McDonald’s Success Research Paper Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Business-level strategy

Corporate-level strategy

Competitive environment

Slow-cycle and fast-cycle markets


Reference List

Introduction McDonald’s is one of the most successful corporations worldwide. This fast food restaurants chain includes more than 30,000 restaurants which serve to around 70 million people in all parts of the globe (2012 annual report, 2013). The corporation’s revenues are more than $27 billion and the growth is steady as the revenues increase each year (2012 annual report, 2013).

It is also necessary to note that the company was once a family owned business operating in one US state. At present, this is a publicly traded corporation which is operating in 118 countries (Williams, 2010). This success suggests that the company has implemented effective strategies at different levels, which enables it to be the leader of the market even though its major competitors have also achieved a lot.

Business-level strategy Business-level strategies focus on the company’s relationship with its customers (and potential customers) and its competitors. When it comes to a corporation, business-level strategies are used to address the needs of customers in specific markets, countries, areas (Hitt, Ireland


Trials and Verdicts Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The important result of the legal decision-making process is the verdict which can end the trial process and state the form of punishment for the convicted person.

However, to understand the details related to interpreting the cases and law and to stating the verdict, it is necessary to analyze the processes related to different courts according to their jurisdiction, and to focus on the real-life examples in order to discuss the problems of accepting a plea bargain and of being wrongly accused.

The question of the court’s jurisdiction is discussed when it is necessary to select which court can decide on the certain case appropriately. Following the Felkner v. Jackson case, it is possible to state that different courts are effective to discuss concrete issues and decide on the aspects of the case, but the process of the case resolution can be rather long and complicated.

In 2011, Steven Frank Jackson was convicted of many sexual offenses. However, Jackson referred to the Batson v. Kentucky case, and focused on the issue of racism in relation to the California jury who discussed the case.

Jackson’s petition was accepted and examined by the California Court of Appeal, and then the California Supreme Court decided according to the court’s jurisdiction to reject the necessity of the case’s review (Felkner v. Jackson, 2011). Nevertheless, the case was not unresolved even in relation to the Federal District Court.

In this situation, the Supreme Court took the jurisdiction to provide the decision, and the previous courts’ decisions were defined as unreasonable. Finally, it is stated by the Supreme Court of the United States that the petition “for certiorari and the motion for leave to proceed in forma pauperis are granted.

The judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is reversed, and the case is remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion” (Felkner v. Jackson, 2011). As a result, it is possible to note that the decision to discuss the case in the Supreme Court of the United States is appropriate because of the necessity to resolve all the controversial points of the case which cannot be resolved in the other courts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cases when the defendant accepts a plea bargain as an alternative to trial are also very controversial and complicated because this decision can be associated with a kind of pressure from attorneys and prosecutors. Furthermore, the defendant can change his or her decision during the process. Thus, to discuss the question in detail, it is necessary to focus on the Freeman v. United States case (2011).

William Freeman was convicted of different crimes associated with drug trafficking and drug delivery. However, Freeman decided to develop the plea agreement under Fed. R. Crim. P. 11(c)(1)(C). The agreement meant that Freeman could plead guilty depending on receiving a specific sentence.

The case was rather complicated, and it was decided in 2011 that referring to 18 U.S.C. § 3582(c)(2), the sentence could be reduced “for the offense to which the defendant pled guilty” (Freeman v. United States, 2011).

In spite of the fact that the plea agreement does not mean the alternative to the trial, the case is important to be discussed to decide whether or not justice was served. Referring to this concrete case, it is possible to state that the justice was served because the severity of crimes should be taken into account every time when the possibility of the plea agreement is discussed.

The most problematic cases are those ones in which defendants are wrongly accused and later vindicated. One of the most famous cases is the case associated with the famous sportsman Brian Banks who was convicted of raping Wanetta Gibson. Brian Banks accepted a plea bargain because of the threat to be imprisoned for more than 40 years.

However, in 2011, it became possible to state that Banks was not guilty, and he was vindicated. The most important aspect to be discussed in relation to the case is the fact that Wanetta Gibson lied during the first trial process in order to receive the significant financial compensation (Powers, 2012).

The decision of the court could be different, but the lawyers failed to prove or not Gibson’s words. That is why, these details affected the whole trail process, and Brian Banks had to accept the plea agreement in order to avoid being imprisoned for a long period of time.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Trials and Verdicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the fact, the United States’ legislative system should contribute to the people’s welfare and protection, there are many controversial verdicts and trials which can influence the statement of the principles of justice in the country.

From this point, it is necessary to pay much attention to the controversial aspects and issues discussed during the trial processes in order to resolve cases in the appropriate courts with the focus on their jurisdiction and to avoid the ineffective decisions which can lead to the unalterable consequences. As a result, all the details of the case should be taken into consideration to decide on the person’s guilt and possible verdict.

References Felkner v. Jackson. (2011). Retrieved from

Freeman v. United States. (2011). Retrieved from

Powers, A. (2012). A 10-year nightmare over rape conviction is over. Retrieved from


E-Marketing: Mobile Development Essay (Article) cheap essay help

Table of Contents Email Marketing

Social Media Strategies

Search Engine Optimization

Online Reputation Management


The past years witnessed the growing importance of mobile technologies in e-marketing and e-commerce. As more consumers start to use mobile devices for daily communication, online and brick-and-mortar companies seek to use these technologies in their marketing strategies.

According to Hovancakova (2011), the current trends and patterns in global marketing justify the importance of mobile development as a tool of marketing, but with the growing intensity of business competition, organizations and marketing professionals will have to be aware of the new mobile technology developments, in order to be the first to use their advantages in the short and long run.

Hovancakova (2011) writes that mobile marketing is a relatively new term, which is used to define messages that are distributed with the help of mobile technologies, including SMS, MMS, and others. For many organizations, mobile technologies have become a real salvation in the field of marketing.

With the help of wireless communication media, organizations can reach broader audiences and reduce the costs of their marketing efforts. In the meantime, potential and real customers can use these messages to keep in touch with their suppliers and be aware of the most attractive product and service propositions that may be available within a limited period of time.

For instance, it has become quite common for large and small stores to inform their customers of new discount propositions, by sending an MMS or an SMS. As a result, the company knows that its customers are informed, whereas customers are not afraid of missing an attractive product opportunity.

Mobile development in e-marketing has become so important that some governments develop new legal frameworks to be applied in the field of mobile marketing (Hovancakova, 2011). At the same time, due to the rapid development of the mobile technologies field and the lack universal criteria of use, cases of misuse in mobile marketing are not uncommon (Hovancakova, 2011).

Nevertheless, mobile development offers immense advantages to organizations and marketing professionals. A piece of technology as small as mobile phone can empower the largest organizations to reach each and every customer with a simple and attractive product or service message.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The success of mobile development in e-marketing depends mostly on the quality and consistency of the technologies used by firms. Given the growing diversity of mobile applications, only organizations that are aware of the latest technology developments will be able to use their benefits in their marketing strategies.

