Maya Public Ritual Arts Essay Scholarship Essay Help

The main idea, which is being explored throughout the course of Inomata’s article, is that the functional purpose of plazas in ancient Mayan cities has been concerned with providing Maya’s rules with an opportunity to expose their subjects to public spectacles.

In their turn, these spectacles served the purpose of endowing ancient Mayans with the sense of communal belonging – hence, contributing to the formation of collectively explored self-identity, on their part, “Large-scale theatrical events gave physical reality to a community and helped to ground unstable community identities” (Inomata 818).

Given a rather unconventional sounding of this idea, it is not very surprising why the publication of Inomata’s article attracted a number of critical responses.

According to Aoyama, Inomata’s line of argumentation can indeed be considered as such that represents a scientifically objective value, as the analysis of plazas’ holding capacities supports the validity of a suggestion that they could have been used for staging public performances.

Aoyama explores the legitimacy of his point of view, in regards to the relevant empirical data, collected by archeologists in the Mayan cities of Aguateca and Copan.

Becker, however, is challenging Inomata’s assumption. According to him, there is no rationale in believing that plazas served this specific purpose.

This is because the amount of plazas’ open space may in fact be reflective of polities’ wealth, which in turn cannot be discussed as such that directly relates to the size of corresponding populations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Becker also criticizes Inomata for his failure to consider the possibility that, as time went on, plazas’ ‘holding’ function might have undergone a qualitative transformation.

Yet, it is specifically the fact that Inomata’s idea is based upon the assumption that Mayan polities have been unilaterally governed by ‘divine rulers’, which appears to have caused Becker to adopt a strongly critical stance towards his colleague’s line of argumentation.

Mazariegos’s reaction to Inomata’s article can be referred to as being generally positive. After all, he does recognize the validity of Inomata’s idea that Mayan plazas are in fact theatrical spaces.

At the same time, however, Mazariegos points out to the fact that there a number of more effective ways of endowing people with the sense of a shared identity, such as prompting them to participate in a warfare, “Opposition to outside enemies, the shared vicissitudes of military campaigns… are likely to create shared identities” (822).

Nevertheless, Mazariegos does welcome Inomata’s article, as such that is being potentially capable of advancing our understanding of ancient Mayan civilization.

Ruiz and Pavon’s response to Inomata’s article can also be defined as being generally positive. In it, they acknowledge that by publishing his article, Inomata was able to contribute immensely to our knowledge of ancient Mayan culture.

At the same time, Ruiz and Pavon suggest that there are no good reasons to believe that the artistic depictions on stelaes are being necessarily concerned with theatrical performances.

We will write a custom Essay on Maya Public Ritual Arts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Partially, the validity of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to the specifics of steales’ location, “The (Inomata’s) analysis links the presence of stelae with the largest plazas, but this link cannot be asserted categorically” (823). This appears to be the only critical remark in Ruiz and Pavon’s response.

According to Clancy, the assumption that plazas in Mayan cities served theatricality-related functions is indeed being fully legitimate, “Ancient Maya plazas were surely places for performances choreographed by royal intentions” (823).

At the same time, however, Clancy does not quite subscribe to the suggestion that it was solely ancient Mayans’ exposure to public performances, which used to endow them with the sense of a communal identity.

Grube’s response to Inomata’s article can be defined as being enthusiastically supportive, “I strongly concur with Inomata’s conclusions” (824).

According to Grube, the reason why Inomata’s idea can be considered thoroughly legitimate is that it correlates with our knowledge of how the rulers of Mayan polity-states used to go about exercising a political authority.

Given the fact that, due to the absence of adequate technologies, Mayan rulers could not utilize any technical means for imposing their authority upon populations, they had no choice but to rely upon purely psychological ones. In this respect, staging public performances, on the part of Mayan rulers, would prove particularly effective.

Even though that, while reflecting upon Inomata’s article, Isendahl did acknowledge its high discursive value, he nevertheless expressed his concerns as to whether Inomata’s utilization of the term ‘theatricality’ is being conceptually appropriate, “Theatricality is simply not the most appropriate analogy” (825).

Moreover, Isendahl appears rather skeptical about Inomata’s assumption as to what accounted for the actual nature of centrifugal tendencies in ancient Mayan societies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maya Public Ritual Arts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Stuardo, Inomata can be well congratulated for having advanced our understanding of what might have accounted for the very principle of political centralization in ancient Mayan city-states.

Nevertheless, it is specifically the fact that Inomata’s article allows the conceptualization of new methodological approaches to researching subject matters, concerned with ancient Mayan civilization, which Stuardo considers the most important aspect of this article.

Looper’s response to Inomata’s article can also be defined as being highly supportive. Nevertheless, this response does contain a few critical remarks.

For example, Looper points out to the fact that Inomata’s line of argumentation implies ancient Mayan societies having been rather secularized.

However, this point of view is being inconsistent with how the majority of historians and archeologists discuss the discursive implications of the factor of religion in these societies, “Theatrical metaphors and models risks secularizing ancient Maya performance” (826).

According to Looper, however, this does not affect the overall legitimacy of Inomata’s article.

According to Lucero, Inomata’s line of argumentation does deserve to be taken into consideration by mayanists.

At the same time, Lucero suggests that in his article, Inomata downplayed the importance of a number of down-to-earth factors for ancient Mayans (especially rural dwellers) to be committed to participating in mass-gatherings.

After all, one of the possible reasons why Mayan rural dwellers used to participate in these gatherings is that they were driven to do so by purely objective circumstances , “Rulers also fulfilled (people’s) material needs—specifically, water during the annual drought” (827).

The foremost of aspect of Newsome’s response to Inomata’s article is that this response stresses out the discursive importance how the author went about substantiating his line of argumentation.

According to Newsome, it is not only that Inomata succeeded in revealing the actual mechanics of how Mayan rulers used to ensure the societal integrity of polities, but that he also succeeded in discovering a qualitatively new dimension to the very notion of ‘theatricality’.

Therefore, the reading of Inomata’s article will prove utterly beneficial to just about anyone who strives to overcome the limitations of a number of euro-centric discursive conventions.

In his response to Inomata’s article, Dorado criticizes the assumption that the staging of public spectacles should be considered a universally applicable tool of maintaining the social integrity of just about every hierarchically structured state.

At the same time, however, Dorado expresses his agreement with Inomata, as to the fact that plazas in ancient Mayan cities did in fact serve the function of accommodating crowds for a number of ritualistic purposes.

