Marx And The Young Hegelians Essay Custom Essay Help

The Prussian philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a profound influence on the thinkers and philosopher of the early 19th century. Hegel had complex and abstract ideas about various issues in philosophy, which were open to different interpretations.

As a young intellectual in Berlin, Marx was initially a Kantian like his father, and was opposed to the ideas of Hegel which were more in fashion in that period. After a brief period of resistance to Hegelian ideas, Marx became a member of a coterie of young radicals who have been variously called the ‘Left Hegelians’ or ‘Young Hegelians’ (Seigal 1973).

Hegel had espoused the theory that history was progressive in nature. According to Hegel’s belief human society had gone through different stages of progress for the purpose of reaching its final and most advanced stage. Hegel held to the nationalistic belief that this highest stage in mankind’s development was represented by the Prussian state of his time (Ruhle 2005).

After Hegel’s death, his followers split into two main groups; the ‘Young’ and the ‘Old’ Hegelians. The ‘Old Hegelians’ accepted Hegel’s controversial assertion that the Prussian state embodied the culmination of all human progress, they also accepted the idea that Hegel’s philosophy was in continuity with Christian theology (McLellan 1980).

The ‘Young Hegelians’ on the other hand, while agreeing with much of Hegel’s ideas and his philosophical methodology, rejected the belief that human history had progressed to its apogee in the 19th century Prussia. According to the Young Hegelians there was still a long way to go before mankind could reach its peak; they also were of the view that Christianity was essentially incompatible with Hegel’s philosophy (Bernstein 1971).

The Young Hegelians agreed that rational philosophy was superior to religion in understanding history. Some Hegelians, such as Strauss had a more charitable view of religion in this matter. Strauss believed that Christianity still contained elements of value to a philosopher.

He believed that once Christianity had been stripped of its dogmatic and ritualistic elements, philosophy could be used to reveal hidden essential truths about the nature of being. Most Young Hegelians were opposed to this idea and held that religion contained no objective truths and the central element of religion lay in human emotions (McLellan 1980).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Central to the Young Hegelian’s beliefs was the idea that religion was one of the biggest factors that prevented human civilization from progressing. Many of the Young Hegelians were atheists from a Jewish background and possessed a visceral aversion to Christianity and the Christian civilization, which they inherited from their ethno-religious background as well as contempt for their own religious traditions. Many of the writings of the Young Hegelians focused on the refutation of religion and need to replace religion with philosophy as the moral criterion for the society and means for understanding history (Carlebach 1978).

Among the Young Hegelians, there were many different ideas about how to go about replacing Christianity, the dominant religion of Europe, with philosophy. Bruno Bauer, one of Marx’s teachers, presented the view that Jesus was not a historical person and they story of his life was a fabricated myth.

Other Young Hegelians were more subtle in their refutations of Christianity, Feuerbach expressed the idea that Christianity was merely the result of various aspects of a human psyche, for example humans fear death and Christianity teaches the existence of an eternal soul and bodily resurrection that serves to reassure its followers that they will not die (Ruhle 2005).

Many of the Young Hegelians held on to Hegel’s belief that a human’s knowledge is limited by their subjective experiences and their perception of reality is created by their minds. In accordance with this view they believed that the liberation of the human self from religious doctrines would bring in an era of progress (Bernstein 1971).

Marx’s break with the Young Hegelians occurred around 1844. In his Theses on Feuerbach, Marx charged that Feuerbach had not completely broken free from the idea that it is the mind which creates the environment. Marx asserted that the social order was the product of the relationship between the different social and environmental forces and religion and other ideologies were merely the product of human practices and not their cause (Ruhle 2005).

Marx maintained that true change could only come after human practices were changed. According to Marx, Hegelian philosophers separate thinking from activity, according to his view once philosophy is removed from practical action, it no longer represents anything real. Marx says: “Philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it” (McLellan 1980).

According to Marx there was no real difference between the Young and the Old Hegelians as both of them accepted that ideas proceeded actions.

We will write a custom Essay on Marx and the Young Hegelians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Old Hegelians believed that ideas and beliefs constituted reality itself, i.e. it is a fiction to speak of objective reality as separate from ideological thinking, and the Young Hegelians on the other hand believed that ideas formed constraints and limits upon progress in the real world. Marx says that human ideas neither form the reality and nor can they constitute real limits on reality, since ideas themselves are products of the reality, a change in the reality can however bring about changes in ideas (Marx 1973).

The Young Hegelians also sought to bring social change in the society. They believed that they could bring about social change by effecting a change in thinking. They saw religion as the crucial ideology which prevented social change from occurring and concentrated their energies into removing religion from society (Ruhle 2005).

In contrast to the Young Hegelians Marx believed that religious or political ideologies were created by the ruling classes in order to safeguard their rule. He believed that the chief purpose of these ideologies is to portray the interests of the ruling class as the common interest of the whole society (Ruhle 2005).

According to Marx, the ruling class does not possess the power to perpetuate this fiction forever on their own strength, for the perpetuation of this fiction the economic forces which give rise to the ruling class must be maintained effectively. Marx believed that the key to social change depended upon changing the underlying unjust economic order of the society (Marx and Engels 1970).

Marx believed that once the unjust economic order was replaced by a just system, the religious and political ideologies that came about as a result of the unjust order would be destroyed as well. In the preface to his work, ‘The German Ideology’, he mocked those who attempted social change through attacks on religion, saying:

“Once upon a time a valiant fellow had the idea that men were drowned in water only because they were possessed with the idea of gravity. If they were to knock this notion out of their heads, say by stating it to be a superstition, a religious concept, they would be sublimely proof against any danger from water.

His whole life long he fought against the illusion of gravity, of whose harmful results all statistics brought him new and manifold evidence. This valiant fellow was the type of the new revolutionary philosophers in Germany (Marx


Public administration and Private business Term Paper best essay help

Introduction Public administration is concerned with the advancement of policies and the necessary management to allow governments to function effectively. On the other hand, we could also define public administration as the act of managing public programs. It is mainly meant to ensure that politics are translated into a reality that citizens expect to see in their day to day lives. Public administration ensures the process of decision making by the government is well understood by its citizens (Sheffrin 8).