For instance, as more customers start to use smartphones for daily communications, marketing executives and researchers should focus on the analysis of marketing opportunities that become available with this kind of technology (Persaud


The Challenge of Constructing a Bridge over the Chacao Channel Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Torben Forsberg and Anton Petersen are two renowned civil engineers with qualifications from the Technical University of Denmark. In their article The Challenge of Constructing a Bridge over the Chacao Channel, the authors describe possibilities of improving the design of a new bridge. The authors’ arguments on alternative possibilities are based on the fact that the construction of the new bridge has many challenges.

The challenges mentioned in the article include large tides and currents, strong seismic loads, wind and unstable ground conditions. According to the authors, the proposed design is compromised and requires technical review to ensure that the bridge is aesthetically pleasant and cost-effective.

However, the article provides a solution by proposing new bridge alternatives. The authors review new bridge alternatives in relation to existing challenges. In each of the new bridge alternatives, a clear discussion with technical details is outlined. In this regard, the reader detects advantages of using various design alternatives in respect to technical demands and cost-efficiency.

The article describes the construction project, its geographical location, as well as environmental challenges associated with the new bridge. Examples of such conditions include possible earthquakes, wind and strong currents. The authors’ description of the Chacao channel as extremely challenging is effective. This description justifies the need to initiate technical competency in construction of the new bridge.

The authors also estimate the depth, tidal variation and the speed of water. Besides, they mention the possible magnitude of earthquakes expected in the region. Moreover, a description of the climatic conditions such as wind speed provides insight into the technical demands of the project.

The authors’ description of bridge alternatives follows technical logic by providing specifications of each design. In this regard, the authors explain why each design is only effective in prevailing environmental conditions. For example, the authors give details and advantages of using a continuous two-main-span suspension bridge.

The article evaluates alternative bridge designs that can withstand the existing environmental challenges. In this regard, the authors evaluate both classical and conventional bridge solutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main strength of the article is the focus on a factual project that exists in a geographically known territory. This is important to the reader who may decide to research further about the project and on the engineering design used to build the bridge. The authors’ credibility as civil engineers from a reputable engineering school is additional strength of the article’s content.

The article’s weakness that can be highlighted is that the article does not entirely solve the challenges of building the bridge. In fact, the authors offer a detailed research of other alternatives that could improve the construction of the bridge, but do not provide details of how the construction of the bridge was completed. Moreover, the authors fail to give examples of replicas of bridge designs in other regions.

The credibility of the authors as civil engineers is effectively felt in the article, though it is not emphasized. In my opinion, the article content is clear, accurate and insightful. The authors have been able to engage the reader’s mind using simple terms and graphics.

For example, the authors have used graphs and maps to emphasize on their arguments. Another important aspect of the article’s strength is the use of Chacao channel topography. In addition, the article is useful in providing future research material.


Understanding the Mind Report college admission essay help

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether early alertness on misinformation reduces chances of creating false memories in humans, and whether there was any relationship between DRM false memories and misinformation. As noticed from the study, initial perceptions on certain issues or events created after receiving the first information always affects human memory.

As evident from the findings of this study, there is a relatively positive correlation between early alertness about the occurrence of misinformation and chances of creating false memories about certain events in human beings.

Children filled with misconstrued information about certain aspects of their childhood will eventually build false memories due to receiving misleading information earlier. Alerting or warning people about incoming information increases their alertness, and thus, reduces chances of building false memories. The DRM technique of identifying false memories in humans is practicable in human cognitive psychology.

Understanding the Mind The impact of misleading information on people’s perception of certain life events, issues, or experiences is still unknown. How people communicate and interpret information during conversation is imperative in determining the final perception of the content delivered (Blair, Lenton,


Sportswear Merchandise in UK Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Businesses operate in industries characterised by unique attributes, which emanate from interaction between internal and external forces. These forces interact in both predictable and unpredictable ways. Silber and Kearny (2010, p.110) argue that the ‘interactions are both complex and uncontrollable’. Action oriented business executives have an obligation to understand the industry in which their organisations operate.

Subsequently, business executives should put sufficient efforts to understand and utilise the complex interactions between businesses for the success of the organisation. Gaining insight on the prevailing industry dynamics gives business executives perceptivity on the business model and strategies to implement.

The retail industry is among the most dynamic industries in the world. According to the Euro Monitor (2013), the retail industry is characterised by inconsistent consumer preferences, intense competition, and short product life. This paper analyses the retail industry. The analysis mainly focuses on sportswear merchandise. Considering the large size of the global sportswear industry, the paper focuses on the UK market.

Industry analysis Industry structure

The sportswear industry is comprised of the apparels and the athletic footwear industry. The industry is labour intensive; consequently, firms in the industry undertake their production activities in low-wage countries. According to a Press Release by PRLOG, the UK fashion industry is very price-competitive.

Moreover, the industry is characterised by high market demand. It is estimated that approximately 90% of UK citizens under the age of 35 years, which covers 75% of the total population, purchase from the fashion industry. This high market potential has led to remarkable increment in the intensity of competition (Euro Monitor 2013).

Campbell and Craig (2005, p.72) accentuate that understanding ‘the underlying structures of a company’s industry, now and in the future is a core discipline in strategy formation’. Understanding the prevailing level of competition is one of the ways through which CEOs can gain insight on the most effective strategy to adopt.

CEOs should take into account the Porter’s five forces. The five forces assist in organisations’ efforts to determine the long-term profitability of the industry. Below is an analysis of the forces that shape competition in the UK sportswear industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threat of entry: (high)

The major industry players include Nike, Puma, Adidas, Under Amour, and K-Swiss. Currently, Nike ranks as the leading industry player in the global sportswear industry. Nike has gained substantial market dominance over the past years. In 2011, the firm’s revenue amounted to $ 23 billion. Moreover, the firm’s global market share increased to 4.6% in 2011 to 3.7% in 2006.

The firm’s market share is expected to increase to 6.3% by 2017. The firms’ growth illustrates the industry’s potentiality (FashionMag 2011). The threat of new entrants in the industry is relatively high due to the low manufacturing cost. Most sportswear products in the UK are imported from emerging economies such as China. Subsequently, the barriers to entry into the industry are relatively low.

New firms are increasingly entering the industry in their pursuit to exploit the prevailing market potential. It is projected that the sportswear market value will grow to 8.6% by the end of 2015 (FashionMag 2011). The high threat of entry has significantly reduced switching cost.

Supplier bargaining power: (low)

There are a large number of suppliers in the sportswear industry. Moreover, the suppliers have not differentiated their raw materials. Consequently, their bargaining power is relatively low. Lack of differentiation enables the firms to switch between suppliers at a minimal cost.

The main raw materials for the industry include rubber, cotton, and leather, which are readily available in the market. Despite the low supplier bargaining power, the leading conglomerates such as Adidas and Nike have a distinct bargaining power (British Fashion Council 2011).

Buyer bargaining power: (high)

The industry is characterised by high buyer bargaining power emanating from the large number of sportswear consumers. Consequently, the industry players such as Nike and Adidas must differentiate their products in order to attain the desired market share and sales revenue.

The high buyer bargaining power has stimulated the industry players to implement mechanisms aimed at nurturing a high level of customer loyalty. For example, Nike Incorporation has developed, hence providing consumers with an opportunity to customise their footwear and apparel designs.