According to Sanchez, Inomata’s hypothesis, in regards to the functional purpose of plazas, can indeed be defined as being logically and discursively coherent.

At the same time, Sanchez suggests that this hypothesis is far from being considered as such that represents an undeniable truth-value, because as of today, the concerned subject matter remains relatively unexplored.

Despite the fact that Tokovinine does admit that the author did contribute to our knowledge of ancient Mayan civilization, he also points out to an essentially speculative nature of many of Inomata’s conclusions.

In particular, Tokovinine suggests that there is no well-grounded rationale in believing that the theatrical activities, depicted on Mayan murals, connote publicity.

While replying to the earlier outlined responses, on the part of his critics, Inomata pointed out to the fact that, even though his interpretation of what should be considered Mayan plazas’ functional significance is far from being considered unchallengeable, it does help to explain how Mayan rulers were able to exercise an administrative control over their subjects.

In addition, Inomata suggests that in many cases, responses’ critical overtones appear to reflect the fact that some of his arguments have been misinterpreted.

I personally consider the line of Inomata’s argumentation logically coherent but somewhat speculative. This is because; the discussion of a significance of just about any public event through the conceptual lenses of a particular ‘performance theory’ becomes invariably affected by this theory’s discursive subtleties.

Given the fact that there are strongly defined euro-centric undertones to how Inomata went about elaborating on the societal implications of public performances in ancient Mayan city-states, it is quite doubtful whether Inomata’s conclusions could be considered ideologically neutral.

Bibliography Inomata, Takeshi. “Plazas, Performers, and Spectators: Political Theaters of the Classic Maya.” Current Anthropology 47.5 (2006): 805-842. Print.

[supanova_question]

The Harvard Referencing Method Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

West Side Story Film

Relationship Reflection

Puerto Ricans

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Puerto Rican immigrants have been reflected on the West Side Story film and the past paper assignments. The immigrants were a key historical element of immigration to the United States. The immigrants with Puerto Rican descent were among the many immigrants into America with the intention of obtaining suitable employment opportunities so as to better their lifestyles. Puerto Rico as a country was in crisis with a high level of poverty.

The people were lacking essential needs. Their status relating to health, education and housing were being affected. All these factors influenced the Puerto Rican immigration to the United States. They migrated to the U. S. in numbers since this was the best opinion to them (Whalen and Víctor 17).

The immigration process was a great challenge to the Puerto Rican people. They had been affected by social and economic problems in their home country hence being forced to move. On arriving in a foreign country, things did not get any better. They faced new challenges that they were not aware of.

West Side Story Film The West Side Story film is a musical film produced in 1961. The film is based on an American musical by the same name. The American musical has a book, music, conception and choreography done by different people. It was enthused by Romeo and Juliet, a play by Shakespeare.

The film’s plot was divided into two acts. This was intended at increasing more tension in the plot. The film shows the life of two gangs who are involved in music based tension in the Manhattan streets in the 1957 late summer. The gangs include the Jets and the Sharks. The Jets were a white American gang while the Sharks were a gang with Puerto Rican immigrants. The two gangs are rivals, and they harass each other.

The rift between the two gangs escalates. The two rival gangs agree to meet at an agreed location for a fight. The fight begins and ends up fatally with the two gang leaders being stubbed to death. The police arrive at the location and the other gang members flee away from the scene. Later on, the co-founder of the American gang is killed by a Puerto Rican gang member. The film ends with the arrest of the killer by police.

This film addresses the themes discussed in the previous assignments since it reflects on the lives of Puerto Rican immigrants. The film demonstrates the lifestyle of immigrants in a foreign nation. The film shows the elements that affected Puerto Rican immigrants. The film offers the perspective of the struggles the Puerto Rican immigrants underwent while in a foreign country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship Reflection The film West Side Story and the past paper assignments support the same idea. The two consider the Puerto Rican migration and the challenges faced by them in a foreign country. The two show how it was difficult for immigrants to live a superior life in a foreign state.

The immigrants in both contexts were struggling with their settlement and their location. The immigrants who arrived in America ended up living in eastern parts of America, mainly New York. This is because they could not afford high rent rates in other areas. They did not get good employment opportunities that would sustain them to live better lives. Hence they were making a little income and could not afford to settle in good locations (Whalen and Víctor 21).

The immigrants in both contexts were involved in crime. The immigrants were influenced by the areas where they lived. The crime rates in America were on the increase with the number of immigrants increasing. The immigrants were faced by financial challenges hence they forced to indulge themselves in crime. The location of the immigrants was a setting of low levels of civilization.

The immigrants in both contexts were involved in cultural events. They were involved in various activities that developed culture. They practiced their culture in the foreign country. They were involved in the establishment of a cultural life of sociality. They preserved their heritage on culture by being involved in social and political movements (Fitzpatrick 49).

The immigrants in both contexts faced discrimination. The area in which the immigrants lived, the locals there felt that the immigrants have come to take their position and opportunities. They discriminated them since they were in their country. The immigrants were mistreated by the locals in different ways and setting.

For instance in terms relating to employment, they received discrimination at work by being paid the lowest payment. In terms relating to where they lived, they faced discrimination from people who claimed that they are not supposed to live in those areas (Whalen and Víctor 35).

Puerto Ricans The film and the paper describe the Puerto Ricans on the island, the mainland, or the diaspora at large. The Puerto Ricans were people who targeted to improve their lives. Having faced hard times in their country, they were ready to make the changes essential in order to improve the status.

We will write a custom Essay on The Harvard Referencing Method specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Puerto Ricans were involved in social, cultural and political movements so as to influence change where possible. They indulged themselves in campaigns that would see them be recognized and be treated with acknowledgement.

Both the film and paper describe the Puerto Ricans on the island, the mainland, or the diaspora at large as people who valued their culture and were always protecting and promoting it. This is evident in the notable activities they used to be involved with. They practiced these so as to support their culture instead of letting it die off.

The Puerto Ricans were also shown to be people with unity. In the different locations they were, they linked themselves in one accord. This increased their popularity and strength as a community. They also helped each other in all situations in support of each other. When their own would get into a problem, they would come up with a solution that was meant to improve the situation (Fitzpatrick 14).

The message between the two contexts, the film and the papers, is that the Puerto Rican immigration into the United States was influenced by several aspects. This depended on the motive of the immigrants, with the main purpose of immigration was to gain employment.

Conclusion The immigration of Puerto Rican people into the United States has impacted the social, political and economic aspects in different ways. The Puerto Rican people established a culture while in the foreign country.

