let alone finding that which you seek to choose.
The success of Wal-Mart demonstrates the importance of strategic business decisions informed by the need for capacity. All the company’s strategies are centered on replenishing inventory as the chosen competitive edge. As a capability-based company, Wal-Mart has created very flexible business processes whose combination sets may serve many other businesses, for example its inventory-replenishment system that allows its discount stores to be able to set up new shops in retail areas that were unattainable.
Sales at Wal-Mart are now representing the mood of the U.S. economy. In 2009, one American woman in five shopped at a Wal-Mart store weekly. In American politics Wal-Mart is now associated with a new voting bloc of consumers referred to as the “Populists” mainly consisting of mothers concerned with minimum wages and universal health coverage.
Therefore for politicians, the best place to reach their valuable voters is at a Wal-Mart store. The arrival of Wal-Mart at a neighborhood is now viewed as a big win for the residents because of better shopping, more jobs.
Furthermore, the presence of a Wal-Mart store in a neighborhood entices other retailers who hope to benefit from increased Wal-Mart consumer traffic that usually spills to their stores. The city officials of Harford, Connecticut used this knowledge to lure Wal-Mart there so that they could use the resulting development revenues to build new housing. This is an example of how Wal-Mart has affected official policy albeit indirectly.
Wal-Mart has not reinvented the wheel of retail business; it has merely been efficient at compressing points in the distribution system. What started with wholesalers displacing small peddlers in the 1870s and the subsequent displacement of these wholesalers by mass retailers who dealt directly with manufacturers has been a testimony to the true nature of capitalism which promotes free enterprise.
With freedom of choice and consumer awareness, the companies that were more efficient in their business outlive their incompetent competitors.
Bibliography Berger, Athur Asa. Shop ‘til you drop: consumer behaviour and American culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman
Influence of organizational image on outcome Essay essay help online: essay help online
It is true that the image of an organisation reflects its brain in terms of performance of the organisations. In university institutions for example, the organisational environment may create excitement and hence foster high quality education and learning.
Thus the organisational structure and the management style adopted by the institutional may inspire and motivate the learning processes or may fail to encourage learning culture in students in the university. The aim of every university is to help learners acquire skills, knowledge and experience while also helping them become flexible in their thinking and conceptualisation so that they are able to meet complexities in their day-to-day lives.
Universities therefore focus to help each student explore and recognize various alternative worldviews, practices, technologies and innovations among others. These desired changes in learners are achieved by involving all the personnel in the universities including lecturers and subordinates; the management, resources and the learners themselves.
According to Beer and Nohria (2000, 140) an ideal organisation should be able to balance between the O and E strategies. This implies that an institution should be able to balance between meeting the needs of the students and the needs the university staff and be able to integrate the ideas of the organisation. The institution’s management should be ready to listen, debate and also willing to learn from both sides.
The management should be ready to integrate the ideas of the university staff particularly the lecturers and technicians who constantly interact with the students as well as the students’ views on the direction of their learning. This means that the institution should be able to use the students and the university staff as the consultants besides the outside consultants to be able to ensure quality outcome in students.
An institution’s image is also enhanced by the level of motivation it offers to the university staff and the students. Recognizing the performance and commitment of the staff in achieving the objectives of the university also encourages the students to follow in the footsteps of their lecturers and other staff who are working hard to help them achieve their goals. The staff may be given monetary rewards or other forms of rewards which encourage achievement of the organisational culture and objectives.
The students on the other hand may be awarded scholarships, opportunities for exchange programmes with other universities in other countries or opportunities to represent the universities in forums and congressional meetings. The students hence practically learn the importance of giving rewards and various reward schemes that could be applied in their real working experience. According to Beer and Nohria (2000, 140) giving of rewards represent a fair exchange of values between the institution and individuals in the institution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management’s commitment to providing of total-quality training programs to students and the university staffs also reflects the quality of outcome from the university (Morgan 2006, 106). The university’s commitment to provide resources to facilitate learning and the university’s openness to help learners experiment on their talents help promote diverse quality outcome.
Universities should be able to access the status and the progress of every programme it offers to students and other customers and review them to be able to align them with the goals of the institution. It should also be able to review the capacity of its teaching staff as well as other staffs who support the teaching and learning process in meeting the objectives and be able to improve their capacities.
When the university encourages experimentation through provision of adequate and modern facilities, the students as well as the university staff are better enabled to expand their knowledge, skills and experience and therefore they become very innovative and creative in tackling challenges. Besides, both the university staff and the students become more receptive to new ideas.
In achieving the goals of the university as well as that of its stakeholders, the university has to eliminate the boundaries that may exist in its communication processes so as to achieve high-involvement of all the individuals in the institution.
Reference List Beer, M.,
Labour market issues Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Tourism is a major economic activity of many countries in the world. It is a sector that has experienced a rapid rate of growth for the last fifty years. Countries have gone to war and after that they are forced to live in economic hardships, however, tourism has emerged as one of the vital social economic activities to these countries especially those with economies that have less developed service industries.
The many benefits and the rapid growth in this sector have seen many countries seek ways of having a share of the cake. These benefits include generation of revenue, exchange of culture and creation of employment opportunities. One of these countries is Scotland, which has seen tourism bring a lot of revenue into its economy. Tourism ranks as the forth employer in Scotland yet this sector still faces the problem of recruiting and maintaining skilled workers.
It is known that the success of any industry depends on its human resources and how they are managed and developed. In this paper, we will investigate the issues that affect the labor market in the hospitality and tourism industry in Scotland and how they can be solved. In finding the solution to these problems, we will look at how the educational system in Scotland can help in supplying skilled labor to the industry (Yeoman, 2004, 67).
Satisfying Customers Creating and maintaining customers who are satisfied and therefore, profitable, is the main objective of any business, but customers can only be satisfied if a business meets their needs. This means that for businesses to satisfy their customers, they need to understand them and build their businesses around them.
This is very important especially in the service industry that tends to be dominated by operations instead of customer issues. It is important for any business to create satisfied customers because customers who are satisfied tend to make repeat purchases and will talk favorably to others about the business and thereby creating more customers to the business (Kotler, 2003).
There is also an increasing expectation for quality among customers, this puts many businesses in a dilemma bearing in mind that it is not easy to find and retain skilled labor. This problem coupled with the issue of seasonality that is experienced in the tourism sector, limits the ability of many tourism operators to give good quality services that the market demands (Baum and Lundtorp, 2001, p.5).