We will write a custom Essay on Sportswear Merchandise in UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threat of substitute: (Low)

According to the British Fashion Council (2011), the buyers’ propensity to substitute sportswear is relatively low due to the little alternatives that consumers can switch to in their purchasing trends. The products and performance specification of each brand makes the threat of a substitute to be low. For example, football players cannot wear boots when playing football.

Rivalry: (high)

The large number of industry players has led to an increment in the degree of rivalry. Large firms such as Adidas AG, Callaway Golf Co., Amer Sports, and Nike Incorporation dominate the industry. As aforementioned, Nike Incorporation is ranked as the largest sportswear company in the industry; on the other hand, Adidas has gained substantial market position as it has been in existence for over 60 years.

These firms have undergone remarkable growth over the past two decades. The firms have attained substantial market recognition by integrating effective marketing strategies such as Internet marketing and electronic commerce. The use of emerging technologies has enabled the large firms to maximise their sales revenue.

Nike Incorporation plans to increase its market dominance in the European region by exploiting the Winter Olympics, the Super Bowl, and the World Cup (Marketing Week 2013). Below is a summary of the competitiveness of the sportswear industry in the UK.

Competitive analysis The sportswear industry is characterised by intense competition emanating from the adoption of effective strategic management practices. The industry has experienced a high level of consolidation over the past few years. In 2013, Nike sold Umbro, which is one of its brands, to Iconix. Subsequently, Nike positioned itself as the official sponsor of international renowned international football clubs.

The Adidas-Reebok merger is another example of the strategic changes in the industry (Euro Monitor 2013). The collapse of JJB, which was a sportswear retailer in the UK, led to the entry of new firms such as Matalan. Other major retailers include Sports Direct and Sporting Pro.

Sports Direct ranks as the leading sportswear retailer in the UK. On the other hand, Sports Pro has attained an optimal market position by carrying other brands such as New Balance, Adidas, Reebok, Nike, and Asics. Moreover, the firm has established over 5,400 stores.

The high market potential in the industry will stimulate market growth significantly. For example, Nike and Adidas announced their plan to expand their store network over the next few years (Joseph 2013).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sportswear Merchandise in UK by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Goldfingle (2013, par. 12) argues that with ‘the brands’ interest in becoming retailers, the sportswear market could look very different and more competitive in five years’ time’. Appendix 1 illustrates the brand positioning in the UK sportswear industry. The positioning map has been based on the age of the respective brands and their affluent amongst the consumers.

Macro environmental forces

The competitiveness of the sportswear industry is also influenced by external forces, which emanate from political, social, technological, social, economic, and environmental factors. Consequently, business managers should evaluate the environment in which their businesses operate. Below is an analysis of the major external forces.

Political structure and trends

Expansion of firms in the retail sector is subject to the land system policies adopted in the UK. The UK government influences operations of firms in the retail sector through the land-planning system. The UK government has instituted tight restrictions on green-field and off-centre development.

The policy has made it extremely difficult for retailers intending to expand in other areas of the UK by establishing retail outlets. The UK government also controls operations of the retail sector through the Competition Commission, whose objective is to safeguard the consumers’ interests.

Economic structures

The prevailing economic structures in a country have a remarkable impact on the success of a particular industry. The UK has experienced a significant economic growth over the past decades. The 2008 global economic crisis adversely affected the country’s economic performance.

However, the government has been very committed to improving the country’s economic performance. In 2011, the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) averaged £329.1 billion. Moreover, the country’s GDP increased with a margin of 1.5% during its 2009/2010 fiscal year. This trend shows that the economy is undergoing an upwards spiral economic growth, which is predicted to be sustained in the future.

Social environment

There is a significant change in the consumers’ purchasing patterns in the UK. This trend has arisen from the increment in the consumers’ disposable income (Pahl


Examining a Sector in Travel Industry Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction The travel industry is one of the most lucrative service sectors in the UK. The industry accommodates various companies that offer different travel services such as vacation reservation via the Internet, tour operations, and travel agency professional services.

Other sectors in the industry are cruise lines, airlines, food service companies, car renting, rail travel companies, meeting and conventions, parks, sporting and entertainment companies, publication organisations, marketing research organisations, and regulatory agencies. Each of these sectors has various organisations, which operate under competition.

For instance, in the marketing sector, there are different organisations that offer marketing research services to various organisations that deal with travel services in the bid to help them analyse their industry trends to derive better strategies to retain and increase their market share.

Competition also occurs between organisations in different sectors. For example, the airlines sector competes with companies that offer alternative means of travel such as the rail travel.

The vast and the sheer number of organisations operating in the entire travel industry in the UK makes it impossible to conduct an overhaul examination of the services offered in the industry. This paper focuses only on the cruise lines sector.

Operational cruise lines in the UK include Cruise and Maritime Voyages, European Water Ways, Fred Olsen Cruise Lines, Cunard Line, P


The Role of the Brain in Cognition Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Role of the brain in cognition

The case of Phineas Gage



Introduction Cognition refers to the process through which information is processed, stored, and recovered for use (Glees, 2005). This process involves several mental processes that play different roles in order to enhance functions such as memory, comprehension, learning, problem solving, thinking, and decision making. The brain plays a pivotal role in cognition.

It is a faculty that helps to process sensory information, apply knowledge, and make important decisions (Glees, 2005). Cognition comprises mental functions and processes, as well as intelligent entities. The brain uses its various parts to process information.

For example, certain parts are concerned with memory while other parts deal with learning. The case of Phineas Gage is widely used to demonstrate the role of the brain in cognition. His brain injury is used in the field of psychology to understand and explain the functioning of the human brain with regard to cognition.

Role of the brain in cognition The brain plays a pivotal role in supporting cognitive functions. Examples of cognitive functions include learning, memory, and perception (Glees, 2005). The brain has several parts that play different roles in the execution of cognitive functions. Parts of the brain involved in cognition include prefrontal cortex, frontal and parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobe (Roizman, 2010).

The prefrontal cortex is the latest part of the brain to be discovered in the field of psychology. It executes high-priority cognitive functions that include planning, assessment of the outcomes of actions, and expression of personality traits (Roizman, 2010). In addition, this area expresses the aptness of various behaviors in different social contexts.

The frontal lobes deal with two main cognitive functions that include language comprehension and memory (Roizman, 2010). The left and right frontal lobes perform different functions. The left lobe deals with language comprehension while the right lobe processes information. Damage to these lobes is characterized by poor decisions and inability to make good plans.

Parietal lobes aid in the processing of sensory information. For example, it converts and consolidates sensory input into memories that are stored in the brain. Temporal lobes serve the role of processing auditory sensory information mainly for speech recognition (Glees, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, they aid in memory and recognition of physical objects. For example, the brain’s role of identifying sounds and odors is executed by the temporal lobes. Finally, the occipital lobe plays the role of processing visual information (Roizman, 2010). Damage to the occipital lobe causes a condition that is characterized by reduced functionality of sight, and inability to recognize apparent deficits.

