Media Analysis: Women And Men In Media Research Paper Essay Help Online Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Depiction of the third world by the U.S. press

International vs. local media

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction According to Falah (305), the U.S. media discourse about the Muslim and Arab people is majorly based on gender basis. Reports on current events from Palestine, Iraq, and other Arab countries show the ubiquity of female images in the Western media. The U.S. press has narrowly constructed and projected the Muslim women and their societal roles, for instance they have been portrayed as exotic, erotic and oppressed.

Several authors have examined the relentless demonization of Islam by the Western media, which is often likened to the Nazis during the pre Second World War period. Nevertheless, the same old question looms; what the Western media seeks to gain by portraying these people in the media in negativity? According to various media personalities, this act is fueled by the desire of Western audiences to be fed with negative news.

Western media changes the perceptions of their targeted audiences and this in turn results to stereotypes being formed, as is been the case among many Western citizens. Falah (302) looks at the headlines, photos, and captions, all which directly reflect editorial decisions. Against this background the paper attempts to probe the way in which the press and especially the print journalism help to produce and to reproduce specific ways of knowing the third world.

Depiction of the third world by the U.S. press In today’s world a lot of what is in the media concerning third world countries and issues touching on women and men as a whole in these countries are more than often portrayed in negative light of what is really the case for them. The Westerners are constantly being fed with negative opinions and deep-seated perceptions about the lives of people in third world countries.

Consequently, it results to people forming their own perceptions even though they have very little, accurate and tangible information, this leads to stereotyping and prejudicing of women and men in third world countries. People’s perceptions and the resulting stereotyping are heavily hinged on the media role of shaping these opinions in today’s world.

Importance must be accorded and insisted on critically examining any information obtained on issues to do with third world countries. Mitchell (10) states that “outside the United States, everyone knows the U.S. is the most influential country in the world. Its economics, education, politics, technology, science, and culture, just to name a few areas, color the world’s every socio-economic fabric”.

One has to strive to answer a number of questions within their subconscious so as to try and desist from stereotyping. This includes issues such as: whether the west becomes more informed after being fed with this inconsequential information; or the consequences befalling the people being portrayed in this kind of information; and the roles local and national media should take up in countering this and shaping opinions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The media paints a picture of women in third world countries for the U.S public, as one of oppressed, workers whose place is the kitchen, poor, submissive, not able to take up leadership roles, subservient and much more. Men are not left behind; they are being portrayed as wife batterers, impotent due to alcoholism, indolent, drunkards and good for nothing people who don’t care for their wives and children (Hicks np).

The big question here is; what led/leads to the portraying of the third world as is being done today and what picture is being portrayed to western audiences? A lot of these conclusions stem out of a misunderstanding of cultures of most third world people. There are no concrete reasons on why stereotyping and prejudicing of women and men in third world countries in western media sources is constantly being practiced (Zucchino 10-13).

Cultures and traditions such as those found in Africa and parts of Asia dictate the roles of women as that of housewives who take care of the home and grow crops with the help of their daughters. Education among girls is not a priority like that of boys in these types of cultures. Media coverage has and is always comparing women in third world countries to those of the western world.

The interest generated towards third world countries by western countries on the resource an untapped wealth is what drives media to pay negative attention towards the third world. Chavis (np) stated that the negative portrayal of the third world as seen today is as a result of “artificial territorial boundaries across communal lands, forced European acculturation, etc., were sanctioned by every institution in the societies (of Europe)”.

The early media during “Darwinian era carriers on the tradition of stereotyping prejudicing, bias and disdain often are warp and woof of media coverage when Africa” and the third world “is the subject”(European Commission np). The third world is treated as full of hate and showing a desire to harm others rather than as a fundamental, universal part of the world. Western media goes ahead to show women and men in the third world as people who are valueless.

Falah (304) notes that the media’s role as a “corporate, social and cultural institution needs to be analyzed in relation to other institutions such as those of the polity and economy.” There exists according to the van Dijk, a more than direct link connecting “societal racism, elite ideology and production of news by journalists”.

The process of news processing and production is “informed by and to a certain extent is the manifestation of racism at the macro level of society and state” (Falah 305). Headline structures, leads, organization of stories, style of writing, and overall selection of topics deemed newsworthy are issues controlled in some way by “the societal context of power relations.”

We will write a custom Research Paper on Media analysis: Women and Men in Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More More often than not powerful individuals and elites in the society, institutions and groups especially corporate giants in any given society touching on the economy, political and social aspects of life are able to influence and control media access which results to them being portrayed in the media. As a result “elite versions of the ‘facts’, their definitions of reality, will tend to prevail over those of other, non-dominant groups.”

A number of queries come to mind when looking at what the western media packages for their consumers: the way images of America, the West, the Third World the developing world, western culture, Asian culture, African culture, overpopulation, immigrants, and other historically marginalized people are portrayed; in what ways are gender, race, sexuality, and class set out in these depictions; the kinds of generalization being made about the object of a story; the stereotypes and negative or positive images of women in the Third World in discussions centering on “us”/”them,” “west/non-west,” and “self” (Falah 306).

Western media organizations usually make use of various ways and methods of operation to purposely unload negative news, images and information when “reporting, communicating, or disseminating anything pertaining to Africa and the third world” (Saroop, 2010). Africa’s multicultural polyethnic, polyreligious, multipolitical, and mega economic dynamics and its immeasurable natural wealth which make it very vulnerable to the west, have been reduced to naught by the stroke of a western journalist’s pen.

The lifestyles of Africans and the continent as a whole are constantly being painted as “a bastion of disease, savagery, animism, pestilence, war, famine, despotism, primitivism, poverty, and ubiquitous images of children, flies in their food and faces, their stomachs distended” (willenz 200). The question whether the western media paints women and men as independent and act on their own freewill or as helpless individuals relying on the west for aid and other handouts, does not clearly receive accurate information and facts to answer it.

“American communicators have a serious obligation to make the American public more aware of the rest of the world and the influence it has on it. Americans will never understand the negative criticism that comes more and more from around the world unless they begin to see how life is really lived on the other side of the fence” (Sserwanga 8) . This can be attributed to the constant negativity in western media for consumption of Americans.

It is not helped in any way by including local media, as they do not have that kind of influence to create an impression on audiences. This can be due to the fact that they too are being put in one category as the rest of the third world peoples. These messages and pictures of women and men in third world countries are overtly powerful and subconscious, are beamed globally to television audiences, through print media, by use of radio services and other modern technological advances being embraced today.

They give an impression to intended target audiences of something that is “not first-rate, perennially problematic unworthiness, deplorability, black, foreboding, loathing, sub humanity” (Sister Namibia 9). In contrast to this, very little is said about the positivity of Africa and other third world countries.

The Westerners are not aware of the third world’s importance to the rest of the world: its indispensability and significance to further development of the world; universal embracing of technology; “and the wealth of nations, derived from involuntary African largesse”. This is usually not commended or given the positive light it deserves in the media. Daily Observer (np) argues that “The amorphous news spin is America has to protect her strategic interests and national security”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Media analysis: Women and Men in Media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What drives the negativity towards the third world men and women and Muslim women in particular? This can be deduced out of the fact that journalists lay emphasis on bad news, either from direction from their editors or employers, media owners such as: National Public Radio (NPR), the Star Tribune, the Pioneer Press, New York Times, the Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, 60 Minutes, Frontline, CNN, or the BBC who insist on this so as to make money.

The emphasis on bad news might also stem out of trying to satisfy their audiences’ desire for such kind of news (Business Wire 15; BBC np).

A case in point is that of the United States invasion of Iraq and the subsequent occupation by the U.S military. Western journalists did not focus on the positive gains the Iraqi leaders have achieved, but hide or downplay the truth and focus on the negatives. In some cases this does not work effectively for them as the public becomes discontent with the type of information being offered to them.

It is unethical and against the code of conduct for reporters and journalists to keep away the truth with other intentions in mind; of either elevating certain powers over others, making third world countries feel inferior, using the media to punish enemies and much more. The case of Iraq, the western media is not justifiable to overlook the positive gains in that country. It is their responsibility and duty to provide accurate, true, and reliable information to their target audiences (Smith-Spark 35; Gibbons np).

International vs. local media Local media emphasizes on actual happenings and tries to portray the country they are in positively. Through the local media the locals are empowered to make their country a better place to live in and this is not only good for the media but also the local people. On the other hand, the international media tends to emphasize on the negative aspects of the country be it war, famine, civil wars, disease outbreaks, violence connected to elections just to mention but a few.

An example is the post election violence that took place in Kenya in 2008, the international media such as: CNN, the BBC, Aljazeera stressed on only the areas where the violence was at its peak capturing the graphic captions of the killings of people and replaying the scenes over and over yet there were places that violence did not take place (Gettleman np).

International media tries to get sympathy from the international community by over using the negative aspects of the country they are in. This in turn tends to make the locals lose their self-esteem due to the way they are portrayed internationally. International media also tends to focus on certain third world countries and ignore others.

Take for example the Rwanda 1994 genocide was not televised effectively to the western audiences that led to the international community to ignore the situation in Rwanda. If the international media had effectively portrayed the genocide the western audiences would have responded to the genocide and the causalities would not have been as high as they were.

Local media in the third world countries tend to look for inspiring stories to empower the third world men and women so as to develop the under developing countries further. Local media looks at the actual happenings that take place in the country; they tend to rely on factual information and emphasize on actual happenings in the third world countries.

Journalist have wholly embraced the obligation entrusted to them and tehy6 take their seriously do it zealously for example John Allan Namu 2009 CNN African journalist of the year and Mohammed Ali who teamed up to fight social injustices committed to the Kenyan people. Through coming up with factual stories containing investigated facts that are credible, true, and timely: in this way the credibility of local reporters and journalists to rise among their targeted audiences (Piansay np).

The role played by media organizations in shaping of opinions of their audience depends on the content the media is reporting on and how the message is perceived. The media tends to induce perceptions in their audience for example if a television station portrays an election candidate in a wrong way the audience is more than not to believe the perception. This shows the power the media wields over their audiences.

Conclusion The role of the media in shaping perceptions and opinions of the people gives them an upper hand on determining what to write, the stories to run in their publications, and pictures to put in newspapers and much more. Stereotyping has been promoted towards the third world by the third world men and women through the constant production of information that is not true or factual and lacking credibility.

Reporters and journalists have an obligation and a duty to provide true information and not hold anything back to serve their own interests and those of the elite of the society. In order for the West to be able to understand the third world and the negativity that is portrayed by their media organization every day, they have to see how and possibly experience the lives of people in the third world.

Without this they will never truly get to understand and will only rely to the biased media to give them half truths and incomplete information. Local media should be given more emphasis as this is the only way the perceptions and opinions than are doing the round universally will be changed. The western media on the other hand should change their outlook on the third world and third world women and women.

They should also not focus on the negative aspects of the third world, this may help to create and generate more cooperation in terms of industrial technological advancements, funding and subsidies from western developed countries.

Third world countries would boost their confidence and be able to mingle with the developed countries. Big international media corporations should also have interactions with local media in third world countries where they can share experiences and ways on how to portray the third world and advocate against stereotyping third world men and women.

Works Cited BBC-commissioned study. “Iraq war TV coverage ‘sanitised.” British Broadcasting Corporation. 2 Dec 2010. Web.

Business Wire. “VMS Media Analysis Expert Calls For “Communications Realignment” As Media Options Explode.” Business Wire 15th November 2010: 15. Print.

Chavis, Rod. “Africa in the Western Media.” Sixth Annual African Studies Consortium Workshop, October 02, 1998. 4th Aug 2010. Web.

Daily Observer. “Advancing Women in the Media: What Really Do We Want?” Daily Observer December 1, 2010: 5. Print.

European Commission. “Scientists piece together EU media structure.” Cordis 9th November 2010. Web.

Falah, Ghazi-Walid. Visual representation of muslim/arab women in daily newspapers. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010. Print

Gettleman, Jeffrey. “Pain Lingers From 2007 Vote in Kenya.” New York Times, 4th Aug 2010. Web.

Gibbons, Sheila. “Inequities Persist for Women in Media.” WeNews 21st Jan 2004. Web.

Hicks, Robin. “Are women better at understanding social media?” Asia Pacific futureGov. 6th Dec 2010. Web.

Mitchell, John. “A Reflection on Media in the Third World.” Center for Media Literacy 7 Dec. 2010: 10. Print.

Piansay, Eming. “Official Participant in the Youth Media Blog-a-Thon.” New America Media. 10th Nov 2008. Web.

Saroop, Ijaz. “Analysis: Media democracy.” Daily Times November 17, 2010: 10. Print.

Sister Namibia. “Women and men in the news in Southern Africa.” Goliath 1st Jan 2003: 1-10. Print.

Smith-Spark, Laura. “Is the Iraq war vanishing from US view?” BBC News, Washington. 8 December 2010: 35. Print.

Sserwanga, Moses. “Uganda: CHOGM; We Want Fair Trade, Not Aid.” The Monitor 8 Dec 2010: 16. Print.

Willenz, Pam. “Men and women found more similar than portrayed in popular media.” EurekAlert 18-Sep-2005: 6-9. Print.

Zucchino, David. “THE WORLD; Afghanistan’s Female Pioneers in Print; Media: Journalists cover ‘men’s turf’ in a weekly billed as the nation’s first independent paper run by women for women.” Los Angeles Times 9th May 2002: 9-16. Print.

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Domestic Violence and Elderly Abuse- A Policy Statement Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Facts of the Case

Policy

Public Opinion

Recommendations

Reference List

Introduction In a fast paced world driven by economic and commercial considerations, it is not hard to find people getting mistreated. When the people under question are weak, such treatment is all the more pronounced. That is possibly the reason why people who have a hard time at the office, vent out their feelings at home. It is also true that people, who just enjoy subjugation of others, do so at their home. In our world, the weak can be listed in their increasing order of weakness as follows: the women, the elderly and of course, the children. Invariably all of them face the brutality of domestic violence in one form or the other. In some cases, there are also weak men who are subjected to this harassment by their family members.

Facts of the Case A study conducted by Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes (2000) indicate that there are more than a million women and about eight hundred thousand men annually assaulted by their intimate partners at home. The US crime records indicate that there is numerous non fatal crime records registered due to domestic violence.

Out of all non fatal violence recorded in such criminal records, 20% of these are on women due to their intimate partners at home (Rennison CM 2003). The same figure stood at 3% for domestic violence against men committed by their intimate partners (Rennison CM 2003) on them.

Callie Marrie Rennison had conducted the study on data pertaining to 2001. She also points out that out of murders committed on females, 33% or one third of all female murder victims are committed by their intimate partners at home and 4% of the male murder victims are committed out of domestic violence. This works out to more than 1,247 women and 440 men dead in the US due to domestic violence.

A number of studies have been conducted in the US to understand the extent of Elderly abuse in the society. It has been recorded through research that over 1 million seniors who are over 65 years of age have been abused or ill treated by people whom they looked up for protection (Richard J. Bonnie

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Behaviors That Build Trust and Behaviors That Hurt Trust Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The vast majority of relations which are developed between people are based on trust and abilities to comprehend the needs of other people. To create strong and professional relations, it is very important to remember that trust is a reciprocal notion: a person has to give it in order to get it (Reina 11). If a person is not able to gain trust in a certain group of people, it could be hard for him/her to continue developing communication in future.

This is why it is necessary to remember about those behaviors that may build trust properly as well as to consider those behaviors that may hurt trust and destroy reputation. There are many communication strategies and game plans with the help of which it is possible to use the idea of trust in everyday life, however, it is not always easy to choose the most effective and the most interesting method and meet the goals set.

In this paper, different types of behavior will be evaluated to understand how it is possible build trust with the help of respect, straight talks, and clarification of goals, have appropriate grounds to develop relations, and prove that personal achievements may be improved with the help of properly organized game plan.

To build trust and introduce good relations on an appropriate level, it is very important to understand that any relationship has two types of trust accounts: “the way you perceive the amount of trust in a relationship and the way the other person perceives it may be different” (Covey and Merrill 132).

This is why one of the behaviors that has to be considered is respect to each other. Only in case people respect each other opinion, idea, and suggestion, they may build trust. For example, in the company, there is a leader who considers his position as the only right one in the team.

He does not find it necessary to evaluate other suggestions, respect the opinions of other members of a team and organize straight talks. Though there is a certain order in such relations and clearly defined goals, there is no trust because there is no respect to each other. A leader is not aware of the way of how his team perceives relations. This is why there is no chance to built trustful relations in such team.

Taking into consideration this example, it is possible to define behaviors that hurt trust and decrease the productivity’s levels. Brief and unclear talks, inabilities to spend much time, rare communications with each other, and hidden goals which are achieved by each member of a team separately are the main reasons of why trust may be hurt. People have to realize that there is some connection that is common for all of them, and trustful relations cannot be developed in case at least one person does not seek to trust the others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The game plan that is more preferable for those who want to safe trust in relation is to memorize the main aspects, the algorithms of relations, and the components. “Every interaction with every person is a moment of trust. The way you behave in that moment will either build or diminish trust” (Covey and Merrill 135).

This is why if a person wants to have strong and trustful relations, it is necessary to start trusting other people and to make them trust you. Only if this plan is kept in mind, there are the chances to demonstrate how mature and sincere your intentions are.

Works Cited Covey, Stephen and Merrill, Rebecca. The Speed of Trust: The One Thing that Changes Everything”. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.

Reina, Dennis. Trust

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Boosting a person’s Esteem Term Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction Human beings have a self image of how they look like, their weaknesses and strong points. This image is shaped from childhood and influenced by the society and the people we live with. This self image leads to self esteem. When a person think that he is inferior t0 their peers in one way or another, leads to low self esteem (McKay

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New York versus Hong Kong Compare and Contrast Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

New York and Hong Kong are among the biggest cities in the world. These two cities possess very different aspects. A quick glance at the streets of New York will leave one shocked. The streets and path ways are full of garbage that lies unattended. This shows that the local authorities in New York don’t pay attention to cleanliness.

To make it worse you will still find people peeing on the side walks. They do it with so much confidence because they don’t seem to be bothered by passers by. However the people of New York are quite outspoken therefore one should expect frequent compliments and vice versa. I mean if they really like something about you they will let you know.

New York City is not crowded compared to Hong Kong where one can’t see beyond a hundred yards. But then the crowds of New York are rather noisy because it’s in this city where you will find people who are drunk before sun set.

The side walks of Hong Kong are free from litter and thus one would be ashamed if he/she tries to litter around. The people of Hong Kong don’t talk much hence they are rather shy so do not expect someone to look you in the eye and tell you to zip up. They simply don’t poke their noses into other people’s affairs unless you bother them. Mind you Hong Kong have the strictest laws in the world, so if one finds himself on the wrong side of the law he/she should be ready to face the music.

The population of New York comprises of people who relocated from different parts of the world hence they brought their cultures with them. In this city you will come across Muslims, Jews, Latin Americans and every kind you can think of because the constitution here gives people freedom to exercise their cultures.

In fact the different cultures can never be in conflict because the people here accept their differences. Same-sex marriages in New York are allowed so don’t be surprised when you see two men or women kissing in public places. That can not happen in Hong Kong. The Asians are the majority apart from the few immigrants who have gone there to do business.

If you are a business person, Hong Kong is the best place for you because their commodities are relatively cheap. If one was to buy the same commodities in New York they would cost double. That’s why most traders are going for Chinese merchandise because they are cheap. However their commodities are not durable so in other words they are expensive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance if you bought Chinese bulbs they are cheap but they can’t last longer like the ones from Europe and England which are specifically found in New York. But there are people who argue that one can find durable commodities in Hong Kong but that depends on whether you are ready to cough more money.

The most common kinds of food in Hong Kong are wheat and rice. The foods in Hong Kong include meals that were adopted from other nations that interacted with Hong Kong during the colonial period and later on in trade. The food joints in Hong Kong serve foods in small portions and therefore one has to eat several meals in a day.

May be that’s why most people in this city are thin compared to the people of New York who tend to be overweight because the restaurants in New York such as MacDonald’s serve food in large portions. In Hong Kong the meals are usually complimented with duck meat and as well as fish. The meals are heavily spiced.

If you order for spaghetti in Hong Kong the waiter will place two chopsticks on the side of your plate because most people in this city use chopsticks instead of forks. If you have never used chopsticks before you should ask the waiter to give you some tips or just ask him/her to bring you a fork.

There are some foods that are common both in Hong Kong and New York, such as MacDonald’s burger. In New York the waiter can rarely serve you without issuing you napkins but contrary to that in Hong Kong napkins are no where to be seen they assume napkins are meant for babies. It’s therefore recommended that one should come with his own napkin or tissue when dining in Hong Kong. Their cutlery is not complicated like that of New York because if they are not using chopsticks they opt to use their hands.

In New York one has to get used to using the napkin. The cutlery is also complex because a waiter may bring you an omelet and place a fork, a knife and a spoon on the side of your plate. The Hong Kong tea is usually without milk and is served in small cups hence if you are used to drinking a whole mug of tea you will have to drink several cups to quench your thirst. In New York the milk is plenty but still if one wants to have black tea it’s available.

The side walk stalls in Hong Kong are convenient for people who want to have a simple meal. In New York people don’t like buying food from street shops because the cleanliness of their dishes has not been verified, since their adjacent areas are dirty.

We will write a custom Essay on New York versus Hong Kong specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Hong Kong is overcrowded, it would be wise to travel in public means because if you chose to use your own vehicle you may be late for your destination and in the final end you may not secure a parking space. Additionally, there are not enough gasoline stations in Hong Kong hence if you run out of fuel you will have to cover longer distances before you find a gasoline station.

Public transport in Hong Kong comprises of electric trains and escalators which move very first but one can still walk if his/her destination is not far. Although cycling is common in other parts of china it’s not present in Hong Kong because the landscape is hilly hence cycling would be very tiring.

The ancient form of transport in New York was water but it has been reengineered to integrate both road and rail transport. There are tunnels that run below the rivers and lakes that are used as paths by vehicles and electric trains. The idea of tunnels was introduced because New York is also hilly like Hong Kong hence it has several water bodies that occupy the greatest percentage of ground.

Public transport in New York includes commuter trains that operate day and night. There are so many people who own vehicles in New York and yet very few of them drive to work. This is because public means is considered cheap and faster. Motorists are usually held in traffic during peak hours because the electric trains are given the first priority.

