Table of Contents Overview of the Case
Definition of the Problem
Selected Solution to the Problem
Expected Results and Rationale for the Solution
Positive and Negative Results
Overview of the Case McDonald’s, the first food chain known for its strong performance in a very competitive industry is facing stiff competition from other firms. The firm’s breakfast offerings are not as competitive as they were before due to strong performance by products from other market players such as Taco Bell, White Castle, Dunkin Brands Group, Burger King and Starbucks.
These firms have new breakfast products which have been received well by consumers in different areas they are operating in. As a result, these firms’ improved performance in the industry has negatively affected McDonald’s market share (Jargon, 2014, p. 1).
McDonald’s poor competitive position can be seen through its declining sales and profit revenues in the past six months. This paper is going to discuss the main marketing issues that McDonald’s faces in its operations and how they can be improved to help the firm regain its competitive position in the industry.
Key Issues McDonald’s weakening position in the industry is due to its failure to come up with effective marketing strategies that respond to the needs of young consumers. In the past, the firm’s breakfast offerings performed well in the market but it has been losing customers gradually to new firms.
Low innovation in the firm has made it difficult for the firm to attract new consumers who are willing to try out the product it sells in the market (Jargon, 2014, p. 2).
The firm has also failed to come with an effective product development strategy to help it sell new high quality products that satisfy consumers’ expectations. As a result, this has affected the company’s competitive position in the market because it has failed to keep up with modern market trends that are crucial for its long term performance.
The firm also needs to improve the relationships it has with its franchisees. They feel that the firm’s marketing strategies are not effective and fresh ideas are needed to help the firm regain its footing in the industry. In addition, they insist that more needs to be done to improve the quality of the firm’s operations in the industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main actors that need to be analyzed are: McDonald’s, its competitors and franchisees. McDonald’s has not been able to come up with important strategic changes to help it maintain its market share in the industry. Other fast food firms have developed efficient market processes that are responsive to current consumer trends in the market.
Therefore, McDonald’s competitors have been able to institute higher operational standards that position them well in the industry (Jargon, 2104, p. 3). The firm has also been unable to develop beneficial partnerships with its franchisees. They feel that it needs to come up with innovative promotional strategies to attract new customers to sample its products.
Definition of the Problem McDonald’s faces various problems such as: a weakening brand, low sales, ineffective promotions and the inability to keep up with its competitors. The main problem the firm needs to address to solve all these issues is its marketing mix functions. The company needs to review the four P’s of the marketing mix which are: products, prices, promotions and place.
This will help the firm to improve the value of its internal systems of operations to help it attain high standards of performance in the long run (Bradley, 2010, p. 75).
In addition, the firm needs to understand issues related to the quality of service it offers that need to be improved to help it attain its objectives in the industry. This approach will help the firm to focus on priorities to regain its market share in the industry to help it register good performance in the long run.
Product improvements and developments are a crucial part of any marketing strategy. McDonald’s needs to carry out research to find out specific types products that customers prefer to consume for breakfast. This approach will enable the firm to stay in touch with its customers to anticipate their needs and expectations by providing products that satisfy them.
At the moment, the firm has failed to create appropriate menus that attract customers to make them more willing to try out its product offerings (Bradley, 2010, p. 79).
We will write a custom Case Study on McDonald’s Company Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The pricing of products should be maintained at current levels to make customers have positive perceptions about the quality of products they are purchasing. This requires the firm to develop effective customer relationship management systems that increase the value of its products in the market.
Promotional aspects of operations need an overhaul to enable the firm to regain its competitive position in the market. The firm needs to rethink its strategy of offering customers give away products because this is likely to increase its costs of operations in the long run.
The current strategy of offering give away products has caused disagreements between the firm and its franchisees, a situation that is likely to have a negative effect on the firm’s operations in the long run.
In addition, the firm needs to look at the internal atmosphere in its outlets to find out if it is suitable for consumer’s eating patterns (Rue
Utilitarianism in Government Term Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Utilitarianism in Government
Introduction In the modern world, technology defines the successfulness of any organization, irrespective of the size and the scope of work. Currently, human beings live in the highly connected society whereby information circulation is costless due to the internet, which has made communication easy.
In other words, technology has led to developments in politics, economics, and cultures given the fact individuals are able to share information globally. The ongoing uprisings in the Arab world are attributable to technology since people are in a position to receive and share information easily (Petronio 112).
This has led to ethical issues regarding the viability of technology because governments are misusing it to infringe on the rights of people. This article evaluates the application of utilitarian theory in government since it is noted that many officials are concerned with realizing the best results.
The government is a large organization charged with the role of ensuring citizens achieves their interests in the best way possible. In this case, it has to provide an enabling environment, such as facilitating security, developing the infrastructure, and focusing on equality.
Utilitarianism in Government Political formations have been applying utilitarianism long before Bentham invented it. Aristippus of Cyrene applied a hedonistic theory of value of life in the 5th century. In the ancient Greece, the ethic of retirement was applied, which was based on utilitarianism whereby government officials were expected to cease work to pave way for the younger generation to realize their economic, social, and political ambitions.
In the modern society, the government applies utilitarianism with the sole purpose of offering an answer to the practical question asking what should be done in society to improve the conditions of living (Baura 14).
While applying the ethical theory, the officials in government seek to act in the best way possible to produce the most satisfying results. In this case, the government has never cares about whether the consequences are positive or negative provided they satisfy the greatest number of people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In case the government engages in an act to please a few individuals, the consequence would be considered unethical even though it might be viewed as the best. Mill suggested that the act should be in a position to compel an individual to do something instead of simply persuading or exhorting him or her to an act in a particular way.
When considering the consequences of an act, the government is always committed to the theory of intrinsic value meaning an act is believed to be good in itself, as well as its consequences. In this case, other values are thought to derive their importance from the intrinsic good implying an action should never be viewed as an end to itself instead it should be considered one of the means to achieving the greatest good.
Mill and Bentham are believed to be hedonists because they perceived pleasure as a balance of satisfaction whereby suffering is avoided under all means. In case government representatives are to achieve the greatest good for the members of society, they are expected to engage in thorough research by exploring the available options and determining the best with an aim of establishing which one would have the better results.
Many governments across the world tend to apply the views of Bentham who was optimistic of applying a hedonic calculus in resolving the issues affecting the citizens. In this case, all components of satisfaction are often summarized, as well as the elements of pain, with an effort to determine the individuals likely to be affected at present and in the future.
The government would then strike a balance between the evil and the good by ensuring the greatest number of people benefits, irrespective of the social status. In other words, the ethical theory only aims at maximizing the good, as it insists on weighing up the personal action.
Many governments consider utilitarianism the code for public actions and individuals are expected to align their actions to the mainstream principle based on the ethical theory. The policies selected should always be responsive in the sense that they fulfill the interests of the greatest number.
For instance, the government does not consider a policy that would construct a warehouse for the detainees who go through their rehabilitation program successfully but instead it would formulate a policy that retrains, supervises, and incorporates the individuals into the community (Harris 76).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Utilitarianism in Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theory is being applied globally to ensure human conditions are improved as was suggested in the Plato’s Republic. This means it does not only focus on the individual events and the communal guidelines, but also on the nature of the whole society.
Plato had given a clear procedure of building an ideal society and many governments are applying the utilitarian theory to do so. In the labor market, distribution of goods and services, and management, the theory is of great importance because it aims at maximizing the good and reducing suffering. In case a policy is formulated and its implementation is ineffective, changes could still be introduced.
Society is always viewed as a natural environment with several niches meaning it could accommodate various animals. In the state of nature, animals with several characteristics exist, as there are some feeding on insects, others on seeds, and some on nectar. Some birds are in a position to feed on seeds with hard shells while some cannot meaning each category of animal should be allowed to enjoy its freedom.
The human society is compared to the natural environment with several categories of animals. For instance, people with diverse religious affiliations should be allowed to coexist while those with tendencies to gamble have to be provided with their freedoms as well (Cohen 21). In the United States for instance, Roosevelt came up with a radical program that would transform America as far as economic activities were concerned.
He introduced the principles of capitalism since it was viewed that it would realize the dreams of the greatest number of people. The new economic doctrine was expected to enhance the efforts of the hard working individuals as well as punishing the lazy ones.
Ethical Obligation In the modern society, people are allowed to post all sorts of information on the internet since they simply represent their views and they ought not to be accurate or true. However, each person has an ethical responsibility of ensuring that whatever he or she posts on the website is sagacious in the sense that it should not interfere with the normal living of others.
This does not mean that the concerned agencies should control what to be posted because this would result in the infringement of the personal liberty as far as free expression is concerned. Individuals should be advised to follow the ethical codes set out in their various professions.
The web user has to read everything that he or she finds online in order to understand the views of others, but he or she has to decide on which material to rely on when making a decision (Westacott 112).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarianism in Government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ethical codes found in various professional manuals should guide people in writing their materials because posting anything, including false information, would be misleading the public and this would cause pain to certain individuals hence the government has the responsibility to prevent this act.
Lawyers have their own ethical standards that each member has to follow when relating with the public, including offering a counsel online.
The government has always ensured that members of various professions, such as the medical fraternity, are guided by a certain code, which instructs them to maintain high standards when relating with patients, as this would realize the best results. Therefore, it is concluded that each person is expected to observe the ethical standards when positing anything material on the website.
Moral Assessment According to the Utilitarian ethics, the government should aim at implementing policies that will ensure happiness while at the same time reducing suffering (Gupta 67). Any decision undertaken in should aim at maximizing utility whereby suffering has to be reduced at all costs. Governments have been accused of infringing on the rights of people by intercepting their emails.
This does not encourage freedom of speech and expression since people will always be careful with what they post their web pages, such as Facebook and Twitter. According to utilitarian ethics, the government is not doing enough to reduce human suffering.
In this case, the government does not play any role in promoting the interests of the community and its insistence on freedom and human rights is skewed because it selectively (Cohen 22).
In case governments want to boost their images and ensure that they remain relevant in society, they have to consider promoting freedom, as this would ensure happiness as suggested by Mill. Additionally, the living conditions of all members of society should be improved and the cases of discriminations based on gender and race should be eliminated since this will ensure happiness.
Conclusion Governments have been using Utilitarian ethics in carrying out their activities, but most them have been unproductive in the sense that they lead to human suffering and unhappiness. Utilitarianism suggests that a greatest number of people should feel contented, even though a few might be sacrificed.
The United States dropped the atomic bombs in Japan during the Second World War, which was a great action according to utilitarianism since it ended the war that had affected the lives of many people. The use of technology is always good, but if it only ensures happiness by reducing suffering.
The use of people’s information without informing them is not part of utilitarianism since it only infringes the rights of the majorities and does not guarantee happiness.
The government is justified to undertake any action in case it brings happiness to many people. The idea of hacking into people’s emails and using private information on the internet to track them down is a failure on the side of the government and utilitarian ethics could not be applied in justifying the mistakes.
Works Cited Baura, Gail. Engineering Ethics: An Industrial Perspective. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006. Print.
Cohen, Andrew. Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Hoboken: Wiley, 2014. Print.
Gupta, Bina. Ethical Questions: East and West. Lanham: Rowman
The Case of American Involvement in the Philippines Insurrection and the French in Algeria Compare and Contrast Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The French involvement in Algeria and the American involvement in the Philippines during the 19th and 20th centuries are comparable as both nations applied military warfare to quell insurgents. However, several differences between the two cases are evidence. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comparative analysis of the French military involvement in Algeria and the American military incursion in Philippines.
Tactical strategic principles applied by the French in Algeria versus those applied by the US in the Philippines Similarities
The French military involvement in Algeria during the counterinsurgency displayed a couple of similarities and differences with the tactics that the American forces used in countering the insurgency in Philippine. Taking the military tactics at the strategic and organizational levels, it is worth noting that the French in Algeria used military tactics aimed at controlling the situation.
Both focused on controlling some important economic and political areas like the ports (House, 2008). They hoped to establish some ‘free fire zones’, where the insurgents would not attack, while leaving out the others areas of less economic important prone to insurgency.
This is similar with what the Americans had done years before in the Philippine Islands (Boot, 2002). The Americans were interested in controlling some major islands of economic importance as well as major cities where American and European interest would be guarded. Most other areas considered of less military and economic importance were left prone to rebel attacks.
Secondly, both the US and the French militaries won the war against insurgency due to their ability to mobilize and achieve international support.
In addition, they were capable of providing their troops with adequate supplies and support, while ensuring that the insurgents had little support and resources at their disposal (Boot, 2002). In fact, both the US and the French achieved success over the rebels through cutting them off from vital resources and logistics rather than using excessive force to persuade them.
In both cases, the foreign powers’ military involvements were not accepted at home, despite the government support the militaries had. For instance, in New York and Washington, a number of demonstrations took place, with the people calling the government to withdraw its forces from Manila and relinquish power to the locals (Horne, 1977).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, the French were not happy with the incursions in Algeria, despite the government’s continued support to the military counterinsurgency efforts. In both cases, the war took an incredible toll of lives, especially the locals rather than the opposing forces.
Finally, the French and American forces in Algeria and Philippines respectively suffered guerilla-like attacks as both the Philippine rebels and the Berbers in Algeria, once they saw they could not fight the foreign powers, resolved to guerilla warfare. This is the point at which both the French and the American forces lost a good number of their troops.
On the other hand, the two cases differed significantly. While the American involvement in the Philippines resulted into the foreign power relinquishing power and appointing locals in major offices, the French in Algeria were determined to hold on to the rule, as it was common with the European colonialists (Boot, 2002).
Secondly, the American goal to stick in the Philippines was not actually to maintain its rule there, rather it wanted to protect itself from possible attacks by Japan and her allies (Medoff, 2011). On the other hand, the French were interested to maintain Algeria as a colony and increase its influence over the entire North African region.
Moreover, while American forces seem to have allowed the insurgents to retain their rule over some islands, the French forces in Algeria carried out massive attacks and isolation of the insurgents, driving them into the mountains and deserts where their rule could not be viable (Medoff, 2011: House, 2008).
References Boot, M. (2002). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books.
Horne, A. (1977). A Savage War of Peace. New York: The Viking Press.
We will write a custom Essay on The Case of American Involvement in the Philippines Insurrection and the French in Algeria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More House, J. M. (2008). Historical Case Study: The French in Algeria, 1954-62. New York: US Army Sergeants Major Academy.
Medoff, A. (2011). COIN and HNGs: Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902). Web.
The Nationalism and Islam in the Middle East Region Report custom essay help
Introduction The Middle East can be defined as a region that includes part of the Asian continent and Northern African region. Arabs are the main inhabitants of this region. However, there are ethnic groups in the Middle East. The main religion in the Middle East is Islam. Nonetheless, other religions such as Judaism and Christianity can be found in this region. This region boasts of a great history.
It is regarded as the birthplace of world religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Middle East is also associated with ancient civilizations. The discovery of crude oil in the region during the 20th century has changed the fortunes of the region. The Middle East is a region where the political, cultural, religious, and economic aspects have been integrated presenting a complex situation.
This region is considered as strategic to the world’s economic, political and social integration (Cleveland
Why There Is No Peace In Israel? Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Useful Discussions in the Book
Introduction The book How Israel Lost analyzes four areas that have affected people of Israel and Palestine for several years. The author has divided the book into four parts. The first and the third parts discuss about Israel. The second part discusses about Palestine, and the last part wraps all the ideas together and comes up with viable solutions.
Among the issues and questions answered by the book, there is the following: Why is there no peace in Israel? In this area, the writer gives his own views why Israel has not lived peacefully with Palestine. I found this area of discussion most interesting. This paper discusses why there is no peace between the two neighboring nations.
Useful Discussions in the Book According to Cramer (2004), border crisis is the cause of unrest in Israel and Palestine. Israel attacks Palestine at bounder while Palestine attacks Israel for the sake of revenge. This has led to suffering of the Israelites and the Palestinians living in Gaza and west bank and, as a result, a long-term crisis between the two nations.
According to Cramer (2004), as the Israelites attack Palestine to gain more land and resources from the land occupied by Palestinians, they become victims just like the Palestine. This means the war between the two nation will only oppress their citizens whether the Palestinians or the Israelites.
According to Cramer (2004), Jews living in Israel seem to have forgotten the principles found in the state. Their goals and standard were to become the light on democracy and peace to whole world. It would be observed that this is not the case in the current Israel.
The country is not at peace at all either internally or externally. They are always fighting and oppressing Palestine. This is not in line with the principle the nation was found in. Therefore, according to Cramer, this is the reason why there is no peace in Israel.
The soldiers after coming home from the war do not live in peace. According to Cramer (2004), there is no peace in the country. This is because the soldiers after breaking homes and killing innocent individuals at Palestine bounder do not live at peace with one another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The young individual learn to oppress those how do not belong to their group. This has a far-reaching impact in the society since the nation will be composed of individuals who do not co-exist with one another hence there is lack of peace. This means that morality of the Israelites is affected by war against Palestine. Therefore, as long as war persists, there will be no peace in Israel.
Israel’s aggression against Palestine is hurting the Israel military. According to crammer (2004), as long as Israel fights the Palestine, the military will be weakening day after day.
This is because more soldiers are constantly killed and resources are used to support the war rather than being used for development purposes. Crammer argues that the war between the two nations is not helping none of them but brings more harm to their military.
According to Cramer (2004), the Israelites have lost the moral standards and goals. This is because they treat Palestine more harshly. Though the Israelites have been subjected to violence for several decades, Cramer believes that the Israelites should be kind to Palestine.
This is because they have suffered for more than half a century and, probably, know how it feels to be oppressed. This is not the case with the Israelites. The reason is because their moral standards have been degraded. According to Cramer, the continued lack of morality among the Israelites is the main reason why there is no peace in Israel.
Cramer (2004) wonders how just and humane nation can treat the Palestinians so harshly. This is because of demolition of homes in the west bank and Gaza. The homes belong to the Palestinians. This also led to the killing of innocent individuals together with the targeted Palestinians.
Cramer wonders how the Israeli Supreme Court does not bother to assist Palestine. This shows how the democracy and justice have degraded in this nation. According to Cramer (2004), the lack of social justice and morality among the citizens is the reason why there is no peace in Israel.
We will write a custom Report on Why There Is No Peace In Israel? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The two nations have been in bounder crisis for so long. This has affected everybody in the two societies. Each society accuses the other for the crisis. This has made it difficult to get a long lasting solution to this crisis. In the last part of the book, Cramer tries to give solutions to these problems.
He calls upon the leader of the two nations, that is Ariel Sharon, of Israel and Yasser Arafat, to come together and settle disputes peacefully. This was the only solution to bring peace in Israel but it did not happen.
The two did not get long-term solutions of the bounder crisis. This has worsened insecurity at the bounder. The Jews and the Palestinians are affected alike. The more Israel oppresses the Palestinian, the more the situation worsens. The Palestinians formulate the ways of defending themselves, revenge, while the Israelites formulate ways of attacking Palestine, and occupy the areas that they believe belongs to them.
During the operation, homes especially for the Palestine are destroyed. People, especially children and women, are killed. This act is condemned by Cramer (2004) since he wonders how the Israelites are treating Palestine so harshly. Cramer states that the morality among the Israelites has disappeared in the recent past.
Conclusion According to Cramer (2004), the principle of Israel as a nation was to be the light unto the nations of the word. According to Cramer’s observation, Israel does not live by this principle. Basing the argument on this point, Israel will only have peace when they observe the principle forming the state.
This is because without the moral standards being observed, the war against the Palestine will go on and, consequently, no peace in Israel. According to Cramer, the goals of the nation have been overlooked as the nation fights with Palestine. This shows that the nation has not settled down to serve the people. This is the major reason why even within the nation there is no peace.
The book has explained how young individuals at their tender ages learn how to destroy property. This is something that does not belong to them. As well, young individuals learn to oppress the defenseless and the less fortunate in the society. This means that they do not learn what democracy is. This has propagated the degree of immorality in the nation. With such immorality, the nation cannot be at peace.
Reference List Cramer, R. (2004). How Israel lost: the four questions. New York: Simon
The Six-Day War Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The Battle Front
The Gaza Strip
Introduction This war is referred to as the Six Day War since it lasted for six days only. Other names, such as the War of 1967, the June War, 1967 Arab– Israel War, and the Third Arab-Israel war are used as well.
The war lasted from June 5, 1967 till June 10 by Israel, Egypt; then later the United Arab Republic, Jordan and Syria joined the war. It took Israel six days to win the important war for them. Israel won the war subduing the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula, both formerly under Egypt, West Bank, and East Jerusalem territories of Jordan and Global Heights of Syria.
The Battle Front This section of the paper sheds light on skills applied to outsmart all its opponents in the war. The other element consists in the missteps made by Egypt during the war. Egypt appeared to be more concerned about cheating its allies than about Israel losing the war. Its allies, such as Jordan underrated the immense power of Israel. Egypt decided to send home their war crafts on the way to attacking Israel.
This section of the paper focuses on the operation approach that included the order of battle. Israelite fist victims were due to launching a surprise attack on the Egyptian Air Force. Israelis called this operation the Operation Focus. The attack was made during early hours, sending almost its entire combat jets in mass to raid Egypt. The initial focus was on Egypt’s medium size bombers called Badger.
Israel knew that if these bombers had been to be used by Egypt, they would have had devastating effects. Egypt became the first target because it had the most modern and sophisticated Air Force among all the Arab nations. Egypt’s warplanes were estimated to be four hundred and twenty that were all made in the USSR.
Israel’s strategy was powerful. Israel accused Egypt immediately of attacking its citizens in order to justify the war. Israel’s combat aircrafts through the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea flew very low so that the radars could not detect them. They first attacked the airfields knowing very well that they were poorly sheltered, and hence the impact of which would be great. To Israel’s advantage, Egypt blundered.
In response to attack, Egypt shut down all its air force defense systems. Its aim was to protect top military commanders, Field Marshal Abdel Amer, and Lieutenant General Mahmud, who were traveling to Sinai. Egyptian generals feared that rebel forces from the country would take the opportunity and bring down war jets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was a blunder in two perspectives. The Israeli war jets were flying below the level of the Egyptian radar detection. Israel would bring down the Egyptian planes. The point was that when Jordan used its powerful radar, it could get a glimpse of the war jets headed to Egypt.
When they sent the message, it could be received because Egypt had closed its air defense lines. Since these were the first attacks, it would have served to the advantage of Egypt for preparation purposes.
What captures my interest in this part of the war is the Israel’s strategy and execution that was fantastic. Several tactics were applied simultaneously. Israel bombed runways, blocking the Egyptian airlines that could have prevented the onslaught from taking place.
The bombs specially manufactured in collaboration with France destroyed the tarmac. Israel strategically left out the airfield in Arish, which was to be used for evacuation immediately. It turned it into a military airbase.
The operation was swift, tactical, and devastating to Egypt, which was taken off guard. The Egyptian Air force, as a result, was destroyed. Egypt has continued to refute the claims that the actual number of aircrafts that remained was four. The death of pilots was estimated one hundred after day one of fight; what is more, the number of deaths was calculated in the airfields only.
The destruction cut across all the air wing departments. All types of bombers, fighters, helicopters, and transport planes, which were to be used as cover-ups, were all crushed in the end. The radars and missiles were not spared from the wrath of Israelites.
When the damages caused to Israel are considered, they can justly be called Collateral damage. Two of their combat planes collided, and then crushed; one more was shot down by Israel after it appeared that it was diverting from its target.
We will write a custom Report on The Six-Day War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most successful part of the raid consisted in the fact that it there was no opposition for Israel in the air. This attack took a few hours before Israel shifted attention to other weaker opponents. To ascertain the fact that Egypt was destroyed on the first day, it must be pointed out that there were no Egyptian flights in the air (Black, 1992).
The Gaza Strip The Israeli strategy worked to almost perfection. The total number of personnel and artillery used near the Gaza Strip for Egypt was numerous. Israel prepared in advance; it launched attacks on the ground and air simultaneously. One commander guided the attacks from two different points. The infantry advanced swiftly, taking Egyptians by surprise.
In attacking the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula, Israel had three brigades under one commander coming through Nahal and Khan Yunis. The paratroopers seizing Yunis using a single battalion reinforced the infantry within four hours. Once again, Egypt wrongly predicted, calling it a diversion strategy. Heading to Rafar, Israeli troops killed the commander.
The soldiers had to escape. Some resistance to Israel was coming from Southern Arish. Israel forces commanded by Major General Aerial Sharon faced one of the sophisticated and organized Egyptian atonements. However, the battle lasted less than half an hour.
West Bank King Hussein of Jordan was unwilling to join the war. President Nasser misled him. When he finally joined the war, he sent eleven modern western tanks brigades and troops to West Bank and the Jordan valley. The Jordan army, which was then referred to as the Arab Legion, was well trained and equipped. Israel referred to its Hawker hunter as being equal to the best plane Israel had, which was Dassault Mirage III.
It again blundered in strategy. Israel sent eight brigades and two hundred tanks to West Bank. Jordan provoked Israel by attacking civilians and the capturing of government officials. Israel warned Jordan to keep off the war, but the King refused. The missiles were used to destroy radars and runways. By this time, the Arab nations were crumbled.
Jordan tried to match Israel in regards to the number of weapons. Most of the aircrafts were made in France, while the others used the weapons from the Soviet Union. A ceasefire was signed on 11 June 1967, one day after Israel had captured the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strips and Global Heights. The territory had increased threefold. Israel won because of proper planning and blunders made by the Arab nations.
Reference Black, I. (1992). Israel’s Secret Wars: A History of Israel’s Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Press.
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“Ploughing Sand: British Rule in Palestine, 1917-1948” by Shepherd Naomi Report essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Separation from Ottoman Empire
Palestine Development stage
Palestine under British occupation
The Palestinian Mandate
Introduction Shepherd Naomi in her book “Ploughing Sand: British Rule in Palestine, 1917-1948” extensively explored from the start of the British occupation in 1917 up to the enactment of the Palestinian Citizenship Order in Council in 1925, (the people of Palestine was in transition (Shepherd, 2000).
As the Palestinian Mandate (adopted in 1922) and the Treaty of Lausanne (imposed in 1924) acknowledged a separate nationality for Palestine’s residents on the international level, Palestinians people was without complete inland regulation then. These eight years brought about the first transitional phase in the history of Palestinian nationality (Shepherd, 2000).
Separation from Ottoman Empire Succeeding its separation from the Ottoman Empire, Palestine saw itself bordered by newly emerged nations. On its separation from Ottoman Empire, the region of Palestine and its populace became distinct from its bordering countries. This division had actually started between Palestine and the newly-created Arab ‘states’: Trans-Jordan, Egypt, Syria and Lebanon (Shepherd, 2000).
Almost immediately after that, Palestine’s borders attained lasting acknowledgment through mutual accords held with the legislature of neighboring states (Shepherd, 2000).
Besides, as a result of the international lawful underlying structure set up by the Treaty of Lausanne, all the four newly-created Arab ‘states’ and their diverse populations created a separate nationality of their own by inland legislation (Shepherd, 2000). The nationalities of each of these countries have since then turn out to be well-established.
Transitional stage According to Shepherd Naomi, “nationalities in the bordering countries of Palestine were obviously distinct from Palestinian nationality soon after the fall of The Ottoman Empire. Palestinian people were addressed as aliens in these countries, while citizens of these bordering countries were also regarded as aliens in Palestine.
Palestine Development stage From the viewpoint of international law, Palestinian people experienced three developmental phases during this transitional era. The first started with the British military control in 1917 and up to the favorable reception of the Mandate of Palestine in 1922.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second phase extended from the last date until the endorsement of the Treaty of Lausanne on 6th August 1924. The final, and the briefest, phase was from the endorsement of the abovementioned agreement till the imposing of the Nationality Order in 1925.
Palestine under British occupation In this period, Palestine was initially put under military dictatorship and after that under a civil government. From 1917 up to the acceptance of the Palestine term of office in 1922 by the administrative bodies, the international status which was distinct by law of the country was undecided. Therefore, the nationality of Palestine’s natives, close to those in other ex-Ottoman territories in unison, was to a certain extent anomalous.
The British occupation did not change the international status of Palestine as invaded Turkish territory. In the meantime, the European power assembled abroad (Italy), to talk about a resolution with Turkey and to decide on the outlook of Iraq together with Palestine and Syria.
On 25th April 1920, the Allied determined that Turkey would not be handed over the Ottoman territories that speak Arabic (Shepherd, 2000). In its place, the authority over Syria (together with Lebanon) was given to France and the administration of Palestine and Iraq (as well as Trans-Jordan) was given to Britain.
Soon after the conference held in Europe, an independent control over Palestine was announced by Britain in 1920. It also formed a civil government to reinstate the military administration which had dominated the country since December 1917 (Shepherd, 2000).
As the independently announced mandate had no result, Palestine remained at Ottoman territory. British as well received this international legal emplacement (Shepherd, 2000).
The current consequence of that Law was part of the universal use of the Ottoman laws in Palestine. Despite the military laws executed by military courts, civil courts control “all civil matters as said by the Ottoman law” (Shepherd, 2000).
We will write a custom Report on “Ploughing Sand: British Rule in Palestine, 1917-1948” by Shepherd Naomi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Palestinian Citizenship Order of 1925, in its primary article, regarded the people of Palestine as Ottoman citizens and gave them Palestinian citizenship (Shepherd, 2000). Therefore, the people of Palestine were then, in virtue of public and international decree, Ottoman citizens. In reality, Ottoman nationality had become ineffectual.
The legitimacy of Ottoman nationality in Palestine might be equated to the current outcome of that nationality in Palestine’s bordering countries. Also, the legality of Ottoman people in Palestine then can be explained by the universal international law rule that subjugation does not give any designation to the governing rule above the invaded territory.
This is also similar to the global charitable law; article 43 of both The Hague set of laws with regard to the rules and practices of land conflicts and The Hague policy about the decrees and traditions of territory rivalry, require the inhabitant to obey “the laws in effect in the country”.
Palestinian nationality While the residents of Palestine were regarded as Ottoman citizens in accordance with enforced law, in actual fact, there being considered Palestinians took time.
According to Shepherd “as an Occupying Power, Britain became in charge of the international relations of Palestine and for defending its people in a foreign country” (Shepherd, 2000). Britain, with respect to its intrinsic nature, found itself compelled to take positive actions to control the residents’ nationality (Shepherd, 2000).
Lastly, the Palestine ruling party, which was the administrative body formed by Britain to govern the country, took the subsequent actions: it issued temporary citizen permits to Ottoman people in Palestine; issued Palestinian passes and travel papers; broadened political security to those people living and going overseas; and made a clear difference between inhabitants and aliens about the admission into Palestine, residence and political privileges.
The terms ‘Palestinian’ or ‘Palestinian citizen’ were repeatedly used.
The Palestinian Mandate During the establishment of the Mandates system and the ratification of the Treaty of Lausanne, as a very much comparable state of affairs in the pre-mandate era in Palestine, the people of these [mandated] territories were supposedly still Ottoman subjects. This was clearly an abnormal state of affairs that could not be easily differentiated in law.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Ploughing Sand: British Rule in Palestine, 1917-1948” by Shepherd Naomi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This stage started on 24 July 1922 with the implementation of the Palestine Mandate by the Council of the League of Nations (Shepherd, 2000). It changed when Britain formally approved the Treaty of Lausanne on 6 August 1924. Two main points are remarkable here.
Firstly, although the Mandate of Palestine had been announced by Britain in 1920, it only lawfully took effect on 29 September 1923, alongside the Mandate for Syria. Secondly, in spite of that the Palestine Mandate, as well as its nationality article, was pertinent until 1948. Ultimately, the developments of Palestinian nationality during this transitional stage lasted for a bit over two years.
Reference Shepherd, N. 2000. (Ploughing Sand) British Rule in Palestine 1917-1948. Piscataway, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
The Middle East Peace to End All Peace Report essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract There is nothing new to the world when it comes to war. The aftermath or consequences of war are too enormous to mention. The war in the Middle East seems to be a common thing due to the period of time it has lasted.
Reading the Bible, we come to the understanding that war in the Middle East is indeed very old. However, one cannot help but wonder if the wars have always been about the same reasons. The answer is “no”. There have been over 5 wars in the last decade for various reasons. (Fromkin, 2001)
The paper will focus on analyzing and reviewing modern wars in the Middle East. In this context, the term “modern” refers to post Ottoman period. In a short but explicit summary, the fall of the Ottoman Empire will be discussed. Furthermore, the high and low points of the book will be discussed as well.
It is generally believed that the fall of the Ottoman Empire gave rise to the creation of the modern Middle East. Consequences of the breakup and how they affect the western world will be shown too. (Fromkin, 2001).
High points According to historians, the western world had always indulged in the struggle for power. As a matter of fact, that is the whole essence of international relations. It was the same power tussle that led to the break of the Ottoman Empire. Prior to western influx, the Turks ruled the Arabs without problems. The Arabs suddenly found excuses to oppose their Turkish rulers.
This began precisely during the Napoleonic era when nations like France, Britain and Russia were grossly involved in the power struggle about who would conquer the world. This led the European powers to invade the Middle East. It was fondly referred to as the “Great Game”.
The Turks naturally resisted and had some other powers like Germany backing them up and this eventually escalated and led to the First World War. During the war, the two rivals namely; France and Britain eventually joined Russian forces to fight the Turks and Germans. And even at such a critical time as war, the “Great Game” was still on. (Fromkin, 2001).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The British instigated the Arabs against their Turkish rulers simply in a bid to prevent their rivals France from gaining more ground. However, what they didn’t anticipate was the backing of an Arab nation by a European power like Germany. This power tussle game by Europe is still seen today particularly in Africa.
There is no doubt that it led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire and gave rise to the modern Middle East. It was during the course of creating a new Middle East that new boundaries were drawn. These boundaries are today the reasons for war in the Middle East.
Over the years historians and scholars have concentrated on certain nations when making reference to the Middle East. This was one of the things that made David Fromkin stand out.
In his efforts to educate the reader about the true state of things, Fromkin in his book “A peace to end all peace” discussed nations like Afghanistan and central Asia which are normally left out or overlooked by other scholars when talking about the Middle East. Fromkin talks about what was happening in such nations during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. (Fromkin, 2001)
The “Great Game” was prior to the First World War. But tempers went out of control when a British soldier named General Edmund Allenby led troops into Jerusalem on December 11th, 1917 in a move meant to secure the territory and keep the French away. It was a game doggedly played by both sides and not the war was enough to take away the minds of both rivals in spite of their alliance. (Fromkin, 2001)
In a desperate move to get the Arabs on their side and eventually agree with them, Britain made promises which Fromkin describes as “sheer dishonesty”. But the British were desperate and when it came to the game of international politics, the issue of honesty or dishonesty mattered very little to the British.
The only thing that mattered was winning. Just like the west would say; “every war has its casualties”, there was also a self doubt syndrome. The Arabs doubted themselves to the extent that some of them believed they were incapable of self government.
We will write a custom Report on The Middle East Peace to End All Peace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Jews were promised a national home in Palestine by Britain in 1917. However unknown to the Jews, the British simultaneously made a similar promise to the Palestinians that they would not be left out of the deal. This part of Fromkin’s book is very significant to understanding of the conflicts in modern Middle East. Prior to Fromkin’s book, Sir Mark Sykes was an unsung hero and a missing vital part of the puzzle.
Sir Mark Sykes was believed to be the brain behind redrawing boundaries of the Middle East. The issue of boundaries in the Middle East has been a controversy and has led to many wars today. Relatively, Sir Sykes is arguably responsible for these wars. (Fromkin, 2001)
As a reader, these are the high points for me in Fromkin’s book “A peace to end all Peace”. However, there is a school of thoughts that feels that Fromkin did justice to some parts of the book, as well as flaw in other areas. I totally agree with this school of thoughts.
Low Points Critics are of the opinion that for a book that took Fromkin 10 years to complete, he ought to have done better. It is argued that a work that took that long should have the tenacity and temperament to positively address a matter that seems insoluble, such as the Middle East war.
There have been arguments in various quarters whether Fromkin did justice to Lawrence. It is generally argued that Fromkin did undermine Lawrence regardless of the latter’s intelligence. In 1919, Lawrence had written that he hoped that Arabs would not be treated as last brown colonies, but as the beginning of brown dominion.
It was he who also warned that the Arabs could not be ruled or governed using black and white lines. Ironically, Fromkin celebrated Sir Sykes whose ideas are described as being similar to Lawrence’s ideas. (Fromkin, 2001)
Another flaw pointed out in Fromkin’s work is him exaggerating Winston Churchill as the middle point of his work when in actual truth he talked about Churchill briefly and did not mention him until when he was colonial secretary.
Conclusion The primary aim of the book is for to properly inform the reader. This review is meant to inspire, challenge and enlighten the reader. The reader will be inspired and enlightened by historical facts both from criticisms and highpoints. The challenge is for the reader to keep an open mind as the story is told.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Middle East Peace to End All Peace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regardless of what is being said in different forms of the media, the most profound achievement would be proffering a lasting solution. This is the right time for peace to reign in the Middle East. (Fromkin, 2001)
References Fromkin, D. (2001) A Peace to End All Peace: The fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the modern Middle East: Henry Holt. New York: An Owl Book.
Special Interest Disability and Personal Interview Qualitative Research Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief summary of disability
Description of the individual interviewed
Results of interview
Application of developmental theories and concepts
Summary and conclusions
Introduction Early diagnosis of chronic diseases is important in the prevention of disability. Health care professionals should try as much as they can to identify a disease early and start treatment before disability sets in. Besides, disability affects the psychological, social, spiritual and economic life of a person.
This paper presents a report of the interview of a patient with fibromyalgia. It include the summary of the disease, description of the individual interviewed, results of the interview, application of the developmental theories and concepts as well as summary and conclusion.
Brief summary of disability Fibromyalgia is a condition in which the patient has pain as well as tenderness in most parts of his body especially the joints and the muscular parts (Ostalecki, 2007). It is common in women who are between the ages of twenty five to fifty five. This condition is associated with general malaise, insomnia, frequent headache, stress, anxiety and depression. Health care professionals do not know the exact cause of fibromyalgia.
Analysis of POX Case Study best essay help
Value Preposition POX’s value preposition stems from several positive attributes associated with the product. One such attribute is stealth playing. Stealth playing highlights the product’s flexibility because this feature stands out as the most important value additional feature that POX holds.
Indeed, when asked to give their opinions regarding POX, a student focus group identified the product’s stealth playing feature as a special value-additional component (Godes
Overrepresentation of Minorities and English Language Learners in Special Education Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction The amendments made to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act led to the emergence of a new crisis in most American schools. Currently, most American schools suffer from an unbalanced representation of learners from linguistically and racially different settings in special education programs.
Overrepresentation of minorities and English language learners in special education is a major challenge affecting the majority of schools. By 1968, over 80 per cent of students in special education came from minority groups (Samson
“Sure Thing” by David Ives Essay college admission essay help
Sure Thing by David Ives is a specific play which consists of one scene, two characters and one particular setting. Either reading or watching this play, each one understands that he/she looks like one of the characters. People are created in such a way that they often refuse the opportunities offered by the destiny.
Constant search for love makes people look for something better without noticing that they have a good person close to them. Sure Thing is a play which shows such relationships, how people meet each other and without even having a try they refuse to deal with each other, however, a magic bell exists which helps these people look differently at each other, the bell gives them another chance.
Living in the modern world, people do not have another chance, they are unable to back time and to consider the situation from another angle. Searching for love is a complicated affair. People spend years on finding their love, however, sometimes they are unable to do it just because they do not make an attempt. I am sure that if people were directed, that if they were given another chance they would use it.
Two characters in the play Sure Thing Bill and Betty meet in a café. It is impossible to say whether their meeting was intentional or not, but somebody wanted them to be together and to help them do it, a magic bell rang each time when the conversation was spoiled to give them an attempt to correct and paraphrase a question or a respond in order to help them to find common ground.
The beginning of the scene is one of the greatest supporters of the argument. Betty does not want to give Bill even a chance, however, after numerous attempts he is offered an opportunity to sit down. The acquaintance has taken place, however, this is not the end. Having a desire to sit at the same table with Betty, Bill tries to start conversation. Each time he chooses a wrong way or Betty’s respond is too sharp a bell rings.
The first scene is the best confirmation of the offered claim as searching for love people refuse take it when they have it in their hands. Sitting in a café, Betty waits for nobody, however, seeing Bill she refuses to take what she is offered by the destiny on unconscious level.
Betty is afraid of new relationships as they may make her feel pain as it might be many times, therefore, she prefers to search for love more rather than risk and try to build relationships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The bell in this play is a symbol of human consciousness and domination over fear. People usually do not have an opportunity to consider their actions from the side, and this bell is like the opportunity to do it. During the acquaintance and the whole conversation a bell gives Betty and Bill another chance, a chance to start their conversation from the very beginning. The bell rings until a correct direction in discussion is chosen (Gussow).
People should understand that whatever they say affects their future relationships. The absence of bell would mean for Betty and Bill other relationships. They could never see each other again as the refusal to have a sit would mean absence of any discussion. However, being a symbol of destiny, the bell helps people find the ways to each other.
All people search for love and when they find it they are very happy. It is really difficult to find love, but not because people who we may be happy with do not come across our ways, it is because we usually make all possible not to notice those who may be a good match for us. All people are individualities and sometimes it seems that each person is afraid of losing this individuality when falls in love, however, we all still search for it.
The play under consideration is one of the greatest examples how many people act when they come across love. In most cases people ignore the signs and do whatever they like trying to stay as far as possible from a potential lover. Finding inappropriate refusals, “Is this taken?” – “No, but I’m expecting somebody in a minute.” – “Oh.
Thanks anyway” (Ives 6) or choosing wrong topics for conversation “What’s the book?” – “The Sound and the Fury.” – “Oh, Hemingway.” (Bell) (Ives 6), people move away from each other without even having a try.
In conclusion, it should be stated that people usually reject what they are offered, they search for incredible refusals, and then they suffer from absence of love. Still, no one tries to analyze personal actions, no one wants to draw conclusions about personal mistakes.
A bell in the play helps the characters to correct their mistakes pointing at them. Still, people have to correct personal mistakes themselves being able to analyze personal actions and accepting the fact that all can be mistaken and all people deserve one more chance.
We will write a custom Essay on “Sure Thing” by David Ives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gussow, Mel. “Stage: One-Act Comedies in Punch Line Festival.” The New York Times 17 Feb. 1988. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/17/theater/stage-one-act-comedies-in-punch-line-festival.html
Ives, David. “Sure Thing.” All in the timing. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1994. Print.
Shell in Russia Case Study essay help free: essay help free
The energy demand has been on the increase in many countries around the world including Russia and other oil producing countries. The international market for oil and gas has different regulations and market dynamics (Grace 2005, p. 35). The oil and gas market has been affected to a large extent by the regulatory pressure.
The price of oil at the international market has been rising and this consequently causes an increase in the price of petroleum products such as gas (Grace 2005, p. 35). Despite the price of oil going up, the gas market is relatively stable compared to the oil market.
Emerging economies such as China have increased their oil consumption and in the process increasing the demand for oil at the international market (Grace 2005, p. 35). Refinery capacity of petroleum products has gone down in major countries like the U.S and in the process causing an increase in the price of gas (Grace 2005, p. 47).
Speculators have contributed to the rise in oil and gas prices (Grace 2005, p. 47). The uncertainty in oil prices is influenced by OPEC members such as Russia who have the capacity to produce enough oil to meet the international demand but geopolitical reasons and speculation has caused artificial oil shortages across the world (Grace 2005, p. 47).
Refinery bottlenecks in major oil producing countries have limited the supply of gas at the international market. The growing demand for natural gas has made many countries to start investing in gas infrastructure due to the increasing profitability of gas. Speculators have been unable to link gas prices to oil prices due to the presence of alternative sources of energy such coal (Grace 2005, p. 47).
In 2006, Russia and Ukraine were involved in a dispute over gas prices which clearly indicates that the price of gas at the international market is no longer dependant on a single supplier (Grace 2005, p. 48).
Russia is among the leading oil and natural gas producers but its domestic consumption is also very high (Grace 2005, p. 56). The Russian economy has been growing in recent years which means that its oil consumption has subsequently gone up. The international oil and gas market is largely dependant on Russia for supply because almost 12 % of oil and gas supplied to the international market comes from Russia (Grace 2005, p. 56). Russia is a major player when it comes to oil and gas business with many companies being interested in investing in the Russian oil industry (Grace 2005, p. 56). Increased investment in the Russian oil industry can lead to an increase in oil and gas supply to the international market (Grace 2005, p. 56).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Production of oil has declined in Russia due to lack of capital investment with the old oil and gas infrastructure needing replacement and reconstruction (Inkpen 2011, p. 35). It has been difficult for Russia to exploit the many oil reserves it inherited from the Soviet Union due to lack of investment capital (Inkpen 2011, p. 35).
Limited local investment has made Russia to look out for foreign investors in order to revamp its oil and natural gas production (Inkpen 2011, p. 79). Many foreign investors have been discouraged by the tough legal barriers put in place by the Russian government.
This situation has discouraged many foreign investors from investing in the Russian oil industry because they fear losing their investment. Production sharing agreements (PSAs) is an example of Subsoil laws that protect the interests of foreign investors (Inkpen 2011, p. 79). Many laws on Subsoil Resources are very contradictory and confusing to foreign investors and do not consider their interests.
The PSA law is very vital in facilitating production sharing agreements between the state and foreign investors (Inkpen 2011, p. 79). The PSA contract gives a foreign investor the right to develop and explore Subsoil Resources within the host country within a specified period of time (Inkpen 2011, p. 95).
The host country gets a percentage of the oil produced by the foreign investor and at the same time protects the foreign investor from local legislations that may affect the profitability of the foreign company (Inkpen 2011, p. 95).
It is the responsibility of the host country to ensure that the foreign company remains profitable (Inkpen 2011, p. 95). The PSA contract contains agreements that exempt the investor from the tough foreign investment regulations that may exist in the host country (Inkpen 2011, p. 95).