It is also said that the attitude and performance of employs determines how customers will be satisfied. The way employees behave and their skills relate to the quality of service they produce and this influences how customers judge that particular service.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To ensure better service quality, organization employ people who are well trained and also pay them well because well paid workers will give better services with less supervision. Such workers tend to stay longer on their jobs. This in most occasions brings about customer satisfaction and repeat purchases.
However, getting quality employees in a small labor market is not easy. For instance, many tourism businesses are found in remote areas and therefore, they find it hard to attract workers who are skilled. Unemployment in countries also determines the availability of labor. Expanding economies in developed countries has reduced the number of people seeking jobs in the tourism sector. Demographics also play a role whereby you find many young people in the tourism industry as compared to the older people (Riley et.al. 2002, 15).
Uniqueness of the Service Industry The unique characteristics of the service industry also serve as a big problem to the tourism sector. Services are usually intangible, they are inseparable, they are heterogeneous, and are not perishable.
These characteristics affect the service industry differently as they do to the other industries. Therefore, those in the service industry need to understand these characteristics so as to deliver their services in a way that will satisfy their customers. To do this, they need to first understand their workers because employees play a very big role in service differentiation.
To meet the demands of their customers, they need to employ the right people; they should empower them through training to a standard that will ensure that they deliver quality service to the satisfaction of customers and also that will maximize profits. It is hard for any business in the hospitality industry to offer superior and unique experiences to customers in a world full of technological advancements without employees that have received adequate training and education (Kusluvan, 2003, 336).
Tourism Sector in Scotland So far we have seen the various issues that affect the service industry. We will now look at how these issues affect the tourism sector in Scotland. For instance, how service quality can enhance tourism growth in Scotland, the need to have skilled manpower that will produce quality services, and also look at how education and training can help in the supply of skilled labor in the tourism and hospitality industry in Scotland.
Scotland is one of the four countries that form the United Kingdom. It is found in the northwestern part of Europe. It is made up of a mainland and 790 islands. Scotland’s capital city is Edinburgh although; the largest city in the country is Glasgow. The country has diverse religious affiliations that include Roman Catholic, Islam, Presbyterian, Baptist, and the Episcopal Church.
We will write a custom Essay on Labour market issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Its natural beauty and the many manmade attractions make Scotland a popular destination to many tourists from all over the world. This has made tourism an important sector in the economy of Scotland contributing to creation of jobs, offering training and skills to the Scottish population (Scottish Development International, n.d.a).
Figures show that the number of tourists visiting Scotland is increasing every year. The beautiful scenery and the many outdoor activities such as boating, hill walking and climbing, cultural attractions during Scottish festivals and many others make the country a tourist destination of choice.
The increasing trend in the number of visitors is projected to continue for the next 20 years, from 17.3 million in 2005 to 27.3 million in 2025. This period will also see an increase in tourist expenditure. These projections are an indication that the tourism sector in Scotland is growing rapidly. This means that in order to provide better services to the many tourists, there is an urgent need to employ more workers.
There are many types of employment that are brought about by tourism. For instance, research shows that more than 200,000 people were employed in the Scottish tourism and hospitality sector. These included employment in restaurants, hotels and in hospitality services. However, the rate of employment is not proportional to the increasing number of tourists. In short, there are many employment vacancies that need to be filled (VisitScotland, n.d.).
For better services, businesses need employees with an education. The education system in Scotland is built on high values. An outstanding value is that the government provides free and compulsory to all children under the age of 16. It has a broad curriculum that was designed to produce all round people that can realize their dreams in the many occupations (Scottish Executive, 2003). In Scotland, both the public and the private sector play a role in the designing, validating and providing education and training in the service industry.
There are many bodies that provide these services including universities, private colleges and colleges for further education. The University of Strathclyde has a hospitality and tourism management department. This serves to show that there is a strong representation of the service sector in the education system in Scotland. The business sector also offers training programs to their staff to raise the standards of their services (Scottish Development International, 2011, p.1).
We have already seen that in order to meet the raising expectation of customers in the hospitality and tourism sector, businesses need to raise the standards of their services. In the global business today, success is determined by quality and value, an area in which Scotland, as hospitality and tourism destination, is lurking behind other players who are providing better services.
For instance, you can not compare the cost of production in Asian countries to that experienced in Scotland. For the high costs seen Scotland to translate into income, means high tourism rates, which drive away visitors. Another issue is that the tourism and hospitality sector in Scotland is dominated by small and medium businesses, which can not afford to use up to date technologies to give customers the quality of service they need. They also lack skilled manpower for better services.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Labour market issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Large businesses are doing well in this area because they are in a position to provide their staff with better technologies to maintain a high level of excellence. They also have the funds to recruit and train their staff to the required standards, and therefore, they are better placed to satisfy their customers (Reid and Botanic, 2009, 54).
Issues the Need to be dealt with in Scotland
We saw earlier that employees play a role in customer satisfaction. Research on the tourism sector in Scotland shows that the industry suffers from many issues such as poor perception, high labor turnover rates, issues that inhibit the access of skilled employees, yet quality service can only be given by skilled employees.
People with proper skills are in a position to come up with services and products that will satisfy customer needs. Therefore, the hospitality and tourism sector in Scotland needs education and training that will produce the much needed skills.
With skilled labor, service quality will be maintained to the satisfaction of customers and therefore, will lead to the overall growth of the sector as it will experience repeat purchases and influx of new customers. Human labor is very important to the tourism and hospitality sector, but negative attitudes towards human capital, employment practices that are not flexible, and weak educational and training curriculum, have made Scotland fail in this area (Oliver, 2009, 15).
Not many people are attracted to this sector because it is seasonal, small and medium business in Scotland are not in a position to give people a career they can depend on, and as such, the sector does poorly in terms of getting quality employees. It is only through education that people will get clarification about the misconceptions surrounding the sector.
Many academic qualifications in Scotland are offered by universities and colleges, however, there is a lack of industry orientation and the academic institutions employ the theoretical approach which does not offer much that is needed in the tourism and hospitality industry.
This means that the conflict of interests between the requirements of the industry and what the education system offers will continue to play out in determining the quality of students that enter the job market. To solve this, education system should make sure that work related contexts are used in preparing students for the job market (Kandampully et.al. 2001, p.31).
Recommendations for Scotland
Scotland should focus on the requirements of learners that are changing everyday and also strive to address the demands of employers. Scottish students should also be helped to dispel the prejudices that surround the sector.
For instance, they should know that they are entering a sector dominated by small businesses and prepare themselves for the challenges to come. To improve the image of the sector, the Scottish government should invest more in awareness programs that will show people that tourism offers real opportunities for economic sustenance (Scottish Government, 2011).