Shopping in Hong Kong is fan because the shopping stores are strategically located at the convenience of commuters. I prefer to buy at least a simple garment from every time I visit a city for the first time because the garment will be a reminder of the fun I had in that city.

For instance, if you want to purchase low cost clothes you should pay a visit to Argyle center. There are some stores in Hong Kong that are designated for ladies wear so if you are a lady who is conscious about fashion you should consider shopping at lady’s street market. In this market you will find ladies items like beauty products, female foot wear and clothing.

There have been allegations that claim that the merchandise in Hong Kong is mostly comprised of imitated brands therefore some people argue that they are not durable. This also applies to electronic products; so next time you shop in Hong Kong make sure the item you are about to purchase has a valid guarantee.

In New York the department stores offer their sales in fixed price tags hence if you are not well loaded pocket wise don’t shop in New York. For those who don’t care about commodity price there are so many items that can be bought from New York and they include designer cosmetics and clothing labels. For those who are obsessed about jewelry New York is the place to be. Most people show of their expensive jewelry because that’s the culture of hip hop artists.

Not sure if you can write a paper on New York versus Hong Kong by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The people of New York are known for integrating jewelry into almost everything such as in automobiles where the rims are made from gold. It is common to find people who possess diamond teeth in New York. In Hong Kong nobody dares to put on expensive jewelry for fear of apprehension.

Crime in New York has been on the decline due to the installation of surveillance cameras on most streets hence the New York police department is able to observe the events taking place in the streets. The only kind of crime that is persistent is homicide hence unless you ruffle other people’s feathers you don’t have to be afraid of walking alone at night. The by-laws of New York were amended such that one can not own several guns at the same time.

Crime rate in Hong Kong is also very low and it’s only done in discreet by organized gangs that extort money from small businesses and other enterprises at night. Prostitution is also common at night. These gangs are also involved in ferrying drugs but then they carry out their tasks without attracting attention.

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Physician-Assisted Suicide Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Literature Review

Conclusion

References

Abstract This paper explores four scholarly articles that report on physician-assisted suicide. It draws its arguments from several sources that discuss the controversial decisions that doctors are expected to make. This paper examines Manning’s (1998) work on Euthanasia in relation to Gorsuch’s (2006) research.

Manning (1998) asserts that physician-assisted suicide is an act that requires a substantial amount of scrutiny before it is ever executed. Gorsuch (2006) argues that physician-assisted suicide should only be considered if the patient’s wellbeing is at stake. This paper highlights the different opinions within the fields of law and medicine. This paper also examines the moral and ethical decisions that doctors are expected to make with regard to euthanasia.

Introduction The medical community is always at a crossroads when it comes to making life-threatening decisions. Physicians are not permitted to assist patients in committing suicide. Doctors are often forced to make morbid decisions. Nevertheless, they are guided by a code of ethics. However, the American Society of Internal Medicine does not encourage physician-assisted suicide (Gorsuch, 2006). Physician-assisted suicide challenges the norms of medical professionalism (Manning, 1998).

According to Gorsuch (2006), the Hippocratic Oath enables doctors to make logical decisions. Helping a patient to commit suicide is similar to a breach of contract. Encouraging or legalizing physician-assisted suicide is a decision that the medical community does not support. There is too much controversy involved. The Hippocratic Oath requires doctor to put the patients’ needs above their own (Manning, 1998).

According to Cauthen (1998), “It also forbids the taking of fees for teaching medicine. This tells us that we have to judge each tenet by its own merits and not regard it as a final authority in all matters. The American Medical Association has consistently condemned physician-assisted suicide as an unethical practice” (p. 1). As such, the courts and the medical community should institute structures that regulate such procedures. There are extreme cases, which may require physician-assisted suicide.

Literature Review Statistical data has shown that public opinion favors physician-assisted suicide (Gorsuch, 2006). This is only evident in extreme cases, where the patient is likely to experience a slow and painful demise (Manning, 1998). The Hippocratic Oath often takes precedence over physician-assisted suicide. Doctors are expected to save lives. Taking a patient’s life is a decision that has not yet been determined by the courts.

Euthanasia refers to killing a person to ease their suffering (Manning, 1998). Manning asserts that there are two types of euthanasia. Active euthanasia is a process that occurs when a person administers drugs to ease the suffering of a terminally ill patient (Manning, 1998). Passive euthanasia is the act of withdrawing or withholding treatment that may sustain a given patient (Gorsuch, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Passive euthanasia is legal if when it corresponds to several medical procedures (Gorsuch, 2006). Passive euthanasia was performed in the case of Karen Quinlan (Manning, 1998). “Physicians argued that she was in an irreversible coma, caused by a drug overdose. Her life support system was withdrawn after the court ruled in her parent’s favor” (Gorsuch, 2006, p. 87).

Euthanasia is an established medical procedure (Manning, 1998). Most policy makers encourage doctors to act as caregivers and healers. Patient-assisted suicide goes against only one of these principles. A physician should tend to the needs of his patients. This may include withholding treatment if the patient decides that he does not want it.

Physician-assisted suicide refers to administering drugs to hasten a patient’s demise (Gorsuch, 2006). Most scholars argue that euthanasia refers to the act of killing a person o ease his suffering (Manning, 1998). The term loosely refers to taking a person’s life to ease their suffering.

Levin (2003) describes euthanasia as the act of killing a person who has an untreatable illness to ease their suffering. Voluntary active euthanasia is the process of injecting a patient with a deadly concoction upon their request.

“Involuntary euthanasia occurs when a medical provider or some other person administers a lethal dose of a drug to a patient without the patient’s specific request” (Levin, 2003, p. 1). This is a crime. It is an act of murder and the offender should face prosecution. A patient’s consent is paramount when it comes to withholding or administering treatment.

Physician-assisted suicide lacks unanimous support due to several conflicting factors. A patient may display some psychiatric symptoms (Manning, 1998). These symptoms may encourage the patient to seek medical assistance in committing suicide. The medical community does not stand for such behavior among its physicians.

“Since 1992, proposed legislation authorizing physician-assisted suicide has failed in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington” (Levin, 2003, p. 1). Patients suffering from psychosis should be given other modes of treatment such as counseling and rehabilitation (Gorsuch, 2006).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Physician-Assisted Suicide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some patients cannot afford to pay their medical bills. They would rather die than live in abject poverty. Some patients cannot afford to clear their medical expenses.

Such patients seek physician-assisted suicide. “According to recent surveys, a majority of doctors in some areas — 60% in Oregon, 56% in Michigan, and 54% in Great Britain — favor the practice in extreme circumstances” (Cauthen, 1998, p. 1). Gorsuch (2006) asserts that physician-assisted suicide is a practice that should only be acceptable if the patient is likely to die from the disease.

Withdrawing life support is an example of euthanasia (Gorsuch, 2006). It is not a form of physician-assisted suicide. Patients on life support are often given the chance to sign a Do Not Resuscitate Order if the need to do so should ever arise (Manning, 1998).

This disclaimer ensures that the patient does not receive life support when it seems necessary. Sometimes the decision falls on the patient’s spouse or next of kin. The person responsible for signing the document takes part in the process of euthanasia. This is only performed if the patient has little chance of surviving certain medical procedures.

Unrelenting discomfort encourages most patients to seek physician-assisted suicide (Manning, 1998). Some medical procedures employ the use of painkillers. Physicians may lower the dosage of such drugs to ensure that the patient does not become addicted to the medication (Gorsuch, 2006).

Such patients may continue to experience unrelenting discomfort. They may even seek physician-assisted suicide as a means to escape their seemingly torturous experience. According to Cauthen (1998), “most people recognize that taking the life of a violent aggressor to preserve one’s own life is permissible if this is the only way to keep from being murdered” (p. 1)

Manning (1998) argues that old patients suffering from untreatable illnesses should be given the right to choose physician-assisted suicide. Cauthen’s (1998) study states the following:

The restricted argument for physician-assisted suicide does not logically authorize the killing of all innocent people but only those whose who meet all three requirements stipulated. It is illegitimate to abstract some remote generalized feature and make deductions from it as if all the other factors don’t matter. They do matter. Circumstances alter cases. Hence, each situation must be taken up on its own with all its necessary features intact. Each situation has a configuration of components that are essential to it — all of which must be honored.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Physician-Assisted Suicide by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To show that a slippery slope is present, it would be necessary to show that no relevant differences exist between a first step that is justified and subsequent steps that are not. If no relevant differences arise, the subsequent steps should also be acceptable.

If relevant differences are present, they must be taken into account to determine whether they draw a line that should not be crossed. A more formidable version of the slippery slope argument contends that the more general postulate in the defense of assisted death is the principle of individual autonomy.

If one believes that an individual has an unlimited right to determine when life has become intolerable, then obviously this cannot logically be restricted to cases in which the patient is dying and in intractable physical distress. People in all sorts of conditions might conclude that life had become hopelessly intolerable and opt for death (p. 1).

Terminally ill patients are major candidates for physician-assisted suicide. Some scholars have argued that such a patient reserves the right to choose how they intend to die (Gorsuch, 2006). A terminally ill patient engaging in physician-assisted suicide saves his family from escalating medical costs.

Some medical procedures only delay the inevitable. Doctors often inform the patients whenever risks are involved. Physicians are also advised to inform the patient of the potential risks involved when carrying out certain procedures. Physicians should also discuss procedures that may only prolong the patient’s suffering. They should help the patient to choose from a certain number of options.

Patients have the legal right to decide what kind of treatment they prefer (Manning, 1998). This depends on the options that are offered by the physician. Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment is a practice that is well established within the medical community (Gorsuch, 2006). In such cases, patients are expected to sign a disclaimer. This document ensures that no legal action is taken against the doctor should any complications arise (Manning, 1998). It also protects the patient’s interests.

A hospital can save on time and resources if physician-assisted suicide is applied in extreme cases. Manning (1998) argues that doctors and orderlies should spend most their resources on patients who may have a higher chance of survival. This process can save the lives of more healthy patients. It may seem cruel but it is effective. Doctors would rather save lives than waste valuable resources.

Terminally ill patients are often treated in the Intensive Care Unit. They need more medical resources than other patients do. Those who choose to engage in physician assisted suicide save both time and resources, which other patients may need.

Terminally ill patients and their relatives experience a lot of emotional pain and discomfort. Physician-assisted suicide can give them the closure they need (Gorsuch, 2006). Keeping the patient alive can be a slow and traumatizing experience for all the parties involved. According to Manning (1998), “patients would rather die with dignity than be reduced to a slow and painful death” (p. 114).

Doctors can harvest the vital organs of terminally ill patients who have engaged in physician-assisted suicide (Gorsuch, 2006). Gorsuch (2006) argues that these transplants can save the lives of other patients with curable conditions.

Manning (1998) argues that laws can be constructed to meet the needs of terminally ill patients. Legislative incentives can be put in place to regulate the use of physician-assisted suicide.

Other scholars argue against the use of physician-assisted suicide. Gorsuch (2006) argues that despite its many advantages, physician-assisted suicide violates the Hippocratic Oath. It can be used as an excuse to commit suicide under false pretenses.

Passing a law that permits physician-assisted suicide can encourage patients and doctors to abuse of its principles (Gorsuch, 2006). Patients suffering from psychosis may use physician-assisted suicide to escape from their own treatable illnesses (Manning 1998). Irresponsible doctors may use it to justify their mistakes.

Physician-assisted suicide does not correspond with several religious beliefs (Gorsuch, 2006). Most religions do not condone suicide. Religious groups argue that life is sacred (Manning, 1998). Medical miracles have occurred on several occasions. Terminally ill patients have a sliver of hope. Doctors can sometimes, misdiagnose a patient. In such situations, physician-assisted suicide may not be an option. “Fewer abuses might occur if current practices were open to scrutiny and regulation” (Cauthen, 1998).

Terminally ill patients take risks whenever they ask their physicians for assistance in committing suicide. Levin (2003) states that, “physician-assisted suicide became legal in the state of Oregon on October 27, 1997. From the date of legalization through December 31, 2000, there have been seventy reported cases of people utilizing the law to end their lives” (p. 1).

Conclusion Most people who commit suicide suffer from depression and anxiety (Gorsuch, 2006). Terminally ill patients are in a class of their own. Manning (1998) asserts that adequate pain relief is not responsible for the decisions that patients make with regard to physician-assisted suicide. Gorsuch (2006) agrees and argues that physicians should always prioritize the relief of their patients’ suffering.

“The main abuse now existing, however, is that by denying terminally ill patients a choice in hopeless situations, we consign those whose misery cannot be relieved to pointless, needless agony” (Cauthen, 1998, p. 1). Physician-assisted suicide is a complex and sensitive topic of discussion (Manning, 1998). Legislation is a possibility that needs to be scrutinized before an actual law can be passed (Gorsuch, 2006).

Such a law should protect the rights of terminally ill patients as well as comatose patients on life support (Manning, 1998). Cauthen (1998) argues that physician-assisted suicide should only be legalized if it corresponds to the following conditions; “1) The patient must be hopelessly ill and near death, (2) mentally competent, (3) in great and uncontrollable pain or discomfort, and (4) make a voluntary request to be given assistance in hastening death” (Cauthen, 1998, p. 1).

If all the necessary steps are taken, both active and passive euthanasia can be adopted as ethical medical procedures (Levin, 2003). Patients reserve the right to end their suffering (Levin, 2003). The procedure can offer a permanent solution to the problem.

References Cauthen, K. (1998). Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Web.

Gorsuch, N. M. (2006). The future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. New Forum, 21(1), 227-308.

Levin, M. (2003). Physician-Assisted Suicide: Legality and Morality. What is Physician Assisted Suicide? Web.

Manning, M. (1998). Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide. Killing or Caring?, 47(1), 102-125.

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New product development Essay argumentative essay help

There are various stages that have to be followed in coming up with a new product that will suit the market. In this case, our product will have to go through various stages before it is fully commercialized in the market. Therefore, new product development is a good process within the company’s strategic plan that needs to be well attended to (Koen, 2004, p. 8). As a matter of fact, our product will go through the following stages.

Idea generation

In this stage, ideas for the new product will be obtained through various channels. In a broad perspective, the company can get these ideas by conducting a good SWOT analysis. These ideas can also come from consumer and market trends (Ullman, 2009, p. 5). Employees and our sales men will play an important role in coming up with new ideas that will help us to develop and launch our new product.

Idea screening

Ideas that have been generated will be screened to come up with the best outcome. This will be done to eliminate unsound concepts that might not suit our market. Screening is necessary before resources can be devoted to the whole process of developing the new product (Koen, 2004, p. 12).

Concept development and testing

In this stage, the company will develop the engineering and marketing details that have to be used. This will include looking for the target market, the amount it will cost to develop the product and how the market will react (Ullman, 2009, p. 15).

Business analysis

Business analysis can be done by looking at various market dynamics. In this case, the company will have to come up with a price, estimate sales and project the break even point and profitability (Koen, 2004, p. 17).

Market testing and beta testing

In this stage, the company will have to test the product in the market and make the necessary adjustments in relation to customer needs and expectations (Ullman, 2009, p. 15). This will help the company to evaluate if the product is acceptable in the market.

Technical implementation

Technical implementation includes various processes that have to be followed or initiated (Ullman, 2009, p. 21). This include; resource estimation, logistical planning, contingencies, supplier collaboration and others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Commercialization

In this stage, the company will now launch the product in the market (Koen, 2004, p. 23). As a matter of fact, the company will run various promotions and advertisements to popularize the new product in the market.

New product pricing

New product pricing involves various aspects that relate to the new product in the market. These aspects revolve around value segments of the product, product costs and value analysis (Ullman, 2009, p. 25). All this aspects should be evaluated because pricing will play an important role in the success of the product in the market.

Ideas There are various approaches that will be used to get ideas on the new product. As a matter of fact, the company will use distinct approaches and mechanisms to idea generation to get the best possible outcome. In this case, the company will carry out a basic research based on SWOT analysis (Ullman, 2009, p. 28). Other ideas will come from the current and existing consumers and market trends. It should be known that the company has its own research and development department that will also help in coming up new ideas.

Employees will be given an opportunity to have a say on product development. In extreme cases, the company will look at competitor products in the market to come up with its own product. Different ideas have to be filtered to settle on the best possible outcome (Koen, 2004, p. 25). In this case, the company will have to filter all ideas as time goes by. Forums will be used to share different ideas and come up with the best new product idea.

This is because different people can be able to identify faults in a given idea than when it is done on an individual basis. Critical analysis will also be done on each idea to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Koen, 2004, p. 28). This is because an idea can be technical and difficult to implement based on its strengths and weaknesses. In the long run, the company will settle on an idea with more strength and less weaknesses.

Software’s like Jive will also be used to filter and settle on the best possible idea. This will be done through the channeling of different voices from the market and competitors to pick the best idea (Koen, 2004, p. 15). The company will also run through its business values to settle on the best idea. This is because an idea might not be in conformance with the company’s goals and objectives.

Criteria For an idea to move to the next stage, it will have to suit the target market. This is because customers are supposed to benefit by using the product. In addition, the product must be technically feasible to be manufactured. An idea will only be selected if it can meet the current and expected market competitive pressure.

We will write a custom Essay on New product development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because market trends are always changing as time goes by and a product must be flexible to suit such market needs (Ullman, 2009, p. 22). As a matter of fact, expected profits from the proposed product will be evaluated and analyzed to see if the idea is indeed feasible.

Flow chart Source: RFFlow, 2010

Reference List Koen, P, A. (2004). The Fuzzy Front End for Incremental, Platform and Breakthrough Products. New York: Prentice Hall.

RFFlow. (2010). Sample Flowcharts and Templates. Retrieved from https://www.rff.com/flowchart_samples.php

Ullman, D, G. (2009). The Mechanical Design Process. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

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History of Iran-contra Episode in the mid 1980’s Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Iran-contra episode was a political scandal between United State and Iran in the mid 1980’s. In the scandal, weapons were sold by the U.S government to Iran where the U.S hostages who had been held in Lebanon were released. On U.S policy by then, it was not allowed to make any funding in relation to support of Contras on the Boland Amendment.

Contra groups were repels of which North, who was a Marine Corps during the scandal, held partial accountability in the deal of the weapons sale to Iran which occurred through the intermediaries. The scandal represented an aberration in American foreign country.

To start with, it is a representation of a policy inconsistency in America policy as there was an amendment made against such transactions where the Reagan administration discarded its official weapons to Iranians.

The U.S policy held the focus on restraining communism expansion but the Reagan doctrine basing on Iran-contra episode was determined in providing assistance to them that had aligned themselves against the government through Soviet Union. In 1985, there was the authorization bill which supported the anti-communist deter groups receiving full public acknowledgement.

Iran had been declared as the leading sponsor in matters related to the international terrorism. This was the reason behind the laid restrictions on sale of any weapons to Iran. The U.S officials laid the underpinning plan for dramatic policy shift in their favor towards Iran. Fighting terrorism was however recognized during the reign of Reagan as the utmost foreign policy main concern (Byrne and Kornbluh).

Iran-contra episode was considered to be a leadership problem instead of foreign policy’s problems in America on its objectives. In this view, foreign policy appraisal during the reign of Reagan is then important. Putting onto the considerations of the Reagan doctrine, American military had been underscored in power during the Vietnam experience.

Iran-contra episode was carried in the secrecy which involved the foreign policy procedures. The operations involved carried two main objectives which included the hostage release and support of contra repels. Upon the discovery of the operations there was legal and upheaval to the Reagan administration. This proceeded Iran-contra committee which was meant to uncover them that held full accountability of the episode so as to avoid any other illegal activities which could be related with the foreign policy in future.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Iran-contra episode brought about full illustration of how the Reagan administration fully embraced his doctrine. The episode also brought about jointly two vexing and troublesome foreign policies. One of the policies dealt with Sandinista regime which was in Nicaragua, in the view of affirmed Marxist with the soul intention of spreading rebellion in terms of revolution all through in Central America.

The second problem was associated with the Reagan administration dealing with Ayatollah Khomeini who led the Iranian regime and along with scholars supporters, had detained 63 Americans an act which happened in November 1979. In mid 1985, Reagan opted for the reversal on longstanding foreign policy to the sale of weapons to Iran in an attempt of freeing the U.S detainees (McCormick 144).

The episode affected both bureaucratic and content characteristics of U.S foreign policy. There was a damage of both transparency and integrity of the government’s policy and this posed the challenge on how Reagan set of guidelines were being approved.

It is conversely viewed as a means of privatization of what is supposed to be a public foreign policy with transparency to just few individual groups’ consideration, such as the American Security Council as well as the privatization on constitutional grounds (Holsti 115). It is therefore a dictatorship path where the executive directs all powers without questioning.

It cannot be overlooked the fact that Reagan administration had largely made some successful efforts in Soviet Union restoration and becoming a central of focus to the U.S on its foreign policy. This however did not take long as during the second reigning of Reagan as there was more on accommodation than the confrontations on the enforcement of the foreign policy in America.

There were staunch in reverence to the anti-communist policy but the results were mixed after the Iran-contra episode. The values contained in the foreign policies were challenged as well as the directions of these policies in America.

In conclusion, there were no changes which were made in the legislation so as to protect any other future breakdown which would happen in legality in reverence to foreign policy dealings. Even after the investigations were done, Reagan was only charged with the failure of carrying constitutional duty which demanded the upholding of regulations.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Iran-contra Episode in the mid 1980’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The investigations which were carried were however viewed as a way of interfering with Reagan’s foreign policy. It can even be viewed as a deep commitment which the major purpose was to seek for the freedom of hostages. The Iran-contra episode is however viewed as a political witch-hunt through the investigations so as to punish officials over the variance on foreign policy in America.

Iran-contra episode however, was an exposure to the zealous disregard which was carried by the executive branch to represent legislative constraints on American overseas policy.

Work Cited Byrne, Malcolm and Peter Kornbluh. The Iran-Contra Scandal in Perspective. 2010. Web.

Holsti, Ole R. Public opinion and American foreign policy. New York: University of Michigan Press, 2004.

McCormick, James M. American Foreign Policy and Process. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

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Equal Pay for Women Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Background

Trend Common in Private Firms

Are Women Less Educated?

Wrong Career Choice?

Do Women Work Less?

Conclusion

Works Cited

Background In 1963, the Federal Government of the United States enacted the Equal Pay Act that effectively illegalized payment of different salaries to men and women for similar work on jobs that need similar qualification, effort, and responsibility and are performed under identical work settings.