In addition, it is necessary to have a good analysis of the established policies. This includes the various inputs aimed at producing the desired policies. On the other hand, it should also include other inputs that will produce alternative policies. Public administration is also concerned with the conduct of public officials while executing their roles and duties (Sheffrin 12). This is done in relation to government programs and policies that will be formally responsible for their conduct in different perspectives.

What this means is that most unelected public officers can in fact be considered as public administrators. They might include police officers, city managers, cabinet secretaries, and analysts, amongst others. These administrators work in public agencies and departments at the various levels of the government. There has been an argument that public administration is multidisciplinary in character (Sheffrin 15).

The scope of public administration is so large that it has not been easy to understand and this has been left to individual interpretations depending on one’s general overview. It therefore means that public administration can be both a field of study and an occupation. There is an argument as to whether it can still be referred to as a discipline because of its complexity (Denhardt 11).

A private business is mostly concerned with enterprises that are owned by investors and shareholders. In this case, the business can be owned jointly or it can still be owned by an individual. This is in contrast to other publicly owned businesses or enterprises that are run by government through the mandate of its citizens. These businesses exist with profit motives other than ensuring that the people get essential services or products.

In other words, a private business is a legally recognized institution that is expected to enhance the provision of services and goods in exchange for money. Private businesses are predominant in capitalist economies where they are formed with profit motives and with a view to increasing the wealth of its owners (Denhardt 15). This means that the owners expect returns after engaging in a risk as far as their business is concerned.

A private business can be widely accepted as a state of being busy either as a society or as an individual while doing commercially viable work that will lead to profits. This can be an activity of continuity in the supply of essential goods and services that are in demand by customers and the public at large (Denhardt 18). As far as private business is concerned, there are various forms of ownership that are generally accepted and this might depend on the different countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that forms of business organizations will vary in relation to the jurisdiction. Although this is expected in a normal society, there some common forms of business ownership. They include; sole proprietorship, partnerships, corporations and cooperatives (Denhardt 21). This therefore means that there are various classifications of private business depending on their motives.

Discussion Contrasts

As far as public administration and private business are concerned, there is a difference in the organizational goals and principles of the two entities. Private business has always had a definite mission.

This is mainly in pursuit of stability, profit, and growth of returns. The only way to achieve this is by ensuring that there is quality provision of goods and services. On the hand, public administration has ambiguous plans and purposes (Aucoin 17). The essence of public administration is to ensure that the public or citizens are well served and attended to, in line with their expectations.

It can be explained that private business and public administration derive their mandate from different people. This therefore demands that they provide what they are expected to. On the other hand, the ambiguity of purposes in public administration is complicated by many inoperable and unnecessary agencies (Aucoin 19). Their purpose and aim has been complicated by bloated and overlapping bureaucracies.

There is an argument that the main aim of public administration is to enact public policies while the aim of private business is to ensure that owners and shareholders increase their wealth and net worth. It is undeniable that there is a lot of vagueness in the enforcement of public administration policies. This is due to overlapping and ambiguity in these policies (Aucoin 22). On the other hand, private business has not witnessed any overlapping tendencies in their policies because of achievable business goals.

The fact that public administration is not concerned with profit motives should not be confused or used as a way of deviating from the normal operation tendencies. This means that just as private business managers are more concerned with financial matters, the same should also apply to public administration (Aucoin 23). In fact, good public administration managers have always ensured that they carry out their financial matters in an open and efficient way that will guarantee sustainability.

Private businesses are always guaranteed of funding from their owners and shareholders while public administrators have to fight for funding from the government. In as much as public organizations or units may fight for funding and influence, this should not be misused. There are cases whereby public administration has been biased depending on the priorities that the government has.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Public administration and Private business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are differences with respect to the issue of decision making in both public administration and private business. In public administration, decision making is mostly pluralist. This means that decisions are supposed to please the majority even if they are poor. There is a common practice in which key decisions are made in a politicized environment (Kettl and Fessler 12).

This allows for open debate, maximum participation and multiple veto points. In the long run, there is a hierarchy that needs to be followed to ensure that consensus is reached. The main aim of doing this is to come up with an informed decision.

Private business decision making is simple in nature as it does not involve a lot of people, like in public administration. In other words, it is almost monopolistic or in some instances, duopolistic (Aucoin 28). This decision making avoids a lot of conflicts in interests. The long term effect has always been a clearly defined goal that will suit the organization in enhancing its operations.

Visibility is another notable difference between public administration and private business. Managers in private business can work in an environment of relative obscurity as they are only answerable to the shareholders (Aucoin 29). This is not the case with public managers or administrators who will always work under the watchful eye of the public.

Their actions or moves are always subjected to a lot of public scrutiny to see if they are advancing their interests. This means that a public administrator or manager will always respond to diverse demands in the course of carrying out a public policy. Such demands have ended up creating an inevitable tension (Aucoin 32). This is in relation to efficiency and responsiveness. It implies that a public manager will be forced to manage effectively and respond to public concerns.

Because of this pressure, public organizations are often left in a no-win situation. This is because the public demands a lot of effective service delivery. Most of them pay taxes and this explains why they are always interested in what mangers are doing. On the other hand, they also demand accountability and an assurance that those in charge will not act irresponsibly.

There is a difference in unity analysis as far as private business and public administration are concerned. Most public institutions or organizations are a chain of command and control and this makes it hard to draw a line between different parts of the systems. As a matter of fact, existing frameworks might provide little help in this scenario. It therefore means that investment and strategic decisions will be made by this chain of command.

Public organizations and institutions have a complex system of organization with distinct demanding tasks. This is the main reason why most of them have been inefficient. Private businesses on the other hand don’t have a lot of bureaucracies that will complicate their management and operations. This means that there are no bloated bureaucracies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public administration and Private business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A political aspect can be witnessed in both public administration and private business but it is prevalent in public administration. It should be noted that politics affects the policy direction that these companies will take either directly or indirectly (Aucoin 40). This is through regulation, laws and financial support. In addition, the public sector is controlled by elected politicians who might be out of touch with the realities on the ground.