This was among the several positive impacts they made. They practiced their customs and traditions that gained recognition by the locals. Their efforts to gain employment and work in the foreign country improve the economy status. Through immigration, the Puerto Rican people improved their status and that of their location (Fitzpatrick 77).

Works Cited Fitzpatrick, Joseph P. Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Print.

Whalen, Carmen T, and Víctor Vázquez-Hernández. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Harvard Referencing Method by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

[supanova_question]

Services Consumer Behaviour Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

There are five stages that a customer goes through before making the ultimate decision to make a purchase. These stages as noted by Lantos (2011) are problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour.

Each consumer passes all these stages until a purchase is made. The essay is an attempt to describe how I progressed through the named stages of decision making while purchasing a tourism service.

In addition, the essay explores how the concept of risk is perceived and managed while purchasing a tourism service.

Moreover, the implications of the concept of risk with regard to the service provider of the tourism equation have been discussed.

Prior to making a decision to purchase the tourism service, I followed the five stages of need recognition, problem awareness, information search, alternatives evaluation, service purchase and post-purchase evaluation (Lantos, 2011). The stages are represented in the diagram below as described by Tyagi and Kumar (2004).

Figure 1: Stages of the decision process for purchase

During the problem recognition stage, the need to go on holiday triggered my desire to go on vacation. The desire to travel as a tourist was important as it aroused the need to search for important information on my impending tourism adventure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The information search phase is important as it helps the consumer in making wise decisions (Tyagi

[supanova_question]

Effects of Generational Differences on Teamwork in Organisations in the UK Essay best essay help

Introduction According to Kupperschmidt (2000, p. 65), generational differences at the workplace are as a result of differences in goals, expectations and work values. Zemke, Raines and Filipczak, (2000, p.5) define a generation as a group of individuals who share several things, including year of birth, age, location, and significant life events.

Cennamo and Gardner (2008, p.896) have provided examples of significant life events which include major political events or threats, socio-economic transitions, and emerging industry trends. There are four distinct generations, namely Baby boomers, Generation X, Y, and Z. However, in the UK, employees in most organisations belong to the Baby boomers generation, Generation X and Y.

Baby boomers are individuals born between 1945 and1960. These are the individuals who were born in post World War II era. Haynes (2011, p. 104) notes that Generation X consists of individuals born between 1961 and 1980, while Generation Y are the individuals who were born after 1980.

Individuals from both the Baby boomers generation and Generation X mainly occupy high and middle levels of management in organisations, respectively. These positions are based on the age and work experience of the employees from the above generations. On the other hand, Generation Y is made up of junior employees in many organisations.

According to Personnel Today (2005), most organisations in the UK mainly rely on project teams to oversee various projects and tasks in the organisation. Project teams are multigenerational in nature and as such, they bring together employees from different generations.

Generational Differences and Attitudes towards Teamwork in UK organisations Teams are useful in tackling hard tasks at different organisations. Baby boomers have strong commitment towards work and are keen on meeting strict deadlines as outlined under different tasks. Therefore, Baby boomers working in multigenerational teams are strongly committed to completing the task at hand.

They tend to be highly inflexible towards altering deadlines. Additionally, Howe and Strauss (2000, p.40) indicate that Baby boomers view the workplace as fun and counterproductive towards the realisation of the team’s goals and objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hammill (2005), Baby boomers prefer working as a team. According to Lyons, (2004, p.13), Baby boomers prefer to work in teams because they are keen on learning new skills in order to enhance their positions in the team in particular and the organisation in general.

Furthermore, Murphy( 2010,p.10) states that Baby boomers exhibit a participatory leadership style and prefer increased consultation before reaching any team decisions. According to Twenge and Campbell (2008, p.866) , the baby boom in the UK started at least ten years after the baby boom in the United States. Therefore, in the UK, Baby Boomers occupy both the top and middle level management levels.

Lamm and Meeks (2007, p. 617) claim that Generation X employees place emphasis on work-life balance. Most employees from this generation, therefore, are able to balance between responsibilities both at the workplace and home. Individuals from this particular generation have poor people skills and also are considered cynical. Also, Generative X individuals are associated with authoritative decision making.

The above mode of decision making is characterised by decreased consultation between the team’s supervisor and members. In most UK organisations, Generation X employees occupy the middle level management. Therefore, Generation X employees are most likely to serve as team supervisors mainly based on experience in a particular field. However, due to the emerging trends in the industry, members from other generations may assume roles as team supervisors, including Generation Y employees.

Generation Y employees mainly serve as team members as they are junior employees in various organisations. Lamm and Meeks (2009, p.617) claim that Generational Y employees are more inclined towards achieving work-life balance. As such, they are more likely to engage in such activities such as pursuing further education.

This is aimed at enhancing their skills so that they can remain abreast with the emerging trends in the workplace. Similarly, Hill (2004, p. 34) claims that employees from this generation are characterised by increased use of technology which enhances their ability to multi-task.

Raines (2003) indicates that in a team setting, Generation Y employees are highly creative and thus are in a position to use existing knowledge to come up with solutions to various problems. Additionally, employees from this generation do not prefer to use formal communication channels while liaising with other team members on team matters.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of Generational Differences on Teamwork in Organisations in the UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, such employees prefer modern communication tools including social networking sites. However, Haynes (2008, p.288) argue that Generation Y employees require high levels of commitment which is a useful tool for enhancing their long term commitment to an organisation.

In the UK alone, more than 230,000 graduates join the workforce every year. Over 80 percent of the above graduates belong to Generation Y. Therefore, as employees from the above generation increase, managers and team supervisors should ensure that the needs of such employees are adequately addressed.

Striking a middle ground in management of multigenerational teams A useful tool for addressing intergenerational conflict is developing an inclusive organisational culture so that the input of all individuals is appreciated. Team supervisors should take into account varied needs of all team members. Additionally, Baby Boomers who command respect in their organisation are instrumental in instituting the above culture.

The management should put in place mechanisms of settling team conflicts. This includes voting for contentious issues. Voting should take place after all members have given their input as regards a particular issue. Finally, D’Amato and Herzfeldt (2008, p.934) note that the concept of a learning organisation is most appropriate where employees learn from each other, thereby promoting individual development.

Reference List Cennamo, L.