A year after the act was enacted, the Civil Rights Act was passed and this illegalized the favoritism of workers on the basis of race, religion, color, or sex. Under these law amendments, it is illegal to pay women less than their male counterparts for equal amounts of work done, this includes job transfers, promotions, or pay increases; influence of job evaluations to disfavor women; or deliberately discriminate males and females into jobs based on their gender (AFL-CIO, para. 1).

More than 4 decades after these legislations were passed, women continue to receive less wages than men, especially in the private sector. The National Committee on Pay Equity reports that women still earn three quarters of what their male counterparts do. The percentage earning for colored women is even more appalling; African American women earn 67.5 % of what men earn, Latinas’ receive 57.7%, while Asian Americans receive 90%, all figures relating to the 2010 Census results (NCPE, para. 1, 2). It is not fair to pay women lower wages than men as both genders have the same ability and perform similar work under the same conditions.

State census data further indicate that females in full-time employment receive less than men in similar positions in every state, although the pay gap differs. This trend continues despite the same statistics indicating that 40% of women were the principal breadwinners for their families in 2009 (NCPE, para. 3, 4). It is for these factors that I am writing this letter to inform the state of women’s grievances.

Trend Common in Private Firms Many private firms and businesses have failed to perform equal pay audits. Any employee who raises the question of equal pay in such organizations risks his job. Monitoring such firms becomes difficult as they are under no legal obligation to make their pay statistics public. Moreover, the businesses operate robust ventures in more than one state and this creates a hurdle in attempts to look into the disparity between women and men’s wages.

When such disparities are detected in these corporations, proving that they are a result of gender discrimination is not easy. The management in these corporations base the disparity on factors such as education and level of experience. Other reasons given include the high earnings of a few white males, and gendered patterns of occupational and career choice (Bates, para. 5).

Are Women Less Educated? These claims are meant to make women comfortable with the wage gap- and possibly believe that they can avoid this situation by making similar educational, career, and wage-negotiation choices similar to those of men. Such content is unjustifiable. While it is true that pay is directly proportional to one’s educational status, using it to justify lower pay for women is totally unfounded.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data from US Census shows that gender pay gap widens with increasing levels of education, for example, women earn 60% less than their male counterparts do in similar positions for those with a professional degree, 75% for doctorate degree, 72% for master’s degree, and 75% for bachelor’s degree, and so on (Lips, para. 3).

Wrong Career Choice? Another reason forwarded as a reason for pay gap between men and women is that of wrong selection of occupations. This is a fallacy. Women earn less than men in every career category. Information from the Bureau of Labor shows that only four career categories indicated comparable wages between men and women, the rest exhibit great disparity.

Therefore, shifting into higher paying jobs, whether male dominated or not, may not be a solution to the pay disparity (Lips, para. 5). Psychologists have repetitively shown that jobs related with women or need stereotypically female expertise are taken to be of a lower cachet and merit lesser pay than those related with men and need masculine expertise (Slipp, pp. 74).

Do Women Work Less? Another reason given for wage differences between men and women is that women do less work than men. This may be true as gender pay studies focus mainly on full-time employees, however, a look at wages of male and female employees who work for at least 40 hours in a week exposes that the gap widens with increasing hours of work.

Women working 41 to 44 hour in a week earn 15% less than men in the same category while those working more than 60 hours per week earn 21.7% less. In addition, women have to work longer to receive promotion. For instance, female teachers have to work three years more than men to receive promotion as principal, according to the National Center for Education.

Conclusion Past studies reveal that gender pat disparity is not likely to end any soon. There is a minor drop in the gap from data collected since the 1960s and this calls for urgent government intervention. One way of reducing the gap in the private sector would be to compel these firms to make public their pay audits and provide stiff penalty for firms that are found guilty of this conduct. The steps taken by the Equality and Human Rights Commission in combating gender pay gaps are commendable, but more needs to be done.

Works Cited AFL-CIO. It’s Time for Working Women to Earn Equal Pay. 2010. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Equal Pay for Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bates, Karen. Equal Pay Warning For The Private Sector. September 2, 2010. Web.

Lips, Hilary M. The Gender Wage Gap: Debunking the Rationalizations. 2008. Web.

NCPE (National Committee on Pay Equity). Wage Gap Remains Static. November 18, 2010. Web.

Slipp, Samuel. The Freudian Mystique: Freud, Women and Feminism. New York: NYU Press, 1995. Print.

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Energy essay help online

Table of Contents Issues related to the use of fossil energy

The energy crisis

Solutions to the energy crisis

Difficulties in implementing the new solutions

Conclusion

Works Cited

Fossil fuels, which comprise of natural gas, oil and coal, constitute most of our energy that is consumed locally, approximately two thirds of the electricity energy and transportation fuels depends on the use of fossil fuels (Fraust 12). The increasing economy of the United States over the last number of decades can be majorly attributed towards the use of fossil fuels as a source of energy.

With present situation and a projected period of close to two decades, the American economy and energy security will still be fully dependent on the use of fossil fuels despite the development and establishment of new nuclear power technologies which are reliable and renewable. Global energy security is always imperative in ensuring the development of a nation; ranging from industrial development to better health facilities.

The United States has and will always be rely on the available and affordable fossil fuels to drive key sectors of the economy such as transport, the manufacturing industry and the power industry. Of course fossil energy is the most cost effective form of energy that is presently available in the United States. Industries that have relied on fossil energy over the years have depicted efficiency of the fossil fuels (Fraust 13).

Issues related to the use of fossil energy However, the continued use of fossil energy raises some concerns that would particularly affect the welfare and energy security of the United States. Some of the concerns include environmental issues associated with fossil energy particularly carbon dioxide emissions, rampant pollution which is the pertinent cause of green house effect and global warming (Fraust 21). The continued mining of coal means that most of our land will be destroyed rendering the already dug pieces of lands useless for carrying out any economic activity.

The current use of fossil energy appears beneficial, but the continued use of this kind of energy will be disastrous in the future. The use of crude oil is also responsible for the environmental pollution through tanker oil spill that were recently experienced. Such environmental issues that are associated with the use of fossil energy put the lives of the citizens of the America and the whole world at risk (Fraust 21).

The total reliance on fossil energy poses a threat to economy and the security of the United States in the future. Some of the possible risks associated with complete reliance of fossil energy to run the economy, security and welfare of the United States are its depletion and the inability to renew fossil energy. Natural resources are bound to depletion and crude ail and other fossil energy source are no exception.

The energy crisis The increasing energy needs in the future will not be met by fossil fuels alone (Richards 100). Necessary steps should therefore be implemented in order to control the current crisis that is as a result of increased dependency on fossil energy. Global energy imbalance is the primary cause of the energy crisis that is currently being experienced in the United States and almost everywhere in the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the united states is to rely completely on fossil energy in future, then the United States department of energy has a major task ahead concerning the efforts to ensure that fossil energy is never runs out which is practically impossible, because the fossil energy reserves will soon run out(Richards 100). The depletion of fossil fuels and lack of use of fossil energy does not warrant the stopping of the key sectors of the economy to move forward.

The economy and security of the United States of America is paramount. This implies that United States must establish new effective strategies; extensive research on fossil energy technologies and most importantly, develop other energy sources such as nuclear and solar power which are more reliable and renewable and environment friendly.

Presently fossil energy is the only available and reliable source of energy to drive the economy, but considering the long term effects of fossil energy may turn disastrous in future if alternatives to dependency on fossil fuels are not established (Richards 105).

Solutions to the energy crisis The reliance on fossil fuels is a crisis by itself and therefore appropriate measures should be taken to curb potential problems that are related to the use of fossil fuels. The only solution to this crisis is through the establishment of possible alternatives to substitute the use of fossil energy.

Currently, this may not seem as a problem but in the near future, the crisis is bound to reveal itself. Since the depletion time of the fossil fuels can be predetermined, it therefore implies that urgent solution to the energy crisis is established and implemented early enough before the crisis gets out of hand (Sinha 150). The established strategies that would be required to address this issue should be able to provide both short term and long term solutions.

The only effective though impractical would be to reduce the reliance of fossil energy and promote energy independent economy (Richards 107). The critical part in the present crisis is noted through the recent reduction in global supplies of crude oil and the political instability among the major suppliers and producers of crude oil and natural gas, the increasing demand of crude oil, competition for the available fossil energy and the increase in environmental costs that are related to the use of fossil energy.

The digging up of coal and the carbon emissions can not be sustained any longer due to the violation of environmental policies and land preservation policies. In order to keeps the economy moving, the United States must therefore come up with new energy technologies that have the capability to be renewed and are free from depletion compared to the fossil energy.

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Kandariya Mahadeva temple and Taj Mahal: Style and Meaning Compare and Contrast Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Architecture has always been one of the major means of expression of peoples’ vision of the better world, religious and social beliefs. There is a great number of glorious buildings that became cultural heritage of the world history. According to Devangana Desai:

“Art activity is a social process in which the artist, the work of art and the art public are interacting elements. The social history of art explores the dynamics of the relationship between the patron/public, the artist and the work of art in the context of the social formation of a given period of history” (3).

The Indian social history is closely related to its architecture. Style and meaning of Indian architectural buildings expresses the social character and religious beliefs of Indian people. There are two major temples widely known in the world that perfectly express this idea. These buildings are the Kandariya Mahadeva temple and the Taj Mahal. They are “the most characteristic artistic expressions of Hinduism that provide a focus for both the social and spiritual life of the community they serve” (Michell 14).

Though they are very different in form and design, as well as in their meaning, they express the ideas of life of the period in which they were built. As all temples, they were built with one purpose: to maintain the links between Indian people and their gods. In order to understand the peculiarities of style and meaning, it is necessary to explore these issues in details and compare them to one another.

One of the most important issues that influence on the form of the building is its purpose, or function. A famous American architect Louis Sullivan wrote, “form ever follows function”. This principle can be one of the explanations of the architecture of both buildings. The Kandariya Mahadeva is a great stone temple dedicated to god Shiva.

The temple was built in the middle of the 11th century. It is an example of the central Indian architecture style. In was built in honor of one of the major Indian gods. That is why it has a specific architecture design. It is a very big stone building decorated with stone sculpture figures of women engaged in different activities. Below, there are smaller friezes that depict different aspects of the social life of Indian people, processions of horses and figures of elephants, army, etc.

The building is also decorated with towers of different forms and sizes, “the principal shaft of the superstructure is almost completely obscured by a clustering group of miniature towers which grow in number as they descent, providing summit for each of the projections of the walls beneath” (Michell 121).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A total number of figures is about 8000 and the height of them are about three feet high. In addition, unlike the sculptures in other temples, the sculptures of the Kandariya Mahadeva are slender and rather tall. The carvings of different gods, goddesses and spirits can be found on the malor shrine of the temple. This temple is a bit larger than other Kandariya temples, “(102 feet long by 67 feet wide and 102 feet high)” (Allen 210).

Among the interior compartments, there is portico, entrance hall, which was designed in order to impress people who came there, a very big main hall, chamber and ambulatory. The platform, on which the temple is built, is also decorated with figures of women. The temple is surrounded by a beautiful green field. The entire image of the temple was designed in order to create a special atmosphere of calmness and spirituality. However, according to Michell:

“The temples are much more than a mere setting for the practices associated with certain beliefs; it is imbued with a complex system of symbolism by which it embodies the most elevated notions of Hindu philosophy while still serving the requirements of everyday religious life.” (14).

Indeed, the design of the building perfectly shows Indian cultural traditions. The poses of some of the figures suggest “a yoga exercise” (Allen 210). The poses are performed as a kind of ritual promoting the Indian spiritual traditions. Moreover, the design of the temple suggests a divine mission of the temple and promotes special ideology.

As Kulke and Rothermund suggest, the construction of the temple “coincides with the increasing samantisation of the regional kingdoms of India” (139). The temples of such kind were supported with grants of land and there were many servants. Though, the construction of the temple was rather expensive, very soon they became self-supportive and, what is more, they brought a great benefit for the king.

There was even a personal priest for the king. Thus, style, subject matter and meaning of the Kandariya Mahadeva are closely related to the social structure and beliefs of the Indian society. It represented not only religious traditions and cultural life of Indian people, but was one of the means of power, “the economic and political functions of the temple were realized in the role of the king in the royal ritual” (Kulke and Rothermund 140).

As opposed to the Kandariya Mahadeva temple, the Taj Mahal has an absolutely different style and design, as well as, it had a different function. If the Kandariya Mahadeva temple was built in honor of god, the Taj Mahal was built in honor of woman. It is a “mausoleum raised in honor of Mumtaz Mahal and it is determined to produces the finest building possible” (Ballard 72).

We will write a custom Essay on Kandariya Mahadeva temple and Taj Mahal: Style and Meaning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also known as the world’s most famous and inspiring memorial to love and devotion. It was created by the emperor Mughal Shah Jahan in 1632. Apart from the temple of Kandariya Mahadeva, it did not have any religious context and served only as a tomb. However, there is no building in the world that would produce so many legends and inspired so many poets to write about immortal love. Today, visitors from all over the world believe in its magic power and salutary qualities.

So, as well as Kandariya Mahadeva, it is the greatest building of its period, “It presents the high flowering of a civilization” (Ballard 73). If the style of Kandariya temple is purely Indian, the Taj Mahal is more Persian building than Indian. Its design is very romantic and tender:

“The Taj Mahal’s architecture is not for certain, but this much debated figure produced a design of flawless symmetry and exquisite elegance, a synthesis of Muslim and Hindu styles executed in rose sandstone and milk-white marble” (Preston and Preston 2).

The basic structure is a big cube with arched balconies, pishtaqs, columns and archways. Due to such construction, the design of the building is symmetrical. There are several chambers and in the main one, there are two sarcophagi of Shah Jahan “the sultan, who created the place, wishing to enshroud his dead wife with unheard-of splendor.” (Berinstain 148) and his wife.

The largest dome of the mausoleum is the Taj. It is also considered to be one of the wonders of the world. It is decorated with a lotus. Actually, the lotus motifs can be observed in many decorative elements of the building.

The finial is decorated by the mood, a typical element of the Islamic architectural tradition. Thus, we can say that Taj Mahal is very different from the Kandariya Mahadeva temple in its form, format and composition. The temple is made from sand and stone and widely decorated with sculptures. In its turn, the Taj Mahal is made from marble and decorated with carvings, paintings, stone inlays and stucco.

However, both of the buildings have specific meaning and deep social context. Apart from religious meaning, both architectural buildings reflect Indian traditions. In addition, both of them transfer the social aspect of power. The Kandariya Mahadeva temple deals with the issues of religious and political power, and the Taj Mahal embodies the power of feeling of love.

Thus, both buildings are the brightest representatives of the Indian architectural culture and traditions. They are very different in design, style and construction as these issues were determined by their purposes and social structures of the époques in which they were built. However, there is one common thing that unites these buildings, it is the issue of power as the aspect of the social context. The Kandariya Mahadeva temple deals with the politic power and Taj Mahal is the world’s most famous symbol of power of love.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kandariya Mahadeva temple and Taj Mahal: Style and Meaning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Allen, Margaret Prosser. Ornament in Indian Architecture. London: Associated University Press, Inc, 1991.

Ballard, Martin. Era Histories: 11 Land of the Great Mogul, Akbar’s India. London: Taylor and Francis, 1973.

Berinstain, Valerie. India and the Mughal Dynasty. New York: Harry Abrams, 1997.

Desai, Devangana. “Social Dimensions of Art in Early India”. Social Scientist. 18 (3), 1990: pp. 3-32.

Kulke, Hermann, and Dietmar Rothermund. A history of India. New York: Routledge, 2004

Michell, George. The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Preston, Diana, and Michael Preston. Taj Mahal: Passion and Genius at the Heart of the Moghul Empire. New York: Walker and Company, 2008.

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Formal Written English is disappearing Argumentative Essay best college essay help

Introduction Social network sites have changed the styles and techniques of writing for instance; texting involves use of abbreviations or many different techniques of crafting short messages and use of self-devised short hand techniques of instant messaging. Social network sites or technologies such as chartrooms or texting procedures do not require a stipulated format or standard of writing.

The problem requires urgent rectification and personal action since most users are aware of the effects on formal written English, but ignorantly continue to promote the use. The practice is very pervasive, therefore there is a general regard of the practice as a register emergent language or form of writing having its own styles are rights.

The blame often falls upon the proliferation of portable technology and internet real-time communication such as instant messaging (IM) or the chartrooms. This paper forms an argument that the informal style of communication is causing disappearance of the formal English and therefore people ought to reconsider the excessive usage outside of academia.

Currently, the most effected group are the youth who are highly involved in the social form of interaction. According to Crystal (p 18), the informal styles have two major ill effects namely, spelling degradation and corruption of formal English language. Globally, there are concerns of the informal styles creeping into the academically registered languages.

In line with Lenhart et al (p 1), most United States youth admit that various aspects of social writing are today part of their academic writing. Students either are not able to avoid informal techniques in their formal and appropriate styles of writing for the diverse academic context, or are not aware of the unofficial text appearances in their formal writings.

Various research reports indicate that students are aware of the effects of the slang and formulated short-hand form of communication on the academic skills and formal writing, but in most instances, they are often not aware that they have used the informal styles in the academic writing (Hyland, p 48). To these students, the style seems formal because of being accustomed to its use.

The informal styles of writing such as chartroom slangs and short cuts for messaging are perfect styles of building rapport, finding unique identity and enhancing social lives, but are definitely ruin effectiveness of worldwide academic writing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The constant uses of the slang, short-cuts styles of texting and informal languages during writing and discussions, causes one to become accustomed to the approach and it is very hard to eliminate the style even when the situation demands for formality. Many people today face difficulties of constructing a perfect error-free and formal job application cover letter, essay or a research paper because of the same reasons (Hyland, p 48).

There is evident punctuation or grammar mistakes in academic writing that are characteristic to the informal styles of communication. On a positive note, today social setting requires teachers to take initiative of using the blogs to guide students informally and contrary, they have to guide them in academic writing as well.

If most people are today not able to tell the difference between lingo of chartrooms or short cuts of short messages and requirements of academic writing, then the situation poses bigger concerns. Other than highlighting importance on teachers and parent to emphasize need for formality among children and the youth, there is need to accept the negative effects that the informal style have in most of our day-to-day lives, especially on official and academic matters (Hyland, p 50).

It is almost certain that the issue of text messaging, emailing, online chatting and correspondence exchanges through social sites have overcome the traditional formal styles of exchanging written mails. It is the new global technological style of digital communication embraced as the current and common style of communication.

Research indicates that informal writing is more widespread among American youths compared to the formal style of writing (O’Connor, p 2). The instant messaging caused by the digital communication such as the Internet is a real-time style that is not easily replaceable for example the short-text form of instant communication via mobile phones is part of every average person’s daily life due to efficiency.

The effectiveness is however transforming to negative effects on the command of formal spoken or written English language. According to O’Connor (p 2), there are mixed reactions from research finding over the effects of Instant messaging and the technological effect is a major topic of debate.

The informal style of communication reduces communication difficulties associated with distance, time and money. Although there is support of instant and quick style of delivering messages, the formal level of communication lacks required support.

We will write a custom Essay on Formal Written English is disappearing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The increases use of the style is a clear indication that the youth and children in the current as well as future generations grow and develop the informal styles as natural forms of communication. The socialization skills that past generations had are generally very different from the contemporary one since the past had a close link to formality.

All these are supporting evidences indicating the effects of the current communication protocol, but the debate does not change the situation. There is need for individual efforts or reactions towards change of current use of slang or other informal styles of communication and need to influence positive perception over introduction of formality on the current modes of social interaction among children as well as the youth.

It all depends on how one would interpret the informal form of communication. Is it a breakdown or an evolution of the formal written English language? Is it possible to capitalize on the slang usage to enhance traditional learning? Most scholars and those who understand the importance of formality will agree that inexcusable abbreviations, grammar mistakes and poor punctuations in academic texts differ depending on writer’s origin.

This means that the short cut and slang also differ from one region or social group to another globally. It is very hard to make such adoption of language common, defend it as cultural growth, and most importantly have common global understanding or usage of such informal styles of writing.

The slang forms of punctuations are arguably insults to the formal English and use of technology. It is the high time people stop pointing accusation fingers to the emergence of technology and embrace change in a right manner by incorporating and emphasizing on right form of written English, punctuations, abbreviations or short-hand writing that is also applicable in the academic platforms.

English teachers are spending a lot of teaching time correcting internet writing and speaking such as use of ‘you ‘ and not ‘u’ and many other common short forms used informally.

For most young people differentiating between formal and informal is not possible because everything seem accurate and normal and thus the reason they will consequently write “I want 2 be an Eng Teacher b4 2012 like u” in a formal writing. Instinctive corrections in such cases fail and this becomes a societal responsibility to put across such wrong usage explicitly.

If your child’s teacher requested you to assist in correcting the poorly written formal grammar, how would you explain the incorrectness of the slang your have been supporting all along?

Not sure if you can write a paper on Formal Written English is disappearing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Crystal, David. ‘Txting: The Gr8 Db8.’ Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2008. Print.

Hyland, Ken. Teaching and Researching Writing. New York, NY: Longman, 2009. Print.

Lenhart, Amanda, Rainie Lee, and Lewis Oliver. Teenage life online: The rise of the instant-message generation and the Internet’s impact on friendships and family relationships. September 2009. Web.

O’Connor, Amanda. Instant Messaging: Friend or Foe of Student Writing? March 2005. Web.

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Argument for Removing Vending Machines in Schools Argumentative Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Argument Against Vending Machines

Arguments for Vending Machines

Discussions and Conclusion

Introduction There has been a steady decline in the health of school going children in the U.S. This decline in health has mostly been characterized by a rise in childhood obesity which not only increases the risk of physical health consequences to the child but also psychosocial health issues.

This decline in health has been as a result of poor nutrition and unhealthy eating habits by most students. Ironically, junk foods which are responsible for the poor diets by children are readily available in schools through the vending machines which dispense chips, sodas and other foods that are of low nutritional value to the children. This paper shall argue that in order to ensure the health of children, vending machines which dispense sodas, energy drinks and junk foods should be removed from schools.

Argument Against Vending Machines While health issues such as childhood obesity can be attributed to a number of causes, the one major reason for obesity is overindulgence in unhealthy foods. Vending machines have been known to encourage unhealthy eating since all the foods and drinks that are offered by vending machines are of little nutritional value therefore making children prone to obesity.

Students are especially found of vending machine products. The foods and drinks available from dispensing machines are high on fats and sugars, both of which are known to cause overweight as well as obesity.