The case of Phineas Gage Phineas Gage was a railroad construction worker who is an important figure in psychology. Gage survived an accident in which his brain’s frontal lobe was damaged by an iron bar that passed through his head (Flesichman, 2004). The injury had far-reaching effects on his behavior and personality for the 12 years that he lived after the accident.

This incident is widely used in the field of psychology to explain how certain brain areas support cognitive functions. After the injury, Gage showed certain changes in behavior that characterized changes in behavior due to damage to certain brain areas. The frontal lobe plays roles such as problem solving, planning, and decision-making. The prefrontal cortex expresses personality.

After the accident, studies of Gage’s behavior revealed several changes. For example, he could make plans and fail to execute them to completion (Flesichman, 2004). His friends also reported that his personality had changed significantly. Before the accident, Gage was a shrewd, persistent, and energetic businessperson. However, after the accident, these traits were replaced by destructive qualities that affected his life negatively.

He neither made good plans nor completed his projects due to lack of persistence. His personality traits after the accident included irreverence, impatience, and irresponsibility. Other behaviors that resulted from the injury included irresponsible sexual behavior, domestic violence against his wife and children, lying, gambling, bullying, and lack of foresight (Flesichman, 2004).

These behaviors mainly resulted from poor judgment and planning. One of the most common signs of frontal lobe damage is change in behavior. An individual who suffers damage to their frontal lobes does not behave as they used to before the damage.

People who are close to the individual can observe these changes in behavior. After the accident, Gage showed a decrease in the efficiency of functions that included planning, judgment, inhibition, and decision making (Flesichman, 2004).

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Brain in Cognition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The brain serves several roles, one of which is supporting cognitive functions. Parts of the brain that support cognition include prefrontal cortex, frontal and parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobe. Each of these parts performs a different role. Examples of cognitive functions performed by these parts include judgment, memory, and decision-making, problem solving, and planning.

The brain injury of Phineas Gage is used by psychologists to demonstrate the role of the brain with regard to cognition. After the accident, Gage’s personality changed tremendously after damage to his brain’s frontal lobe. Behavioral changes included irresponsible sexual behavior, domestic violence against his wife and children, lying, gambling, bullying, and lack of foresight.

References Flesichman, J. (2004). Phineas Gage: A Gruesome but True Story about Brain Science. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Glees, P. (2005). The Human Brain. London: Cambridge University Press.

Roizman, T. (2010). The Brain Functions Involved in Cognitive Functions. Retrieved from


Communication Perspectives Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Definition





Definition Interpersonal interactions occur through symbols or gestures. During communication, the sender is often unconscious of the subtle symbols he or she is communicates to the receiver. These symbols form the unconscious communication that develops into language.

Thus, ‘language as communication’ is the “communication through significant symbols” (Márkova


Screw Compressor Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Screw compressors are some type of gas compressors that use two interlocking screws to capture and compress gas. Screw compressors are of two types, the dry running screw compressor, and the oil-flooded screw compressor. Lubricating oil is used in the oil-flooded compressor to facilitate the screwing process. The oil also provides a hydraulic seal that passes energy between the screws.

In the dry running compressor, male and the female rotors maintain a special alignment in a timely manner, such that, one screw drives the other to form a continuous rotation of the screws (Bloch and Soares 76). The interaction of the male-female thread traps air, compresses it, and converts it into energy.

In both types of screw compressors, the air enters through the suction point; the rotors compress it while they rotate, and it finally gets its way out through the outlet as energy. Unlike other compressors that are somewhat noisy, screw compressors are noiseless and they compress air continuously.

The first step in operating a dry running screw compressor is ensuring the power unit has a strong cooling system. Two-screw gear units inside the chambers are shaped differently, but in a manner that they interlock perfectly. While rotating, the screws suck and trap air as they rotate from one end.

The rotation of the screws reduces the size of the chamber and this facilitates the compression process. As the screws rotate, they push the compressed air forward to the next screw to allow the sucking of new uncompressed air. The highly compressed air forces itself out at the discharge point. Compressors work differently depending on whether they are oil free or oil flooded.

There is no oil lubrication in the oil free compressors; thus, the movement of the screws compresses the air without necessarily depending on the oil seal. Such compressors do not give high-pressured power. However, there are multistage compressors that give high-pressured power by compressing air at several screw sets. In the first stage, air is compressed into a few bars to become light and extremely hot.

The light air will thus moves to the succeeding screw bars easily. Every move of the air makes it extremely hot, and this continues until the air reaches the outlet point. In most case, oil-free compressors are made up of about seven bars. For the oil-flooded compressors, users inject oil into the screws. As the screws rotate, the oil finds its way onto the sealing of the cavities to provide some cooling effect.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The oil is also useful in capturing particles in the air during the air sanction process. When the compressed gas gets its way into the discharge end, any oil that is present in the air is filtered and recycled. However, this is not an assurance that the compressed air is free from oil traces.

The applications of screw compressors vary from construction to industrial applications. Oil-injected screw compressors are used in industries that require large volumes of compressed air. Moreover, industries that operate high-powered tools would find it worthwhile to use screw compressors to generate the required volumes of compressed air instead of using piston compressors.

Contractors can also use oil-injected screw compressors to operate the construction machineries, whereas, the wastewater treatment machineries also find it worthwhile to use such compressors in their process because they consume low power. In the case of medical researches, dry running screw compressors would be of great use.

Lobe Compressor A lobe compressor has some similarities with the screw compressors, only that the screws in the screw compressors are replaced with lobes. A lobe compressor has two 8-shaped profiled lobe blowers. The 8-shaped lobes rotate inside some somewhat oval casings. The lobes are always 900 apart at any instance whenever they are in operation. The distance between the two lobes allows them to hold as much air as possible.

During operation, one of the lobes acts as the driver. It obtains is power from external sources while the other lobe relies on it to rotate. The oval casings and the system pressure do not allow the discharged air to came back unless under very small spillages.

However, the spillages are negligible, as only small amounts of air would be allowed in case of a slip. With the air coming and going out, there is no change in the volume of the air within the machine. The system’s pressure at a particular time draws in air, compresses it, and lets it out as compressed power.

The air across the machinery determines the temperature levels of the discharged air. It is noteworthy that lobe compressors do not require oil lubrications within the lobes. The lobes run for restricted clearances to deliver compressed air that is free from oil spillages.

We will write a custom Essay on Screw Compressor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As discussed, lobe compressors discharge compressed air that is oil free (Stosic, Smith and Kovacevic 69). Therefore, lobe compressors are used in fish hatcheries and aquacultures to support life.

They are also useful in meat processing systems as they produce compressed air that is free from harmful chemicals. People have also found lobe compressors useful in the printing and paper converting industries, wastewater treatment industries, and in the environmental remediation systems.

Works Cited Bloch, Heinz. A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley


Ecosystem Report (Geelong Botanic Garden) Report best essay help

Introduction Ecosystem comprises of biotic and biotic factors that are present in a given environment. The biotic factors are the living organism such as microbes, plants, and animals, while the abiotic factors are nonliving components like water, air, rocks, soil, sunlight, and topography. The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors in a certain environment occurs in a form of a system due to the flow of nutrient and energy.