[supanova_question]

The Rehabilitation of West Haven Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

A brief overview of West Haven

The Rehabilitation process

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Social geography is a body of knowledge and a set of practices by which scholars look at, and seek to understand, the social world. As such, it is a strikingly diverse sub discipline of human geography that has many overlapping interests with other forms of geography rather than any fixed or strict boundaries.

This discipline evaluates how social relations, identities and inequalities are made. This paper analyzes the application of social geography in the rehabilitation of West Haven from one of New York’s poorest urban centers to New York’s industrial hub.

A brief overview of West Haven West Haven, which is located in Bronx, Morrisania was once New York’s industrial hub. Rolston states that the rehabilitation of West Haven and communities around it had been stalled for many years owing to a belief that it is impossible to salvage West Haven and its surrounding communities in economic and architectural terms.

However, the use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess. Currently, West Haven, which focuses on ecological sustainability, is a key revenue generator of New York City.

West Haven is a key industrial centre of New York City. The economic prowess of this urban centre reached its climax in 1945 but started deteriorating thereafter (McNamara, 24). The deterioration turned West Haven into one of the New York’s poorest urban centers. However, in 2006, environmentalists, geographers, and other stakeholders from the New York City united in a bid to restore West Haven’s lost glory.

The stakeholders formed “a private public partnership, which addresses the challenges of site placement, environmental deterioration, and social stigma” so as to revive the economic prowess of West Haven (Rolston 63). The revolution which restored West Haven’s lost glory involved the use of sustainable construction principles.

The use of sustainable construction has enhanced sustainable land use and conservation. In addition, the use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rolston (63) notes that “from the late 19th Century until 1945, West Haven, which is a small manufacturing district in the Morrisania section of Bronx, New York, hummed as one of the city’s bustling industrial centers”.

Rolston (64) also notes that “West Haven’s 19th century infrastructure of factories, stores, train lines, brick houses, and public buildings reflected a working middle class German immigrant values through the richness of industry, networked transportation, presence of civil authority, and diversity of recreation” (Rolston 64).

Rolston explains that the completion of 149th Street Bridge in 1910 enhanced the completion of the Cromwell Creek Landfill project. After the completion of the land fill projects, West Haven opened its doors to economic development. However, according to Rolston (66), “West Haven’s social atmosphere and commercial vitality failed to brighten its dull appearance”. The New York City council together with other stakeholders unanimously agreed to rebuild West Haven and they have succeeded in restoring its economic prowess.

The Rehabilitation process The initiative to build West Haven began in 2006 after a host of stakeholders joined hands and resources. The main stakeholders included development companies and Bronx Overall Economic Development Corporation (Walsh 34). These two were assisted by Community Benefits Agreement.

Together, the stakeholders formed “a private public partnership so as to tackle the challenges of site placement, environmental deterioration, and social stigma to revive the market selling markets of Caribbean and African foods housed in shabby buildings housed on the water’s edge of West Haven” (Walsh 90).

In the present day, “this project, often known as Gateway Centre at the Bronx terminal market, is a key feature of South Bronx at its western shore, across the revamped and 145th Street Bridge, and renovated major Deegan expressway” (Caro 23).

Rolston tracks the steps that were taken in an endeavor to explain how West Haven’s economic prowess has been restored. Rolston indicates that environmentalists, geographers, and other stakeholders from the New York City united in a bid to restore West Haven’s lost glory.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Rehabilitation of West Haven specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stakeholders formed “a private public partnership, which addresses the challenges of site placement, environmental deterioration, and social stigma” so as to revive the economic prowess of West Haven (Rolston 63). “The New York City Council motivated by the goal of rebuilding social and economic value of West Haven, the Hub and Mott Haven, unanimously agreed to support the redevelopment of the former Terminal Bronx Market” (Rolston, 66).

The use of sustainable construction has enhanced sustainable land use and conservation of the environment. The use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess. Rolston highlights how sustainable development has been used to address social inequities created by flawed urban policies

The infrastructure of Qwest Haven in the 19th century in terms of “public buildings, brick houses, train lines, stores and factories, was a reflection of a working middle class of German immigrant values through the richness of industry, networked transportation, presence of civil authority, and diversity of recreation” (Rolston 63).

Rolston explains that the completion of 149th Street Bridge in 1910 enhanced the completion of the Cromwell Creek Landfill project. After the completion of the land fill projects, West Haven opened its doors to economic development. However, according to Rolston (66) “West Haven’s social atmosphere and commercial vitality failed to brighten its dull appearance” (Rolston 66).

Social life in the yester years of West Haven relied heavily on establishments such as “the Jacob Ruppert Beer Hall, and tavern in the nearby Morrisania Hub, pen green spaces such as Cedar Park, and entertainment venues such as the Bronx Opera House, a popular vaudeville theatre that still stands, although in a faded condition” (Rolston 66). The early 20th century social life of Bronx relied on the economic and social organization of artist workshops and industries located within the town (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 1).

The town underwent a gradual growth over time. Rural roads later become tarmac roads which led to factories, apartments and homes, offices, and stores. Despite these developments, the town remained gloomy.

As a result, the streets of this town were dominated by unattractive industrial buildings. However, there were a few exceptions. For example, “Bronx Men’s House of Detention reflected a social strategy that placed undesirable by important urban institutions within the locality of remote areas of emerging cities” (Rolston 66).

Bronx Men’s House of Detention building was closed in 1963, and would only be opened when needed. This happened until it was eventually demolished in 2007. Although it was one of the few buildings which were decorated, Bronx Men’s House of Detention building could not brighten the ever dull West Haven city.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rehabilitation of West Haven by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The presence of such abandoned buildings by departed industry and socioeconomic collapse formed the initial stages of West Haven’s deterioration. The New York City Council was motivated by the ancient industrial prowess of West Haven and it embarked on a difficult journey of restoring the city’s lost glory in 2006.

The administration and construction processes were approved by the New York City Council Uniform Land Use Procedure. After the approval, architects redesigned the land use profile along Harlem River. In the process, they eliminated Cromwell Avenue, which divided the project site.

This led to the development of a renewed and upgraded infrastructure. The most notable transformations include the traffic pattern and transport infrastructure that encompasses Gateway today. The renovation led to the reconnection between CSX freight lines and Oak point Rail Yard (Wolkoff 58). This was a monumental architectural development in West Haven for it links West Haven to other surrounding suburbs.

In fact, it restored Wets Haven’s status as the hub of major urban freight intermodal transport corridor. Upon its completion in 2009, Gateway could accommodate 2800 cars and had a 950,000 gross square feet (AKRF 34). In addition, a 250 room hotel which is expected to be complete in 2014 is under construction (AKRF34). During the renovation of Gateway, a number of structures were brought down such as the Bronx Men’s House of Detention building and several commercial buildings.