Private businesses might not witness a lot of politicking because of their ownership and control. In this case, the board of directors will be involved in governance dimensions and funding. This explains why public administration is concerned with developing and structuring organizations by the government while private business is concerned with developing institutions and organizations on an individual basis.

Public administration oversees government programs that can not be tasked to the private sector. Private businesses on the other hand go into business because of their own motives that will guarantee returns and profits (Aucoin 42). Although they might be having different motives, they are not supposed exploit or mistreat people in any way.

As much as public administration and private business might be having different motives in their operational goals, partnerships should be encouraged for efficiency that will ensure that all the stakeholders are satisfied. These partnerships can be encouraged in technological or innovation ways.


Public administration and private business are both incorporated and as a matter of fact, there is the expectation that they will provide whatever they are expected to provide as per their liability. This means that they have separate legal entities as per their owners. It therefore implies that the owners will get real value for what they have invested in. This should be done as they execute their operations without contravening any laws (Denhardt 29).

For public administration and private businesses to achieve their expectations, there is need to have an effective and efficient management. This will enhance their operations and in the process ensure that they are more efficient. The management has to be inclusive and ensure that all aspects are well covered (Denhardt 31). This might include human resource management, production management, operation management, financial and service management which are important for proper functioning.

As far as their operations are concerned, there is need to ensure that assets are well managed to enhance returns. This is because without these assets, public administration and private businesses will not achieve their goals and aims.

This seems to be one feature that they share in their day to day running. Although they might be established for different reasons best known to shareholders, the essence of being operational is to ensure that people are well attended to (Denhardt 35). This is as far as the provision of goods and services is concerned in a broad way.

As far as these aspects are concerned, there is a common way by which they are organized and regulated. Legal jurisdictions come up with a way by which regulation will be done in both public administration and private business (Denhardt 41). This will depend on various factors that guide how businesses are organized. It is obvious that public administration might not be having profit motives like private businesses but the fact remains that they need to be regulated for efficiency and accountability.

Public administration and private business have to perform as per their expectations because of their essence and necessity in the society at large. This means that there is interdependence as afar as their operations are concerned which is necessary for sustainability (Sheffrin 23). Sustainability should be emphasized as there is no way a customer and the public can do without goods and services they are used to.

Proper policy formulation is the strength behind public administration and private business. This has always been enforced by involving all concerned parties. It is evident that many organizations (be it private or public) will only be successful with a good policy framework that will define and give a good direction to be followed (Sheffrin 27).

Public administration and private business needs funds to ensure that they operate well. This means that they should incur costs in their day to day operations. Without these funds, they will not be in a good position to enhance service delivery. Although their operations might not be the same, the fact remains that they need enough funds to discharge their duties well (Sheffrin 32). There will be no needs for them to continue being in operation if they don’t provide good and services.

Accountability is necessary in both private business and public administration. This has always ensured that their actions and operations are not questionable. The only way that an organization can be successful is to ensure that they are accountable to the public, shareholders, owners and all interested stakeholders (Sheffrin 36). There are various measures that are employed by both (private and public) to enhance accountability.

Public administration and private business have thrived because of a good organization framework. An organization framework ensures that good policies and aspirations are put in place. In the process, it is easy to delegate roles.

These well defined roles will ensure that activities and operations are not grounded. All of them have ensured that they first of all craft a good organizational framework that will guide their operations (Sheffrin 45). This is the only way that they can evaluate themselves and know how to enhance their expectations and aims.

Decision making is always enhanced and adhered to in both public administration and private business. This is the only they can make good strategic moves that have ended up enhancing their sustainability and operations. Decision making is essential for operational efficiency and it is common in both scenarios of public administration and private business. This is the reason why they have put in place the right frameworks that will guide the way they make decisions (Sheffrin 56).

It is quite clear that both of them (public administration and private business) have some good similarities that guide their day to day operations. This is because they share some commonalities as far as their goals and aims are concerned. Although they might not be same, the fact remains that public administration and private business play an important role in the society. This means that there should be no contradictions as far as their existence and operations are concerned.

Conclusion The scope of public administration is so large that it has not been easy to understand and this has been left to individual interpretations depending on ones general overview (Aucoin 32). It therefore means that public administration can be a field of study and also on the other hand an occupation. There is an argument as to whether it can still be referred to as a discipline because of its complexity.

It therefore implies that most unelected public officers will be considered as public administrators. They might include police officers, city managers, cabinet secretaries, analysts etc. These administrators work in public agencies and departments which should be at all levels of the government. There has been an argument that public administration is multidisciplinary in character.

A private business is a legally recognized institution that is expected to enhance the provision of services and goods in exchange for money. They are mostly predominant in capitalist economies where they are formed with profit motives and on the other hand with an aim increasing the wealth of its owners (Aucoin 32). This means that owners expect returns after engaging in a risk as far as their business is concerned.

This can be an activity of continuity in the supply of essential good and services that will be demanded by customers and the public at large. As far as private business is concerned, there are various forms of ownership that are generally accepted and this might depend on different countries (Sheffrin 15). This means that forms of business organizations will vary in relation to the jurisdiction. Although this is expected in a normal society, there some common forms of business ownership.

There is an argument that the main aim of public administration is to enact public policies while the aim of private business is to ensure that owners and shareholders increase their wealth and net worth. It is undeniable that there is a lot of vagueness in the enforcement of public administration policies (Aucoin 54). This is due to overlapping and the ambiguity in these policies. On the other hand, private business has not witnessed any overlapping tendencies in their policies because of good business goals.

Works Cited Aucoin, Peter. New Public Management and the Quality of Government: Coping with the New Political Governance in Canada. Sweden: University of Gothenburg, 2008. Print

Denhardt, Robert. Public Administration: An Action Orientation. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2009. Print.

Kettl, Donald and Fessler, James. The Politics of the Administrative Process. Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 2009. Print.

Sheffrin, Steven. Economics: Principles in action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hal, 2003. Print.