The PSA law in Russia does not provide foreign investors with the desired protection and certainty which has been a major obstacle for foreign investors willing to invest billions of dollars in the Russian oil industry (Inkpen 2011, p. 95). The PSA law in Russia does not have provisions for a self-contained agreement between the state and foreign investors.
We will write a custom Case Study on Shell in Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foreign investors in Russia are exposed to the hostile legal requirements (Inkpen 2011, p. 95). Laws on Subsoil Resources and foreign investment are applied directly in Russia since the PSA law in Russia refers to them directly (Inkpen 2011, p. 143). Russia’s oil production has fallen significantly in the last ten years and this is not good for the country because it gets most of its revenues from oil exports.
The other reason why declining oil production in Russian is not good for the country is the threat the fuel shortage poses to domestic industries (Inkpen 2011, p. 143). Domestic industries in Russia depend on local fuel that is affordable and accessible.
The amount of oil being produced in Russia is only sufficient for domestic consumption and the quantity of surplus oil for export has steadily declined (Inkpen 2011, p. 143). Lack of investment in oil exploration and infrastructure is the reason for the decline of oil and gas production in Russia (Inkpen 2011, p. 143).
The hostile legal environment in Russia has caused many negotiations between the Russian government and foreign investors to break down (Inkpen 2011, p. 201). The country has ended up losing out on the benefits of foreign investment. The foreign investment law that came into existence in 1991 has for a very long time failed to meet its objectives and goals (Inkpen 2011, p. 201).
Foreign investors can only commit substantial amounts of capital to a host country when the law on foreign investment assures them of protection and certainty in their transactions (Inkpen 2011, p. 201).
The PSA law in Russia exposes foreign investors to supervening legislation that includes a hostile tax regime with no central authority (Inkpen 2011, p. 201). It is very risky for a foreign investor to feel comfortable in a hostile legal environment such as the one in Russia (Inkpen 2011, p. 201).
The local and federal authorities have their own regulations regarding foreign investments with no possible avenues to coordinate the two sets of laws (Inkpen 2011, p. 201). The system of overlapping jurisdiction in Russia is very unfair to foreign investors because they have to pay taxes and licensing fees to both the federal and the local government.
The Russian tax regime and the ever changing legislation on foreign investment have been a major obstacle to foreign investment in Russia (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16). The PSA subject is very controversial in Russia because the Russian lawmakers are divided on whether the PSA law should become fully operational in Russia or not (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shell in Russia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The current PSA law does not have a provision for dispute resolution. The current PSA law allows the federal and local governments to receive tax and other duties from foreign investors and in the process lowering the profit margin of investors (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16).
Shell has a plan of investing over $ 10 billion in the Russian oil industry through the Sakhalin II project. The company should go ahead and invest in the very lucrative Russian oil industry despite the legal challenges that the company is bound to encounter (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16).
This is a large-scale project and the company should take some steps towards mitigating the risks associated with investing a huge amount of resources in a hostile Russian legal environment (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16).
Russia is a country with great human capital that can be fully utilized by foreign investors to their advantage. Risk taking in business is a common thing and foreign companies should try to invest in Russia despite the many risks that they are bound to encounter (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16).
There are quite a number of ways through which foreign companies such as Shell can mitigate the risks associated with large scale investment in Russia (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 16). To begin with, the company should only invest the amount of money it can afford to lose in case the business fails to bring the expected returns (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 19).
Shell managers should diversify the Sakhalin II project by making different investments in the energy sector through subsidiary companies as a way of mitigating investment risks (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 19). Shell should invest in the Sakhalin II project with long term goals as a way of shielding the company from the risk of volatility that is associated with many Russian investments (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 19).
Exposure to the neighboring markets such as Latvia and Ukraine is another way through which foreign companies such as Shell can mitigate the risks associated with investing in Russia (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 19).
In conclusion, a steady rise in the consumption of oil and gas has led to an increase in the demand for the two products in the international market. The rise in oil and gas prices in attributed to market speculators and refinery bottlenecks (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 27). Production sharing Agreements are meant to protect foreign investors from the hostile legal environment in host countries.
The PSA law is yet to be fully implemented in Russia and that is the reason why many foreign investors are reluctant to invest in the lucrative Russian oil industry (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 27). Oil producing nations such as Russia should adopt the PSA law in order to attract foreign investors who are willing to invest in the Russian oil industry (Lyubchenko 2008, p. 27).
References Grace, J 2005, Russian oil supply: Performances and prospects, Oxford University Press, London.
Inkpen, A 2011, The global oil and gas industry: Management, strategy and finance, PennWell Books, London.
Lyubchenko, S 2008, Production sharing agreements in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan, University of California, Berkeley.
Quantitative and Qualitative Models Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Understanding Quantitative and Qualitative models
Similarities between Quantitative and Qualitative models
Summary of the differences between the two types of models
In the context of educational research, both qualitative and quantitative research designs have different, experimental approaches (Smeyers, 2005). A qualitative research model provides for an unrestrictive structure that supports an extensive, exploratory research using philosophical theories (Creswell, 2011).
In order to dig out applicable themes and patterns, this report includes a modified model of heuristic analysis. To understand the rationale of this report, an understanding must be established regarding the similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative models.
Understanding Quantitative and Qualitative models Creswell (2011) described the ending of the 20th century as having two models to educational research: quantitative and qualitative models. Although quantitative research is a more conventional process in research methodology, qualitative research developed as a valid research design. While these two research designs in some aspects matches one another, the designs remain different.
Creswell (2011) proposed, “The theoretical roots of qualitative and quantitative research are in the realistic and the positivistic approaches to science, respectively” (p.202). Besides, they argued that qualitative model is the theory-building and theory-ending, behind a researcher’s synthetical perception; while, quantitative research begins with a theory that is tested, hence more supportive of an analytical perception.
In the areas of critical practicality, remaining practical and ethical will continue to exist regarding the collecting and analyzing of data concerning the social world because of the difficulty of providing philosophical concerns regarding “data accuracy or the reliability of statements that researcher makes” (Creswell, 2011).
In qualitative research, for example, the emphasis is on collecting information concerning the lived experiences of the research participants. The qualitative researcher, according to Creswell, remains an anxiety regarding the authenticity of the participants’ statement and their consequences on the projected epistemic framework derived from the collected information.
Similarities between Quantitative and Qualitative models Neuman (2003) described four similarities between qualitative and quantitative research frameworks:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both models involve the inferencing of data as the root of examination;
Both models involve a public system or process in which the discovery of data are open to other researchers;
Both models encourage researchers to recognize multiple process, causes, properties, or mechanisms within the data; and
Both models encourage researchers to avoid mistakes in investigation to include fake conclusions and confusing suppositions. (p. 439).
Summary of the differences between the two types of models In quantitative model, data collected passes through the method of statistical analysis (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003).
Furthermore, Neuman observed that quantitative researchers are not capable of beginning data analysis until all information is gathered and changed into numbers; as a result, quantitative research is more homogeneous than qualitative research designs. Consequently, the measurement of social life in quantitative research, according to Neuman, is in the form of statistics, hypotheses, and variables.
Whereas quantitative research builds upon applied mathematics with a standardized set of data analysis techniques, qualitative research is less standardized and more synthetic (Neuman, 2003).
The fact that qualitative researchers rarely use statistical analysis does not mean that the qualitative data analysis is exploratory (Neuman, 2003). The process to extract and clarify qualitative data is precise and logical (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003).
Information derived from qualitative research studies is in the form of textual descriptions, expressions, or symbols defining people, actions, and events within a shared context (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003).
Because of the inductive element linked with qualitative model, the researcher becomes the primary instrument for gathering data while looking for up-and-coming patterns and themes from textual descriptions (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003). Qualitative researchers, according to Neuman, merge empirical data to create new and reasonable theories in order to explain phenomena in social life.
Reference Lists Creswell, J. W. (2011). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New York, NY: Addison Wesley.
We will write a custom Report on Quantitative and Qualitative Models specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Neuman, D. J. (2003). Building Type Basics for College and University Facilities. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley
Management: Process Excellence Report custom essay help
Trade is a key factor in the growth of the economy. Trade involves the exchange of goods and services for money. It begins with the individual and spreads out beyond borders to international trade. In this essay some of the factors that relate to development of international trade are discussed.
QFD is an acronym for Quality Function Deployment. QFD is a system used to transform the demands of the user into design quality. It involves the application of functions and methods as dictated by the requirements of the user, to subsystems in the design process. The deployment can also be effected on component parts in the design process, (Ficalora and Cohen, 2009).
It helps the designer to look at a product aspect from the viewpoint of the user. The deployment involves a focus on the company, specific product or technology development needs. It may also entail some marketing strategy analysis and market segment study.
Through QFD, the voice of the customer is put into action. This means that the needs of the customers are put encompassed in product or service engineering design. It helps identify and implement marketing strategies that are both competitive and tactical.
SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.SWOT analysis is a means used by traders to analyze the placement of their firms strategically in relation to the business setting. It enables managements of businesses to find out the internal potential and limitations within their internal environment.
A SWOT analysis makes it possible for managers to analyze the environment in which the business operates and create a predictive projection of the trends involved.
This Market projection can come in handy in the decision making process. The overall objective of a SWOT analysis is to provide an insight into the market trends and the strategic position of the organization thus devising measures that will help meet the market needs and remain on the competitive edge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pillars of capitalism define the freedom that is involved in the markets. The measures of freedom involve such things as property ownership, volition which gives every human being the right to make choices, the idea of working together cooperatively, the aspect of learning new things that come by and healthy competition which means that there should be no limits as to how far people go in offering service to others, (Stiglitz, 2007).
Global business involves business transactions that are formulated and carried out internationally. That is, the businesses are carried out across nations. They serve to fulfill the aims and objectives of individual business people, companies and different organizations.
There are different types of businesses carried out internationally with the primary ones being import and export trade and foreign direct investment. (Czinkota, Ilkka, and Michael, 2004) Others include foreign contracting and franchising and others.
Considering the four aspects defined above, it can be seen that, they all serve to give a lift to the global economy. This is done by empowering individual traders in their bid to realize the strategies that they need to employ. While the pillars of capitalism give individuals rights to trade freely with what they own, global business allows them to trade across borders.
QFD helps the traders to incorporate their customer requirements into the design procedure, thus producing goods and services that are in a better position in the competitive market. SWOT analysis helps traders realize their strategic position in the market place. This puts in consideration the internal strengths and weaknesses of the trader, and the threats and opportunities that present themselves in the market place.
This way, the trader can be able to focus on specific issues that will affect profitability positively. These aspects work hand in hand to enhance economic growth both for the individual trader and the global at large.
References Czinkota, M., Ilkka A.
China’s Media Regulations and Its Political Right to Enforce: Conflict with Foreign Correspondents Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Abstract In China, foreign journalists are never given sufficient freedom to cover issues related to the state and government. Foreign journalists have always demanded for freedom but the government of China has been reluctant to grant them the right to freedom of the press. In China, the government has the right to enforce laws barring journalists from covering sensitive information touching on the state.
Foreign journalists are always in conflict with the government regarding coverage of sensitive events. In this article, the freedom of press in China is compared to the rights of freedom of press in other developed countries such as the US.
The paper establishes whether the US laws on freedoms are superior to the Chinese policies on media freedoms. Moreover, the paper analyzes how China’s political factors influence media freedoms. In China, cultural factors are known to affect media coverage in a number o ways, especially foreign coverage.
In 2011, the US ambassador was one of the envoys who criticized the government of China for controlling media coverage in the country. Foreign journalists were attacked in Beijing and unknown individuals believed to be acting on behalf of the state seized their properties. This paper will employ quantitative research methods in analyzing the influence of state machineries on foreign journalists.
The paper will assess a number of secondary sources including journal articles, books, websites, and biographies. In accomplishing this task, the paper will be guided by three major research questions. Moreover, a hypothesis related to foreign media coverage will be developed.
Research Questions In case reporters are sent to foreign countries to cover certain events, do they have to abide by the local laws barring the rights of journalists as regards to freedom? In other words, do journalists have to follow internationally recognized standards or local standards?
Is the US right of freedom of press superior to the Chinese media policy
How does political factors and cultural factors affect the media, particularly in China
Hypothesis H1. There is a direct relationship between political freedom and media coverage because lack of political freedom affects the activities of journalists, especially foreign journalists
H0. No relationship exists between media coverage and political freedoms
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondary Sources Type one: Reference Sources The topic was selected after a careful review of activities going on in China. The media plays a critical role in enhancing the living standards of the poor. For instance, the media empowers the poor by availing important information.
In cases of corruption, mismanagement of public funds, fraud, political oppression, misrepresentation, and unfair treatment, the media exposes the victims and organizes people to demand for accountability. In many developing countries and communistic societies, foreign media plays a critical role in shaping the political landscape.
Politics affects the lives of citizens in a number of ways implying that bad politics would result to poor governance whereas participative politics would lead to accountability. In the third world, foreign journalists have done a commendable job by exposing justices and empowering the locals to participate in their democratic rights.
In China, the gap between the poor and the rich is ever increasing meaning that the rich are becoming richer while the poor are live under appalling conditions.
The media is China is highly controlled because the owners of the means of production believe that it exists to interfere with their position. The local media is managed and is highly controlled by the ruling class implying that it would not report cases related to oppression and omission of human rights.
From the bibliographies of the works of various scholars, it is evident that foreign journalists have never enjoyed their rights in China. They are often arrested and are taken through inhuman processes in order to frustrate their efforts. President Hu Jintao of China supported the activities of activists in Tunisia because the ruling class in Tunisia was the menace to the world.
The ruling class controlled fuel prices and they would increase the prices as they wished. However, the president never supports the activities of freedom fighters in his own country. This is surprising because he sends soldiers and other senior government officials to troubled regions to offer technical assistance yet he does not allow the media to enjoy its freedoms in his own land.
We will write a custom Research Paper on China’s Media Regulations and Its Political Right to Enforce: Conflict with Foreign Correspondents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the bibliographies, it is revealed that the government of China uses other means of containing violence, such as social harmonization. In 2011, the president was concerned with the activities of foreign journalists who urged members to gather to demand for their rights. Foreign journalists communicated to their supporters through the internet, which worried the government and the Communist Party.
The bibliographies show that the president urged the supporters of the Communist Party to keep off from activities that would interfere with harmony and stability of the country. Even though the president urged supporters not to engage in unnecessary riots, chaos were reported in over thirteen cities.
People urged the government to offer food, employment, clothing, and improve the standards of living. The government of China never allowed demonstrators in streets after first demonstration proved successful. The government refused to grant a permit to journalists, who were mainly foreign.
In streets, police officers were deployed in large numbers meaning that the government was ready to use force to dispatch supporters of foreign journalists. Foreign reporters were urged to apply for permits before they could proceed to cover sensitive events.
Foreign journalists who never listened to the demands of the government were seriously beaten and their properties were destroyed. For instance, sixteen journalists were seriously injured and others were detained after the first demonstration in Beijing.
Historical dictionaries show that the Chinese government does not support the activities of foreign journalists, especially those from the west. Journalists from the west are perceived as forces whose main agenda is to destabilize the government and interfere with the national security.
Historically, China has never been in good terms with the west. The media is one of the properties of the ruling class, which is used to enforce compliance. Historical data show that the west uses the media to discredit the functions of governments in the third world. In this regard, the west is accused of supporting neo-colonialism because it does not respect the laws of developing nations.
Secondary Sources Type 2: Historical Context Historical sources show that the media in China is highly restricted in matters of coverage. The government restricts both domestic and foreign reporters from covering information perceived to be sensitive to the survival of the government. In 2008, the country hosted an international event in the name of Olympics, but the foreign media was not allowed to cover events beyond its mandate.
Not sure if you can write a paper on China’s Media Regulations and Its Political Right to Enforce: Conflict with Foreign Correspondents by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though the economy of the country has been growing at a faster rate, this does not reflect the growth of the media industry. Chinese economic growth supports the global economy because the country contributes a big share of the world’s gross domestic product. After the Cold War, China emerged as one of the global economic powers.
However, the international system was still unipolar meaning that the US was the only powerful state. The government drove the economy in China while private investors drove the American economy after the Cold War. In China, even the media industry is owned by the state implying that reporting is biased.
The Bloomberg report, which is one of the historical sources used in this article, proved in 2010 that China is the Second largest economy in the world after the US. The Chinese activist, Deng Xiaoping, observed that China had to adopt the tenets of free market economy to achieve its economic interests.
History shows that China adopted capitalism in economic development, but embraced communism in matters related to individual rights and freedom. In this regard, the freedom of press and association is highly controlled.
In 1978, Deng became the Communist Party leader. He introduced a number of changes, which would guarantee economic development, but not political development. Power was centralized while economic policies were borrowed from well performing nations. In 1992, Deng’s economic development model was readdressed
Secondary Sources Type 3 The researcher would conduct a comprehensive review of the relevant literatures in this field. This field has received a lot of attention from various scholars. Some of the reports from these scholars have some contradiction and as such, the researcher made effort to address the contradictions. This explains the detailed coverage of the literature review.
The review of literatures was done in a two major ways. The first section deals with the conceptual framework while the second section would look at the theoretical framework. Moreover, two major issues will be evaluated under literature review.
Directives for foreign correspondence China currently enjoys sustainable laws and regulations in relation to the media sector. This was influenced by her rapidly growing economy and the success that was brought by a successful hosting of the 2008 summer Olympics. The rules legislated fully accommodate and respect global professionals.
The outbreak of SARS in 2003, whose communication was delayed until 2006, was followed by constant disasters in the country up to 2006.
Due to this, the government legislated rules that made it illegal for the media to cover natural calamities, social strives, and health problems before seeking permission from the government. This law permitted the government department in charge of communications to fine media outlets and journalists who violated this directive up to $ 120001.
It was explained that this was an attempt by the government to preclude citizens’ unrest that would result from uncontrolled media reporting. These rules were retracted and were slightly amended as the Olympic Games were fast approaching in 2008. The law was amended to cover reporters who deliberately made up information and spread falsehood.
The international media in China continued to witness expanded freedom. From January 2007, the foreign correspondents were allowed legally to interview any Chinese citizen provided the interviewee was willing to be interviewed. This permission was to run through to the summer Olympics and ended in October 2008.
This meant that journalists were allowed to travel anywhere within China, except Tibet, without seeking permission from the travel agency. When the freedom of interview expired in October 2008, the travel permission was made permanent. This positive development was welcome by hundreds of foreign reporters.
In 2008, China experienced a myriad activity. The three big issues were, however, the increase in Tibetan protests, Sichuan earthquake, and the hosting of the summer Olympics. The government led by president Jintao came out strongly, by urging the media to handle these issues responsibly. The government went ahead and distributed guidelines on how it expected the media to conduct itself.
The areas that the government wanted the media to take caution included religion, ethnicity, tourism, security, and the stock market trading. The events of 2008, however, marked a major breakthrough towards media freedom in China.
The government media department continued to hold the countries’ traditional taboo issues by guiding all the media programming and content in 2009. This was to cut across all the media houses whether domestic or international. Additional requests to have expanded freedom for the media in China came in 2009. This was coincidentally pressed by the salient and crucial political anniversaries in the nation in the same year.
These arrays of activities during the year included a number of activities. For instance, the Chinese Communist Party held its 60th anniversary in the same year. Moreover, the party was again to commemorate the 10th anniversary since it banned Falun Gong rebellious movement and the 20th celebration of the Tiananam square revolution.
Other events encompassed the 50th anniversary of Delai Lama’s exile. The government needed to cover these occasions both as a strategy to clean its international image and at the same time make the party strong at home2.
Things were almost similar to what happened during the Olympics. The rules were drafted, but this time foreign journalists were supposed to operate as per the standards of International Federation of Journalists. The government again made it clear that it expected the media to work to the service of the people, the party and the government in pretext of avoiding social unrests,
The correspondents referred to the Chinese media as having naivety when it came to matters of faithfulness and authoritarian idealism that formed the foundation of China as a nation. In 2010 and 2011, the Chinese government defied the US ambassador’s rants to control and manage the media3.
In October 2010, Liu Xiabo won the Nobel Peace Prize, being a Chinese dissident the government gave clear instructions that it was illegal for any media house to relay information. Liu’s award gave fresh impetus to the calls for China to release all journalists it had jailed. The Arab uprising in 2011 provided an opportunity to the Chinese government to tighten the noose on the media, claiming it was avoiding similar situations.
This was bizarre in the sense that China does not have any similarities with these nations, which included Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen. While almost lifetime dictators ruled these countries, China’s president, Jintao, who ascended to office in 2003, was set to quit power in 2012.
Endless and Biased Complaints from the Foreign Correspondents in China Certain foreign journalists overstep their limits purposefully to vilify the government. The government set up legalities of operation because even free media does not operate in a vacuum. Some of these laws are legitimate and are meant to harmonize or prevent danger during calamities. China is not exceptional. Some media personalities have in one or two occasions used this opportunity negatively.
For instance, during the Olympics, China identified Tibet as a forbidden zone. The foreign correspondents club of China accepted and agreed to abide by this fact. They, however, turned around and rebuked the government for restricting access to Tibet, demanding free access.
This was ironical. By admitting that Tibet was a forbidden zone, they indicated that they shared the government views on this matter. Why did they have to turn back and accuse the government? The Sichuan earthquake was disastrous and had devastating effects on humanity.
The situation called for a humanitarian action. Some journalist managed to access the area without permission. The situation was precarious and therefore the police had to take disciplinary action against the said journalists. This was an attempt to test the government from a negative perspective.
The Xinjiang religious riots of 2009 were another case in contention. The rioters who subscribed to the Islam faith threatened to assault the police. The area became a dangerous spot and it required heavy police protection for media personalities to access it. To avoid fatalities, the government advised foreign reporters to rely on the information from the domestic CCTV and Xinhua news agency.
It was reported in some media outlets that the police arrested and reprimanded some journalists. This was wrong since it aimed at blackmailing the Chinese government. This is not what freedom of journalism advocates for in China and elsewhere4.
In China, the government has made it very clear that media outlets irrespective of whether they are domestic or international have to serve the people of China, the interests of the Chinese Communist Party, and the government. The government further expounds that it is for harmonious prosperity of the people and the Republic. To foreign reporters, this is tantamount to dictatorship and therefore the department is an evil guest.
These reporters do not seem to comprehend cultural relativism that explains the difference in cultures and do justify the moral standards of the same. Cultures may conflict, but provided the respective communities appreciate it, the aliens have no obligation to challenge it. China asks the foreign media to stop complaining and become open minded to its policies.
Future Project Understanding of Primary Sources
Primary sources are those that are obtained from the respondent. They are first hand information collected through questionnaires, interviews, and observation. To ensure originality in any research, there is need to use primary data. The purpose of collecting data was to help facilitate analysis that would lead to giving answers that are desired in this research (Pointer 99).
The objective of this research was to respond to some of the questions that other scholars had not responded to through the existing literature. To be in a position to respond to these questions, there would be need to collect data. After successful collection of data, analysis would be very important.
When taken from the field, data is considered raw and therefore cannot be of much help to the target audience. For this reason, it is important to analyze data to produce the desired result that would be useful to various individuals.
From the literature review, the researcher would gather considerable amount of information about this field. Many of the reports that exist in this field are very resourceful as individuals of high integrity did them. The manner in which they were done also passes as good enough to be used in various aspects of media freedom. However, this is a different research.
It must be in a position to develop its own arguments based on data collected from primary sources. This does not rule out the importance of secondary sources of data. Quantitative research involves systematic empirical study of a phenomenon by use of statistical tools. Its main objective is always to employ mathematical theories and models in developing its generalization.
Therefore, quantitative method would help in this research. It would enable the researcher to test the hypotheses put forth for validity and allow the use of a sample as a representation of the entire population. Although qualitative method was traditionally used in social science and would be appropriate in this research, it is not able to give empirical support for research hypothesis.
Qualitative methods explain why a given pattern of events has taken place the way they have5. On the other hand, quantitative methods explains what and when of a phenomena. Ethnographic research and phenomenology as approaches of qualitative research would have been appropriate.
Ethnography would help in investigation of the culture of Chinese. Phenomenology would have helped investigate realities of the media industry, as well as its effects on society. However, because the process may not empirically support the hypotheses put forward to help guide the research, it was not used in this research.
Conceptual and Analytical Tools
There would be two key analyical methods used to gather information in this research. The first one would be through a questionaire, which would be physically delivered to the responds. The questionaire would seek to capture various attitudes of government officials and foreign journalists regarding their opinions on the existence of the law touching on media freedom, and how the two would compare in terms of performance.
The second source of information to be used for the research would be literature on various aspects of the media in general, and the operational activities that takes place within the media industry.
The focus of the literature review would be to find information on the application media ethics in the workplace and also to determine the current state of research in relation to the media freedom. The questionnaire would have four parts6.
The first part would seek to capture the background information of respondents. The second part would deal with the demography and gender of the respondents. This would be to ascertain the prevalence of views in varoius categories in order to ensure that if any differences come about, then they would be captured in their demographic space.
The third part would deal with academic credentials and work experience of the respondents. The motivation for this section came from the understanding that different sections of population respond differently to issues, based on age and academic credentials. The fourth part would delve into the specific issues relating to media freedom a unit under investigation.
The questionaire would employ a mix of open and closed ended questions to capture different aspects of issues studied. Open ended questions were used because they give respondents more time to figure out their opinions, which would make them volunteer more information related to feelings, outlooks and comprehension of the subject. This would allow a researcher to understand the position of respondents as regards to feelings.
Open ended questions minimize some errors that could have been created in the course of research. Respondents rarely forget answers if given an opportunity to respond freely. Furthermore, respondents cannot ignore some questions because they must go through all of them.
Open ended questions generate data that can be used in data analysis by other researchers. In other words, they allow secondary data analysis. On the other hand, closed-ended questions are analyzed easily. That is why they were used in this study7.
Each response can be coded for statistical interpretation. Nonetheless, closed-ended questions are compatible with computer analysis package. The technique is more specific meaning that its answers are consistent in all conditions.
This aspect is impossible with open-ended questions because each respondent is allowed to use his or her own words. Finally, closed-ended questions take less time to administer unlike open-ended questions, which are detailed hence time consuming.
The questionnaire would be sent to respondents using drop and pick method. The researcher arrived at this decision after considering time and reseources. The method is time consuming, but very effective8. Furthmore, the method allows respondents to reflect on the questions and answer them accurately. Moreover, the method is not affected by the respondent’s level of literacy.
One big advantage of the technique is that there is interaction between the researcher and the researched. This means that respondent’s reactions are easily captured. Reactions are important because they give more information regarding the feelings of respondents.
The literature collected provided information regarding various theories related to media freedom, which is spread across the last century. The body of literature availed a number of theories dealing with sampling and sample designs in the media freedom and performance issues in the context of human resource develpment in the media industry.
Finally, the literature provided information on the state of research on the field. Various researchers have conducted studies on various elements of media restriction and its effects on political development. This gave the study a sound academic backing and a strong basis for drawing comparisons and conclusions.
The use of the questionaire made it possible to capture issues that are unique to the Chinese media industry. This is because there was no accessible literature with required degree of relevance to the subject matter of media coverage in China. The targeted staff responded to the questionaires, which were physically delivered to them.
The availability of respondents influenced the choice of this method because the Chinese governemnt operates throughout the day and therefore it is not possible at any one time to find all of them in one place. Physical delivery of the questionnaire increased the accuracy of data collected, as there was interactivity. After collection, the data went through analysis, culminating the observations and conclusions.
In the process of collecting data for this research, analysis of the gathered data and in compiling data, the researcher would encounter a number of limitations and delimitations. This research will be conducted in the China. This was the scope of primary data collection. However, this field is universal, and issues relating to human rights affect societies in all parts of the world.
Nevertheless, the sample population for this research was within the confines of this region. This research paper is meant to be an inclusive analysis of the field of media freedom. The society in the China has a very sharp contrast to that of some other countries, such as the US and Britain.
In the United States and the UK, journalists have attained the status where they are considered a powerful force as far as management of public affairs is concerned. They can join any profession without fear of intimidation in whatsoever manner. In contrast, the Chinese society and many other Far East states are still not ready for a professional journalist.
The researcher would base this research on the primary data gathered from this country, and this would not be a representative of what is happening in all other countries around the world, especially in the Far East states.
To counter this challenge, the researcher would use secondary sources of data in the literature review in order to have a clear picture of what is happening in other countries. Review of secondary data reveals that although there is a difference in environmental structure in different societies, the challenges associated with media freedom is becoming universal Urbaniak.
Annotated Bibliography Demers, David. Terrorism, globalization
Coca Cola and Exxon Mobil: Comparing the Incompatible Essay online essay help
What Is the Price Elasticity of Demand for Petrol? Is It Elastic or Inelastic? How about Carbonated Drink?
Judging by the fact that there are very few alternatives for petrol in the present-day and that for cars which run on petrol no other fuel can be used, it can be considered that the price elasticity of demand for petrol is inelastic. However, as Suneja explains, with the invasion of the diesel-engine cars, the demand for petrol can possibly drop and, therefore, become more elastic.
As for carbonated drinks, such as Coca Cola, it seems that the demand is not quite stable. On the one hand, fizzy drinks have nice flavors and are necessary elements of any children party, or even of a pleasant pastime for adults. However, it is still needed to keep in mind that many fizzy drinks taste much the same, with some recurrent flavors.
Of course, Coca cola stands out with its original formula, but its rival, Pepsi, is always there, which prevents Coca Cola to fix inelastic prices. The final argument in that chain is the fact that carbonated drinks are not indispensable to life. Hence, the price elasticity of demand for carbonated drinks is and will most likely stay elastic.
What Is the Income Elasticity of Demand for Carbonated Drink and Petrol? Which One Has the Higher Elasticity?
As for the income elasticity of demand, or the ratio between the change in quality of the goods and in the income of the consumer, as Jain and Khanna define this phenomenon (Jain and Khanna 46), it can be considered that the income elasticity of demand for the petrol is considerably lesser than the one for the Coca Cola.
Indeed, if considering the reasons that make people buy petrol and Coca Cola, one must mention that petrol, as it has been mentioned above, is used for a very specific reason, i.e., for using a car. Without a car, the life of an average citizen seems hardly comfortable, since a number of journeys will take considerably more time and will depend on other reasons than the schedule of the given citizen.
Hence, a car is an integrate element of an average man or woman’s life. Judging by the above-mentioned, one is likely to buy petrol even if his/her incomes drop. Likewise, even if the quality of petrol decreases, there will be no other substitute. Compared to petrol, Coca Cola is much less important, it has a number of rivals, and, thus, in case of a change in quality, people can simply stop consuming it or choose a different brand.
What Is the Cross Price Elasticity of Demand between Coke and Pepsi?
Since cross price elasticity can be defined as the ratio between the change in quantity of Coca Cola divided into the change in price in Pepsi and vice versa, the cross price elasticity of the two will make 0,7 (McEachern 116).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What Is the Cross Price Elasticity between Carbonated drink and Petrol?
As there is no palpable dependency between the two goods, they presumably have zero price elasticity.
Which Business Is a Better Business and If You Are Going to Invest in Stocks of These Companies, Which One Will You Prefer and Why?
As it has been mentioned, there has always been the need in petrol. Even with diesel engines, it seems that there is high demand for the given fuel. Hence, petrol production appears to be the most preferable for stocks investment.
Works Cited Jain, Rohit and Op Khanna. Business Economics. New Delhi: FK Publications. 2008. Print.
McEachern, William A. Economics: A Contemporary Introduction. Stamford, CN: Cengage Learning. 2011. Print.
Suneja, Vivek. Markets: A Multidimensional Approach to the Market Economy. New York, NY: Routledge. 2000. Print.
Should Obama Nominate Another Woman or Two to Replace Justices Ginsburg and Breyer? Essay writing essay help
Looking at the current situation in the political world, it is impossible to omit the election of Barak Obama on the second term. Such forecasts were, however, the American opinion was against Obama. Still, the elections showed that people still support the first African American president and trust him. During the first days of his presidency in the second term, Obama has faced a dilemma concerning supreme courts.
Justices Ginsburg and Breyer are two justices in a supreme court whose age is too high to allow them stay at their positions for a lengthy period of time. There is an idea that these two justices are going to leave their places after the end of Obama’s second term. However, much may happen and there is a possibility that Barak Obama would have a desire to replace them before.
The dilemma whether Barak Obama would nominate another woman or two to replace Justices Ginsburg and Breyer or men are going to be chosen is rather contradicting. It is impossible to read Obama’s thoughts, therefore, we can just predict. On the one hand, the President had already nominated two women justices in a supreme court.
Is he does the same with Justice Ginsburg, it would mean that he made three appointment. Moreover, if something happen to Justice Breyer, Obama would enter a history as the president who made it possible for women to get nearly half the quotes of the court.
Even though it is difficult to predict, it is still possible to make an assumption and state that Barak Obama would choose two women to replace existing Justices. Such choice may be explained by a number of reasons.
First of all, Barak Obama is the first African American president who underlined the fact that the USA got rid of racial discrimination. Even though the slavery abolition took place many years ago, the remains of the issue could be felt. The election of an African American president put an end on the discussions about the racial discrimination.
Now, it seems that Barak Obama wants to go farther and to destroy the glass ceiling which bothers many women. Even though the gender discrimination is forbidden and women are equal to men in business sphere, glass ceiling still remains the problem in many companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The nomination of two women as Justices may show the whole society that women can occupy leading positions and run successful affairs. Therefore, it should be stated that in case such actions take place, Obama would be remembered as the most democratic president.
The actions conducted by the president on the national level are important. It is essential to remember that the actions of the President are seen to the whole society. Therefore, all he does can be checked. The efficiency of women as Justices would be checked as well, therefore, no one is able to contradict the fact that the actions of a president may have sense.
So, I am inclined to think that Barak Obama should nominate women replace Justices Ginsburg and Breyer as this my helps solve some social problems which exist in the American society. Glass ceiling still remains the barrier for many women on the way to their careers. The actions of the president may play a great role in the further social relations in the country.
Microsoft Company Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Microsoft Corporation has been a monopoly in computer operating systems and software market for a long period of time. It has been accused of violating anti-trust laws and using noncompetitive practices to dominate the market. The current market share of Microsoft is large, thus, enabling it to remain a monopoly in the operating systems market for decades.
Research has revealed that Microsoft has a 93% market share despite a stiff competition from other technological firms. Competitors, such as Macintosh and Linux have competed with Microsoft for a long period. However, Microsoft has managed to control the largest portion of the market. The declining innovativeness and creativity of Microsoft might have adverse effects on its market share.
Microsoft behaves like a monopoly because there are a few innovative competitors in the market. It has used several strategies that other technology firms have failed to execute in order to control and maintain the large portion of its market share. First, it has developed strong relationships with other technological companies to maintain its dominance.
For example, it has collaborated with several video and audio streaming companies to extend its monopoly in providing multimedia content to its consumers. Secondly, Microsoft has invested in emerging technology companies to eradicate competition that these companies introduce in the market. This has ensured that technological innovations are in line with Microsoft’s plan for dominance.
Thirdly, Microsoft has collaborated with several learning institutions, which have helped retain its dominance in the desktop market. Monopolies usually result from perpetuation of uncompetitive practices by companies or firms that prevent other companies from penetrating the market.
It is difficult for other companies to acquire a sizeable market share under prevailing conditions because of entry barriers created by Microsoft. From a legal and economic perspective, Microsoft’s market share is large enough for it to behave like a monopoly.
Dead weight loss refers to loss of economic efficiency by a firm, company or organization that is caused by monopoly pricing, taxes or external factors. As such, Microsoft is a dead weight loss to its economy because of several reasons. First, monopolies usually incur great expenses because they spend a lot of money in order to maintain their monopoly in a specific market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This increases the average total cost of producing a product or service. For example, Microsoft has spent a lot of money in legal battles to maintain their monopoly. Secondly, monopolies attract high taxes from the government. The more costly a product or service is, the higher the tax a firm or corporation pays for the product or service.
If Microsoft was not a monopoly, taxes would be lower because competition from other firms would result in cheaper products that would attract lower taxes. The prices of Microsoft’s products could be compared to a private tax that has the same dead weight loss that most government-imposed taxes bear.
With current advancements in technology, Microsoft is gradually losing its monopoly. Despite the fact that it earns high profits from its products, Microsoft has been stagnant over the last decade. It is unable to compete effectively in emerging markets, such as development of software for mobile devices due to lack of innovation.
Judge Thomas Penfield’s statement that Microsoft enjoys a monopoly is true and valid. Microsoft has a large market share of operating systems that are compatible with most personal computers. In addition, it has established barriers that hinder entry of other companies and has forced consumers to depend on its operating systems due to lack of alternatives.
The judge’s ruling validated the claim that Microsoft is a monopoly and controls a large market share. The judge was correct because Microsoft has used anticompetitive strategies in the past to maintain its monopoly. Microsoft integrated its web browser into its operating system in an effort to eliminate competition from other software companies, such as Netscape.
Today, it collaborates with other software companies, thus, leading to anti-competitive agreements that eliminate competition from those companies. The ruling of the judge is consistent with the findings of recent studies on the dominance of Microsoft. Microsoft’s monopoly has elicited debates because it has eliminated competition from other companies by using anticompetitive strategies.
In addition, its monopoly has harmed consumers because they have no option but to use Microsoft’s browser and other software integrated in their operating system. In addition, the monopoly has resulted in high prices that have also harmed consumers adversely. The conduct of Microsoft of using anticompetitive strategies was intended to suppress competition from companies that produced products that were a threat to its monopoly.
We will write a custom Case Study on Microsoft Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Defenders of Microsoft have always reiterated that current technological advancements have reduced Microsoft’s monopoly. However, they ignore the fact that the judge put such considerations in his ruling. For example, Linux introduced an operating system that failed to quell Microsoft’s dominance in the market. However, with the current trend in the software market, Microsoft’s monopoly may soon be eradicated.
Microsoft is no longer innovative as it was in the past decades. The emergence of modern computing necessitates innovation and creativity in order to meet its demands, which Microsoft has failed to do. New entrants into the software market, such as Google are gradually eliminating Microsoft’s dominance.
In addition, Microsoft has failed to keep up with the demands of modern age computing, such as the need for software for mobile devices. The development of the Android operating system has presented a blow to Microsoft. Android is open-source software that gives software developers permission in order to adapt it to their needs.
Operating systems that are developed by Linux and the Apple are gradually becoming more acceptable for users. Most companies have developed operating systems that perform better than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer does. For example, Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox are some of the best web browsers. They have included features that have improved security and speed when surfing the internet.
Microsoft has not improved its browser for a long time, and that is one of the causes of its waning popularity among users. Microsoft’s waning dominance of the software and operating systems market is evident from its current struggles to develop applications that guarantee its monopoly in the market. In addition, the ruling by Judge Jackson was a great blow to Microsoft’s dominance.
Even though Microsoft currently controls a great portion of the market, its dominance is waning, and in a few years, it will not be a monopoly any longer. The creativity and innovation that are exhibited by emerging technology companies is enough proof that Microsoft will soon lose its dominance and consumers will have more options. Diversity is an important aspect of the operating systems market.
Managing Environmental Sustainability Essay scholarship essay help
Abstract The paper looks into the stakeholders and the reasons behind the trend of adopting green operations. It also examines the limits of environmental management in business. The study revealed that people get into green business practices for cost savings, to build innovative cultures, increase shareholder value, attract and maintain customers and to enhance employee retention or satisfaction.
Some businesses have chosen not to pursue solid environmental strategies, and have selected for green washing. However, this dishonest approach could harm them in the long and short run. It was also found that green strategies will become more imperative for businesses in the future. Firms will become more proactive and governments more carefully observant.
Introduction Environmental sustainability has gradually entered the ordinary business environment. Organisations are finding new and creating ways of going green. Furthermore, a number of them now know that the there is a business case for environmental management. All organisations have certain responsibilities due to the fact that they have many stakeholders which have an interest in their operations.
Even the most basic organisation will have more than just the owner as a stakeholder. The larger the organisation, the greater the number of stakeholders that it has, the more complex will be the decision-making process (Huff, 1982), This is due to the fact that decisions need to bear in mind various influences and pressures affecting many stakeholders (Gioia
How Computer Based Training Can Help Teachers Learn New Teaching and Training Methods Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction The introduction of technology in various aspects of the day to day activities in administration, government, business, and education, among other fields has brought about both new opportunities and challenges in the twenty first century. The incorporation of technology in the academic setting has rattled the conventional teaching and learning paradigms.
This use of information and communication technologies in educational practices has posed new challenges to the teachers and trainers, which involve the acquisition of necessary skills in the implementation of IT products, and the appropriate tools and channels to convey IT knowledge to learners (Sansanwal, 2009).
The current societal trends require citizens to be well versed in accessing and communicating information through the newest technologies (Sansanwal, 2009). As a result, both teachers and students need to use the best means to build their competency in ICT. The use of telematic networks in various fields enables users to have unlimited access to information, as well as, flexibility of time barriers (Sansanwal, 2009).
ICT has changed the traditional learning community due to the introduction of new learning and teaching settings that are based on virtuality (Mikre, 2011). These new teaching modalities require trainers to change their attitudes towards the teaching paradigms in order to take up the new educational concepts that incorporate flexible learning processes, and interactive bi-directional communication systems (Mikre, 2011).
One of the key benefits of using ICT in education is the ability to interact and collaborate with other participants on a global platform in both real and asynchronous time. The application of ICT in the high school context requires extra effort from the educational authorities through the incorporation of “depth of ICT in the curriculum as a central to teaching and learning processes” (Mikre, 2011).
In addition to this, educational authorities should also focus on increasing the capacity of teachers to educate the learners through the use of training programs. Such programs familiarize trainers with the new learning scenario, and allow them to take a central role in the development of a knowledge society (Mikre, 2011).
Overview The creation of computers was not focused on enhancing the quality of teaching; however, researchers found them to be useful in the profession through various applications such as Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), and Computer Based Instruction (CBI) among others. These applications have been used to teach various subjects in schools, as well as, in higher learning.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies on the efficacy of teaching using CAIs over conventional paradigms that employ lectures showed a significant improvement in the former for multiple subjects. For instance, supplemental CAI were observed to be effective in enhancing mathematics and spelling for mentally handicapped students through the interactive dialogue of language impaired children with computers (Leung, Watters,
Understanding the Strengths of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Coca Cola Argumentative Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Coca Cola: Precursors to its Social Responsibility Initiatives
Coca Cola: Strengths of Corporate Social Responsibility
Introduction The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR), manifested as a firm’s caring endeavours for its workers, stakeholders and the environment, is of momentous value for academics and contemporary business practitioners (Delios, 2010).
Prevalent external observations that a firm continually engages in socially irresponsible practices often bring undesirable ramifications for the firm in question, since external literature demonstrates that an entity’s success – indeed its survival in the harshly competitive business environment – largely depends on satisfying normative demands and expectations arising from the environment (Lange
John Locke Biography Essay scholarship essay help
John Locke was born in 1632 and he passed away in 1704. He was renowned for his argument that the rights to royalty. He was also famous for his anti-authoritarian theory. He challenged every aspect that there is, with regards to authority. Locke states that the way that the government runs the show is not enough and that they take advantage of people as they are in society.
He had this theory that natural laws existed served to encourage people to be aware of their rights and not to let their rights be violated by any one in authority. John Locke, who was also widely regarded as the inventor of classical liberalism, was thought of as one of the most known intellectuals of enlightenment.
He was an Englishman who had studied medicine (Russell 669). He had several articles that he had written about his social theory. There are quite a number of scholars who were influenced by his writings. These included scholars from all over the world including America and Europe (Solomon 101).
There are a number of scholars who were greatly influenced by his writings including Rousseau as well as Voltaire. There are also many Scotsmen who were also taken by his teachings. The main group of individuals who really appreciated the work that was done by John Locke was mainly the academics.
The extent with which his writings influenced the world is reflected in various instances such as the United States Declaration of Independence. This is one of the most notable documents in the world. His theory of mind may be considered as the main source of contemporary notions of aspects that may include self as well as identity. These aspects played a major role in the work of theorists like Kant as well as Hume.
John Locke was the pioneer in the line of people who defined the self via a permanent state of awareness. He was also the person who first stated that the mind was a tabula rasa. He decoded some of the most basic facts that people overlook such as the fact that we are born without ideas that are inherited.
Most of his critics thought that he was out of his mind. His political allegations were considered to be based on his religion. Academic believed that he came up with his writings after thinking through them basing his ideas on the religious aspects of his life (Feinberg 504).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are quite a lot of things that he derived from his knowledge such as the fact that he was able to decipher or conjure various aspects that no one was able to at the time when he was alive.
John Locke managed to put things into a different perspective that saw a change in the way that people viewed the world. This was especially beneficial to people who had other ideas that were still related to his in one way or another (Sober 488). It may appear as if he was rebellious, but this may be the point of view of people who really did not want to understand things as they were.
Most of these people were stuck in the lives that they lived in and were hardly ready to change their lifestyles. His line of thought was very useful and most people especially the scholars benefitted widely from using and following his teachings.
Works Cited Feinberg, Joel. Reason and Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Russell, Bertrand. The Problems of Philosophy, Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008. Print.
Sober, Elliot. Core Questions in Philosophy: A Text with Readings, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.
Solomon, Robert. Existentialism, Broadway, New York: Modern Library, 1974. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on John Locke Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Combating Smoking: Taxation Policies vs. Education Policies Problem Solution Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What the Theory Says
Introduction Cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco use are directly responsible for at least one-third of all cancer deaths annually. One reason why smoking has endured, in spite of its dreadful death statistics, is that cigarette is highly addictive and comparatively not expensive to buy. It is vital to fight this trend to ensure that the deaths emanating from smoking are reduced drastically.
Contextually, the dangers posed by smoking are numerous. Not only are the smokers at risk but also non-smokers. This is a considerable provision in the realms of health; hence, the efforts created by the government to curb this trend should be supported fully. Smoking kills, both directly and indirectly.
Canada, as a country, is no exception in this trend following the massive deaths it registers annually due to cancer and other related diseases (The Lung Association, 2012). In this regard, there is need to reduce the mentioned deaths for the benefit of the nation. Most families have been rendered hopeless due to cancerous attacks.