The renovations also included an esplanade, creation of forefront parks and recreation areas, and the upgrade of the transportation sector. The main notable ones include the construction of a new train station and foot bridge from the Metro North suburban line.

For example, the modern rail station located along the 153rd street offers additional public transportation access to Yankee stadium (Anderson 45). The advancement plays a significant role in reducing car traffic when the stadium hosts sporting activities.

Furthermore, the original Yankee stadium was brought down and rebuilt as a Gateway background project. The stadium was strategically located close to the transportation and pedestrian access infrastructures and this has enhanced revenue generation from the parking fees collected in this area.

The architects who were in charge of the reconstruction process took radical measures so as to realize the set goals. The architects declared Gateway as a General Large Scale District so as to allow for rezoning which increased the area of parking spaces. The architects created private public partnered projects in a bid to prevent the adverse effects that were likely to arise as a result of the reconstruction.

The economic Development Corporation gave relocation assistance to commercial tenants. This strategy led to the creation of 65,000 square feet of space. At some point, the architects received resistance from some members of the neighboring communities. However, the architects organized several meetings which brought together different stakeholders from the community including the clergy, local agencies, politicians, and citizens in order to address the raised concerns.

During the meeting, a consensus was reached and everyone party agreed that West Haven should be renovated for the benefit of all. The architects, related companies, the community representatives and Bronx Overall EDC adopted a comprehensive CBA. The CBA spelt out clearly “the project planning process for inclusive hiring at the site to give economic activity to local residents during all phases of construction and afterward” (Ascher 34).

The New York City council together with other stakeholders unanimously agreed to rebuild West Haven and they have succeeded in restoring its economic prowess (Levere 74 ). The current outlook of Gateway indicates the transformation that West Have has undergone. The current status of the city has embraced cotemporary architectural designs and sustainable land use.

Conclusion West Haven, which is located in Bronx, Morrisania was once the New York’s industrial hub. Rolston states that the rehabilitation of West Haven and communities around it had been stalled for many years owing to a belief that it is impossible to salvage West Haven and its surrounding communities in economic and architectural terms.

However, the use of cooperative strategic development, which included the local communities in decision making and planning, necessitated the rehabilitation of West Haven back to its initial form of economic prowess. Currently, West Haven, which focuses on ecological sustainability, is a key revenue generator of New York City.

The administration and construction processes were approved by the New York City Council Uniform Land Use Procedure. After the approval, architects redesigned the land use profile along Harlem River. In the process, they eliminated Cromwell Avenue, which divided the project site. This led to the development of a renewed and upgraded infrastructure. The most notable transformations include the traffic pattern and transport infrastructure that encompasses Gateway today.

The renovation led to the reconnection between CSX freight lines and Oak point Rail Yard. This was a monumental architectural development in West Haven for it links West Haven to other surrounding suburbs. In fact, it restored West Haven’s status as the hub of major urban freight intermodal transport corridor.

Upon its completion in 2009, Gateway could accommodate 2800 cars and had a 950,000 gross square feet (Bronx County Clerk’s Office 11). However, the architects organized several meetings which brought together different stakeholders from the community including the clergy, local agencies, politicians, and citizens in order to address the raised concerns. During the meeting, a consensus was reached and everyone party agreed that West Haven should be renovated for the benefit of all.

West Haven is a key industrial center of New York City. The renovation and upgrade of West Haven to its current status has been necessitated by the application of Social geography. The rehabilitation of West Haven is as a result of collaborative work between various stakeholders and components of social geography.

Social geography played a key role in understanding the need to renovate West Haven and in bringing together all the stakeholders. First, the stakeholders unanimously agreed that West Haven must be rehabilitated for the benefit of not only the local communities, but also for the benefit of investors. Secondly, Social geography brought together a host of professional who engineered the renovation of West Haven.

This paper has thus illuminated the significance of Social geography in evaluating how social relations, identities and inequalities are made. Owing to the application of Social geography, West Haven, which focuses on ecological sustainability, has been transformed into a key revenue generator of New York City (Mastrelli 236).

Works Cited AKRF. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Gateway Center at Bronx Terminal Market. New York: AKRF Press, 2005. Print.

Anderson, Saul. New York Area Roads Crossings and Exits. New York: AKRF Press, 2005. Print.

Ascher, Khan. The Works. Anatomy of a City. New York: The Penguin Press, 2005. Print.

Bronx County Clerk’s Office. A Brief Look at the Bronx. New York: The Penguin Press, 2005. Print.

Caro, Raul. The Power Broker. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.Print.

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. “West Haven”. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 1.1 (2011): 1-10. Print.

Levere, John. “Retailers Take a Chance on a Mall in the Bronx”. The New York Times 23 Sept. 2009: pp. 1-7.

Mastrelli, Iara. “Harbor Haven”. Hospitality Design 29.7 (2007): 236-239. Print.

McNamara, Jim. History in Asphalt. New York: Harbor Hill Books,1978. Print.

Rolston, Lorraine. “A New Bronx Tale: Gateway Center and Modern Urban Redevelopment”. Focus on Geography 55.2 (2012): 63-74. Print.

Walsh, Don. Reconnaissance Mapping of Landfills in New York City. New York : Wiley Online Library, 1991. Print.

Wolkoff, Adam. “Creating a Suburban Ghetto: Public Housing at New Haven’s West”. Connecticut History 45.1(2006): 56-93. Print.

[supanova_question]

Discussion about diffusion of innovation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

It is just a few people who can comfortably discuss the topic “Diffusion of innovation”. Not many have even ever heard of it. Yet to those who have had the chance to know a little about it, it is a topic that left them yearning to have some more of the information. This has been the case for everyone who reads the work of the great author of Diffusion of Innovation who still, theorized the whole idea.

Everett M. Rogers lives everyone who reads his work wondering how genius he could be to have seen such reality. According to Robinson, Diffusion of Innovation seeks to make clear how innovations are spread in a society (Robinson, 2009, p.1).

It also shows how “other techniques and social organization principles are likely to spread along the same route” (Rodgers 1995, p.5). Innovation, on the other hand, refers to ideas, ways or methods of doing things or a product that are considered new in a society.

Diffusion of innovation offers insights on the factors which could make innovations spread faster, importance of understanding the needs of the various user segments and also peer-peer conversations and peer networks (Robinson, 2009, p.1).