World Trade Organization Regulations Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Overview

Doha Development Agenda

WTO and Globalization

Electronic Commerce

Reference List

Overview World trade organization (WTO) was established in 1995 for the purpose of overseeing international trade. It has 153 members and its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. WTO members use three official languages: French, English, and Spanish. It replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade which was in force since 1947.

It regulates trade between the trading countries and forms a basis for negations and formation of trade agreements. It resolves dispute between the trading nations by ensuring their compliance to the WTO‘s agreement. These agreements are usually signed by the representatives of the different countries whereas the parliament ratifies them (World Trade Organization 2010).

WTO is the sole (international) association known to incorporate rules (trade) among nations. It was introduced for the purpose of assisting producers in the productions of goods and services to be traded across borders. It also assists importers and exporters in carrying out their businesses.

WTO is headed by a ministerial conference that converges after every two years to discuss crucial issues concerning international trade. The first ministerial conference was held in 1996 at Singapore and since then the organization has been holding subsequent meetings. During the first conference, many contradicting issues were raised some of which have not been solved up to date. WTO is administered through a general council, which implements made decisions.

Doha Development Agenda This is a trade negotiation that was commenced in 2001 with the aim of boosting participation by third word countries. This has received disagreements from countries which rely on export from agricultural products in a bid to protect their farmers from heavy imports. At the moment the future of this Agenda is not clear.

The Doha agenda has been discussed in subsequent conferences but it is yet to receive recognition by majority of the members. If this happens, poor nations will be able to participate in the global market where they have been faced out. Doha agenda aims at protecting these poor nations from exploitation by the developed nations. It aims at abolishing all trade barriers imposed on the poor nations as a way of encouraging them to participate in the global market.

WTO and Globalization Today almost all nations depend on the global economy. Governments are finding it difficult to respond to their domestic issues as their used to do. WTO influences the performance of member countries and puts restrictions on the use of their monetary policies. These governments have to rely on the international monetary fund for regulations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poor nations are becoming poorer day in day out because of the low comparative advantage they have in the international trade. They have to rely on the World Bank for aids and grants for development. For this reason, the Doha Development Agenda was proposed but it has to yet been accepted. Unless it is accepted, the poor nationals will continue to suffer at the expense of the rich nations which have developed economies and comparative advantage in terms of trade.

The fundamental purpose of WTO is to help developing, least developed and poor nations. It gives them trade assistance and helps them to adjust to the rules of WTO regarding trade policies. As we have earlier, WTO is the only international organization that has rules restricting the conduct of member countries.

For instance, member countries are required to publish their trade regulations and to abide by them. WTO is propagating trade and industrial standardization of products, market access, and national treatment for all the products and services produced either within or outside any member countries.

Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce is a new area in global trade that involves trading of goods and services across borders electronically. It is the use of telecommunication networks to produce, advertise, or sell goods and services. With the advancement in technology, electronic commerce has been growing drastically calling for the attention of WTO. In 1998, WTO members adopted a declaration on global electronic commerce during a conference held at Geneva (World Trade Organization 2010).

According to the declaration, the general council was required to set up an inclusive work program that would be used to scrutinize all electronic commerce trade issues and present a report at WTO’s conference. The declaration also incorporated a cessation that required all WTO members to abolish any customs duties imposed on all electronic transmission. The work program was later adopted at the third conference held at Seattle in 1999.

At the fourth WTO conference that was held in Doha, members decided to carry on with the work program and to continue the practice of not imposing custom duties on electronic commerce. After wards, members engaged in various conferences where they could discuss in depth the crucial issues that would affect growth and development of e-commerce.

Such issues included competition among others. The WTO’s general council main agenda include working on the relationship between trade, finance, and debt among the member countries (World Trade Organization 2010). It works to strengthen international trade especially e-commerce since it is easy and consumes a less period of time to finish a transaction. The council is working to solve the problem of indebtedness in the less developed countries.

We will write a custom Term Paper on World Trade Organization Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List World Trade Organization (2010). Electronic commerce. Retrieved from


The Problem of Nuclear Weaponization between India and Pakistan Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Nuclear war between India and Pakistan

The proliferation

Nuclear deterrence

Who benefits from nuclear deterrence?


Reference List

Introduction Today, the greatest security threat all over the world is that of terrorist using nuclear weapons. However, the probability of such an event occurring remains low but with the advancement in technology we can never be sure of what will happen tomorrow. If it does occur, the consequences would be detrimental and world altering. Keeping such a weapon out of reach of terrorist should be given the utmost priority in all the agendas of the 21st century.

It includes the key facts of global security. Leaders all over the world (especially those from the White House), the congress and in the community have realized the need of fighting against the use of nuclear weapons by terrorists. For instance, it is estimated that, if a ten Kiloton nuclear weapon is used on any of the biggest cities in the world; it would kill thousands of people instantly. This would not only lead to lose of life, but it would result in economic depression with the weakest economies being damaged the most.

It would interfere with the global level of investing and spending (which has gone up) and it would take decades to recover. These effects would even be adverse if there is threat of a second weapon being used in the same country or in another. However, optimists argue that, nuclear weapons can be used to deter the chances of war between two nations. This paper will elucidate this view as it tries to explain how the use of nuclear weapons by India can deter Pakistan from engaging in nuclear war.

Nuclear war between India and Pakistan The explosions that occurred in 1998 between Indian and Pakistani reopened the debate on the probability of nuclear weapons being used by terrorists. This was the first violent war to occur after the cold war. Propagation optimists argue that nuclear weapons have an alleviating effect in international and regional relations because they prevent predictable wars while pessimists challenge that claim.

Pragmatist scholars elucidate the nuclear tests of May 1998 in security terms. The standard pragmatist elucidation is that India needs nuclear weapons to dissuade the conventional and nuclear military threat coming from China and the nuclear threat from Pakistan, provoked by Chinese assistance to the Pakistani nuclear weapons program.

On the other hand, other scholars affirm that, the 1998 Pakistan nuclear force was necessary in countering the superiority in Indian military with a small nuclear force (Mohammed, 1999:60). They go further to explain that, the use of nuclear weapons is the greatest equalizer in international relations; the only way for Pakistan to deter an Indian conventional attack is the threat of using nuclear weapons in war.