Conclusion We have seen that Scotland is one of the major tourist destinations in the world. However, the country suffers from labor market issues that tend to cripple the otherwise, vibrant economic sector. Service industry always calls for better quality services which can only be offered by qualified and skilled workers. This means a country needs a proper education system that ensures that qualified students are released into the job market. This is not the case with the education system in Scotland.
The theoretical approaches used do not produce the best quality workers that the industry needs. other problems discussed affecting the service industry in Scotland are seasonality of the sector, small and medium businesses that do not promise career jobs to job seekers and high costs of production. The solution is to put proper education system in place so that quality employees are made available, awareness to clarify on prejudices to ensure that people change their perception about job opportunities in the tourism and hospitality industry.
References Baum, T. and Lundtorp, S., 2001. Seasonality in tourism. New York: Elsevier.
Kandampully, et.al., 2001. Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. New York: Routledge.
Kusluvan, S., 2003. Managing employee attitudes and behaviors in the tourism and hospitality industry. New York: Nova Publishers.
Oliver, R., 2009. Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Reid, T. and Botanic, G., 2009. Hospitality Marketing Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Riley, et.al., 2002. Tourism employment: analysis and planning. New York: Channel View Publications.
Scottish Development international, 2011. Scotland’s education industry. Web.
Scottish Development International,. Investing in Tourism in Scotland. Web.
Scottish Government, 2011. Report of the Tourism Education and Training Task Group. Web.
VisitScotland, National Facts
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Table of Contents Unit On: Why Mental Age Is No Longer Used To Compute IQ Scores
Unit Two: Methods of Estimating Reliability
Unit Three: Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Tests
Unit Four: The Social and Legal Context of Employment Testing
Unit On: Why Mental Age Is No Longer Used To Compute IQ Scores The subject of computing the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of individuals has changed over time. Initially, the Intelligence Quotient was calculated by getting the ratio of a person’s mental age from their chronological age and converting this to a percentage by multiplying by one hundred (Murphy, 2005).
Mental age refers to the intellectual capability of a person while chronological age refers to their biological age (Murphy, 2005). For example, a person with a mental age of 10 years and a chronological age of 7 years is considered to have an IQ of 143.
This is obtained by getting the ratio of 10 and 7 and multiplying by 100. Using this formula, reffered as the Stanford-Binet intelligence test, an IQ below 100 is considered retarded while an IQ above 100 is considered gifted (Murphy, 2005). This formula however has inherent problems that make it inaccurate in calculating IQ’s based on mental age. Some of the problems involved are the difficulties in using it to calculate adult IQ’s and its inability to accurately determine intellectual superiority.
When adults attain a certain age, their intellectual capabilities do not significantly change. As a result, their mental age becomes almost fixed while their chronological age will continue to rise. Using this formula, it would appear that once a person becomes an adult, their IQ would steadily decrease.
Since the interpretation of the intelligence quotient is intellectual capability, it would imply that this capability significantly reduces with age. In reality this may not be true because a 35 year old intellectual ability has not necessarily reduced since he was 25, yet his calculated IQ at 25 would be much higher. For this reason, the mental age is disqualified as a stable factor to be used in the calculation of IQ scores.
The other reason why mental age cannot be used alone to calculate IQ is that it is difficult to define intellectual superiority in some circumstances. Assume an example where subject 1’s mental age is 10 years and chronological age is 8 years. Subject 2’s mental age is 5 years and chronological age is 4 years.
Based on the Stanford-Binet formula, they will both have an IQ of 125. If IQ scores reflect intellectual capability, does this mean that these two people are intellectually similar even though they have different mental ages? This would not appear true strictly speaking because the person with the higher mental age would be considered intellectually superior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, mental age does not necessarily reflect actual intellectual capability when using this formula. As such, based on these two reasons including others, mental age is no longer used in calculating IQ’s. A deviation IQ is used instead since it uses percentiles rather that raw IQ scores.
Unit Two: Methods of Estimating Reliability When a test is administered, it is very important to ensure that the resulting scores can be relied upon to reflect the truth. This makes reliability of a test very important.
There are various ways to measure reliability to ensure accuracy and reduce variability of the result obtained. These methods are modeled on the parallel test model whose goal is to reduce errors in measurement of the scores by measuring reproducibility (Murphy, 2005). Thus, these tests are useful in measuring more permanent traits of a subject like long term behavior.
The first is referred as the test-retest method (Murphy, 2005); in this method, a test is administered to a group of people at a given time. Then again the same test is then administered to the same group of people at a later time. The scores are then compared for consistency. If the scores are found to be close enough, the test is considered reliable; if the scores vary significantly, then the test is considered unreliable.
The complication with this method of testing is that the circumstances of the person being tested could change between the first and second testing. In that case, the error would not be due to the test itself. For example, a person taking a test for the second time after two years may have improved their knowledge on the subject matter. The scores would be different but it would not mean the test is unreliable.
The second method of testing reliability is the alternate forms test (Murphy, 2005). Here, a test is administered and then a different but similar test is given to the same group of people. A good correlation between the scores is used to determine reliability; high correlation would mean high reliability. This method has the great advantage of making it possible to administer the second test immediately after the first, unlike the test-retest where it is necessary to space the tests to prevent subjects from answering from memory.
The third method of estimating reliability is the split-half method (Murphy, 2005). This method tries to combine the first two forms; in this case a test is split into two portions depending on the responses expected. The test is then administered in one sitting. The results of the first half are compared to the results of the second half and a correlation developed.
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Abstract The need to belong to a given social or religious grouping is an innate desire of humanity since creation for it was not good for Adam to live alone, and thus it is not good for anyone to live alone.
Human beings need to identify with certain social groupings and become active members for the satisfaction of the overwhelming need of belongingness. Since human needs according to Abraham Maslow follow hierarchy in satisfaction, the need to belong falls under third category and if not satisfied, no one can satisfy the subsequent needs of self-esteem and self-actualization
Introduction Human being is a social being with a strong sense of belongingness. The need to belong is a strong human desire that compels someone to identify with certain social groups and become primary members, and thus satisfaction of their needs. Abraham Maslow in his theory of human needs suggested that, human beings have hierarchy of needs and the need to belong falls under the third group of needs. The need to belong to a given social group and desire to experience love is a source of motivation, which encourages one to attain satisfaction in life.