Depending on the degree of perception, relative advantage, simplicity and ease of use, observable results, trial ability and compatibility with existing values and practices and observable results, all these qualities contribute immensely to the success of spread of any innovation (Robinson, 2009, p.1-2).

The relative advantage is measured on the basis of tastes and preferences of the users while the compatibility with the existing values and practices is measured against past experiences and the values held by the users. On the other hand, simplicity and ease of use depends on the degree to which an innovation is perceived difficult to use.

Observable results refer to the efficiency of the innovation. Trial abilty refers to the ability of innovation to be tested (Robinson, 2009, p.1-2). However, Robinson argues that continuous improvement through reinventions is the key to spreading an innovation (Robinson, 2009, p.3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everett argues that peer-peer conversations help in spreading innovations even more than advertisements and other similar interventions that are used in marketing. He argues that conversations alone can spread adoption since they help in risk management and also take care of any uncertainties.

Source: Mahajan, Muller and Bass (1990) as reproduced in Rogers, E.M. (2003) p210.

The graph above depicts a clear picture of how peer-peer communication becomes more influential in spreading an innovation and how mass communication becomes less influential over time.

To emphasize the need to understand the adopters, Rodgers categorized the adopters into five groups: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. He attached values or personalities to each group. These values were in consistence with his findings. The following graph is important in helping to clearly understand the concept different user segments. Rodgers viewed the innovators as learned personalities who were ready to take risks.

Source: Robinson (2009): A summary of diffusion of innovation

The society views them as the well connected (Rodgers, 1995, p.357). They spend a great deal of “their time, energy and creativity on new ideas and gadgets” (Robinson, 2009, p.5). They love talking about their new ideas and through this the diffusion of innovation begins.

The other group is the early adapters which entails local leaders, people of high social status or in general people of high prestige (Rodgers, 1995, p.357

[supanova_question]

Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice Essay best college essay help

Introduction The need to develop economic systems that reflect the needs of every community has pushed people to initiate strategies to effect necessary changes. Trading activities have become a backbone for the development of countries’ economies. Nations and their leaders are advocating for economic integrations expansions and innovations to develop their countries.

It is imperative to consider nations’ social and political aspects before adopting any economic stimulus project. In 1930’s people adopted Neoliberalism as an effective way of developing economies. However, the steps adopted were not as effective as they were supposed to be. This led to change of meaning of Neoliberalism.

Scope of Study This is a wide topic that involves many aspects of social, political and economic factors. Therefore, it is not easy to cover all this aspects in this discussion. However, the paper will explore significant social, political and economic aspects that are connected to Neo-liberalism. The study will focus on the impacts Neo-liberalism to the daily activities of human beings and their states.

Preposition The beginning of the 20th century was a significant period in the development of many nations. Most countries realized the need for economic integrations and corporations. This led to the formulation of policies that were aimed at governing economic relations among countries. As a result, there was the formulation of liberalist policies to unify trading activities among trading partners. These activities included the formation of trade blocks, treaties and production contracts.

However, these attempts failed to yield expected results leading to withdrawal of membership from trading blocks and disrespecting trade agreements. The result was the formation of Neo-liberalism movements to oppose integration attempts. The liberalization of trade activities among nations was a deliberate attempt to spread imperialism and advance the needs of powerful nations.

Objectives This essay explores various ways through which liberalization of trade activities was an attempt to propagate the interest of few countries at the expense of underdevelopment in other countries. The paper explores the initial intentions of liberalizing social, political and economic activities to reflect a uniform front.

In addition, this paper outlines key impacts of liberalism that led to the formation of Neo-liberalism. This is a one-on-one approach aimed at establishing the inefficiencies brought by liberalism and their resultant effects. It should be noted that liberalization of political and economic activities was anchored on uniting countries to help fight common problems. These problems existed due to differences in economic and political orientations exposing countries to significant challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Reviews This essay will discuss presentations made by Dan Schiller, Fernando Bermejo and E.R. Meehan. Their works are based on media liberalization, and how other factors affect them. In addition, this works for the basis of this discussion through exploring the significance of liberalization and Neo-liberalization to the society. In studying their work, it is imperative to seek answers to the following questions.

What are the consequences of Neo-liberalization of the media, in what way are these consequences revealed and how are the losers fighting back. In addition, this essay will address attempts to perpetuate liberalization. In this discussion, several aspects reveal the impacts of liberalization in society. The media is the society’s watchdog and plays vital roles in educating, informing and shaping public opinions regarding various issues.

World Communication in Today’s Age of Capital by Dan Schiller Schiller asserts much of his discussion on Eric Hobsbawm’s work done between 1840 and 1870. According to this work this period saw the world transformed from a geographical representation to operational activities. There was the need to have adequate capital to facilitate any operational activity.

Much of the world was undergoing infrastructural adjustments that necessitated the need to have adequate capital to finance such projects (Schiller 2001). He discusses these issues through analyzing the use of communication services like broadband and internet services and audiovisual and telecommunication services.

Modern Telecommunication This is the world’s fastest growing industry due to the need for people and companies to keep in touch with the rest of the world. Today, there are more than 900 million telephone lines and hundred million of wireless, mobile phones all over the world. This is in contrast with about 142 million landline telephones in the 1960s (Schiller 2001).

People and organizations have invested massive capital in this industry to warrant the untamed expansion of communication services. Multiple networking skills have amalgamated such capital investments towards telecommunications. This has also led to spread in the use of mobile phones among the middle class and thus facilitated communications.

The spread of telecommunication services has infiltrated all remote villages of the world making mobile phones a necessity (Schiller 2001). This has in turn led to the entry of many telecommunication companies to the market forcing prices of these servicers to slump backwards.

We will write a custom Essay on Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competition has without doubt set in, and investors are trying all means possible to woe consumers to their services. This has led to reduced call rates and the provision of other cheap services. As a result, this is bound to cause significant discrimination against the poor especially those living in third world countries. Moreover, the entrance of many players in this field will without doubt stiffen unhealthy competitions among them (Schiller 2001).

This will result to the provision of cheap services that will eventually push unstable companies to closure. Those companies that operate on fixed budgets will have difficult times competing with well established multibillion companies. Therefore, they will wind up their operations after making continuous losses and having unsuccessful attempts of rescuing their investments.