These scholars conclude that, India and Pakistan became more secure after the nuclear explosions that occurred in May 1998 based on the assumption that nuclear weapons can be used to restore peace because their devastating destructiveness stabilizes international relations and restore power regionally. Presently, there are many arguments about the utility of nuclear weapons in restoring peace after the cold war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Post-test Indo-Pakistani nuclear relations give a prospect to re-examine the question of deterrence stability in a regional perspective. The issue is important because there is dormant conformist war going on between the two countries in Kashmir, and the danger of acceleration from conformist to nuclear war is very authentic.

Prime ministers from the two countries met in 1999 to discuss the strategies to use in order to control the extent to which nuclear arms were being used. However, they did not make any genuine progress even though they signed some agreements that seemed to have long good intentions although they contained short details (Narang, 2010:5).

They promised to alert each other in case there was risk of any devastating nuclear war. They also promised to carry on with their affirmed suspension on further nuclear trails, and agreed to announce in advance any testing of ballistic missiles. However, this did not seem to be enough considering that past attempts had failed in implementing confidence and security between the two countries.

The proliferation The central precept behind propagation optimisms is that, the main impact of the use of nuclear weapons is to dissuade war between their possessors. Nuclear propagation is assumed to have a stabilizing effect because even a small nuclear arsenal can deter potential enemies from attacking the proliferators.

Deterrence is essential because the risk of vengeance by even a small number of nuclear weapons overshadows any probable gain of a military attack. Optimists also argue that new proliferators are least expected to suffer the same domination and to have power over problems as the powers used during the cold war (Barry, 1999:1).

On the other hand, pessimists hold that nuclear disarmament is much better that nuclear deterrence because the later one can fail or lead to regional nuclear war. They also challenge the rational behind the deterrence theory; organizational deficiencies may force new nuclear nations to create insufficient forces which might be susceptible to anticipatory military strikes.

This is because some organizational behaviours are likely to result in deterrence failures consequently leading to accidental war. For instance, budgetary constraints may force a nation to take ineffective measures for protecting a small nuclear arsenal. Before the May 1998 nuclear tests, explosion optimists asserted that the sheer continuation of Indian and Pakistani abilities to fabricate nuclear weapons on short notice dissuaded them from fighting an all-out conformist war for fear of acceleration to the nuclear level.

We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Nuclear Weaponization between India and Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The outcome of the two crises between India and Pakistan (1987 and 1990) is a clear indication that even non-weaponized deterrence works. The 1987 India’s Brasstacks and the accelerating problems in Kashmir in 1990 resulted in a crises that would have resulted into war although it did not. This shows that, it is not only the use of nuclear weapons that can deter nations from engaging in wars, peace can be restored through mutual agreements (Walker, 1998: 518).

Nuclear deterrence Nuclear deterrence is a strategy used by states where by a nuclear warhead in inserted in operational delivery systems to deploy a given number of nuclear weapons necessary to impose intolerable damage on its opponent. The state of affairs between India and Pakistan can be compared to that in Israel where a full-fledged small nuclear force with an advanced degree of weaponization was developed.

In spite of the oratory accompanied by the 1998 nuclear tests, India and Pakistan are yet to deploy nuclear weapons, even though the latest missile tests make the deployment more feasible (Devin, 1996:114). In November 2008, a group which was supported by Pakistan (Lashkar-e-Taiba) raided Mumbai for three days and killed more than 163 people.

Instead of India mobilizing its military forces to strike back against the terrorist, it restrained. They have adopted the declared minimum deterrent postures and have taken nuclear weapons out of the closet and seem to be moving into another game. The missile test explosions results that accepted nuclear deterrence were significantly different from the view of the Indian nuclear doctrine developed by the Prime Minister, Nehru, who had rejected the use of nuclear weapons for deterrence since it contrasted with Indian security policy.

By acting in response to the Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan missed the chance of having, for their first time, self-governing nuclear international relations. prior to the test explosions, Pakistan had made a number of nuclear arms control suggestions, together with a nuclear-weapon free zone for south Asia, that were all the time cast off by India on the grounds that they did not reflect some factors (Carranza, 1998:118).

Who benefits from nuclear deterrence? Nuclear weapons have at all times been seen as an immense equalizer in intercontinental relations. One may dispute that India would not be dissuaded from using unadventurous weapons to meet a predictable Pakistani assault to free Kashmir, from following Kashmiri rebels into Pakistani region.

The great equalizer debate cuts both ways that is the Pakistan and India. In reference to this elucidation, the Pakistani test explosions have not gotten rid of India’s intrinsic strategic dominance, since in any nuclear stability that emerges in South Asia; India will be considerably more influential than Pakistan by a factor of not less than three or four in numbers of warheads and bombs (Francine, 1995:70).

This disparity will be exaggerated by Pakistan’s deficiency in a tactical depth, which induces it to come up with ballistic missile expertise to counteract the susceptibility of its air force to Indian conservative counterforce attacks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Nuclear Weaponization between India and Pakistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before setting up its nuclear dominance, India will have to entirely develop a considerable nuclear force at the threat of becoming economically insolvent, like the former Soviet Union.

India may even be enticed to create a nuclear arms contest to reinstate her tactical prevalence on the subcontinent, while elongating the Pakistani financial system to its limit. On the other hand, Pakistan does not essentially have to go on board on a nuclear arms contest with India, and could implement a policy of asymmetric avoidance, comparable to that of France.

Conclusion As discussed above, many optimists believe that, the use of nuclear weapons by India can deter or escalate the chances of nuclear war between India and Pakistan. However, pessimists hold that deterrence balances are not intrinsically constant. The sagacity dilemmas shaped by nuclear deterrence circumstances are aggravated at the local level because local powers are short of the refined technology that kept the tranquillity throughout the Cold War.

Reference List Carranza, M. 1998, “Dangerous Optimism: Non-Weaponized Deterrence and Regional Peace in South Asia,” International Politics 35 p. 118.