In essence, ecosystem examines how biotic and abiotic factors interact as a self-sustaining system (Chapin, Matson,


Begin by researching Shamrock Foods company ( In 250-500 words, address the following: Describe the company and its sustainability model.How has sustainability he argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help In 250-500 words, address the following:
Describe the company and its sustainability model.
How has sustainability helped to achieve the company’s goals and competitiveness with other supply chains?
What are the financial impacts of sustainability on the company?
What are the benefits and challenges associated with sustainability efforts?
Are there any federal mandates in the United States on sustainability? Make sure to include current and future mandates.


Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE Report online essay help

Overview Introduction

Entrepreneurs, regardless of their inherent location or gender, share similar problems in relation to properly accessing sufficient capital to start their business, developing a sufficient cash flow to sustain their venture and a variety of other distinctions that are connected to the process of developing a business.

With the development of new internal policies within the UAE comes an era where women have become more empowered, both in the workforce and in entrepreneurship. This is evidenced by the fact that nearly 54% of all university graduates within the UAE are women and that a growing percentage of them focus on furthering their own careers and the development of their family business or their own business [1].

This is not to imply that women themselves cannot be entrepreneurs within the country, far from it:, women are actually actively encouraged to take part in business and several have become successful entrepreneurs.

However, due to various types of cultural restrictions which are a part of social traditions in the UAE, this creates demonstrates a low rate of female entrepreneurship with only 3 out of 10 entrepreneurial businesses being started by a woman [2], [3]. These restrictions come in the form of:Women needing permission from a male to start a business,insufficient support from the government, Lack of collaboration with other women.

In this research what will be analyzed are the inherent difficulties experienced by female entrepreneurs within the U.AE from 10 year back to now. It is expected that through the various facts and arguments presented in this research, a clearer picture can be developed regarding what difficulties female entrepreneurs experience within the UAE and what processes have been put in place by the government in order to address such issues.

It is expected that through proper investigation and analysis, this research will create effective suggestions as to how female entrepreneurs within the region can best respond to the financial opportunities and challenges they are currently experiencing.

Problem Definition

Ten years ago, female entrepreneurs within the UAE suffered from a string of limiting factors that prevented their expansive growth. This came in the form of traditional cultural practices, insufficient government support and lack of proper access to financial institutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since these factors were in place ten years ago, this research will thus seek to determine whether these problems continue to exist at the present, how female entrepreneurs view such problems and what solutions may be needed in order to effectively address them.

It is based on this discovery that in the following section an investigation will be conducted regarding the current perception of female entrepreneurs involving the problems they face and what possible means of addressing them could be developed. The fact remains that the current policy system within the region suffers from significant gender specific biases.

This creates barriers towards the creation of a better business environment for female entrepreneurs. What is necessary is the development of better policy initiatives in not only removing gender barriers in entrepreneurial activity but also in developing the necessary networks for female entrepreneurs to thrive.

Another necessary examination is to elaborate on the current status of female entrepreneurial funding within the country and how this has affected the success/ failure rates of entrepreneurs. Another question that must be explored into is whether all the recent programs aimed at creating better conditions for female entrepreneurs have been effective or have things remained the same despite their implementation?

The end result of such an analysis is to understand what methods of female entrepreneurial funding would the entrepreneurs like to see implemented so as to create a better business environment that is more conducive towards entrepreneurial activity.

The question of the research is: What are the key obstacles that women entrepreneurs in the UAE believe they faced 10 years ago, and still stands now?

Women entrepreneurs in the UAE face a lot of challenges [3]. Studies indicate that despite the rapid growth of women entrepreneurs in both developed and developing countries as the UAE. The issue of gender equality, particularly within the UAE cultural context, stands not efficiently resolved [4], [5], [6]. Entrepreneurship plays a significant role in boosting economic growth.

We will write a custom Report on Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The UAE happens to be among the country that shows impressive progress in economic growth, through encouraging entrepreneurship projects. Most of the women entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates participate in small-scale businesses, and hence receive socially little support [7]. However, women in the UAE go through lots of challenges running their own businesses [5], [6].

There are several factors against women entrepreneurship in this region. These include cultural factors, religion restriction, opportunity recognition, work-family balance, motivation, gender discrimination, financial support, and performance among others [6].

Recognizing opportunities is a bit hard for the Emirates women, considering that gender differences are linked to the varying variables of human capital. The differences primarily revolve around work experiences and education. In the UAE, men receive more advantagesd than women, considering that their experience in entrepreneurship experience and management of employees is a bit higher.

Researchers indicate that women have less human capital to invest in businesses compared to men [8], [9], [10]. This makes it hard for women to identify opportunities and utilize their potential skills, experience, and power.

The restricted structure in labor markets of the UAE, demotivate women entrepreneurs on grounds of gender inequality. The cultural and religious factors to some extend play a significant role in denying women right to own businesses without the support of their male partners.

On the contrary, the women’s entrepreneurship experience in other countries such as Jordan and Kuwait is quite different. The recognition of women’s entrepreneurship’s contribution to economic growth is higher in these Arab countries compared to that of UAE. For instance, the Kuwait Economic Society implements projects that empower women.

These projects enhance trade and investment [11], [12]. They also focus on creating a business environment that supports women entrepreneurship. For instance, an already established KES program in Kuwait provides women with opportunities such as training, sharing of experience, business networking, and growth among others.

In Jordan, there are numerous funded projects that create awareness of issues surrounding business environments. Here, women receive training concerning entrepreneur issues such as performance and decision making processes [12]. This promotes their entrepreneur projects. Jordan and Kuwait also strengthen legal awareness of issues surrounding women entrepreneurs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This increases the depth of their skills, techniques and offer capital to women for starting new businesses. This all in the long run contributes a lot to the economic growth of the country [14]. For instance, Saudi Arabia offers them 3,000 Saudi Riyals every month to start new businesses [15].

There are several measures that should be put in place to help women entrepreneurs in UAE to overcome challenges in businesses. These include education, training, and support of the UAE governmental funds among others [15]. The UAE should copy some practices from countries like Kuwait, Jordan KSA, and other developed Arab countries, which encourage women entrepreneurship [16], [17].

These countries understand the importance of women entrepreneurs in economic growth, and employs strategies that influence them to become entrepreneurs. However it cannot be denied is clear that the UAE has made a progress in addressing issues associated with the Emiratis women.

For instance, the Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Foundation in collaboration with the American University of Beirut came up with a plan supporting women innovation and entrepreneurship in 2008.

New programs have also been introduced in the country enabling the emergence of many partnerships of women entrepreneurs and large corporations. In 2009, the chamber of commerce and industry registered more than 4,160 women as members [18].

Motivation and Relevance to Masdar/UAE

Since Masdar City is a clean, green and sustainable city, this atmosphere requires innovational yet responsible business ideas. The UAE Women entrepreneurs could try translating, their creative business ideas to sustainable technologies, producing useful products, providing environmentally friendly services or maybe help with creating new jobs in Masdar.