According to Elkin (2008), “all human beings need a certain minimum quantity of regular, satisfying, social interactions … inability to meet this need results into loneliness, mental distress, and a strong desire to form new relationships” (p.4). Therefore, the need to belong is a basic social need that human beings are constantly striving to achieve in order to attain good mental, emotional, spiritual, and social health. Nevertheless, how does the need to belong relate to the biblical principles?
The need to belong is an inherent human desire to identify and associate with a given social group that shares common values and beliefs, and can satisfy the desired needs of the members. People can express their desire to belong by “attending sports events together, visiting one another, sharing a meal together, or going out as a group to watch a movie … joining with others in groups remains a universally observed characteristics of the humans across societies” (Forsyth, 2009, p. 59).
Human beings have inherent social characteristics in that even the biblical creation story states that, after God had created Adam in the Garden of Eden, He realized that something was amiss and created Eve for it was not good for Adam to live alone without a partner or a helper. Even today, it is not good for anyone to live in isolation and that is why there is the need of belonging burning in people’s hearts continually.
Associating or being part of a certain group that satisfy social needs have profound benefits to the well being of humanity. People belong to certain groups of their choice to experience love, to pour their hearts out, to receive advice, and enjoy the warmth of unity. In the bible, King David marveled at human belongingness saying that, “behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity” (Psalms 133: 1, King James Version).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The unity of humanity is an expression of their sense of belongingness. The need to belong has great social, psychological, and spiritual benefits to humanity. Since it is not good for any person to live alone, the strong desire that is inherent in human beings always compels people to strive and belong to certain groups and that is why Christians meet often to pray together and encourage one another.
The primary reason of joining social or religious groups is to satisfy the need to belong. Since the need to belong is one of the basic human needs as classified by Abraham Maslow, it becomes difficult for someone to attain any significant level of self-esteem and self-actualization without first satisfying the need of belongingness.
Elkin argues that all people long to belong to certain groups that seem to have common values and beliefs with their desired needs, but “we do not satisfy the need to belong when we feel rejected by the groups we want to join, and we can suffer deep depression, and even decide life is not worth living” (2008, p. 12). This proves that the need to belong is an innate desire and indispensable in our daily living.
References Elkin, D. (2008). The Need to Belong. The Journal of Psychology, 2(6), 1-22.
Forsyth, D. (2009). Group Dynamics (5th Ed.). New York: Cengage Learning. King James Version. The Bible
Freedom of the Press Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In any society, the media is relied upon to provide information on the events that happen both locally and internationally. The media is trusted to provide unbiased information, but this is not always the case. In the essay, we will try and find out if the media is an enemy of law enforcement.
The first amendment to the US constitution states that:
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances (Norton, 1996).
The press clause in this amendment has seen the media exercise too much freedom in their dissemination of information. The media is characterized by the reporting of news that interest the public so as to boost their ratings.
They therefore, use any means that they think are entertaining and appealing to their audience. In the area of crime, the media puts crime news in contexts that can be understood by the masses. The media ensures that there is policy accountability in their course of duty. The media ensures this by exposing inefficiency and corruption cases (Norton, 1996).
However, the media has not been all that partial in the dissemination of information and this has, on many occasions, been a problem to law enforcers. Because the media knows that their rights are protected by the constitution, they have gone to the extent of dwelling more on major misconduct from law enforcers.
The media ignores or does not cover everyday activities of the police because such events are not pleasing to the audience and will therefore, not raise their ratings. Police work is often distorted by the media which tends to only concentrate on crime and ignores other police activities not related to crime. They therefore, only highlight the negative side of law enforcement (Freedom, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This problem is also experienced in court cases whereby the media is often accused of press releases of information that should not be released before court cases are discharged. This has, on some occasions affected court decisions because jurors will have already formed prejudices about the case.
Too much publicity also risks having an impartial jury, the constitutions protects the media, meaning that courts have to employ other measures such as changing the venue. When writing the constitution, the writers knew that it was necessary to protect citizens from the government. They knew that it was important to let people air out their sentiments, but one should take caution about what he gives to the public (Freedom, 2008).
All has not been that bad with the media. For instance, the media helped in the capture of the Oklahoma City bomber when they aired it on the radio and ran sketches of the suspects on television. The Washington post also helped in the capture of the Unabomber when it published his manifesto.
On reading the manifesto, the brother quickly recognized it and alerted the police who apprehended him. However, in the “Alfred P. Murrah Federal office building” bombing case, the two accused men filed a request to dismiss the prosecution because they said that the trial had been prejudiced by the publicity made by the media. Their plea was accepted, but court proceedings were transferred to another court (Summary, n.d).
Conclusion These cases show that media plays a very important role in the world and whether it is negative or positive, the forefathers were not mistaken, and the media should be free to provide checks and balances where necessary.
References Freedom. (2008). Freedom of the Press. America Government. Retrieved from: https://share.america.gov/
Norton, J. (1996). United States Constitution Amendments Article I of the Bill of Rights. Bare Foot Sword. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Freedom of the Press specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Summary. (n.d). Summary and Conclusion. Publish Web. Web.
The World Trade Center Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Tariffs
Dispute Settlements and the Appellate Body
Challenges Facing WTO
The World Trade Organization (WTO) has a total membership of 153 countries as of July 2008. The membership runs the organization through a secretariat and arrives at major decisions wholly. To achieve this they rely on bi-annual meetings of their ministers or regular ambassadors meetings held at the organization’s headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland (World Trade Organization n.d.).
The organization is majorly responsible for international economic affairs as it plays a major role in global governance. This essay describes structure and roles of the World Trade Organization and further looks at the balance of payments and tariffs regulations within the organization.
All agreements of the WTO start with negotiations, even the formation of the WTO itself was agreed upon after seven years of negotiations, known as the Uruguay Round, to succeed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in January 1995 (Sampson 2001). The agreements are mostly legal texts on many activities; however there are principles that form the core of these agreements.
The principle of the Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) requires that countries do not discriminate between other trading partners. Secondly, the National treatment principal ensures that both foreigners and locals are dealt with equally. The WTO agreement emphasizes the importance of trade as a vehicle for achieving sustainable development. Today goods, services and intellectual property are covered under various WTO agreements.
Apart from the Uruguay Round of negotiations, there have been eight other rounds and currently the Doha Round launched in Doha, Qatar in November 2001 is in progress. There are WTO councils and committees that promote transparent formulation of trade policies by governments. All member states are individually scrutinized periodically on their trade policies and practices. Some WTO agreements are not signed by all members and therefore become “plurilateral” agreements.