Barry, B. 1999, “India Promises, with Pakistan, to Seek Peace,” New York Times, p .1.

Devin, H. 1996, “Nuclear Deterrence in South Asia: The 1990 Indo-Pakistani Crisis,” International Security 20 p. 114.

Francine, F. 1995, Bridging the Non-Proliferation Divide.(Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Mohammed, A. 1999, “Nuclear India and Indian-American Relations,” Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs 43 p. 59-74.

Narang, V. 2010, Pakistan’s nuclear posture: Implications for South Asian Stability. Web.

Walker, W. 1998, “International Nuclear Relations after the Indian and Pakistani Test Explosions,” International Affairs 44 p. 518.


What Does Marxism Tell Us About Economic Globalisation Today? Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Marxism view of economic globalisation


Reference List

Introduction Of late, there has been a significant rise of interactions between countries. They are interacting mostly in terms of trade and technology. It is rare to get a country that has no trade link with others. This is because there is none that has enough resources to cater entirely for its requirements. This then brings the issue of globalisation, viewed as the process by which countries “share” what they produce, buy, or sell, with others around the globe.

This is no more than trade, and hence economic globalisation, which result to the establishment of global markets. Though economic globalisation has been there before, its today’s rate of occurrence is a bit higher. Many views have been given concerning it and among them, are the Marxism views. Marxism pictures today’s economic globalisation as being destructive, unstable, among others.

Marxism view of economic globalisation “The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere.” (Marx 1975). According to this quote, economic globalisation in the unseen nature of capitalism, is spreading at an alarming rate and soon it will be everywhere around the globe.

Marxists points that this globalisation is depriving the world of its heritage and traditions and owing to the crises therein, the whole world is seen to be approaching a permanent disaster. Marxism mentions capitalism pointing out a number of capitalist continents, Asia, Africa, not sparing Antarctica.

Though, crises are known to be more in the developed countries of today, Marxism reckons a time, based on today’s observations of capitalism, when the globe will be industrialised, a situation that will render the world economy unstable. Marxism predicts that as this unfolds, the world will slowly be approaching a depression. Marxism movement bases its arguments on the entire globe criticising the rising capitalism.

Besides this, Marxism has presented a precise view of the misuse of labour as well as the changes arising in the field of politics. Marxist economic analysis shows that currently, the United States leads in capitalism posing that it is experiencing a high competition from Japan, among others.

In the near future, not far from today, Marxism presents the view that, these capitalist countries will be many and their oppression to the working class will be on the peak covering virtually the entire globe. This is why Marxism posits that the economic globalisation of today carries with it the destruction of the globe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Though it was highly criticised, virtually all the predictions made by Marxism are evident in today’s economic globalisation. Mass redundancy, world capitalist calamity, introduction of technology that would bring about the reduction of working hours, world-wide fall of profit levels, the rising living standards, not sparing the third-world war, to mention a few, were among the issues Marxism pointed.

It stands out that almost all are being experienced today in the whole world. It is deducible that Marxism had the picture of the state of the global economy as possessing the aforementioned characteristics, which are evident today.

Reference List Marx, K (1975), Manifesto of the Communist Party, Moscow, Progress Publishers.


Marketing the Wireless Robotic Car Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Potential Applications of the Robotic Car

Target Market for the Robotic Car




Competitor Analysis

Future Direction

Reference List

The marketing of a new product presents numerous challenges. Levinson, Levinson and Levinson [1] state that, “marketing is a very slow process”. The efficacy of a product may not save it from shoddy marketing. In fact, an inferior product may perform better if it is marketed better. In the field of robotics, the challenge increases significantly because of the various limitations robots have including the learning process normally required of the operator to deploy them effectively.

The robotic car designed in this project is a simple system having basic components and is ideal for simple uses. It holds a lot of promise for adaptation for various uses, but is ready to use for certain applications. Its major service offering for a client is that it can provide visual information from areas that are not easily accessible since it has a camera, which can also operate in dark locations on night mode. In other words, it is able to ‘see’on behalf of the operator, who watches from a safe distance.

Potential Applications of the Robotic Car In its current design, the robotic car has many potential primary and secondary applications, which in the same stroke simplifies and complicates its commercialization. Shanklin and Ryans [2] point out that a “new product tends to be extremely complex and often has a number of potential applications”. The robotic car’s primary applications will involve using its features as currently designed without further modification, which will primarily be to collect visual information about a target area.

Secondary applications will involve using it as a carrier of separate specialised equipment for the collection of other forms of data. With modifications, it can be equiped with equipment sets such as probes, scoops, and drills to undertake some operations in remote locations. Multiple applications mean a wide range of potential clients, but it also means widely varying needs.

One of the significant applications of robotic cars of this nature is, “sending them where humans cannot or should not go” [3]. Examples of such places include harzardous areas where chemical polution has occurred, buildings engulfed in fire and smoke, hostage situations, minefields or the diffusion of bombs planted in buildings. In fact, space vehicles for exploration of distant planets use robotic cars. The design in this project satisfies investigative needs on terrestiral motorable surfaces.

By sending the robotic car to a chemical hazard, it is possible to determine the extent of spillage of a liquid or a solid pollutant. It can also work for gaseous pollutants if they are visible. The robotic car is able to collect vital information while the operator is at a safe distance. The car is able to collect information from a hostage situation without putting any law enforcement officer in danger.

Another possible application of the robotic car is for routine operations in industries. These operations include cleaning harzadous areas and collecting information such as temparature in areas, which are not easily accessible, or may pose some threat to man. The car can provide access to environments whose safety is in doubt, or can change without warning, such as inside collapsed buildings and unstable mine shafts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third category of applications for the robotic car is for sports and entertainment. Robotic car enthusiasts use them to race for sports or for playing ball games for entertainment. As steffoff [4] observes, ‘toy robots and sports robots offer various forms of entertainment”. The thrill of controlling a real robotic car provides a different experience compared to playing the more available virtual games. Such games serve to expand the interest in robotics by the players and spectators.