The primary objective of this paper is to compare the situation of female entrepreneurs within the UAE 10 years ago with their current situation in 2013. Through this analysis, this research will be able to show whether sufficiently positive developments have been enacted that would be conducive towards developing a better environment to encourage female entrepreneurship within the UAE or not.

In this research what will be examined is the current state of SME’s within the UAE and the situation of female entrepreneurs in 2014 as compared to how they were ten years ago. This paper will be able to determine whether sufficiently positive changes have been implemented resulting in a better overall situation for the growth of female entrepreneurship within the UAE.

Through this section, a greater understanding will be developed regarding the various factors that restricted the growth of female entrepreneurship within the region and if such factors continue to take a dominating role in gender based entrepreneurial growth.

So far, what this section has shown is that the problems female entrepreneurs currently face within the country come in the form of traditional cultural practices, insufficient government support and lack of proper access to financial institutions.

When comparing the data from the article “Small Enterprises: Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan with current academic articles examining the state of female entrepreneurship within the country, it was shown that the issues have remained roughly unchanged from the time that the Haan article was written.

It is based on this that the primary objective of this paper is to expound on such issues and determine how they can be resolved.

In conclusion the main objective of this research would be to attempt a 10-year review of Haan’s study results to see whether the same conclusions apply today – after many innovational attempts nationwide were formed or not. What factors faced women in the past get improved, and which still stand and needs further investigation, action or regulation.

Some ways to inspire and assist woman entrepreneurs in the UAE would be:

Empowering UAE’s woman entrepreneurs to seek collaborations with educational and research institutes that promote development of novel innovative and practical business ideas.

Educating enterprising entrepreneurs on development and creation of creative innovations that have high chances of legalization, with potentially big impacts on the economy where ready market is available.

Empowering woman entrepreneurs with knowledge of identifying the processes and procedures those innovative ideas must pass through in order to be socially accepted as viable and worth investing in.

Educating entrepreneurs on ways of getting government funding and reaching out to non-governmental organizations to fund their innovations and noble ideas; entrepreneurs fail to venture into markets due to inadequacy or complete lack of funds and under-informed on available sources of funds.

Literature Review

Entrepreneurs in the developed countries (USA, Sweden and Finland)

Although government policies, infrastructure and large markets provide vast investment opportunities in developed countries, young entrepreneurs continue to face challenges [8]. [15] Point out that the decline in economic growth has resulted in decline in entrepreneurship opportunities and constant increase in business’ start-up costs.

Young entrepreneur’s sale their ideas to capital ventures and find themselves exploited as capital ventures benefit and leave them with nothing [19]. Other scholars argue that the content of entrepreneurship in the local education especially in Finland is so wide; the methods of teaching entrepreneurship in schools are poor and the goals of the entrepreneurial education conflict with the local business environment [7], [18], [19].

According to MoniaLougui, young entrepreneurs in Sweden and in the developed countries face entry barriers; these are obstacles that promote existing firms to make constructive economic proceeds while making it difficult for new firms to make impacts in the market. They also face financial barriers and cultural and value barriers [17], [20], [21].

Entrepreneurs in Gulf Countries

The Gulf region has attracted a lot of attention in the recent past due to its rapidly growing economy, especially Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Researchers suggest that the main obstacles facing young entrepreneurs in the Arab world is having access to capital [21], [22], [23].

Saifur Rahman [24] further says that despite Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) contributing greater percentages in national GDP, they are highly neglected and Lending for SMEs in the Gulf Coast Countries is very low and access to finance is the Greatest Challenge.

Khalid Al Ameri argues that that the Middle East education system has not shifted to meet the needs of the current technology and young entrepreneurs may not have enough knowledge about the business environment [23], [25].

HanifaItani, Yusuf M. Sidani and ImadBaalbaki [17] support Khalid Al Ameri saying that insufficient managerial and financial information and lack of government support are major obstacles to UAE SMEs and entrepreneurs. Bruhn et al point out that lacks of managerial capital is the key restriction for young entrepreneurs in most developing countries [26], [27], [28].

Entrepreneurship Development in the UAE

The main measures of entrepreneurship skills are scores on motivation, personal attitude and aptitude. Action planning in entrepreneurship is of importance to create solution oriented task and strategy implementation function for quantifying task orientation levels [30], [31], [32].

Thus, a budding entrepreneur must possess task orientation leadership skills at an individual task management level in reviewing actual and expected outcome of any business opportunity [33], [34], [35].

With the number of entrepreneurs supplying or dealing with similar products and services on the rise, it is imperative for entrepreneurs or businesspersons in UAE to understand factors influencing the consumer purchase decision in order to design the best strategy for meeting consumer demands [32], [37] [36].

Elements of Entrepreneurship Development in UAE

Scholars in the field of economics have approached entrepreneurship from different perspectives with numerous views regarding entrepreneurships and innovation. Peter suggests that entrepreneurship goes in hand with innovation, changes and opportunities for innovation [38].

On the other hand, Steve Blank, a business school professor avers that entrepreneurship is about getting out into the world and doing and not basically researching and writing [24]. These scholars do agree that entrepreneurs face difficulties of finding the right opportunities and the needed innovation, creating competitive brands using strong products and finding the right markets [39].

Rob and Marry postulate that innovation involves doing things differently or doing different thing in order to arrive at large gains in performance at micro and macro level of entrepreneurship [36], [37], [38].

The two authors further recognize that lack of capital and funding is the main obstacle for innovation. Others however contrast with Rob and Marry by associating innovations with the rise of technical inventions such as the computers and steam engines [10], [34].

As opined by Schawbel [35], [36], [37] an excellent entrepreneur should possess transformational leadership skills that identify a range of problematic situations that an individual faces in his or her social environment, and generates multiple alternative solutions to those problems.

Besides, he/she should lay a series of procedures that are necessary to achieve desired results rather than postponing response strategies [38], [39]. The three building blocks of situational management skills include learning intra personal performance, supportive learning environment, concrete learning processes, and practice leadership that reinforces performance [40], [41], [42], [43].

Consumer Behavior in UAE and Entrepreneurship Development

Consumers in UAE exhibit a particular sequence of purchases or proportion of purchases that may be predictive of consumer behaviors such a brand loyalty due to their unique Islamic culture. Consumer behavior can be determined through listening carefully to what the customers say about a product or service.

The focus here is to consumers feeling through assessment of her voice and comments about a product or service [44]. Understanding of consumer behavior facilitates effective entrepreneurship and promotion resources through ensuring that such activities are well planned in order to yield the desired result in the most efficient and effective way possible [45], [46], [47].

Consumer behavior in UAE is not only of great importance to entrepreneurs but also crucial to consumer protection agencies, ethicists, public policy makers and regulators and consumer advocacy groups who protect consumers from any unsafe offerings or decisions by marketers [46].

Understanding consumer behavior in UAE enables entrepreneurs to strategize on the best way to reach out to the clients. It also assists in establishing ways of changing unfavorable consumer behaviors as well as reinforcing positive behavior patterns [48], [49].

Challenges Facing Swedish Entrepreneurs

Rojewski [34] shows that entrepreneurship and small firms play a significant role in economic growth. Entrepreneurship is considered as innovation. It drives people to create their own jobs, and hence improves their living standards [11]. The author identifies the obstacles that entrepreneurs go through, when starting businesses.