In order to protect their local industries, governments impose importation quotas on goods that disrupt local prices because their international price is lower than the local price. These quotas give a defined volume of imports that is allowed to be imported to a country without inflating supply levels and hurting local prices. Even when the price margin of domestic and international prices is desirable for importers, they cannot continue to import after the import quota limit has been reached.
As a result, demand of the good in the international market, made up by importers, lowers and so does the international price. One of the effects of this is low foreign exchange earnings for the exporting country and a subsequent curtailed development progress of the world when the situation is magnified. To free up trade and promote development, the GATT 1947 agreement and its successor the WTO 1995 agreement generally rule out quantitative restrictions in international trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The agreements understand the need for regulation of trade to protect individual country markets and provide sustainable earning brought about by predictable markets. To this end, the agreements allow the use of duties, taxes or other charges to regulate trade. The WTO aims to realize a transparent non-discriminatory import/export regulation tariff applied only at the border exit or entry. Thereafter the WTO uses rounds of negotiations to lobby for the reduction of the tariffs (Hoda 2002).
Tariffs Tariffs are custom duties levied on imported goods so that they do not have a price advantage to similar domestically-produced goods. Tariffs also raise revenues for governments which are useful to build reserves usable in maintaining equilibrium of balance-of-payments.
The WTO is uninterested in the earnings by individual countries, and concerns itself with matters of trade distribution and how trade is influenced by quota administration. A tariff-rate quota does not limit import quantity. To define it economically as a two-tiered tariff, Skully (n.d.) explains that “in a given period, a lower in-quota tariff is applied to the first given units of imports and a higher over-quota tariff is applied to all subsequent imports” (para 4).
Tariff rate quotas are favored as a form or international trade regulation because they do not limit quantities imported. An importer is free to pay the over-quota tariff and still profit when the margin between the domestic and international price is desirably higher than the over-quota tariff.
Hence, imports can still be expanded even when the quota limits are reached. This explains why a tariff quota is considered less restrictive than a standard quota. However in cases where the over-quota tariff results to prohibitively expensive imports, then a country’s imports are observed to be of the same levels as when a traditional quota is in place. This arises because importers are less motivated to import when the profit margins are minimal (Skully n.d.).
New tariff rates when adopted become the listed tariffs. The first tariff cuts started in developed countries and were phased in over five years from 1 January 1995. Tariffs are charged on single product or a group of products as defined by WTO agreements. Countries commit not to raise their tariffs above the bound tariff rate and can only raise their rates after agreeing on compensation terms with other countries concerned.
The current Doha round of negotiations aims to have more commitments by members to cut tariffs and “bind” custom duty rates lower than the Uruguay Round commitments on agricultural and non-agricultural products (World Trade Organization, n.d.). The initial rounds of negotiations mainly focused on lowering tariffs and by 1980s their mandate had increased to include non-tariff barriers on goods.
We will write a custom Essay on The World Trade Center specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Balance-of-Payments A negative balance of trade where net earnings from exports are less than payments for imports contributes to a deficit in the balance of payments. All components of the BOP are supposed to sum to zero. In the case where a deficit in trade arises, a country is forced to seek other ways like using up their reserves, if they have enough, or receive loans from other countries.
Within the rules of the WTO are provisions created for the sole purpose of safeguarding a member’s external financial position. They allow members to impose import restrictions to protect their balance of payments. The same provisions ask members to continuously relax restrictions when situations that warrant them improve, consequently members are supposed to abolish the restrictions when there is no longer a justification for their placement.
Requests by countries to impose import restrictions so as to safeguard their balance of payments are handled by the Committee. When presented with a restriction request together with supporting evidence, the Committee Chairman drafts a report reflecting main discussion points and recommendations. Upon approval by the committee, the report is handed over for adoption at the next General Council.
In some cases the Committee might find that a member’s request to implement import restrictions is inconsistent with provision of balance-of-payments. The Committee then requests the Member to factor in the provisions or withdraw the request and if the Member does not do so the consultation terminate. Other members are then free to use the provisions on dispute settlement (World Trade Organization n.d.).
Korea is an example of a country that has been able to successfully lobby to be allowed to impose import restrictions, and after development of adequate capacity in the industries concerned it has withdrawn those restrictions. Ahn (n.d.) reports that the Korean government was able to eliminate its Import Diversification Program by the end of 1996.
Only consumer products were targeted by the program and the list of product coverage had gradually increased until 1981 before gradually reducing to zero in June 1999. Japan was the trading partner most affected by the import restrictions; however it did not raise a formal complaint with the Dispute Settlement Body. Instead it decided to argue its case by lobbying through the ministerial annual meetings which allows room for political considerations.
In theory specialization dictates that the Member most capable of producing a given commodity efficiently should be left to do so while other Members produce what they are best at producing. A free market then provides a means by which a member obtains that which they do not produce, at a fair price.
The balance-of-payment provisions in WTO offer temporary relief and are not the best way of ensuring that equilibrium in the balance-of-payments exists. Articles XII and XVIII of GATT, which is the precursor of WTO, state the need for Members to use the productive resources most economically so that a lasting equilibrium of the balance-of-payment is maintained (World Trade Organization n.d.).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The World Trade Center by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1997 the Korean government agreed to receive assistance from the IMF to overcome its financial crisis. The government was able to successfully implement a liberalization of its financial services and trade. As a result, there was no longer need to impose import restrictions due to balance of payments reasons (Ahn n.d.). By deciding to receive assistance from the IMF the Korean government avoided a dispute that might have arisen when it became too much for Japan to withstand the import restrictions.
Dispute Settlements and the Appellate Body A dispute-settlement system offering an incremental level conflict resolution mechanism forms the center of the international trading order. It is made up of the Appellate body is based in Geneva, Switzerland that was established in 1995 in order to properly regulate international trade that is characterized by international trade disputes among non-governmental organizations and member country governments.
The Appellate Body consists of seven members serving four-year terms who are eligible for reappointment once. It is the ultimate authority of dispute resolution in the World Trade Organization structure and therefore its reports are accepted as final to all disputing parties. However the reports have to be adopted by the Dispute settlement body. At a level below the Appellate body is the panel that adjudicates upon consultation processes that are started when disputes emerge (Qureshi 2008).
Challenges Facing WTO The WTO is accused of asserting its jurisdiction in areas where it has inadequate capabilities of dispute resolution. For example the Beef Hormones dispute was a general conflict of environmentalists and international trade yet the panel tasked with its settlement did not identify compatible interpretive environmental regimes and trade principles that required further development for attainment of the two goals (Layla 1998).
Over time and with the expansion of the membership of the WTO, the reaching of a consensus among member states has been difficult. In fact only the Uruguay Round is considered to be a truly comprehensive round. It is credited with the creation of disciplines to govern service and trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS) (Liang 2004).