In addition, most children have been orphaned due to deaths caused by smoking, and societies are losing lots of funds on tobacco-related problems. Despite the economic gains registered from tobacco, its health concerns are devastating. Hence, it is vital to agree that there is need to reduce the smoking rates within the society. There are 2 different types of policies in the Canadian context.
This incorporates taxation policies and education policies. In fact, the government should impose high taxation provisions on cigarette manufacturers. This will eventually hike the prices of cigarette sticks in the market hence discouraging smokers.
Education, on the other hand, tends to sensitise the public against smoking (CBC News, 2011). The government, policy makers, and people in general are the concerned stakeholders in the fight against smoking. This paper seeks to reveal how the smoking phenomenon can be combated through “Taxation Policies” as well as “Education Policies”.
What the Theory Says There are credible theories on how the two policies can be enhanced to help in the fight against smoking. This is a considerable provision when scrutinised critically. By applying the concept of elasticity of demand and supply to discuss (theoretically) how each type of policy (taxation and education) impact cigarette smoking, several ideologies emerge that indicate the possibility of attaining success in the fight against smoking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, high taxation provisions will force the cigarette manufacturers to increase the prices of their commodities due to increased operational and business costs. Consequently, the prices of cigarettes will increase forcing smokers to cut down on their demands for cigarettes. Eventually, there will be reduced smoking trends in the country.
Additionally, by increasing the taxation provisions, the supply of cigarettes will reduce (since most manufacturers might quit the industry) while the demand will increase. Consequently, the prices of cigarettes will also increase due to high demands.
Nonetheless, due to “demand, supply, and price” elasticity, high prices will discourage buyers who will consequently reduce their smoking rates following the high cost of cigarettes imposed on smokers indirectly by the government. The desires of those with purchasing power in regard to cigarette business will drastically reduce due to high taxation provisions.
Hence, high taxation quest will help in reducing the aspects of smoking within the Canada and beyond (CBC News, 2011). Only the few individuals who will be able to afford the prospected high costs of cigarette will smoke. Nonetheless, the majority will reduce their smoking trends. Educational programs executed to sensitise the youth and other vulnerable groups have also been put in place by the Health Canada.
Canadian Examples In the last decade, smoking rates in Canada reduced drastically from 25% to 22%. The Canadian Health has forced cigarette manufacturers to put graphic health warnings on cigarette packaging. This is meant to draw the Canadians’ attention to the devastating health repercussions of using tobacco products. This has been done to complement the high taxation provisions set for the cigarette manufacturers.
Additionally, most states in Canada have adopted smoke free by-laws to help in curbing the menace (Health Canada, 2002). Additionally, the Health Canada’s legislative, regulatory, as well as policy efforts regarding the tobacco control have been promoted by the Tobacco Act (1997).
Other new regulations enacted as at June 2000 have also been operational. Such legal Acts have been staged to control manufacture, trade, tagging, and advertising of tobacco merchandise in Canada. They also promote the education of the youths on the health consequences of smoking. Educational programs executed to sensitise the youth and other vulnerable groups have also been put in place by the Health Canada.
We will write a custom Essay on Combating Smoking: Taxation Policies vs. Education Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chart 1: % Canadian smokers daily by sex and aged 12 or older (2001-2011)
Chart 2: % Canadian smokers by age group/sex/household population aged 12 or older (2011)
Conclusion The Canadian government fights to reduce the rates of smoking within the country. The government proposes to enact high taxation policies and educational policies to help in curbing this menace. Health Canada has managed to involve the public in the fight against smoking. Youths are under educational programs to ensure proper knowledge regarding the dangers of Smoking.
References CBC News. (2011). Anti-smoking efforts in Canada and abroad. Web.
Health Canada. (2002). A Framework for Action. Web.
The Lung Association. (2012). Smoking
Has Al-Qaeda And Its Jihad Against The United States Been Defeated? Essay scholarship essay help
The Al- Qaeda terrorist network is infamous for its terrorist activities across the world. Al-Qaeda, which was formerly headed by slain terrorist, Osama Bin Laden has successfully carried out terrorist attacks in different countries in the last two decades. The terrorist organisation is affiliated with other terror groups in different parts of the world. This paper will discuss how Al-Qaeda’s jihad against the United States has failed.
Al-Qaeda carried out the worst terrorist attack on US soil on September 11, 2001. This act of terror compelled the US government and her allies to invade Afghanistan and Iraq. Al-Qaeda’s ideology targets the US as an enemy because of its foreign relations policies (James
The Role of the Railroads in the Settlement of the Great West Cause and Effect Essay best college essay help
Railroad construction is an important event to consider when mapping the history of the United States. Most of the immigration and emigration that happened in the West was a direct result of these railroads. The first transcontinental railway construction was championed by President Abraham Lincoln. In 1862, Lincoln signed the Pacific Railways Act of 1862.
That meant the Federal government would fund the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Although construction of the railroad was set to commence on the same year, events surrounding the Civil War caused delays. When the construction finally began, it was divided into two parts.
The first part of the construction was on the east and it was assigned to the Central Pacific Authority. The western part was relegated to the Union Pacific authority.
Most construction on the railroad was undertaken by Chinese and Irish labourers. The Chinese were mainly in the eastern part of the construction. On the other hand, the Irish did most of the work on the west. Construction of the railway was not solely meant to offer a mode of transportation. It was also a new form of technology that was meant to revive the West.
Construction of the railroads was only second to the Federal government when it came to important factors that were to shape the West. From the time the railway was commissioned, it was clear that it was to become the most favourable mode of transportation. The country’s economy was maturing at the time and railway transport looked like an efficient mode of transport.
When it was completed in 1869, it fuelled the exploitation of the Western plains in a big way. The railroad led to the stimulation of the Union Pacific’s economy.
It also increased the number of immigrants settling in the West. In addition, an immense number of employment opportunities came about as a result of this completion. A great American once said that the railroad was the “key” that was to open up the West and its resources to the rest of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Before construction of the railroad, the west was a forlorn land that was completely shut out from the rest of the world. It is a common perception that the railway introduced the west to the world, and also helped the west receive the rest of the world. Because of the railroads, the West became a permanent addition to the existing world. The structure of the population in the West was also changed.
Some of the Irish immigrants that were involved in the construction of the railroad settled in the region. Economically, the railroad made it possible to undertake large-scale mining. Unexploited land was turned into ranches and through this railroad large scale agriculture finally arrived in the West. The prairies were eventually transformed into farmlands.
This also led to the introduction of new plants and crops to the West. Due to the heightened economic activity that was made possible by the railroads, the region started witnessing construction of tunnels, bridges, depots, and roundhouses. Because of such constructions, it was possible to distribute newspapers and mail in the Great West.
The Union Pacific railroad was mostly constructed by Irish immigrants. The immigrants were former war veterans of the confederate and union armies during the civil war. The Mormons also supplied labour for the construction of the Union Pacific part of the railroad. The Irish did the work strictly for monetary reasons.
The Mormons on the other hand were hoping that the railroad was going to open up their Utah neighbourhood to the rest to the world. When the railroad was completed, the Immigrants who were entering the United States using the eastern seaboard used the railroad to travel to the West.
Those who were in charge of the railroad encouraged this migration because they believed it would lead to increased business. For instance, Kansas had an influx of immigrants from Mexico, Russia, and Europe because of a marketing campaign initiated by the railroad authorities. Some of these early settlements have been responsible for shaping the settlement patterns of the American population.
Not everyone in the west was happy with the construction of the railroad. The Native Americans were against its construction because they believed it would interfere with their way of life. The Native Americans were of the view that the treaty they had signed with the Federal government was being violated by this construction. Some of their activities were also affected by the settlements along the railroad.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of the Railroads in the Settlement of the Great West specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, one of the most popular activities in the west was buffalo hunting. When mines and settlements came up, this activity was largely affected. The Native Americans tried to react to this by killing the Irish workers in war parties. However, the tide that was the railroad was too hard to stop. As a reaction to this, the Native Americans migrated further west to what is famously known as the “wild wild west”.
The effects of the railroad on the settlement of the Great West were fast and unprecedented. The population trends and the economic activities of the Great West were also altered. The railroad introduced new people, crops, and occupations to the West. On the other hand, the mines and fertile lands of the West were opened up to the rest of the world. Such was the enormity of the role played by the railroads in changing the West.
Cryptology and Data Protection Problem Solution Essay essay help online: essay help online
Due to the increase in internet usage, emphasis on data security and integrity has been escalated. Better measures in relation to software and hardware based mechanisms are still being invented and put into practice. All information regarding an organization’s business processes is of critical importance.
Information security and integrity is therefore, a vital consideration in all planning and implementation of processes in an organization. Data security ensures that all data is free from damage, erasure, theft, corruption, unauthorized access or modification, (Summers, 2004).
Data integrity on the other hand ensures that data is not altered in any way either by addition or substitution. In this essay we look at how to achieve security and integrity of data, in transit and in storage.
Considering the case for StoreItRite Inc, the business may be classified as data warehousing. There is need to secure data during transmission and storage. Another issue that arises is how to carry out communication between the staff members effectively yet securely over insecure communication channels.
First, we look at data transmission from the client to the database; data should be transmitted as ciphertext to avoid man- in- the- middle attacks. StoreItRite has no business accessing the data that is held in their hard disks for the customers; its sole business is to store data securely on behalf of its clients. A private key scheme will therefore, work effectively in this setting.
Each of the clients will generate a key which will be known only to the particular client. The key will be used to encrypt data for sending to the warehouse and the same key will be used to decrypt data on receipt from the warehouse, (Katz and Lindell, 2007).
Flow of data from the client to the warehouse and back
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, to transmit the daily data back up, the warehouse needs to combine all the data received throughout the day. To enhance cost effectiveness of the scheme, the combined data files should be compressed and then encrypted with StoreItRite’s private key.
This will reduce the size of the file being transmitted, (Gollmann, 2006). When a client requires the stored data, it will just be retrieved and transmitted to them as ciphertext just the way it came in. On receiving the data from the warehouse, the client decrypts the data using his private key to obtain it in plaintext, (Smith, 2011).
In the office, the warehouse staff need to each generate a key pair, . The public key is given out to all other staff members and each of them keeps their private keys secret. When sending emails, the sender will encrypt the outgoing mail with the recipient’s public key, (Diffie, 1988). To verify the authenticity of the sender, the sender will attach a digital signature to the message.
This signature will also serve to prove the integrity of the email. It will be created by first generating a hash of the entire mail and then encrypting it with the sender’s private key. The resulting ciphertext is attached to the email being sent. On receipt the recipient will decrypt the signature with the sender’s public key. If it works that verifies the originator since he alone has his private key.
Then he will decrypt the message with his private key and generate a hash of that message. This is then compared with the hash in the signature. If they match the message is original from the sender, (Ferguson and Schneier 2003).
Staff member, A Sender Staff member, B Recipient Encrypt message with B’s public key, Decrypt with B’s private key Generate a hash of the entire message Generate a hash of the message Encrypt hash with A’s private key Decrypt the digital signature with A’s public key Attach digital signature and send Compare the two hashes Email security at StoreItRite
Kerberos and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) are the two most widely used architectures for securing communication networks. Kerberos enables two communicating parties to exchange confidential information over an insecure network. In this scheme each user is assigned a secret key which is inserted in the messages sent by that user. This key serves to identify the sender.
We will write a custom Essay on Cryptology and Data Protection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Key Distribution Center (KDC) serves to authenticate parties in a transaction that is to be carried out over the network communication channels. On the other hand, Public Key Infrastructure employs a combination of public and private keys. It does not require any preceding key exchange. With the use of public-private key pair, a centralized hub is not necessary.
Due to the use of a centralized hub, Kerberos is limited to a local intranet due to the management issues attached to a centrally managed KDC in widely distributed networks. The centralization of KDC makes Kerberos an easy to attack network architecture due to the single point of entry. KDC is also a throughput bottleneck in network performance and in case of its failure the whole network fails.
PKI on the other hand has its keys distributed using a certificate repository that publicly accessible. This eliminates the risk of PKI becoming a performance bottle neck as well as that of it acting as a single point of failure, (Neuman and Ts’o 1994). While Kerberos is best suited for centralized platforms PKI is effectively applied in multi-platform and distributed computing.
Message encryption and digital signatures are well supported in KPI enhancing the security and integrity of the messages sent and received throughout the network. Kerberos does not support these technologies hence, information security is questionable, (Kohl, Neuman, and T’so 1994).
References Diffie, W. (1988). The first ten years of public-key cryptography. Proceedings of the IEEE. 76(2). 560-577.
Observance, Privacy and Law Essay college admission essay help
It is important for social media users to realize that social networks are not fully concerned with the probability of misuse of their personal information. Social media sites release personal information to the market without the permission of users. They use the personal information of their customers without their consent, which is illegal as stipulated in OECD privacy principles.
Social networks use the enormous amounts of data that contains their customer’s information for financial gains. The situation is different with other sites. For example, sites such as Google and Facebook adhere to OECD principle s.
A through reading of the OECD principles reveals that organizations such as Google and Facebook do not adhere to them as expected. For example, the two organizations:
Reiterate the need for individuals to present their real names when registering.
Request users to give personal information such as their full names, home addresses, e-mail addresses and telephone or mobile phone numbers.
Regularly use the age of their customers for advertising purposes or for marketing third-party applications.
The involvement of the society is necessary for effective tackling of social issues that are associated with privacy. The key to solving the problem is creating awareness and sensitizing users of social media on the importance of privacy.
It is important for us to unite in an effort to improve the security of our personal information on the internet. Active involvement of Governments and organizations such as OECD will ensure that the privacy of users is guaranteed whenever they access the internet.
Principles and Law According to OECD, all countries take into account the status of existing laws in terms of their strengths and limitations when developing new laws to deal with privacy issues. This reiterates the importance of cooperation among members of OECD in ensuring the privacy of users by preventing violations of the principles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, members should not deter the flow of information among themselves by compromising the process of implementing the principles. For new OECD members, cooperation involves consultation with other members in developing legislations for their countries.
Morals are the foundation of the OECD principles. They are defined as the guiding principles that determine the behavior that parties adopt in determining what is right or wrong in an agreement.
They do not have an outlined structure but depend on mutual understanding and responsibility by involved parties. OECD principles are based on laws and morals and form the foundation on which the privacy laws of individual countries are developed.
Countries use the principles and morals that enforce customer privacy to develop regulations that give them the mandate to punish violators of privacy laws and procedures. The government, through the legislature, enacts laws that foster privacy and ensure fair treatment of all people because they contain provisions that allow individuals to request for compensation when their privacy is violated or breached.
Children and Adolescent Suicide Behavior Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Suicide entails taking one’s life. On the other hand, suicidal behavior involves the contemplation of plans and thoughts to take one’s life. Suicidal behavior precedes suicide. Therefore, controlling suicidal behavior is a success factor for mitigating incidents of suicide. Among the many groups of people who are susceptible to showing suicidal behavior, adolescents take the front line (Berman et al., 2006, p.1116).
This result forms the rationale for the focus of this assessment paper. Nevertheless, since incidences of suicide are recorded across people of different ages, suicidal behavior amounts to a serious and significant public health problem across the globe. Surprisingly, incidences of suicide are preventable through various social work and psychiatric interventions.
According to the American Association of Suicidology, such interventions include “effective assessment and treatment of people with mental disorders, promotion of help-seeking, early detection and support for youth in crisis, training in life skills, and reduction of access to lethal means” (2011, p.1).
However, the extent to which these approaches have been effective in the achievement of the noble goal of reducing incidences of suicides in America remains questionable. This argument is relevant since the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) informs that incidences of adolescent suicides have been on the rise over the last one decade (p.1).
The focus of this paper is to scrutinize the prevalence of youth suicidal behavior. It proposes a methodology for assessing and diagnosing the problem besides providing an extensive explanation of the relevance of the proposed methodology within the sphere of social work.
The paper also endeavors to evaluate the weakness of the proposed method of assessing adolescent suicidal behavior coupled with presentation of mechanisms of modifying the methodology to lessen its problems.
Prevalence of Adolescent ideation Suicidal Behavior Known/Unknown Facts about Adolescent Suicidal Behavior
Several facts are known about adolescent suicidal problem. In fact, among the many causes of youth’s deaths, suicide is incredibly significant. World Health Organization (2001) puts it among “the top 3 causes of death in the population aged 15 to 34 years” (Para.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) confirms this rating by emphasizing that suicide is in the third position in the list of the causes of deaths of people aged between 10 to 24 years (p.2). It results in the loss of an approximated 4600 lives of the US’ adolescents annually.
In addition, with regard to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) statistics, among the top three means used to accomplish adolescent suicides, the use of firearms stands at 45 percent with self induced poisoning and suffocation being at 8 percent and 40 percent respectively (Para 7).
Risks for contemplation of plans to commit suicide increase substantially during adolescence. In this regard, according to Liu (2004), “prevalence rates for suicidal ideation among adolescents were estimated to be 11% for severe suicidal ideation to 75% for any degree of suicidal ideation with an average rate of 20% for suicidal ideation and 8% for suicide attempts” (p.1352) in 2003.
These prevalence rates for suicide ideation are shocking since they are indications of the threshold of the dangers of successful cases of suicides completion in the future. Many scholars find many of the suicides that are completed as having been instigated by multiple factors including “psychological, family, biological, social, and cognitive factors” (CDC, 2012, Para.11).
The prevalence of adolescent suicides also appears as largely unbalanced on gender and age demographic factors in the U.S. For instance, according to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2012), “of the reported suicides in the 10 to 24 age group, 81% of the deaths are males and 19% are females” (Para. 10).
However, the same source argues that girls are more likely to attempt suicides in relation to boys. Suicide associated fatalities are also more prevalent among the Native American youths (CDC, 2012, Para.11: Berman et al, 2006, p.1116).
However, how to eradicate suicidal behavior completely among the adolescents remains unknown because, amid the various interventions, health organizations in the US continue to register fatalities associated with the problem.
We will write a custom Essay on Children and Adolescent Suicide Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Diagnosing and Assessing the Problem Method
CBT (cognitive-behavioral therapy) is the proposed method for diagnosis and assessing suicidal behavior of adolescents. However, it is crucial to note that, in diagnosing and or assessing adolescents’ suicidal problem, a consideration of risk factors for instigation of the plans and thoughts for committing suicide is paramount.
Therefore, identification of individual circumstances that may lead to expressions of such a suicidal problem among adolescents amounts to a successful assessment procedure.
In helping to treat the problem, patients are put on psychotherapy to relax potential inhibitors for a free expression of certain aspects such as stress and stereotyping that are experienced in the life of the patient that may contribute to the suicidal behavior. Objectives
The objective of relaxing the mind of the patient through psychotherapy is to:
Make it possible to acquire information on the patient’s history of suicidal attempts
Get information on the history of suicidal behavior in the a patient’s family
Acquire information on the encountered stressful events in the life of the patient
Get information on the patient’s incarceration
Dig out the existence of cases of mental illness and or history of depression in the patient’s life
Know whether the patient has easy access to lethal methods for suicide such as firearms
Extract information on the history of patient’s engagement in drug abuse and or excessive alcohol consumption
Preferred Assessment Procedure Steps
To achieve the above objectives of psychotherapy as the approach for helping to diagnose and assess the adolescents’ suicidal behavior through CBT, a number of steps (preferred assessment procedure) will be deployed. They include:
Conducting preliminary examination of the likely causes of suicidal behavior in the patient (This may involves establishing the historical background of the patients such as how they relate with their parents, economic conditions, or whether the patient abused alcohol)
Creating artificial stimuli to force the patient to express his or her feelings as established in (i) above (An example of artificial stimuli is giving patient alcohol if it is thought by the assessor to be the cause of the problems)
Managing and creating necessary additional artificial stimuli that prompt a full expression of behaviors observed in (ii)
Observation of the likely contributing risks to the suicidal behavior not established in the preliminary examination step to develop the requisite stimulation approaches for their portrayal (The doctor can monitor the reactions or behavior of the patient to see whether he or she has any signs of stress)
When the patient has fully expressed his or her life experience concerns that may result in suicidal ideation behavior, corrective mechanisms for such behaviors are considered. The point at which the patient has fully expressed his/her risk factors to the contemplation of plans to commit suicide is known when the patient attempts to develop a tolerant mechanism of the risk factors expressed upon execution of steps (i), (ii), and (iv).
Usefulness of the Mode of Assessment for Social Work
Many social work scholars contend that the majority of adolescents who are put under their care have psychological challenges associated with depression. In fact, with regard to Donaldson, Spirito, and Esposito-Smythers (2005), “…depression is among the most common reasons cited by adolescents when seeking treatment” (p.113).
Depression is also a risk factor for making adolescents resort to drug abuse and excessive consumption of alcohol as perceived mechanisms for enabling them to manage stress that is associated with experiences such as family conflicts. Therefore, by managing well depression among adolescents, it is also possible to manage the associated risk factors that may lead to contemplation of plans and thoughts to commit suicide.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Children and Adolescent Suicide Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The question is how to achieve a successful depression management strategy among adolescents. The solution to this query rests on CBT in which Spirito, Wolf, and Uhl (2011) argue, “Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been the most widely researched psychotherapy approach to treating depression in adolescents” (p.191).
A common argument among clinical scholars is that completed suicides coupled with suicidal ideation would disappear when the depressive disorders among adolescents are treated.
However, the above argument faces challenges because of the evidence that treatment of depressive disorder does not necessarily imply that suicidal ideation will disappear because depressive disorders, which may lead to suicide ideation have their causes. Consequently, the most effective way to deal with depressive disorders is to address the causes of the suicide ideation to be dealt with completely.
For instance, among the adults, Linehan (2007) posits, “suicidal thoughts and behavior need to be directly addressed if problems associated with depressive disorder are to improve” (p.305).
Therefore, CBT as a methodology of helping in diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of suicidal behavior problems among adolescents is useful in social work to the extent that it can lead to the elimination of the depressive disorders and suicidal ideation. Arguably, the methodology is helpful in social work particularly when applied consistent with the success of the suicidality model for adults.
The model evidences how “suicide attempts emerge from reciprocity among maladaptive cognition, behavior, and affective responses to stressors” (Brent
Scholarly Research on Children at Risk Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Summary of the Thesis
Strengths of the Reading
Summary of the Thesis Statistics show that one point two billion children globally below the age of eighteen are at risk. This can be translated to about fifty percent of the children population in countries that are developing. It further states that one in every five people in the globe is a child at risk. A lot of families live below a dollar a day (Dryfoos
Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter Exploratory Essay essay help
Research is very important in economic and social development of any particular country (Davidson 23). Arabic countries such UAE have made tremendous progress in research despite the many challenges that researchers in those countries face. Researchers in companies and those in universities make a significant contribution to the overall development of a nation (Davidson 23).
A good number of universities in UAE have introduced research based programs in order to improve the quality of research in the country. Researchers in the Arabic world face similar problems when it comes to research activities. In order for these countries to fully participate in the global knowledge economy, the countries need to come up with strategies that can enhance research activities in the region (Davidson 23).
Researchers have to find a favorable environment to conduct their research through funding and support from the governments concerned. The social and economic challenges in UAE and other Arabic countries can only be addressed if researchers in institutions of higher learning can focus on basic research. Government spending on research and development is still very low in the Arabic world compared to other regions (Davidson 23).
Researchers in UAE and other Arabic countries have always faced many challenges with some countries in this region not willing to make any effort towards addressing the plight of researchers (Davidson 54). Educational standards in the Arabic world are still very low because there is no much emphasis on both academic and socio-economic research (Davidson 54).
It is very difficult for a researcher who is not motivated to produce the desired results. This paper will highlight some of the challenges faced by researchers in UAE and the various initiatives being undertaken by UAE and other Arabic countries to boost research activities in the Arabic world.
Research in UAE is yet to be well structured and developed because the country is still a new state (Davidson 54). Despite researchers showing a great interest in research, the support for population research is yet to be fully developed. This poses a great challenge for researchers because the majority of socio-economic research activities involve the country’s population (Davidson 54).
It is difficult for researchers in UAE to conduct qualitative and quantitative research because the composition of the country’s population is very varied while its mobility is very unpredictable. Researchers in UAE have limited access to demographic records (Davidson 112).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the people in UAE and other Arabic countries are always reluctant to act as respondents in field studies especially when the issues being studied are always very sensitive. This poses a great challenge to researchers because carrying out a particular research without a substantive research sample is not easy (Davidson 112). The credibility of research findings sometimes depends on the size of the sample population.
A communication breakdown between researchers and the study population is a great hindrance to population research. The other challenge that researchers in UAE face is lack of collaboration among researchers from different institutions (Davidson 112). Researchers depend on each other and therefore lack of collaboration and interaction among researchers is a great problem.
There are no clear laws in Arabic countries to protect researchers and give their activities some legitimacy. The life of researchers is always in danger in a case where their research activities are not protected by the law. The situation becomes more desperate in cases where the research involves citizens. There are no proper guidelines in place to align research finding with socio-economic needs in UAE (Davidson 112).
Lack of proper structures to apply research finding makes researchers feel as if their work is being taken for granted. Researchers feel very motivated if their findings are used to solve the challenges being faced by their country (Davidson 112).
The relationship between researchers and the local community is very important in field research (Davidson 156). Researchers in UAE are yet to be embedded with the local people and this makes it difficult for them to obtain research information from the local population. Researchers can only be able to engage the local people if there is a good relationship between them (Davidson 156).
Lack of avenues to engage in the global community research is another problem that researchers in UAE and other Arabic countries face. The quality of research can not be high if researchers rely on local information alone (Davidson 156). The global research community facilitates knowledge exchange and in the process improving the quality of research findings.
The constant hostile reception from the local community always discourages many researchers and at the same time changes their perception about research (Davidson 156). The researchers lose interest in research in a case where the community fails to cooperate with them. Plagiarism is another challenge that researchers in UAE encounter because there are no clear laws to guard against the vice (Davidson 156).
We will write a custom Article on Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plagiarism problem discourages researchers because most of their research findings are copied by other people but they are unable to sue them because there are no clear laws to guard against plagiarism. Many researchers in UAE do not have adequate training in research methodologies because many institutions do not take into account the importance of training researchers on research methodologies (Davidson 156).
Access to relevant literature is very important for researchers in order for them to come up with the desired findings. Access to government records is a great challenge for researchers in UAE. Accessing government documents sometimes takes a lot of time due to the lengthy processes that researchers have to go through (Davidson 156). This is a big problem because the time taken to conduct a particular study is prolonged.
Researchers in UAE find it difficult to access some specific research centers due to security reasons (Shaw 76). Some centers also charge visiting researchers high entry fees before they are allowed to conduct their research within the centers. This is a great challenge for researchers with limited funding (Shaw 76). Publishing expenses are very high in many countries across the world and UAE is not exempted.
Researchers in UAE find it difficult to publish their research findings because of the high costs of publishing. The situation is worse in UAE because the country has very few publishers. It is very expensive to publish research finding in international journals and magazines. Student researchers are the most affected because they have limited resources to publish their works (Shaw 76).
Researchers require a lot of funds in order to conduct conclusive and quality research. Research expenses include travelling expenses, paying of respondents, paying for research centers and publishing the research findings. The costs involved in conducting research are very high and researchers desperately need sponsors in order to fund their research activities.
Researchers in UAE have been facing funding problems for a long time with very limited support from the government (Shaw 76). Presenting research findings in international conferences is the dream of every researcher because it presents them with a perfect opportunity to progress in their careers. UAE is not yet fully committed to facilitate international travels for its researchers (Abed 212).
Conducting social research in the volatile Arabic region is very risky because the participants may be harmed by the rest of the people due to their involvement in research (Shaw 76). The knowledge base and professional relationships can be badly damaged in areas where participants feel that their lives may be in danger.
Conducting regional research in the Arabic world is still very risky because of the political instability in some Arabic countries. The recent unrest in Arabic countries such as Afghanistan and Syria makes it difficult for researchers to conduct their research especially if the research being conducted involves people (Shaw 76).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Researchers conducting their research in that kind of environment suffer a lot because wars and conflicts completely destroy the knowledge base of researchers. Although some countries such as UAE and Abu Dhabi enjoy some stability, it is still very difficult to conduct conclusive research if the neighboring countries are not peaceful.
It is sometimes a great challenge to get a travelling visa if a particular country faces international sanctions and such a situation is not good for researchers who are interested in international research (Shaw 91). The relative peace in UAE has made the country to make a significant improvement in research compared to other Arabic countries.
Despite the challenges mentioned earlier in this paper, UAE researchers are enjoying a significant advantage over researchers in other Arabic countries (Shaw 91). The social, political and economic situation in Arabic countries may not improve if the countries do not put much effort in promoting research activities and taking care of researchers (Shaw 91).
The UAE government has realized the importance of research in national development and has come up with quite a number of initiatives to boost research activities in the country (Shaw 105). These initiatives are aimed at making sure that researchers have the necessary financial and moral support when conducting their research activities (Shaw 105).
To begin with, the UAE government is trying its level best to promote interaction and collaboration beyond institutional boundaries. The legislative body in UAE has come up with various legislations to guide research studies and protect researchers (Shaw 105). The recent improvement in research activities in UAE is attributed to the legal protection that researchers are enjoying.
The other notable thing is that research conducted on behalf of the UAE is now aligned with the socio-economic needs of UAE (Brooks 16). This initiative enables researchers to conduct their research with some purpose. The UAE government has realized the importance of the local community in promoting research activities and has facilitated interaction between researchers and the local people (Brooks 16).
The UAE government has arranged for seminars across the country to educate the local community about the importance of research and the returns it can bring to the community. The National Research Foundation is one of the most successful initiatives by the UAE government aimed at promoting research activities (Brooks 16). The NRF foundation falls under the ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
This foundation was created to enhance research in universities and other institutions of higher learning. Research teams and companies in UAE have enhanced their research activities with great assistance from NRF (Brooks 16). The NRF foundation was created in 2008 to support initiatives through funding and leadership. The initiative coordinates all research activities in UAE.
All researchers in UAE are funded by the NRF on competitive basis. Research projects that contribute to socio-economic development in UAE are given the first priority by the foundation (Brooks 34). The vision of NRF is to promote and support competitive research and innovation in UAE through creation of a favorable research environment that can enable researchers conduct world-class research (Brooks 34).
The mission of NRF is to build a research capacity of international standards that can enhance socio-economic development in UAE (Brooks 67). UAE has been able to produce and retain good scientist because of the competitive research capacity that has been built in the country for the last four years (Brooks 67).
The lives of UAE citizens have improved because research has been able to generate wonderful business technological ideas in the country (Brooks 67). The foundation supports research in relevant disciplines that are of national importance. NRF has played a vital role in enhancing inter-institutional research among companies, universities and the government.
Inadequate research infrastructure is one of the major challenges that the UAE government has tried to solve through NRF (Brooks 67). Since its inception in 20008, the foundation embarked on improving standards of research infrastructure in the country. NRF has also played a major role in promoting competitive innovation and entrepreneurship through world-class research (Brooks 67).
The National Research Foundation has increased awareness about the benefits of research to both the government and the local community (Abed 221). The Foundation ensures that all the research projects that it funds deliver the expected results. The United Arab Emirates University signed collaboration deals with the Emirates Institution of Science and Technology to conduct applied research together (Brooks 70).
The collaboration between the two institutions has improved applied research in the country. Conducting joint research activities creates avenues for generation of new ideas and knowledge that are necessary for development (Brooks 70). Scientific and technological projects can now be executed through the joint initiatives by the main institutions of higher learning in UAE.
The Memorandum of Understanding signed between the two institutions to conduct joint research activities has developed the culture of innovation in the country (Brooks 70).
Faculty members from different fields are now able to corporate through sharing of data and other important research information (Brooks 70). The two institutions organize research conferences and workshops that are very important in sharing research findings (Brooks 70).
Sustainable development in UAE is now a reality thanks to the positive results obtained from joint research initiatives by the two prime institutions of higher learning in UAE (Brooks 102). Research beyond institutional boundaries has brought to light the scientific and technological potential of UAE.
The Information and Communication Technology Fund is another initiative in UAE that has done a tremendous work in funding research involving ICT projects (Brooks 102). The main aim of the ICT Fund is to promote the ICT sector in UAE by sponsoring research and innovation activities in the ICT field.
The ICT fund is a global initiative that has focused on promoting ICT development in UAE and other Middle East countries because they have always lagged behind when it comes to technological research (Brooks 102). The ICT Fund also supports innovation and development projects in the ICT field.
The initiative offers scholarships for talented ICT students to enhance technological sustainability. UAE has invested over US $ 25 million in the improvement of ICT research and development (Brooks 102). Research institutes and centers receive funding from the UAE government to improve research capacity in ICT (Brooks 102).
The UAE government in partnership with the global ICT Fund plans to invest over US $ 50 million in promoting the ICT business in the next one year. Students in learning and research institutions have been encouraged to come up with new ICT ideas because of the prospect of receiving support from the ICT Fund (Brooks 109).
Research and scientific development are very important for any country because modern economy that is knowledge-based. The UAE government has realized this and that is why it continues to invest heavily in research activities. The ICT Funds supports an average of ten ICT projects in universities and companies every year (Brooks 109).
The ICT projects in public institution receive support of up to 75% of the total budget from the ICT Fund whereas the projects developed in companies receive half of the project budget (Abed 223). Some of the ICT projects funded by the ICT Fund include satellite communication systems, fiber optic and next generation wireless.
The Qatar Foundation is another initiative that has played a vital role in promoting scientific research in Qatar and other Arabic countries (Brooks 109). The initiative‘s mission is to encourage generation of new technological knowledge through scientific research. Conversion of applied research into a commercial reality is among the key priorities of Qatar Foundation (Brooks 116)).
UAE is among the privileged countries in the Middle East that have benefited in great way from the Qatar Foundation. The Foundation has managed to build regional research networks that encourage homegrown solutions to the social-economic problems facing Arabic countries (Brooks 116).
The research culture has grown in the Arabic world through various programs initiated by Qatar Foundation (Brooks 116). University Research Programs and Qatar Foundation programs are some of the categories of programs developed by Qatar Foundation to promote knowledge-based society (Brooks 116).
Qatar Foundation facilitates international research collaborations and funds scientific and development-based research in Qatar and other Middle East countries such as UAE (Brooks 116). Qatar Foundation has established its own research institutions which facilitate the exchange of scientific knowledge within the region and at the international stage (Brooks 178).
Qatar Foundation spends up to $ 3.5 billion every year in funding research projects both regionally and globally (Brooks 178). The Qatar Science and Technology Park is an example of research projects that have been commercialized. Increased awareness and funding has improved research activities in UAE and other countries in the Arabic world over the last five years (Brooks 178).
Initiatives such as NRF, the ICT Fund and Qatar foundation have really changed the concept of research in UAE and other Middle East countries. The perception of government and the local people about research has completely changed and research initiatives taken seriously (Brooks 178).
It is important to note that researchers in the Arabic world have enough motivation and support to inspire socio-economic development through scientific, technological, entrepreneurial and social research (Brooks 178).
Works Cited Abed, Ibrahim. United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective, London: Trident Press Ltd, 2001. Print.
Brooks, Rachel. Changing Spaces of Education: New Perspectives of the Nature of Learning, New York: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Davidson, Christopher. Dubai: Vulnerability of Success, New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.
Shaw, Ken. Higher Education in the Gulf: Problems and Prospects, London: University of Exeter Press, 1997. Print.
Qatar’s Economic Diversification Qualitative Research Essay college essay help: college essay help
Abstract With the aim to investigate, the economic diversification of Qatar, this paper has looked over the relevant literature review of economic diversification that encouraged and developed the conceptual framework of such economic strategy.
By using secondary data, this paper scrutinized the economic diversification of Qatar from three arguments, such as, development of financial sector as diversification efforts, expansion of knowledge-based economy as diversification efforts, progress of other service sectors as diversification efforts by using most recent data.
The paper concludes that the progress of economic diversification of Qatar has gained a significant progress, but due to the changing nature of global economy, the authority of Qatar needs to consider the economic diversification as a continuous process to mitigate any further risk.
Introduction Qatar is the pioneer of economic diversification among the GCC nations; although the country has been facing different economic obstacles following the impact of global financial crisis and economic downturn, the country uphold a strong record of economic development due to its diversified economic planning and moderate leadership in this region with a balance between oil and non-oil sector.
Staring from the independence in 1971, the country has discovered a vast reserve of hydrocarbon resources, but the government of Qatar introduced most dynamic economic planning to reduce its extreme dependency on the oil sector and emphasized to develop the non-oil sector taking into account of domestic needs and international market, along with regional collaboration, technical feasibility, and fiscal challenges.
This paper has aimed to investigate the degree of economic diversification of Qatar from the theoretical viewpoint and practical data available from different research in this area with to aim to provide a better understanding in this discipline that would ultimately explore new area for further research.
Literature Review of Economic Diversification This literature review of economic diversification of Qatar has organized with the prevailing idea and inspiration of the most prominent economist in the theoretical and institutional field working with sustainable development of the global economy along with their linked data where Qatar is the focal point in this regards wit the aimed to provide greater insights with practical implication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ahmadov (1) pointed out that the economic diversification is the pathways of gaining economic growth of a country through the different means without providing excessive pressure on the plentiful in natural resources of that country due to the reason that the natural resources are not renewable and the overall stock is limited.
Many scholars argued that unaccountable use of natural resources would bring profound deformation in the economy with less industrialization and reducing employment opportunity, less saving and investment that ultimately provide deprived mobility economic activity and economic growth of the country.
Klinger and Lederman (11) and Humphreys (3) added that extreme national wealth gathered from the natural resources would lead the government to turn into the autocratic regimes violating human rights and democratic values that ultimately lead to the civil war or armed conflict in the country and even foreign countries make interference in the local confects with different interests.
Thus the significance of economic diversification is that it would generate a balanced economic level where the government may not impose tremendous pressure on the natural resources for quick economic development, but balance it through right use of resources ensuring transparency, stabilizing expenditures, national saving, and investment to generate employment opportunity.
At the same, time the economic diversification initiatives would also lead to accelerate privatization, right allocation of resources, homogeneous development of different regions of the country, establishment of special economic zones, welcome foreign direct investment, including the institutional development along with the development of the capital market and legislative reformation.
Kozeibayeva (3) demonstrated that the abundant natural resourceful countries may not gain economic growth as faster as the less-resourced countries perform, the historical data of Nigeria and Venezuela and GCC counties evidenced that their over all economic progress is lesser than the poor natural resourced countries like Japan and Taiwan where rich natural resource as curse rather than blessing.
A variety of research demonstrated that resource curse in the developing countries functions to prevent economic transition with shocking effects in the structure of deep debts in the public and private sector, collapse of export and tradable sector, generate civil wars, and increase poverty with economic and political instability that destroy normal economic performance.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Qatar’s Economic Diversification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moore (1) pointed out that the economic diversification drive would provide an assortment of reimbursement to the national economy that increases economic growth by creating job opportunities with attractively high-wage that increase the living standard of the working class, increase saving and further investment and the economy gets more stability than ever by economic diversification.
The consequence of economic diversification could be indicated by the sector-wise GDP contribution, but the actual measurement of economic diversification could be assessed by the job statistics and wage incensement data provided by the employment department of a country that generates an economic diversification index.
Ahmadov (2) also argued that in the countries with enormous natural resources have the same scenario of political instability and conflict could find a balanced solution though encouragement of economic diversification that would provide long-term solutions to overcome socioeconomic unrest providing huge economic benefits by improving education, democracy and human rights.
The rising demand for economic diversification generating continuous pressure on the governments to diversify their economy, although the real scenario of all heavy hydrocarbons resourced countries in the Middle East does not prove that that the diversification is only solution for socioeconomic progress, rather it is a primary concern while political willingness of the government is a major concern.
QPC (1) added that the success of the economic diversification underlies on the dynamic leadership of the country that aimed to establish the nation upon a knowledge-based economy for last three decades with the economic policy focused on the balanced use of de natural hydrocarbon reserves with substantial use pointing to the local and international market demand.
Still the government is striving to explore further diversity with different energy projects coordinating between the public and private investments with the participation of representatives from different sectors including civil society that upholds knowledge economy estimation of Qatar along with the establishment of the knowledge-based economy as an integral part of its National Vision 2025.
Methodology This paper will carry out research following several steps to assess Qatar’s economic diversification, such as, formulation of problem statement along with objectives, and completion literature review are the key tasks in this case; however, the following figure describes other steps more elaborately –
Figure 1: – Research Methodology Flow Chart
Not sure if you can write a paper on Qatar’s Economic Diversification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: – Self generated
Research methodology is a technique of scientifically resolving the research dilemma; therefore, the researcher of this paper used case study approach and descriptive research method considering the prior knowledge and available information regarding the research problem area to discuss on economic diversification of Qatar.
Importance of Case Study Approach
Case studies enable a rich, holistic, and in depth description of data;
This approach would help the researcher co-ordinate the understanding with proper evidence;
In addition, it is helpful to study complex phenomena (Yin 6);
At the same time, it is useful method when the topic needs to discuss within a real-world context like assessing the impact of economic diversification in Qatar;
This paper mainly based on secondary data sources and the researcher particularly focus on the internet databases because it is one of the most cost-effective and familiar ways to collect processed data; however, the next figure shows secondary data collection method –
Figure 2: – The categorization of published secondary data sources
Source: – Self generated
In order to evaluate the impact of economic diversification in Qatar, the writer of this study considered a number of secondary sources, for instance, scholarly articles including Al-Ghorairi’s article in the development of the financial sector of Qatar, reports of Qatar Statistics Authority, World Bank, journal publications, and so on.
Limitation of the Study
Limited words were one of the main problems to organize this paper as the topic “assessing Qatar’s economic diversification’ is the vast area of research and should point out too many relevant factors in this regard;
In addition, the deadline was not sufficient to formulate the study;
There were no scope to collect primary data due to short word limit; consequently, it is not possible to know the opinion of the mass people regarding economic diversification of Qatar
Results and Discussion Al-Ghorairi (30) pointed out that there are insufficient accessible literatures, which are concerned with Qatar exclusively, even though it is to certain extent, enclosed in some studies, which deal with oil sector industry in the Arab states; in addition, the investigations published thus far does not take into account the latest considerable socio-economic changes or economic diversification of Qatar.
However, Al-Ghorairi (31) also suggested that in order to assess the economic diversification of Qatar, it is highly essential to closely observe the financial sector development, banking industry, expansion of insurance sector, and emergence of new financial services as well as the oil sector of the country.
Monetary circulation in an oil-based economy as Qatar depends on how much the government expends outside of the amount of credit that bank and other financial institutions provide to private-investors; however, it is notable that Qatar has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world throughout the last ten years both in terms of financial and oil-sector development.
The nominal growth rate in GDP in 2008 was 44%, headed by 25.1% and 33.7% in 2007 and 2006 correspondingly; the GDP per capita was USD $103500 in 2008, making it one of the wealthiest countries in the planet; conversely, Qatar’s banking sector has gone through a course of evolution that has mirrored the alterations in the economy (Al-Ghorairi 55).
The following figure illustrates that currently, three-forms of banking operations exist in the country, which are, namely, commercial-banks (both local and international), Islamic-banks (which focuses on Sharia law for operations), and specialized-banks –
Figure 3: Forms of banking operations
Source: Generated from Al-Ghorairi (59)
This chapter has organized with the following economic diversification efforts of Qatar with the objectives to evaluate to what extent the country has succeeded its diversification drives –
Development of Financial Sector as Diversification Efforts
IMF (4) pointed out that among the petroleum-producing countries, Qatar is the third-largest owner of hydrocarbon reserves while t placed at the top position for it of LNG conversion, but the country has halted to develop any new petroleum production facilities until 2015 as an economic strategy to accelerate its economic diversification.
The most dominant effort to Qatar’s economic diversification is to strengthening and emergent of the financial sector while the banking system is very flexible to shocks that already influenced by the global financial crisis; however the authority has emphasized to enabling its banking sector enough stronger to protect any vigorous risk and stress by taking macroprudential strategy framework.
The reformation in the banking sector has introduced dynamic initiatives providing a scheme to support for emergency warning system before any shocks that would lend a hand to mitigate the risks of the banking system of Qatar that would ultimately strengthen the financial stability of the country while the initiative would continue to build up the domestic bond markets.
Al-Ghorairi (56) pointed out that the banking system in Qatar remains backward due to its historical and political background that engendered with the independence and the country gained the membership of IMF in 1972 while the country had not any private banking system prevailed and following the IMF membership guidance the country introduced commercial banking system in the country.
At present, there are eighteen (18) banks operating their business in Qatar, some of them domestic and the others are foreign operation introduced through the license of Qatar Central Bank the national central monetary authority that administer and control fiscal and monitory policy of the country.
The banking system of Qatar was quite different from the global banking operation while the oil export remittances transferred by the collaboration of Arab and foreign banks, now the reformation of he banking sector has aimed to explore it in context of global banking system to coup with the changing economic dynamics of the country.
Now the banking sector of Qatar has gained the capabilities to attract funds and utilize that fund in the financial instruments as well as asset-backed trading, moreover the banking sector has gained enough strength to provide equity finance in context of risk sharing, it also generated saving habit of the local people as part of their corporate social responsibility.
Like other Islamic countries, Qatar has introduced Islamic banking system called which is a profit loss-sharing scheme rather than fixed interest-based baking derived from the Islamic ‘Shariah’ law as the religion stands against interest and to prohibited interest-based transaction, this agenda aimed to legalize the banking system from the religion viewpoint.
The model of Islamic bank has facilitated the banking system with a great opportunity to impose the extreme burden of loss on the customers account in the name of Islamic banking while the modern baking sector collapsed due to the credit crush in 2009 following the global financial crisis.
Besides the banging sector, Qatar has significantly developed its stock market named Qatar Exchange and integrated it with the GCC Stock Markets, it has introduced bond market, and private equity market, including new financial services like insurance industry along with the growth of Takaful Market that explored the non-banking financial service sector with landmark success through contribution to the GDP.