Target Market for the Robotic Car The robotic car has potential customers in research laboratories, fire and rescue brigades, chemical plants and factories, police departments, bomb squads, mines and robotic sports enthusiasts. Kachroo and Mellodge [3] state that, “the usefulness of these little machines is only limited by your imagination”.

Each of these potential clients represents a different market segment, which has unique needs. The basic product design applies to each of these unique needs but specialised applications differentiate them. To develop the required robotic car for the needs of each segment, the four P’s of marketing, “product, price, place (distribution), and promotion” as presented by Shanklin and Ryans [2], provides the basis for consideration.

Product The prototype needs further development and rigorous testing to eleminate all possible design flaws in order to present a high quality product to potential customers. The prototype has a lot of room for improvement to include other design considerations including interfacing controls to use a joystick instead of the current computer controls.

It also requires the design of a fail-safe system that can allow for retieval of the unit should it experience an adverse operating environment that may cause it to malfunction. Such environments include areas with radio interference and locations with extreme temparatures.

Potential clients can help meet the cost of R


The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance Essay best college essay help

Introduction Human Resource Management (HRM) is a unit within an organization responsible for recruitment, hiring, induction, training, compensating and management of staff working in a firm. It is the link between the employees and the top management. Management is the process by which a corporative group directs actions towards a common goal, that is, the process of getting things done by others and through others for the purpose of achieving organization’s effectiveness and efficiency (Combs et al., 2006).

Human resource is a series of integrated decisions about employment relationships that influence the effectiveness of employee and organization. It is the function of the human resource manager to synchronize the employees’ goals and those of the firm in order to achieve the organizations mission and objectives effectively (Boxall


Causes and Effects of Teenage Suicide in Canada Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Research question

Rationale of the Research

Literature review

Limitations to the research



Introduction Suicide rate among young people has increased in the 21st century. Statistics reveal that over five thousand youths commit suicide each year within the USA only. Suicide is revealed as one of the most common cause of death for people as compared to other causes like accidents and homicide.

The question now lies on how the governments together with the society can counter these unnecessary suicidal deaths. However most of the governments rely only on medical approach since they lack incentives for traditional healing practices. In the Canadian communities where cultural practices are maintained the responses towards social roles produce positive results amongst the youths. Most of the negative responses are attributed to social disintegration and marginalization of the young people (White and Jodoin, 2007).

There in need for each community to be accountable for its young people. This can be enhanced through different sustainable programs that respond appropriately to community needs. Spiritual intervention can also be an important way of reducing suicidal effects within the community; it provides a lot of knowledge concerning one’s respect and relationship with others. Also upgrading of residential schools is one of the vital projects that should be focused upon.

These are some of the projects that help the young people to see beyond present troubles that they encounter and maintain focus of getting better in times ahead. It makes provides them with opportunities to participate in recreational activities which form part of mental health and development (White and Jodoin, 2007; Hawton and James, 2005).

There is major concern about the progress of the general health of native youths in Canada. Majority of the research conducted have not yet revealed on the various people’s health needs. This is especially on children based on geographical location, culture and socio-economic status.

Suicides amongst the Canadian youth have been found to be growing at an alarming rate, statistic show that the rate of occurrence amongst the Canadians is higher than that of non-Canadian youths. Suicide has been documented as one of the major cause of death amongst the youth accounting for almost 38% of all youth deaths (Viner and Barker, 2005). Girls or ladies are prone to die easily from suicide as compared to their male counterparts; this puts a very high risk on the survival of this generation.

Higher percentage of all deadly accidents within the youth community is linked to suicide (White and Jodoin, 2007). Youth Suicide rates in Canada is well documented in view of the efforts made to conserve and promote Canadian culture and taking control over key issues of life within the Society. This problem can better be described in various social ways such as psychological and socio-cultural.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research question Why are suicide rates high amongst the Canadian young citizens as compared to the rest of the youths from other countries of the world? The issue of suicide is of national concern since it has led to the death of young and innocent ones and this presents a threat to the strength of the future generation.

The youth suicide problem amongst Canada’s youth society is the main focus of the research. It is of importance to individuals and groups that are ready to take the initiative of developing and putting into practice suicide prevention programs.

Rationale of the Research The issue in this research is to identify the major causes of Suicide amongst the Canadian youths and the consequent result to the society. There have been increased incidences of suicide in the recent past with the youths being the most affected.

The research was conducted amongst a number of youths who were allowed to participate in focus groups and educational presentations. This prepared their ability to respond to surveys carried and make accurate responses. The research was conducted based on age and the status (White and Jodoin, 2007).

The research is relevant to Canadian youths in that it helps them focus on the important issues within the society and how to avoid unnecessary socio-cultural conflicts that may lead them to commit suicide. It provides the various avenues that can be used and applied by the government to ensure proper youth lifestyles are restored within respective communities.

The paper also identifies one of the major causes of suicide which is influence brought by drugs and alcohol. This research identifies the ways on which youth’s identity can be improved, enhancement of their self-esteem and behaviors.

There is need to provide interventions that virtually supports the moral ethics within the community amongst the youth. This fosters healing of traumas from past social evils and develops strategies on how to link the youths with values that will enable them live healthy lives. Despite the increase in the number of suicide this issue is preventable through innovative processes and socially sensitive initiatives (White, 2005).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Causes and Effects of Teenage Suicide in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Review of available literature shows that the rate of suicide within the Canadian community has increased in recent times. This rate was very low before the culture interaction between Europeans and Canadians. The rate is currently higher amongst native youths than the immigrants. However not every community within Canada experiences high rate of suicide amongst the youths.

The rate appears to be different based on respective regions and provinces, however the degree of occurrence is assumed to be higher than what is shown through the statistics. The data provided on the rates of suicide excludes the non-registered natives who might be living elsewhere; hence the actual number is under-estimated. There is also the probability that a number of suicidal deaths go un-reported and are often considered normal accidents, hence incorrectly reported (White and Jodoin, 2007).

There was need to include all other issues associated with suicide like thoughts about committing suicide and attempts towards suicide. All these present some psychological and social impacts amongst the Canadian youth community. It is also of importance to analyze the whole issue based on population characteristics. Most of the natives who commit suicide are found to be young and most likely unmarried.