Most of the Swedish entrepreneurs, particularly the women, find impediments and challenges when starting businesses [21]. Through the use of a multinomiallogitmodel regression, the author confirms that administrative costs and financial problems are the primary barriers to success of new businesses in Sweden [29].

In addition, the self-employed individuals who invest in manufacturing industries face many obstacles during the early stages of product development. In relation to the Emirates women entrepreneurs, it can be confirmed that women entrepreneurs in most parts of the world, particularly those in the developing world face lots of problems when starting their businesses.

Considering that the link between entrepreneurship and economic growth is positive, countries all over the world should modulate entrepreneurship. The UAE, for instance, needs to call off the cultural and religious barriers that restrict women from starting their own businesses.

Economic growth enhances high living standards, and hence improves the lives of women who would have otherwise been left to depend on their husband for everything [30].

Factors Undermining Entrepreneurship Development in UAE

The detrimental of insourcing to entrepreneurship attitude in UAE is often negative. The outsourcing UAE government has lost considerable taxes when only the foreign entrepreneurs carry out insourcing services. The outsourcing government cannot claim revenue on taxation because this benefit ends up with the foreign country that insources [51].

In addition, there is great concern regarding the rate of unemployment of local countries that outsourcing some activities to the insourcing countries. The situation became even more critical when developed countries compose the insourcing team as is the case in UAE. As a result, the rate of entrepreneurship development in UAE has been slow [51].

UAE has a reputation of setting high legal expectations of a business which is a repellent to internal and external entrepreneurship investors. Federal law of 1975 no. 5 on commercial registration makes verification of a business difficult since it has to pass many a lot before approval [4], [5].

Federal law drafted in 1992, no. 37 defines the provision of patent and trademark rights in UAE has helped eliminate the chances of fraudulent attempts on a company’s product to ensure that the company is not disadvantaged.

Besides, federal law no. 13 drafted in 2007 defines the legality of import and export business to ensure that entrepreneurs are protected [4], [5]. We could take up this as an assurance of the protection to be offered to their products against illegal dealers though the registration process is very expensive in time and cost.

For the social dimension of the evaluation of the UAE market for entrepreneurship products, it is necessary to tailor such products to suit the acceptable cultural norms. This way, it is necessary for the entrepreneurs who are carrying out the research to evaluate the literacy levels of the UAE people.

Specifically, it is recorded in the World Fact book of the CIA that literacy level by 2003 was at an average of 97% among young generation who are the target of entrepreneurship activities. [50], [51], [52]. This will include the evaluation of the education system and levels. Most importantly is to link the findings to the target market of entrepreneurship products.

By doing this, entrepreneurs in UAE will establish the level of awareness of the people of UAE. Several questions may pop up during this feasibility study. Comprehensively, it would be necessary to establish how conversant the people of UAE are to technological advancements constantly changing a cross the global arena [53], [54], 55].

The answers to this question could be relative as it depends on the country’s technological advancement. Research has it that UAE though very populous, have a high percentage of the literate in its population [56]. UAE has a high number of literate young who would be the target consumers for entrepreneurship products [57]. This is as a viable business opportunity.

Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE

Haan [58] gives a clear explanation concerning the UAE women entrepreneurs, their experiences in the field, and the roles played by public and private agencies in modulating entrepreneurship [59]. The author provides an analysis and a survey of 30 UAE women entrepreneurs.

The survey involves in-depth interviews concerning how they run their businesses, the challenges they face, and the support they get to pursue or continue running their enterprises. The Haan’s article provides a study about two different segments namely, the modern and traditional activities in the UAE women-managed enterprises. The latter is engaged in the most recent economic activities.

In incorporates advanced information and communication technologies and updated practices of businesses [60]. It is in most cases run by young UAE women, educated and business-oriented [57]. On the other hand, the traditional activities segment consists of simple manufacturing and trading [56].

The study in Haan’s article analyses the constraints faced by the UAE women entrepreneurs, and gives suggestions for the most appropriate recommendations. For instance, there is a need to formulate policies and create institutional capacity that promotes women entrepreneurship. There is also a need for pursuing specific support services for segments, as well as the government support and other agencies in the UAE [51].

Entrepreneurship, Emirati perspective

[26], [55] narrate that globalization, technological advances, and innovations among others are instrumental in the transformation of societies in the world [32]. However, there are challenges and opportunities associated with the aforementioned shifts particularly in women entrepreneurship. According to the authors, for the UAE to become a fully transformed entrepreneurial nation, it has to inculcate entrepreneurship at an early stage.

This should include teaching children at their early age about it, incorporating it in the education system, and using awareness platforms to inform, educate and influence people, particularly women, on the need to pursue entrepreneurship [33].

There is also a need to formulate policy insights to give policy makers a direction to assist them formulate efficient policies and programs to support the UAE women entrepreneurs. As mentioned earlier, the UAE has shown an impressive progress in the recent past with regards to social development and economic growth sustainability [38].

For instance, in 2011, the GEM study survey in 54 economies confirmed the UAE as one of the most innovation-driven country in the world. However, the nation needs to continue making immense progress in strengthening entrepreneurship, particularly women entrepreneurship [39].

This will not only help them become creative and create new jobs, but also enable them to empower others to do the same. This will ensure that the future generations of the UAE will be vibrant both in entrepreneurship and in growing the country’s economy [40].

Women business owners in the UAE

In the article “Women business owners in the United Arab Emirates” it is clear that the UAE women entrepreneurs are more educated than those from Jordan, Tunisia, and Kuwait among other countries [37].

According to the survey conducted in UAE, more than 89% of women entrepreneurs have an optimistic outlook towards their businesses and the country’s economy at large [38] [39], [40].

More than 73% of the women surveyed focused on growth and expansion, but needed financial opportunities. Only 8% felt that running a business was disadvantageous for them. This confirms that most of them love managing their own businesses compared to those from other Arab nations [39].

Female business students in the Middle East

Hossan, Parakandi, and Saber suggest that there are several barriers that restrict female students in the Middle East from pursuing entrepreneurship interests [23]. The authors analyze the strengths/opportunities, weaknesses/issues and challenges that these students get exposed to in the country.

From their research, it is evident that despite having potential to start ventures, these students lack enough knowledge about the organizations that support ventures [68]. Prior work experience and different entrepreneurship barriers, which are based on gender discrimination, deny women opportunities to participate in business ventures [23].

Current Attitudes Regarding Business Financing

Based on the article “Small Enterprises: Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan, it was noted that women within the UAE rely on their own personal savings as their primary method of creating startup capital [4]. This is an incredibly laborious and time consuming process which would of course slow down the process of entrepreneurial activity within any country that utilizes such a system [5].

Such a situation is in stark contrast to the way in which the entrepreneurial sector in other countries such as China, the U.S., the UK and even in certain sectors in the Middle East work since it is often seen that investing in entrepreneurs creates numerous beneficial actions, such as a: A better local economy, gGreater amount of bank deposits and hHelping out what could potentially develop into a larger enterprise [13].