In 1995, the government encouraged equity market of Qatar by establishing the Doha Securities Market (DSM) that generated huge domestic investment facilities and the development measured through the number of listed companies which was 43 during 2008 and the market capitalization was QAR six billion and explored up to QAR 279 billion in that period.
The stock markets of the GCC nations have been improving day by day with a greater openness for the foreign investors along with expatriates, the highest degrees of readiness of the Qatar has evidenced by permitting GCC citizens and foreigners to take part in the large level of capital market that sincerely increased the trading levels with superior foreign ownership.
Development of Knowledge-based Economy as Diversification Efforts
Planning Council (8) reported that the knowledge economy in Qatar based on four pillars, such as, ICT, education, innovation, and econ incentive regime; however, the government has already created a national ICT policy for the future development of the nation societal issues in profound ways, enhancing educational sector and offering outstanding healthcare services.
In addition, ICT Qatar (3) stated that ICT based economy of Qatar would develop rapidly while Qatar’s mobile penetration stands at 167%, more than 89% people have computer, and near 70% people of this country use broadband.
At the same time, ICT Qatar (5) and Planning Council (8) argued that improvement of ICT sector would enhance digital literacy and develop the skills for innovation, foster economic development, advance the quality and cost-efficiency of present manufacturing process, building a centralized government data center.
The government initiated to develop ICT sector as part of their diversification process; however, the following figure demonstrates that ICT strategy –
Figure 4: Qatar’s long-term initiatives as the basis for ICT master plan
The Impacts of Political and Economic Factors on Marketing in Emerging Markets Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Business in the emerging markets
The influence of economic factors
The impacts of the political factors
The impacts of political and economic factors on marketing
Marketing McDonald products and services in India and China
Introduction Various new markets have emerged in the 21st century. In fact, powerful forces have transformed the emerging market economies. Literature shows that the way firms and corporations conducted their businesses have changed due to the movement of organizations, individuals and goods across the borders. In the past, foreign debts, hyperinflation, and military coup dominated the news of emerging nations.
For instance, India and China became the renowned tigers and dragons that represented the image of the emerging markets. On the other hand, Brazil was known as a country that represented the future generation. Irrespective of such appealing features, these markets presented numerous challenges to global marketers.
The last decade generated immense shifts and outstanding changes in the political and economic power balance. These have transformed the manner in which organizations perform their business operations. Most scholars assert that the term emerging economies is no longer suitable.
These nations have emerged and only pursue key adjustment strategies. In the global economy, emerging markets are now seen to be integral market players. These economies have remarkable features that can spearhead the growth of corporations (Fletcher and Crawford, 2011).
This paper investigates the economic and political impacts that are encountered by marketers in the emerging economies. The paper reports the impacts of economic and political factors on marketing the McDonald products in China and India. It offers practical recommendations that should be implemented by the corporation that want to expand their business operations to the emerging markets.
Business in the emerging markets Emerging markets attracts various corporations in terms of few domestic competitors, the increasing number of middle class, and expanding populations. However, there is a guarantee neither for growth nor success in these emerging markets. Often, the emerging markets are associated with tough business environments (Bettis and Hitt, 1995).
The risks and challenges that are common to the emerging markets can only be experienced after a corporation has entered into the new markets. There are different levels of bureaucratic interferences and varying business practices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reports indicate that BRICS nations have conducted their business operations with corporations found in the developed countries. According to a World Bank report, out of the top 183 nations, China is ranked number 87, India 139, Russia 124, and Brazil 120 (Khanna and Palepu, 2000).
The most prevalent challenge that corporations face when doing businesses in the emerging markets is the control over the economic interest rates. Therefore, before doing business in the emerging markets, it is advisable that corporations should carry out market research. This assists in understanding the markets where a company wants to relocate its business operations.
Given that emerging nations provide markets that offer business growth prospects, it is difficult for marketers to conduct research on consumers. Besides, the growth rates of markets in Europe and the United States have slowed down.
Thus, businesses that export their products and services to such markets must understand the challenges and opportunities present in the emerging markets (Zou and Fu, 2011). These will help them to execute effectual business development plans.
The influence of economic factors Developed countries such as Europe, Japan, and the US have reported cases of delays and slow growth periods. Markets in these nations have experienced imbalances that are expected to prolong into the future. The consumption levels have dropped, most consumers are now retirees, and access to credits is restricted. Therefore, it is not easy for companies to get consumers.
Whereas developed economies continue to deteriorate, the emerging markets are reporting remarkable performances.
The key emerging markets such as Brazil, India and China are reporting overwhelming economic growths compared to the developed world (Cavusgil, Ghauri and Agarwal, 2002). In fact, the up-and-coming marketplaces are export motivated. They have entrenched financial bodies as well as well-established business ventures and asset inflows.
We will write a custom Essay on The Impacts of Political and Economic Factors on Marketing in Emerging Markets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In China and Russia, corporations have constructed high-priced real estates. Businesses find it relevant trading in these emerging market economies. The economic environments are very stable and offer adequate mobility. Besides, abject poverty in the emerging nations such as Brazil and India has considerably declined in the past years (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2007).
The inflation rate that has often lessened the purchasing power parity of the deprived individuals over the past years has dropped in the emerging market economies. Most citizens in these markets become a part of the reliable consumers.
Nevertheless, another wave of market clientele has cropped up. The banking systems in the emerging markets have integrated these classes of affluent groups. Thus, it is anticipated that economic growth will be increased further by expanding the available credit facilities (Douglas and Craig, 1986).
The emerging market economies have also changed their exchange rate systems. They now have stable domestic currencies, which help marketers, foreign-based corporations, and investors to have confidence in these economies (Shama and Merrell, 1997).
However, the exchange rate reforms have increased the number of domestic investors and reduced capital flight. Foreign corporations that want to introduce their products and services in the emerging market economies might find it rather difficult to achieve their objectives. They will be competing against the domestic and entrenched corporations.
The impacts of the political factors Marketing in the emerging market economies is somehow tricky. The citizens are always protected by the state from external interference and from opening up to the global economy. This implies that the emerging market consumers are accustomed to protection from the external corporations.
Such an occurrence is usually detrimental to foreign marketers and investors. In fact, emerging markets like China and India have their national pride issues. They may be compelled to disregard any foreigner marketer who wishes to promote products and services (White, 2000).
Opening up these countries’ economies to the external world would imply subjecting the nation to new cultures as well as different standards and ethics. For instance, introducing fast food in the domestic markets could be seen as a foreign investment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impacts of Political and Economic Factors on Marketing in Emerging Markets by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To the generations, the societal structure and fabrication could be altered by introducing new fast food products. In case the Chinese and Indians do not trust the product change, they may be compelled to refute and discontinue the introduction of products in the markets (Fawzy and Dworski, 2010).
The impacts of political and economic factors on marketing China has currently the second largest economy in Asia. The country has drawn the attention of most product exporters. This country conducts most of its joint trade with Canada. It has stylish purchasers’ experience, superior disposable earnings, and huge inhabitants (Jain, 1989). These make China one of the major emerging markets for McDonald Company products.
Conducting businesses in China needs the corporation marketers to invest ample resources and time in its business ventures given that China appears to be a multifaceted market. For instance, McDonald Corporation vendors must set up bureaus.
Further economic resources will be necessary for transformation, endorsement, ads, lawful services, and housing. Any corporation that wants to set its presence in China must register its trademarks, patents, and copyright with approved agencies in China (Luo, Tan and Shenkar, 1998).
In India, the population growth rate emerges to be high. It is now predicted to be amongst the top five most populated nations. India offers a potential niche for the telecommunication and infrastructural corporations.
The economic performance of China is remarkable and foreign investors always find it easy to start up their businesses in this nation. The foreign policies adopted by both China and India prevent their currencies from inflating (Doole and Lowe, 2008).
The first region to return to its normalcy after the global financial crisis was Asia. Most businesses reported the least slowdown in the undertaken economic activities. China surpassed Japan in this region with respect to nominal GDP and is currently the largest Asian economy. Both China and India have massive populations. The population of China alone is reported to be 1.30 billion.
The economic growth rate for China is striking and is anticipated to outdo that of the United States by the financial year 2017 (Peng and Luo, 2000). India has achieved outstanding growth impetus in the previous years. It has a strong market growth indication.
For example, India is an open market with educated workers, high saving rates, and high incomes. Both India and China offer viable marketing opportunities for companies such as McDonald. This company looks forward to expanding its business operations in such favorable political and economic environments.
Like most Latin American economies, India and China enjoy political stabilities. There are booms in the incoming foreign investments. The state governments have implemented measures to ensure that these emerging economies are strong. With vast resources and improved economic prospects, these emerging markets are good for marketing McDonald products.
Although cultural factors might pose barriers to these globally recognized corporation, India and China have continued to attract additional foreign investors. These have alleviated problems encountered in conducting business. In fact, they have increased the level of transparency, boosted the economic stability, and improved the level of infrastructural development (Khanna and Palepu, 1997).
Marketing McDonald products and services in India and China The emerging economies are buoyant and create vast potentials for corporations like McDonald. The potentials created in the Chinese and Indian markets are sources of great enthusiasm amongst competing businesses. These countries have created numerous business opportunities for this company to explore and utilize.
However, marketers need to implement winning business strategies to acquire dominant market shares. This will help to avoid marketing challenges in these emerging market economies (Ayhan and Eswar, 2011). While China has a pool of economic resources, the per capita income is below one sixth compared to that of an average United States employee.
The poor domestic infrastructural facilities in both China and India have limited the uniform growth distribution. The countries direct further development and investments to the big cities. These challenges are not only faced by India and China, but Brazil, Russia, Chile, and South Africa also encounter identical growth and development barriers.
In these markets bribery, private security, and frail foundations have made the commerce atmosphere challenging. As a result, investors in these markets have been discouraged.
As nations constantly engage in global business operations, the legal protections and the transparency levels will gradually improve (Jansson, 2007). This will take time. Businesses and international corporations are cautioned to perform research on the unique marketing challenges reported in every emerging market economy.
Recommendations To be dominant market players, marketers should identify the emerging market economy that best suits the services and products offered by McDonald. Factors that should be considered by the marketers include the clients’ dynamics, competition, and local demands. The promotion strategies include the trading activities, ads necessities and rules as well as marketplace segmentation.
In China, the subject of artistic variation is rather insightful. McDonald marketers must build mutual trust to carry out business operations in this area. They should build suitable meeting channels to create enduring business affiliations. It is important to show respect when marketing products in the Chinese markets.
Marketing products in India requires that McDonald should refine its market entry plan. India offers a big market for McDonald products and marketers must consider each market separately. Open credits should be avoided, and marketers need to use information from the decision makers.
Conclusion All emerging market economies offer viable market and marketing opportunities for McDonald products and services. In fact, in the emerging markets there are excellent business opportunities for building product or service brands. These nations offer the largest markets and display the best economic growth rates and political stability.
However, there are numerous political and economic challenges that may hinder the marketing of McDonald Corporation products. It is important for marketers to understand the overall growth potentials and the business environment before starting business operations. Products must be differentiated to suit all consumers’ needs and market demands.
References Ayhan, M.,
Characteristics of Marcus Camillus and Augustus Octavian Compare and Contrast Essay college admission essay help
Marcus Furius Camillus is the Roman leader and military hero who managed to triumph for times. The Roman statesman is also considered the second founder of Rome. Augustus is the first founder of the Roman Empire. Therefore, leaders could be regarded as the founders of the Roman Empire.
Hence, during the reign of Augustus, the Romans experienced the peaceful existence for over two centuries despite the continuous expansion of the emperor. The wisdom of the Roman Emperor consisted in his ability to favor expansion policy with no harm to the Roman population.
In his book, Augustus mentioned, “I made the sea peaceful and freed it of pirates” (section 25 n. p.). Hence, the Roman ruler managed to establish allegiance with Spanish, Gallic, and African governments.
Unlike Augustus, Camillus was known as a tyrant who captured the Rome through violence and war. Acknowledged as a military leader, the Roman Senators appointed Marcus as the dictator to confront the Gauls. Despite his image of a violent and aggressive leader, Camillus managed to negotiate with Brennus, the Gallic leader, and made him leave Rome.
The day after, the Gauls returned with refreshed army, but were defeated by Camillus. As a result, the Roman soldier was later appointed as Roman Emperor and was known as the dictator who reigned for the longest period.
In the book, Livy refers to these events to emphasize the courage of the Roman leader: “…a general, selected by the fates, both for destruction of that city, and the preservation of his native country, Marcus Furius Camillus, was nominated dictator” (pg 475). The Roman Senate recognized the powerful tactics of fearless soldier although his violent attitude to the people was not welcomed.
Both leaders brightly expressed their commitment to the welfare of Roman people and Italy. In this respect, Augustus is also known as the one who donated land, grain, and money to the Romans to improve their welfare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While enumerating his achievements, Augustus specifically refers to success in war and foreign policies and states, “the whole of Italy of its own free will swore allegiance to me and demanded me as the leader in the war” (sec. 25 n. p.).
The first Roman Emperor reconciled conflicts on his territory and restored the stability in the country. He also received various awards and honors, which were represented in historic documents. The official title was among the highest honors assigned to a Roman.
Unlike Augustus, Camillus’s achievements were less recognized among the Roman people. This is of particular concern to his return to the Capitolium. The Romans were not entirely satisfied with the policy and heroism of the dictator and, therefore, he was regarded as a nothing but an evil tyrant whose authority should be respected to avoid conflicts.
However, his talent in military strategy forced the Roman Senators to accept his power and appoint him the governmental leader.
In order to emphasize Camillus’s gift in conducting war, Livy notes, “they had used the most effectual means which human wisdom could suggest, for insuring success in giving the command to Marcus Furius, the greatest general of the age” (pg 482). Therefore, Camillus is considered a more aggressive leader who methods of gaining power and control were confined to war and violence.
Both Roman founders were recognized as outstanding military leaders, but their military tactics differed significantly from each other. In particular, Augustus managed to strike the balance between constant war expansion and peaceful existence in the Empire. Although the Emperor was constantly involved into war actions, the civil population did not experience any military intrusion in their daily lives.
Therefore, he could be considered as a wise and experienced ruler. What is more important is that the Roman Emperor managed to restore the state from war actions by constantly constructing temples, churches, and buildings. His donations of lands and money are also highlighted in the reading:
We will write a custom Essay on Characteristics of Marcus Camillus and Augustus Octavian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Four times I assisted the treasury with my own money, so that I transferred to the administrators of the treasury 150.000.000 sesterces” (sec. 17, n. p.). In this respect he could be considered not only a wise and experienced ruler, but also a generous mentor.
In contrast to Augustus, Marcus Camillus was less concerned with the peaceful welfare of the Roman population. His main purpose lied in expanding the territories and conquering new lands. Livy underlines Marcus’s ambitions and focuses on his struggles against the rivals: “he had reduced the spoils of Veii to nothing; daringly abusing the nobles, in their absence” (pg 486).
Therefore, the general made everything possible to take control of other territories and prove his superiority. With regard to the above-presented debates, it should be stated that both military leaders made significant contribution to the economic and political development of the Roman Empire.
Their methods and military tactics were extremely different. Nevertheless, both historic figures remained in the Roman history as outstanding dictators and talented rulers that managed to empower the Roman people and provide new ways for the prosperity.
Works Cited Augustus. Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Trans. Peter Brunt, and James Moore UK: Oxford University Press. 1969. Web.
Livy. The History of Rome. US: T. Cadell and W. Davies. 1797. Print.
“How to Fight a Price War” by Rao et al Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary The article “How to Fight a Price War” by Rao et al (2000), provides business leaders with well-thought out and explicitly discussed strategies on how to deal with the price war without necessarily reducing the prices of products and/or services.
The authors illuminate the fact that the price war is increasingly becoming widespread in organizational settings because leaders tend to view a price shift as an effortless, swift, and reversible endeavor.
However, leaders need to know that they are endowed with an arsenal of options other than price cuts that they may want to consider so as to remain productive and relevant in today’s competitive business environment. The bulk of the article details these options and strategies.
Main Points In their critical discussion, Rao et al (2000) outline the strategies that managers may want to use to fight the price war as follows:
taking inventory by understanding the causes and characteristics of the price war through undertaking a critical diagnosis of the market scene,
stopping the war before it starts by making sure that competitors not only understand the justification behind your pricing policies, but also the potential consequences of lowering prices,
responding with non-price actions such as customer price sensitivities, quality interventions, highlighting of negative consequences related to price reductions, and help-seeking behaviors,
using selective pricing actions such as multiple-part pricing, quantity discounts, loyalty programs, time-of-use pricing and bundling,
fighting it out with competitors through direct, retaliatory price cuts,
retreating by ceding some market share to competitors.
Critique The article is a must read for price leaders and other organizational managers engaged in ensuring that their respective organizations remain competitive in the face of extensive and sometimes back-biting price wars.
The authors not only undertake a critical analysis of the various strategies that could be used to quell price disruptions from competitors, but they also provide industry specific, practical case examples of organizations that have used these interventions with a fair share of success.
From the reading, however, it appears that some interventions are more successful in selected industry-specific organizations than in others. The strategy of retreating by ceding some market share, for instance, seems to work well with technology-oriented firms (e.g., computer manufacturing companies), but fails in service-oriented firms (e.g., fast food firms and hotels).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Equally, organizations within the carrier industry seem to benefit from some interventions, but certainly not from all the interventions highlighted (Rao et al, 2000). It would have been more plausible if the authors had explicitly stated which interventions are relevant to particular industries.
There are two strategies that catch they eyes of the reader due to their intense practicability – responding with non-price actions and using selective price actions (Rao et al., 2000). In the former strategy, it can be argued that most global organizations doing business today are emphasizing quality aspects rather than price, with results demonstrated in positive image and reputation.
However, the authors could have taken more time to explicate the dynamics of complex market scenarios, where neither non-price actions nor selective price actions seems to work. A case in point is the Chinese market, where players seem not to care much about quality issues and government mandarins heavily subsidize local industries to protect them from stiff competition.
Conclusion The article introduces some fundamental concepts than could be used by organizations to fight the price war without necessarily triggering retaliatory price slashing, which could be costly to their competitive as well as operational efficiencies.
Reference Rao, A.R., Bergen, M.E.,
The Role of Motivation in Online Collaboration from an Active Learning Perspective Research Paper essay help online
Introduction The rapid global advancement into technological transition has led to enhanced IT applications from industrial to educational field. Concerning the educational perspective, IT development has widened up educational opportunities to students who may be could not afford to acquire education due to geographical factors or financial and time constraints, among others.
Xie et al. (2011) affirm that developed computer software and related applications have enabled Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning activities to extend internationally, which people commonly refer to as “distance-learning” within universities and tertiary colleges. Active learning is one of the distance-learning components that have received substantial attention among students over the past decades.
According to Prince (2004), active learning generally refers to instructional methods used by lectures to engage students in lively participative learning. Active online learning calls for maximum cooperation and is normally challenging without proper motivation. Therefore, this essay examines the role of motivation in online collaboration from an active learning perspective based on prior empirical studies conducted.
Motivation Motivation conventionally refers to an inducement or force that drives individuals to convert their feelings into action. Motivation probably remains the most fundamental thing that learners or workers need to improve their performance. Xie et al. (2011) assert that motivation “is a dynamic internal construct that reflects students’ emotional and psychological state during a certain time period” (p.18).
As encompassed in other studies examining the impact of motivation in improving students learning in distance learning, unsuccessfulness in students has been resulting from lack of proper participation, with motivation being the most important factors. This assertion means that motivation is the most contributing factor to students’ success in all forms of learning systems.
In the context of distance learning, motivation has been a driving force in improving the social interaction, which is the most imperative in active learning aspect that influences collaborative problem-solving. Despite this element, distance learning has been remained a challenge among learners due to underutilisation of motivation.
Active learning As described earlier, active learning is a learning method used by teachers, tutors, instructors, and lectures to increase students’ engagement by conducting meaningful activities that result to integration of new ideas into the learning. Prince (2004) postulates, “The core elements of active learning are student activity and engagement in the learning process” (p.223).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Active learning has been in existence since time immemorial with students engaging in homework and laboratory practical activities as traditional lecturing techniques. Therefore, with the continuity of such practices within educational departments in several countries, traditional practices might soon be doomed considering the enhanced technology in all spheres of life.
This aspect has led to an active online discussion, popularly known as online learning or distance learning. According to Chiong and Jovanovic (2012), active learning in distance learning perspective may include individual online participation, online collaborative group work, online problem-based learning, or online cooperative learning, which all involve active participation in the online discussions.
Within the active learning perspective, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning forms the core discussion of this paper. Collaborative learning is progressively becoming one of the instructional online learning approaches that are empirically proven through several studies.
Collaborative online learning groups have increased joint intellectual effort by students in their participation, with students working in groups of more than two individuals mutually searching for better understanding elucidations towards a common goal (Prince, 2004).
Collaborative learning normally becomes challenging under limited motivation, but if well practiced, students are capable of reaching their high academic expectations. Encompassed in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, famous theories including Self-Determination Theory have been useful in determining students’ participation in online discussions, with prior evidence by other studies revealing that motivation is a key learning factor that enhances students’ participation in distance learning (Xie, et al. 2011).
In fact, the main purpose of establishing online discussions in distance learning was primarily to extend collaborative learning approaches to overcome the monotonous traditional class attending approaches, which have become less enthusing.
Computer-Supported Collaborative learning mainly includes learning online using computer applications. It represents a significant shift from traditional monotony of lecture-cantered locale in universities and tertiary colleges.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Role of Motivation in Online Collaboration from an Active Learning Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Online collaborative learning has changed the students’ perception from dismal attitudes towards active learning as students find learning as a constructive process, an inherently social process, and a diverse practice where they can achieve their educational goals through enhanced involvement, civic responsibility, cooperation, and teamwork (Chiong
Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis Expository Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Systemic physical training and TB prevention
Vitamin D in prevention and treatment of TB
Introduction TB, a contagious chronic disease that primarily affects the lungs is caused by the inhalation of Mycobacterium bacilli (Hanif
Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? Argumentative Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction The family has traditionally occupied a central place in society with communities hailing it as the basic unit of society. Families provide the social core in all societies and the nuclear family is present in all societies in the world. The unifying function of the family has been credited with the development and advancement of societies since time immemorial.
For this reason, the family unit is unanimously considered as the basic building block of a successful and functional society. This is the ideal institution within which children are created and brought up in a protected environment until they are able to take care of themselves.
The family also serves as a tool for socialization since the shared moral and social values of the community are inculcated in the children withing the family setting.
For these reasons, the family is assumed to be an innate experience with some authors suggesting that the family is a natural institution. However, this notion has been questioned by anthropologists whose studies have led them to question the “naturalness” of the family unit.
The findings of these scholars have led them to conclude that the family is not a natural thing but rather a construction of the society. This paper will set out to discuss the ideas of some of the most outstanding anthropologists of the 20th century, Adam Kuper, David Schneider, and Claude Levi-Strauss, in order to show that the family is a fabricated thing.
The Idea of the Family The family is regarded as the basic unit of society and at its most base level; it is made up of a man, woman, and their children. Kuper (1982) states that the family preceded the formation of the society and in these early stages, it comprised of a male figure who exercised jurisdiction over his wives and children. Each family paid no regard to the other and acted in its own self-interest.
The aggregation of families was the next step in social evolution and the ties of kinship became the basis of societies. The family provided the basis on which societies were ordered with expanded extended families serving as the social core.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reproduction is universally considered to be the basis of family relations since each person must have a biological father and mother. This simple parent-child relationship makes it possible to perform genealogical tracing since it is a biological fact that a man and a woman must be involved in procreation.
Therefore, the concept of kinship was formulated based on this blood relation and relationships though marriage unions between previously unrelated parties. The naturalness of the family has been presupposed for many centuries due to the prevalence of this social grouping. However, the arguments made by anthropologists suggest that the family is a cultural construct.
Family: A Fabricated Concept Adam Kuper’s Ideas
Adam Kuper suggests that the family was formulated as an organization through which people could live in harmony and accomplish greater exploits. Before the concept of family, each individual acted at his own discretion and there was no order or system of laws in place.
Kuper (1982) records that the original state of human society was characterized by promiscuity rather than family life and this status quo was detrimental to the raising of children. This primitive existence was unsustainable since violence and anarchy reigned. The family unit emerged as a more ordered system of procreation within which the child could exist in a more secure environment.
As the family concept became more sophisticated, legal paternity became recognized and the child could grow in an environment where he/she had a mother and a father. The extended patriarchal family group provided the basis for jural order and continuity (Kuper 1982, p.73).
The earliest form of government was therefore based on the family concept. The political ideas were grounded in the assumption that “kinship in blood is the sole possible ground of community in political functions” (Kuper 2008, p.723). The family was formulated as the best structure to foster social stability and encourage good governance.
The prohibition of some relationships in some cultures while the same relationships are allowed in others is further proof that kinship is a culturally constructed concept. Human beings formulate the laws governing who should marry whom and therefore forms a family and they vary from society to society.
We will write a custom Essay on Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kuper (2008) documents that in the nineteenth century, there was no crime in incest, and there were no rules articulating which marriages were allowed or forbidden. Before the 1880s, incest was an acceptable practice in England and there were no laws against the practice.
The social perception of incest only underwent a radical change when the danger of sexual relations between fathers and daughters, or brothers and sisters began to be publicized by the National Vigilance Association. Following this, incest came to be conceived of as an offence with a victim.
Because of this change in public perception, the British Parliament passed a Law in 1907 that made incest a crime and criminalized sexual relationships between members of the immediate family. As such, the family is a fabricated institute that is prone to changes based on the public needs.
Kuper (2003) argues that the family was necessary to ensure survival in the primitive societies where division of labour was necessary. In these pre-modern societies, the nuclear family comprised of male and female enabled the parties to specialize in various activities for sustenance. The males typically acted as the hunters while the females were gatherers within a nuclear family setting.
This economic function increased the value of the family and kinship was integral for survival Kuper (2003). It is conceivable that without the economic need of family, this institution would never have been created.
Further reinforcing this supposition is the observation by anthropologists that with the rise of the individualist modern society, the economic functions of family have shrunk and each sex can manage to exist without the need of the other.
Another indication that family is a fabricated concept is the difference in preference placed on a particular side of the family by different cultures. While some cultures emphasize on matrilineal descent (kin from the mother’s lineage), others emphasize on patrilineal descent (kin through the father’s lineage).
In addition to this, the location of residence differs with some cultures promoting marriage residence at the mother’s family house while most promote residence at the father’s family house (Kuper 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If the family was a natural construct, there would be universal preferences and all cultures would follow the same conventions. The fact that different ideals are practiced by different cultures proves that family is a human construction.
The rapid changes in society that were experienced in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that the family was not an integral component of the society. During this period, consensual unions became widespread and the traditional family unit was dismantled in some circles.
Some people began to view the family as a major source of discontentment within the society and this greatly discredited the nuclear family as an unshakeable institution. The sentiments of the time are best articulated by Leach who asserts, “far from being the basis for the good society, the family with its narrow privacy and tawdry secrets, is the source of all our discontents” (Kuper 2003, p.332).
The nature of partner relationships has also experienced significant changes over the decades with a marked decline in the importance of the social origin of a partner being exhibited in all modern societies. In the past, great weight was placed on marriage with major kinship involvement in the process (Dykstra 2006).
Today, marriage unions are primarily a matter of personal choice and preference with the families on both sides of the partners being involved only marginally. In addition to this, the frequency with which family unions are dissolved has risen tremendously.
The increased rate of marriage dissolutions is blamed on the heightened emphasis on the emotional side of relationships, which leads to higher expectations and demands by both partners on each other (Dykstra 2006). In traditional marriage unions, emphasis was placed on the social and material benefits of the union.
Claude Levi-Strauss’s Ideas
Claude Levi-Strauss is credited with advancing the Structuralism theory in which he argued that the phenomena of the external world are apprehended as having distinct characteristics because of the way our senses communicate these perceptions (Voss 1977).
Human beings are predisposed to categorize things into separate units or segments and assign these things named classes. Any material object of culture or belief system is in imitation of human apprehension of nature (Levi-Strauss 1970). Man’s perception of nature as segmented is therefore responsible for his view of society as ordered.
Advocates of the family as a natural unit might argue for the “natural” nature of the family structure since it exists universally. Both primitive and civilized societies have some concept of family, which is typically made up of females and at least one male figure either related to the female(s) by blood or by marriage.
Levi-Strauss refutes this assertion by highlighting that cultures are bound to have some similarities since they are all products of human minds (Voss 1977). For this reason, universal features such as the family unit can occur.
Levi-Strauss suggests that the basis of marriage rules was to create bonds between otherwise unrelated people. He argues that the since pre-historic times, communities had the option of intermarrying among themselves or giving away their women to other communities (Johnson 2003). The communities that gave away their women cemented political alliances and thus reduced the risk of being annihilated by superior enemies.
The incest taboo was formed out of the need to enforce exogamy and therefore increase the society’s chances of survival. Voss (1977) best articulates this idea by stating that “if survival of a society is dependent upon alliance, strong sanctions against incest must be interdicted” (p.28).
The family concept was formulated as an important unifying force through which the social cohesion was fostered and propagated. Levi-Strauss formulated the alliance theory in which he argued that sibling groups were linked through the exchange of sisters in marriage thus extending sibling solidarity to larger groupings (Kuper 1982).
Levi-Strauss argued that “all the pre-modern societies of the world were organized on the basis of cross-cousin marriage” (Kuper 2008, p.726). He further stated that the family as a function of marriage was an institution that was formulated to create and maintain alliances.
These alliances took place through the exchange between groups as people married for strategic reasons such as to strengthen political alliances (Levi-Strauss 1969). Kinship served the practical purpose of preventing war by setting up a diplomatic alliance between groups.
The class structure that is based on family status is a cultural construction. Levi-Strauss considers the practice of totemism an expression of the differences among members of the society. Totemism, which is the naming of individuals or clans after particular plant or animal species, was a widespread practice since historical times (VonSturmer 1970).
This practice emerged from the need of man to develop a system of social ordering by giving different class structures. Human beings are able to distinguish each other according to their mutual social status, which is normally articulated in the form of social classification.
David Schneider’s Ideas
Throughout the 19th century, Americans held the view that the family relationship was biologically given and of huge importance to the society. Many Europeans also shared this assumption and they presumed that kinship was a biological outcome. However, Schneider argues that if this were the case then the same set of ideas would have been developed by other peoples across the world.
This is not the case and the family structure varied from continent to continent, and tribe to tribe. For this reason, David Schneider suggested that kinship was a function of civilization and not a feature of primitive society. According to this anthropologist, there is nothing natural about kinship and it is the production of the society.
Social conventions alone may lead to a family relationship even if there is no biological relationship between or among parties. This view is corroborated by Johnson (2003) who reveals that a person is regarded as family based on some socially prescribed duties and privileges that the person fulfils in his/her relation to others.
The manner in which people act towards each other is based on the concept of kinship, which is a construction of man. Schneider (1984) argues that there is no such thing as kinship and that “kinship” is in fact a creation of anthropologists and it has no concrete existence. Schneider (1984) suggests that family is a social construction that is useful for the allocation of rights and their transmission from one generation to the next.
The family was formulated as an entity through which continuity could be guaranteed. Patrilineage in many societies served as a landholding corporations with parents leaving property to their children. Dykstra (2006) notes that resources are “passed down from one generation to the next, in the form of gifts or inheritances for example, or in the form of financial support” (p.1).
Schneider (1984) theorizes that biological kinship is culturally constructed and it was formulated to help establish paternity with a fair degree of likelihood. He elaborates that primitive man lived at a time when promiscuity prevailed and there was no way of establishing who the child’s father was.
The concept of “marriage of pairs” was formulated to help establish paternity and this was the earliest and greatest act of human intelligence. The bonds and ties that are attributed to the sexual reproduction that occurs in the family setting are not natural but a function of the society. Schneider (1984) observes that sexual relations can occur and have significance even outside kinship.
However, the social and cultural attributes that are created when sexual reproduction occurs in a nuclear family setting are formulated by the society. Biological relations are for this reason afforded special qualities by the society. This has led to the ties being regarded as natural and inherent in the human condition.
The ties between biologically close members are not natural since they would not be special without the social and cultural connotations ascribed to them.
The socialization process is responsible for inculcating the concept of kinship in children. As a child grows up in the family, he/she is taught the logic by which his/her specific culture classifies kin and these concepts become ingrained in him/her. The child is often ignorant as to what kinship terms such as “uncle”, and “aunty” mean but he/she is brought up to attach special meaning to the relationships.
Schneider (1984) points out that the classifications of “relatives” may extend beyond the simple biological and genetic relationships with stipulated descent being included in the categories. Without the socializing process, the concept of the family would die out as individuals would not be confined to this socially prescribed structure.
Schneider strongly rejects the understanding that family has to do with reproduction and he assertively declares that kinship is essentially undefined and vacuous which since it has little that can justify it (Read 2003).
The inadequacy of blood relationships for a definition of family is accentuated by the inability for this consanguinity to account for practices such as adoption that still make fatherhood and motherhood possible. Read (2003) argues that it would be more convincing to state that family is a social convention rather than a function of procreation and parturition.
Schneider argues that the family is a fabrication since some cultures do not have words that can reasonably translate to “father” or even “child”. In his ethnographic work among the Yapese, Schneider noted that the relationship between the biological father and offspring could not be translated as “father” and “child” in the English sense of the word (Schneider 1984).
The Yapese people were able to exist without this genealogically based kinship relationship and even the passing down of property from generation to generation was not done on the basis of biological relationships.
In addition to the thoughts of the renowned anthropologists referenced herein, current developments in the family structure provide more evidence that the family is a cultural construct. The traditional gender-specific division of labour has had to change with the increased participation of women in the labour market.
Dykstra (2006) notes that the interaction between the partners who make up the family has become “more of a matter of negotiation” with the traditional gender-specific notions being all but discarded in most developed nations.
The recent legitimization of gay and lesbian family formation in many Western countries further reinforces the assertion that family is a fabricated concept. For centuries, homosexual relationships were frowned upon by societies with severe penalties being imposed on individuals who engaged in these unions.
Schneider (1997) reveals that the notion of sodomy was so abhorred in Western culture that if “justified killing and enslaving so many in the 15th and 16th centuries” (p.271). This has changed and homosexual unions are today tolerated on a greater scale.
Schneider (1997) notes that gay and lesbian rights are today asserted with antidiscrimination laws and fringe benefits being accorded to this previously marginalized sub-group. The traditional notion of family has had to be reinvented as non-heterosexual couples form relationships and become “families”.
Discussion The idea that family is a fabricated concept has led to the fall of kinship studies as modern anthropologists have abandoned the subject due to the many internal problems and theoretical weaknesses contained in it (Kuper 2003). In spite of the different approach taken in their arguments, the three thinkers analysed in this paper, Levi-Strauss, Kuper, and Schneider all contend that family is a cultural construct.
The paper has demonstrated that the prevalence of families in all communities is not an indication of their naturalness. Renowned anthropologists such as Levi-Strauss have demonstrated that the seemingly universal concept is not an indication of the naturalness of the family unit.
Rather, it is a statement of the scientific operations of classification of objects and phenomena which occurs in both Western and primitive societies. The universal family structure as we know it is a product of identical mental manipulations, which explains the seemingly self-consistent systems exhibited all over the world.
The fact that the family unity is “not what it used to be” is proof enough that the family is a fabricated unit that keeps evolving with the culture of the society.
In the recent past, alternative household organizations such as single-parent families and singles have become prevalent hence necessitating a review of the importance of the nuclear and extended family. These realities suggest that the assumption of genealogy or biology as the basis of the family is faulty since if this were the case, the family structure would remain static through time.
In spite of the understanding that the family is a fabrication, this unit will continue to play an important role in society. The nuclear family is still the engine-room of socialization and it continues to bestow economic benefits for its members. Even Schneider (1984) acknowledges that kinship is a privileged institution since it is the major building block out of which all social systems are constructed.
Conclusion This paper set out to examine the ideas of prominent anthropologists in order to demonstrate that the family is a fabricated thing. A review of these ideas has revealed that family is an ideological illusion constructed by man over the centuries. The paper has demonstrated that the concept of family started from the individual actor playing for economic and political advantage and using the family as a tool for social cohesion.
The paper has convincingly shown that most aspects of kinship are not natural but rather the social construction of various societies over the centuries.
The family relationship is not primarily one of genealogical and reproductively, instead, it is culturally specified and the manner in which it is expressed and perceived is a fabrication. It can therefore be authoritatively stated that family is not inherently human or universal; rather, it is a cultural construction that is arbitrary and variable in nature.
References Dykstra, A 2006, Family relationships: the ties that bind, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Amsterdam.
Johnson, C 2003, Claud Levi-Strauss: The formative years, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kuper, A 1982, ‘Lineage Theory: A Critical Retrospective’, Ann. Rev. Anthropol, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.71-95.
Kuper, A 2003, ‘What Really Happened to Kinship and Kinship Studies’, Journal of Cognition and Culture, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 329-335.
Kuper, A 2008, ‘Changing the subject – about cousin marriage, among other things’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 14, no.1, pp. 717-735.
Levi-Strauss, C 1969, The Elementary Structures of Kinship, Beacon Press, Boston.
Levi-Strauss, C 1970, The raw and the cooked, John and Harper, New York.
Read, D 2001, What is Kinship? In The Cultural Analysis of Kinship: The Legacy of David Schneider and Its Implications for Anthropological Relativism, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Schneider, D 1984, A critique of the study of kinship, University of Michigan Press, Michigan.
Schneider, D 1997, ‘The power of culture: notes on some aspects of gay and lesbian kinship in America today’, Cultural Anthropology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 270-274.
VonSturmer, J 1970, Claude Levi-Strauss: the anthropologist as everyman, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Voss, S 1977, ‘Claude Levi-Strauss: The Man and His Works’, Nebraska Anthropologist, vol. 145, no.1, pp. 21-38.
US Exceptionalism in Constructing and Conceptualizing a Terrorist Proposal essay help
Introduction Since its foundation in the 1700s, the united states of amerce has thought itself as exceptional. In addition, other nations have perceived the US as largely different from them. According to Deudney and Meiser,1 America is different from other nations in the world in a number of ways. However, the most obvious is the fact that the US is by far the most successful superpower in modern times.
The US success is evident in its current exceptional position as the only superpower in the modern world.2.3 Despite its political, economic and social prowess, a number of factors such as terrorism and the go-go China currently threaten the United States of America.
Terrorism is by far the most significant threat to the stability position of the US as the world’s economic and military superpower. In fact, the nation spends massive resources in protecting itself from terrorism every year, which includes its foreign policy, international intelligence and domestic security.
According to Buzan,4 the US’s behavior in the modern world seems to be largely inclined towards protecting herself from acts of terrorism that would otherwise undermine her position as the world’s sole superpower in the modern times.
Purpose of the study The purpose of this discussion is to find out some reasons behind the personality of terrorism and terrorist as perceived by Americans.
The paper will seek to answer the question on the actual identity of a terrorist, the implications of terrorist on American society. In addition, the discussion will attempt to determine why the global security is solely against the Al-Qaeda and Islamic organizations despite having dozens of other terrorist groups.
Study questions What are the reasons behind the personality of the terrorist in the American perception?
Who is the terrorist and who is not, and what kind of implications that have on the American society?
Why is the global securitization solely against Al-Qaeda and Islamic organizations while there are dozens of other terrorist groups that are not linked to Islam globally
Why are we concentrating on securitizing terrorism in understanding of United States interests?
Hypothesis of the study From a critical view of US’s behavior, it is worth noting that the United States has some exceptionalsim in constructing and conceptualizing terrorism and a terrorist, and applies its own perceptions on a terrorist in its efforts to maintain the position as the world’s sole superpower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion America’s perception on the personality of a terrorist and terrorism
The question on who a terrorist is and who a terrorist is not remains an important topic of debate in the modern world. The personality of a terrorist largely lies within the society’s perception of terrorism and the past trend of terrorism in that society.
Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the nations perception of terrorism has largely grown to demonstrate certain characteristics that are not only exceptional, but also indicates the exceptional behavior of the US in the last one decade.5.6
It is worth noting that although there are tens of other terrorist groups in various parts of the world, American definition of a terrorist brings seems to refer to extremist Islamic groups with the whole purpose of undermining America’s efforts to control the world economic, social and political system. America’s exceptional paradigm of a terrorist has grown from the 9/11 attacks on Washington and New York.
The new paradigm has developed from the Bush administration policies of total war against terrorism whose aim was to eliminate Islamic groups that were considered terrorist organizations.7
The policies created in the first bush administration were by far nearly anti-Semitic or anti-Islam; although the claim was that the policies were actually not based on religion. It is worth noting that the Bush administration put almost its entire focus on Islamic groups, yet other terrorist groups existed in other parts of the world.
America’s policies against terrorism and the need to create an international security system that would put the nation in the control of world security system seem to be largely based on the need to eliminate her threats. Of course, the most significant threat to America’s position in the world points towards terrorism and anti-Christian movements and groups in the Middle East and the Islamic world in general.
America’s foreign policies and perceptions on terrorism: Is securitization applicable on terrorism applicable for the whole world?
America’s perception of a terrorist does not necessarily explain who is and who is not a terrorist because the definition of a terrorist within the context of America is actually inclined towards the threat posed by Islamic terrorist groups such as the Al-Qaeda. Since the 9/11 attacks on Washington and New York, America’s perception towards terrorism took a turn, with all efforts being directed towards the elimination of Al-Qaeda.
We will write a custom Proposal on US Exceptionalism in Constructing and Conceptualizing a Terrorist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, consider the March 2003 attacks on Iraq. Although the United States claim was based on the need to eliminate Sadaam Hussein’s funding and support to terrorist groups, and particularly the Al-Qaeda, the disapproval of a possible military intervention in Iraq was supported by a number of world nations within the wide context of the United Nations Security Council.
However, the US displayed her exceptionalism by ignoring the warning by the UN and proceeding with the attacks, even though there was little evidence of Iraq’s support to world terrorism.
From a critical analysis of America’s perception of a terrorist, it is worth noting that the terrorist according to America’s definition is a ‘person acting as an agent of or on behalf of extremist Islamic groups whose aim is to threaten the position of the US as the sole political, social and economic superpower’. Within the perception of the United States, any person acting in this manner must be considered a terrorist.
However, the definition created by the United States does not necessarily explain who is not a terrorist. In fact, it is not appropriate to consider America’s definition of terrorist as leaving out other non-Islamic groups, but the America’s perception seems to be largely based on its position as an exceptional society.8
For instance, America was founded on a basis that was largely Christian, specifically Protestant and with strong Calvinist and Puritan beliefs. Such beliefs position America and a Christian society and with Christian principles, which perhaps explains where the country’s anti-Islamic acts are based on when it comes to fight against world terrorism.
Impact of America’s exceptional position on terrorism on world securitization and global understanding of security system
So, why is the global securitization against Al-Qaeda and Islamic organizations while tens of other terrorist groups exist? In addition, why is the world concentrating on securitization terrorism within the understanding of the United States? The answers to these questions lie within the wide context of America’s exceptionalism and its position as the sole superpower in the modern world.
Globalization of intelligence took a new beginning after the 9/11 attacks on the US. American became more and more interested in taking a central role in the process of globalization of securitization. In particular, America’s intelligence and international relation have largely been based on the nation’s need to control fight terrorism, especially the Al-Qaeda.
Most efforts by the United States to create international relations and understanding have largely been focused towards the Middle East. According to Svendsen9, America’s 21st century foreign policies have developed close relationships with a number of nations in the world, but the main aim seem to be the need to control terrorism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on US Exceptionalism in Constructing and Conceptualizing a Terrorist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the relationship between the United States and some Muslim nations such as UAE, Qatar, Egypt, Turkey and Saudi Arabia have are based on the understanding that Islamic extremist groups such as Al-Qaeda are a great threat to the presence of the United States in these nations.
Secondly, America’s efforts to develop close relationships with other western nations, particularly Britain and other nations in the European Union, are largely based on the need to develop an American understanding and perceptions of terrorism within these nations and from it, gain the required support in dealing with the threat associated with terrorism.
Conclusion These facts that tend to explain why every nation with a close relationship with the United States takes serious America’s stand on security and terrorist issues. It appears that these nations have taken the perception that Al-Qaeda is a real threat to their economies, societies and the security system.
It is evident that almost the entire world has adopted the American way of thinking, which America applies in its efforts to play the most crucial rule of controlling the process of globalization of securitization.
Bibliography Buzan , Barry. American Exceptionalism and September 11: Understanding the Behavior of the Sole Superpower. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Deudney, Daniel and Jeffery Meiser. American exceptionalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Patman, Robert. “Globalization, the New US Exceptionalism and the War on Terror.” Third World Quarterly 27 (2008): 963-986
Svendsen, Adam. “The Globalization of Intelligence since 9/11: Frameworks and Operational Parameters.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21 (2008): 129-144
Footnotes 1 Daniel Deudney and Jeffery Meiser, American exceptionalism, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 2-4
2 Robert Patman “Globalization, the New US Exceptionalism and the War on Terror,” Third World Quarterly 27 (2008): 964
3 Barry Buzan, American Exceptionalism and September 11: Understanding the Behavior of the Sole Superpower, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 12-19
4 Buzan, 13
5 Patman 965
6 Deudney and Meiser 3
7 Buzan 14
8 Patman 967
9 Adam Svendsen, The Globalization of Intelligence since 9/11: Frameworks and Operational Parameters,” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21 (2008): 129
Theories of Rent and Urban Economics Explicatory Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Theories of rent and urban economics
UK Map and Central London Data Table
Patterns in office rents
Introduction Modern urban areas can be defined and critically discussed from various perspectives. Diverse theories that define urban development do exist. The purpose of this study is to examine the various theories employed in urban economics and how the theories affect urban development in the United Kingdom. The approach used evaluates how policies that characterize modern urban business environment are employed.
The study interprets how land rates are used in ensuring that office rent charges are clearly understood and the market’s office rent fair charges are effectively defined.