Proponents of vending machines may argue that children have a choice to not buy the unhealthy food stuff and opt for healthier foods offered within the school. However, this is unlikely to occur since the junk foods and drinks offered by vending machines in schools are more attractive to the students. It is unlikely that a child will buy a fruit or vegetables while he/she could buy a soft drink or a candy bar. The presence of vending machines therefore tempts students to eat unhealthy foods.

Fast foods and junks result to excessive body weight which has been linked to diabetes and fatal conditions such as strokes. As such, it can be argued that vending machines dispense foods and drinks that may have dire consequences to the consumer. In addition, these diseases that can result from consumption of vending machine products result in increased medical expenditure for the country.

Considering the fact that the products dispensed by the vending machines can be replaced by products that are of a healthier nature, it makes sense to remove this machines which dispense foods and drinks that may cause fatal conditions to the consumer as well as high medical expenses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguments for Vending Machines Vending machines are not all negative and they make a positive contribution to the school. Vending machines result in corporate sponsorship for the school in which the vending machine is placed. This corporate sponsors offer monetary assistance to the school in return for a chance to advertise and distribute their products to the students.

This assistance may be in the form of building or even equipping the school’s library or gym or other projects which are useful to the school. As such, the school will benefit greatly as a result of the vending machines being in their school.

Vending machines also provide a cheaper means for some students to get their foods. Some students cannot afford the expensive nutritious diets that are offered in schools. As such, vending machines provide such students with a means with which to sustain themselves within their budget. Considering the fact that students only eat their lunch and break meals in schools, vending machines may not have an adverse impact on their health if the students go home and take nutritious means for their supper and breakfasts.

Discussions and Conclusion Failure to deal with the issue of unhealthy nutrition among students will have various adverse effects. Poor nutrition has been seen to cause obesity and overweight in children; both of which impact negatively on the child’s mental health and school performance. For example, obese students are more likely to suffer from exclusion from peer group activities and may also experience some form of discriminatory actions from adults.

These behaviors are not only negative to the child’s psychological well being but also his/her academic performance. It is therefore necessary to deal with the vending machines which contribute to poor healthy which has far reaching consequences on the child’s welfare.

This paper set out to argue that vending machines that dispense soft drinks and sweets should be removed from our schools since they increase the health risk to children. To reinforce this assertion, this paper has forwarded various arguments of why vending machines should be banned.

A discussion on the positive attributes of vending machines has also been given so as to present a balanced view on the topic. From this paper, it is evident that vending machines result in a school setting that favors unhealthy eating habits. The only way which this problem can be solved is by removing the vending machines. While removing vending machines will come at a cost to schools, the benefits in the form of improved health of the students will be worth the cost.

We will write a custom Essay on Argument for Removing Vending Machines in Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Technology and Writing Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Technological advancement has led to great impact on writing. Like in other areas, advancement in technology has influenced the way people write both positively and negatively. Writing emails, chatting using social networking websites and writing short text massages have become day to day activities.

Today computer has become the basic tool for writing. Instead of using pen and paper or typesetting, today people prefer to type their work using word processors. Word processors are the technology that has great influence on my writing process. I prefer to use word processor software when writing instead of conventional ways. In the paper, I report impact of word processors on my writing process.

Using word processors has transformed my writing to a higher level. When using traditional pen and paper, I had to care more on mechanics of writing than communicating my message. I paid undue attention to hand writing, spelling, sentence structure and other basic mechanics. By using word processors, I am able to concentrate more on writing rather than caring about my hand writing or trying to check up spelling in a dictionary.

Word processors have allowed me to write at ease and improve on my critical thinking and writing. Before embracing word processors, writing seemed very complex. Before producing a final piece of writing, I had to go through many tedious steps including making an outline, writing a draft, editing and recopying the final draft. Using word processors has not only helped me to overcome mechanical difficulties in writing but also improve my attitude towards writing.

Word processors have many advantages over conventional pen and paper or typesetting. The main advantage of using word processors is ability to edit work without having to recopy. Word processors make it easy to edit, enabling one to correct mistakes, add or remove ideas without having to rewrite a piece of work.

Ability to rewrite my work without having to recopy motivates me to revise my work and therefore improve my writing skills. Unlike when using conventional ways, using word processor allows me to write quickly. Word processors have inbuilt support that make writing and editing to be considerably fast. Because of support provided by word processors, I do not worry much about style when using them but instead concentrate on communicating my message.

Good writing is a process that can take many years to achieve. Practice and learning through mistakes are important to writing. Using word processors makes writing enjoyable to me and motivate me to practice the skill. Using word processors, I can retrieve pieces of writing written in the past and try to improve on them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to revisiting my work, work processors makes it possible to share my work with other people who can advice me on how to improve. In spite of many positive contributions of word processor to my writing, they have shortfalls. Sometimes I am not able to spot my mistakes in writing when using word processors. In addition, dependence on some tools in word processor such as spelling checker inhibits ability to do so without help.

Technology significantly influences writing. Word processors are the technology that has great influence on my writing process. Using word processors enables me to concentrate on communicating my message rather than worry about mechanical difficulties. Using the technology I can edit or improve my work much easily than in conventional ways. Technology has become part of our life and adopting technology in writing is in order.

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To what extent did the Cold War shaped the US relations with Latin America? Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents A case study of Central American in 1980s

The US and Nicaragua

The US and El Salvador

The US and Guatemala

Summary

Conclusion

Reference

A case study of Central American in 1980s After the Second World War the relationship between the US and Soviet Union was changed from anti Nazi partners to latent enemies. But because of the nuclear threats from both sides, the possibility of a real battle became very small and a new form of cold war known as the competition between military, economies, politics, diplomacy, ideology and so on started.

During the cold war both sides were trying to gain more international influence and power, so foreign policy became especially important. In term of the US and Latin America relation had changed a lot because of it. This essay is going to talk detailed about those changes and focus on countries like EI Salvador,Nicaragua and Guatemala .

During the Second World War the partnership relation between US and Latin American was very good and strong. For example, in the first two years of the war most Latin America countries were neutral as US, after US joining the war they stopped diplomacy with those fascism countries and claimed war against them Mexico and Brazil even sent troops to fight with US.

Other Latin American countries also had done a lot to provide many material supports to US (Zhu 2002 p19). After the war although US did a lot to deepen its influence in economic, political and military terms but because its interventions anti US sense was popular in those Latin American people. In 1959, the Cuba victory pushed this sense to a very high level and rang the alarm to US.

In 1960, US have changed a lot of its attitude to Latin America. The reasons are on one hand, the great fear to the Soviet Union catch up and expansion, on the other hand the fear of Cuba bring communism domino effect to the Latin America countries and finally surrounded by the red empire (Priestland 2010 p48).

From 1960, US launched a lot of actions to suppress communism and gain its power in Latin America. Firstly, the long term actions toward Cuba to intervene and subvert the communism government. One thing should notice is it was not an independent movement but a collective one, countries like Dominica and Guatemala also involved. (Priestland 2010 p48). The relationships between the US and Latin American countries divided into clear branches.

Secondly, ideology competition with communism accompanied with military actions. This movement was trying to reconcile the relationship through ideology penetration and economic aid and at the same time defeat the communism ideologically and physically. (Zhu 2002 p26) But outcomes are not all good as predicted because these ideologies also raised disputes between the US and authoritarian regimes in Latin America.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly, mainly after the 1980s besides dollar diplomacy to Latin American, the US gave more concentration to Central America and Caribbean area as their most urgent task and changed their military and political strategy to a low intensity one. Nicaragua and EI Salvador can be good examples to understand the policy. (Priestland 2010 p51)

Nicaragua is quite different from other communism country, the reform of the Sandinistas was relatively soft and did not rose much class conflicts maybe partly because the avaricious Somoza regime that only the Somoza family owned 20% of the country’s cultivable land. (Skidmore

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Eastern Influences over Ingres’s “The Grande Odalisque” and Henri Matisse’s “The Woman with a Hat” Term Paper essay help free: essay help free

This paper intends to discuss the similarities and differences of two different styles of pieces. The first one is Jean-Auguste Dominiques Ingres’s, Grand Odalisque, and the second piece is, Henri Matisse’s, The Woman with a Hat.

The discussion will show the emergence of exotic cultures’ influences, similarities and course the painters’ similarities on different eras of time[1]. Even though, there are six to seven decades in between these artists’ working eras, their styles of redirecting the art education towards new limits, are familiar.

Both artists’ pieces are influenced by the near East exoticism; to be more specific, Matisse’s, The Woman with a Hat, was painted in south France, when at the time, traveling between continents started to become a more efficient possibility, resulting in increased numbers of different cultures emerging from human trade and ending up in south France.

This was enough cause for Matisse to get influenced and experiment with the wild colors and exotic appeal of the idea of the East even he never left Europe to see the North Africa nor its wide palette of cultural connections made available on his time[2].

On the other hand, Ingres Grand Odalisque’s cause of birth was more politically involved under Napoleon’s leadership. With the help of the new technologies helping human kind to travel through oceans more efficiently, through the early stages of industrialism, and of course Napoleon’s unstoppable urge to walk towards the East, brought in a forbidden curiosity to the neoclassical art world’s newly trained artists to take a step beyond from what was thought to them.

Napoleon’s sister, Queen Caroline Murat, commissioned the piece in 1814 for which Ingres never get paid for, because of the collapse of the Murat regime in 1815 on Ottoman ground; by the end of the Napoleon’s dynasty, he ended up in Rome (Krén 1) where he belonged because of his —.

The primitive state of the East, with its savagery of women being held in Harem’s, exploited and available, was a clear sign of a fallen empire already (Krén 2). Even though, the idea of Harem was not accepted at all on Europe, it sure exhilarated the French artists, enough to start a new movement called, romanticism in its essence with sincerity and need of new exotic visual tastes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jean-Auguste’s Odalisque caused serious amount of criticism because of the style mixes of neoclassicism with new unorthodox romantic themes (Grande Odalisque 1). Imaginary world of romantic love, freedom of thought, individualism and self-expressionism was everything the Ingres chose instead of an accepted single style of academic art thought and imposed on class teachings (Wright1).

As the best student of Jacques-Louis David’s, Ingres refused the foundation of an orthodox teaching of arts at an early age. Instead, he focused his self-educatory behavior on the original Greek and Roman art[3].

The initial response towards the piece was the close and brutal examination of the women’s body’s proportions and the lack of realism on anatomical level (Grande Odalisque 2). Ingres was not aware however, that in a year, Manet’s Olympia, would be admired by the whole art exhibition community making it unfair his time.

Time passed and his unorthodoxly executed piece would find its real value after couple years by getting accepted from the artist community and by later years encourages artists like Matisse to discover female nude all over again (Wright 2).

Henry Matisse[4] was one of the most influential and progressive artists of the 20th century. His works were also greatly influenced by new technological advancements and cultural relations. It was reflected in the psychology and spirituality of his works. His “stylistic innovations fundamentally altered the course of modern art and affected the art of several generations of younger painters, spanned almost six and a half decades” (Dabrowski n. pg.). His main intention was to examine the essence of things.

Much of his works were inspired by Ingres’ Grand Odalisque which was not recognized by critics of the Ingres’ period, but was acknowledged later. New tendencies in painting were reflected in Matisse’s use of colors, which he used “in their maximum strength” (Lewis and Lewis 396).

He discovered that colors can have a great influence on produce a desirable effect. The discovery of this idea helped him to add many decorative elements to his pictures and, at the same time, avoid chaotic scenes[5]. He promoted that color and shape can give to the artist more freedom and let the fantasy create unpredictable scenes.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Eastern Influences over Ingres’s “The Grande Odalisque” and Henri Matisse’s “The Woman with a Hat” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the paintings of Matisse are full of life and energy. His innovative style suggested the escape from the rules of realism and gave “a respond to natural world, that he called a living harmony of colors, a harmony analogous to a musical composition” (Lewis and Lewis 396). Though, some of Matisse’s works were not pleasantly accepted, he remains one the of the first artists “responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture” (Henri Matisse n. pg.).

Thus, Henry Matisse and Jean-Auguste Dominiques Ingres are two painters that brought innovations in the paintings of their époques. Their works were formed under the influences of great social and cultural relations and both artists were innovators who introduced new technological advancements in their times. Thus, two paintings under analysis, Grand Odalisque, and The Woman with a Hat show the differences and similarities in the styles of both artists.

As it has already been mentioned, the painting by Ingres was inspired by the exotics of the East. It depicts “a woman of the harem surrounded by luxurious accessories in a pose reminiscent of David’s Madame Recamier”.

The artist used mild colors and lines to transfer the beauty of a real woman, and “not an allegory of Venus” (Krén 2) like it was in works by Titian and Giorgione. In addition, the artist managed to show the Western beauty surrounded by Eastern scenery, though, he was not inspired by the works of Eastern artists, as their traditions did not allow painting nude women.

Moreover, women in Turkish harems were dressed in costumes, rather than being nude. So, the painting of Ingress was a mixture of classical traditions, exotic Eastern theme and modern technique of painting. He was the first who managed to unite these issues in one picture.

As well as Ingres’ Odalisque, Matisse’s The Woman with a Hat was an innovation in the world of art and “in the center of controversy” (Woman with a Hat n. pg.) that put a beginning to a new artistic movement. As it has already been mentioned, Matisse made use of new methods in use of colors that allowed creation of everyday scenes without adding chaos to the whole picture.

The Woman with a Hat suggested more individualistic and expressive style that marked out the author as innovator. The unnatural use of colors add life and expressiveness to the picture. The woman is depicted in a classical French dress, she is a typical French bourgeoisie. However, the lines and colors make it passionate and expressive. The hat is very significant detail that puts together the focus of the picture, in other words, it is a central figure of the painting.

The hat is the most bright and rich in color element of the picture. It attracts attention and, actually, holds it. With closer look, the picture seems abstract and non-real, however, the technique suggests that one should have the overall impression and perceive each element as a single unite. This technique was also adopted by Pablo Picasso who also made his contribution to new artistic movement called later expressionism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Eastern Influences over Ingres’s “The Grande Odalisque” and Henri Matisse’s “The Woman with a Hat” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More So, Jean-Auguste Dominiques Ingres and Henri Matisse are two great artists separated in time, but very close in perception of art. Each of them introduced new painting technique in painting that literally changed the attitude to the meaning and purpose of art. Both, Ingress and Matisse, were representatives of different styles and schools. However, it was Ingres who inspired Matisse to create many of his works.

The major issues that made those artists introduce such radical changes into the world of art were great social, political and scientific innovations, as well as technological development. Society could not stay the same and, as art is the reflection of the social changes, it could not be unchanged as well. Thus, new tendencies in art were the result of new psychological and cultural changes in society in times of Ingress and Matisse.

Works Cited Dabrowski, Magdalena. “Henri Matisse (1869–1954)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.

“Femme au Chapeau.” SFMOMA.org 15 Nov 2010. Web.

Krén, Emil. “Ingre, Jean-Auguste-Dominique, Biography.” Web Gallery of Art. Web Gallery of Art, 01 Jan 2005. Web.

Lewis, Richard, and Susan I. Lewis. The Power of Art. New York. Cengage Learning, 2008.

Vassilika, Eleni. Greek and Roman Art. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Wikipedia contributors. “Grande Odalisque.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Jun. 2010. Web.

Wikipedia contributors. “Henri Matisse.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 12 Nov. 2010. Web.

Wikipedia contributors. “Woman with a Hat.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 6 May. 2010. Web.

Wright, Anne. “Ingre’s Grand Odalisque from a Book Talk by Susan Siegfried.” Yahoo! Contributor Network, 12 Apr 2010. Web.

Footnotes For a full description neoclassical attitude to exotic East, see Richard Lewis, and Susan I. Lewis, 354 – 356.

“Femme au Chapeau.” SFMOMA.org 15 Nov 2010. Web.

Eleni Vassilika. Greek and Roman Art. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.) P. 6.

Richard Lewis, and Susan I. Lewis, The Power of Art. (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2008) 396.

Richard Lewis, and Susan I. Lewis, The Power of Art. (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2008) 396.

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Monogamy as an acceptable system of marriage in America Essay cheap essay help

The choice between polygamy and monogamy family patterns requires considering the psychological, sociological, and spiritual aspects of marriage. The definition of family as a spiritual union of two partners is a weighty argument for justifying monogamy as the only acceptable practice of marriage in the United States.

The forms of families differ significantly throughout the world and the choice of the appropriate pattern depends upon the religious, philosophical and cultural background of a particular community. Monogamy as the marriage between two partners is recognized as the only legal form of marriage in the United States (Mooney, Knox and Schacht 161). At the same time, there are some situations in which the cultural background of an individual contradicts the current legislation of the country in which he/she lives.

For example, immigrants who come from the countries in which the polygamy is accepted, as a rule, do not give up their accustomed lifestyles but have to hide it from the community. According to the current legislation of the United States, polygamy can become the ground for deportation. The question is whether the state should make an exception for those who have polygamy families because of their ethnic origin and the system of their beliefs.

However, it would mean that people who can justify their persuasions with their system of beliefs would have the right for violating the law because along with the ethnic origin and cultural background the polygamy is rooted in the system of beliefs. The assertions of Augustine, an influential philosopher and theologian, concerning the family as a spiritual union of two people have not lost their actuality nowadays and might be taken into account for solving the moral dilemma of the acceptable family patterns.

Analyzing the marriage of Adam and Eve before the Fall as a purely spiritual relationship, Augustine tried to define the concept of sin with regards to family and procreation (Reynolds 241). Augustine shifted the emphasis from procreation as the primary and natural motivation for marriage towards satisfying the spiritual needs of the spouses.

Considering the customs and the cultural background of the American community, the marriage traditions are rooted in the Christian doctrines which depreciate polygamy as an example of lust. Still, even the interpretation of the Bible Holy Scripture concerning polygamy and monogamy is not unanimous and the examples of patriarchs who lived with several wives and had children with their lovers gave rise to the prolonged debates.

Explaining this controversy between the Bible teachings and the personal example of patriarchs, Augustine pointed at procreation as the only their motivation for marrying several women. “He [Jacob] used the women not for sensual gratification, but for the procreation of children” (Braun 247).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taking into account the changes in the system of beliefs and the society norms, the need for the procreation became obsolete and cannot be regarded as the primary motivation for creating a polygamy family. “In the present altered state of customs and laws, men can have no pleasure in a plurality of wives, except from an excess of lust” (Braun 248).

The goal of procreation was obsolete even in Augustine’s times, not to mention the American society of the third millennium. The moral desirability of preserving the monogamy as the only acceptable pattern of creating a new family can be justified with the demand for satisfying the spiritual needs of the present day men and women which is possible only on the condition of ensuring the equal rights for both spouses.

Considering the spiritual needs of contemporary citizens and Augustine’s definition of family as a spiritual union of two partners, monogamy should remain the only acceptable marriage pattern.

Works Cited Braun, Nathan (ed.). The History and Philosophy of Marriage: A Christian Polygamy Sourcebook. San Francisco: Imperial University Press. 2005. Print.

Mooney, Linda , David Knox, and Caroline Schacht. Understanding Social Problems. Belmont: Cengage Learning. 2008. Print.

“He [Jacob] used the women not for sensual gratification, but for the procreation of children” (Braun 247).

“In the present altered state of customs and laws, men can have no pleasure in a plurality of wives, except from an excess of lust” (p. 248).

We will write a custom Essay on Monogamy as an acceptable system of marriage in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reynolds, Philip. Marriage in the Western Church: The Christianization of Marriage during the Patristic and Early Medieval Periods. Danvers: Clearance Center. 2001. Print.

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Globalization Positive and Negative Impacts Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The origin of Globalization

Positive Impact of Globalization

Negative Impacts of Globalization

China and India and the World’s Economy

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The debate of globalization still rages with critics and proponents alike failing to reach a consensus on its benefits and detriments. This follows the prevailing differences pictured by people in their attempt to provide the real meaning of globalization.

Is it the coming together of political, economical, or cultural organization around the world, or is it the power behind the ontogeny of economy, success, or democratic liberation? It is worth noting that these, among other questions relating to globalization, will attract conflicting responses, majority of which will depend on people as well as place.

For instance, the answer from a person in Cairo will differ from one in Washington, which will also differ from the one in Johannesburg. In fact, the response will also differ with people from the same place.

Therefore, to come up with a standard definition of globalization may prove hard and hence the debate. Of paramount importance is the fact that, the answers will as well vary based on how various people in various places perceive globalization. There are those who will base their answers on culture, politics, while others will base them on economy. Nevertheless, the pertinent question remains, what is globalization.

Values come in handy when specifying the implication of globalization. For instance, when one pictures globalization as ‘McDonaldization’ or simply ‘Americanization’ of the world, it stands out as a process, steered by the American culture whereby, all other cultures follow suit. In addition and based on culture, globalization can stand as the intermingling of variety cultures in their pursuit of, not only learning, but also sharing with each other.

According to Rothenberg, “Globalization is the acceleration and intensification of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations” (2) This definition stands out as the most unbiased because it takes into account all the areas, which initially were separately used to define globalization. It considers the human welfare like security and health. It also carries with it the issue of environment, not sparing culture, which is a combination of religions, ideas, and politics.

Economy and the success of different societies around the globe stand out within this definition. However, this is not the final definition. As time goes on, different values will arise as expected, a situation that will alter the meaning. As a result, it leaves a room for such a circumstance and hence the most favored definition. However, it is important to consider some issues that surround globalization instead of majoring on its definition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The origin of Globalization The precise emergence globalization is not well known. While some learners claim that it came in the course of the current epoch, others say that it bears a deep-rooted origin. Among the people who regard globalization as having a deep-rooted history is Gander Frank, the economist, who developed the dependency theory. Frank posits, “A form of globalization has been in existence since the rise of trade links between summer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BC” (29).

Consequently, this implies that globalization of economy and culture has been in existence for a long time going back to the third millennium. For instance, during the Hellenistic era, commercial centers established at this period targeted the entire Greek culture. As a result, trade spread covering a large area beginning all the way from India to Spain.

This is the period when trade spread at a rate greater than ever realized before. It is the period, when the thought of cosmopolitan was used for the first time referring to a ‘world city’, which implied the coming together of a variety of Greek cultures. This scenario is perceived to be the first form of globalization, but not the only one.

The trade network composed of the Han Dynasty, the Roman Empire, and the Parthian Empire also stands as an early form of globalization. According to Adela, “The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired the development of the Silk Road, which started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome” (Para. 2).