Banks generally think of entrepreneurs as “safe bets” when it comes to loans due to the attitude of entrepreneurs in paying back what they owe even if a particular business did not turn out as successful as expected [4].

Thus, startup capital in such situations often comes about through bank loans resulting in a far quicker level of business creation. After conducting an analysis of the Erogul (2011) article which examined the current situation of women entrepreneurs within the UAE, it was revealed that female entrepreneurs still continue to rely on their own slowly accumulated capital as compared to merely taking out a bank loan [3].

This shows that from 2004 till the present, there has been little change in the cultural attitude regarding entrepreneurial financing among women [8]. One of the potential reasons behind such a state of affairs has been connected to the currently arduous process of taking out a loan within a bank wherein a male sponsor is needed in order to sign and guarantee all aspects of the loan [13].

Since female entrepreneurs have to rely on a sponsor who may not always be there, this further impedes the process of business development which actually discourages women from relying on banks as a source of capital 10]. It was seen that in the article “Small Enterprises:

Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan that in the case of the UAE, family played a crucial role in the funding and development of small to medium scale business ventures for women wherein more than 25% of local businesses started by female entrepreneurs were a result of family members contributing towards the initial starting capital of the entrepreneur and actively gave advice regarding the proper management of the business [10].

In fact, it was noted by researchers such as Mostafa (2005) that it is the strong interfamily ties within the country’s culture that limits the export market of the UAE. This is due to the development of a business culture where it has become preferable to deal with family members or friends of the family when it comes to joint business ventures and business opportunities.

This in effect severely curtails the ability of a business to expand beyond its current market due to the inherent hesitance in dealing with the unfamiliar [5]. While there is nothing inherently wrong with family based methods of capital financing, studies such as those by Mostafa (2005) stated that it often came with certain conditions related to the types of business that can be gone into by female entrepreneurs [5].

This often entailed clothing, textiles, and manufacturing that were often detailed as the “traditional domain” of female entrepreneurs within the UAE.

This conditional funding through family based methods of capital development can actually be considered a limiting factor in the capacity for female entrepreneurs to establish themselves in new types of business and, as such, can be considered a detrimental feature of the current “entrepreneurial funding” system within the UAE [13].

Analysis of Government Policy Initiatives

An analysis of government policy initiatives that were mentioned in the Haan article showed the presence of gender specific barriers in entrepreneurship wherein male sponsorship, male networking and overall male assistance was required when it came to women entering into any form of entrepreneurial activity.

The problem with the implementation of male sponsorships is that it is not needed in the case of women entrepreneurs since males basically just sign their signatures on a piece of paper [59]. They are not partners in the business nor do they take an active role in it; basically the Haan article shows that men are just there to show that there is a level of biased gender supervision occurring.

Through the work of Madsen (2010), it was revealed that at the present, there have been no government policy initiatives to address such issues with the same policies continuing to exist [60].

Contributing to this problem is the lack of sufficient government funding in the development of female support networks which are there to help women in connecting with each other and developing the necessary relationships to grow and expand their business.

While it may be true that the UAE government states that it actively promotes female entrepreneurship and even gives awards to prominent female entrepreneurs, the fact remains that the current policy system within the region suffers from significant gender specific biases. This creates barriers towards the creation of a better business environment for female entrepreneurs [6].

In a presentation, a number of things have changed over these ten years, yet the issue concerning women in business somehow remains just as unsolved as it used to be, mostly because the basic initiatives still revolve around introducing agencies that will help regulate the issue within the market.

However, certain changes are definitely worth being mentioned. While the issue regarding women in the UAE business still leaves much to be desired, considerable concessions have been made over the past decade.

To start with, the formation of the Khalifa Fund can be considered the stepping stone of female empowerment in business in the UAE. Khalifa Fund was created in 2007 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The fund was originally intended to help SMEs and encourage the development of small businesses across the country.

Offering to invest in new and promising industrial and service sectors within the Abu Dhabi area, the fund allowed for small business growth. Funded by the government, the organization reflects the attempts of the latter to change the UAE business landscape. In 2012, the organization announced its determination to invest in microbusinesses [61], [62], [63], [64].

In fact, the given organization can be considered by far the most supportive and efficient of all; being one-of-a-kind project, it provides “venture capital, training, development, data and consulting services, and even marketing support” [3], which is very impressive.

However, financial assistance does not have a tangible impact on the Emirati society and its concept of women in business: “However, unlike other countries, there is a lack of support targeting female entrepreneurs in UAE” [4].

Recently, the organization has been paying special attention to women in business. In 2013, nearly 30% of $14 m was provided to allow for more options for UAE women in SME. At present, the Khalifa Fund is tackling the issue quite efficiently.

However, there is still a long way for the Khalifa Fund to go in order to provide UAE women with the same options as men have in business.What is necessary is the development of better policy initiatives in not only removing gender barriers in entrepreneurial activity, but also in developing the necessary networks for female entrepreneurs to thrive [65], [66], [67], [68].

Research Plan Methodology

The methodology that will be utilized within this particular research will be, a serial of questions sent to a variety of female entrepreneurs within the UAE. In order to determine the various difficulties they experience on a daily basis when it comes to entrepreneurial activities. To achieve statistical significance results and conclusions, we chose the initial number of surveys distributed to be 200 with the goal of obtaining 100 useful responses.


In wWomen business owners in the United Arab Emirates, 2007 paper, a44 survey questions were analyzeds in their study [21]. Haan conducted a survey of 30 questions in his UAE women entrepreneurs’ paper [13]. In this research a similar set of questions will be incorporatedin the survey.

To provide solid and statistically useful data, around 200 candidates will be asked to answer these questions. Then an analysis of the results obtained in this step will be made. This all will help us perform a sampling campaign for candidates of the next step.

Personal Interviews

Thenwe will narrow down the number of candidates, to a reasonable number of candidates from UAE women business owners, to conduct personal interviews with them in order to obtain qualitative assessments of the factors explored in the survey. We will be choosing candidates who follow a certain pattern, to better measure the problem in hand.

The candidates will be sharing their experiences before and after they started their businesses. For instance they will talk about the challenges, opportunities, and the support they needed to make their businesses a success. Mentioning strategies that helped them succeed as entrepreneurs, despite the constraints that acted as barriers. Again all information gathered will be analyzed for the in depth interviews.

In Depth Interviews

This will be the last step on the methodology, and the number of candidates will get even smaller than step 2, because the questions in this stage will get more specific and detailed and more personal. All information that will be obtained via any method of the data gathering will be kept strictly confidential.. Their feedback would give a huge impact on the recommendation section of this research.

The Gantt chart demonstrates the monthly milestones of the research for spring semester.

Gantt Chart

Spring Plan Jan 2014 Feb 2014 Mar 2014 Apr 2014 May 2014 Gathering Information Review literature

Conduct surveys

Conduct interviews

In Depth Interviews

Integrating findings Analyzing Results

Giving Conclusions

Giving Recommendations

Thesis Defense Thesis Writing References Y. Itani, S. Yusuf, and I. Baalbaki. “United Arab Emirates Female Entrepreneurs: Motivations and Frustrations.” Equality, Diversity