In WTO agreements there are special provisions for developing countries that make up two thirds of its membership. These include; extended time periods for agreement and commitment implementation, support and help in building trade capacity, handling of disputes and implementation of technical standards.
All these provisions are provided by the WTO through annual technical corporate missions and courses in Geneva for government officials as aid for trade. The WTO thrives on rules established to ensure universality and openness while ensuring that there is no discrimination (World Trade Organization, n.d.).
All is not rosy in the Current Doha round of negotiations. There is an increasing lobbying voice demanding that social responsibilities in environmental care, unemployment problems and considerations for the young and the vulnerable be factored in multilateral trade agreements.
This lobby group is made up of N.G.Os, environmentalists and militant trade unions. Without WTO trade would be unfavorable for developing countries. But even with the WTO most developing countries feel that they’re getting a raw deal when it comes to benefits of multilateral trade liberalization. (Liang 2004).
The preferential treatment that the lobby groups want from the WTO is the use of trade restrictions to enforce preferred standards. These standards are necessitated by the increased sophistication of consumer goods and their production processes as claimed by the lobby group. On the other hand developing countries feel that these are opportunities being exploited for protectionist purposes.
More importantly, developing countries state that they are sovereign and should not be compelled to follow minimum environmental and labor standards (Sampson 2001). In the event that members fail to resolve an impasse and the WTO multilateral trading system collapses, international trade will not cease. There are bilateral Free Trade Area agreements among countries as well as Regional Trading Agreements and exclusive trading blocs that countries would turn to (Liang 2004).
The future of WTO is dependent on the winner between two groups with opposing views. One view is that there is a vacuum in global governance and the WTO is best suited to assume more responsibilities. The argument is that a trading system should not act alone and must include development goals and social and environmental issues.
The other view is that WTO should in fact narrow its agenda given that the United Nations already handles issues of development, human rights and labor. Instead of expanding the mandate of WTO, that of the United Nations should be strengthened.
Conclusion The World trade Organization exists mainly to regulate international trade on a near global level. It forms a forum where trade disputes between governments of the member countries can be settled through negotiations (World Trade Organization n.d.). The WTO agreements recognize the need to introduce gradually any changes especially for developing countries.
Therefore timeframes for the fulfillment of their obligations are stretched accordingly. As more rounds of negotiations are held and more members join, new issues are being raised as well as new goals for the WTO in terms of achieving a pure free market international trade. The Appellate Body as the top organ of the disputes handling mechanism handles appeals arising from disputes judged by the panel.
Bibliography Ahn, D. WTO disciplines under the IMF program: Congruence or conflict? Web.
Hoda, A. 2002, Tariff negotiations and the restriction under the GATT and the WTO, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hughes, L. 1998, ‘Limiting the jurisdiction of dispute settlement panels: the WTO appellate body beef hormone decision’ Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, HeinOnline.
Liang, M. 2004, ‘The realpolitik of multilateral trade negotiations from Uruguay to the Doha round’, Singapore year book of international law and contributors. Web.
Qureshi, A. H. 1999, ‘Extraterritorial shrimps, NGOs and the WTO Appellate Body’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 48, p 199-206
Sampson, G. P. (ed.). 2001, ‘Overview’ The role of the world trade organization in global governance, United Nations University Press, Tokyo
Skully, David W. Economics of tariff-rate quota administration, Economic Research Service/USDA. Web.
World Trade Organization, Principles of trading system. Web.
World Trade Organization, Tariffs. Web.
World Trade Organization. Technical information on balance of payments. Web.
World Trade Organization. The GATT years: from Havana to Marrakesh. Web.
Mr. Lee Gun Hee Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Mr. Lee Gun Hee’s Beginnings
Mr. Lee Gun Hee as a Stalwart in the Global Electronics Industry
Leadership Lessons to be learned from Mr. Lee Gun Hee
Introduction Current and future leaders will generate lots of priceless business strategies and other proven business secrets by studying the life of Lee Gun Hee. The study focuses on the life of Lee Gun Hee was a man of his words. The research centered on his life of making Samsung the number one product in the world. He was successful in this endeavor.
The research centers on Lee Gun Hee as an instrument in the metamorphosis of the Samsung brand from a local Korean business enterprise to the world’s number 1 electronics company. The research on the leadership style of Lee Gun Hee is very useful to current and future leaders in all industries, especially those venturing into the saturated world of the hotel and restaurant industries.
Mr. Lee Gun Hee’s Beginnings Lee Gun Hee is the chairman of Samsung Electronics. He graduated with an economics diploma. The chairman pursued his Master in Business Administration course at George Washington University deep within the confines of the United States in 1966. He was not able to finish his master’s course.
During the same year, Lee Gun Hee was elected to be a member of the prestigious International Olympic Committee. In terms of family background, he is one of the children of Samsung’s founder, Lee Byung–Chull. Forbes included Lee Gun Hee as one of the richest men of the world.
Lee Gun Hee was convicted for bribery. Lee Gun Hee proudly accepted all responsibility as one of the officers of Samsung Company. Lee Gun Hee and asked for forgiveness for the evils he orchestrated to generate more Samsung product revenues and asking for forgiveness as he resigned from Samsung. Consequently, Lee Gun Hee was incarcerated for his participation in the Samsun Slush fund scandal.
After being released from Jail, Lee Gun Hee returned to Samsung as its chairman to bring back Samsung to its former pedestal as the manufacturer of one of the best electronics brands in the world. To accomplish this task, Lee Gun Hee hired the best minds in South Korea. To ensure the continued leadership in the world electronics industry, Lee Gun Hee hired the best marketing, finance, management, and financial minds from around the world.
Mr. Lee Gun Hee as a Stalwart in the Global Electronics Industry Chris Rowley (1) emphasized Lee Gun Hee is one of the stalwarts in the busines industry in South Korea. Lee Gun Hee owned only 1.8 percent of the Samsung stocks. Hundai car owner, Chung Joo Youg, owned 12.1 percent of Samsun. Lee Gun Hee formerly owned 26.55 percent of Samsung. He reduced his shares to only 1.8 percent without changing his controlling share in company. He did not transfer his original authority to the other managers of Samsung.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This clearly shows that stock ownership percentage does not affect the control or management of the company. It was customary in South Korea for the chaebol officers, like Lee Gun Hee, to control Samsung, irrespective of their stock ownership (51). The success of Lee Gun Hee’s management style is grounded on diversification, heavy reliance on external sources of funds and aggressive investment in uncharted or unfamiliar market segments. The Korean market structure focuses on strong state –business relations.