The Islamic Golden age cannot escape mentioning. It stands as another form of globalization in which a significant world economy was established. The establishment of global crops, knowledge, trade, as well as technology marked this period. As a result, crops like sugarcane and cotton dominated the Muslim world. In addition, the learning of the Arabic and the Hajj resulted to a global Muslim culture.

However, as all these happened, they could not be viewed as bearing the issue of globalization. According to the then peoples’ understanding, these were just but normal happenings expected in a growing culture, economy, and politics, to mention but a few. The events that unfolded as from the dawn of 21st century brought to light the issue of globalization.

People could not learn the subject of globalization the easy way until the outbreak of the World War I and II in the twentieth century. These wars were the root cause of the many global issues established as a result. In this century, the subject of human rights was discussed at large following the repercussions of the wars whereby, people were severely mistreated since there lacked a body or a policy that could protect them.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalization Positive and Negative Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the century when a global announcement of human rights was made in 1948, to take care of people in case of another war outbreak. In addition, the issue of establishing world services emerged as a result.

The World Bank saw its dawn in this century. Ambassadorial organizations like the League of Nations as well as the United Nations came to existence too. Global education also arose with the establishment of a global University in Tokyo, Japan. World Health Organizations, World Trade Organizations, among other global organizations were born in this century.

Moreover, a world economy emerged in the course of this period. Based on the aforementioned comprehensive definition of the term globalization, all these occurrences were incorporated therein, be it economy, culture, and politics. It therefore suffices to associate the origin of globalization with the 20th century.

Positive Impact of Globalization Globalization has influenced the world to a large extend in different ways. The industrial, economic, financial, health, political, to mention but a few sectors, bear a significant influence of globalization. The outgrowth of global output markets as well as the broadened access of a variety of alien goods and services, not only for industries, but also for consumers, has led to the global growth of industries.

This arises from the increased flow-in and flow-out of materials and goods both within and beyond the national boundaries. Bhagwati exposits that ” International trade in manufactured goods increased more than 100 times (from $95 billion to $12 trillion) in the 50 years since 1955” (27). The growth referred to here is industrial growth that was realized because of globalization.

Therefore, it is deducible that globalization has seen the growth of industries in the world. The emergence of globalization leaves a mark in the financial sector. The efforts employed in curbing the worldwide wars revealed the possibility of paving ways for the establishment of some of other worldwide services. The financial services sector bears this mark of globalization.

Globalization has seen the dawn of global financial markets while at the same time broadening the proximity of financing services, both internal and external. For instance, the dawn of 21st century was marked by a significant increase in currency trade, with more than $1.5 trillion being merchandized daily to cater for the increased investment and trade levels. The economy sector has also been influenced by globalization.

Globalization yields a positive impact on economy. People have made efforts to come up with a common world market where they are at liberty to exchange both capital and products. It is worth noting that, these markets depict a pronounced interconnection such that a fall or a rise in one is enough to bring a corresponding effect to the others.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization Positive and Negative Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, globalization has led to the production of goods and services at a cheaper cost. This on the other hand has paved way for the movement of employment opportunities to locations with less salary, minimal security of workers, as well as less health considerations. The impact of globalization in the field of health sector also stands out.

Global trade and global economy have led to the establishment of global health policies, which on the other hand remain favored by the rising technology and the medical trade. According to Ollila, “Global priorities, in this situation, are sometimes at odds with national priorities where increased health infrastructure and basic primary care are of more value to the public than privatized care for the wealthy” (6) Globalization has also influenced the area of politics.

In fact, some scholars have viewed globalization as the establishment of a global government, which portrays no more than a political foundation. United States offers the best illustration of this. Since it ranks highest among the world powers, it has grown politically because of globalization.

However, following the significant impact of globalization to the Chinese government, people have predicted that following China’s high rate of growth in technology, economy, wealth, and industry, it may soon alter the political arena. ” China will rival the United States for the position of leading world power” (Hurst 91).

Since this is a result of globalization, it suffices to say that; globalization bears a significant positive impact on politics. However, globalization carries with it some few negative impacts, for instance, environmental degradation.

Negative Impacts of Globalization The large amounts of CO2 emitted in the atmosphere following the advancement of industries because of globalization, have negatively affected the environment.

Countries like China are currently producing large capacities of these harmful gases and virtually all of its people inhale it. It is predicted that within the next few years, most of the tropical rain forests will be logged off, especially those of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. In addition, the extensive interconnections among countries brought by globalization, have led to the famous financial crisis.

This follows from the experienced collapse of the mortgage market prominent in the U.S. This, on the other hand, has led to a momentous loss of jobs. Moreover, the increased job opportunities in the developed countries like the U.S have taken away talents of people, specifically from the African continent. This arises when the jobless people end up being utilized in doing jobs even if they do not match their talents.

Ultimately, they relinquish their talents completely. Globalization has also led to a rise in the spread of some lethal diseases. Robert points out that, “Starting in Asia, the Black Death killed at least one-third of Europe’s population in the 14th century” (262). This spread comes because of the accelerated interaction of people associated with globalization. The trades of illegal drugs like heroin and cocaine is on the rise, following the evident increased rate of entry and exit of goods in countries from all over the world.

China and India and the World’s Economy The world’s economy cannot be well understood without incorporating the contribution of China and India. The two stands as the world’s swiftly budding economic forces, and as a result, they have significantly influenced the global economy. Desai posits, “There will be a much larger percentage of the world’s economic growth in Asia, particularly driven by China [and] India” (12).

It suffices to infer that through globalization, the two are able to bring a growth of the global economy. Though China and India are competitors, it is predicted that as their powers rise, they will turn to be collaborators. Further inferences concerning China and India indicate that there is a high possibility of the two to challenge the U.S, following their entry into the global economy.

Referring to China, Zhiqiang says that “…it has to phase-in the liberalization of such services as banking, insurance, telecommunications, external trade, internal trade and tourism as well as the national treatment for foreign enterprises” (56). These are among the many contributions that China is making in the global economic sector. In terms of exportations, China has become the largest in the world and as a result, it is thought to affect the world’s economy.

China bears a vast manufacturing industry compared to any other country. This boosts its reasons for participating in the international market. India, on the other hand, has significantly influenced the global economy owing to its rapid development in the export sector.

According to Isabelle, “The two countries have thus in common the fact that, in the past ten years, they developed their strongest specialization in sectors linked to information and communication technology” (140) In terms of communication, transportation and insurance among other services, the two countries have highly established services in relation to other countries. All these factors sufficiently tell the reason as to why the world’s economy recognizes the impact of globalization of both China and India.

These services are not as established in the other countries as they are in China and India and this is why the world economy relies much on the contributions of the two. Worth noting is the notion that, if the share of the two was excluded from the global economy, the world would be unable to sustain its people. This is a clear indication that both China and India posses a good chunk in the world’s economy because of globalization.

Conclusion In conclusion, globalization viewed as the integration of economies, cultures, as well as societies, has been achieved following the worldwide political and communication connections. While people have set out to research on the origin of globalization, the results are debatable.

This arises because some claim that globalization bears a deep-rooted historical origin, while others associate it with the unfolding of the twentieth century, the period when many worldwide events happened, for instance, the world wars, WHO, UN, world universities, among others. Although, globalization has positively influenced the world, it in turn bears some negative impacts. It is good because it has brought the evident radical economic, industrial, health, as well as political growth.

However, it is bad because issues like environmental degradation, sweatshops, brain drain, food insecurity and spread of contagious diseases among others, have resulted from globalization. Fortunately, the merits of globalization outweigh its demerits. Of the contributions made to the global economy by the many countries, the one by both India and China remain the most significant.

This arises from the fact that the two are highly globalized in terms of industries, communication and insurance coupled with transportation services. The two have a good share in the world’s economy and if this share were eliminated from the world economy, the result would be no more than an unsolvable economic crisis. This is enough to prove that they significantly influence the global economy founded on globalization.

Works Cited Adela, Lee. Ancient Silk Road Travelers, 2010. Web.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Desai, Vishakha. The Growing Economic Influence of China and India. London: Word Press, 2008. Print.

Frank, Gander. Reorient Global Economy in the Asian Age. U.C: Berkeley Press, 1998

Hurst, Charles. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences. USA: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Isabelle, Bensidoun. The Integration of China and India into the World Economy: a Comparison. New York: Word Press, 2006.

Ollila, Edward. Global health priorities: Globalization and Health. England: HVAC, 2005.

Robert, Gottfried. “Black Death in Dictionary of the Middle Ages.” The History of Human Populations 2.1 (1983): 257–67.

Rothenberg, Laurence. The Three Tensions of Globalization. New York: Maxwell Publishers, 2003. Print.

Zhiqiang, Hwang. “Globalization.” The European Journal of Comparative Economics 6.1 (2004): 131-155.

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Factors Related to Hypnotisability Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Introduction

Results

Time and Hypnotizability

References

Executive Summary The scope of the research is to measure people’s levels of hypnotizability and whether it relates to empathy, absorption and imagery. Studying hypnosis susceptibility helps us understand and identify different characteristics that make individuals react to hypnosis and how effective the proposed measurable scales are.

Hypnosis susceptibility study is conducted through experimental analysis that employs computer generated and self-report measures. Our comprehensive analysis concluded that all the three mentioned factors were positive predictors of hypnotizability. Importance of conducting this study was that medical professionals will be able to relate to new events and develop effective treatment inventions and therapeutic techniques to treat the most diverse forms of pains.

Introduction Manmillar et al (2005) defines hypnosis is a mental state, usually induced by a procedure known as the hypnotic induction. According to their definition, hypnosis uses the imaginative role-enactment which relaxes individual’s objective area of the mind, or may be delivered in the presence of subject.

To broaden our understanding Carli (2007) defines hypnotisability as “the cognitive trait allowing subjects to module perception, emotion and behavior according to specific suggestions” (p.64). Their contemporary research suggests that hypnotisability is a procedure that awakens our focused attention. Accompanied by physical relaxation and induced mental concentration, hypnosis scores are obtained after hyptonic induction, on a standardized hypnosis scale.

The ability to destruct the metal concentration is engrossed in the idea of training thoughts which may subsequently result to individual unconsciousness or even the progressive relaxation term known as ‘nervous sleep’.

Most clinicians agree that hypnosis is an effective therapeutic technique that can be used with people suffering from diverse forms of pains. It’s however argued that the degree to which people receive hypnosis vary from one individual to another and the levels of susceptible hypnosis as mentioned by Manmillar et al (2005) may range from high and low hypnotisability.

To come to a better understanding of the relationship between high and low hypnosis, Manmillar et al (2005) defines high hypnotizable generally as the ease of relaxing minds while Brynt and Idey (2001) defines it as the display of more fantasy proneness and greater absorption.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While there are many similarities in high hypnotizable definition, Hilgard (1979) adds that individuals which such susceptible experience greater imaginary involvement while Kumar at al (1996) strongly focuses on their conscious experience in response to the imagery offered by the hypnotist.

In measuring hypnosis effectiveness, Braffman and Kirsch (2001) suggests two detrimental methodologies to include; simple and go/no go reaction times. His analysis further concluded individuals on hypnozability were positively related with simple reaction time and correlated with go/no go reaction time, when non hypnotic suggestibilities were statistically controlled.

It is evidenced that different characteristics make individuals react to hypnosis different and some may be more susceptible to hypnosis than others. Since their applications in both clinical and research settings, hypnotizability scales have never been evidenced to measure effects of hypnotizability.

Since hypnotizability is a stable construct, identifying its predictors would be helpful in comprehending individual differences observed in suggestibility (Paul and Mathews, 2003). Using a set of standardized suggestions to check individuals’ responses, followed by a standardized induction, to know the measure of hypnotic ability they posses is applied.

Barber, Spanos and Chaves (1974) further clarifies that individual differences in ability to respond to hypnosis could be described with the aid of imagination and absorption constructs. Paul and Mathews (2003) on the other hand suggests that hypnotic suggestibility and individual differences are most likely to be experienced with people with the ability to respond to waking and may not necessarily lack the ability to respond to hypnotic procedures.

Kogon et al (1998) define imaginary as the ability of a person to receive an experience or emotional state in one’s mind. He provides that relationships among imaginary and hypnotisability are complex and the methodologies used can easily inflate the relationships.

In this case, Kogon et al (1998) suggests for careful application of the results obtained as many may differ in their degree of association and functionality depending on context of their hypnotic application. In vivid imagery hypnosis application, Kogon et al (1998) performed an experimental analysis where they correlated computer generated and self-report measure of imagery with hypnotizability to measure the degree of their relationship.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Factors Related to Hypnotisability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Computer generated imagery measures were used due to their ability to provide accurate results and because they are better predictors of hypnotizability. Credited as good hypnotizability measure, the computer generated results did not yield satisfactory results as most of the experiments were conducted outside hypnotic setting.

Moreover, the imagery modality used in measuring correlation between imagery and hypnotisability were valid. This is according to (Carli et al, 2007) reports that stated that “instructions of globally reduced perception” (p.14). In this case the research should have based their analysis on particular sensory modalities which would have yielded positive results that related to the study question.

Milling et al 2000 define absorption as an individual’s characteristic, which encompasses openness, to experience changes in cognitive and emotional, state over rage of circumstances. Green and Lynn (2008) defined it as the capacity for self- altering attention that is considered to be significant component of hypnotozability.

When relating back to highly susceptible individuals, Milling (2000) argue that individuals with highly susceptible are believed to get involved in a variety of imaginative practices more on faster when measuring absorption. Another study conducted by Council, Kirsch and Gran (1996) considers absorption as a predictor of hypnotizability and suggests use of scales designed specifically for measuring absorption to be used.

However in determining the relationship between absorption and hypnotic susceptibility, the most commonly used measures implied that the absorption scales were consistent and reliable related when tests were administered in the same experimental setting (Green and Lynn, 2008).

Szlyk (2003) defines the emotional processes underlie the experience ad creation of hypnosis. He speculates that empathy plays an important role in hypnotic subjects put together in hypnotic experiences. Szlyh (2003) experimental analysis included observations from various researches speculating the particular trait empathy and its relationship to hypnotizability.

He first defined empathy as the ability to understand another person’s feelings and motives. His experimental analysis however showed strong correlation of trait empathy with hypnotic ability. Higard (1970) further examined an individual’s capacity to empathetically recognize characters in drama and literature makes empathy a notable predictor of hypnotizability.

Wickramasekera (1998) study of ‘High Risk Model of Threat Perception’ that examined relationship between emphatic process of emotional contagion and imitation in relations to behavioral and experimental indices of hypnotic ability observed that development of psychosomatic symptoms were more susceptible in high hypnotizable’s as a result of increased empathetic characteristics they posses.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Factors Related to Hypnotisability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Same clinical observations conducted by Spiegal and Spiegal (1978) confirmed that individuals with high hypnotic ability tend to relate to new events and begin to develop symptoms that resemble the ones they have observed in others.

Results The study recruited 244 participants among whom 239 successfully completed the questionnaire booklet. The study was aimed at identifying factors that best predict hypnotizability, along with the effect of time on hypnotizability. A series of correlations were employed in investigating factors favorable for hypnotizability completed with t-tests aimed at measuring the effect of time on hypnotizability

Our experimental analysis measures whether hypnotizablity relates to three factors; empathy, absorption and imagery. I first hypothesis that mpathy would be the highest predictor of hypnotizability. And secondly, there would be little difference between pre-group and post-group scores.

The results did however find correlation and intercorrelation values for hypnotizability to be as follows; the correlation for hypnotizability and empathy were r (237) =. 254, the correlation between hypnotizability and imagery as r= (237) = .1.141, hypnotizability and absorption is r (237) = .196

Table 1: The Relationship between Absorption, Imagery, Empathy and

Hypnotizability

Factor Formula Hypnotizability Results Absorption Pearson Correlation N Imagery Pearson Correlation N Empathy Pearson Correlation N Correlation values ranged from p<0.1 to p<0.5. When measuring the absorption, empathy and imagery rates against hypnotizability on a measurable scale on 0.1 indicating weak while 0.5 indicating strong correlation, imagery indicated a relative value of 0.5 against hypnotizability, which was in deed a strong correlation. Absorption against hypnotizability on the other hand indicated a vale of 0.5, also an indication correlation between the two, while empathy against hypnotizability recorded 0.2, which was an indication of weak correlation between the two factors.

When using inter-correlation measurement, empathy and absorption were rated as r (237) = p .503, while empathy and imagery as r (237) = p .274, and imagery and absorption as r (237) = p .445

Table 2: The Relationship between Absorption, Imagery, Empathy and

Hypnotizability

Factor Formula Hypnotizability Results Absorption Pearson Correlation N Imagery Pearson Correlation N Empathy Pearson Correlation N Inter-correlation values ranged from p<0.1 to p<0.5. Measuring absorption, empathy and imagery rates against hypnotizability on a measurable scale on 0.1 indicating weak while 0.5 indicating strong correlation, imagery indicated a relative value of 0.4 against hypnotizability, which was in deed a strong correlation.

Absorption against hypnotizability on the other hand indicated a vale of 0.5, also an indication correlation between the two, while empathy against hypnotizability recorded 0.1, which was an indication of weak correlation between the two factors.

Time and Hypnotizability The research used time to focus on the relationship it has on hypnotizability. With regard to the hypothesis empathy would be the highest predictor of hypnotizability and little difference between pre-group and post-group scores will be evident, a pre-hypnosis questionnaire was compared to a post-hypnosis questionnaire group. The overall hypnosis results showed a mean rate of 5.38 (SD 2.58). Below is a detailed summary of the results.

Green – Control group mean

Blue – Treatment group mean

Group comparison indicated the group that had the questionnaires before hypnosis (n=120) had a mean of 5.44 (SD 2.55) whereas the group that had hypnosis after the questionnaire (n=119) had a mean of 5.31 (SD 2.62). Am independent sample t-test was considered to compare two mean groups to determine whether the mean Group 1 was significantly different from mean Group 2. The results showed no significant differences between the means and the two groups, t (237) = .391 given p<. 0.5. on both groups

References Brynt, R. A.,

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Drinking Age in the United States Essay essay help

The United States legal drinking age of twenty one years has been the subject of discussion for a long time based on the fact that some people are for it, while others are against it. The act which was established in 1984 prohibits drinking below the age of twenty one as it states that any state which allows teenagers under the age of twenty one to purchase alcohol would not receive any revenue.

Before 1984, the minimum drinking age varied from state to state such that some states would allow teenagers to consume alcohol publicly while others would not allow it to happen. However, although it is believed that all states go by that law, some states still allow teenagers to drink in private settings.

Consequently, different agencies and scholars have come up with their proposals concerning the same issue. As much as both sides have got their own reasons, based on several factors, the legal drinking age should be lowered to eighteen years. In addition, since America recognizes an adult after attaining eighteen years, it is illogical to prevent such a person from enjoying rights being enjoyed by other adults.

Therefore, bent on that, this essay argues for the idea that the drinking age should be lowered to eighteen years since the current law does not make much sense.

Majority who propose the drinking age to remain at twenty one argue that teenagers drink irresponsibly and end up getting involved in irresponsible and risky behaviors like careless driving. However, in the same country, a person can be taken to court and be tried at the age of eighteen years and above.

Therefore, even if someone commits such a crime, there is usually a way to deal with such incidences. In addition, the court is supposed to maintain law and order and therefore, teenagers under the age of twenty one ought not to be prevented from drinking in order to prevents accidents and other unlawful behaviors (Engs, 1998).

In United States, a person is allowed to join the military after attaining eighteen years of age. Therefore, it means that in legal terms, a person aged eighteen years can be considered as an adult and more to that, such a person can be trusted with very sensitive and important responsibilities like protecting the country from military attacks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, such a person is also allowed to make decisions that affect the future of a country like voting. Bent on that, it is clear that in legal terms, a person who has attained eighteen years is mature and should be allowed to enjoy other rights that are being enjoyed by the rest of the population (ICAP, 2002).

Before making major conclusions, it is important to compare the problems of alcohol that existed before the establishment of the law and after the establishment of the law. According to Engs (1998), even after the establishment of the alcohol law in the year 1987, teenagers below the age of twenty one were still involved in irresponsible drinking which is characterized by behaviors such as missing classes, poor performance and other forms of violence.

The same study illustrates that the main cause of such behaviors is as a result of prohibiting teenagers from drinking in the company of adults who can teach them responsible drinking behaviors. Therefore, even though consumption of alcohol has reduced, other problems that emanate from the same have increased.

Since the main aim of rising alcohol drinking age is to lower such problems, a critical evaluation indicates that that the law does not entirely serve the intended purpose. It would then be more logical to lower the drinking age and allow teenagers to drink in public places; together with the older members of the society so that they can be taught how to drink in a responsible manner.

A study conducted by ICAP (2002) indicated that although United States is among the countries that have the highest drinking age; it has more problems with alcohol than other countries which have a lower minimum drinking age. For instance, in a country like Netherlands, the minimum drinking age of teenagers is eighteen although at sixteen; one is still allowed to buy alcohol from premises which are licensed.

Nevertheless, any one below the age of eighteen is not allowed to purchase and consume spirits. Similarly, in a country like New Zealand, the minimum legal drinking age is eighteen years meaning that all teenagers above the age of eighteen can purchase and drink alcohol at all licensed premises like bars and restaurants.

In consequence, since more countries have a legal drinking age of eighteen years, the minimum drinking age of United states is not is only strange but also impractical. Although countries like Britain and United Kingdom still record deaths that result from road accidents caused by driving under the influence of alcohol, U.S still records higher death rates than such countries (Engs 1998).

We will write a custom Essay on Drinking Age in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More United States is characterized by many violent activities that require the attention of police officers and other law enforcement agencies. With such a high minimum drinking age, the police officers usually have a lot of work in monitoring the drinking age of teenagers below the age of twenty one.

Worse still, research that has been conducted indicated that teenagers below the age of twenty one drink more than even the people above that age. If the minimum age was lowered, the police and other agencies that enforce law and order would concentrate on other activities instead of focusing on college and high school students.

As much as anyone may want to argue that increasing the drinking age is helpful, the available research and evidence illustrates otherwise. The main problem emanates from the fact that rising the drinking age has little if any impact on behavior. To confirm this, Hanson (n. d.) records that in a study which was conducted among teenagers aged sixteen to nineteen years, the daily intake of alcohol did not change even after minimum drinking age was raised.