In the study, global points of view are used to explain how land rates help to determine the level of efficiency and cost effectiveness in the manner in which urban areas are developed and how the rental fees for offices in metropolitan areas are determined (McCann 2001: 6-15).
Housing in urban areas defines the relevance and economic standards of how best land rates, leases and rents are defined and implemented. Most housing policies help to shape the dynamics and relevance of various aspects of land use and the degree to which urban land rates shape the rent rates and operational standards of housing units.
Imperfect competition in real estate businesses greatly contributes to the ever increasing dynamics of various business processes in the allocation, selling and leasing of offices (Capello
Judicial Views about Polygamy Thesis college essay help online
Introduction The discussion of Polygamy in America has caused a great judicial debate regarding its legal status. Now, with the changing societal perceptions regarding same-sex marriages, many people question the illegality of polygamy (Irwi, 2004).1 This chapter investigates the judicial background informing the illegality of polygamy and the circumstances that led to its prohibition, throughout all 50 states of America.
To achieve this objective, this chapter proposes the contribution of the Utah wars, Morill anti-bigamy laws, Edmund Act, Edmund-tucker act, and Reynold vs. United States case as the main factors characterizing the judicial background of polygamy in America.
Furthermore, this paper shows the legal position of American laws towards polygamy, and the contradiction that these laws have with religious freedoms and individual liberties (Gallagher, 2006, p. 30).2
Judicial Background of Polygamy in America Utah War of 1857 – 1858
The Utah war was an armed conflict between the Mormon Church and the U.S government. This war lasted one year, and included civilian casualties from both side of the divide. Even though the war was protracted, it ended through a negotiated agreement between the government and the Mormon Church (Hafen, 1958).3
The then president, James Buchanan, started this conflict by sending America troops to Mormon territories to control a rebellion in the state of Utah (against the government’s position to ban polygamy) (Hafen, 1958).4
However, the war turned out to be a mistake by the Federal government, because it gave the Mormons a renewed drive to practice polygamy, at least without any judicial interference, or any interference from the Federal government.
This happened because the government was widely criticized for its attack on Utah, especially because they had not properly ascertained accusations that the state was rebelling against the government (Danver, 2011, p. 383).5
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observers also criticized Buchanan for failing to notify Utah’s governor about the intention of the Federal government to attack the citizens of Utah. These criticisms prompted the government to leave Mormons alone. Indeed, as will be seen from the Morill Anti-bigamy law, the Utah wars of 1857 and 1858 gave Utah a renewed judicial will to practice polygamy.
Morill Anti-Bigamy Act
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morill Anti-bigamy Act after the Utah wars of 1857 and 1858 (Gallagher, 2006).6 Here, it is critical to note that the Mormon debate, and the willingness of prospective presidents to criminalize polygamy, characterized the American presidential elections of the mid and late 1800s.
Lincoln rose to power on this promise. Indeed, the failure of President Buchanan to introduce a lasting solution to polygamy gave the new president, Abraham Lincoln, the opportunity to find a lasting solution (legally) to polygamy in America. His remedy was the Morill Anti-bigamy Act.
However, since the failure of the Utah wars gave Mormons a fresh will to fight any attempts (legally) at constraining their religious right to practice polygamy, President Lincoln willingly failed to enforce anti-polygamy laws in Utah (Gallagher, 2006).7
The lack of law enforcement was a tactical move by Abraham Lincoln to exempt Utah from abiding by anti-polygamy laws, in exchange for Utah’s loyalty to the Federal government during the American civil war.
Consequently, the American commanding officer for the Federal government received instructions to refrain from confronting Mormons regarding their practice of polygamy (even though the Morill law was in force) (Gregory, 2011).8 From the government’s unwillingness to enforce (fully) anti-polygamy laws, it is easy to see how the Utah war affected subsequent applications of anti-polygamy laws in America.
Nonetheless, Lincoln signed the Morill act into law in 1862 to provide a judicial background for the enforcement of anti-polygamy laws in America. Through the Morill law, the government intended to control the spread of polygamy in the state of Utah. However, the Morrill anti-bigamy law experienced subsequent modifications when the Edmund Act came into force in 1882.
We will write a custom Thesis on Judicial Views about Polygamy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Edmund Act
Edmund act (also known as the Edmund’s anti-polygamy Act) sought to make any acts of polygamy in America a felony against the Federal government (Norgren, 2006).9 This law also criminalized bigamy and unlawful cohabitation between men and women as a misdemeanor against the laws of America.
This second provision intended to overcome the legal hurdle against the implementation of the Morill act, which experienced challenges from the burden of proving that a polygamous marriage had actually occurred.
Indeed, most polygamous marriages occurred secretively and without any legal document to show its existence. The execution of this law occurred hurriedly as a reaction to the perceived immorality that polygamy introduced to the American society (Norgren, 2006).10
The Edmund act not only reinforced the Morill Act, but also introduced firm penalties to anybody found practicing polygamy (when convicted, offenders would lose their right to vote and their right to run for political office).
The main challenge affecting the applicability of this law stemmed from its contradiction with the ex post facto law, which sought to protect the right of polygamists who practiced polygamy before the act came into force (Arrington, 1992).11
However, in a Supreme Court ruling in the Murphy vs. Ramsey case of 1885, the court ruled that the law punished polygamists for practicing polygamy after the enforcement of the anti-polygamy law, and not for their practice of polygamy before the applicability of the law. Therefore, the state penalized the continued wrongful cohabitation of polygamous couples after the law came into force (Arrington, 1992).12
The government enforced the Edmund Act indiscriminately because it prosecuted people not only for practicing polygamy, but also for subscribing to polygamous beliefs of the Mormon Church. In fact, the enforcement of the Edmund Act was so firm that all elected officers in the state (Utah) left office, so people could check them for their stand on polygamy, before they resumed office.
Several prosecutions occurred under the Edmund Act. In fact, the government estimates that it prosecuted more than 1,300 men under this act (Arrington, 1992).13 Most victims were polygamous men, because the society perceived women as victims of this practice. However, the government arrested and detained polygamous women who refused to testify against their husbands.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Judicial Views about Polygamy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Edmund–Tucker Act
The government introduced the Edmund-Tucker Act in 1887 to respond to a judicial dispute between the Mormon Church and the US federal government (concerning the practice of polygamy within the Mormon Church) (Norgren, 2006).14
Congressman Tucker and Senator Edmund introduced the act. Both sponsors proposed that the government should impose a penalty of $500 to $800 on anybody found to be practicing polygamy (Norgren, 2006).15 Both sponsors also criticized the Mormon Church for fostering polygamy in America as a religious practice.
From this statement, the Edmund-Tucker Act gave the federal government a reason to seize the assets of the LDS church (worth over $50,000) (Arrington, 1992).16 The government later assigned these assets for use in public schools around Utah. U.S marshals and their deputies implemented this law.
According to the provisions of the Edmund act, prospective voters and public officials had to denounce polygamy. Moreover, the act required prospective voters, jurors, and public officials to take an oath against polygamy before they continued their public service duties (Arrington, 1992).17 The Edmund-Tucker act also cancelled any laws allowing children born from polygamous unions to inherit property (Arrington, 1992).18
Finally, the act also required all civil unions to have a certificate, so that the prosecution of polygamous unions eased. This law changed the spousal privilege act to eliminate the protection of polygamous wives from testifying against their husbands.
To improve the enforcement of anti-polygamy laws, the Edmund-Tucker act paved the way for the appointment of federal judges to hear polygamy cases, instead of local judges (who were sympathetic to polygamists).
This law led to the abolishment of the office of territorial superintendant (in the education system) to pave way for a federally funded office that controlled school activities within Mormon strongholds. This move aimed at having an accurate assessment of the number of Mormon school going children (Norgren, 2006).19 The government repealed the Edmund-Tucker act in late 1978.
Reynold vs. United States
A fundamentalist Mormon (George Reynolds) filed The Reynold vs. United States case in 1878 (Johnson, 1948).20 Reynold claimed that the state should not prosecute him for practicing bigamy because it was his religious right to marry multiple partners.
He also claimed that the testimony of one of his wife could not be admissible in court because it was under another indictment. The state had earlier arrested him for marrying a second wife, Amelia Jane Scofield, while he was already married to another woman (Mary Ann) (Johnson, 1948).21
This case introduced a special argument in the American justice system, because it questioned the government’s commitment to protect the religious rights and freedoms of the American people. The US Supreme Court however, ruled that Reynold’s religious right was not a defence against the state’s law that criminalized polygamy.
A background of the acknowledgement that the federal government could not introduce a new law that contravened the first amendment informed this ruling. However, the court also said that anti-bigamy laws did not classify under laws that prohibited the first amendment to the American Constitution, or the freedom to exercise religious practices.
The court used a letter from Thomas Jefferson to justify its ruling regarding the existence of a clear distinction between religious beliefs and practices that stem from such beliefs (Johnson, 1948).22 The Court also ruled that religious beliefs were between man and God; therefore, the court could not intervene in such agreements.
However, actions arising from such beliefs (polygamy) were under the court’s jurisdiction, because it involved the relationship between two or more people. The court therefore believed that it had the jurisdiction over actions, and not the opinions held by religious people (Johnson, 1948).23
It should however, be understood that at the time of the ruling, fundamental Mormons believed that the growing trend by the federal government to pass laws prohibiting polygamy was a legal interference against the first amendment to the American Constitution, which gave them the right to practice their religious rights.
Because most Mormons believed so, they freely chose to ignore the Morill anti-bigamy act that criminalized their polygamous practices. Even as the Mormons felt victimized by the state, the government was still exploring ways of strengthening the already existing laws to criminalize bigamy in America.
Therefore, Reynold’s petition was untimely, because the government was strengthening its commitment to criminalize all forms of polygamy. From this background, the court indicted Reynold for bigamy and sentenced him to two years imprisonment, with a fine of $500, as stipulated by the law (Johnson, 1948).24
This ruling stood as a precedent for the criminalization of polygamy in America.
Legal Position towards Fundamental Mormon Polygamy
The legal position of the U.S federal government towards polygamy has been unfavorable to Mormons. Since the signing of the Morill Anti-bigamy law, the U.S federal government has been unforgivable in criminalizing polygamy, and all its forms. The subsequent signing of the Edmund Act, and the Edmund-Tucker Act, supported this commitment.
The presence of these laws has put the Mormon faith at crossroads with the government, and the American society, regarding their religious practices and the consequences of not following the law. The Mormons have had a choice to abandon polygamy, or continue with the practice and face the law.
To date, many Mormons have abandoned the practice and aligned their religious practices with mainstream American beliefs regarding marriage (monogamy). However, a cross-section of the Mormon faith still practices polygamy, although in small proportions.
America’s legal position towards polygamy has however not changed. Polygamy is still illegal in the United States and those practicing it, do so illegally. However, it is equally important to note that polygamy has gained a significant level of social acceptance among fundamental Mormons in America.
Many factors (including the changing societal perceptions regarding the practice, and the legalization of same sex marriages in some American states, such as, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, and Massachusetts) fuel its acceptance. Despite the existence of anti-polygamy laws, the states of Utah and Colorado have had a long history of condoning polygamy, so long as it is not public (Danver, 2011).25
The minimal convictions and commitment by the US government to arrest polygamous partners support the underground acceptance of polygamy within some states of the US. This minimal government commitment to arrest polygamists stem from the presence of tens of thousands polygamists in the U.S, who continue the practice without any strong legal consequences.
For example, within the two states mentioned above (Utah and Colorado), only two arrests have occurred within the last decade (although thousands of people practice polygamy within the two states) (Danver, 2011).26
In fact, the arrests of these two polygamous people only occurred because they openly advocated for polygamy. They therefore seemed a nuisance to the society, and an embarrassment to the state government. If the two polygamists never openly campaigned for polygamy, the government would not have arrested them.
In 2008, the Texas government also raided a fundamentalist Mormon church in the state (Danver, 2011).27 However, they only did so because they suspected that forceful marriages of underage girls (to older men) occurred within the church. If it was adults practicing polygamy (with no children involved), there would be very little state involvement (despite the illegality of polygamy in America).
The government therefore uses the law selectively (in extreme cases of polygamy, and only when polygamy gives way to social ills, such as, marrying underage girls). Anti-polygamy laws therefore exist because it is politically right to have them (because majority of Americans still do not fully accept polygamy). Moreover, if the government removes them, there would be a public outcry.
Unlike past decades when the government was very vocal about the practice of polygamy in the Mormon faith, the government has recently taken a backseat in the implementation of anti-polygamy laws. Instead, only polygamous acts considered highly immoral by the American society (such as the marriage of underage girls) are subject to prosecution.
The legal position of the American government towards polygamy in the Mormon Church has therefore stabilized in the recent years, because there have been fewer attacks on polygamists recently.
The government’s position regarding the dominance of polygamy in some Mormon sects has therefore been lukewarm because it only acts when polygamists become ‘too loud’ or engage in forceful marriages (considered unacceptable by the society). Otherwise, the government does not concern itself much with polygamists who foster the practice in secrecy.
In other words, when adults (with no history of child abuse or neglect) practice polygamy, the government rarely gets involved in such unions. This is the reason polygamy has found its way to American media. Now, polygamous shows are part of mainstream American television, such as, HBO’s Big Love and TLC’s Sister Wives.
Contradictions in the Application Polygamy Laws Contradiction with Religious Laws
The willingness of Americans to accept diverse views regarding different social issues inform America’s legal and social fabric. This diversity is widely enshrined in America’s basic freedoms and rights. One basic freedom is the freedom of religion because the law grants Americans the right to practice whatever religion they chose, so long as these freedoms do not infringe on the rights of other people.
Broadly, proponents of polygamy have advanced the practice as a religious freedom. According to the First Amendment of the American constitution, the law should protect such a right. The exception to this rule manifests when polygamy infringes on the rights of other people. However, polygamy seldom infringes on other peoples’ right.
Therefore, it is difficult to find the right legal justification why the American law does not protect polygamy as a religious right. So far, anti-polygamy laws in America have taken a social dynamic instead of a legal one. In other words, American laws banning polygamy seem to represent the societal view towards polygamy as opposed to the legal view towards the same.
Therefore, while polygamy remains a religious right, the law fails to protect it as so.
The contradictions in the application of polygamy laws in America stem from its clash with religious doctrines, and the foundations that form the American society (Hitchcock, 2008).28 Many Americans are Christians. Christianity does not criminalize polygamy the way the American law does.
In fact, many polygamous men in the bible were loyal servants of God. David and Solomon are just a few examples of polygamous men in the bible. Spector (2011)29 says that it is a common religious practice among Christians to pay attention to religious teachings (first) before they pay attention to the ‘laws of man’.
This is the main problem that has faced the government’s will to implement anti-polygamy laws in America (because they face religious opposition from the Mormon Church and the few Christians who believe in Polygamy as a fundamental religious teaching from the Bible’s Old Testament). In fact, this opposition informs the Mormon belief that they hold the religious right to practice polygamy.
Apart from the Christian opposition to the application of anti-polygamy laws, the contradictions between the government’s law and Islamic laws governing polygamy clash too (Hagerty, 2008, p. 1).30
The conflict between Islamic laws regarding polygamy (and the government’s law regarding the same) has been largely unexplored by many researchers (despite the continued practice of polygamy within the Muslim population living in America). In fact, there has been minimal government involvement in the practice of polygamy within the Muslim population.
Islamic laws allow men to have up to four wives. It is therefore within their religious right to be polygamous. However, the American law criminalizes any form of marriage after a man marries only one woman. This contradiction shows the clash between government laws and Islamic laws, worldwide.
In fact, after reviewing the religious practices surrounding the application of polygamy in America, no other religion restricts the number of women a man may marry (besides Islam). In fact, Judaism and Hinduism also do not restrict the number of wives a man may have. However, there is no agreement regarding the way Muslims practice polygamy.
Some cohabit with more than one wife (in the same house), while others cohabit with many wives in different households. Since many Islamic laws do not seek the legal recognition of their polygamous marriages, it is difficult for the government to prosecute such polygamists.
Nonetheless, from the religious freedoms given to Christian, Islamic, Hindu, and other religious groups, there is a sharp contradiction between American anti-polygamy laws and religious laws (Hagerty, 2008).31
Protection of Individual Liberties
Another contradiction that undermines the application of the anti-polygamy law is the Supreme Court decision of 2003, in Lawrence vs. Texas (Ihara, 2008, p. 6).32 Lawrence brought this case to the Supreme Court to question the legality of homosexual relations in Texas.
The court ruled that Texas had no authority to dictate the private relationships of its citizens, or the way Americans chose to live their lives. In this regard, the Supreme Court struck down all sodomy laws in Texas and gave unprecedented freedom to its people to practice whatever private unions they wanted.
This ruling also said that the 14th Amendment to the American Constitution protected consensual sexual conduct of American citizens. The government therefore had no right to dictate how its citizens should live their private lives.
Previous court rulings that sought to undermine the liberties and freedoms of Americans were undermined by this ruling because the Supreme Court ruled that they were formulated using a narrow understanding of the liberties and freedoms enjoyed by the American population (Ihara, 2008).33
The above ruling was a landmark ruling in America because it symbolized a great milestone in the advancement of individual liberties. Moreover, many gay right activists considered the ruling a great milestone in the advancement of gay rights (Gallagher, 2006, p. 27).34 Since the court made this ruling, Americans have enjoyed unprecedented freedoms in their lifestyle choices and private relationships.
Practically, the Lawrence vs. Texas ruling made it impossible for the state to continue using the criminal code to define the private relationships of American citizens. Indeed, in the past, the American government had extensively used the criminal code to dictate even the most private and intimate relationships of the American people.
From the above developments regarding the protection of American civil liberties and rights, there has been a growing trend for the court to protect private relationships. This development has given new ammunition for polygamists to demand equal protection by the government.
The reluctance to grant polygamous unions the same consideration that same sex marriages have (to legalize, or not?), creates a contradiction in the application of anti-polygamy laws, and the protection of individual liberties. The biggest question that arises in this regard is why the American justice system seems to safeguard selective individual liberties, while criminalizing others.
Naturally, if the courts protect same-sex marriages as legal marital unions (in some states), polygamy should also receive the same treatment because it is also a marital union that consenting adults choose to engage in (Gallagher, 2006, p. 27).35
Conclusion The inconsistencies in the application of anti-polygamy laws in America are obvious. Most of these inconsistencies were nonexistent during the initial criminalization of polygamy by the American federal government. However, advancements in the protection of American individual liberties (and the changing societal perceptions regarding private relationships) created these inconsistencies (Gallagher, 2006, p. 30).36
Comprehensively, there is a trend within the American judicial system to safeguard most American individual liberties. Unfortunately, this trend protects these liberties selectively because polygamy does not receive this judicial protection.
Irwi (2004)37 says that the initial reference and attachment of polygamy with same sex marriage is responsible for this neglect because critics of same sex marriages used polygamy as an argument against the legalization of same sex marriages.
Therefore, American civil organizations refrain from justifying the initial fear of its critics that the possible legalization of same sex marriages would lead to the legalization of polygamous unions. In this regard, the law continues to neglect polygamy. All 50 states of America therefore still criminalize the union.
References Arrington, L. (1992). The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-Day Saints. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Danver, S. (2011). Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. New York: ABC-CLIO.
Gallagher, E. (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Gregory, J. (2011). SkinHead Girl: Based on a True Story. New York: Author House.
Hafen, L. (1958). Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858. New York: U of Nebraska Press.
Hagerty, B. (2008). Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy. Web.
Hitchcock, J. (2008). The Supreme Court and Religion in American Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ihara, T. (2008). Living Together: A Legal Guide for Unmarried Couples. New York: Nolo.
Irwin, M. (2004). Women and Gender in the American West: Jensen-Miller Prize Essays from the Coalition for Western Women’s History. New York: UNM Press.
Johnson, A. (1948). Separation of Church and State in the United States. Minnesota: U of Minnesota Press.
Norgren, J. (2006). American Cultural Pluralism and Law. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Spector, J. (2011). Seeming Contradictions: Polygamy (Plural Marriage). Web.
Footnotes 1 Michael, Irwin. (2004). Women and Gender in the American West: Jensen-Miller Prize Essays from the Coalition for Western Women’s History. New York: UNM Press.
2 Eugine, Gallagher. (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
3 Leroy, Hafen. (1958). Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858. New York: U of Nebraska Press.
4 Hafen, 1958.
5 Steven, Danver. (2011). Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. New York: ABC-CLIO.
6 Gallagher, 2006.
8 John, Gregory. (2011). SkinHead Girl: Based on a True Story. New York: Author House.
9 Jill, Norgren. (2006). American Cultural Pluralism and Law. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
10 Norgren, 2006.
11 Leornard, Arrington. (1992). The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-Day Saints. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
12 Arrington, 1992.
14 Norgren, 2006.
16 Arrington, 1992.
19 Norgren, 2006.
20 Alvin, Johnson. (1948). Separation of Church and State in the United States. Minnesota: U of Minnesota Press.
21 Johnson, 1948.
25 Danver, 2011.
28 James, Hitchcock. (2008). The Supreme Court and Religion in American Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
29 Jeff, Spector. (2011). Seeming Contradictions: Polygamy (Plural Marriage).
30 Barbara, Hagerty. (2008). Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy.
31 Hagerty, 2008.
32 Toni, Ihara. (2008). Living Together: A Legal Guide for Unmarried Couples. New York: Nolo.
33 Ihara, 2008.
34 Gallagher, 2006.
35 Gallagher, 2006.
36 Gallagher, 2006.
37 Irwi, 2004.
European Colonization Impacts on the Native American Population Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction An examination of various historical accounts from the 15th to 19th century show that the Native American population was adversely affected by the arrival of European settlers due to various conflicts that arose and the new diseases that the Europeans brought which, in combination, devastated the local population.
Yet, it should be noted that not all interactions between the two civilizations resulted in adverse outcomes for the local population. For example, during the 15th century, Spaniards had introduced horses to the Americas resulting in a profound effect on the local community.
Due to several of these animals escaping and breeding in the wild the end result was a considerable increase in the local horse population, especially in areas such as the Great Plains region in North America.
The end result of this accidental albeit fortunate introduction of a new species enabled Native American tribes to greatly expand their territories, exchange news and various goods with neighboring tribes and even enabled them to hunt local animals a lot easier.
The arrival of Europeans to the Americas can be considered the underpinnings of a significant social, cultural and educational shift that occurred to Native American populations which brought about both positive and negative effects which will be detailed within this paper.
It is based on this that it can be stated that the invasion of Europeans to the New World had a significant impact on the political, social, and economic development of the Native American society.
Origins of European Colonization
The origin of European colonization was actually based on the inherent competitions of the various European countries at the time to expand their individual spheres of power into the “New World” (Pagden, 1-25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, it was actually the case that expansion was also fueled by their desire to find shorter routes to the India and China in order to gain access to the various spices and silks that were valuable commodities within Europe at the time (Pagden, 1-25).
This is particularly important to take note of since as it can be seen from their intentions, the desire of the Europeans was not so much coexistence as it was the desire to expand and gain more resources.
Encounters Between Europeans and Indians
In the case of the initial European encounters with the Native American population, it can be seen that Europeans considered Indians immortal and uncivilized and, therefore, they strived to impose their culture (Currie 17).
This cultural imposition took on a variety of forms such as the religious conversions attempted by the local parishioners to even direct eradication of “savage” cultural traditions in favor of the “cultured” mannerisms adopt by the Europeans.
Such actions were, of course, met with considerable resistance by the local population and, in fact, can be considered the basis behind the initial enmity between the two cultures since the actions of the European colonists can in effect be considered a form of subversion which the local settlers did not view as a positive turn of events (Trigger, 1195-1215).
It should be noted though that this desire to impose a more “civilized” culture on the native population can actually be considered an early variation of the “white man’s burden” which is a cultural thought process that states that Caucasians have a moral and ethical responsibility to educate the lesser races in order to set them down the correct path of thinking and acting”.
Such is the case when it came to the Native American population wherein the colonizers actually thought that they were doing the natives a favor. It is based on this that it is not so surprising that the relationship between the two cultures was distinctly adversarial given the way in which Europeans viewed the Native Americans.
We will write a custom Research Paper on European Colonization Impacts on the Native American Population specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Native American Culture
Salisbury points out that, “American before Columbus possessed its own particular rich history stretching back centuries into the remote reaches of the past” (3).
This was evidenced by the cultural traditions of the Native American people that placed a particular emphasis on nature spirit worship, the existence of animal spirits as well as a distinct focus on living in harmony with nature rather than oppressing it.
Such attributes have been noted as existing within the Native American culture hundreds of years before the arrival of the colonialists.
Combined with their rich agricultural tradition as well as the numerous rituals and ceremonies they had in place at the time, it can be considered that the Native Americans were not the savages depicted by the European settlers, instead they should have been considered a deeply spiritual people that focused on living off the land.
It is rather unfortunate that the response of the settlers was to impose their culture on such people instead of accepting them for what they were (Guy, 1 – 30).
Mutual Influence Between Native Americans and European Settlers
It is quite interesting to note that there was a substantial degree of cross-cultural influence between the Native Americans and European settlers in the form of a substantial share in practices and products.
What you have to understand is that the Native Americans at the time actually had a reasonably advanced agriculturally-based civilization wherein they utilized techniques such as irrigation, rock funnels and had developed substantial local crops such as corn, beans, squash which they traded for goods among tribes or with the European settlers.
Based on the work of Trigger (1991) it can even be seen that the Native Americans had in fact taught European settlers their agricultural practices and provided the necessary seeds in order to help them raise their own crops (Calloway, 1- 20).
Not sure if you can write a paper on European Colonization Impacts on the Native American Population by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is based on this that many of the agricultural practices utilized by the early European settlers at the time can, in fact, be connected to the influences of local Native American tribes (Trigger, 1195-1215).
Another factor that should be taken into consideration yet is often overlooked is the fact intermarriage between European settlers and Native Americans often occurred. An examination of population estimates at the time revealed that the male to female ratio for settlers often reached 10 to 1 in favor of the males.
This was especially true for the Spanish colonies and, as a direct result, intermarriages between cultures were often necessary in order to ensure the continued survival of a settlement.
In fact, it can even be stated that it was due to these first intermarriages that resulted in customs and traditions being exchanged between the two cultures in the first place.
Political and Economic Influence of European Colonists on Native Americans
Further research on the political impact of the European colonists on Native American tribes can clearly be seen in the case of tribal reorganizations into new cultural groups.
What must be understood is that the arrival of European colonists brought considerable harm to local populations in the form of diseases that the native tribes had no immunity to (Guy, 1 – 30).
Combined with the various conflicts and skirmishes that occurred between the two cultural groups, this resulted in a considerable decline in the local population.
As such, in order to survive many tribes in the first half of the 18th century actually combined into one tribe as seen in the case of the Seminoles in Florida and the Mission Indians of California.
Not only that, the sheer devastation of the European occupation actually removed the political stratification that used to divide various tribes which created a whole new set of alliances (Calloway, 1- 20). According to Salisbury, North Americans exhibited a variety of languages, beliefs, and political systems (Currie 17).
However, this variety “was less the result of their isolation from one another than of the widely varying natural and social environments with which Indians had interacted over millennia” (5).
It should be noted though that this variety in languages, belief systems and culture created a certain degree of divisiveness among the early Native American tribes.
From a particular perspective, it can be stated that the various Native American tribes within the Americas at the time can be considered a microcosm of the different European powers that existed during the 15th to 19th century wherein there were a variety of rivalries and alliances (Grigg and Mancall, 1 – 15).
With the arrival of the European colonists and the subsequent destruction of various tribes due to disease and conflict, this resulted in several tribes that used to be bitter rivals becoming new allies in order to combat what they perceived as a common threat (Glatthaar, Joseph and Martin, 1-23).
This represents a major political and social shift for the population the equivalent of which would be if the U.S. and Russia had become allies during the height of the Cold War.
Differences in Political Views and Subsequent Conflict
Looking forward towards the birth of the United States, it can be seen that another of the main differences that affected the relationship between Native Americans and the European settlers was the overall difference in political views towards not only the settlement of their territories but the manner in which they were treated by the government (Prucha, 1 – 45).
When examining the case of the early expansion of the U.S. into new territories, it can clearly be seen that this expansion was often done at the expense of local Native American populations (Prucha, 1 – 45).
What the government at the time failed to realize was that despite its efforts in attempting to educate the Native American people as well as provide them with the means to be civilized, in reality, they viewed the continued encroachment on their territories as a direct violation of their traditional culture (Prucha, 1 – 45).
It should also be noted that the supposed purchase of lands or resettlement into new territories was not viewed by the Native Americans in the same conventional sense as the Europeans since in the view of the Native Americans the land itself was owned by them through ancestral right and could not be “bought” in the traditional sense since it was the land that their forefathers had given to them.
One prime example though of the successes the European colonizers had when it came to acculturation came in the form of Samson Occum who is widely recognized as the first Native American who published various papers and books on the issue Ottery, 360-361).
It should be noted though that Occum was also under the opinion that what the settlers were doing was inherently wrong and repressive and is indicative of a problem with the methods utilized in settling within the Americas.
Influence of European Colonies on Native Americans
It is quite interesting to note that when examining the various countries where European colonization occurred, it can be seen that religious fervor and the proliferation of devout followers is a common theme among such countries at the present.
Various studies explain that this current predilection by stating that in order to overtake the cultures and original religions that used to play essential roles in such cultures, European colonizers utilized religious conversion as a means by which the local populace could be influenced and as a result subvert the practices that were in existence at the time with something more akin to what the European colonizers wanted (Grigg and Mancall, 1 – 15).
Such a case was extensively utilized in the case of Native American populations within the Americas, wherein locals were often forcibly converted towards Christianity by the Europeans.
The economic impact of European colonization can be considered a far more positive outcome as compared to the political and social outcomes that occurred. As a direct result of crossing from the Atlantic, European civilization introduced a variety of domesticated animals to the local population.
Animals such as pigs, sheep, and cows which were not native to the region eventually became a great source of sustenance for the natives.
Combined with an increased amount of trade in manufactured goods (i.e. guns, knives, and various clothing) for animal skins and different types of agricultural products such as local grains and the growing of tobacco, the Europeans had in effect introduced the population to a whole new form of economic mercantilism that did not exist to such a degree in the past (Salisbury, 3-26).
While horses were mentioned earlier in this paper, it should be noted that they acted as almost the primary method by which trade and hunting were done by the Native American population in the Great Plains region where they were introduced.
Overall, it can be seen that through the intentional and inadvertent actions of the European settlers, they had in effect influenced the political, social and economic landscape of the local population to a considerable degree.
Destruction and Replacement of Cultural Practices
Researchers such as Salisbury (2000) have shown that oral tradition played an important role in helping various societies sustain their cultural practices despite the cultural domination instituted by European traders and colonizers. (Salisbury, 3-26)
This due to the fact that while various types of cultural texts and religious iconography can be burned or destroyed, oral traditions can quickly be passed from one generation to the next resulting in the survival of various types of cultural practices.
This was seen in the case of the Philippines wherein various aspects of its ancient cultural traditions involving elemental and idol worship were subtlety incorporated into social convention despite the best efforts of the Catholic priests at the time to stamp out all previous forms of “alternative” cultural or religious practices.
Unfortunately, when it came to the cultural practices of the Native American population many were based on oral traditions and, as such, when the local tribes were decimated as a direct result of European based diseases, many of the oral traditions had died along with the populations.
As such, many of the local inhabitants adopted a variety of Western cultural dispositions in order to survive in their new environment despite the fact that it did not coincide with what their cultural tradition used to be like.
Understanding the Process of European Colonization in the Case of the Native Americans
In the case of empires what occurs is a state of cultural imposition wherein cultural predilection, values, behaviors even methods of speaking are imposed on a local populace resulting in a deterioration of the local culture (Glatthaar, Joseph and Martin, 1-23).
Of particular interest is this particular viewpoint is the focus on the concept of “the White Man” and how the white culture had in effect superimposed itself on various cultures resulting in a strange blending of the two.
Various examples of such a trend can be seen throughout history with the most notable being the Spanish subjugation of the Philippines for 333 years resulting in the assimilation of the Filipino people into the Spanish culture and religion effectively wiping out many traces of their past religion and cultural practices.
Taking this into consideration it can be seen that subjugation can be likened to the near-death experience of a particular culture wherein through imposition and subsequent assimilation old cultural behaviors, values, and various aspects unique to that specific culture are in effect repressed or removed in favor of the ideas, notions and cultural styling of the empire.
Based on this, it is at times questioned whether empires truly benefit the areas and subjects that they in effect conquer. One way of looking at this issue is to take another look at the case of the Native Americans and see the apparently “beneficial” effects of subjugation.
From a particular perspective, it can be seen that through cultural subjugation, empires in effect help cultures become more “inline” with the global perspective of how the world chooses to view them. Not only that, there is also the issue of advances in architecture and technology transfer that also occur as a result of subjugation.
On the other hand, the sheer cultural decay that at times occur does not seem to be entirely as worth it as history has made it out to be.
It is based on this that it can be seen that there are benefits accrued as a result of subjugation by an empire, but such benefits are often clouded by the adverse cultural effects that empires have on local areas and people.
Conclusion Based on the various findings and arguments presented within this paper, it can clearly be seen that European colonization of the Americas clearly had a significant impact on the Native American population as seen from the subsequent changes that occurred socially, politically and culturally within their respective communities.
It is interesting to note though that the reactions of the early Native Americans to the incursion of European settlers are an essential point of reference to take into consideration since it helps to highlight problems that are occurring within the present-day global environment.
As it can be seen from various news reports at the present, there has been a considerable level of conflict not only in the Middle East but in other parts of the world involving cultural clashes that have been the cause of numerous conflicts.
By understanding the various transitions and changes that occurred to colonial America, an understanding will eventually develop regarding what methods of cultural adaptation and coexistence were implemented which would enable modern-day society to understand better what adaptive policies could possibly be put into action in order to reduce problems related to culture clashes and to allow the development of a more peaceful society.
Works Cited Calloway, Colin. The American Revolution in Indian County: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities. US: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.
Currie, Stephen. “First Contact with Europeans.” Cobblestone 24.7 (2003): 17. Print.
Glatthaar, Joseph, T., and James Kirby Martin. Forgotten Allies: The Oneida Indians and the American Revolution. US: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Print.
Grigg, John A., and Peter Mancall. British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. US: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
Guy, Chet. Conquering the American Wilderness: The Triumph of European Warfare in Colonial New England. US: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003. Print.
Ottery, Jim. “Rhetorical Sovereignty”. Wisconsin Indian Literature: Anthropology of Native Voices. Eds. Kathleen Tigerman and Jim Ottery. 360-361. US: University of Wisconsin Press. 2006. Print.
Pagden, Anthony Robin. European Encounters with the New World: From Renaissance to Romanticism. US: Yale University Press. 1993. Print.
Prucha, Francis Paul. Quantum Books: Revolutionary War to Present. US: University of California Press. 1988. Print.
Salisbury, Neal. “The Indians’ Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans”. American Encounters: Native and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1580. Eds. Peter Mancall and James Hart Merrell. 3-26. New York: Routledge, 2000 Print.
Trigger, Bruce G. “Early Native North American Responses To European Contact: Romantic Versus Rationalistic Interpretations.” Journal Of American History 77.4 (1991): 1195-1215. Print.
The Extent to Which FDI Inflows have Influenced GDPGrowth in India Quantitative Research Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Previous studies on the impact of FDI on GDP concluded that there was no long run relationship between the two. The Granger Casual analysis provided this inference. Sirari
The Most Challenging Aspects of Graphics Design Thesis college essay help
Abstract Evidence of improved learning outcomes when incorporating creative problem solving in the learning process can actually be seen in graphical design students who incorporate proper message delivery, research, conceptualization and understanding the audience.
It is based on this that this section explores the personal and professional impact of the study and helps to reveal what processes need to be changed in order to create a better practices in teaching graphics design students.
Introduction This chapter discusses the findings of the research regarding the most challenging aspects of graphics design at the present.
It delves into the findings of the literature review wherein it was revealed that message delivery, research, conceptualization and an understanding of a particular target audience are the main challenge that students of graphical design encounter on a daily basis.
As such, this section will delve into the personal impact of the study results, its impact on the practice of graphical design in general as well as makes recommendations related to what processes could possibly be implemented in order to resolve the identified issues.
Discussion The reason behind the creation of this study was to develop a means of understand what problems students of graphical design encounter on a daily basis when it comes to creativity.
Through a comprehensive examination of the various facts presented within the literature review, this has subsequently changed the views of the researcher regarding graphics design.
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Based on the study, I have come to realize the following factors regarding creativity:
When it comes to the application of creativity, it is important to note that there are three essential elements that are present which result in the creative process. These elements are composed of the following concepts:
Copy – the element of copying within creativity is actually a manifestation of the learning process wherein people “copy” the relevant information they need and internalize it for later use.This internalization is an essential aspect of the process of creativity since it in effect acts as the initial blueprint from where all future ideas stem from.
Transform – the element of transformation occurs when information that was initially copied and internalized is examined and thought of in new ways.While it has yet to be applied into anything specific, the information is no longer the same as it once was since it has been modified based on other perspectives and internalized concepts (Staresinic, 2009).
Combine – the process of combination involves utilizing the transformed knowledge within a real life situation which in effect creates a new solution as compared to merely utilizing the knowledge in the same way in order to create the same solution.
It is based on this that I have come to realize that when it comes to message delivery, research, conceptualization and understanding the audience, it is important to not only copy ideas that are given during class but to transform and combine them with new ideas in order to create something unique.
It is not adequate enough that ideas and techniques taught in class are to be utilized, rather, it is necessary to develop a more personal approach to graphical design wherein you utilize your own methods that suit your style in order to create truly original artwork (Steven, 2007).
Impact on Practice
Based on the work of Kirby Ferguson, it can be stated that the concept of creativity arises not out of nothingness; rather, it is the result of applying ordinary mental tools within the mind onto existing materials in order to produce new results (Vogel et al., 2011).
In order to better understand such a concept and how it impacts graphical design, it is important to first know what the various elements of creativity are and how they impact the creative process.
The Elements of Creativity Are Composed of the Following
Cognitive elements within the creative process refer to an individual’s basic knowledge regarding particular processes (whether generalized or specializing in a specific field), their attraction towards complexity (e.g. their innate ability to analyze and combine ideas into new areas or dimensions), their general open-mindedness towards new discoveries and finally their awareness of the creative process itself.
We will write a custom Thesis on The Most Challenging Aspects of Graphics Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such a process in inherently connected to the concept of research wherein the ability of a graphics artist to create a particular type of design to suit the needs of a population is inherently connected to their understanding of the likes and dislikes of the consumer segment that is being targeted (Boutelle, 2000).
It is through such an insight that it has been revealed that graphics design schools should not focus merely on developing the artistic talents of their students, rather, they should also help them in developing the necessary research skills in order to better understand that populations they are targeting with particular designs.
Affective elements on the other hand refer to an individual’s intrinsic level of curiosity, willingness to explore, their ability to take risks and their general independence towards following generally accepted processes and procedures in order to attempt something new (Small space, big ideas, 2006).
Combined with the cognitive elements of creativity this in effect enables an individual to examine current processes from multiple angles and actually desire to implement new methods which could potentially improve such processes.
Based on the study of De Miranda, Aranha
History of Mortimer’s Castle in UK Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Background of the Mortimer’s Castle Mortimer’s Castle is one of the most important tourist attractions in the United Kingdom. William Fitz Osbern founded the Castle in 1067. The castle served as an administrative base for the Lords of the Mortimer who ruled the West Midlands and East Wales.
The castle was a center of power for over 500 years (English Heritage 2012). Thus, several kings and queens used it as a palace or a residential area. The Mortimer’s family owned the castle from 1075 to 1425. However, the ownership of the castle was later transferred to the Crown.
Sir Thomas Harley bought the castle in 1601(English Heritage 2012). Currently, there are no houses or any form of accommodation of the site. However, the ruin of the castle still exists. Concisely, the ruined Mortimer’s Castle is located at Wigmore in Herefordshire.
The ruin dates back to 921AD, thereby making it one of the oldest and culturally significant historic treasures in the United Kingdom. Currently, the ruin is owned by private entities. Nonetheless, the government is responsible for its preservation. The castle, as well as, the adjacent land is currently available for sale.
PEST Analysis The PEST model is a marketing tool that facilitates analysis of the macro-environment of a firm. Concisely, it enables marketers to measure the impact of political, economic, social, and legal factors in their industries (Winer 2006, p. 114).
The Ancient Monuments Act of 1913 prohibits alteration of historic buildings (Historic Houses Association 2012).
Similarly, the planning Act of 1990 protects buildings and areas of special architectural or historic interest from the destruction that might occur due to commercial or residential development (Parliament UK 2012). In this regard, developing Mortimer’s Castle by changing its architectural attributes will not be possible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the Hereford Tourist Board has to use the castle without making significant alterations to it. The national Heritage Act 2002 permits private entities to produce and sell souvenirs, which are associated with ancient monuments that are located in England.
In this regard, the board can generate an income by selling souvenirs that are associated with the castle (National Heritage Act 2002).
Tourism is one of the key drivers of economic growth in the UK since it contributes 8.2% of the country’s GDP and supports over 2.6 million jobs (British Tourism Authority 2012). The demand for rural heritage and cultural attractions such as the Mortimer’s Castle is likely to increase in 2012.
The factors that underpin this growth include the country’s economic crisis and the weakening of the British pound. Concisely, the citizens are opting for local and short trips due to financial constraints. Hence, the number of visitors to the Mortimer’s Castle is likely to increase.
One factor that is likely to reduce the growth of the industry is the VAT, which was increased to 20% in 2011 (British Tourism Authority 2012). Ticket prices have risen in response to the increase in VAT. Hence, the demand for visits to tourist attractions is likely to reduce.
Nearly 83% of tourists are day visitors. Herefordshire receives over four million visitors. However, the average expenditure per visitor is only 27.64 pounds (British Tourism Authority 2012). Empirical studies indicate that tourists prefer destinations that reflect the significance of history, architecture, public spaces, and arts.
Additionally, they prefer destinations in which local foods and drinks are available. These preferences increase the number of visits to local and regional attractions such as the Mortimer’s castle. Rapid population growth is a threat to rural heritage and cultural attractions (Facts and Figures about Herefordshire 2012).
We will write a custom Case Study on History of Mortimer’s Castle in UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In particular, it can lead to the destruction of tourist attractions through commercial and residential developments.
Technology is important in the tourism industry since it facilitates marketing activities and provision of services. A heritage railway connects Wigmore to Cardiff and Manchester, thereby improving the accessibility of the Mortimer’s Castle.
Furthermore, the train is an attraction due to its historical background. Advancements in information and communication technology also facilitate the execution of activities such as marketing of tourist destinations (Collison
Emotional Intelligence in HR Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
There have been changes in IQ scores as years advance. The high scores recorded in the rise of IQ are because of the changing trend in evaluation taking a turn from strictly intellectual testing to testing of competence in the light of psychological statuses gauging empathy, initiative and the self-discipline of people (Riley, 2013).
It is agreeable that IQ has limits because there are limitations to IQ as it relies mainly in intellectual intelligence without. It is more factual without express assurance of competence because it lacks any emotional connections. IQ limitations emerge from the incapability of encompassing other human qualities, which promote the success of an individual (Lopez-Zafra, Garcia-Retamero
Leadership and Influence Report essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Initial Reflection on Unit
Leader as a Social Architect
Introduction According to Northouse (2009, p. 3), “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influence a group of individuals to achieve a common goal”.
Considering leadership a process implies that it cannot be defined as a characteristic or trait that is typical of a leader, but a transactional phenomenon that arises from the communication between a leader and followers.
Defining leadership from this perspective provides greater understanding of the influences and interactions between leaders and their subordinates. Hence, leadership cannot exist without influence because it constantly occurs in groups, the context in which leaders operate and influence individuals to achieve a common purpose.
In the course of development, leadership practices have evolved into multiple models and theories. This is of particular concern to transformational leadership and situational leadership models. There are also frameworks that are premised on such aspects as personality traits, skills, and behavior.
All these approaches provide a wider picture of how leadership can be characterized, as well as what dimensions are the most efficient ones in managing an organization.
Initial Reflection on Unit General analysis of leadership is closely associated with the contexts in which leaders operate, trends in organizational dynamics, and discussion of traits, skills, and competencies that a leader should possess.
Engaging in formative activities, specific attention has been given to the analysis of personal skills, experiences, and activities that relate to leadership analysis. Multiple tests and procedures have provided awareness of pitfalls and benefits that can further be considered in self-evaluation tests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, self-assessment is designed to assist leaders with determining what skills are needed to develop new leadership competencies.
Context Because leadership can refer to process and influence, the contextual dimension of understanding this phenomenon is vital. Introducing new models, techniques and approaches to leadership educations has strong connection with social environment, political aspects, as well as the dynamics of human nature.
More importantly, due to the fact that leadership as a process that refers to various cultural contexts and personal dimensions, specific attention should also be given to self-reliance and personal growth initiatives, being the main drive forces of developing leadership skills.
Leadership evaluation is closely associated with evolution of social and organizational change. In this respect, Rost and Barker (2000) emphasize that, at the threshold of the twenty first century, leadership perspectives are more oriented on individualistic training of leaders as a superior class.
Focus on leaders’ and ignorance of followers, however, does not contribute to the development of efficient management environment because the influence and interaction stand at the core of the relationship.
In this respect, Rost and Barker (2000, p. 4) assume, “leadership education…is goal oriented, where the goal is defined by some level of organizational performance; …it is centered on self-interest; it is founded in materialism”.
Such a perspective has dramatically changed nowadays since more models are oriented on individuals rather than on goals. Leaders should develop a set of values and goals that can suit the employees’ culture and generate profitability, commitment, motivation, and high performance in an organization.
We will write a custom Report on Leadership and Influence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ability to adopt new approaches is closely associated with change management. It is also inherent condition for promoting leadership perspectives.
In this respect, Dawson (2008, p. 1) stresses, “evaluating the extent and depth of company change allows us to classify change from small development activities and routing modifications through a large-scale transformational initiatives”.