The strong Korean state –business relationship that precipitated to the regulation of the market bring unprecedented profitability and viability to Samsung and other Korean companies. The Korean state controlled the variation of organizations among the Korean business organizations.
The Korean state’s control of the Korean business organizations has brought economic success to the Korean businesses, the community, and the state. The states control includes financial regulations, infrastructure, buildings, and innovations in the continually changing Korean economic landscape through preferential treatment for one or more Korean groups of business segments. The state controls the credit policies contracted between the creditors and the business organization borrowers.
The Korean business picture depicts high diversification instances and the maintenance of high debt to equity ratios. The Korean business climate is characterized as diversification and easy access to banks to precipitate high debt to equity ratios. Diversification is a necessary requirement for banks to approve the business organizations’ loan applications. Specifically, Samsung’s diversification ratio is 75 percent.
Further, Jake Plunketter (1) theorized Lee Gun Hee, vice chairman of Samsung in 1978 when his father, Lee Byung-Chull was one of the major owners of Samsung. The father appointed his third son, lee gun hee, as his successor to handle the management of Samsung. However, Lee Gun Hee only owned a 0.45 percent of the company’s stocks. In 1995, the son maintained control over Samsung eight years after his father died.
Lee Gun Hee metamorphosed the Samsung conglomerate from its humble pioneering status, under his father, to the current change-based management style. Lee Gun Hee was instrumental in making Samsung the largest enterprise in South Korea and a world-class trading organization. Lee Gun Hee was pivotal in transforming the Samsung organization from its 70 years of pioneering status to becoming a state of the art world power in the electronics and other related business ventures.
Lee Gun Hee singularly orchestrated the new ventures into the aerospace, genetics, and macro molecule industries. Other Samsung flagship projects under Lee Gun Hee included innovative products in the electronics, semiconductor, and communication market segments.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Mr. Lee Gun Hee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lee Gun Hee set the organization’s main goal to be a world-class family electronic appliances and communication products provider. Lee Gun Hee instituted vigorous reforms to grab a large chunk of the global business segment. Lee Gun Hee main management strategy was to instill self –discipline among the line and staff.
Consequently, Samsung’s decision making strategies blossomed to unprecedented worldwide efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability levels. Korean employees were shipped to places around the world to manage the Samsung branches. Specifically, Lee Gun Hee promoted 217 people and transferred 38 and 17 technology and globalization experts to production and administration departments around the world. In terms of management style, Lee Gun Hee emphasized the importance of decentralization.
Decentralization was a proven success after five years of its challenging implementation. In 1988, one year after Lee Gun Hee took the harness of the Samsung Corporation from his father’s death, sales had skyrocketed to 20,100 billion won. The sales figure generated a 341.1 billion won profit.
To be more effective, Jean Lee (364) proposed Lee Gun Hee toured the countries to personally manage each Samsun branch and address Samsung employees around the world in 1993. He personally changed the mindset of each employee to be globally competitive. In a U.S. meeting with its branch line staff, Lee Gun Hee emphasized that the old Samsung had died in 1986 (death of his father). The new Samsung image is to be first class in the production, service, and marketing of its worldwide products.
According to Roberto Gomez (713) emphasized there are some factors that influence the control intensity exerted by restaurant manager on their staff. Management is often strict in terms of quality service in the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry includes serving the clients’ needs in the hotel, restaurant, and other related agencies. Management’s control intensity is greater between the audits done at regular intervals.
Often, there is a connection between service quality and number of clients frequenting the restaurant, hotels, or related facilities. More specifically, there is normally more leadership control in industries where most of the clients rarely return for a second serving or booking.
Customer variability is a very complex matter in the service industry. The service providers will stand to lose lots of returning clients if their services are found wanting. According to Bronwen Cowie (47) there are four types of customer viabilities. The types are arrival variability, request variability, capability variability, effort variability, variability in subject preference.
In addition, the research indicated there are four categories of customer variability. They are classic reduction, low cost accommodation, uncompromised reduction. The study dictates the hospitality industry players must focus more attention to the unfulfilled services provided to ensure more revenues from the same market segment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mr. Lee Gun Hee by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There different leadership traits. Bronwen Cowie (47) insists another research conducted shows that leadership had been found to play a crucial role in creating a significant change in the organizations makeup. The leadership is the sole prerogative of the appointed leaders. Some of the members may act as leaders during times when the leader is at a lost.
Consequently, the leader approaches the subordinates to help contribute the success of the entire organization. The subordinate’s expertise in one facet of the hospitality management may be a useful tool in augmenting the lack in the appointed leaders’ expertise. Leadership may be inspired by one’s knowledge, dedication, loyalty, and sincerity.
A leader who notices a loyal subordinate may appoint such subordinate to contribute one’s experience in the hotel and restaurant market segment. For example, the subordinate may teach the newly hire leader the rudiments of housekeeping. The new subordinate may train the newly hired superior the best to make mixed the ingredients for a bloody Mary concoction.
There are financially straining effects of the hospitality industry relationship when the customer who does not particularly need or want the hotel’s services is being used the normal hard sell marketing strategy. The customer feels he does not need rent a room for two days because of money concerns.
Likewise, the customer may not be too enthusiastic to dine in the particular restaurant to one’s hatred for food facilities characterized by overcrowding or long lines of people eager to buy a hamburger. In addition, the high cost of the restaurant may discourage the average earner from savoring the restaurants’ sumptuous dishes. In such case, the restaurant manager may feel giving on the prospective clients.
The manager feels that would be a waste the manager’s time to talk to people on the street. The manager may feel that the prospective person has no money to pay for restaurant’s premium food prices. Likewise, some managers may feel that the client may not belong to the higher income group because one’s suit or personal appearance give a false clue that the prospective client cannot afford to pay for the high hotel room rates.
In reality, the prospective client can afford to pay for the services of the hotel as well as for the high food cost of some of the fine dining restaurant’s costly menu prices. A suspect client is a prospective client who has not money to pay for one’s purchases. Normally, the hotel or restaurant manager may presume that the jobless street beggar without any clothes on his back is such a suspect client who cannot afford to pay for the delectable dishes.
Second, Sanjay Rao reiterated (7) emphasized the prices of the competitors are lower. The company sales person must accept that clients prefer to buy products at a lower price when the benefits and quality are the same. The company will find it an uphill climb when faced with the clients’ objection such athe competitors’ products are priced lower than your products despite the similarity in the products benefits and services.