In addition, in yet another study which was conducted in the District of Columbia, results illustrated that there were more accidents in states which had a high minimum drinking age. Studies conducted illustrated that once the drinking age was raised, teenagers below the drinking age developed a habit of borrowing alcoholic drinks form their older colleagues and that is the main reason why the consumption rate remained high.

A critical review of the alcoholic related issues prior to the increasing of the minimum drinking age and after clearly illustrates that the law does not solve the intended problem. The main reason is due to the fact that it targets a certain age group and not the alcohol problem at hand. Although no one negates the fact that alcohol is a major problem to teenagers, it is important to come up with a law that can solve the problem instead of aggravating it.

Even if alcohol abuse is serious since it carries serious consequences, it is possible to come up with a law that can mitigate the problem. For example, even without much struggle, studies have indicated that in societies where alcohol is not prohibited like in the Jewish society, young people have less problems than in a place like United States where there is a law prohibiting anyone below the age of twenty one from taking and buying alcohol.

References Engs, R. C. (1998). Why the drinking age should be lowered: An opinion based upon research. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~engs/articles/cqoped.html

Hanson, D. J. (n.d.). The Legal Drinking Age: Science vs. Ideology. Retrieved from https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/legal-drinking-age-science-vs-ideology/

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drinking Age in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Internartional Center For Alcohol Policies (ICAP). (2002). Drinking Age Limits. Web.

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Adidas vs Nike: Marketing Communication Strategies Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction At the end of a product cycle, a company needs to get the products to the target customer. To do this, the company has to adopt some marketing strategies. Marketing strategies are required for both service and goods businesses. Sporting has moved from a recreational activity and has become a professional career for different people.

Companies manufacturing sporting equipments ranging from clothes, shoes, and other equipments need to market their products effectively. Despite the market for the industry increasing, there are international companies in the industry that adopt different marketing strategies for their success.

Such companies include Adidas and Nike; both companies operate internationally but they adopt different marketing strategies. Though the companies are rivals in the business, they find themselves facing the same competitor with the strongest one as Puma and Reebok (Reid

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Extinction of minority languages Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The process of globalization has become very intensive recently. Indeed, the whole world seems to turn into one great community with a unified culture, lifestyle, and system of values. What is more, this community tends to speak fewer and fewer languages, preferring to speak the language that is popular or simple, rather than the one that is native. On one hand, this process is essential, as far as it is based on the law of natural selection.

On the other hand, the extinction of minor languages leads to the extinction of certain cultural groups and their individualities, turning the world into a global grey crowd. So what should be done about the mentioned situation? Undoubtedly, the minor languages should be preserved.

The meaning of the languages that are on the edge of extinction today lies far beyond the linguistic concept. Indeed, languages do not only serve as a means of expression and comprehension; their function is much deeper. Apart from being a system of signs, a language carries a certain mentality, the character of the community it is spoken by. Moreover, the changes in the community’s life are inevitably reflected in its language.

Community and language function as one organism, and when a language dies out, the community also stops existing. In fact, it can become a part of another community, or adopt another language, but losing a native language means losing authenticity with no opportunity for further development and life. That is why, the process of languages extinction should be resisted.

Today the language policies aimed at preserving the minor languages are treated as unpopular and needless. The politicians see no sense in investing money into saving some language of an African community, as this investment will have no obvious use for USA or Europe. More and more money, however, are being spent on popularizing several “strong” languages, such as English, Russian, and Chinese. Indeed, all the countries of the world are to some degree English-speaking.

This is advantageous from economical and political points of view, and is bound to the experience of USSR, where the attempt to create a superpower started with accepting one unified language. The result of that policy, as well as of the one that is led today, is that the half of the world turns into one community with no certain culture, customs and traditions, but with one certain language to speak.

Due to the mentioned facts, we should realize that the preservation of minor languages is a worthy idea. This mission is close to the attempts to preserve the diversity of the nature, saving all of its creatures, their families and creatures. Every language has a history, and no language was made up just for fun.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supporting a language that is on the edge of extinction means saving its history with the underlying culture. After all, if there is a number of popular languages, there should also be some private ones, which should be able to express some very intimate and very native feelings of their speakers.

All in all, it can be said that the intense process of modern globalization has led to the extinction of many minor languages. This process is hard to resist, however there is definitely a need for preserving the minor languages that still exist. Language policies aimed at supporting them should be treated as an attempt to save a piece of original culture, contained in a system of written and spoken signs. Popularizing the minor languages may be a purposeless task; however, their protection from dying out is extremely important.

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Saudi Arabia as a Threat to the National Security: Myths and Facts Research Paper custom essay help

Abstract Although it is rather sad fact to admit, the modern world is highly preoccupied with the threat of terrorism which has recently emerged in the modern society. Such is the situation that the numerous terrorist acts have caused people to panic over their endangered future. Since everyone can remember the tragic events of 2001 and less known but nonetheless terrible accidents that have been caused by terrorists, it is quite understood why the modern world has frozen in anticipation of the inevitable to happen.

Because of the growing anxiety of the uncertain future, people started making assumptions of what the terrorist acts could lead to and if the safety is at high risks now. Instead of looking for the facts carefully, people start believing rumors and the suppositions that were not based either on logic, or on the events that did take place.

As a result, the population of Europe and the USA has been scared stiff and cannot think of the Arabic world in other way than of a world where cool-blooded murders and troublemakers live. Still such statements have nothing to do with the reality. One of the chief goals of the government must be the one of clarifying the issues of terrorism with people to help them to know more about the danger that they are exposed to, because those forewarned are forearmed.

The Roots of the Terrorism: Where the Evil Began Because of the fact that the modern world has faced the danger of being involved into a terrorist act accidentally, there has been a major concern about the phenomenon and its roots. Although the issue does not suggest broad discussion, it is still important to know what the grounds of the terrorists are.

The research on the reasons for terrorism, the people who commit it and the events that trigger this splash of violence are important fro the further preventive measures which have to be taken in order to save the lives of thousands of people. In case these measures are successful, there is hope that people will no longer suffer from the fear of a dreadful death.

The Reasons for the Savage Actions

As a rule, nothing happens out of a sudden, and every single event in a human’s life is triggered by the action that has been undertaken before. The same goes for terrorism, as the actions of the people who have been given a reason to act against the rest of the world. It would be a useful practice to trace the events that lead to the aggression from the Muslim world with its dangerous idea of revenge.

It cannot be doubted that the dangerous people have been influenced by the by the growing power of the leading countries. The influence of theirs, together with the economical and military power have added to the uncertainty of the world of the Muslim people, and the most daring ones started showing their protests to the actions of the world leaders, yet in their own way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The terrorist acts that have occurred so far seem to have been inspired by the threat that the East thought the world leaders to pose to the eastern well-being and their traditions and customs. Te ingenuity of their life was the clue of the Eastern culture and the idea that it is so vulnerable and subjected to the influence of the West was unbearable for the Islamic people.

The Prerequisites of the Terrorism

Like many other historical tragedies, terrorist acts did not appear out of nowhere, but had certain prerequisites which could have been foreseen. Since the political reasons for the terrorist acts to occur are predominating, it seems that those responsible for the tragic events are the people who are in charge of the political safety of the country. Indeed, there are no other pretexts but the economical and cultural ones that can trigger such calamity and result in a bloodbath.

However, it cannot be stated that the leaders of the countries that are suffering from the terrorist acts occurring constantly have nothing to be blamed fro. The recent survey shows that there have been the elements of malpractice in the politics of the state during the recent years. Such political issues of rather doubtful nature have been emerging constantly over the past years. The politicians that do not compete fair for the parliament chair or the post of the president have proved o use the most indecent methods and means to achieve their goals:

So-called negative, or comparative, political advertising has been used increasingly in recent years. It conveys or seeks to evoke a basically unfavorable view of the opposing candidate or party, often by means of comparison with the sponsoring candidate. (Coleman 2000, p. 16)

The Right to Live – Or to Die?

According to the existing human rights, the right to live is one of the prior rights of a free person in the modern world. It is quite understood that the people all over the world cannot feel safe at the moment, regarding the international situation that is most tense nowadays. Together with the threat of terrorism, it makes people’s lives unbearable. However, the UNO has recently come up with something that can be considered an attempt protect people, their freedom and their rights.

There has been also discovered the link between the threat of terrorism and the political instability of the country. Rooting from the people losing the trust in the government, this issue has a great impact on the further development on the country and can result in continuous regress. As Davis (2004) put it,

At low levels of trust in the government, those who have great concern about another terrorist attack differ little in their support for civil liberties from those who have little or no concern about another terrorist attack; but among those who have some or a lot of trust in the government, greater concern about another attack is associated with a sharply lower support for civil liberties. (p. 40)

We will write a custom Research Paper on Saudi Arabia as a Threat to the National Security: Myths and Facts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Most Notorious Terrorism Acts Because of the dreadful consequences and the deaths that a terrorist act triggers, it is impossible to say which of them was the most terrible one; yet it is possible to calculate the damage that they have caused and to figure out which of the acts of terrorism has been the one of the biggest damage and the most desperate and mournful cries.

It can be said with certainty that the terrorist act that the whole wide world ahs seen and will probably remember for good is the accident that took place on September, 11 in 2000. The planes driven by the terrorists have taken hundreds of lives with them, and it was the most terrible event that the USA has ever witnessed since the day it was founded. The cruelty and the aggression of the terrorists was indescribable, since they aimed not on the government only, but also on the innocent people which did not do practically nothing bad.

It can be said that the terrorists have hit the head – the house of Pentagon – and the heart – the so-called Twins – of the United States. If the first act can be described as a political crime, an unlucky assassination the second is no doubt, the most cruel and inhumane action that could have ever be done to a country and the people that are living there.

Taking innocent lives with them has never bothered terrorists, but there is still something worth mentioning, namely that the idea of killing the other people for the sake of the idea can be a rather precise description of the terrorists’ military actions. The way Al-Qaeda operates leaves no room for mercy, but merely cool-blooded reflections on the results which the acts will trigger.

The 11th of September: They Hit U.S. in the Head and in the Heart

Although the tragedy occurred long time ago, there are still the things that remind of the tragic events. Because of the controversial facts that have been presented to the public, there are still heated debates concerning the question of the “authorship” of the crime. The most popular answer is that this is the deed of the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden.

However, there are still certain doubts concerning this mysterious personality. There is no doubt that he exists, but the place where he is concealing from justice now is unidentified and it seem that it never will be, regarding what has been learned about his whereabouts at the moment.

The whereabouts of the headquarters of the terrorists are no secret to the international police and the governmental bodies, but the danger that the states will dispose themselves into as they approach the root of the terrorism is immense and thus the governments cannot risk the well-being and peace all over the world.

One of the main problems which the international police have encountered on its way to fighting terrorism is its unpredictability. Since walking the tightrope is not what the international police are fond of, they do not haste to take steps towards elimination of the headquarters.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Saudi Arabia as a Threat to the National Security: Myths and Facts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the principle of transparency that Obama provided, nowadays people can find out more about the reasons that made the terrorists attack the U. S., yet there is a tint of some things unsaid, in order to keep the people calm and to hush down the fear of the terrorists assaulting the United States citizen once again:

Many of the Bush administration’s most controversial national security policies – the warrantless wiretapping program, the torture program, the rendition program – were conceived, developed, and authorized in secret. The American public found out about these policies long after they were put into place, and after a great deal of damage had already been done. (Establishing a New National Security, Establishing a New Normal, 2010, p. 4)

The Problem That Is Yet to Be Solved The Residence of the Evil: Terrorists’ Headquarters

Nowadays probably everyone knows the way the terrorists’ headquarters is called and where it is situated. Al-Qaeda is considered one of the most dangerous terrorist organizations because of its being highly organized, which is posing a certain threat to the society. Disregarding the fact that this is t one and only terrorist organization that is known all over the world, it is still necessary to admit that it has certain power and it uses the power possessed aiming at the opponents’ life values.

It hits the most vulnerable spot on the body of a country that is straight against Al Qaeda, and there is no stopping to the awful acts of the people who are in charge of it. Formed by Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan in 1988 (Katzman 2005, 1), it is posing a deadly threat to the world safety.

Yet there is one more body of ever greater influence that has begun the continuous fight which is going on even at present, though the battle ahs been hushed down for a while. The name of the force that is ever greater than the one of the terrorists and their organization is the regime of Saudi Arabia. According to Yamani (2008), the abovementioned formation was the first to be blamed for the Islamic aggression that took place shortly after the regime began to take its toll over the political situation:

The Saudi Arabian regime, aided by oil money and custodianship of Islam’s holiest sites, has in recent years emerged as one of the most active and creative diplomatic players in the Middle East. It was a key covert supporter of the United States’ decision to invade Iraq, of efforts to achieve a comprehensive negotiated settlement of the Israeli–Palestinian dispute, and especially of efforts to counter Iran’s hegemonic ambitions. (p. 143)

Taking into consideration the above-mentioned, it can be suggested that the war that was started between the West and the terrorists was due to the political reasons, namely the reason of money and the economical profit. Since oil is rather valuable substance, there is no doubt that the battle was started only to obtain the right to behold the source of everlasting richness.

The case when the concern for their own future and the easy money have prevailed over the spirit of neighborliness is, unfortunately, not so rare. Anyway, the war was started and millions of innocent people were involved into the deadly process.

One of the most notorious questions is whether the people who were involved into the terrorist acts were persuading specifics goals or if the very act was the result of their inner tenseness and the desire to change things so that the country could live again without the invaders and the people who would make them get adjusted to the new ideas that were so foreign to their own ones.

Anyway, the day when Al-Qaeda officially started opposing the rest of the world is considered September, 1st (Leahy 2009) – the notorious and mournful day when hundreds of people perished in the building suddenly attacked by two planes.

The Way the Government Sees It

There is no need to tell that the government pursues the goals of the nation safety and the political stability. Unfortunately, it is not always that the two are compatible. However, in case when the government is threatened with an assault that has been successful and taken away several lives, there is a reason for a deep concern.

It might be useful to reconsider the means that the government uses to enhance its political strength and to find a way out of the complicated situation that the leaders have been trapped in. Whenever there are some political arguments, it is always better to listen to the opponent and to draw necessary conclusions rather than to oppose the rival directly and cause undesirable results.

In spite of the fact that the threat of terrorism is on of the most notorious ones in the modern world, the USA does not hesitate to take immigrants from the other countries. It is clear that the control in the airports has been enhanced, but that does not explain the carelessness of the U. S. government. As Chishti (2003) claimed,

The government’s major successes in apprehending terrorists have not come from post-Sept. 11 immigration initiatives but from other efforts, such as international intelligence activities, law enforcement cooperation and information provided by arrests made abroad (p. 7)

However, it must be admitted that the government did take the necessary precautions as they came to the conclusion that the safety of the nation must be the prior concern of the state:

Shortly after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, President Bush authorized a highly secretive National Security Agency (NSA) program to eavesdrop on electronic communications involving U.S. persons without a warrant and outside of the process set forth in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). (Keiber, 2006)

Conclusion In spite of the fact that the modern politics insist on the terrorist danger as something that has already been overcome and that has to be remembered as the tragic remainder of the past, there are still some roots of it left somewhere deep inside people’s minds, and in the politics’ craving for more influence and power.

Yet it must be understood that, despite the threat of terrorist acts occurring, there must be no prejudice against Muslims, as well as their culture, belief and traditions. It must be remembered that there are no right and wrong in the war and international conflict, for these are both opponents that are being misled. Wong (2006) was completely right saying:

The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is a challenge unprecedented in American history. It dictates a reexamination of the balance between national security and civil liberties to accomplish the dual goals of preventing future attacks and maintaining our commitment to the U.S. Constitution. (2)

It is necessary to understand that Wong is speaking about the war on terrorism, not on the people. Emphasizing the necessity to maintain peace, he admits that there must be some military actions undertaken, but the peaceful citizen must not suffer. Instead of constant conflicts between the nations, there must be some common decision that the nations must come to.

That concerns the Asian countries as well, since they cannot be called as the conflicting ones at all. A few people who are constantly causing calamity and making the government undertake military actions to calm down the rebellions are not the reason to judge the whole nation.

The reasons for the Asian countries to conflict with the rest must be understood as well. Taking into consideration the economical and political tenseness in the abovementioned countries, it can be easily understood why those people display such aggression towards the unknown world. What the western countries must do is to take time and wait until the leaders of these conflicting countries are ready for a constructive dialogue.

While military actions can only make the situation worse, a civilized approach can help the nations become friendlier to each other and build the relationship based on mutual trust and understanding. With a humane approach to the opponents, it is possible that the war will be won without a single shot. Yet the question of how much time it will take for the leaders of the Asian countries to build partner relationships wit the western states.

References Chishti MA et al. American’s Challenge: Domestic Securities, Civil Liberties, and National Unity after September 11. Migration Policy Institute (MPI): Washington, DC, USA, 2003. 5-20. Print.

Davis DW et al. Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attack on America. American Journal of Political Science (AJPS), 48(1); 2004. 28-46. Print.

Establishing a New Normal: National Security, Civil Liberties, and Human Rights Under the Obama Administration; an 18 Months review. American Civil Liberty Union, 2010. 1-22. Print.

Katzman, K. CRS Report for Congress: Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment. Congressional Research Service, the Library of the Congress, 2005. 1-6. Print.

Keiber, J. National Security and Civil Liberties; Director of Studies Strategy. 2 (3) Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2006.

Leahy, P. J., and B. L. Cardin et al. Protecting National Security and Civil Liberties: Strategies for Terrorism Information Sharing; Hearing before Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security of the Committee of the Judiciary; United States Senate. One Hundred Eleven Congress, first session, 2009. 1-95. Print.

Wong, L. et al. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties. Strategic Studies Institute; Conference Brief, 2006. 1-4. Print.

Yamani, M. The Two Faces of Saudi Arabia. Survival: 50(1), 2008. 142-156. Print.

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Cross Cultural Communications Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Cultural conflict

Diversity

Assimilation and integration

Conclusion

Works Cited

In the globalized world, the need for people from different cultures to communicate effectively is essential. Yet, attaining effective cross-cultural communication is not always an easy undertaking. What with every person believing that his or her culture is the best and even more people not willing to learn or accommodate another culture? Moreover, human beings tend to be stereotypical, usually judging people from other cultures based on long-held biases.

Regardless of the stereotypes and biases, the human relations across the conventional world are such that governments need each other, and hence cross-cultural communication must be enhanced if understanding between governments and the people they represent is to be attained.

Among the cultures that have always been in conflict are the Islamic culture and the American culture. The latter is predominantly based on Christian principles, although the government and its people are quick to denounce any religious affiliations, choosing to remain a liberal society. Islamic culture on the other hand is based on Islamic religion, and Muslims perceive their religion as a way of life. Specifically, Muslims do not separate their religion from the life they lead publicly or privately (Hamada).

As Shaheen observes however, the casual American observer usually associates Islam to hatred, fanaticism, violence, women oppression, and jihad (2). This affects cross cultural communication between Americans and people who adhere to the Islamic culture because the former always view the latter as a group of people who believe, feel, think and act as one based on their religious inclinations.

Muslims on the other hand perceive adherents of the American culture as a “proud culture” with little tolerance to ideals that differ from what the ‘liberal culture’ advocates.

Cultural conflict Most cultural conflicts between the American culture and the Islamic culture are based on stereotypes. According to Shaheen, people form stereotypes through hearsay or imagination (5). As such, their perceptions are not based on personal experiences or knowledge.

The perceptions based on stereotypes however shape their future relationships with people from ‘the other’ culture, hence affecting communication between the two parties. One however wonders why effective cross-cultural communication between adherents of the Islamic and American cultures is such an important issue.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is an average 6.5 million Muslims living in the United States. Some are Americans by birth, while others are immigrants. More important is the fact that the United States as a nation needs to comprehend the Islamic culture in order to serve its strategic geopolitical needs as well as uphold its constitutional ideals such as religious tolerance. There are also a significant number of American scholars, investors, and even students in countries with a predominant Islamic Culture (Ahmed “Journey” 7; Shaheen 6).

There is evidence in literature to the effect that cross-cultural communication between adherents of the American and Islamic culture can only be effective if both parties take time to understand each other (Ahmed “Journey” 7; Shaheen 6; Zaharna 245). Notably, communication breakdown as observed by Zaharna occurs when one “observes the differences of another through the prism of one’s culture” (241).

Lacking knowledge regarding another person’s culture occurs because people are ignorant, and often times such people believe that their culture is the best. Such attitudes towards a different culture eventually breed ethnocentrism, which in turn leads to negative perceptions towards ‘the other’ culture. According to Zaharna, only a conscious awareness of differences that exist between two cultures can help facilitate understanding (241). As such, there is a need to investigate how the American and Islamic cultures differ.

Diversity With the United States being a cultural melting pot, it is hard to have a definite definition of the American culture. In the same way, it is hard to define the Islamic culture since it is made up of people of diverse backgrounds and origins. For example, during a 2001 ethnicity study in the United States, the Muslim community compromised of 25 percent Arabs, 3 percent Africans, 35 percent Asians, 30 percent African-Americans, and 25 percent Europeans (Theis).

In the same study, it was established that Americans will most likely pick a person of Arabic descent as a Muslim since there is a widespread concept that all Arabs are Muslim, while ignoring the large percent of Asians or African-Americans.

In communication, the Islamic culture can be defined as a high-context culture while the American culture can be identified as a low-context culture (Hall 18). In high-context cultures, communication is neither coded nor explicit. Often, the communicator expects the recipient to understand the physical and contextual cues of the message in order to get the “full meaning of the message” (Hall 98).

In most cases, the communicator avoids giving specific details, expecting the interlocutor to interpret the message for him or herself and hence unearth the meaning of their communication. Americans on the other hand practice a low-context culture, where the burden of making communication clear lies with the person articulating the message. As such, it is the responsibility of the person conveying the message to ensure that it is clear, precise, and accurate in order to avoid any misinterpretation by the recipient.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Cross Cultural Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A clash in cross-cultural communication occurs when neither of the parties knows how to interpret each other’s communication methods. Samovar, Porter and McDaniel specifically point out that mutual misconceptions occur between adherents of the Islamic and American culture since people on both sides do not have the patience, or the knowledge needed to understand each other’s point of view (164). Adherents of the American culture are specifically unfamiliar with the Islamic way of communicating, praying, and even relating.