Apart from the evident connection between external aspects of change and its influence of organizational development, change management should be consistently applied to individuals working with an organization.
In this respect, Dawson (2008, p.) insists, “…the importance of communication, employee involvement and ensuring that behavioral change is rooted within the culture of an organization has a relationship has longstanding history in the field of Organizational Development”.
Therefore, both organizational environment and human potential are important factors triggering new trends in leadership styles.
With regard to the above, leadership contributes greatly to formation of workplace setting, which influences the level of individuals’ achievement, purpose, and security.
Therefore, leaders should realize that the turnover level and recruitment culture depend largely on personal characteristics and approaches that they to improve organizational culture.
In this respect, Hull (2003, p. 3) understands workplace leadership in terms of “how the immediate supervisor, team leader, manager or coordinator presented himself or herself”. The focus is made on leadership and individual potential, but not on administration and management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership and Influence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the employed environment should be effectively organized to enhance employees’ motivation and increase their competence (McDonald n. d.). In addition, leaders should be able to organize their followers in teams to operate effectively and achieve the established goals.
Within a cultural context, it should be acknowledged that most leadership styles are oriented on western models that are characterized by a narrow-focused orientation. In this respect, Mellahi (2000) advises to think beyond western stereotypes and promote new, unconventional approaches to business management.
Diverse leadership practices, therefore, are vital for creating a universal scheme. Similar to Mellahi (2000), Avramopoulos and Thomas (2007) also discuss leadership in the context of Greek traditions. In simplistic terms, understanding Greek context does not imply focusing on historic analysis of specific leaders.
Rather, the tradition is associated with “the interference of cultural factors and key principles relating to leadership development as evidenced within broader literary source of ancient Greek figures” (Avramopoulos and Thomas 2007, p. 52).
Within this perspective, the leadership style illustrates social ideology and qualities that ancient leaders tried to achieve. At an individual level, the myth aims to outlinine an important process of searching for the self through struggle and effort.
During the struggle, potential leaders should be guided by an appropriate mentor who can provide viable advice. Therefore, the Greek mythology closely relates to gods and goddess who accompany mortal heroes in their pursuit of goals.
Finally, at the threshold of the technological era, leadership should be connected with the development of online communication, which requires leaders and supervisors to inquire new skills and experiences, including instant messaging, technological competence, and constant interaction with several subordinates (Martinsons et al. 2009).
In this respect, the virtual context also influences the modes of negotiation and supervision.
Organizational Dynamics Organizational dynamics and development is closely associated with individuals’ performance, group working, and organizational culture. All these components should be harmonized through efficient leadership and supervision.
The research on organizational dynamics, therefore, aims to define the extent to which individuals should be involved in teamwork, as well as how group cooperation, should concern how close leaders should follow the firmly established goals.
Team culture is an important element of successful interaction and cooperation, but focus on individual achievement is not less important. Finally, lack of support and inability to adjust to quickly changing environments does not contribute to innovation and improvement.
Team building is an indispensible factor affecting corporate cultures. It defines duties and responsibilities that each team member should take. In this respect, the role of a leader is confined to taking control of the processes held within the team and providing team members with enough space for creativity and critical thinking.
The individual potential should be appraised by leaders. In this respect, Thomas and Walker (2010, p. 189) insist, “the sharp end, where policy rhetoric meets organizational reality, is an ideal opportunity to examine leadership and its handmaiden failure”.
The failure to conform to a specific end should not be regarded as a disability of a team leader to achieve the desired goals. The problem is that leaders are not flexible enough to recognize alternative solutions to the problem that have been offered beyond the established framework.
As a result, the organization fails to response to the rapidly changing external environment, which can also lead to low competence.
The value of team working should not be underestimated because it provides a number of benefits for employees’ performance and productivity. In particular, team building is primarily premised on constant support, assistance, and interaction, leading to generation of new ideas and thoughts.
As an example, Smith (2012) on the Olympic games held in Australia when Australian swimmers failed to achieve the results just because no one expected they could win the game.
Reluctance to make the effort refers, first of all, to the prejudices and biases shaped within the coach’s team. According to Smith (2012, p. 2), “this relatively dismal showing has come to be seen as the inescapable product of poor administered sport in sharp decline…weak leadership and double standards”.
Strong dependence on authority, however, prevents individuals from developing their professional skills, as well as cognizing personal abilities and skills.
Such a perspective explains the dark side of supervision and leadership that is concerned with cult of a leader, rather than adherence to specific goals (Dark Side of Leadership n. d.). More importantly, self-destructive behaviors of leaders can cause the decline of corporate culture.
Leader as a Social Architect It has been defined that leadership is connected with the social and cultural environment in which leaders can be regarded as social architects. Hence, managers and supervisors should be able to scan the external and internal setting for delivering new mechanism to face challenges of constantly changing market.
Product innovation, knowledge management, human resources are among the priorities that leaders should consider before engaging into organizational development. Cultural diversity is another phenomenon that has penetrated the management landscape and has shaped new perspectives on leadership.
Cross-cultural communication is indispensible for leaders to reach consensus with their employees and find the motivating factors increasing employees’ engagement into the organizational process.
According to Abbasi and Hollman (1989, p. 19), “managing involves dealing with people who have unique emotions, interests, attitudes, perceptions, cultural experiences, and socio-economic backgrounds”.
In other words, leading an organization successfully, managers should control organizational processes as they believe they should be controlled. Regardless of personality traits, executives should consider a number of rules and principles of managing people.
To begin with, leaders should demonstrate high integrity, which possible through trust, honesty, and respect. Second, fear should be removed from the employed setting because employees will be more productive in case they are not under the pressure.
Third, open communication and open channels of interaction and information exchange is another successful solution to the problem. Finally, providing objective recognition of employees’ achievements can also generate higher rates of job performance.
There are number of opportunities for leaders to adjust to constantly changing working setting. Leading change effectively, executives should be more concerned with developing a new outlook on performance that emphasizes team-based models to cope with the transition to a new model (Kaplan and Norton 2001).
The task of a leader lies in developing a new set of values and structures that can contribute to the development of a new management system that introduce measurement to articulate change (Lussier and Archua 2009).
In additional, the evaluation of behavioral patterns within an organization is also important because it influences strategic thinking, trustful relationships, progressive stability, and considerations for others.
While deliberating on similarities and differences of leadership across cultures, Taormina and Selvarajah (2005, p. 314) pay attention to Asian leadership by stating “the East-West cultural different on t his factor may be noticed in practice”.
For example, western leaders expect their organizations to undertake risk and, therefore, they accept risk as an important condition for conducting daily operations. In contrast, Eastern leadership focuses more on a well-planned activity that ensures the security of subordinates who are involved in specific ventures.
Individualistic biases, universality, and readiness to adjust to new challenges should create the basis of change management and organizational progress.
According to Sturdy and Grey (2003), leaders should be able to quickly react to the emerging problems, as well as pay attention to employees’ needs, values, and beliefs to define what styles should be employed to improve the situation.
More importantly, the interaction between transformational leadership style and organizational change will allow the leaders to establish successful modes of performance (Boga and Ensari, 2009). In such a manner, executives will be able to stand the competition successfully.
Conclusion A multi-dimensional analysis of leadership education and development has provided a wider picture on cultural, political, social, and economic aspects of its influence on organizational culture and employees’ performance.
More importantly, the analysis has provided new theoretical and empirical perspectives of leading change within an organization through introducing innovation. All the above-presented themes are interdependent because one dimension influences the outcomes of another.
Communication and individual-centered approach are also important for sustaining a competitive advantage.
Reference List Abbasi, SM, and Hollman 1989, ‘KW Incompetence Bosses: Are You One of Them?’, IM, pp. 17-19.
Avramopoulos, S, and Thomas, KV 2007,‘Leadership Odyssey’, The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture, and Change Management, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 51-60.
Boga, I, and Ensari, N 2009,‘The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success’, The Psychologist-Manager Journal, vol. 12, pp. 235-251.
‘Dark Side of Leadership Revisted’ n. d., pp. 3-26.
Dawson, PM 2008, ‘People and Process: Making Sense of Change Management’, ICOMS Asset Management Conference, 1-11.
Hull, D 2003, Simply the Best Workplaces in Australia, University of Sydney, pp. 2-41.
Kaplan, RS, and Norton DP, 2001, ‘Leading Change with The Balanced Scorecard’. Financial Executive, pp. 64-66.
Lussier, RN, and Archua, CF 2009, Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. Cengage Learnng, New York.
Martinsons, MG, Davidson, RM, and Martinsons, V 2009, ‘How Culture Influences IT-Enabled Organizational Change and Information Systems’, Communications of the ACM, vol. 52, no. 4., pp. 118-123.
McDonald, R n. d., ‘Core Skills for Work – A Framework’, Ithaca Group, pp. 1-13.
Mellahi, K 2000, ‘The Teaching of Leadership on UK MBA Programs: A Critical Analysis from an International Perspective’, Journal of Management Development, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 297-308.
Northouse, P 2009, Leadership: Theory and Practice, SAGE, New York.
Rost, JC, and Barker, RA 2000, ‘Leadership Education in Colleges: Toward a 21st Century Paradigm’, Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-12.
Smith, W 2012, That Sinking Feeling, The Australian, pp. 1-7.
Sturdy, A and Grey C 2003, ‘Beneath and Beyond Organizational Change Management: Exploring Alternatives’, Organization, vol. 10 no. 4, pp. 651-662.
Taormina, RJ, and Selvarajah, C 2005, ‘Perceptions of Leadership Excellence in ASEAN Nations’, Leadership, vol.1, no. 3, pp. 299-322.
Thomas, KT, and Walker AD, 2010, ‘The Sharp End: Real Life Challenges in a Complex Activity Space’, Journal of Public Affairs, vol. 10, pp. 186-199.
Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Based in old Trafford, Manchester United is one of the leading and well renowned football clubs not only in the UK but also in the world. The club was initiated in 1878. It then had the name Newton Health before changing to its current brand name – Manchester United in 1902.
It was one of the founding members of the premier league back in 1992. Since 1938, Manchester United has always played the top division in English soccer apart from seasons of 1974 and 1975. The club has also recorded outstanding average attendance compared to all other English football clubs.
Compared to any other organisation, soccer clubs are unique since they are subjected to various market forces and dynamics that act as threats to their performance and hence success. Success may be measured from different paradigms depending on the industry in which an organisation is established.
For football clubs, success may be measured from the number of wins of the club in the tournaments. Apparently, such success is also correlated to financial success. The success of Manchester United is owed to the exemplary management of Alex Ferguson.
Given the competitive nature of the football club business, Manchester United stands out as an ample example of analysing the success of organisations.
Manchester United has successfully managed to place its brand. The club is the reining champion in the European and English champions. It won 2007-2008 UEFA champions league and 2007 -2008 premier league coupled with 2008 FIFA world cup.
Indeed, Manchester has won enormous numbers of world football honours since when Alex Ferguson was appointed the manager in 1986. For instance, the club won the European cup making it the first football club to take home the cup when it beat Benfica 4-1 in 1968.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It later won the same cup in 1999 for the second time and in 2008 for the third time. Furthermore, the club has also kept the world record having won the most FA cup titles.
From financial contexts, the club is also immensely successful. As from 1990s, Manchester United has gone down the history as the richest club of the English premier league. However, Liverpool may dispute this argument.
The club also generates the largest amount of the revenues among all the clubs taking part in the European cup and English premier leagues. Such an enormous success of an organisation does not come easily: there is always an accompanying cost.
Considering Manchester United as the case study, the paper analyses the roles of CSR in the success of an organisation. However, before this is done background information is provided by discussing the success of Manchester United from both the contexts of tournament wins and financial performance.
The Case Study Description Within the whole of Europe, Manchester United stands the third club just behind Barcelona and Real Madrid from the contexts of turnover.
Apart from the recent past (2008) wining in the European champions’ league, Manchester United has also managed to get to European champions final in 2008. On the other hand, with regard to Pyle (2010), “…the financial position of the club remains precarious despite its success on the football field” (p.601).
This argument is significant by appreciating the fact that, in 2009, Manchester United football club made revenues amounting to 278.5 million pounds. The club also reported, “Increased profits (before interests and taxation) to the tune of 90.3 m million pounds (up 13.6 percent)” (Pyle 2010, p.601).
We will write a custom Case Study on Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Much of this profit was acquired through the sale of players (80.7 million pounds). The financial success of the Manchester United is outstanding upon comparing this profit to that of the red football limited.
In this end, Pyle (2010) argues, “red football limited (the parent company of MUFC owned by the Glazer family) reported a profit of by 6.4 million pounds due to interest payments of 68.5 million pounds paid on the erroneous debt incurred to purchase the club” (p.601).
The support of Manchester United across the globe is also incredible and a contributing factor to the success of the club. However, this does not imply that the English premier league clubs are not open to criticism over how they handle their financial matters.
For instance, Pyle (2010) reckons, “many fans are unhappy about the way English premier league football clubs are developing into multinational businesses with global brands, aggressive marketing, and foreign owners (some of dubious reputations)” (p.601).
Indeed, some clubs have gone on record to have spent a lot of money often leading the clubs to experience large debts often exceeding levels that are justifiable by the turnovers that are made by the clubs.
The hefty spending is normally justified by the people who fund the clubs. This case makes commentators on the future performance of the football clubs worried that some of the billionaires who fund the clubs may get bored at some point to the extent of considering withdrawing their support.
The repercussion for this attempt would plunge the clubs to large financial debts that would often make business impossible. The main question that remains is whether Manchester United would be able to ensure that its entire stakeholders would be satisfied should such a situation occur.
Amid being faced by the above interrogative, the brand of the Manchester United remains one of the most well built among the football clubs playing the English premier league. In fact, “the basis of Manchester United’s business success and global brand is rooted in the club’s history and traditions” (Pyle 2010, p.601).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the first win of the European cup, in the time of Sir Matt, the company grew from small to a public limited company. At this time the chairman of the company, Martin Edwards, principally focused on handling the challenge of hiking funds for helping the company to improve and maintain its success in the pitch.
An effort was made to raise funds for attracting new top players. In 1991, “the club was floated on the London Stock Exchange with a valuation of 40 million pounds” (Pyle 2010, p.602).
This move was strategic for the success of Manchester United since, in 1994 through 1997, the company was able to have an accumulate share sales amounting to 71 million pounds.
In the effort to ensure that Manchester United remained a respected club, in 2002, Martin Edwards stepped down to pave way for Sir Roy to take over the leadership of the plc.
In 1991, when Manchester United was placed on flotation, there was minimal number of companies that had acquired a structure similar to that of plc. Therefore, the move was incredibly disputable though it attracted enormous controversies.
For instance, Pyle (2010) quote sir Ferguson reckoning, “when the plc started, there were grave doubts about it – I had them myself – but I think the supporters came round” (p.601). Indeed, the success of the club was looming. Manchester United had even overtaken Liverpool.
Therefore, this move had little impacts on the growth and success of the company. Hence, worries accompanied by controversies were well resolved.
Operating as a plc, an organisation seeks to expand its clientele. Manchester United embarked on a mission to seek out for global presence. This strategic goal resorted to the recruitment of Peter Keyon in 1997 “due to his marketing and branding experience” (Pyle 2010, p.602).
His experience was vital in helping the company to build a business interest that had a global feel. Through the effort of Peter Keyon, “sales of replica kits and all manner of club-related gifts continued to expand quickly with its merchandising success becoming the bench mark for the industry” (Pyle 2010, p.602).
Consequently, Manchester United ended up being a brand that is known by almost everybody across the globe. However, the contribution of Peter Keyon in enhancing the success of Manchester United attracted the attention of rivals (Chelsea) who offered him a competitive package besides subsequently getting him out of Manchester United.
Nevertheless, this did not deter the continued success of the plc since his deputy Roman Abramovich took over. He has been incredibly instrumental in the continued growth of the company.
Plcs have numerous obligations to achieve on behalf of the owners. On one hand, for the case of Manchester United, “shareholders demanded profits although some shares were held by supporters where the vast majority were owned by financial institutions, which were looking for returns on their investments” (Pyle 2010, pp.602-3).
On the other hand, apart from the owners of a plc, it is vital that a company seeks to achieve its success through operating and behaving in a socially corporate manner.
To achieve these goals, and to help in building further on the brand image of football clubs, the clubs have always welcomed the interest of media people to get into deals with them.
For instance, according to Pyle (2010), Manchester United signed a deal with America Online Corporation biding the two organisations between 2010/11 to 2014/15 worth 80 million pounds (p.603).
Manchester United has done a great deal of investments in sporting facilities and other social amenities. All these have gone into increasing the size of the club in terms of increasing the revenues generated through fees levied on sporting facilities.
However, amid the increased revenues, Manchester United’s financial structures attract an immense alarm. It has been experiencing rising debts. Due to this reason, “Glazers converted 500 million pounds of debt into bonds, which do not mature until 2017” (Pyle 2010, p.604).
Although it was an incredible financial relief to the club, these bonds will attract an interest of 45 million pounds, which will have to be paid in 2017. Now, it sounds plausible to question the sustainability of the Manchester United model for doing business.
Would it enable the club to have continued growth in the future? Should the club develop new a mechanism of developing further its brand? If so, can social corporate responsibility aid in enhancing better and sustained growth of the club in the future?
SWOT and PESTEL Analysis of Manchester United SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis seeks to reveal the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and the threats faced by an organisation in its normal business operations.
The idea for doing this is based on the argument that when these elements are clear, it becomes possible for the management of the organisation in question to concentrate on the strengths and opportunities.
This strategy enhances its performance while ensuring that its takes appropriate strategies to ensure that the weaknesses and threats are mitigated in the effort to attain optimality of the performance of the organisation.
Essentially, SWOT analysis entangles strategic planning approach for evaluating the strengths, limitations, and opportunities coupled with threats that business establishment encounters (Hill
Intelligence Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Intelligence defined as a general measure of mental ability. David Wechsler developed intelligence tests which are widely used.He also defined intelligent as the capability to persistently think reasonably and come up with ways of solving problems that exist in their surroundings.
The term intelligence quotient is derived from German intelligenz- quotient. Alfred Binet a French psychologist founded the first experimental laboratory research in 19th century and developed experimental technique s of measuring intelligent and reasoning ability (Ceci
When an Individual Approach Must Be Undertaken Research Paper a level english language essay help
Teaching is one of those spheres where it is comparatively hard to come up with innovative approaches – with the existing variety of learning theories and strategies, inventing a brand new concept is quite complicated. However, with the rapid pace of technical progress and the appearance of computers and Internet, the existing teaching theories have evolved into another approach known as online teaching.
Offering new opportunities for the students to learn certain subjects distantly and to train their skills with the help of specific programs, online teaching, indeed, provides a number of issues for teachers to consider and has a lot of advantages compared to the old-fashioned manner of teaching.
However, it must be taken into account that online teaching also presupposes facing a lot of new challenges, one of which concerns the relationships between the teacher and the students as well as the relationships among the students.
Because of the lack of live communication between the students and the teacher and among the students, online learning can fall flat as a means to teach the students the basic group interaction skills and to help the students solve the conflicts which can arise in the course of communication.
Hence, while offering more opportunities for the students, the online teaching approach misses out the aspect of live communication, which makes it look rather as an addition to the real-life classes than an independent teaching approach.
In the course of online teaching, I have had the experience concerning the communication aspect, and to say that this experience left much to be desired would be to color the truth.
Actually, the students in the group which I was to provide with tasks and whose progress I was to control displayed consistently increasing improvements in such aspects of language learning as reading and writing, yet started experiencing great problems when it came to listening and speaking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When rethinking the given experience and analyzing the factors which could have possibly led to such deplorable results, I had to consider the learning theory. As it turned out, the idea of teaching students solely with the help of online teaching, which made the bulk of the chosen method, did not work as well as one might have expected it to.
Before going straight to emphasizing the downsides of the online learning concept, one must give credit to some of the luckiest improvements which the given theory has introduced into the field of English language learning. To start with, the given approach allows not only foreign students, but also adults to partake in the learning program.
Helping people from all walks of life obtain the skills and information which they will need in their further career, online learning has literally embraced the entire world. The online learning theory will help adults to learn what they consider necessary for their jobs without actually quitting their current positions.
However, the above-mentioned issue also presupposes facing certain challenges in developing the current theory. In contrast to the theory of adult learning, which has been developed long before and is nowadays firmly established among the rest of the theories as a truly solid set of concepts, online learning still requires further development.
Another minor drawback of the theory of online learning is the lack of live communication between the learner and the teacher, which has been mentioned above. The issue of communication can possibly become a major stepping stone for the students who will resort to the online learning theory to acquire new knowledge.
According to the ideas offered by Tough, interaction between the students and the teacher is extremely important for the learning process, since among the four planners described by Tough, none features learning process without communicating with the teacher (Tough).
Indeed, while evaluating the conclusions made in the course of the lesson and learning the “enduring value beyond the classroom” (Understanding by design by Wiggins and McTighe: A summary, n. d.) is important, the process of communication with the teacher and the peers is also of great significance.
We will write a custom Research Paper on When an Individual Approach Must Be Undertaken specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When deprived of the given element of learning, students are likely to start feeling uncertain; hence, the possibility of a failure is highly likely.
Nevertheless, the above-mentioned does not mean that the theory of online teaching has no intrinsic value in it. There are a number of positive aspects about the theory, and they are worth bringing up.
To start with, as it has been mentioned above, the online teaching approach does allow foreign students and the students who have to work to study distanced and yet manage to get all the necessary information without having to attend every lecture.
Another important issue that makes online learning theory worth consideration is the fact that online learning provides ample opportunities for both self-study and learning in virtual classrooms (Clark
George Orwell’s “Why I Write” Critical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
In his essay “Why I Write” (1946), George Orwell presents the discussion of his development as a writer. The essay is autobiographical. It can be divided into three parts.
The author’s childhood is described in the first part of the essay. The author pays attention to his first experiences as a writer and notes that he always knew about his future as a writer. Orwell discusses his early writing experiences in detail and accentuates the progress which led him to the profession of writer.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that Orwell always had the creative imagination, and he was sure that the other persons also could imagine their lives in vivid pictures and stories. The second part is the discussion of the writer’s attributes or motives.
Orwell states that there are four great motives for writing which are typical for any writer. Orwell discusses sheer egoism, the writer’s aesthetic enthusiasm, pays attention to the historical impulse, and focuses on the political purpose.
In spite of the fact these motives can be presented in different proportions, all of them can be used to characterize a writer. The third part of the essay reflects Orwell’s personal motives in writing and the development of his style which is rather “public-spirited” because Orwell wanted to reflect the social issues in writing (Orwell par. 15).
Following Orwell’s motives, it is possible to state that all writing is political to some extent because the political purpose is always present in writing. According to Orwell, “no book is genuinely free from political bias” (Orwell par. 9).
That is why, writing can be discussed as political in general sense because accentuating definite social aspects, the author always refer to the political background in detail or generally, with references to the purpose of writing. Orwell states that writers intend to “alter other peoples’ idea of the kind of society” (Orwell par. 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, it is possible to conclude with references to Orwell’s ideas that writers also have the intentions which can be discussed as political ones.
In his essay, Orwell uses rhetorical appeals to persuade the audience and realize the purpose of writing to present the story of becoming a writer with pointing the reasons. Ethos is realized with references to the fact that George Orwell is the famous writer that is why his discussion about the writer’s motives can be considered as credible.
Moreover, Orwell distinguishes between “serious writers” and their motives and journalists in order to support the reliability of his statement (Orwell par. 6). Pathos is presented in vivid descriptions of the author’s first writing experiences, and the emotional appeal is obvious from the first lines of the essay when Orwell stresses, “from a very early age …
I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer” (Orwell par. 1). Furthermore, the author accentuates that writing is a kind of challenge and draws the audience’s attention to the fact that writing is a “horrible” and “exhausting” struggle which resembles the “painful illness” (Orwell par. 15).
Moreover, Orwell uses logos in order to provide his considerations with necessary reasoning and states that the background information is helpful for presenting the complex picture of the writer’s development (Orwell par. 5). The next method is the depiction of autobiographical situations which contributed to Orwell’s writing on democratic socialism (Orwell par. 11).
Works Cited Orwell, George. Why I Write. 27 Nov. 2012. Web..
Television in Emirati Culture Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Among the GCC countries, the UAE is the pioneer to safeguard the national interest with forward looking strategy to preserving natural resources for the future generation; their ancestors dealt with great wisdom and invested their early efforts and resources for reorganizing the nation in order to make benefited the Emirati citizens to sharing the fruits of the joint progress.
The ambitious and responsible ancestors of the Emiratis possibly would effectively shape the future vigorously appealing towards the growing socioeconomic changes, representing their well-built families and communities lean towards moderate Islamic values along with deep-rooted heritage of Islamic radicalism where Emiratis are confident citizens who aimed to establish dignity of their nation by implementing moral values for the better achievement.
The challenge of establishing a contemporary and progressive nation in the Middle East region with the aim to sharing the fruits of the common development of Emirati people from their cultural perspectives to their professional, business and social life that prolonged from the long heritage of Arab nations in this zone.
George (2012) stated that television network of Egypt, KSA, and the UAE are strongly interlinked with each other in such way that any dish or cable business would be failed in this region if they do not integrate the three cultural combinations in their network; however, market for TV advertisement in these countries are around US$1.9 billion per year.
Different pay channels mentioned that in the UAE 10 % of their families are connected with pay channels where 58 channels like Viacom, Fox, and Sony along with Sky News are available with four hundred channels, which generate huge revenue from this sector; however, the television has influential impact on the local culture and behavioural change of the citizens.
The UAE is the gateway of the Far East and western hemisphere throw a dynamic maritime linkage in ambition to welcome people all over the world to enjoy the cultural heritage of this region along with materialization, socioeconomic progress and prosperity of the country with an amalgamation of local and expatriate culture (ECC, 2012, p.5).
The most important question is what exactly belongs to the local culture; whether the local people uphold their old Arab culture with religion radicalism and blindness or they are able to handshake with modern western culture, do the government persistence with democratic culture, do the society provide equal treatment to the women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ancient Arab culture was much uncivilized, rude towards female, apart from human values, now, almost 90 % population of the country is expatiate from the emerging Asian countries where they are most moderate free from religious radicalism concerned with their job performance rather than cultural issues.
To identifying the local culture, it should look to the anthropological heritage of the UAE that has already recognized and honoured by all nations of the world for its glorious cultural heritage along with the way of restructuring concurrent culture with amalgamation with the foreign culture where television plays a dominating role in this cultural struggles.
Study Problem It is important to state that the culture of the UAE society is quite different from the rest of the world because of its excessive conservativeness; as a result, the impact of TV in its culture is quite severe than other nations.
Consequently, in order to find out the effect of TV over the Emirati viewers, it is essential to focus on the culture and diversity of the UAE in this part of the paper.
Bard (2005, p.2) pointed out that the misrepresentation has prolonged in the Arab world that they have gained enough progress in terms of awarding and well protecting basic human rights and women’s rights, but the reality is totally different, as women are treated as ‘instruments for enjoyment’; however, the mentality of the UAE viewers are changing because of various TV-networks.
Gender discrimination, unequal property rights, freedom of speech or freedom of choice are prohibited for Arab women; they are treated as exclusive property of their husbands (which is mostly deep-rooted patriarchy that their ancestors inherited from old cultures); however, such views are changing slowly due to cable networks.
It’s a long myth that democracy and human rights situation in UAE has progressed enough in relation to other Arab countries, but reality is quite different and real scenario of democracy is very devastating, as people have no power to make any change in the state power – the source of real power is conserved to the sultans rather than parliament.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Television in Emirati Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in some cases, free cable networks on TVs and other media like internet can pose problems to the government.
Even the present UAE rulers in November 2012 proclaimed a new degree on the title “Cyber Crime Protection Act”, which reflected the intolerance and of the government by criminalizing the way of non-violent democratic movement organized by using the internet, where the government urged to identify the political actors of the democratic movement as miscreant or “unlicensed demonstrations”.
This is a new culture of the UAE rulers to victimize the political actors as well as mass people; however, such political cultures are possibly found under the undemocratic and autocratic dictatorship, where human rights and democracy are under threat.
On the other hand, the prevailing idea about the UAE labour law was that it is ensuring the ‘model of best practice’ through compliance with the EPP terms, but in reality, it is violating this, as the contractors are getting financial incentives rather than any sanction for the law violation; this culture has indicated the inefficacy of UAE legal system.
Sabban (2005) presented the most devastating data regarding the workforce of the country that demonstrated that the workforce of the realm is providing a stable economic growth that consist of 80.43 % expatriate men, 10.48 % expatriate women, 7.90 % national men and 1.18% national women; where the contribution of expatriate workers are 90.90% and 9.1% by the local workers.
The largest economic actors of 90.90% in the UAE are seriously suppressed from different socioeconomic and cultural operation that immediately requires socialization to balance the demography from the dangerous impact of the socio-political violence, where the television could play a pioneering role to socializing the expatriates; so, this study has aimed to identifying the role of television in this concern.
The Goals of the Study The society of this country consists with an imbalanced population in ratio of local and overseas population where about 91.0% workers are expatriates and almost 9% employees are local; however, the large part is under suppression due to their foreign identity, although it is quite impossible for the employers to move the wheel of economy without the contribution of expatriates.
The 90% of the population is from different ethic group and cannot interact in local language, the employers and employees both have not any fluency level in the English; however, it is difficult for them to understand the local culture due to lack of interaction though local television channels have a potential role to remove language problem of the expatriates.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Television in Emirati Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The local TV as a mass media has a wider scope to amalgamate the large number of expatriates into the mainstream of demography; in addition, by doing so, the television channels could improve the relationship between the two cooperating class into a single platform of common interest where they do not think one another as enemy.
Consequently, Sabban (2005) and Stork (2012, p.1) stated that the local and foreign employees could exchange their feelings and emotions to each other that would develop a friendly atmosphere for socializing the expatriates that would ultimately reduce the brutal behaviour to the foreign workers in UAE, remove discrimination and improve economic contribution by the expatriates.
At the same time, Sabban (2005) and Stork (2012, p.1) further addressed that the positive impact of television in the Emirati culture could explore the national economy and a stable population growth by socializing into the mainstream demography.
The Study Inquiries The socialization process in the UAE society is very difficult due to its immigration law like citizenship of this country may not automatically provide to any foreigner with less efforts; during the time of the federalization, it was decided that the citizenship would be awarded to a person who is able to demonstrate affiliation with any of the local tribes.
Mutual relationship may not have any influence on the citizenship or connection with local native families and even Sheikhs, could assist to granting citizenship that has categorised into three types such as full citizen, legal citizen, and citizen by family relationship or naturalization, the holder of any of the first two types of citizens could apply for full citizenship.
However, El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) further addressed that the citizenship is not a vital problem to live in the UAE, any person could live and spend a long-time without having citizenship otherwise any ruling of Sheikh while the UAE citizenship are automatically awarded to the child whose father possesses full citizenship.
On the other hand, El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) explored that women expatriates would not get citizenship for children for their children though they become part of the UAE culture; at the same time, media also have both positive and negative impact on them.
The most horrible law that they would not allow to have any dual citizenship; candidates have to surrender his/her previous citizenship before applying for the UAE, the nationalization law of UAE has formed further dilemmas and controversies in the society that previously stabilized with fair share of dichotomy as well as conflict that ultimately generate new area of conflict.
Continuous rising of female domestic workers imported from overseas countries for the amusement and luxury of the ruling families have generated further complexity with the culture as no employment law could prevent the citizenship of such domestic workers; moreover, male industrial worker faces a lots of problem to gaining citizenship; this also creates cultural problem in the UAE. Due to lack of fair immigration policy and well-designed socialization process, the society of UAE has been automatically balancing abnormal and complex composition of population, for a balanced and future looking nest generation, it is obvious for the UAE policy makers to introduce a quick and easy socialisation process by which the expatriates would get citizenship easily.
The Importance of the Study The impact of television in the Emirati Culture is a very significant study with the background to the Arab spring and its consequential impact that would prolong to the society for a long time.
Television as a source of mass media communication in the UAE, it has a long impact on continuous and growing integration of major political and democratic institutions where culture influences the people’s live with the charismatic dominance on media and this is the response to the classical inquiry how media have an effect on society and culture of the UAE.
Standing on the reality of Arab Spring that has contributed a completely new social and political condition that would aggressively restructure the culture and society, the UAE has just evidenced without any previous experience or theoretical analysis; conventionally, the mass media has considered a separate entry isolated from the society and culture that prolonged in the concurrent UAE society.
The contemporary society of the UAE has verified the media with not just an array of purely technologies that establish linkage between the active parties who are considered as fit for further force on the social factors, but it can reengineered for the greater change of the culture in the extent by reshaping mass media like television and even internet.
The message and appeal presented by mass media has threaten the ruling class of the UAE that was ringing the bell of falling autocracy, and religion radicalism; in the name of Islamic law, there is no chance to deprive the people from democracy or impose extreme burden of Islamic cultural in order to save ruling families from the democratic movement.
On the other hand, for the continuous development of the television media would largely increase conscious people; consequently, the inherited family based dictators in this region were able to hearing the death sentence of Islamic monarchy who does not dare to put into practice of democracy, human and equal rights for women.
At the same time, general people are seriously influenced by the news and other related programs though present ruling system is forcing to destroy the people’s unity who eager for democracy by misleading the cultural, political, and social institutions with the ill intention to rescue the Arab monarchies from the influence of mass media.
Assumptions El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) explored the real scenario of the UAE mass media with assumption that government of the UAE were planning to introduce draft media law 2009 to replace the old Press and Publications Law 1980, which designed to establish control over the mass media and communication by integrating sixteen punishable offence for criticizing the royal family and the religion.
During the proclamation of new media law 2009, the government created panic among the media workers by conducting fear campaign for journalists by imposing different punishment and harassment through the law enforcement agencies; at the same time, the government propagated that the mass media of the UAE has been enjoying substantial freedom in the country.
This research has aimed to investigate the impact of mass media on the culture of UAE, with a homogeneous assumption that the government is cooperating with the mass media communication in order to assess the impact of television on the development of Emirati Culture.
The Theoretical Framework Understanding and Assessing Mass Communication Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.30) stated that some traditional, formal, and systematic social scientific theories have used to maintain the relationship between media and the citizens, which are known as theories of mass communication; in addition, these theories are imperative in order to discuss human behaviour and other related issues.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.31) argued that these theories are developing over time constructing even more practical and influential hypothetical perspectives by including diverse and occasionally contradictory thoughts related with history, philosophy, humanities, social sciences, psychology and so on.
However, Baran and Davis (2010, p.31) and Bryant and Miron (2004) stated that there are appropriate theoretical framework has been developed yet to materialize the issues; therefore, many scholars analyzed the factors such as aggregate media systems with their function in society considering unscientific methods.
At the same time, the researchers have concentrated on the subjective viewpoints to analyze the theories of mass communication in context of UAE television that exemplify enduring or inventive conceptualizations; in addition, they further stated that these theories will give the opportunity to predict what will happen.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.35) argued that four contemporary theories, such as, post positivist theory, hermeneutic theory, critical theory and normative theory are playing vital role to shape the society and change human behaviour’ however, Obe, Ayedun and Ofulue (2008, p.54) pointed out other theories including mass society theories, social scientific approach, media violence, common sense theories, and so on.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) stated that this theory based on physical sciences and empirical observation considering the fact that positivist only believe on the scientific method; on the other hand, the researchers are also dedicated to focus on such observational system under this theory. However, key features of this theory are –
No Characteristics Post-positivist Theory 1 Objectives The main objective of this theory are justification, prediction, and control (to link between social science and the physical sciences), for instance, from operation of political advertising, the researchers predict commercial factors and control the voting behaviour of the UAE television viewers 2 Ontology Human behaviour is satisfactorily predictable to be studied scientifically though social world may have more variation 3 Epistemology of this theory Knowledge can enhance by systematic, and logical method 4 Post positivism’s axiology the implementation of the scientific technique remains theorists’ values out of the search for understanding Table 1: Characteristics of Post-positivist Theory
Source: Self generated from Baran and Davis (2010, p.38)
According to the Baran and Davis (2010, p.39), this theory is based on the study of understanding particularly from side to side methodical interpretation of actions along with manuscript; in addition, the objective of this theory is to provide the answers to the questions like how and why that behaviour occurs in the society.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) stated that this theory has developed from the era when people started to interpret Bible and analyze how it reshapes early Christian culture; however, different forms of hermeneutic theory exists to understand interpret social situation to create value for the people.
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) argued that the name of hermeneutic theory can replace as interpretive theory because it interprets any product of social interaction while people react in accordance with their own preferences and prejudices.
Moreover, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) and Obe et al. (2008, p.37) stated that theory’s epistemology based on the subjective communication between the observers and their communities; in addition, the axiology of this theory encompasses personal and professional values of UAE television viewers.
Meyrowitz (2008, p. 641) and Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) stated that this theory is completely different from former theories because it based only on the political phenomenon because politics could change social and human behaviour.
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) further addressed that this theory challenges existing behaviour of organizing the social world because they can provide priority to the most significant individual values; thus, this theory based on inequality and oppression. However, key features of this theory are –
No Characteristics Critical Theory 1 Objectives Inherently political 2 Ontology It is a bit more complex 3 Epistemology of this theory Knowledge is sophisticated merely when it serves to free individuals and communities from the control of those more influential than themselves 4 Axiology Due to openly political system, its axiology is aggressively value-laden 5 Role of media Media is a crucial tool employed by corporate elites in order to restrain how individuals view their communal world and to border their organization in it 6 Strengths Used to plan change in the real world 7 Weaknesses It is too political and based on subjective observation, which also uses controversial research methods Table 2: Characteristics of critical theory
Source: Self generated from Baran and Davis (2010, p.40)
Normative Theories of Mass Communication
Baran and Davis (2010, p.100), Ostini and Fung (2002), and Obe et al. (2008, p.55) stated that normative theories included many theories such as authoritarian media theory, libertarian media theory, soviet-communist media theory; however, these theories does not provide any scientific explanations, but describe some ideal values, which assist to explicate the ways in which mass media should be rebuilt.
Authoritarian Media Theory
Obe et al. (2008, p.54) stated that it is on one the oldest of the press theories that positioned all kinds of communication under the power of a governing elites where institutions rationalised their control as a means to defend and guard a divinely preordained social order; furthermore, it began in 16th century and derived from State’s philosophy of absolutism.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) and Obe et al, (2008, p.54) stated that it supports the total domination of media to sever the purpose of the administrations instead of criticising the governments; at the same time, the media were not allowed to print and broadcast anything which might undermine the credibility of the administrations; otherwise, they were subjected to punishment.
However, Baran and Davis (2010, p.102) and Obe et al. (2008, p.54) stated that the basic supposition of this theory is that the administration is reliable for which media professionals were inadmissible to enjoy any independence; in addition, foreign medias had also controlled by the government; unfortunately, this theory is still practiced by the government of some countries.
On the other hand, Obe et al. (2008, p.55) and Baran and Davis (2010, p.102) argued that under the practice of this theory, the administration also imposed high taxes, passed oppressive laws, suppressed the media professionals and controlled over content of the news.
However, McQuail (1994) stated that media professionals have punished for violating royal charters; however, immunity is possible in some extent for the case of publicize minority perspective and culture, which not create any hindrance to control society as their wish; therefore, this theory does not emphasis on the development of a homogeneous national culture among the UAE television viewers.
Libertarian Media Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.103) stated that this hypothesis can be traced back to 16th century, which developed in opposition to authoritarian theory; at the same time, Obe et al. (2008, p.55) argued that some social movements such as Protestant Reformation enhanced the concept of freedom of express and thoughts, which would allow them to hold and express opinions independently.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.103), Ostini and Fung (2002), Obe et al. (2008, p.55) stated that libertarian theory is considered the perfect model while the main goal of it is to advance the interests of the people; therefore, it gives the opportunity to the people to publish whatever they like in some extent.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.104) stated that this theory has removed the arbitrary and erratic practice of the authoritarian model and Obe et al. (2008, p.55) further expressed that this model had not supported complete independence to express themselves regarding rule of law, but it has full protection to media professionals to draw a broader line between good and bad.
On the other hand, Ostini and Fung (2002) and McQuail (1994) addressed that most of the developed countries have followed this theory in order to shape the society more dramatic ways; in contrast, Baran and Davis (2010) stated that journalists and media professionals are not getting such immunities and facilities where the control rested in the hands of a king.
Figure 1: Strengths and weaknesses of Libertarian Media Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.120)
Soviet-Communist Media Theory
Obe et al. (2008) stated that this theory has introduced during the time of Russian Revolution in 1997 when Marx and Engels had struggled to serve the interests of the working class; however, it supported complete domination of media to promote the socialist system; the prime factors of this theory are –
No Characteristics Soviet-communist Theory 1 Objectives The main objective of this theory was to maintain the sovereignty of the proletariat 2 Ontology Used the media to carry on progress and transform towards the accomplishment of the communist period 3 Good intention The media was subject to direct state control to help communist party; here, it is important to mention that the Soviet press had removed the profit motive under this model 4 Social Responsibility Used media as an arm of government to protect political conflicts strictly Table 3: Characteristics of Soviet-communist Theory
Source: Self generated Obe et al. (2008)
Social Responsibility Media Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.121) stated that this model used to serve the political system as well as protect the rights of the individuals, serve financial interest of the community and preserve financial independence; however, the following figure shows the strengths and weaknesses of this theory –
Figure 2: Strengths and weaknesses of Social Responsibility Media Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.120)
Some Other Theories
Table 4: Characteristics of the theories
Source: Self generated Obe et al. (2008)
The Focus on Media Effects
Baran and Davis (2010, p.121) argued that the researcher have concentrated on the effects of media on the society and culture from the 1950s to the 1990s; they also focused on how media like television influence the buyer to purchase their products; however, the next figure demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of Attitude-Change theory –
Figure 3: Strengths and weaknesses of Attitude-Change Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.156)
Figure 4: Strengths and weaknesses of Entertainment Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.270)
Conceptual Framework on the Effect of Television
Baran and Davis (2010) noted that several academicians have engaged cultivation-analysis to scrutinize the influence of TV related concerns away from sadism and offence; this could examine of public awareness of wealth, separation, employed female, approval of gender typecasts, avarice, principles, psychological well-being, and political involvement among the UAE television viewers.
The scale of persuasion that is left in each of the sectors is debatable; however, there are certain other segments included in this concern, which, for example include belief of estrangement, ecological unease, employment, insights of wellbeing, and nuptial viewpoints; nevertheless, suppositions of cultivation are encouraged throughout, while the potency of results and the feature of the study diverge significantly.
Baran and Davis (2010) has clearly pointed out a number of factors, which could be regarded as the effects that television has on societies; these factors include the idea that TV smudges conventional features of public outlook of their planet, it merges their authenticity to TV’s cultural-mainstream, and curves that mainstream to the organizational interests of telly or its promoters.
The appraisal of the approach in which telly controls the societal world is evocative of the opinion regarding accepted cultures; in addition, what has been an opulently varied handcrafted procedure has become a composite industrialized and mass allotment endeavour; however, this has eliminated much of the provincialism and parochialism, over and above some of the exclusiveness of the pre-television epoch.
It is important to note that Obe et al. (2008) pointed out that this factor has enhanced close-minded cultural perspectives; on the other hand; this also gave more and more substantial industrialized corporations and the spot to bring to mind a large amount of what people feel on the subject of being familiar with terms and execution in general.
According to Bryant and Miron (2004), certain authors do not think this as a predominantly reasonable trade-off, and so, they placed cultivation-analysis in the territory of critical presumption; but others regarded cultivation as every now and then taken as a return of a strapping upshot outlook of mass media, though, interestingly, such outlook is not from top to bottom incorrect,
Nevertheless, it fails to notice the line of reasoning that such theory was in the beginning envisaged as a critical theory – that, in fact, concentrated over mass-media concerns in particular – merely as the mass-media (principally TV) give out the narrative convenience; moreover, TVs are leading means for dealing out communication from ethnic, communal, or financially viable influential classes,
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010) also noted that the foremost contentious fundamentals regarding this presumption is the centre of attention on serious viewers of TV, who do not have regard to any precise shows on telly; moreover, Obe et al. (2008) noted that cultivation is more than merely an investigation of effects from an explicit medium.
According to the authors, cultivation is rather an examination of the foundation of TV along with the societal role it plays; however, cultivation, reviewers asserted, has mistreated the requirement to recognize grave customers of precise kinds of programs; on the other hand, Obe et al. (2008) has stated that cultivation’s theoretical portion of disclosure to TV is excessively comprehensive.
Television Media of UAE
Television media of the country is a highly prospective sector in terms of profitability and sustainable growth; according to Media Abu Dhabi, local TV-Network has proclaimed an extraordinary increase of 122 percent in subscription sales in 2010 to 2011 period; moreover, it is notable that in 2012, hundreds of thousands families across the area enjoyed Abu Dhabi-Sport’s wide coverage.
Media as Culture Industries: The Commodification of Culture
The commodification of culture is an inspection of what happens when culture is mass-produced and distributed in direct competition with locally-based cultures; it suggests that media are industries focusing in the manufacture and allocation of cultural commodities; these grew at the cost of small-local-producers and the price of this was the continuous disruption of public lives (Baran and Davis 2010).
The condition of a highly conservative, Muslim, and radical society of the United Arab Emirates is no different from this – as a result, Emirati viewer behaviours after exposure to television programs can be explained by continuous disruption of public lives and distraction of conservative cultures of UAE.
Previous Studies There are very few studies with the contribution of mass media United Arab Emirates where most of that researches are centered to scrutinize the theories of media, overriding effects of media along with the significant cultural theories those are applied to observe the influential factors of media and society linking with the concurrent socioeconomic and cultural scenario of UAE.
Al-Jenaibi (2011, p.1) mentioned that the mass media along with the surrounding Arab societies and the exploring news media studies indicated the character of mass media within the Arab society integrating with the modern technologies that have been shifting dynamics of the Arab public domain aimed to improving freedom of press, freedom of speech aimed to encourage a democratic society apart from the prevailed culture of Arab monarchy.