Finally, the cut throat competition among service providers will result in reduced prices of services. This will in turn compromise the quality of service provided by these companies (Schiller 2001). The policies formulated to promote liberalization, privatization and specialization will only propel the interests of giant companies and their related operations while trampling on all attempts made by new entrants in the market.

Audiovisual Services Televisions are the most common way of audiovisual communication. The last decade saw the use of television sets multiply from 176 sets in 1965 to 1.16 billion sets in 1995. This means that there has been an addition of more than six billion television audiences (Schiller 2001). To date, the number has multiplied more than a thousand times with many countries importing cheap television sets from china.

This has increased the number of television viewers to hundreds of billions. The television networks operate using satellite companies that offer broadcasting services. Even though most state run broadcasting companies run their own satellite services most private broadcasters rely on other service providers (Schiller 2001).

For that reason, they purchase broadcasting space in many countries to ensure their services are offered in as many countries as possible. For instance, CNN and BBC have established their services in almost all nations, in the world (Schiller 2001). Another company like Viacom has collaborated with MGM to popularize and market some of their recent films (James Bond’s The World is not Enough).

These channels and broadcasting companies have expanded their operations, not as a result of an increase in the capital, but due to changes in consumer fashions and preferences. The companies provide consumer oriented services to make sales in advertising products during the airing of such interesting programs (Schiller 2001). To date, many broadcasting companies make profits through selling advertising space to companies.

Commercial advertisers have found televisions vital arenas for advertising their products and services. Majority of broadcasting services relies on commercial advertising as their main source of income. Without commercial advertisers, many broadcasting houses will close down their operations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Neo-Liberalism in Theory and Practice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same commercial advertisers benefit by making market penetrations to remote areas and selling their products all over the world (Schiller 2001). These are same companies that benefit from changes in communication systems. They are like leopards ready to pounce on any unsuspecting prey. The restructuring of television services is without doubt a business oriented service aimed at providing quality marketing and advertising services to consumers.

These attempts are geared towards capturing the audience interests in commercial advertising rather than providing quality broadcasting services to them (Schiller 2001). The broadcasters are not entirely to blame for this fault since they rely on commercial advertisers to make profits. However, most small scale businesses do not stand equal chances of competing with giant firms in purchasing advertisement space.

Just the way powerful politicians dominate media broadcasting so are giant companies. They are given prominence, and their advertisements are aired during prime hours compared to small scale business advertisements aired during off peak hours. Most companies have taken over the management of television houses like in the United States where moist companies are owned by foreign corporations like News Corporation, Seagram and Sony (Schiller 2001).

The fact that foreign companies dominate broadcasting g services in the United States shows the presence of involuntary penetration for self interest purposes. Even though, the United States tried to maintain its broadcasting identity after the first world wart by declining and resisting attempts to merge with Great Britain’s companies these attempts were futile. Since then the United States has relaxed most if its restrictions in broadcasting dominance by foreign firms (Schiller 2001).

This is without doubt an expression of America’s hidden interests in allowing foreign broadcasting companies to operate and dominate its television systems. The United States’ media transnationalization has given rise to other inevitable changes in the global media.

Sony and other companies have invested billions of capital in distributing systems to offer world entertainment services (Schiller 2001). On the other hand, the United States entertainment firms have established partnerships with foreign companies to offer entertainment services to Americans’ and other nationals in different countries.

This has led to the broadcasting of a historical advancement of America as a super power. This has also led to the propagation of American culture as a national culture for people residing in America despite their citizenship. These are some of the aspects the media is unable to control due to the impacts such advertisers have on the media’s economic gains.

Their global media systems pay attention to issues that propagate their commercial and corporate interests and ignore those that cannot accommodate their interests (Schiller 2001). Moreover, claims that the United States media content is at risk due to changes in the global media demands need to be clarified than is usually done.

There is a significant change in the content broadcasted to the world and America’s competitors are gaining ground. There is a considerable surge of United States based media companies as Europe continues to dominate the market as its balance of trade with United States has risen to 5.6 billion U.S. dollars in 1996 increasing their European share market to 78% from 56% (Schiller 2001).

In addition, giant European media firms support most local programs in many countries as was evident in the Global Television Market Annuals. This means Europe is gaining more grounds than America in global advertisements. Mexico is taking the world by storm by dominating most local channels in their endless Telenovelas. This is a clear indication of how poor countries are denied opportunities available only to rich countries.

Internet and Broadband Services Internet communication is growing in popularity and demand due to the challenges facing wire communications. There have been challenges that threaten communication due to weak channels and poor communication services. Internet and broadband services refer to the use of networking services to facilitate communication.

This involves the use of fiber and wireless communications (Schiller 2001). This has given rise to recent struggles for reclaiming media practices as the quest for democracy intensifies. There are considerable capitalist dominations as is evident in the recent internet developments. This is due to the fact that internet communications take place between companies and not companies and consumers.

Therefore, companies are trying their best to take hold of the volatile market through mergers and economic arrangements that will take care of their interests (Schiller 2001). Recent developments in the internet services are aimed at expanding business operations to high end consumers and not just any ordinary client. Companies are targeting consumers that will be motivated by product quality and not affordable prices.

Therefore, these efforts do not intend to establish or identify a liberalized consumer zone. These attempts are aimed at creating effective sales strategies that will target rich consumers. These attempts started in 1995 when WorldCom and other giant corporations got a lion share during privatization of internet services (Schiller 2001).

Secondly, the advertising community grasped the demand for internet marketing and made it mandatory for any advertiser to acquire an internet strategy as a board for advertising plans. Thirdly, there was the establishment of the vertical integration corporate regulations over internet services (Schiller 2001).

AOL is the best example of a capitalist approach to controlling internet services. The struggle to buy advertising space is motivated by capitalistic needs top acquire a large share of consumers’ attention. Internet service providers have taken advantage of this rush to offer other services to clients. This has resulted to partnering with other electronic companies to allow fast access and navigation to various sites.

As a result, this has pushed for integrations and mergers in internet related service providers (Schiller 2001). This has led to the establishment of broadband service providers that aim at providing high speed data communication services. The process of internet service provision is dominated by a handful of companies despite the provision of global communication services.

New Media and Society by Fernando Bermejo This discussion explores the literature produced by various scholars with regard to media influence in advancing capitalism. This is with regard to Smythe’s beliefs that communications are concurrently in their forms and involves their final stages of production where sales determine consumer satisfaction and production (Bermejo 2007).