Adherents of the Islamic culture on the other hand usually lack the knowledge and tact needed in presenting their faith and lifestyles to others (Samovar, Porter, and McDaniel 116). As a result, adherents of the Islamic culture (especially those of Arabic origin) have always been perceived as the “uncivilized character, the cultural other [or] someone who appears and acts differently [from] the white western protagonist…” (Shaheen 12).

In an example from (Ahmed “Journey” 11), the author observes that Muslim women may become nervous and perturbed when male officials in America or elsewhere look them direct in the eye, speak to them in a loud, show aggressive behavior or come too close to them. Modesty rules in the Islamic culture hold that men should address women in reasonable mild tones. Moreover, the Islamic culture expects people of opposite sex to maintain reasonable distance while communicating as a sign of modesty (Ahmed “Journey” 11).

Ahmed further notes that the nervous and perturbed nature of a Muslim woman may however be interpreted by the American male official as a sign that the woman is ill-at ease because of something she may be hiding (11). This suggests that unless adherents of both the American and Islamic cultures make deliberate efforts to understand each other’s cultures, a breakdown in communication between people of the two cultures will always occur.

According to Zaharna, while the American culture stresses the need for univocal openness, the Islamic culture relies more on using ambiguous communication (146).

This then raises the question, how can people from the two cultures communicate effectively with each other? More so, what are the chances that a Muslim working in America will learn to communicate effectively with people in the host country or vice versa? According to Zaharna, the answers to these questions are contained in people understanding each other’s culture (147). For Muslims living in America, the burden of effective communication is on them.

The same case applies to Americans working in Middle East countries where the Islamic culture is prevalent. In both cases, the person moving to the other culture has to research, understand, and in most cases make changes in his or her communication methods in order to conform to the host culture. Unfortunately, this cannot be an easy undertaking especially since change would call for one to set aside what they have always practiced and adopt a set of different communication approaches.

A Muslim faithful who has always used ambiguous styles of communication would for example need to adopt open, univocal communication while residing, working with, or dealing with people from the American culture. Notably, such a transformation in communication skills would not only require patience, but dedication too.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross Cultural Communications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Having observed that the Islamic culture does not differentiate between religiosity and lifestyle, it is worth noting that people from the Islamic culture associate their well-being with God’s blessing. According to Zaharna, how different people perceive their positions in life also affects the way they communicate (248).

Notably, the American culture lays special emphasis on the need to work hard if one is to attain measurable accomplishments. According to the author, the American culture’s perception to material well-being can be defined as a “doing culture.” The Islamic culture on the other hand believes in a “being culture” where Allah’s blessings are deemed essential for success in life.

The two concepts as proposed by Zaharna are well captured by Ahmed, who indirectly alludes to the fact that the American culture borrows from Darwinian principles where the fittest people succeed or survive in life. On the same breadth, Ahmed indirectly equates the Islamic culture with Abrahamic faiths, where self-interest is abhorred, while virtues such as selfless love, concern for the needy and the dispossessed are encouraged (25-26).

Ahmed further notes that the American culture’s anxiety, competitiveness, anger and fear towards other cultures is deeply rooted in Darwinian thinking (26). This assertion can be interpreted to mean that there are suspicions on both sides of the divide, which could very well hinder effective communication.

The American will on one hand, relate with the Muslim with some skepticism especially considering that there is a wide held-misconception that all Muslims are violent. Muslims on the other hand relate with the Americans cautiously based on the selfish impression that most Muslims have towards the American culture.

Assimilation and integration Assimilation in the American and Islamic cultures is desirable if effective communication is to occur between adherents of the two cultures. However, the magnitude of the goodwill required from both sides cannot be underestimated if assimilation and integration is to become a reality (Tareen). As has been noted by Shaheen, the first step to progress would both cultures to contest stereotypes that exist between them (65).

Citing John F. Kennedy, Shaheen observes, “it is necessary to remove the prejudices of the people, enlighten their ignorance and convince them that their interest will be promoted by [the] proposed changes; and this is not the work of a day” (65). Seeing the extent of work that such changes would call for, one wonders just where the starting point would be.

The potency of mass media as a communication tool would perhaps present one of the most wide-reaching and effective means of enhancing cross-cultural communication between adherents of the American and Islamic cultures. Shaheen’s analysis of nine hundred American-produced films reveal that most such movies contained racist and nonobjective representation of the Islamic culture mainly through characters of Arab origin.

According to Samovar, Porter and McDaniel, the unrealistic messages and images passed through media channels can be changed if producers and writers are taken through literacy programs, which encourage critical thinking amongst them (169). One such effort as cited by Theis was the “Islam in America” campaign that published weekly advertisements in local newspapers across the United States in 2003. The campaign targeted the general audience including writers, publishers and the general citizenry.

Beyond the role that the mass media needs to engage in, the roles of governments and individuals are vital (Tareen), especially if people from the two cultures are to attain assimilation and integration. Governments also need to help the citizenry overcome some of the biases held towards the two cultures by overcoming the “ideological principle of antagonism” that has characterized American-Islamic relations in the past (Hamada).

There is no doubt that there are suspicions from both sides and hence opinion makers in the Islamic culture; just as is the case with leaders and opinion makers in the American culture. Yet these parties have an important role to play in helping the masses overcome these suspicions.

Conclusion For effective cross-cultural communication to occur between adherents of the American and Islamic cultures, there has to more deliberate action from both sides in order to change people’s perception regarding the “other” culture.

As has been noted in this essay, stereotypes formed mainly from hearsay and imaginations have always characterized relations between Americans and Muslims. In the post 9/11 world, Americans have become particularly suspicious of the Muslims because of widespread association of terrorism with Islam (Ahmed “Islam” 26).

Muslims on the other hand, having suffered rejection, mistreatment, and suspicion from their American counterparts have a deep-rooted perspective of the American as an arrogant person who cares little about the well-being of the other person. The situation can be described as “Muslims are for Americans what the Russians were for Churchill’ as noted by Ahmed (“A Journey”). Apart from these stereotypes clouding people’s judgment, they also affect how people from the two cultures communicate.

The communication process between the American and Islamic cultures is made worse by the fact that one is a high-context culture, while the other is a low-context culture. For effective communication to occur therefore there has to be a compromise between the two. Usually, the immigrant who needs to communicate effectively takes the responsibility of learning about his or her host culture and conforming to the same, and as observed in this essay, the process requires both dedication and patience.

As Shaheen has observed, relationships between adherents of the American and Islamic cultures are dominated by long held clichés and stereotypes (65). As such, for successful cross-cultural communication to occur, people in both cultures would need to find effective means to contest and overcome the stereotypes. More importantly, people in the two cultures must be willing to overcome their prejudices and ignorance by adopting change.

Both sides must also understand that any vilification based or religion or race is wrong. Through Muslims and Americans humanizing each other, there is a possibility that people from the two cultural divides can establish effective communication relationships. In the contemporary globalized world, adherents of both American and Islamic cultures will need each other for economic, political, or social reasons. Their relationships can only be successful if there is effective cross-cultural communication.

Works Cited Ahmed, Akbar (“A Journey,” online). 2010. A Journey into America, Past and Present. Web.

Ahmed, Akbar S. (“Islam”). Islam under Siege: Living dangerously in a Post-honor World, New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.

Ahmed, Akbar (“Journey”). Journey into America: The Challenge of Islam. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2010.Print.

Hall, Edward Twitchell. Beyond Culture. NY: Double Day, 1976. Print

Hamada, Basyouni. “Global Culture of Cultural Clash: An Islamic Intercultural Communication Perspective.” Global Media Journal 3.5 (Fall 2004). Web.

Samovar, Larry, Porter Richard, and McDaniel, Edwin. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Shaheen, Jack. “Arab and Muslim Stereotyping in the American Popular Culture.” Occasional Papers Series (1997):1-91.

Tareen, Amra. America’s Schizophrenic Muslim Policy- Journey into America: The Challenge of Islam. All Voices inc., Aug. 2010. Web.

Theis, Rolf. “Muslim Americans in American Society- and in German Classroom.” American Studies Journal 52.1. (Sept. 2008). Web.

Zaharna, Rhoda. “Bridging Cultural Differences: American Public Relations Practices

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Adopted children with gay parents have better chances of succeeding Essay essay help

Gay parenting involves a situation whereby gay people including lesbians are allowed to act as parents to one or more children through foster care, adoption, surrogacy, and co-parenting (Bozett ix). Therefore, gay parents are allowed by law to establish a normal family in some parts of the world.

According to different census studies, about 33% of Lesbian couples and 22% of gay couples take care of at least one child in their households. In addition, the same studies show that gay or Lesbian parenting has several advantages as opposed to foster care and some aspects of heterosexual parenting (Aiken 182).

Here, the supporters of gay or lesbian parenting argue that a considerable number of gay parents provide their adopted children with more secure emotional surroundings compared to heterosexual parents. Moreover, gay parents give their adopted children a chance to realize the importance of a full-time family compared to single parenthood, which is characterized by many shortcomings such as poor academic achievements and questionable behavioral characteristics in children.

On the other hand, evidence tends to support the perception that lesbian parents who are given a chance to bear their own children through artificial insemination are better parents in terms of providing emotionally stable homes and raising well-adjusted children. Lastly, gay or lesbian parenting serves to minimize the shortage of adoptive parents experienced in foster homes across the United States (Aiken 180-183).

Furthermore, studies show that gay or Lesbian parenting does not significantly differ from heterosexual parenting in terms of raising psychologically sound, well-educated, socially healthy, and well-adjusted children. On the other hand, most studies involving gay parenting and gay adoption seems to support the idea that adopted children with gay parents have better chances of succeeding in different aspects of life and academics. As a result, this essay looks at different aspects of gay or lesbian parenting, which seem to support adopted children in their mission to succeed.

First, many gay or lesbian parents tend to support the idea that children who will live in the future age should belong to each individual living in the present age. As a result, gay or lesbian parents have many long-lasting dreams and hopes for their adopted children as opposed to foster and heterosexual parents. Therefore, apart from realizing that love builds a family, gay adoptive parents are aware of the need for the family to act as the first teacher for their children.

Moreover, these parents are aware of the society’s view of their sexual orientation, and thus they tend to worry more about the safety and welfare of their children particularly in schools (Letts and Sears 163). Consequently, gay parents taking care of adopted children tend to build a strong attachment with their children and other adoptive and heterosexual parents who are sharing the same experience and vision for their children.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the existence of children from gay or lesbian families in both private and public schools has forced school administrators and the society to reconsider their traditional perception of these children. Therefore, schools and the society become more committed towards guaranteeing the safety and integrity of adopted children from gay families thereby giving these children better chances of succeeding in academics and other social activities (Letts and Sears 170).

Secondly, studies show that the number of infants who are born out of wedlock is significantly increasing in the United States, and therefore, compromising care services at foster and adoptive homes. For example, in 1995, about 258,000 children aged below 18 years were living in foster homes across the United States (Aiken 182).

In the recent past, additional foster homes have been established to cater for the rising number of children from different races. However, studies note that abandoned children are brought in and out of different foster homes, and thus, the chances of these children developing emotional stability and personal identity are very minimal.

On the other hand, the same studies note that adopted children including those raised by gay parents have better chances of becoming emotionally stable and developing strong personal identities compared to their counterparts in foster homes. Here, the supporters of gay adoption argue that there is a high probability that many adoptive adults will want their adopted children, and thus, they are more willing to make various preparations and concessions for such children in terms of schooling and their social welfare (Aiken 184).

Lastly, studies on the quality of gay fathers and their parenting tactics show that gay parents are more willing to support paternal nurturance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. On the other hand, gay fathers are less likely to support economic provisions and empowerment for their young children.

Furthermore, most gay fathers show no signs of supporting the traditional characteristics of parenting, and thus they are more unlikely to provide their children with sex-typed toys and presents. In fact, gay fathers tend to endorse role models who are of the opposite sex for their children (Bozett 15).

Overall, there is evidence to suggest that gay parents have positive interactions and relationships with their biological and adopted children. Additionally, the parent’s sexual orientation shows no significant impact on the relationship between parents and their growing children (Bozett 15). Therefore, gay parents tend to establish stable homes in addition to long-term positive relationships with their children, and in so doing, they give their children the opportunity to succeed.

We will write a custom Essay on Adopted children with gay parents have better chances of succeeding specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Aiken, Lewis. Human development in adulthood. New York: Plenum Press, 1998. Print.

Bozett, Frederick. Gay and lesbian parents. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1987. Print.

Letts, William and Sears, James Thomas. Queering elementary education: advancing the dialogue about sexualities and schooling. Maryland: Rowman

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The Issue of Bullying in the Schools Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Personal experience

Forms, Effects and recommendations of bullying

Conclusion

Works Cited

This paper attempts to look at the issue of bullying in the schools. A personal story about how I was bullied when I was young is included. The paper looks at this issue by considering aspects like causes and forms of bullying as well as examples of bullying cases.

Since the number of bullying cases has been on the increase in schools, recommendations will be offered on the best thing to do when bullying cases are reported. Main ideas on the topic will be presented so that the issue can be presented in a comprehensive way (Smith, Pepler, and Rigby 56-60).

Personal experience I grew up in south Bronx until I was thirteen years old when we moved to an Irish neighborhood. My brother and sister are half Irish and half Puerto Rican, unlike me; my whole family has a very fair skin. The first time I landed on this neighborhood, I was very delighted since unlike our previous home I could play outside the house.

I still recall what befell me the first time I went out to play; all the children in the neighborhood were white and the girls started harassing me by telling me that if I was hoping to live there I had to be white, they even spread baby powder on my face. We later become friends although some of their parents resented me because I was Spanish. The situation did not get any better since some children nicknamed me Goya bean: this made to hate Goya beans

When summer ended, I joined school and it so happened that I was the only Spanish girl in the whole school. Things did not go well here either since I picked fights frequently because other children teased me. At some point, it became a routine that I had to be involved in a fight everyday. The principle took the initiative of calling my mother to discuss the matter. When my mother came, she was told that I was a problematic child since I frequently fought with other children.

The board of directors claimed that with my stubborn nature I deserved to be taken to a special school where other problematic children studied. Since then, I was regarded as a problematic child. My mother was forced to transfer me to another school since I was expelled from my former school. I developed low self-esteem and I started taking drugs, soon afterwards I dropped out of school at sixth grade.

This victimization made me to start thinking of ways that I could change my way of life to show that I was still strong hence prove to my aggressors wrong. The events acted as a motivating factor for me to make a difference. Each time I feel like giving up my efforts of trying to be what I want to be, I look back and remember all the challenges that I have overcome in my life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This makes me to realize that I have much more challenges to face and overcome; thus I become a stronger person. Every time I look back, I do not regret what I have gone through since it is through these chain of events that I have become what I am today.

One thing that I am proud of is that I managed to turn anger into motivation. Nevertheless, I must admit that these experiences left me with a scar since when one is a victim of bullying he or she is tempted to believe that something is wrong with them one asks questions like ‘why me?’ Bullying kills one’s self esteem and also makes one to feel isolated.

The victim may fear or feel ashamed to tell anyone since he or she may think that this has never happened to anyone else. It gives me joy to know that the issue of bullying is now a pubic affair since bullying stories were unheard of when I was growing up. It is also important to note that children are no longer afraid to report bullying cases.

Forms, Effects and recommendations of bullying Slavens and Kerrigan (23) see bullying as a term used to describe a pattern of behavior that is cruel and humiliating towards another person, he further notes that it can affect people of all walks of life and age.

Bullying can occur in two forms, verbal and physical. One can be bullied verbally when the bully attempts to verbally anger the victim by mocking them on purpose. Physical bullying occurs when the bully or aggressor forces physical contact with his or her victim, this may be in form of kicking or punching to the point that the victim becomes submissive.

Physical bullying is more serious as compared to verbal bullying since it can lead to serious injuries and sometimes death of the victim (Orpinas, Horne, 12-34). Bullies enjoy intimidating others to either gain fame or to satisfy their ego. Teenagers may bully others due to peer pressure since they may want to fit in a certain click. Factors that can lead to bullying include differences in physical and cultural characteristics; in addition, showing signs of inferiority can also be a major cause of bullying.

This vice has many effects on the victim. Since the bully has control over the victim, the victim can become stressed to the extent of becoming depressed. Most victims of bullying have low self esteem since they do not feel self-sufficient. The victim can also develop negative attitude towards the environment and the people around him.

We will write a custom Essay on The Issue of Bullying in the Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such a person may isolate him/her self from the rest of the world because of a feeling of inadequacy. School children who have been bullied may drop out of school or start taking drugs so as to seek consolation (Field, 211-250).

Teachers should be strict when dealing with bullies. Heavy punishment should be given to the aggressors so as to prevent them from repeating the act again and to also warn others not to repeat the same mistake in future. Victims of bullying should be encouraged to report to their seniors if they are bullied.

It is important for the teacher to diagnose any physical and psychological problems affecting the students. Schools and other institutions should set up advisory centers where students can be helped to overcome the aftermath of bullying. These centers should have friendly counselors so that students can feel free to discuss their problems with them (Slavens and Kerrigan, 12). The counselors should also be well trained so that they can offer professional help to the victims.

Conclusion Bullying is the act of humiliating others either verbally of physically. A bully is the aggressor who undertakes bullying. Although bullying is common in schools, it can also occur in other settings such as the workplaces. It is important for the school administration to come up with ways of dealing with bullying cases such as punishing the bully heavily. People bully others for different reasons such as the need to feel superior. The vice bears negative impacts to the victim to the extent that it can be verbal.

Works Cited Field, Tim. Bully in sight: how to predict, resist, challenge and combat workplace bullying: overcoming the silence and denial by which abuse thrives. New Jersey: Success Unlimited, 2000. pp. 211-250

Orpinas, Pamela, Horne, Arthur. Bullying prevention: creating a positive school climate and developing social competence. MI: University of Michigan, 2006. pp. 12-34

Slavens, Elaine and Kerrigan, Brooke. Bullying: deal with it before push comes to shove. Toronto: James Lorimer

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Culture and Diversity Argumentative Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

America is a country built by people from different backgrounds. It is a nation comprising of people who migrated from other parts of the world, some willingly and others forcefully through slavery. All these people have their different cultures and the majority of them hold to them making America a land of cultural, racial and religious diversity.

The people who founded and built America migrated from various places of the world and they included the Europeans, Jews, Italians, Germans, Filipinos, Indians, Africans and the Irish among others. Even now, America still experiences massive immigrations mostly from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The increased development of different cultures in America as well as social, political economic, racial and religious diversity affects the American nation in many ways.

There are both merits and demerits of the diversity in America. This diversity has enabled the people from different backgrounds to live together and understand the diverse cultures and practices of other people. The diversity is important in the educational processes of the American people as they learn from what is practically present with them.

These people also participate in these educational processes, which contribute to their development. Cultural diversity is important in economic development. It gives people involved in business to know the desires and needs of other cultures in the world and thus help them to come up with business strategies. The diversity in language is well exploited in this process.

Diversity also determines the health of a country or region. The more diverse a country is, the more innovative its citizens are likely to be and less resistant to innovations and change. It also gives individuals an opportunity to develop their personal skills by learning from each other. This not only leads to personal growth, but also leads to economic, social, spiritual and political growth.

On the other hand, diversity in the American nation has a number of negative effects. Segregation and discrimination in America has led to a heterogeneous nation divided along racial lines. This affects development negatively as the segregated group does not get enough opportunity to exploit their potential. They also pull back in developmental issues, which can impair the development rate of the country. Conflicting cultures also create conflicts between the citizens thus disrupting the unity of the nation.

Most of the immigrants to America came in with their traditional heritage and they are determined to maintain their practices. In this way, these immigrants overlooked the heritage of the traditional Americans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of maintaining a diverse heritage in America is what brought a misunderstanding between the communities involved and led to the marginalization of the immigrants. Some of the immigrants, such as some groups of the African Americans, felt inferior in their culture and decided to drop their heritage in favor of the original American heritage; however, they did not succeed.

Still, the traditional heritages of the immigrants make it easier to draw clear lines between the different communities holding different heritage practices in America. Their heritage makes them to be more unacceptable by the early American nationals who demand that the immigrants be assimilated to the American culture.

In order for a nation to remain one, the people have to accept the diversity of cultures in the nation and appreciate each other’s culture. The governing bodies should also do away with discriminative policies and come up with those that can unite the country.

In conclusion, America is a country that was founded on “the back of immigration” and therefore has people with different cultural and historical backgrounds. To unite this country language is a major tool to use and the American people should learn diverse languages. The citizens should appreciate each other’s culture and learn to live together as a united nation.

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The Character of Joseph Grand in “The Plague” by Albert Camus Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

In this paper, I would like to discuss such character of Camus’ novel The Plague as Joseph Grand. Although it is too early for me to advance any far-fetched arguments, I can say that Joseph is very much similar to Sisyphus; he becomes accustomed to the routine nature of daily life, and his existence reminds us of Sisyphus’ attempts to roll a rock to the top of the mountain.

Albert Camus creates this character to show that the majority of modern people do not strive for intellectual or spiritual development, while focusing on the material side of their lives.

If they do decide to make a difference to their existence, their attempts are usually very superficial. Another purpose which Grand serves is to prove that as a rule people do not search for good qualities within themselves, and only a sudden misfortune can force them to do it. In order to elaborate this argument, I need to discuss the behavior of this man, his relations with others and, most importantly, those expectations, he sets for himself.

At first, one has to show how the author describes this person. Camus points out that “ambition was not the spur that activated Joseph Grand… All he desired was the prospect of a life suitable insured on the material side by honest work” (Camus, 56). This indicates that he was quite content with his status in community and the quality of his life. In part, this lack of ambition explains why he has served his entire life as a clerk and why his wife left him.

It should also be noted that Grand also attempts to write a book, most probably, a novel. However, he never even finishes the first line of this alleged masterpiece. In his defense, Conrad says that he struggles to find the most suitable words and phrases for this novel and this perfectionism prevents him from progressing further.

At this point, an attentive reader has to ask oneself a question whether this behavior can ascribed only to perfectionism or to something else, for instance to the fear of a making a mistake, laziness, and reluctance to take risks.

He changes his lifestyle only when the epidemic of plague breaks out in the town. This calamity helps Joseph to rediscover the traits of which he was unaware before, namely, fortitude and resolution. He is seen by others as the “embodiment of quiet courage” that raises the spirit of other people (Camus, 100).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the plague, he stops being a Sisyphus, engaged in senseless labor. He becomes a person who realizes that his life must not be spent in vain. At the very end, we learn that Joseph resumes the work on his novel, but we do not know for sure whether he has ever completed the first line. The author leaves it for the readers to decide whether Joseph Grand is a changed man, who can take initiative and responsibility for his actions, or he is the same Sisyphus, who is more content with the safety of daily routine.