For the last few decades, large numbers of mass communication theories have been put into practice in the social perspectives of UAE, but there is no effectual studies in the UAE regarding effectiveness and power of mass media to restructuring the society and public domain, the previous studies have engaged to demonstrate effectiveness of mass media on few social factors.
However, before the Arab Spring, there were no brave research that could predict the power and influence of mass media and dare to demonstrate the impact of mass media to promoting democracy, human rights and to develop democratic culture for social institutions.
Reference List Al-Jenaibi, B. (2011). News Media in Arab Societies. Web.
Baran, S. J.
Langston Hughes Biography Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Resilience
Calmness and Tactfulness
Langston Hughes was a human rights activist and a playwright who constantly led the revolution change against the segregation of the Negro in America. He is considered one of the most influential agitators for change in the social order in the history of activism in America. The poem highlights the plight of the Negro in the USA.
Resilience From the poem, Hughes outlines the virtue of resilience. Resilience refers to the quality of resuming to your original form irrespective of how much you are pressed with issues.
The racial segregation in America is a social phenomenon that no one would like to experience, it should elicit bad memories in any individual, but the persona simply says,” ….he laughs.”
He seems to be unaffected by the racial discrimination that he is being subjected to, he simply dismisses it, even though we all know that such occurrences would make an individual bulge and assume a combatant attitude.(Rhynes 62)
Patriotism Conventionally, anyone who gets treated wrongfully in an environment will be conditioned to deeply loathe such environment.
A student battered in any high school will hate anything to do with high schools, despite the sub human treatment he gets from the fellow countrymen; he is still patriotic enough to proclaim his love for the same nation. In the last line, he claims authoritatively that “…I too am America.”
He loves his country despite the ill treatment he is invariantly subjected to.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hopefulness Perhaps, this is the most outstanding value that Hughes wanted to portray in his poem. In my opinion, it forms the primary trait of the persona.
The author wanted to illuminate a ray of hope to the victims of racial segregation. He outlines this throughout the poem. When he says that he eats and grows strong, the value of hope is portrayed, he is not easily broken disheartened, he looks forward for change, and so he says, “…Tomorrow, i will be at the table.”
A hopeful person quotes the future, while a hopeless person drowns in disillusionment. (Rhynes 102) The persona however, looks forward for the brighter tomorrow. From the tone of the poem, it is very obvious that the future that he is waiting for will be much better than the present time. (Rhynes 11)
He argues that his tormentors “will see how beautiful I am.” Use of “will” infers to a future tense meaning the persona is still keeping hope alive of better tomorrow. (Rhynes 64)
The calmness he portrays in the poem is due to his hope for a free America. (Rhynes 66)
Patience The persona is a very tolerant person. He is not belligerent at all, even though it is obvious that he is subjected to surly conditions that undermine human dignity, he remains friendly to them, no wonder he says that “I laugh.” He also waits patiently for the outcomes of the future when he will be stronger and even “more beautiful.”
Calmness and Tactfulness One would expect opposition from the persona to counter the oppressors, but he avoided the confrontation and instead remained calm. (Rhynes 33) He says that when sent to the kitchen, “he ate well”, he didn’t confront anybody but planned by eating well and “growing strong.” Eventually, he says that he’ll no longer be told to “eat in the kitchen,”
We will write a custom Essay on Langston Hughes Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Rhynes, Martha E.I, too, sing America: the story of Langston Hughes. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds, 2002. Print.
Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
In this day and age, this world is referred to as globalized due to the fact that humans are now able to get in touch with each other from anywhere around the world.
From all sides of the world be it the Eastern side or the Western side, or from the Northern to the Southern, it is pertinent to note that people all of the information that they require from the principal resource of knowledge. This is the internet.
It enhances profitable activities among individuals who have never known each other previous to their transactions, and some of them even join up together to form or carry out diverse activities regardless of the differences in their nationalities or beliefs.
In this aspect, the matter of multinational companies can be used as the perfect example. This does not indicate that it is easy for them to work together. This is because there are quite a number of challenges that they encounter, which encompass harmonization as well as organizational culture within their operations.
They have to face up to these challenges in order for them to remain competitive and so that they can be able to survive in this world of shrewd business and the environment in which they are to thrive. Companies that do not attempt to adapt to these strategies will find it difficult to operate if the intend to expand their business.
Adoption of the strategic aspects of international business is the key to success in the world of international business and trade.
A multinational company can be defined as a corporate body or rather a venture, which in most instances, has its head offices in one country, which is normally referred to as the home nation, while operating industrial units in various other nations that are normally referred to as the host nations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The home nation hosts the management team, which ensures that all administrative decisions are made. All decisions may affect their operations in all of the host nations and their operations either directly or indirectly.
There are other names that are normally used to refer to multinational companies in the corporate world. These include international companies, and transnational companies. However, they are more or less the same thing.
This idea of multinational firms is not one that was formulated recently. The idea has been around for very many years and it has a very long history. The notion is believed to date back to the 17th century, when the Dutch East India Company gained fame.
It is thought to be the first multinational company in the world. This business concept or blueprint continues to thrive in the present century. More companies realized the need to diversify their operations in a bid to ensure that they remain competitive and can survive under most strenuous or stringent conditions that affect businesses.
The dawn of the 19th and the 20th centuries saw the rapid increase in embracing the idea by most companies, since the business model was most suitable to the nature of their businesses (Margison 151-180). They realized the advantages of venturing into other regions, and set out to adapt to the model.
There are some differences in the blueprints for multinational companies operations. This means that the bona fide blueprint may be somewhat different from what is actually being implemented by the multinationals today.
It is mostly common to find the operations of a multinational company being headed from one nation, while the other operations are being carried out in other countries. It makes business sense to operate like this since the company can choose to run their operations from nations that may offer them lower production costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rules that govern countries differ and thus, what they encounter in the name of laws or decrees, which they may find rather stringent to their operations, may not be applicable in other nations. It will always make good business sense to head a company from one region.
In this same respect, there are also firms that headquarter their operation from their country of origin due to reasons that favor them, and then seek to run other operations such as production and processing in various nations situated all over the world.
The operations of the auxiliary or arms of the mother company may operate in an independent sort of manner. These two models of multinational company operations are quite different and most of them are successful in their endeavors due to implementation of either of the models stated above.
Another blueprint that is most common among multinational companies and their operations is the setting up of their headquarters in one nation that will control the collaboration that works out to the rest of the nations as well as the industries that are set up in other regions.
In this type of operation, virtually everything is reported back to the main offices and operations are controlled directly from the parent nation. All sorts of decisions that touch ion the operations of the company within the regions must be made from the parent nation.
The system works well and most of the multinationals have adopted it since it offers them a sense of control over their operations and it is easier for them to run their production lines.
They can implement changes that may be construed in the host nation as either being effective or non-effective. The important thing is that it offers them a sense of accountability. Every decision can be traced to the decision maker very easily.
There are quite a number of reasons that may make a multinational firm thrive. The first instance may be that the efficient coordination among the multinational nations is considered better and more improved in comparison to the model, which encompasses independent operations in diverse nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cooperation that is found among multinational firms influences the operations in a positive manner by creating effectual social networks. This influences the operations as well as most other aspects of the firms operations in an optimistic manner.
It improves the outlook of the firm in question. There are several other reasons that make multinational firms to thrive and another is that the subsistence of the multinational firms occurs by deficiencies in the constitutional market for the products that the companies display (Van den Born 111).
There are several examples such as that state that “two firms are considered monopolists in a market and isolated from competition by transportation costs and other tariff and non-tariff barriers. If these costs decrease, the competition will reduce profits.
The firms maximize income and diminish competition by cooperation” (Lavelle 407). This case mostly calls for control of pricing in various nations. The company can very easily enforce price controls in the countries that they deem necessary to do so in this case.
The management can easily determine whether the decisions that they are making will be worthwhile or not. In several other instances such as the one above there are indications that asserted, “Market imperfections are inherent conditions in markets and multinational companies are institutions which try to bypass these imperfections.
The imperfections in markets are natural as the neoclassical assumptions like full knowledge and enforcement don’t exist in real markets” (Green 356). Furthermore, it can be stated that the firms can decrease the amount of money that they spend on raw materials as well as the amount of money that they spend on cheap labor.
This accords the company management the chance to take advantage of the fact that the raw materials are easily available and costs such as the ones that may incurred in terms of logistics are minimal.
Apart from the raw materials, which are also easily available being an encouragement to the firm to operate in the model, the cheap labor also encourages the environment for the firm to operate.
The use of local workers ensures that the amount of money that is spent on the workforce is minimal since they will be paid at local rates.
It may also be important to note that most of the operations of the companies such as their operational expenses are not taxed, and if they are, then the tax that is imposed on them is not as hefty as it is in their parent nation.
This means that they can run their operations efficiently and at low costs in a bid to maximize their profits. Another advantage is that the goods or finished products can easily be availed to the locals for consumption at reduced costs.
In different countries, the amount of taxes may be considered since the firms are protected by the fact that they are creating employment within the regions. This means that they can pull out if conditions that are applied to them become too stringent leaving the populace out of work.
It certainly makes business sense to ensure that the companies are protected, although they ought to ensure that the workers are not exploited or taken advantage of in a negative manner. The rights of humans ought to be put into consideration.
It may also be pertinent to note that the economic strength, as well as enhancement of a nation is dependent on the expansion of multinational firms. The economic growth of a nation, as well as that of multinational firms is directly related. They both move in the same manner and are correlated.
One example is where the growth of a multinational firm can be stunted or stalled by the slowing down of the economic growth of a nation that it is operating within.
Although the firms may operate in different countries, they may have to abide by the rules and regulations of the countries that they have plants in. this is against the backdrop that there may be new strategies that may be engineered in the parent country where the headquarters of the firms may be located.
They may have to tailor their rules to suit that host nations so that their operations may remain stable. It can be stated that multinational firms are unable to operate at their own free will, and they have to adapt to the regions that their plants are located.
They may have to incorporate their own decrees according to the host nations.
This is not necessarily a disadvantage to the firms since the host nations would also not like to lose the revenue and the income as well as the business opportunities and the employment that the firms offer to their country and the people who live there.
In any case, firms that have fully adopted this strategy have seen an increase in their earnings due to the economic upsurge that the favorable business conditions offer them. Good cooperation with the administration of any nation as well as good personal relationships with administrators offers sufficient conditions for any firm to thrive.
The countries that host the international firms can take full advantage of the existence of the firms within their confines.
The fact that the numbers of unemployed individuals is kept at controllable levels in most instances by the employment of the workers in the factories, means that not only is it advantageous to have the firms in their countries.
It also it means that it is one more burden off their backs for the firms to absorb the people who work for them. This augurs well especially for developing nations who endure the most instances of economic turbulence.
It is evident that most nations that host international firms portray a picture that reflects economic growth in terms of their fiscal development. There are several ways that this can be seen such as the development of the infrastructure in the regions that the factories or plants are situated.
Other countries, especially neighboring nations, view these nations as economic hubs in their respective regions, and this works to ensure that they bring along investments into the host nations.
The completion that emanates from these situations is mostly beneficial to the people in the region, seeing as it brings about a wider variety from which they can choose their products from, ensuring that quality prevails.
The attraction of foreign investment brings with it foreign exchange in the region, as well as better cooperation among nations. Trade ties are improved and all countries benefit widely.
This does not imply that there are no negative effects on the host nation. Some situations may be ironical, in that, some people may find gainful employment when international firms bring their operations to a new country.
There are also some situations where at the same time that some people are being employed by the multinationals, others are losing their jobs. The bittersweet reactions that are observed in the reactions and counteractions are assumed to be all in the stride of the multinational companies operational aspects.
Some jobs that have been in existence in the countries that are hosting the international firms may be seen as obsolete once a new firm introduces modern methods of operating. The cultures that were construed into the system of the people may be corrupted by the modern structures implemented by the firms.
They may be wiped away altogether. It is also common knowledge that setting up factories may have detrimental effects on the environment, as well as the natural resources of the hosting country. The use of chemicals and the harvesting of natural resources ensure that the host nation will be affected in various ways.
There are several examples of multinational companies that can be used to elucidate these matters. One such example is Apple Incorporation, which is an American multinational firm involved in the design of various artifacts such as personal computers, electronics, as well as software for computers.
Some of the most renowned products of the firm include Macintosh computers as well as the i-pods and i-pads, as well as the i-phone. The number of people Apple Incorporated has employed has soared to well over 75,000 around the world (Perlmutter 15).
The firm has operations situated in various countries and cities around the world. They include Paris and Tokyo. The headquarters is in Silicon Valley, California.
BMW or Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is another classic example of a multinational firm. The company manufactures vehicles engines as well as motorcycles. There are other brands like the mini, as well as Rolls Royce vehicles that the firm produces.
The firm has its headquarters in Munich, Germany. It has several units situated all over the world including countries like China as well as India and Egypt. The firm also has plants in South Africa Canada as well as the United States and Austria. The units produce different products.
International firms face the challenge of blending diverse cultures, as well as nationalities of their employees the companies ought to take into consideration that they aim to achieve one goal and this means that they have to get their employees to cooperate regardless of their cultural, physical, or religious backgrounds.
Employees from different background and different nationalities can easily raise conflicts among themselves. These conflicts may vary from ideas or ethics to religious aspects. Teaching employees to embrace their colleagues and their cultures as well as ideas, makes them focus on attaining the goals of the firm.
Encouraging the employees to work in harmony and not to overlook or take for granted their colleagues despite their beliefs and cultures will go a long way in alleviating the hurdle associated with attaining the targets of the international firms.
People who act with ambiguity in terms of employee cooperation ought to be kept an eye on by administrators. All forms of racism and discrimination ought to be treated with the utmost of severity. They should not be condoned at all. Eradication of these vices will only see the companies attain profitability.
The comparison of the ultimate target of attaining commercial success, attributed to international firms, is relatively affirmable at present. Many aspects of an international firm are affected when it comes to cooperation among the employees.
In order for the units in diverse regions to realize investment from the parent nations, they must practice valuable cooperation among each other. They will be showcased to clients and the world at large. Profits are realized from efficiency and most businesses realize this aspect.
Nevertheless, leading a powerful international firm encompasses charted work schemes as well as appreciation of diverse nationalities by each employee. Most multinational firms have realized the importance of diversifying their operations and have successfully implemented these strategies in order to maximize their profits.
Works Cited Green, Duncan. From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States, London, England: Oxfam, 2008. Print.
Lavelle, Jonathan. “Patterning Employee Voice in Multinational Companies”. Human Relations 63.1 (2010): 395-418. Print.
Marginson, Paul. “Employee Representation and Consultative Voice in Multinational Companies Operating in Britain”. British Journal of Industrial Relations 48.1 (2010): 151-180. Print.
Perlmutter, Howard. The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, 30.7 (1969): 9-18. Print.
Van den Born, Floor. Business Communication. Language Policies and Communication in Multinational Companies, 47.2 (2010): 97-118. Print.
Sub-Saharan Africa Essay best essay help
Table of Contents The Civil War
The Civil War In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high rate of in-fighting within the different countries. The existence of different ethnic groups causes conflicts. The groups usually fight for control and power since the leaders tend to favor their ethnic tribes over the others.
This happened in Ivory Coast, when people who were supporting the incumbent president Gbagbo fought against those supporting the opposition leader Ouattara, who won the elections.
The same also happened in Kenya where the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki, refused to give up power in an election marred with numerous electoral irregularities acknowledged by the electoral commission.
This led to post election violence that led to the death of more than one thousand people. Sierra Leon has been in the Civil War since 1991 while the Congo has been in the Civil War since 1994 during the Rwanda genocide.
Political Turmoil Electoral irregularities are rampant in sub-Saharan Africa, which lead to political turmoil. This is because the incumbent leaders do not accept defeat. Hence, they refuse to give up power and force coalitions with their opponents as in the case of Kenya and Zimbabwe.
In Kenya, cases of rigging, voter bribery and election violence marred the electoral process. The electoral commission of Kenya favored the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki and declared him the winner amidst protests.
The commission also acknowledged the irregularities; this led post-election violence due to discontentment among voters. After negotiations, the opposition leader Raila Odinga agreed to form a coalition government with Kibaki.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A similar case occurred in Zimbabwe that forced Morgan Tsvangirai to form a coalition with the President Robert Mugabe after the closely contested election. In Ivory Coast, during the 2010 elections, the incumbent president Gbagbo refused to give up power leading to violence between supporters of the two groups.
Corruption The oil exploitation in Nigeria happens to benefit only the drilling companies and the political leaders. It does not benefit the local communities due to unequal distribution of wealth, promoted by the high levels of corruption among the oil companies and politicians.
In Kenya, the sitting president tends to favor his or her community when it comes to government appointments and project development.
In Sierra Leone, the Revolutionary united front as accused the government on numerous occasions for mismanagement of funds that have since plunged the country into poverty despite the presence of diamond deposits.
The President of Zimbabwe, Mugabe, took land forcefully from the minority white settlers and distributed them among his African cronies. Those given lands could not match the previous agricultural production capacities by the whites thus making the country unable to sustain itself.
Food crisis Most of the countries faced with the food crisis in sub-Saharan Africa are on the horn of Africa that is Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia. This is due to severe drought experience in the region that does not favor agriculture. The countries are totally dependent on agriculture thus worsening the food crisis when there is a drought.
There is a lack of appropriate measure to curb the food crisis; this is due to the lack of enough funds at the regional level to come up with projects to improve the level of food production.
We will write a custom Essay on Sub-Saharan Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instability in the region caused by the presence of the militia group in Somalia known as Alshabab also promotes food shortage by preventing aid from reaching the people. The governments of the countries in the region also fail to act on predictions of such a calamity.
The International Organization for Standardization Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Background
Discussion of the Clause
Best Organizational and Company Practices
Background The International Organization for Standardization, otherwise known as ISO, is a global organization, which accredits companies based on performance and service delivery.
The ISO certification for companies recognizes those companies, which have successfully gone through the laid down procedures in quality assurance.
Its principles include customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, the systems approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision making, and mutually beneficial supplier relationships amongst others (Branson n.d., p. 1).
The scheme is about guaranteeing quality to the recipients of goods and services in business and entrepreneurship, as well as other fields. In determining this quality, customer needs are assessed followed by an evaluation of the degree to which an organization meets them. According to the ISO certification, quality cannot be achieved at once.
The process therefore is continuous. As such, it requires active improvement. It is also managed by instituting measures aimed at preventing rather than detecting flaws that may hinder companies’ performance. Some authors have described the quality as “getting it right the first time” (Branson n.d., p. 1).
This result is therefore the target of ISO certification in its course to achieve high standards in organizations’ performance. This research looks at the ISO 9000 clause 2.3. It describes it in details in a bid evaluated how companies and organizations deal with it and or how best they can reap from it.
Discussion of the Clause There are a number of clauses in the ISO 9000. Companies target to achieve the demands of specific clauses for their accreditation to hold. The clause that the essay looks at is clause 2.3. This clause is on quality management systems approach. It entails a number of prestigious business functions (Branson n.d., p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are also a number of steps involved for companies to fulfill the clause. The first step involves the initial determination of the expectations of clients to an organization or customers in a business enterprise.
In this step, a company considers the requirements of the population it serves so that it targets to fulfill the needs in a bid to benefit at the same time from the efforts. This stands out as the foundation of any successful company.
In the ISO requirement, an organization should be able to tell the needs of the people it serves before proceeding to meet them in a defined manner. Most of the organizations, which do not meet this first part of the clause, end up not satisfying the ISO standards. Therefore, they are not accredited.
The second part of the clause states that an organization should be able to come up with policies on quality and objectives pertaining to management (Branson n.d., p. 1).
These are laid down in the framework of the organization to be discussed with the interested parties and those involved in the management within a company. In most organizations, the quality statement is drafted and placed in the areas of work.
This strategy is meant to be adhered to by all workers and organizational affiliates. It sets the ground for those interested in the success of the organization, and for those who want the organization to proceed.
This part of the clause is pertinent to consider in excellence awarding exercise by ISO. It is also related to the first part of the clause. Therefore, it should be aligned with it.
We will write a custom Report on The International Organization for Standardization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the organization or company sets up the objectives, the next step according to the clause is to determine the process that is required to achieve these goals (Branson n.d., p. 1).
Not only is the process established but also the responsibilities that are required to meet the objectives are also determined (Branson n.d., p. 1). These are in line with the second step of setting up the objectives.
They should be made by an exceptional quality control part of the organization where possible. The processes are then written down for implementation. However, they should be cost-effective, orderly, and logical.
An organization should use processes that are easy to lead in the achievement of the set goals, which should not be out of reach for the particular organization. The responsibilities determined thereof should also be equally distributed within the organization with each of the employees being made aware of his or her part in the process.
These responsibilities include the approach to clients, meeting their needs in an informed and friendly manner, and client feedback. The process should also have room for getting suggestions in an attempt to ensure their implementation in the company.
The fourth part of the clause is on determining and providing resources necessary to attain quality objectives (Branson n.d., p. 1). In this part of the clause, the organization spells out the requirements in meeting the set objectives some of which are physical while others are non-tangible resources.
The requirements include increased funding in the quality assurance process of the organization, increased staffing, increased machinery, reduced number of processes, and reduction in the time of getting services within the organization.
The company should then proceed to provide these resources through a process that is efficient and beneficial to it and its clients. The basis of taking this step is to ensure client satisfaction, which is the ultimate goal of any organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Organization for Standardization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fifth process in the clause is the establishing of “methods to measure the effectiveness and efficacy of each process” (Branson n.d., p. 1) that have been mapped down according to the above procedure. The setting up of these methods is linked to the determination of resources needed as indicated in the preceding part.
Once a company has set the objectives in quality assurance, it should then embark on determining the efficiency of the processes that it has laid down. This step should be done in an internal manner where the company evaluates the methods.
The company then needs to consult widely on the processes used elsewhere before proceeding to develop its own from the existing ones. Some of these methods include surveys where client satisfaction is established via feedback.
Any process that is chosen should be able to determine the effectiveness and the efficiency of each of the processes listed above. A company can also enlist the services of other external companies to guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency of the processes that it has set as its quality assurance.
The next step after the determination of effectiveness and efficiency of the processes is the elimination of non-conformities. This part tries to answer the question of what will be done to eliminate non-conformities (Branson n.d., p. 1).
A company spells out the measures it will take to prevent non-conformities to eliminate their causes (Branson n.d., p. 1). This part aims to reduce any risks that organizations face in the achievement of quality in their services.
For organizations to maintain and establish quality services, they need to seal all the loopholes in their quality assurance process. This step involves the elimination of all hindrances to quality services. The most common process that companies use is the development of rules and laws governing their performance.
The personnel, processes, and other affiliates that do not meet the set rules and organizational laws are then dealt with according to the laid procedures, which include termination of contracts, warnings, and other disciplinary measures.
The last part of the clause entails the “establishment and application of a process for continual improvement of the quality management” (Branson n.d., p. 1: Rothery 1993, p.15). In the real sense, this means improving the business as a whole.
A business cannot achieve quality performance if any part of it is not performing according to clients’ requirements. The organization therefore targets to improve the overall rating of the organization by taking a holistic approach to quality service delivery. Any process that is initiated by the organization should be focused on improving it.
When a particular part of the organization is not performing optimally, the organization is perceived not to be performing as a whole. The target is therefore to eliminate this drawback by ensuring that all departments and services offered are within the organization’s target.
In most instances, various authors define the above clause as the most important in the ISO 9000 certification (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is however not a constituent of ISO 9001 (Branson n.d., p. 1) despite its importance in quality assurance.
The clause can be used to improve the quality management systems that exist within a particular organization, or even maintain it at a desired level (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is therefore indispensable to apply it in any organization.
Any organization that adopts it “…creates confidence in the capability of its processes and the quality of its products besides providing a basis for continual improvement” (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is therefore a necessity in meeting clients’ needs by ensuring their satisfaction and hence the overall organizational success.
Critique The clause is a paramount requirement in attaining the ISO 9000 certification for companies and organizations. The resources needed to meet these requirements are not readily available to medium and small companies. This gap may hinder their certification.
They are also subjective to an organization. Besides, standardization is difficult across various fields in the business world. These are the main disadvantages and hindrance to achieving the ISO in the companies. The clause however provides organizations with a chance to improve their services and operations.
This will not only improve their rating but also their market share, profitability, and efficiency. An organization therefore needs to pursue the principles in the clause irrespective of whether it is seeking ISO certification.
In the establishment of successful organizations, the clause also contributes in the development of quality management systems within the organization. This stands out as the target of the ISO 9000. All companies fulfilling this basic clause should be certified.
The clause is also not demanding to organizations, as the resources required are within the reach of most of them. An organization should determine resources it needs to guarantee client satisfaction.
Another positive creation of the clause is competition for companies. Organizations within a particular field and those offering related services continually compete to ensure the set standards are achieved. Other companies do not do it before them.
This competition has ensured that clients get the best services and products in a particular field (Klassen 2007, p.18). Companies that achieve ISO certification after meeting this clause therefore use it as a marketing strategy to improve their performance and rating (Johnson 1993, p.6).
There are a number of positive developments from this clause relative to quality assurance in organizations. This realization has contributed towards making service delivery efficient and affective.
Best Organizational and Company Practices The clause has ensured that some practices are adopted within organizations. In most of the organizations with ISO 9000 certification, the clause enables organizations to set up client feedback systems.
Most companies have existent client feedback systems in place as a way for clients to express their satisfaction with the services offered by the companies.
For client satisfaction, there are feedback centers within organizations, quality assurance departments, client reward schemes, organizational feedback websites, and programs (Klassen 2007, p.18). These centers have culminated from the adherence that companies have put to the clause hence making it one of the resultant practices.
Another company practice that has resulted from the clause is the development of the company and organizational charters (Peach 1997, p. 73). Organizations and government institutions falling under ISO offer these charters to ensure that services provided, and goods manufactured are within their standards.
Most of the organizations have therefore developed distinctive units within them, which are concerned with the achievement of the laid down quality assurance goals.
A schedule for monthly and annual meetings exists in companies to discuss the success in quality assurance for the organization and the steps required to guarantee continued customer satisfaction (Johnson 1993, p.6).
Other positive practices that businesses have adopted because of this clause include the award schemes. Most organizations have set up a means of rewarding their best performing personnel in various departments. This gesture serves as a motivation for them since it improves service delivery in companies.
It improves their market rating. It also serves as a means of marketing for their products and services. In the business world, profitability for companies is linked to the adherence to the clause.
The clause has also increased consumer awareness thus contributing towards the improvement in service delivery across all sectors of trade and business. The clause therefore makes a positive contribution in service deliver. Thus, its adoption of importance for the success of any organization
Conclusion In conclusion, the ISO certification has contributed towards establishing a reward scheme aimed at improving service delivery in organizations. The ISO 9000 and the constituent clause 2.3 have enabled this outcome to be effected, as it spells out the procedure to be followed in attaining quality service delivery.
The description made above establishes that the clause entails seven processes to be followed in attaining the fulfillment of this clause. They have been described in details. The critique establishes that the clause is beneficial to organizations and companies.
It therefore qualifies as an ingenious way of ensuring their positive market performance. Some of the best practices that organizations have adopted include awards scheme, quality assurance departments, and client feedback programs. These have contributed towards efficiency and effectiveness in organizational performance.
References Branson, P n.d., Most important clause, Business improvement through effective process management, viewed on .
Hoyle, D 1998, ISO 9000 Quality Systems Handbook, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Johnson, P 1993, ISO 9000: Meeting the New International Standards, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Klassen, L 2007, Certification Study Guide, International Technical Support Organization, IBM, United States.
Peach, R 1997, The ISO 9000 Handbook, Irwin Professional Publishers, Chicago.
Rothery, B 1993, ISO 9000, Brookfield, VT, Gower.
Paul Farmer about the Human Rights Explicatory Essay best essay help
Ideally, we can comprehend human rights as unassailable elemental rights that an individual is intrinsically entitled because he/she is a human-being. Also, we can perceive them as being egalitarian and universal. As a matter of fact, these rights can be deemed to be either legal rights or natural rights.
Human rights are the basis of tranquility, self-determination and evenhandedness because they recognize equality, and inherent dignity all over the globe (Trostle, 2005). This paper will depict the call by Paul Farmer for the human rights to have a newer definition that will not disregard the most fundamental rights, such as health, all-foods, and shelter.
To begin with, the disdain or disregarding of the fundamental human rights have led to acts that are barbarous, and which are capable of outraging the individuals’ conscience as well as the globe’s advent that can permit an individual to enjoy the freedom of trepidation, freedom of talking; and freedom of basic needs like shelter, all-foods, and health.
These human rights can be affirmed as the individual’s foremost priority. These essential rights ought to be included in newer definition of human rights.
For instance, if an individual does not have a right to shelter, or health, or all-foods, then he/she is likely to become rebellious against being oppressed and autocracy. It can be vital if the rule-of-law protects this (Trostle, 2005).
Actually, by profession, Farmer Paul was a Medical Anthropology Professor at Harvard-Medical school. He initiated Partners-In-Health. In his Pathologies-of-power book, he greatly employed consecrating stories about life-and-death in circumstances that were tremendous with the aim of interrogating how we can comprehend human rights.
Also, as a physician and an anthropologist, Paul was an experienced worker with over 20 years as he had worked in a number of nations, such as Russia, Haiti, and Peru.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, Farmer argued that the current struggle for the essential and most vital human rights was to promote the social, as well as the economic rights of the poor individuals around the globe.
The eyewitness accounts by Paul were passionate. These accounts came from the prisons of Russia and the two villages that were beleaguered, such as: the Chiapas villages; and the Haiti villages. In actual fact, these accounts were employed by Farmer in linking the affected victims to a wider scrutiny with regards to structural violence.
Nevertheless, unadventurous thinking that was within the circles of human rights was challenged by Farmer as he tried to expose the correlations amid economical prejudice and politics, as well as the relationship between the powerless and their ill-health and/or suffering (Farmer, 2003).
Farmer was not only angry but also hopeful. This is because he was fervent as well as being authoritative at the same time. Vitally, the arguments by Farmer were elucidated as a request that was convincing in substantiating the human rights delineation not to disregard the most rudimentary rights, such as healthiness, all-foods, and shelter.
This plea had a potency that was deemed to be special as it came from a great individual that had already portrayed the notion that, it is probable to have a universal dream as well as a human-rights definition that is comprehensive. Also, Farmer brought health, shelter, food, and hopefulness to a number of poorest individuals in the world (Farmer, 2003).
While fighting for the newer definition of human rights, we can say that Farmer was not only charismatic but also luminous. He challenged individuals to face the 21st Century dogmatic and conjectural challenges that were regarded as being urgent.
This was to be done by linking personified social agony with structural violence but in so doing, the human rights was to be defined afresh. While referring to Farmer’s book that was entitled Pathologies-of-Power, As Trostle puts it, “Once this book is out, we will no longer be able to remain complacently or rather complicity on the sidelines” (Trostle, 2005, p. 117).
We will write a custom Essay on Paul Farmer about the Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Idyllically, in his arguments, Farmer gave a critique of the fanatical moral principles regarding a conformist. On the ground, he critiqued the relentless marching of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the drug-resistant tuberculosis amid those individuals that were very sick, the poor, and the imprisoned individuals.
This notion illuminated that the worldwide economy had made a number of pathologies to lose their soul. Paul clearly illustrated that the societal forces that were alike were capable of giving rise to endemic disorders, such as tuberculosis and HIV, which were also capable of sculpting risk for persons to violate human rights.
Nonetheless, Farmer was also able to portray the manner in which gender inequality and racism, particularly in America, were embodied as being a disorder or demise or both. Farmer’s book is regarded as being milestone away from an inventory-of-abuse that is hopeless.
The examples that Farmer used in his book correlated with a guarded sanguinity and thus, individuals needed new medical or/and social techniques so as to be able to implement/develop them with a more informed level-headedness as regards to social justice.
If not, Farmer asserted that the individuals will not tackle structural violence but only deal with social inequality (Farmer, 2003).
The urgent plea by Farmer was to perceive human rights in the milieu of the public health and then consider eminence concerns that are critical and finally, guarantee that the poor individuals around the globe are able to access them.
This concern should be fundamental as presently, the globe has been characterized not only by bizarre propinquity that is in excess, but also suffering. This present central dilemma was captured by Farmer Paul. This dilemma encompassed the societal well being and the escalating health discrepancies (Payer, 1996).
In view of the fact that all United Nations member countries had already deprecated the gross-violations of human rights that had been perpetrated by a number of individuals who were capable of torturing, murdering/killing or imprisoning another individual, we usually ignore the human-rights violations that are insidious, and which are as a result of structural violence, such as: the fiscal opportunity refutation, housing that is decent; accessibility to healthcare facilities; and accessibility to educational facilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paul Farmer about the Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As thus, Farmer affirmed that, “Pathologies of Power makes a powerful case that our very humanity is threatened by our collective failure to end these abuses” (Farmer, 2003, p. 87).
In conclusion, we can say that arguments by Farmer have assisted us in opening up our hearts and intellects.
This is due to the fact that it has displayed itself as an engaged-scholarship model, as well as a call that is urgent, and which can motivate social scientists to be capable of forsaking their undemanding disregard for human-rights both at home and away from home. In reality, Farmer’s book has gathered both an activist’s potency and the strength of a thinker.
References Farmer, P. (2003). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Payer, L. (1996). Medicine and Culture. New York: Holt Paperbacks.
Trostle, J. (2005). Epidemiology and Culture (Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology). Berwick: Cambridge University Press.
Cognitive Dissonance Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Cognitive Dissonance
Arguments on the Impact of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance refers to the discomposure that is triggered when one is unable to choose from contradictory views. It occurs in many real life situations where an individual’s behavior conflicts with integral beliefs to his or her self-identity.
When a conflict arises between belief and behavior, something should change in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance (McConnell
Ethical and Legal Implications of Insider Trading Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Ethics
Ethical and Legal Implication
Ethics Ethics can be applied in any profession. Basically, ethics denote set of laws or moral systems that provide a basis for discerning whether an action is correct or erroneous. Therefore, members of a profession can come up with ethical principles that guide them when carrying out their duties.
The five common ethical principles are “independence, integrity, responsibilities and practices, competence and technical standards, responsibilities to clients, responsibilities to colleagues, and other responsibilities and practices” (Anthony 10). This paper reviews the applicability of ethical and legal principles in the case of insider trading involving Stephen Cohen.
Case The founder of SAC Capital Advisor, Stephen Cohen and the portfolio manager, Mathew Martoma were involved in what is considered as the most profitable insider trading in the history of the United States of America.
Initially, “the court had charged Mr. Martoma with conspiracy to commit securities fraud and two counts of securities fraud” (The Wall Street Journal 2).
He obtained secret data for trading the company from a university. “The two bought shares for their funds in two drug companies involved in the clinical trial, and then bet on the companies’ shares to fall when Mr. Martoma learned of negative news in 2008” (The Wall Street Journal 1).
“Mr. Martoma, a portfolio manager at SAC’s CR Intrinsic Investors division, received secret data over an 18-month period from the professor about a trial for a drug being developed by Elan and Wyeth” (The Wall Street Journal 1).
The results of the trail of the drop were negative and the price of shares of the two companies flopped drastically. The two companies suffered serious losses. It is also reported that the profits generated by Mr. Martoma were paid to Mr. Cohen.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The Hedge fund gathered $276 million in profits and losses avoided based on the information obtained by Mr. Martoma “(The Wall Street Journal 1). From the case, it is evident that the two parties used information that was not known by the entire public to obtain undue benefits.
In their actions, there is an outright breach of the professional ethical code of conduct such as integrity, confidentiality, professional due care, and professional behavior. The act of the two individuals is regarded as white collar crime.
Ethical and Legal Implication The case displays a scenario of classical insider trading where the insider passes on the material information to another party who in turn trades with it. This type of insider trading is less common and often very difficult to identify. A legal trade is not necessarily ethical.
The transactions carried out by the two managers were legal but not ethical. This is as a result of the fact that the actions above were not conventional to “the principle tenet of trading at the security market, that is, no trader should have unjust gain when trading in the stock market” (Anthony 11).
This implies that when a trader has material information that is not known to the rest of the public and he carries out trade with it as was in the case, then the gains from the trade are unfair prima facie. However, there is no blanket court rule that declares trading with material insider information as illegal.
The court handles cases arising from unfair trade in isolation. In some cases, businesses advocate for insider trading since it promotes competition but with outlined policies to give directions. Therefore, it emerges that trading with material nonpublic information is unethical but may not be essentially against the law (Anthony 1).
Works Cited Anthony, Phillip 2010, Insider Trading in Financial Markets: Legality, Ethics, Efficiency. PDF file. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical and Legal Implications of Insider Trading specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Wall Street Journal 2012. Trading Charges Reach SAC. 17 Dec. 2012.
Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM Case Study online essay help
Introduction The success of a firm’s productivity depends on the organization of the human resource management. Reflectively, labour as a factor of production, determines the gross output, performance, and goal achievement at optimal resource use.
The Becton Dickson Company has been struggling with human resource management problems that range from competition, labour structure, and financial constraints. The current SHRM of the company shows limitation of available factors of production, especially on optimal labour use and employee motivation.
Thus, analytical paper attempts to explicitly review the current issues facing the SHRM of Becton Dickson Company and its relevance. In addition, the treatise explores the restructuring model of SHRM that would address these challenges.
Current Issues Facing Becton Dickson Company Current budget of the Becton Dickson firm may not allow it to utilize all factors of production in the economy. Becton Dickson Company faces several limitations in its operations after the sudden restructuring. First, the uncertain working conditions greatly impacted on employees’ confidence and performance patterns.
As employees’ incomes remain unstable, and relatively low, it was natural to witness an underperformance and low morale at work. The trading conditions continued to remain a challenge especially for this company.
These adversely influenced the ability of Becton Dickson to achieve the forecasted sales and consequently, the overall budget was affected. Increase in prices of factors of production directly affects budgeted cost of production, and thus low income earned by employees.
In addition, inability of the company to leverage its systems and processes hindered the growth of its business as it reduced ability of the company to attract the right labour skills and attitude. Finally, the company faces operational risks in areas such as supply chain management, communication systems, and human resource management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that the company has to operate within a predetermined budget, changes in the individual component of the budget affect the operations of the entire business.
Becton Dickson is exposed to numerous threats. For instance, following the acquisition logistics and restructuring, the company has to remain afloat despite competition. Secondly, the human resource department is fairly responsive to sudden swings and also very sensitive to changes in income.
Since the restructuring, the company has suffered heavily, as communication system for implementing these changes seemed to have broken down. Due to redundancy, lack of performance evaluation processes, employee testing, and healthy work culture, the company is currently facing uncertainty.
These systems are critical in improving leadership skills, evaluation skills, promoting creativity, and rewarding outstanding achievement. The company is surrounded by several opportunities for growth of business. However, the human resource department is seriously underdeveloped despite the fact that labour determines total output, thus profitability.
Significance of SHRM Profiling as a Policy and Practice at Becton Dickson SHRM profiling in Becton Dickson consist of training and development programs that are both on-the-job and off-the job. These should be built around the core business values and is firmly aligned with the business strategy – developing skills that will support future growth of the business.
The results of the programme are meant for statistical t-testing of relevance of evaluation strategies adopted in reviewing employment terms and performance. Despite the fact that this company has a fresh initiative for correcting the previous mistakes, it has not fully adopted an inclusive career development plan.
Management ought to realize that there is no better way to achieve this rather than through the use of training and development. Further, Becton Dickson Company should evaluate effectiveness of training and development in realizing the goals and objectives of their set targets.
We will write a custom Case Study on Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management of the company should use outcomes of trainings and development in decision making relating promotions and transfers within the organization. Besides, the company should undertake several career development programmes, such would be necessary for attracting and retaining human resource base.
The company should consider providing a job compensation structure that supports the organizations as well as individuals’ growth and development perspectives that evaluate employees and produce succession pipe-lines for vital job positions in the organization.
Since these aspects are incorporated in the SHRM profiling, it remains very relevant and should be fully adopted as a policy and practice by the company.
SHRM profiling as a policy facilitates appraisals on performance of the human resource function of a company. Reflectively, such appraisals are important as they help employees to establish their performance in relation to the expectations from the business and expected outcomes as agreed during performance planning.
Further, the appraisals reveal gaps that may be inherent when executing duties. At the end of appraisal procedure the line manager and the staff member formulate a plan for further development for the next period.
In the personal development plan, the employees set objectives based on the feedback from their performance appraisal and it is mandatory for all staff members to have such a plan. The whole interactive appraisal process is beneficial as it aids employees in developing a focused vocation trail.
Further, the process is realistic. The gaps noted during the review process are bridged by training and development. These trainings that are part of the SHRM for Becton Dickson will help in preparing the staff members for future managerial duties.
The performance review process will help management of the company to have a well-organized, effectual and motivated human resource base.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reconstructing the SHRM Profiling for Becton Dickson Company SHRM for Becton Dickson should be remodelled to be more inclusive in system evaluation and reporting of progress for each HR policy recommendation. The implementation should be done in three phases with the first phase actively involving an outsourced expert in the field of decision making.
After a fortnight, the management should then design in-house programs as a continuation of the first stage within the second stage.
In the last stage, the entire workforce is encouraged to internalize the concept initially introduced and deactivate fear and inferiority complex when addressing issues of interest to the organization and at personal level.
Though this process should be continuous, the active part should not run for more than four months from commencement at a budget less than four percent of the company’s net revenue.
Since magnitude of change is quantum as large changes involving culture, structure and strategy of the company is required. This form of change is necessary and very relevant in the case of Becton Dickson Company as the company attempts to restructure its human resource component.
Besides, when adopted, leadership responsibility, performance efficiency, and continuous motivational policies will facilitate responsive management. This modification of the SHRM would directly impact on the feedback channel as employees will have motivational power to proactively participate in decision making process.
As a result, the learning oriented process will facilitate optimal performance which is specific to the goals and desires of the company as the workforce would have the feeling of being appreciated and recognized for outstanding performance.
Training and development forms part of organizational strategy mostly because human resource department is characterized by constant dynamics in management since labour market is constantly affected by market swings.
Consequently, there is a need to merge organizational skills, knowledge and culture with the new challenges and demands. Therefore, there is constant need to use training and development largely because the department operates in a highly stratified environment.
The outcomes of performance appraisal are not only influenced by job performance of the employee, there are other several other factors that may influence performance appraisal rating of the employees.
For instance, performance initiative programmes, motivation programmes, and team building should be transformed into policies and integrated in the SHRM profiling practice for the company.
Another challenge to HRM department is properly undertaking several career development programs concurrently. If it were properly integrated, such would be necessary for attracting and retaining human resource base.
Therefore, the company’s SHRM should undergo modification to factor in the aspects of motivation, performance, and results review. Reflectively, through employee evaluation, the process will reorganise the company towards efficiency.
Fortunately, a comprehensive SHRM has room for modification to factor in this aspect and improve on reporting system as a policy profile for the Becton Dickson Company.
Conclusively, irrespective of the consequences of change element in the SHRM profiling for Becton Dickson Company, the dynamic essence of change proponent would not facilitate any state of quagmire or conflict as the unnecessary pressure associated with change would be integrated in a more consultative, proactive, and structure system for managing the human resource department of the expansive Becton Dickson Company.
Mafraq Hospital Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Mafraq hospital was open in 1983 and is located in united Arab. Mafraq hospital provides services like medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics, as well as surgical and critical services. In addition, Mafraq hospital also provides training of physicians and nurses.
Mafraq hospital has been awarded for its quality services provided to its customers thus is the best company to use in these research paper to determine the quality process used by the companies in order to be awarded (Oosten 2008).
History of the Organisation
Mafraq hospital is located 35km southeast of the UAEs capital. It is located in a unique area in the intersection of the road. Mafraq is Arabic name which mean where the road crosses.
According to Oosten (2008) the meeting of the road symbolises the conjunction of many nationalities working together to treat patients of all sex, ages and walks of life from across the world.
Mafraq hospital was established with the aim of providing the customer with services like medicine, critical services as well as surgical . In addition, Mafraq hospital operate Abu health centre that operate burn unit which is also perform best in thoracic surgery.
Mafraq hospital is known for proving world class services. It also provides training to the physicians and nurses.
Literature Review This research is based upon the review of a literature and information search that was carried out in the past. It mainly explores the company assessment that includes the achievements of the company, some certifications received and memberships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Detailed analysis of the strengths of the company, detailed analysis of the areas for improvement of the company, detailed analysis of the site visit matters. In this research paper the case study will be Mafraq Hospital.
Achievements of the Mafraq hospital Mafraq hospital management and staffs are always committed to provide quality healthcare and as resulted it is one of the credited UEA hospital. Mafraq hospital has been honoured with several awards.
In 2011 Mafraq hospital was awarded with Diamond Sheikh Khalifa Excellent Award (SKEA) due to quality services it provided it was also being recognised by SEHA for its dedication in implementing the EFQH model which aims to provide institution culture.
Mafraq hospital has been able to open and corporate many clinic in the area. This has enabled it to compete with its competitors successful and thus increasing its market share.
Mafraq hospital has been able to introduce customer care unit which has enable it to provide quality services to its customer. Through the customer care unit Mafraq is able to know what the customer want and what they need to improve.
In the year 2011, Dr.Mondy Hammad of Mafraq hospital won prestigious Arab Health Award. He and his team we appointed from over 190 submissions from 16 countries. All this is justification of the achievement of the Mafraq hospital.
Establishment Mafraq hospital operates an Abu health services which is concerned with curative activities of the clinics and public hospital of the Emirate. It is identified that Mafraq will open another advanced hospital in 2014 which aimed to provide services to its customers.
We will write a custom Report on Mafraq Hospital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These is meant to reach all the people as the new hospital will have more facilities and of new technology. The new hospital will serve as community hospital to provide quality services to the Abu Dhabi which is one of the fastest growing areas.
Services of the Mafraq Hospital Mafraq hospital has trained staffs that provide consultant’s services to its customers. From the research done shows that many patients have been coming to access consultant services in Mafraq hospital
Mafraq hospital also provides services like medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics, as well as surgical and critical services. In addition, Mafraq hospital also provides training of physicians and nurses. This has helped the Mafraq hospital to improve the health of the community.