The media ratings have lost their significance ion advertising due to proliferations of capitalists’ agendas in advertising. These ratings have existed to offer inclined public perceptions regarding the performance and production of the media. Even though, the work of media audience is purchasing advertised products, this has not always been true since the audience is also involved in typing and scanning through many internet pages.

Therefore, the audience plays significant roles in determining the direction and functions of advertising engines (Bermejo 2007). The presence of regular developments in media advertisements warrants the need to identify ways of analyzing their importance to the society. However, it is without doubt that all these developments are aimed at propagating the interests of capitalist institutions.

Bermejo argues that even though the development of new media is not a bad progress it must address consumer needs and contributions to shaping communication. Most media development aim at advancing the needs of their sponsors and not consumers.

The media fail to identify the roles of audiences as essential components of advertisements (Bermejo 2007). There is the need to incorporate consumers’ needs in media development to address liberalization as an essential part of the development. However, most media houses focus their attention on their sponsors since they provide the bulk of their capital.

Deregulation and Integrated Oligopolies by E. R. Meehan Meehan argues that all deregulation policies are aimed at centralizing global and national economies within the last two decades. The policies allow subjects to decide what is good for them (Meehan 2003). This is without doubt an effective way of advancing capitalist approaches in business activities.

Companies have integrated their efforts by amalgamating and forming mergers that will facilitate the realization of their interests (Meehan 2003). These relationships are guided by capitalist interests of regulating supply and production to fit their preferences and advance the realization of their interests.

Major share holders in various industries have formed relationships and policies that threaten the existence of weak competitors. On the other hand, they have also controlled communication channels and systems to reflect their demands. The late 1970s saw liberal moves towards organizing communication systems to reflect their policies (Meehan 2003).

However, these attempts resulted in capitalism as they sought to advance their interests. The policies formulated served their interests and ignored weak competitors. Therefore, the attempts were not effective in liberalizing economic regimes.

Conclusion Neoliberalization efforts are justified in restoring democracy and equal playing grounds for all investors. Nations strive to develop their systems, but this is difficult in the presence of strings attached to service delivery by multinational companies. However, despite the presence of current struggles to retain capitalist policies there are a bright future that promises consumers and small scale producers of a democratic economy.

References Bermejo, F. (2007). The Internet Audience: Constitution and Measurement. New York: Peter Lang.

Meehan, E.R. (2003). Deregulation and Integrated Oligopolies. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.

Schiller, D. (2001). World Communications in Today’s Age of Capital. Emergencies Volume 11. San Diego: University of California Press.

[supanova_question]

Djoser and Imhotep Art History Essay essay help: essay help

Netjerikhet Djoser, also known as Zoser, was probably the famous King who ruled Egypt in the third Dynasty for 19 years.

His name means “the divine body” and he is remembered for commissioning the construction of step pyramid which was architectural work of Imhotep. Historical facts have revealed that the relation between Dsojer and Imhopet was cordial.

Imhotep was a highly respected Egyptian polymath, architect and a doctor who lived in Egypt between 2650 and 2600BC. He constructed the first Pyramid in Egypt which was commissioned by King Djoser.

Inscription in some statues describes Imhopet as “Chancellor of the king in lower Egypt”. Early history sources reveal that he may have been born in the Memphis while others suggest that he may have originated from Thebes and served under King Djoser who reigned between 2630 to 2611BC.

Historians still value his accomplishments which include the construction of Egypt’s first Pyramid that was a Djoser’s step pyramid in Saqqara.

His role in writing was mainly in medical texts. He is believed to have authored descriptions of over 90 anatomical terms and 50 injuries. He also founded a medical school in Memphis.

Evaluation realism in the Egyptian Arts Egyptian rules of art, sculpture, paintings, and relief carving were so diverse that did not depict the realities in life. Most paintings were religious and depicted numerous gods and goddesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because Egyptians observe law and order, complex rules for how Gods and humans were represented in paintings, carvings and sculpture were developed.

Figures in paintings and size of sculpture were calculated by the status of a person as opposed to normal rules of linear perspective which brings out a real image. For example, men statues were painted in darker color than the female ones.

Symbolism was a feature that was greatly used in paintings. Some colours had more than one meaning. For example, red symbolized power or strength as well as fire. Green was a symbol of new life, fertility and growth. Yellow was associated with kings and royals.

The same yellow color symbolized purity and eternity (Stokstad 138). Paintings in tombs are good examples of the Egyptian art that has no realism. The pictures depicted life after death. They would show pictures of boats, and birds transporting food to the deceased.

As paintings and sculptures did not depict realism, relief carving had some elements of it. Some surviving relief sculptures found in the tomb of Hesire at Saqqara have figures of men standing, or seated, that are carved proportionally to the convention of ideal manhood. These carvings had definite sizes in three dimensions.

Figures represented by relief carvings in a room had proper place with a defined shape and size which ensured that space is well used being an indication that these forms of art depicted realism.

Falcon and the Egyptian art Falcon represents Horus, the true Pharaoh, and the Sun God. He was a symbol of rising sun in Egypt. The ancient Egypt regarded the Sun and the Moon as great falcon Horus’ eyes. Falcon Horus was a deity with various functions.

We will write a custom Essay on Djoser and Imhotep Art History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He could fly and protect kings, had powers to guard and protect (Stokstad, 34). Other forms in which the Egyptian arts were represented were falcon headed Ra with sun disk along with Falcon mummy with gilt coffin.

Works Cited Stokstad, Marilyn. Art history. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

[supanova_question]

Diagnosis and Treatment of Anxiety Disorder Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Research questions

Introduction

Diagnosis of Anxiety disorder

Treatment of Anxiety Disorder

Conclusion

References

Abstract Anxiety disorder is a psychological problem in individuals who are known to worry too much and have fears that are unrealistic. These disorders have been known to cause diverse psychological and physical damage.

The classifications of anxiety disorder include the phobias, the generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, separation anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Each of these disorders has different symptoms and treatment procedures.Research indicates that diagnosis of the disorders may be difficult since the symptoms overlap with other common ailments. However, various treatment interventions exist.

The use of cognitive-behavioural therapy such as the use of talk therapy is very effective. The therapist tries to unearth the causes of such anxieties and fears and helps the patient realize that it was exaggerated and unrealistic.

The use of medication such as the SSRIs is also effective. However, some have adverse side effects.

Research questions I. What is the diagnosis of anxiety disorder?

II. What treatment interventions are available for anxiety disorder?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides information about anxiety disorder as it relates to the course, Abnormal Psychology (Butcher, Mineria,

[supanova_question]