It is quite difficult to determine how this novel would have looked like without him. Most likely, the plot of The Plague would have remained unchanged, yet the impression, produced by this literary work would have been different.

The thing is that Joseph Grand embodies the strengths and weaknesses of modern people, including their aspirations, fears, and prejudices. Again, this character proves an idea that people usually do not attempt to change for the better on their own accord, unless there is a powerful external stimulus. This is why the character of Joseph Grand is important to this novel.

Works Cited Camus Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. 1955. Available at: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/hell/camus.html

Camus Albert. The Plague. BookEden, 1967.

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Planning and decision making in management Reflective Essay best essay help: best essay help

Planning and decision making are among the most valuable foundations on which businesses and organizations are built. For any organization to succeed in its undertaking, it needs to properly plan for virtually all aspects of its operations. The right decisions have to be made by its managers to see the business through successful operations.

Since the success of managers is reflected by the welfare of the organizations they manage, it is indubitable that planning and decision making cannot be separated from the practice of management. This paper is a thoughtful reflection of the usefulness of planning and decision making skills, acquired in class, in the practice of management.

As an aspiring manager, the ideas I acquired about planning and decision making in organizations will be very useful. This is because the topic was covered with clear explanations of the usefulness of planning and management in management and it also covered how one can plan well and make right and acceptable decisions.

Among the things that will be particularly useful in my life as a manager is the idea that planning and decision making is efficiently done using a bottom-up approach. This is because the use of a bottom-up approach in planning and making of decisions results in decisions that are characterized by sufficient consultation.

More importantly, the decisions made using a bottom-up approach are in most cases acceptable to both managers and junior employees (Smith 33). Other issues covered in the topic were equally useful and I am sure I will be applying most of the ideas I got in class, about this topic, in my life as a manager.

There are so many new things I learnt about planning and decision making. One of the new things that substantially impressed me is the fact that good managers are able to make decisions by just listening to their fellow employees (Smith 35).

That is, if someone comes with an idea of objection to a given plan, a good manager will listen to him/her and after evaluating the value of the suggestion, approve it or reject it. Since his/her evaluation is assumed to be based on shrewd judgment, the suggestion is, in this case, bound to have a positive effect on the organization. Much of the credit from such success goes to the manager for his/her coordination and leadership skills.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My realization of the fact that listening to other people’s ideas makes a good manager will be very useful in my life. This is primarily due to the fact that I like putting my ideas across so much that it sometimes interferes with my listening skills.

After the course, I am a better manager since I can now start working on my listening skills and try to have a positive perspective towards every idea that another person puts across. I now appreciate the fact that to be a good manager, I do not have to do all the thinking and planning work but I should have good evaluation skills for gauging the usefulness of ideas suggested by other people.

As it can be deduced from the discussion above, good managerial skills require good planning and decision making. Taking a course that tackles the same is very important since, as students are taught on how to be good planners and decision makers, they are given a chance to evaluate themselves. This is very useful since after evaluating themselves, students are able to perfect their weaknesses as far as planning and decision making is concerned and consequently be good managers.

Works Cited Smith, Jane. Planning and Decision Making. New York. Wadsworth Publishing, 1996. Print.

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Geological and cultural importance of Deer Creek Park (Colorado) Descriptive Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

This is an open space Park in Jefferson County with both geological and cultural importance to the whole nation. This park has offered great and wonderful views for a long time.

Most hikers and other outside fanatics have fun in deer Creek Park. Within the park compound there are various types of wild flowers especially the rainy seasons. Attractive views of the plains and the beautiful flowers, create a good photographic opportunities for the visitors (Hall 345). Most of people have preferred to visit this park due to its wide range of facilities that fits different types of visitors.

To begin with, the park has a wonderful and comfortable restroom facilities. Within its compound, the secluded areas for picnic are well secured with barbecue wires to ensure safety for the visitors. Both hikers and bikers are provided by multi purpose trails while climbing the mountain.

Any visitor to this park gets a chance to go through the park information, as there are information places equipped with brochures. The parks cleanliness is maintained through provision of many trashcans all over the place, thus it’s hard to see litter within the compound (Lipker 89).

The visiting time is relatively enough as the park is opened an hour before sunrise and its closed one hour after sunset. There are also attractive shelters within the compound and more beauty to the natural environments. The center of attraction lies in the presence of scrub oak habitat that is uncommon within that locality. In the park, wild animals enjoy oak as their food and their shelter. The atmosphere of the park is made wonderful by sweet melodies of different types of birds.

The most powerful force that is recognized in the formation of this park is erosion by water and wind. Other minor forces include Colorado River, volcanism, and climatic changes. Although this park is located in the desert, water also has a great impact during its formation. During the rainy seasons, the park soils do not absorb water as it is hardened completely by the strong sun (Yanagihara and Denniston 103).

When raining the water flows with force making the situation worse. The plants in the park have got shallow roots enabling them to absorb as much water as possible during the rainy seasons. On the other hand, these roots cannot control soil erosion as they are very weak and cannot hold the soil together.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deer creek park occupies a big space approximately 1881 acre. In the beginning, its fertile soils attracted activities like mining and farming. Currently, people around the park also do a lot of hunting especially the deer that are common wild animals in the region. In the park, there are several well-managed trails that one can choose which to use (Hall 530).

Hiking trails are traveling paths inside the park. Some of the trails that are mostly used are Plymouth creek trail, Plymouth mountain trail, scenic view trail, and red mesa loop trail among others. The commonly used trail in deer Creek Park is meadowlark trail. This trail is estimated to have a length of one and a half miles. It’s a trail for pedestrian only although there are other that bikers can use. Through the help of residents around the park, the deer creek park has been able to offer protection and maintenance of wild animals and trees.

People from outside have also gotten an opportunity to be educated and conservation (Hlawaty, 210). The main aim of the deer creek park is to make use of that open space land as well as preserving natural resources. Some of the recreational activities that are conducted in the park include, luxury and family traveling where people enjoy themselves through trekking or by use of bikes.

Different types of sports, running and marathons have for a long time being conducted here especially the winter sports. During vacations visitors come in this park for leisure with their friends or family. Boating and sailing is also a common activity in this park especially when there are no water sports in progress.

The red rocks formed by the wind and water erosion are estimated to be 335 million years. These red rocks are formed by marine limestone and dolomites among other components (Samelson, et al 93). These red rocks are about 400 to 500 feet going upwards separating the lower and the upper sides of the deer creek park.

A slope for climbing these rocks is created where there is a crack. The strong and admirable red color is as a result of iron oxides from other layers as the original color of these rocks is dark brown. Some marine fossils are seen on these red rocks for instance snails, and fish among others. On these red rocks too caves and arches are also available.

In conclusion, the geological and the cultural aspects of the park have made it of value. Through these two people have learned, have funs, and enjoyed their leisure time well in the deer creek park. A lot of recreational activities have been organized and taken place in this park bringing people together (Lipker 113).

We will write a custom Essay on Geological and cultural importance of Deer Creek Park (Colorado) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has contributed in promoting the social aspect of people and unity among them. The most surprising thing I observed in the park is the presence of the rattlesnakes, thus one has to be very careful when making a visit there. Weather conditions are also to be observed keenly when visiting, as there are several eruptions of the rocks due to contraction and expansion.

Works Cited Hall, Frank. History of the State of Colorado, Volume 2, ISBN1110812094, 9781110812097, BiblioBazaar, LLC, New York, 2009. Web.

Hlawaty, Stephen. Mountain Biking Colorado’s Front Range: From Fort Collins to Colorado Springs, ISBN0762725559, 9780762725557, Falcon, New York, 2003.

Lipker, Kim. 60 hikes within 60 miles, Denver and Boulder: including Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, and Rocky Mountain National Park, ISBN089732627X, 9780897326278, Menasha Ridge Press, Birmingham, 2006.

Samelson, Jenna, et al. Colorado Campgrounds: The 100 Best and All the Rest, (3rded), SBN156579334X, 9781565793347, Big Earth Publishing, Colorado, 200I.

Yanagihara, Wendy and Denniston, Jennifer. Grand Canyon National Park, (2nd ed), ISBN1741044839, 9781741044836, Lonely Planet, Adelaide, 2008.

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Business Management Plan Research Paper essay help

General description of the business The business will be structured as a limited liability company. The international hotel business has a lot of potential as more people are moving across borders for leisure, business or tourism purposes. United Arab Emirates (U.A.E) has been categorized as 18th among tourism competitive businesses by the World Economic Forum (WEF).

The UAE is well known for its great shopping facilities, hotels and other tourist destinations. All the year round, tourists and business people flock the UAE to catch a glimpse of the splendid world out there and spend some money too.

The hospitality industry in the UAE is experiencing a boom in business as new and returning customers are flocking the local hotels causing an influx of patrons. Travelers, such as tourists are in pursuit of comfort, which they are willing and able to part with a fortune, while businessmen are in search of convenience and the business opportunities the region offers.

Considering the hospitality industry in the UAE, there is still a lot of potential although the market is quit dominated by established brand names. However, for new entrants into the market there is still a lot of potential. We intend to establish a startup company in Dubai, by the name C-Zones Bar

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Father-Son Relationships in Hamlet – Hamlet’s Loyalty to His Father college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Loyalty becomes a euphemism for blind obedience in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. A curious relationship exists amongst the main pairings of fathers and sons therein. Though grown men, the sons in Hamlet essentially do exactly what their fathers tell them to do, without so much as a word of protest.

These boy-men adopt their fathers’ arguments, vendettas, and wars as their own, and seemingly guide their actions entirely by paternal approval. In the case of Hamlet, he surrenders his own life and future to the will of his father, albeit following significant hesitation, not to mention the passage of an entire play. Nonetheless, this essay examines the core action Hamlet, Laertes and Fortinbras share in Hamlet: the absolute subjugation of their own personal ambitions and desires to paternal rule.

Let us begin with Hamlet. His case begs particularly close scrutiny when we consider that the elder Hamlet has passed away. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet receives the dictum of action from the ghost of his father, demanding revenge against his treacherous brother, Claudius, with a decidedly passive aggressive manipulative tactic: “List, list, O, list! If thou didst ever thy dear father love – …Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder” (Shakespeare 1744).

More about Hamlet How did King Hamlet Die? 5 108 Which Statement Best Describes Gertrude’s Development Between Act 1 and Act 4? 5 57 What is the significance of the Willow Song in Othello? 5 1059 In act 1, scene 1, which character does Shakespeare use most to create suspense? 5 111 Interestingly, at no point in this initial exchange between father and son does the elder Hamlet ask his son if he might be agreeable to the challenge. The ghost simply indicts the king. “Now, Hamlet, hear: ‘Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard, A serpent stung me; so the whole ear of Denmark, Is by a forged process of my death, Rankly abused: but know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy father’s life, Now wears his crown” (Shakespeare 1744).

The ghost then employs heavy handed tactics to remind Hamlet of his station and duty: “If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not; Let not the royal bed of Denmark be, A couch for luxury and damned incest” (Shakespeare 1745).

Significantly, the ghost reminds Hamlet not to exact revenge on Gertrude herein: “But, howsoever thou pursuest this act, Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive, Against thy mother aught: leave her to heaven” (Shakespeare 1745).

The significance of these lines lies in the ghost’s assumption that the deed has already been accepted. In essence, the ghost takes for granted that his son will avenge him, by virtue of his role as a son, while reminding him not to hurt his mother. Hamlet’s father, apparently, still rules the roost from beyond the grave. Tellingly, he meets with no complaint from Hamlet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Laertes exhibits a little more freedom and self-direction when compared to Hamlet, however, he too directs his life according to the approval of Polonius, as evidenced by his return to Denmark after Polonius’ death. Laertes’ vulnerability to dutifully honor and obey his father becomes his undoing in the masterful hands of Claudius.

Laertes bursts into the castle, after nearly exciting a riot, and demands revenge for the death of his father: “And so have I a noble father lost; A sister driven into desperate terms, Whose worth, if praises may go back again, Stood challenger on mount of all the age, For her perfections: but my revenge will come” (Shakespeare 1786).

Claudius, spotting another boy-man and thus, easy prey, smoothly uses Laertes’ anger to his own purpose, using the same calculated appeal to obedience that we saw earlier with the elder Hamlet.

Claudius makes use of the same masculine weaknesses which Hamlet falls prey to so effortlessly and consistently. “Laertes, was your father dear to you? Or are you like the painting of a sorrow, A face without a heart?…Not that I think you did not love your father; But that I know love is begun by time;…There lives within the very flame of love, A kind of wick or snuff that will abate it;…that we would do, We should do when we would; for this ‘would’ changes, And hath abatements and delays as many, As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents; …Hamlet comes back: what would you undertake, To show yourself your father’s son in deed, More than in words?” To which Laertes, ever the good son, replies, “cut his throat i’ the church” (Shakespeare 1788).

Fortinbras, for the purpose of this essay, represents the man whose actions appear the most practical and explicable, in that they exist beyond the realm of emotion.

He seeks revenge not for the sake of his father, but to recover the lands and inheritance that the elder Fortinbras forfeited in the battle. “Our last king, Whose image even but now appear’d to us, Was, as you know, by Fortinbras of Norway, Thereto prick’d on by a most emulate pride, Dared to the combat; in which our valiant Hamlet – For so this side of our known world esteem’d him – Did slay this Fortinbras; who by a seal’d compact, Well ratified by law and heraldry, Did forfeit, with his life, all those his lands, Which he stood seized of, to the conqueror: … Now, sir, young Fortinbras, Of unimproved mettle hot and full, Hath in the skirts of Norway here and there, Shark’d up a list of lawless resolutes,… But to recover of us, by strong hand, And terms compulsatory, those foresaid lands, So by his father lost” (Shakespeare 1733).

In Hamlet, the vengeance that Fortinbras undertakes against Denmark and the elder Hamlet is essentially self serving, and less colored by emotion and obedience than that of Hamlet and Laertes. However, it is vital to note that Fortinbras praises the manner of Hamlet’s death at the end of the play, which suggests that he also values and acts by paternal rule. “Let four captains, Bear Hamlet, like a soldier, to the stage; For he was likely, had he been put on, To have proved most royally” (Shakespeare 1803).

We will write a custom Essay on Father-Son Relationships in Hamlet – Hamlet’s Loyalty to His Father specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why do these men feel so beholden to this idea of surrendering to the will of their fathers, even if they should die in the attempt? Identity. Though both Hamlet and Fortinbras are named after their fathers, only Fortinbras’ action directly benefits him. Hamlet’s loyalty to his father cost him his life. Both, however, are princes, and dutifully accept the limitations of public office.

Further Research How do the actors’ physical appearances affect their adaptations of Hamlet? 5 73 Why does Hamlet kill Polonius? 5 38 How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 166 If Shakespeare kills the character of Hamlet, what dramatic convention would he be using? 5 237 In the brilliantly prophetic scene between Laertes and Ophelia, Laertes asserts that Hamlet’s blind compliance to his father’s will stems from his position as the Prince of Denmark; his role is to obey and serve the dictums of royalty, regardless of his personal wishes. “His will is not his own; For he himself is subject to his birth: He may not, as unvalued persons do, Carve for himself; for on his choice depends, The safety and health of this whole state” (Shakespeare 1740). The relationship between fathers and sons in Hamlet seems to suggest that in Shakespeare’s time, sons of kings were little more than pawns to the larger will of the paternalistic monarchy.

Works Cited Shakespeare, William. “Hamlet.” The Annotated Shakespeare. A.L. Rowse, ed. New York: Greenwich House, 1988. 1731-1803. Print.

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Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help

In life, people do things for different reasons; however, all these reasons boil down to two broad issues viz. happiness and obligation. A person will either do something to achieve happiness or as a duty. Nevertheless, regardless of the motives behind one’s actions, the actions will be a means to an end or the end itself. Therefore, in this context, happiness and obligation might be the means to a desired end or the end itself.

Logically, the basic element in any pursuit is the end itself; consequently, the task here is to determine the element that stands out as the end as opposed to means to something else. The means to an end is necessary for the end is unrealizable in absence of the means. The debate on the basic elements in ethics still rages. Proponents and critics alike have their side of story, with critics claiming that obligation is the basic element in ethics while proponents hold that obligations are a means to an end and not the end itself.

The superiority of one element over the other determines its viability as the basic element in ethics; consequently, the element that surpasses the other becomes the basic element. At this point, one might confuse the means for the end and vice versa; however, as aforementioned, there can only be one end. Happiness is the basic element in ethics; not honor.

As aforementioned, the end is superior to the means to the end; consequently, happiness is superior to honor. One would wonder why he/she would seek happiness and not honor. Well, happiness is the end because “…we always desire happiness for its own sake and never as a means to something else…” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). Therefore, if people desire and pursue happiness as the end, then happiness surpasses honor.

However, happiness is not autonomous; consequently, there has to be other elements that work in concert towards the realization of the same. Honor lie in the category of the ‘other elements’ because people do not pursue honor basically for what would come out of it but “…as being means to happiness, because…they will prove the instruments of happiness” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). In the light of these observations, happiness outscores honor validating the reason why people should pursue happiness and not honor.

In its entirety, happiness does not seek to accomplish honor because in happiness, honor exists. However, this argument is relative depending on what is important to humans. There cannot be a one-fit-all answer to this question; however, the initial argument that people pursue the end and not the means answers this question. Happiness being the end stands out as the most important element amongst humans.

If honor were the most important element, then it would surpass happiness and having achieved honor, people would not pursue anything else. Unfortunately, this is not the case as even those in honorable positions seek happiness. Aristotle argues that, goodness of a man comes from executing good deeds carried out in proper excellence. For excellence to exist, virtue must be present, and in the presence of the two, one’s goodness becomes an activity of the soul as Aristotle insinuates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To understand the superiority of happiness to honor, it is worth considering Aristotle’s argument that, the “good of a man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). In other words, the motive behind any one’s activity determines the good of that person.

Virtue in this context surfaces with practice and knowledge; that is, one has to practice virtuous deeds and be aware of their implications. If one executes a virtue without knowing it is a virtue, then the activity is not good anymore and one’s goodness becomes obsolete. Virtue minus knowledge turns out to be mere duty and duty cannot define one’s goodness.

Moreover, for virtues to function optimally, they should relate to some morals and this leads to moral virtues. According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the consequence of a habit. Habit sprouts from actions that one continually do. The role of habit in achievement of moral habit is paramount here.

Just the same, way artists have to practice art after learning it; people have to practice virtues to qualify as having characteristics that associate with the virtue. For instance, by practicing kindness towards others one can be termed as kind. Likewise, by showing love to others one passes for a loving person. Without action that leads to habit, then a virtue does not qualify as a virtue. Aristotle likens habit of exercising virtues to that of exercising any other learned aspect of life.

For instance, he observes that not until someone plays a harpist, he/she does not qualify as a harpist. Similarly, virtue that is not exercised is no virtue. However, as aforementioned, Aristotle cautions against use of virtues void of knowledge, and he puts across some conditions that a virtue has to undergo to qualify its excellence.

One should “…know what he is doing…deliberately choose to do it and to do it for its own sake… do it as an instance of a settled and immutable moral state” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 129). If these conditions are unmet, then the virtue holds no moral support thus negating its worth.

Critics would fault this argument and question the modality of distinguishing what is moral from what is not. At this point, Aristotle introduces the ‘mean’ as a way of balancing the extremes of any moral issue.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aristotle seeks to explore mean value not from mathematical perspective where one obtains absolute mean, but from a philosophical point of view where mean is relative depending on an individual. Taken in this context therefore, ‘mean’ means that which is not excess and not deficient, depending on an individual. Critics would again raise the question of how to balance the relativity of this mean given the fact that no one is a replica of the other.

As aforementioned, virtue void of knowledge is no virtue and knowledge comes with emotions. Emotions coupled with actions executed at the right time underscores the mean state of any virtue. “To experience these emotions at the right times and on the right occasions and towards the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 130-31).

Therefore, time, occasion, subject, cause and manner are functions of ‘mean’ state in any virtue. Given the relativity of determining ‘mean’ state of a virtue, prudence and reason are the key factors that weigh one’s mean state.

There are different forms of mean states as even in some cases; mean is either an extreme or a deficiency. Nevertheless, these inherent differences do not nullify the superiority of happiness to honor or obligations. As previously mentioned, some mean states represent extremes where there are no excesses or deficiencies. For instance, there is no excess or deficiency of wickedness; therefore, the mean state here is an extreme; wickedness.

Murder, rape, adultery and theft among others are inherently wicked states. There cannot be a good or bad murderer. Nevertheless, some cases have clear-cut extremes and deficiencies thus mean stands out conspicuously. For instance, in giving and receiving of material things, the extreme is profligacy while the deficiency is illiberality; liberality is the mean. Whichever, way one perceives and determines his/her mean, the best way to hit the mean is by pushing one’s position towards the mean.

That is, to “choose the lesser of two evils…by steering clear of the evil which is further from the mean…drag ourselves in the direction opposite to them; for it is by removing ourselves as far as possible from what is wrong that we shall arrive at the mean…(Mulvaney, 2008, p. 134). In other words, doing things for the common good of all people underlines the principle behind the best way of hitting the mean.

In conclusion, people do things for different reasons; some do what they do for fame, honor, money, or leisure among other things while others do what they do to get happiness. To determine the basic principle in ethics calls for extensive exploration to distinguish the end and the means to the end. The end is superior to the means to the end and as analyzed above, happiness is the end while honor is means to the end. Therefore, happiness is the basic principle in ethics.

That which brings happiness to all people underscores what is ‘good’ for humans. The goodness of a person lies in the virtue surrounding any action performed. Virtues become virtues only when a person exercises them with full knowledge of their implication and chooses to exercise them deliberately. However, virtue has to be practiced continually giving birth to habit, which works towards realization of moral habits.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regrettably, virtues exist in extremes and if not balanced in a state of mean, they become vices. Mean is that state in which there are no excesses or deficiencies, a state of balance. There exist different types of mean given the diversity of those who practice is it. Overall, the best way of hitting the mean is to choose not the excess or the deficiency of a virtue. By doing so, everyone will achieve happiness with honor being one of the means to this felicity.

Reference Mulvaney, R. (2008). Classical Philosophical Questions (13th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall

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