Mafraq hospital also operates the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).
Identification of Stakeholders Need The Mafraq hospital has established the channel through which the policies of the organisation are communicated to the stakeholder. These channels help the management to provide the quality services to the customers.
It also established the means of collecting the information to the customers. These help the management of the Mafraq hospital to focus on the overall goal of the organisation.
Mafraq hospital has established customer care unit and Mafraq ambassador. This has helped the management to determine the customer needs which help them to improve their services.
Customer care unit has also helped to predict the future demand of the services of the Mafraq hospital. These help them to determine when to open a new branch to bring services closer to the customers. The customer care unit has also helped the Mafraq hospital to increase the market share of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mafraq Hospital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mafraq hospital has also complied with all the state policy. This has enabled the customers and the employees to enjoy full protection by the state policy.
Capability of Mafraq dependent upon balancing and satisfying the needs of all relevant stakeholders, like employees, customers, suppliers, investors and society in general. Business excellence models have provided framework that enabled the Mafraq hospital to alter its process and operations in the most effective way.
Strength of Identification Stakeholders
# Strength RADAR Approach Deployment Assessment
Ashtead Quantitative Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Background Information
Ashtead group provides rental solutions in various situations such as facilities management, nonresidential construction markets, disaster relief, traffic management and major event management. It provides equipment such as lifts, powers, generates, moves, digs, pumps, and directs for rental purposes.
It was founded in 1947 as Ashtead Plant Hire Equipment Limited. The Group trades in the London Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol AHT (Ashtead Group PLC. 2012a; Ashtead Group Plc. 2012c)
The company operates in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. In the US, it operates under the brand name Sunbelt Rentals and A-plant in the UK.
Sunbelt has over 372 outlets across various cities in the US while A-plant has over 110 outlets in the major cities of the UK. In the US, the Group has engaged about 6,822 employees while in the UK, it has employed about 1,916 employees.
The operating revenue for Sunbelt as at 31st October 2012 amounted to 1,041 million while for A-plant amounted 199 million. Based on the comparisons above, it is evident that the operations of Ashtead Group in the US are greater than the operations in the United Kingdom.
Market share of Ashtead Group is greater in the US than the UK. In the US, it is the second largest in the equipment rental business while in the UK it is the third largest (Ashtead Group Plc. 2012b; Ashtead Group Plc. 2012d, Ashtead Group Plc. 2012f).
Issues Facing the Management
The key issue facing management is how to manage the leverage level of the group so as to attract new investors (Smith
The Issue of Advance Medical Directives Essay essay help online
The use of advance medical directives in the Western countries is discussed as the possibility to resolve many ethical and legal questions in relation to incurable patients, and the practice is explained from the point of respect for the patients’ autonomy and their dignity.
However, this issue is impossible to be discussed only from one perspective. If the idea of advance medical directives is rather typical for the Western countries, the readiness of the Muslim countries to use the practice is rather questionable.
Hamdan Al-Jahdali and the group of researchers state that the concept of advance medical directives can be translated to the Muslim society, but it is impossible to agree with the statement completely because this perspective is controversial, and there are many cultural and religious barriers which are associated with the ethical aspects of the question.
It is necessary to respond to many traditional visions of the Muslim understanding of the death concept to use the Western concept of advance medical directives in these countries.
On the one hand, having the possibility to provide the advance directives, the incapacitated patients manipulate the right to have the definite autonomy and control their life. On the other hand, Muslims can act against the will of God in this situation. It is the traditional vision of the case which is the main barrier to admit the Westerners’ practice.
The situation is complicated with the fact that according to the religious beliefs, it is impossible to reject the necessary treatment and it is impossible to make the decisions about euthanasia or suicide. As a result, there are many controversies which are associated with the ethical aspect of using advance medical directives.
The issue of advance directives depends on many religious questions which can be discussed from different perspectives separately, but their combination in relation to the problem of advance directives provides the next barrier because of the challenges to find the single appropriate decision.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hamdan Al-Jahdali and the other researchers present their interpretation of different statements connected with the issue which are provided in the Quran. The problem is in the fact that many Muslims do not see the whole picture and cannot make the ethically and religiously right decision.
That is why, to overcome the first barrier, it is necessary to provide the explanation that the usage of advance directives is not connected with supporting possible suicides and medically approved murders.
As a result, the second barrier can be overcome accentuating the clear statements supported by the quotations from the Quran that the choice of treatment and the abstinence from seeking therapy adopted in the Muslim society have many common features in their nature with the concept of advance directives.
Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
An Overview of the Report This report is about an industrial site that has been used for discarding wastes by two companies. The companies have been operating for a period close to sixty years. The site is situated on the upper side of a residential area and separated by an approximate distance of one mile.
Running through the site is a stream that serves the community in some ways. First, the stream is an income-generating source as it is a prominent fishing ground.
There is an underground water withdrawal point at the site that is used to bring in water to the residents. The villagers pump water from the stream to their nearby farms for irrigation.
There are however, few environmental negative aspects noted at the waste site. Approaching the site, a strong pungent smell from chemicals released by the two companies hits the air. A critical evaluation of the site reveals that there one hundred drums that unfortunately are not marked.
The drums are rusting and most of them have cracked. Further evaluation leads to the finding of various hazardous wastes that include PCBs, Chromium wastes, Acrylamide and Toluene Diisocynate (DTI).
Thesis Statement This report was written after a visit to the site and it seeks to analyze the environmental conditions at the site, find the toxicants, their routes of exposure along with the mechanisms of toxicity.
The report makes recommendations on the actions that should be taken to avert an epidemic and other toxicological effects that could be caused by toxicants. This is after an analysis of the exposure limits of the toxicants and the assessment of the risks at the site.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the Wastes
The hazardous wastes found at site are industrial products discarded by the companies and by-products of the manufacturing processes. The wastes are a mixture of solids, gases, sludge, and liquids. The wastes are dangerous and harmful to the environment and human health.
These are the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) wastes. They are compounds of hydrocarbons and are mainly synthetic (Deng, 1990). Their level of toxicity varies and widely ranges depending on their color i.e. whether they are yellow, black, waxy solids or if they are light-colored liquids.
They are common in industries because they are the main components of insulators. Industrial products that contain PCBs include most electrical equipment such as capacitors, electromagnets, voltage regulators, transformers, and reclosers.
Cable insulators and other materials that make thermal insulators such as foam, fiberglass, and felt also have PCB.
The PCBs at the site are exposed to the environment during the manufacturing processes. This is in addition to the poor mechanisms of dumping wastes used by the companies. The maintenance of the site is poor. This increases the exposure levels making the wastes more hazardous.
Keen observation of the site also revealed that there were leaches streaming into the site. This could only mean that the companies have some of their waste storage tanks poorly maintained.
PCBs do not rot. They create a cycle around the soil, air, and water for many years. They are carried as loads and moved to far of distances if found in water Just like other toxicants, PCBs have bioaccumulative effects. This is mainly in animals and crops used for human consumption.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the site fish from the stream and the irrigated crops have huge amounts of the toxicant. The toxicological effects of PCBs are many and varied (Flora, 1987). A part from causing cancer, they impair the nervous system, endocrine system, and the reproductive system.
Research by health practitioners confirms that PCBs have both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. The most common PCB mixture associated with cancer is bioaccumulative in fish. Residents therefore, feed on fish that is exposed to PCB. They are at a greater risk than the workers in the two companies are.
Exposure to PCB cuts the power of the body to respond to environmental stimulants. It also decreases the power of the body to resist Epstein-Barr virus. PCB is likely to cut the size of thymus gland.
From the reproductive front, they cut the weight of the offspring at birth, men can also experience low sperm count and a shorter gestation age in women. The manufacture of PCBs was however, banned in 1979 and the government does not allow any exposure limits.
The second hazardous waste discovered at the site was chromium waste. Chromium is a steel metal that is hard and gray in color.
The industries using the site as a waste site have for more than sixty years used Chromium in the manufacture of Stainless steel and as a component of other alloys of metals because it does not rust even at high temperatures. The companies also use it in getting average paint pigments be it yellow, green, or even red (Gosselin, 1984).
It is also used in the treatment of wood along with making chrome plates. In small amounts, the companies use it in catalysts, water treatment, making magnetic tapes and photographic chemicals. Chromium is useful to the human body as it strengthens insulin and eases the metabolism of glucose and other sugars.
The companies release Hexavalent Chromium and other Chromium wastes to the site. The wastes have carcinogenic effects. The exposure of Chromium wastes to the environment usually contaminates the air. Combustion activities within the two companies led squarely to this.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elements of Chromium wastes react with dust particles from the environment to form very toxic substances with the potential to damage the health of residents. The leaches from waste storage tanks that are poorly maintained by the company directly mixes with water in the stream.
The solids wastes are discarded improperly at the site and they contaminate stream water used for fishing and irrigation. The leaching waste contaminates drinking water in the area.
Further exposure of Chromium waste to people near the site comes from the waste slag. This is inhaled as it comes by wind erosion. They also consume fish that is exposed and through skin contact with soils as they use the steam water during irrigation.
The environment in this area and its vicinity provides the largest exposure source to Chromium wastes. This includes chemical effluents, airborne emissions, and asbestos linings.
In general, it could be said that Chromium gets into the human body through consumption of fish, inhalation of emissions from the companies and skin absorption during irrigation. The regulations guiding Chromium by the government are meant to protect the public from its unpleasant effects.
The government through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) restricts to a maximum of eight hours exposure limits to five micrograms of Chromium per cubic meter of air. This cuts down the industrial risk to health impairment.
The risks include developing asthma and damaging both the skin and nasal epithelia. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulated the amount of Chromium emissions into the air from 1990 to date.
Acrylamide has carcinogenic effects and is a reproductive toxin. Its components are found in liquid form at the site and in the stream. It is highly toxic in this form as it can be inhaled; absorbed through the skin as residents work on their farms using contaminated water and consumed when the residents feed on fish.
The companies use Acrylamide in the manufacture of plastic polymers in addition to synthesizing dyes and construction of tunnels that serve to dispose their by-products to the dumping site.
The exposure of Acrylamide is largely through wastes as the companies’ use it in sieving industrial wastes to remove solids (Manahan, 1990). In the end, they discard it with water. Acrylamide has a vapour density of 2.5 and very soluble in water.
It contaminates the stream interfering with the living environment for fish. This complements it’s almost colorless nature. Following the unprotected way it is disposed, its effects tend to be very adverse.
From the analysis of the site, it is clear that the two companies emit TDI. Its toxicological effect is high, as it does not dissolve in water. The main route of exposure of Toluene is through inhalation.
Small amounts of TDI cause irritation to the lungs and the respiratory tract. OSHA allows its exposure levels to a maximum of 0.02 ppm yet people close to factories can inhale as much as 2.1 ppm. This is one hundred times more than the exposure limits.
Workers in the two companies are at the risk of contacting asphyxiation if their rooms are poorly ventilated. Children in the residential areas are at the receiving end of TDI too. The risks increase because of the economic activities in the area i.e. fishing and irrigation.
Contact with the skin causes irritation and may result in inflammation of the mucous membrane. NIOSH IDLH puts the exposure limits of TDI to a scale of 2.5 ppm as an immediate danger to health and life (Toxic, 2000).
Overall Risk Assessment
An analysis of the above conditions clearly explains that the environment and the residents near the site are at risk. The toxicological effects of the available toxicants are bioaccumulative.
The outbreak of other diseases is eminent and therefore the government ought to take the initiative to avert a looming health crisis. Men, women, and children may contact diseases some of which are contagious.
Recommendation Based on the research conducted at the site, it is highly recommended that the government health departments put protective measures in place because the residents are exposed to various risks that can cause diseases now and in future.
Other effects could mean that children exposed to the toxicants could develop complications in their late twenties. This report could as well form part of the preliminary research process by the department.
It should move fast and work in collaboration with the two companies and the residents in addressing the hazardous effects of the wastes at the site. This should include taking proper care of the site by first undertaking a thorough cleaning exercise.
This will make sure that fish from the stream is safe for human consumption. Water used for irrigation will also be safe for use, as the mixed chemicals will be removed.
Examining the numerical relationship between the exposure levels and effects of the toxicants it is possible that villagers are exposed to too much toxins.
The government should stop this, as the consequences could be unmanageable. A study should be conducted to show the extent to which the toxicants explained above have affected the environment with corrective measures put in place.
References Deng, J (1990). Veterinary and Human Toxicology. New York: Oxford Press.
Flora, D (1987). Circadian reduction of Chromium. New York: Oxford Press.
Gosselin, R (1984). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. New York: Williams
Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts Essay essay help online free
Marijuana is one of the most used illegal drugs in the United States of America. It is now a major concern since there is a leeway to use the drug inform of medicinal claims. Through the state law right of patients have been addressed unlike in the federal laws (Eric et al par.10).
Sixteen states including Columbia have a legal provision that permits the cultivation and use of marijuana for medication. A senate bill for the case of Los angeles is on the process of considering the use of marijuana for medical purpose.
Owing to this, businesses have started promoting legal marijuana medication on patients affordable and within the safety framework. They have gone as far as prepared themselves by opting to forming co-operates that cultivate and distribute as well as consulting and assisting patient to avoid contamination with other illuminants.
The federal substance control Act (“CSA”) prohibits the use of marijuana for whatever reasons therefore contravening the legal rights of individuals to purposes or use marijuana. The legality of marijuana raises a controversy between federal and state laws.
Under the state laws, the commerce clause is supreme since it conspicuously gives the federal government jurisdiction to punish anyone involved with either cultivation or use of marijuana or both.
Through the raich court, subsequent developments are taking place to challenge the jurisdiction of federal laws not to target marijuana users. Bipartisan coalition sponsors alongside Sam Far of California Democrat have reintroduced a legislation to protect the cannabis patients from facing prosecution as provided by the federal law jurisdiction.
The sailing through of bill 3939 would see the state law take over in federal trials. According to state law, seriously sick patients can only qualify to use Marijuana for medicinal purpose. It further permits chronic patients under the provision for people with disability as provided in American people with disability Act of 1990.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For one to qualify as a marijuana patient one has to recommended by a licensed physician to confirm. It should be in writing and kept in its original form always when in possession of marijuana.
Selling of Marijuana for commercial purposes is prohibited by federal law. The major problem arising is the prevention of diverging the use of medicinal use to non-medical.
To prevent the practice of profit making business the overhead costs should be catered for to reduce its price thus discouraging people with minds of making it a profit-generating affair.
Transportation measures are in place to avoid illegal access to the drug. The amount of marijuana and distance are restricted within the jurisdiction of federal laws.
Transpotation beyond personal needs for a patient is only allowed with condition that one has to carry a written document to proof that the drug transported is done on behalf of patients and should comply with the state laws.
Law enforcement officers have undergone enough training to quantify the yield of marijuana to ensure that the patient only produces what is needed for medication without having excess yields that could lead to commercial use.
Dispensaries have to comply with the law in terms of safety and accountability not to land the drugs in wrong hands. Dispensaries must run as non profit making corporate. Record keeping and documentation should be done confidentially and accurately nevertheless records must be well kept (Worthington par.2).
We will write a custom Essay on Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marijuana medical identifications are necessary for confidentiality.Safey on handling marijuana is a major concern both to the state and to the individuals. Those with families are endangered since the mishandling of marijuana can contaminate other foods thus incriminating the family for illegally accessing the drug.
However the main obstacle here also is the denial of testing and possession of marijuana to non qualified patients. In Los Angeles zoning is cumbersome since the law definition differs on the Interpretation of “collective”.
On one hand it implies where the crop is cultivated under one management while on the other it implies individuals in a given zone cultivating the crop. However the law is reluctant since it allows cultivation in a given zone and distributed in the city (Molina par.1).
Medicinal use of marijuana at the work place is a big challenge. Some companies are firing employees who test positive on using marijuana. It challenges the law whether to protect the employers just in case a marijuana patient causes damage property or injure someone at the workplace.
On my personal opinion, I agree that there is a policy that governs the medicinal use of marijuana in Los Angeles. The only issue is that the policy is not robust enough to filter illegal use of the drug. Part of the law should be amended in particular for the definition of “Collective “to give a clear guideline on what it is supposed to be.
The controversial clauses of the federal law should be realigned with the state law so as to avoid contradictions. The policy should elaborate and restrict on the handling of marijuana although there are several challenges.
As much as there are efforts being put in place to curb the menace it is very clear that this problem of illegal drug used cannot be completely solved. The U.S President Mr. Barrack Obama is for an official policy from Los Angeles advocates (Elias par.1).
Works Cited Elias, Paul. n.d. Huffingtonpost.n.d. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eric D. Shevin
Panera Bread Company Case Study argumentative essay help
Panera Bread’s Strategy Panera Bread Company has expanded its business rapidly considering the demand of the US market; in addition, it focused on distinctive menu, prompt services, and signature café design to achieve long-term objectives and to become the dominant restaurant operator (Thompson 615).
However, this company has already launched a catering service in order to expand its market, for instance, people need such service to arrange parties or other gatherings; as a result, this company should carry out this type of effective services while it had earned more than $80 million in the fiscal year 2004/05 from this service.
Most closely fit strategy from the five generic competitive strategies:
Figure 1: The best strategy of Panera Bread
Broad differentiation strategy would fit with this company because Thompson (615) stated that the prime objective of Panera Bread is to attract local customers with quality food menu at reasonable price (typical meal costs $7 – $12) and achieve loyal customer base; however, type of competitive advantages are – it offers quality food items, atmosphere and rapid services to attract target consumers.
SWOT Analysis of Panera Bread Company Figure 2: SWOT Analysis of Panera Bread Company
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths
Main strongest points are –
High customer satisfaction rate in accordance with the survey report of Power and Associates’ and Sandleman
The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the Event Happened
The Impact of the Event
Relations with Toxicology and How to Prevent the Event
Introduction Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill wrote the article about the new evidence on Tics and Toxins. It was written in July 2012. In the month of September 2011, schoolchildren at Leroy Junior-Senior high school were affected by tic disorder.
Eighteen students were affected and after tests, the State Health Department reported that they had symptoms of dust called Tundra. Although its effect is mild and is considered safer by the US than the original DDT, its use is not allowed in Europe because of its environmental effect.
How the Event Happened The pesticide that was sprayed in a cornfield caused the outbreak of the tic disorder. This was in Western New York, Genesee County. Harris Farms managed the Cornfield whose owner was Donald Pangrazio.
The Cornfields in that region are sprayed twice a year and the effect of the pesticide was evident when the State Health Department confirmed the case in two students from two adjacent schools. In the process of spraying, the molecules of DDT and DDE spread cross to the softball fields.
The aim of spraying the cornfield was to kill earthworms. The pesticide kills the earthworms by destroying the nervous system. The investigation did not expose any environmental contamination yet a neurologist from a clinic within the vicinity diagonized the students with a conversion disorder.
This psychiatric condition causes emotional disturbance. Initially the political leadership of New York State backed this statement,
The Impact of the Event The effect of what happened caused an immediate reaction from the government as the New York State banned the use of pesticides on all fields near school playgrounds. Parents of the children who were diagonized with illness resisted the diagnosis claiming that their children were not emotionally affected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however, did not stop the political leadership in New York State from taking action. According to Olmsted and Blaxill, the investigating agencies of the government did not do a good job.
The evidence they collected from the responsible authorities did not show any prove of testing the bifenthrin that is the modern pesticide. The focus was instead on the types of DDT that were banned long ago.
Much of the information relied upon by both the testing agencies and Olmsted and Blaxill, was given by Don Dessert a resident of Leroy township. At first, both the school and the government department of Environmental Conservation dismissed pesticides as the likely cause of the tic outbreak.
The reasons given for this overlooked the idea that the spraying of the fields took place at a time the region was receiving the highest amount of rainfall.
The decision by the government was because no pesticides had been sprayed on the ground since the use of DDT was banned. That was just an example of how the impact of toxicology can be quite challenging.
The despite the fact that a pool of water next to the playground was ignored during investigation was a sign that the investigation was not comprehensive. Furthermore, the results did not include testing of the current pesticides that are used.
All this important elements were overlooked when the Leader of Professionals Services announced the lack of evidence that linked the soil, water, and air around the school to the contaminated molecules. Mark you, the report was said be extensive.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The parents, professional bodies, and the government agencies received enough media coverage to dispel the fact that toxicology was having an impact on earth. This was partly contributed by the nature of conversion disorder.
Some of the symptoms shown by the girls at LeRoy were similar to those shown by animals such as rats when exposed to bifenthrin at high doses.
Documented research from California on pyrethrins a chemical that is in the same class a bifenthrin could cause autism in pregnant mothers if they exposed to it.
Relations with Toxicology and How to Prevent the Event I have never been in such a situation. However, the best way to prevent such an occurrence is to have the laws regulating the use of pesticides very precise. Genesee County for instance does not have such laws in place. Another way of preventing this effect is to use the information availed by scientists very well.
In a separate article, the Leader of Professionals Services documented that elements of DDT were found in two soccer fields (Winas, 2011).
The body however, quickly issued a statement to add that DDT was already banned in the US. Such contradictions are a cause for confusion as Toxicology takes effect. This might be realized when it is too late and therefore little would be done.
An independent medical diagnosis of the girls from LeRoy was accompanied by the report from the doctor cautioning that co-factors should not be ignored in such a case. The regulations should be enforced to make sure that those with agricultural farms put in mind the lives of other people.
The topic is directly linked to toxicology. The effect of Toxicology is cumulative. It has not been established how bifenthrin that affected the girls will influence them in future. Chances are not zero that since the girls are teenagers another effect is suppressed and it will surface later in life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Winas, B. (2011). Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system. New York: Repro Toxicol abstract.
The Electronics Industry Analytical Essay essay help
Introduction Communication remains one of the most important tools in the current market. The market has become increasingly competitive. As Chaston (2009, p. 78) states, the market is getting very competitive as the world embraces globalization.
The world has been turned into a global village. An American company can now make its productions in China and sell its products in India. The geographical barrier that existed before has completely been eliminated. Transport and communication has enhanced business processes.
Firms can now go beyond their borders. This is considered as one of the biggest achievements in commerce. The market has been expanded for large firms that can manage to operate globally.
However, this also comes at a cost. While an American firm will have an advantage in the fact that the scope of the market is expanded, there will be a price to pay for this. It will also be ready to receive competitors in the local market.
The electronics industry is currently considered one of the largest and the fastest developing industries in the world. This industry has had a huge impact in the world in various fronts. This industry has played the leading role in transforming the world into a global village.
Information can flow very freely from one part of the world to another, thanks to the electronics industry (Viardot 2004, p. 37). Various firms can operate in the world market with much ease because of the improved communication.
The social media has had a massive impact on the lives of people, both economically and socially. Firms are currently relying on Facebook, Tweeter and YouTube to communicate to the populace because of the improved communication strategies. Electronics have become basics in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the Industry by Porters Five Forces
According to Handlechner (2008, p. 25), the market for electronics, and specifically personal computers have been on a constant rise in the last two decades. Emerging technologies are changing the social structure of societies around the world.
Communication has become very important in the lives of different individuals in the world. In the office, a personal computer is needed to store data and easily retrieve them. It is also useful in preparing various documents within the office. A manager will need a personal computer to track various records relevant to the organization.
Back at home, computers are very useful for entertainment, especially as a form of social networking. To a student, personal computers will be useful in performing various tasks that are related to their studies, including research. Every organization in the current world cannot operate normally without a personal computer.
With this massive growth of the market for this product, various firms have come out with various brands of computers to tap on the growing opportunity for this product. Apple has been one of the leading firms that have been considered as the leading manufacturers of personal computers.
Dell is facing a serious market competition from Dell in the manufacture and sale of personal computers in the United States and other overseas countries. Apple has proven to be the main threat of Dell in this industry for a number of reasons. The United States still remains that most attractive market for personal computers.
The market is large enough, and the purchasing power is strong enough to support the industry (McLaughlin
Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral and psychiatric disorder that affects at least one in every 20 children in the western world (Pineda, Ardila, RosselliMet al, 1999).
It is characterized by hyperactivity or impulsiveness, and in most cases, difficulties in paying attention. Since 1970s, there has been a debate over the existence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
In fact, the existence of the condition, its treatment and diagnosis, have been considered controversial topics since the condition was first suggested in the medical, psychology and education.
The controversial aspect of ADHD has attracted researchers from a number of fields, with an aim of determining whether the condition is real or whether it is a myth (Brown, Freeman, Perrin, et al, 2001).
Yes, ADHAD exists and Is a Brain Condition That Affects Children and Adults The American psychiatric Association (2004) asserts that ADHD actually exists and in the United States alone, it affects at least one in every 20 children. Studies have shown that sufferers of ADHD have relatively similar symptoms.
These symptoms includes inattention (the patients are easily disrupted), impulsivity as well as hyperactivity. In addition, APA (2004) asserts that ADHD victims may have a number of their aspects of behavior and performance adversely affected both at home and school.
Studies reveal that the condition may persist throughout adolescent, and in some cases, it may progress towards adulthood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the last three decades, biomedical studies have confirmed the existence of the condition. For instance, the study by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008) found that the condition has a strong genetic linkage, with a high rate of hereditary and running in certain family lines.
In fact, this study confirmed that about 75% of all the cases are hereditary (Swanson, Sergeant, Taylor, et al, 1998). Recently, studies by Arcos-Bugos and colleagues (2010) have identified a number of candidate genes that are closely associated with the condition, including DAT1, DRD5, DRD4, HTR1B, 5HTT and SNAP25.
In fact, most of these genes are associated with and may affect dopamine transporters, further provides a strong indication of the presence of ADHD as a hereditary factor.
In addition, studies by Geizer, Ficks and Waldama (2009) have shown that a gene variant LPHN3 accounts for more than 9% of all the ADHD cases. These studies provide a strong evidence of the existence of ADHD.
No, ADHD Does Not Exist According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (1999), opinions regarding the existence of ADHD include a belief that the condition does not exist at all. Other opinions attempt to make the people belief that the condition is a purely hereditary factor running in families.
In addition, according to NIHCE (2004), ADHD diagnosis lacks any biological basis, indicating that the condition could only be an exaggeration of one of the known psychiatric conditions rather than a disease by its own.
According to Ramsey (2007), ADHD is a controversy that only results from a misunderstanding and misconception of diagnosis criteria and how medical practitioners use these criteria.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personal Opinion on ADHD and Application in the Classroom ADHD is a psychiatric condition that should not be ignored in education. The fact that students with ADHD normally tend to be disrupted from concentrating in the class is a factor that requires adequate measures to ensure that student’s conditions are addressed (Biederman, Wilens, Mick et al, 1998).
Screening and testing is necessary to determine the children who require special attention.
Considering ADHD in the classroom, a teacher would observe the affected child getting frequent cases of inattention, which in turn disorients the child. Special education may be required in cases where the child’s condition is advanced.
References American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington: American Psychiatric Association
Arcos-Burgos, M., Jain, M., Acosta, M. T., Shively, S., et al. (2010). A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication. Mol Psychiatry 15(11), 1053-66
Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Mick, E., et al. (1998). Is ADHD a risk factor for psychoactive substance use disorders? Findings from a four-year prospective follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36, 21–29
Brown, R. T., Freeman, W. S., Perrin, J. M., et al. (2001). Prevalence and assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary care settings. Pediatrics, 2(4), 107-114
Gizer, I R., Ficks, C., Waldman, I. D. (2009). Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126(1), 51-90
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2008). CG72 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). London: NIHCE
Pineda, D., Ardila, A., Rosselli, M, et al. (1999). Prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms in 4- to 17-year-old children in the general population. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 27, 455–462.
Ramsay, J. R. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for adult ADHD. New York: Routledge
Swanson, J. M., Sergeant, J. A., Taylor, E., et al. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Lancet, 351, 429–433
US department of health and human services. (1999). Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Washington, DC: department of health and human services.
The Societal View of Medicine and Treatment Expository Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Inquiry into the interaction between culture and medical practice has gained more ground with the passing years. The advancement in certain studies, such as sociology and psychology, has provided impetus for better understanding of the relationships between these fields.
The western medicine has been based on scientific inquiry. It relies on research and advancement of scientific methods. Treatment is often based on prove of evidence and diagnosis is purely based on findings considered scientifically sound.
Even then, a flash back into the field of medicine shows a very intricate relationship between culture and treatment. Culture has several bearings on a number of issues, which are absolutely important for the choice of medication. In the first place, culture defines what would be considered a disease in some context.
Furthermore, it determines whether such a disease warrantees the ill person to seek health intervention or not (Setha, 1988).
Culture defines the kind of medication or intervention a person chooses. It also determines the kind of treatment and the interaction between the healer and the sick person.
Evidently, the medical community has come to the appreciation of this vital interaction. It is such understanding, which forms the basis for the development of studies, such as medical ethnography. This deliberate and focused inquiry into culture and treatment is bound to reveal the interconnectivity between these issues.
This liberates both the practitioners and the sick to realize what is at odds in a medical treatment intervention. This way, more holistic approach to the healing process is likely to be practiced. The final result will be achievement of more effective treatments (Ren, Amick,
Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process Expository Essay essay help online
Poetry plays an important role in a learning process, specifically when poems are applied to teaching various disciplines. Although children sometimes prefer narrative verses to the lyrics ones, they can contribute greatly to improving pronunciation and spelling, as well memorizing various terms.
It is very important for teachers to introduce poetry in an oral form for children to develop their reading and speaking skills. Rhythm and rhyme, therefore, are crucial for attracting children attention and engaging them into accomplishing various assignments.
Using rhythmic patterns allows children to develop a new understanding of various issues in reading, as well as invent new means of comprehension. Poetry, as an emotionally colored means of written text, comprises imagery and sound that contribute to advancement of children’s intellectual and response mechanisms.
Therefore, due to such important attributes of poetry, as rhythm, repetition patterns, and rhyme, children can significantly promote their understanding of complicated terms. More importantly, it also contributes to their memorizing skills.
The interaction between children and poetry is characterized by strong materials (Glazer and Williams 271). These comprise good plots, rich settings, well-developed characters, vital and educative themes, and artistic styles that employ bold and creative language (Glazer and Williams 279).
This element of novelty is developed by the author, who first understands and comprehends the nature of the audience, or the child age bracket (Glazer and Williams 282). The authors then proceed to prepare the content. It is a common argument among children poets that they create good pieces, irrespective of whether the children like them or not.
According to Glazer and Williams (284), authors argue that their compositions are built of strong materials, and the likes and silikes of children cannot be used as a basis for determingn the quality of the literatur. They further claim that poetry should be judged as literature on its own merit, and children should them be given the most appropriate literature (Glazer and Williams 298).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lukens defines poetry as a concise, intense, and flamboyant type of literary work that employs the elements of sound and language to develop emotion and targeted notions. Poetry is aimed at developing emotional intensity through the use of rhythmic or figurative language.
All forms of poetry, including children poetry use various styles to bring out the intended emotion. These styles include: “alliteration, metaphors, similes, symbolism, personification, assonance, consonance, allusion, onomatopoeia, internal rhyme, and rhyme scheme” (Likens 8).
There are various forms of poetry including narrative poems, free verse, ballads, diamante, and cinquam.
While considering poetry language and its value for developing children’s comprehension and memory, specific emphasis should be placed on literary and figurative devices.
In particular, literary images include tactile, auditory, visual, kinesthetic, olfactory, and gustatory ones where figurative tools are composed of such stylistic devices as metaphor, personification, and simile (Russell 50). These qualities can help children broaden imagination and acquire new experience in operation various notions.
Poetry language, therefore, is a powerful skill in exploring new dimensions of learning approaches. Visual tools represented in poem can help children to see the objects and describe them in the most effective way whereas tactile devices appeal to children’s sense of touch (Russell 50).
Auditory skills can also be developed by reading and listening to poems. For instance, the poetic texts can allow children to distinguish a variety of animal sounds. Finally, there are poems performing kinesthetic functions that refer mostly to motions and actions.
We will write a custom Essay on Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such poetic works are helpful in case they are combined with the actions mentioned in the poem. The introduction of rhythmic patterns is helpful because they promote children memorizing skills. In this respect, poetry language can be indispensible to learning new figures in mathematics, natural phenomena, or the names of animals.
Using metaphors, simile, and personification complements the meaning of the poetic works, as well as provide children with greater understanding of how various phenomena could be explained.
Children are not attracted to reading as easily as grownups; therefore, their reading materials should not include difficult terms or abstract concepts. According to Hillman (34), poems and other literary works that are targeted at children display five key features.
First, their characters are either children or portray childlike characteristics. Second, their context is based on typical childhood experiences that are expressed from a child’s perspective. Third, they use straightforward and direct plots that focus on the action or intended emotion.
Fourth, they send out an image of innocence and optimism, such that they leave the audience emotional and happy. Fifth, they are based on both real and fictional events in order to enhance the sense of imagination.
These characteristics are common among children authors since they portray the way that adults converse with children, using short and simple texts.
Over the past few decades, there has been increased interest in the features of children poetry, which has led to a lot of research in that field (Russell 34). One of the areas under study involves the typical methods used to express children’s poetry.
These include vivid illustrations, humorous narrative, and simple and memorable lines. According to Russell (50), most of children’s poetry uses simple words and lines that children can comprehend and use in their activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Complex terms and nonfigurative notions in poetry tend to discourage children from advancing their interest and comprehension of the concepts of poetry. Since children have low education level and minimal life experience, any poetry directed at them should have straightforward wording and language that the children can grasp with ease.
Children still have a lot to learn, and their comprehension for poetry is still undeveloped. Children are more attracted to poetry that is written in their language compared to poetry that uses profound language that is beyond their age.
Hence, children can only be interested in literary work that uses simple language to explain the idea, image, and action in poetry.
Russell (58) also notes that children link poetry to fun, hence, children should find poetry amusing for them to be interested in it. Humor is a vital component that authors use to seize the attention of children and cause them to read.
Children’s poetry is most successful in getting through to the readers if its combines simple words to describe situations that are familiar to the children with humorous narrative. Russell (62) states “children love silly nonsense that tickles their funny bones” to emphasize the vital role of humor in children poetry.
For children authors to appeal to children with their poems, they need to consider the element of entertainment in the form of humor, since children are open and willing to try out fun things.
Another area that has attracted a lot of research is the literary devices employed in children’s poetry. Such elements include lively imagery, rhythm and rhyme, personification and word-play.
While rhythm and rhyme make the poems melodious, fun and easy to remember, lively imagery stimulates the various senses when children are reading poems (Lukens 76). Studies claim that imagery is one of the most valuable devices in children’s poetry (Lukens 76).
In addition, research shows that children pay a lot of attention to imagery in poetry. Lukens (75) states that imagery is the most recurrently employed literary device, and most essential in the development of the setting and mood of the poem.
Imagery also aids in enhancing the understanding of a concept and stretches the insight of the children when reading the poem (Lukens 86).
Russell suggests that personification is a vital element in children’s poetry, especially for the very young. Personification involves the issuing of human qualities to inanimate objects, which makes poetry lively and attractive to children readers.
Instances of personification such as a dancing cat or a talking car appeal to the animalistic view of children since it allows them to relate to poems that have both human and inanimate characters (Russell 91).
Word play is also a vital component of children’s poetry that allows children to make up words as part of their learning process. Word-play employs the manipulation of words that make up the poem in a playful manner in order to appeal to the children.
Children poems should aim at encouraging children to play with words, which add both humor and delight to the reading process. Word-play is most useful when reading the poems aloud, which enhances the pleasure of listening and uttering the words.
Such sound patterns as rhythm and rhyme are inherent components that allow children to work out strategies for memorizing notion, definitions, and word combinations.
Use of alliteration, consonance, assonance, and repetition provides more perspective for reading comprehension, as well as allows children to define which syllables are stressed and which ones are not.
Other literary elements that are used in children’s narratives include plot, characterization, style, setting, theme, and point of view. Poems do not employ all these elements, though the ones used like theme and plot help to develop a memorable reading experience.
Plots are vital in constructing the conflict, which builds the narrative to a happy ending in order for it to e appealing to the children. According to Lukens (99), plots involve a struggle that is overcome. These struggles can be in the form of person verses person, nature, society, or self (Likens 102).
Based on the entities involved in the struggle, authors can employ the element of personification to portray diverse views of the scenario. Themes are vital elements that determine whether the children find it easy to understand the flow of the poem.
Most of the themes considered in children’s poetry involve simple life experiences that they are familiar with. This allows them to relate to true experiences or familiar thoughts as the authors encourage them to use the element of imagery.
The content of a poem can be based upon an experience like playing with friends, playing a video game, or facing punishment from parents. Such themes that provide content which is familiar to the children are useful in making successful children poetry.
The development of children is based on the ideas of freedom and emotion that are expressed in their learning material (Glazer and Williams 301). As a result, authors should focus on delivering literature that is valuable in enhancing the productivity of the children.
The focus of researchers on children literature is due to the challenges faced by authors who prepare their reading material. The content for children literature does not employ intricate concepts and vocabulary like that used for adult reading material.
Hence, studies revolving around the appeal of children literature, and especially poetry, have revealed interesting concepts. The studies analyzed in this paper focus on the characteristics of children’s poetry based on the analysis of techniques used to obtain the appropriate content.
The deduction obtained emphasize on the use of familiar situations to develop themes and content for the poems, in order for the children to identify with them. In addition, there are specific expression techniques that appeal to children such as simple and memorable lines, humorous narrative, personification, and imagery.
Lastly, authors also consider the plot and theme of the poems, since this provides the environment where the various styles like rhyme and word-play can be employed appropriately.
Verses do not necessarily focus on explaining certain meanings and definitions. Rather, there are poems that seek to deliver comic themes that do not have sense, but which should be read by children to explain what rhyme, rhythm, and meter mean (Russell 52).
The children poetry, therefore, can be used in form of a play to amuse children and attract their attention. With regard to the above-presented characteristics, poems can represent various themes and topics, including the once originating from real life and the ones coming from history (Russell 52).
There are also narrative poems that cover story poems based on themes about various characters and plots and lyric poetry that is premised on ancient Greek poetry.
Due to the variety and great availability of poetry, teachers heavily employ it in a learning process. Reading poetry aloud is among the most efficient strategies because children’s oral language forms the basis for later development of literacy.
Reading activities should be based on understanding meaning, as well as all unknown words (Russell 52). Attention should also be given to punctuation, stress, and rhythmic patterns. It is also important to use poems for dramatic performance. Use of special effects, as well as decorations, can enhance children’s motivation to take part in the activity.
Choral poetry is another approach that can be applied by teacher to encourage children’s participation. Incorporating gestures, movements, and body language will help children understand how to work in teams. Choral pronunciation of poetry can also teach children to adjust to the rhythm.
In addition, there could be various options while reading poems in groups, including solo, unison, or three-to-five people groupings. During such activities, perfection of pronunciation and sense of rhythm should be the main purpose.
Once all the approaches and activities are properly managed, children may proceed with making up simple verses, which also contributes to the development of imagination.
In conclusion, such qualities of poetry as rhythm, rhyme, as well as use of imaginary and figurative devices, contribute to learning experience of children. Specifically, teachers can introduce various activities, including reading aloud, pronouncing words, and developing performances.
Integrating poetry into a learning process is indispensible to developing children’s memorizing skills and enhancing their understanding of various notions that relate to auditory and visual phenomena.
Applying poem to learning various disciplines, therefore, can contribute to broadening children’s imagination. Overall, poetic language is much simpler than prose narrative because it has repetitive patterns.
Works Cited Glazer, Joan I. and Gurney Williams. Introduction to Children’s Literature. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 1979. Print.
Hillman, Judith. Discovering Children’s Literature 3rd Edition. New Jersey; Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.
Lukens, Rebecca J. A critical handbook of children’s literature. London: Good Year, 1986. Print.
Russell, David. L. Literature for children: A short introduction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2005. Print.
Strategic Planning in a Nursing Institution Compare and Contrast Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Strategic planning is a tool used by businesses and organizations, to guide their operations. It is a long term process of defining a company’s strategy, direction, and ways of distributing resources, so as to achieve objectives with maximum efficiency.
It presents a company’s mission, vision, core values, and to some extent, the strategy used by a company, to achieve its goals (Bryson, 2011). There are different models of strategic planning.
This paper looks at two models; issue-based and alignment models, in a bid to show their similarities and differences. Thereafter, it shows how the issue-based model can be used by a nursing institution.
People often say that failing to plan is planning to fail. This shows why strategic planning is vital for both public and non-profit organizations (Burkhart
The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” Analytical Essay best essay help
Rapid development of the World Wide Web and telecommunications has introduced tangible shifts in communication. Nowadays people all over the world have much greater opportunities for exchanging information and sharing their opinions on political, cultural, and social situation.
Specific attention should be given to the transition from personal, face-to-face communication to interpersonal and open communication via online channels and by mobile communication systems.
With regard to the above discussion, the writers Balouris, Shriver, and Sisario dedicate their articles to discussing the impact of social media development on shaping new forms of communication.
Their claims are specifically premised on the currently released song Call Me, Maybe? by Carley Ray Jepsen. The song content relates to the changing patterns in social interaction.
Balouris (2012), representing the Leadership Academic Blog, focuses on the importance of interpersonal communication, as well as how it is impacted by the emergence of mobile communication and social media. In particular, the author refers to such issues as appearance of a new generation whose communication will be dominated by social media.
Although Balouris (2012) does not criticize social media development, the author still notes, “some many things – tone of voice, facial expression, body language – are lost when conversation happen through a computer screen or phone screen” (n. p.).
Despite the loss of traditional distribution channels of information, the innovative techniques integrated by social media still have a positive impact on communication. This is of particular concern to development of online networks connecting people all over the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To prove the evident benefits of social media, Balouris (2012) provides persuasive statistics on constantly increasing percentage of users on Facebook ad Twitter. The new communication channels, therefore, have “…incredible power to make and shape the news and public opinion” (Balouris, 2012).
Apart from social dimension, the newly emerged online channels contribute to the development of political thoughts that provide various political campaigns all over the world.
Similar to Balouris (2012), Shriver (2010) does not confine to the discussion of Jepsen’s popular song and refers to other interesting contexts associated with it. In particular, the writer connects the issue of telecommunication with successful techniques that can be used while speaking with clients by phone.
The major recommendations are associated with note taking, anticipating, and pleasing the client. Telephone communication, therefore, is a new branch of science introducing efficient techniques for obtaining, sharing, and exchanging information.
In this respect, note taking of telephone calls differs much from similar process applied during personal meetings. Communication by means of mobile phones is much more complicated because it is very hard to predict the recipient reaction. At the same time, the speaker can also be more prepared to the conversation due to the absence of face-to-face confrontation.
Shriver’s (2010) advice on better phone communication relates to a business sphere rather than to daily communication, which points’ to the rapid integration of new social media to all spheres of life. Pleasing the client, therefore, is another recommendation that should be applied to attract consumers’ attention.
Similar to traditional communication, telephone conversation should start with attention grabbing phrases that will compensate scarcity of non-verbal approaches. In particular, Shriver (2010) stresses, “conference calls are great in working with other businesses around the country and even across the globe however it is limiting” (n. p.).
We will write a custom Essay on The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the shifts in interaction, nothing can replace such modes of nonverbal communication as a friendly smile or a handshake. Cultural aspects of conducting business are crucial for meeting the need of globalized community. Shriver (2010) steps far away from the topic introduced in Jepsen’s popular composition, but the writer’s advice is quite helpful.
Social media influence is also recognized by Sisario, the New York Times journalist who also discusses the new hit by Jepsen, Call Me, May Be? in context of new communication patterns. The author also deliberates on the overall influence of social media on the music industry, as well as on other spheres.
In particular, there are bright examples of how such famous online media as YouTube is employed to advertize songs and influence public opinion. Tweeter is also used by popular signers, such as Justin Bieber and Katy Perry, to advertise their songs.
More importantly, Sisario (2012) stresses that the emergence of YouTube has made radio a less important social media device because “nearly two-thirds of teenagers listen to music on YouTube, more than other medium” (Sisario, 2012).
Such a tendency, therefore, has a potent impact on cultural perception, as well as on the necessity of music producers to change their advertising and commercial techniques. Within this context, the writer also analyzes Jepsen’s attitude to the internet, particular to its incredible impact on the spread of music.
Serving as a driving force, the search engines are powerful tools for promoting musical compositions. This domain of advertising could be regarded as a step forward in promoting commercial projects.
Although the World Wide Web takes advantage over the other media platforms, the radio has not lost its positions. In this respect, the author explains “There’s not a million-seller out there that doesn’t have radio play…but its first million generally doesn’t come from radio” (n. p).
The song presents a bright example of how social media can be employed for marketing purposes. However, the success of the venture has little support in terms of theoretical approaches worked out to use online media as a new means of promoting products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Internet does not allow the producers to predict consumer behaviors accurately. Nevertheless, conventional means of advertizing are not less efficient because the product success depends on many other aspects, such as economic, social, and cultural tendencies.
In fact, the use of YouTube videos has captured the attention of million users all over the worlds, which minimizes the use of such media platforms as radio and television.
Introduction of new communication devices, including social networks, mobile communication, and online media platforms, have contributed greatly to all spheres of life.
Nevertheless, all the articles discussed above do not exclude the value conventional personal communication in all aspects of life, should it music industry, business, or daily interaction. This is of particular concern to nonverbal devices of sharing, exchanging, and storing information.
Analyzing the grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s song Call Me, May Be?, the writers have managed to cover such important topics as the influence of media culture on communication, challenges of interacting by means of wireless devices, and the use of the Internet as a powerful marketing tool.
New generation of users, therefore, can adjust to a new social environment to achieve successful communication and develop new techniques compensating the scarcity of nonverbal devices that could be produced online.
References Balouris, M. C. (2012). Call Me, Maybe? Marielena’s Presidential Leadership Academy Blog. Web.
Shriver (2012). Call Me, Maybe? Intern. Web.
Sisario, B. (2012). The new rise of a summer hit: Tweet it maybe. The New York Times. Web.