Third, William Baker (443) opined that the leaders must accept that some of the competitor’s products and services are better than the leaders’ products or services.
In similar fashion as Mr. Lee Gun Hee did not accept being a second rate copycat electronics company forever. He aspired and worked hard to produce the world class Samsung products. Consequently, the company sales person, especially the hotel and restaurant industry person must accept the reality that some of the competitors’ products are of better quality than one’s own.
For example, the smaller Japanese car runs using lesser gasoline quantities compared to the average American cars. The disparity in gasoline usage n is because the American cars are bigger than the Japanese cars. The bigger cars need more gasoline to bring them from point A to point B in the map. The sales person of a dot matrix printer must accept that the laser printers print faster and produces better quality pictures compared to the dot matrix printers.
Fourth, Usha Ramanathan (7) emphasized the competitor’s before, during, and after sales services are better. The fact remains, some products have better features than others. Current and prospective clients prefer to buy products offering better and more benefits when comparing two or more competing brands. Consequently, the company must accept that the reality that the competitors’ brands are better than their own.
For example, the electric typewriter sales person must accept that the clients will prefer to buy a personal computer to produce a word document instead of buying a typewriter. The benefits of the computer over the electric typewriter are very evident. The situation brings out a challenge to the all companies to continually innovate their products to the point where they will have the best products and the best services in the hotel, restaurant and other industries.
Fifth, Yuanquion He (197) emphasized any company’s products may have a history of poor services at one time, but not all the time. For example, the manufacturer of the Toyota car brand has been charged for the malfunction of its car computer system. Some have complained the car computer accelerates when the brakes are sometimes stepped on.
Families of car owners complained the car’s malfunctioning computer caused the lethal crash accidents. However, Toyota fixed the problem in the best possible way, the owner asking forgiveness for unintentional computer lapses.
One of the best traits of the successful leader in the hospitality industry is to include the cultural diversity of the subordinates when instruction the subordinates to do a certain task or responsibility. In this regard, the leader should allow feedback mechanisms to grow.
The feedback mechanism results will help educate the appointed leaders on the effect of each command or policy given to the subordinates. The leader may use the feedback messages to offer a sincere explanation on why one or more policies in the hotel industry or office industry. The successful leaders must have an open mind for everyone’s ideas; the subordinates have their own story or expertise to share to the leaders and owners of the hotel, restaurant, and other industry segments.
According to Scott Eacott (35), the School Strategies the leaders may use entails using strategy. Strategy means avoiding bias in the distribution of job responsibilities. The manager should not delegate jobs on the basis of one’s gender. This would be used as a ground for case of illegal discrimination. However, the leader can leadership should take into account the social, political, historical, as well as cultural factors in delegating jobs to subordinates.
Likewise, leadership includes treating each person an equal in the line and staff responsibilities. The leader must not show bias in the promotion or termination of subordinates or employees. The best leaders will show convincing authority and expertise on the subjective matter at hand. For example, the manager can demonstrate the proper way to fold a table napkin. The chef can convincingly teach the apprentice the rudiments of cooking food.
Celester Varum (19) emphasized the successful leader in a hotel industry scene can institute a quality environment from the time the prospective client walks into the hotel’s front office section to inquire amount the rates, the services, and the rules of the hotel establishment.
The hotel manager can help policy planners and other related managers in the hotel and restaurant industry to persuade prospective clients of the many benefits of checking into the hotel for a night or a week of fun and relaxation. The hotel manager must offer the best possible room service as well as other amenities of the hotel to ensure the prospective clients returns for another night or week of friendly rendezvous.
Leadership Lessons to be learned from Mr. Lee Gun Hee There are many lessons that can be drawn from studying the leadership style of Mr. Lee Gun Hee. His philosophy of giving the best to each client can be applied in the restaurant industry. The clients can be given the best quality service well within the confines of what the client has paid. However it would not be profitable to offer services to the current and prospective clients that may result to expenses exceeding the amount paid by the clients.
In addition, Mr. Lee Gun Hee was always in the forefront of the company. He would set up meetings with the subordinates to thresh out any loopholes in the company’s marketing as well as managements plans. The leaders must emulate Mr. Lee Gun Hee. The successful leaders must also visit each branch in any part of the world to see first –hand how the branch profits are being generated.
Further, Mr. Lee Gun Hee’s theory of making each member think globally instead of locally will come a long way into modernizing the hotel and restaurant industry. The leaders of today can look up to Mr. Lee Gun Hee as the prime mover in having a selfless attitude towards work. Mr. Lee Gun Hee was not in any discomfort when he visited the company’s branches around the world.
Mr. Lee Gun Hee would personally meet with the Japanese employees of the company’s branches in Japan. Mr. Lee Gun Hee would personally talk to the American employees of the Samsung branches in the United States. In the same light, the managers of the hotel and restaurant industry should also visit the employees in branches strategically located in many parts of the world.
The leaders should emulate Mr. Lee Gun Hee in presenting a no-nonsense leadership style. The leaders can emulate Mr. Lee Gun Hee by persuading and encouraging each and every employee to go that extra mile to offer the discriminating clients the best service they can give in exchange for the clients’ hard-earned money payments.
The leaders can implement Mr. Lee Gun Hee’s style of placing importance on research and development of new products and processes. In the hotel scene, the managers can offer amenities that will make the hotel stay more comfortable. The leaders can offer privacy conditions to ensure clients will continue to return to the hotel’s and the restaurant’s premises.
Further, leaders can emulate Mr. Lee Gun Hee by never accepting being the number one company as the end of the road. Instead, the leaders must continue to outdo itself in the next accounting period. Quality production should not be implemented only when the shareholders or the superiors are around.
On the contrary, excellence in terms of hotel and restaurant service delivery should a way of life, an everyday zealous endeavor to touch the lives of the mere mortals, the clients, and make pamper them in kinglike and queenlike fashion during each day’s or each weeks’ rendezvous inside the cozy hotel and restaurant premises away from the busy hectic city life.
Conclusion Based on the above discussion, the study of the leadership style of Lee Gun Hee is very beneficial to current and future leaders in all industries, especially those venturing into the complex hotel and restaurant world. The study shows that Lee Gun Hee was a man of vision. He devoted his life to making Samsung the number one product in the world.
He was successful in this endeavor. The research shows that Lee Gun Hee was instrumental in the metamorphosis of the Samsung brand from a local Korean business enterprise to the world’s number one electronics product Indeed, current and future leaders will generate lots of priceless business strategies and other proven business secrets by studying the life of Lee Gun Hee.
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