Measles Virus Persistence And Its Consequences

Treponema Pallidum is a spiral spirochete that is shaped like a corkscrew. It is the causative agent of syphilis, penetrating into the damaged area of the skin. The disease is prone without treatment to a chronic course and relapses, which can affect all organs and systems. The periodization of syphilis is regarded as an expression of changes in reactivity in relation to the pathogen occurring in the patient’s body. Damage to internal organs occurs not only with tertiary syphilis, but at an earlier date with secondary syphilis. The most common lesions are the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, less often the kidneys and thyroid gland. From the tissue level, syphilis affects the skin and ulcers are constantly present on the body of the infected.

Disease virulence factors are high invasiveness, complement resistance, resistance to phagocytosis, antigenic variability. However, at the moment there is no vaccine against syphilis and treatment is carried out with a complex of antibiotics. During treatment, the patient may experience vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, glossitis, esophagitis, gastritis, gastric ulcers, dysphagia, hepatotoxicity, increased activity of hepatic transaminases. In the case of syphilis, anthroponosis is the only reservoir of the disease. The most common route of transmission is through unprotected sexual contact. Less commonly, such methods as household, blood transfusion or organ transplantation are detected. In addition, syphilis is an infectious disease and completely treatable. Approximately 16 million people currently suffer from syphilis (Ghanem et al. 850). At the same time, mortality from syphilis in different countries can range from 5 to 100 people, depending on medicine and medical education (Rowe et al. 441). One of the most noticeable modern epidemics was the high incidence in Russia in the 90s of the past century. Thus, syphilis is curable and poses a serious danger to life only in the narrowed stage.

Cryptococcosis refers to one of the varieties of deep mycoses – diseases caused by certain fungi of the genus Cryptococcus. When the disease is primarily affected by the respiratory system and microbes settle in the tissues of the lungs. At the tissue level, the disease can affect the brain with the development of cryptococcal meningitis. The virulence factors characteristic of this virus are adhesion and invasiveness. Cryptococcosis is treated only in specialized infectious diseases hospitals using antifungal drugs of different groups. However, the following side effects occur during treatment: cardiac arrest, ventricular dysfunction, chest pain, respiratory arrest, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.

The main reservoir for the disease is the patient’s respiratory system. The path of penetration of the cryptococcus fungus into the host organism is airborne, that is, the respiratory system is primarily affected and the microbes of the disease are infectious. About 20 thousand people worldwide suffer from this disease. In this case, mortality can reach 80%, as it is observed in patients whose immunity is affected by HIV (Gushiken et al. 497). Epidemics have not been observed recently, since the infection is diligently stopped.

Measles Virus

The measles virus is a fairly common disease among children and causes measles. Measles is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus and characterized by airborne transmission. Thus, measles primarily affects the respiratory tract and causes fever. Reservoirs of the selected microbes appear to be the respiratory tract of the infected. A maculopapular rash on the skin and mucous membranes occurs as a natural reaction to the course of the disease. Virulence factors of the disease are invasiveness and suppression of the immune response. The measles vaccine has an immunobiological composition and is used to eliminate the virus. Side effects include drowsiness and general malaise and resolve within two days. About 10 million people are infected with measles, with a mortality rate of about 15% of the total (Griffin 48). A measles epidemic was noted in Ukraine, which became a major morbidity for the entire European region.

Works Cited

Griffin, Diane E. “Measles virus persistence and its consequences.” Current opinion in virology, vol. 41, no. 7, 2020. pp. 46-51.

Ghanem, Khalil G., Sanjay Ram, and Peter A. Rice. “The modern epidemic of syphilis.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 382, no. 9, 2020. pp. 845-854.

Gushiken, Alexis C., Kapil K. Saharia, and John W. Baddley. “Cryptococcosis.” Infectious Disease Clinics, vol. 35, no. 2, 2021. pp. 493-514.

Rowe, Christine R., Desi M. Newberry, and Amy J. Jnah. “Congenital syphilis: a discussion of epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and nurses’ role in early identification and treatment.” Advances in Neonatal Care, vol. 18, no. 6, 2018. pp. 438-445.