The degree of suicide is determined by the kind of weapon used to commit it i.e. use of guns, drugs, or hanging ropes. It is also noted that a series of suicides from a particular location might be attributed to a suicide committed by one young person of the same peer group (Viner and Barker, 2005).

There are certain factors and characteristics that are associated with those who commit suicide, these factors might be environmental or emotional. This is largely dependent on family background and peer influence, this might be as result of economic ability or breach on cultural values.

These factors show clearly the reasons as to why suicide is so prevalent amongst the young men. Therefore there is need to develop strategies to counter the most vulnerable factors. Most of the young people are brought up in rural communities where they seem to be far away from vital information concerning their social lives. The stressful living conditions need to be changed through community development initiatives that aim at securing better lives for the young generation (White and Jodoin, 2007).

Previous research shows that suicide amongst the youth takes place under the influence of interaction between several factors. Each factor presents potential risk to the general response of Canadian youths. Study of the American culture revealed that more protective initiatives taken to prevent suicide produced positive results.

According to centre for Suicide Prevention report (2007), preventive measures should be given first priority to enable success of other measures used within the hospitals. Early intervention should be done immediately after detecting abnormal behavior on particular groups (White, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Causes and Effects of Teenage Suicide in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effect of cultural intervention is for the purposes of preventing some commonly known risk factors within specific communities. This helps in restoring cultural identity to the youths and also makes them accept the challenges they might face from youths of other cultures. The strong sense of belonging and values are important in the process of preventing suicide. Programs on the skills of living amongst the youths are encouraged to help in eliminating life-threatening behaviors.

The environments that are frequently visited by youths should be restructured to offer necessary support to the youths. Several themes are developed when undertaking such a study, these include; the availability of upgraded medical care, the use of culturally driven measures, the need of making youths aware of the importance of culture, value and identity (Viner and Barker, 2005).

Difficult situations lead to teenage suicides, these tough emotional states are also experienced by the adults whose reactions tend to be different from that of young people. Researches have shown that proper emotional support from family members or peer groups can act as a good preventive measure for extreme emotional feelings.

Beside normal pressure there are those specific circumstances that can contribute to youth suicides, these include; parental divorce, sexual abuse, domestic violence and parental neglect. Depression contributes the highest percentage of committed suicide amongst the young people since it causes apathy within them. Easy access to firearms provides them with an easy way to end their lives (Mignone and O’Neil, 2005).

Limitations to the research There are poor responses during data collection due to the fact that most youths fear sharing their personal experiences. The cross-cultural differences amongst Canadian communities also contribute to poor data collection due to communication barrier. There is heterogeneity within the sample groups that further complicates the process of data interpretation.

Conclusion There is need for expansive research in this area in order to establish different solutions necessary to overcome suicide amongst the youth. The various studies are yet to come up with appropriate prevention measures that can be used in this field. The values attributed to youthful stages evolve rapidly hence require close attention by the elders within the society. They need necessary resources and space to participate in the building of the society.

Suicides have direct negative effect on the community members and may involve victims who are closely related. The existing healthcare services seem very inadequate to counter the increasing rate of suicide within the communities. The healthcare services should be integrated to cater for expansive social network. Cultural renewal and identity should be revived as a way of encouraging the young people to hold on to the good values.

References Hawton, K.,


Global Financial Crisis Impact on Australian and World Economies Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Roots of the global financial crisis

Why it evolved into a world crisis

Impact on Australian and world economies

GDP and real net national disposable income

USD Per Australian Dollar Currency Exchange Rate

The future for Australia’s economy

Reference List

Roots of the global financial crisis The current global financial crisis traces its roots to the United States of America. It partly started with the collapse of the US sub-prime mortgage market (Williams 2010, p. 5). The Federal Reserve sought to cut lending rates leading to inflation in the housing bubble. The sub-prime mortgage crisis emanated from financial instruments like securitization. This is where banks pooled different loans into sellable assets. In the process, there was a tendency of offloading risky loans.

Because banks could easily earn millions from these loans, they turned them into securities. In the process, banks borrowed more to lend out to the market. Some banks could not rely on savers. A bad loan was considered a problem to the borrower. This made other banks to get into loans with an aim of selling them. After running out on people to lend, banks turned to sub primes (Tett 2009, p. 13).

As a matter of fact, self-certified loans became very popular making banks to buy securities from others. Because of this, Collateralized Debt Obligations were very complicated. As a result of this, they often hid bad loans.

On the other hand, investment banks ended up in the business of mortgages and loans without the right controls and frameworks. This exposed banks to huge risks.

As problems were manifested, lending slowed down. This was as a result of low confidence in loans. Owing to loss in value of assets, lenders were already demanding for a refund of the money they had invested (Tett 2009, p. 18). On the other hand, the market experienced a lot of credit defaults. Credit default swaps were meant to tell if one could pay a loan or not but the market was over speculative.

Banks had little deposits and hence could not meet lenders demand for money. In the process, some of them collapsed drastically. Most banks did not have capital reserves (Atwood 2008, p. 9). The end result was that businesses and individuals that relied on credit could not get cash which led to massive financial problems.

Why it evolved into a world crisis After affecting the banking and credit sectors in the US, the global crisis slowly crept to other countries and in the process became a world crisis. It became a world crisis by verging on a systematic crisis approach. This was because of the domino effect and other psychological contagions (Williams 2010, p. 13). As a result of this, it was able to spread to other economic and financial areas worldwide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can be traced from financial markets because it eventually degenerated to become a market crash. On the other hand, equity funds fell short of cash which made them to get rid of their assets. In addition, there was a large impact on public finance because most financial institutions had to be bailed out to continue with their operations (Atwood 2008, p. 16). Insurance firms and pensions firms could not meet their financial commitments because they did not have enough cash to cater for these.

There was also a problem in Forex because the USD is used as a global currency. This affected various currencies in Europe and Latin America. One of the first causalities outside the US was Northern Rock (a major bank in Britain).The crisis later on entered an acute stage with the collapse of banks and financial institutions both in America and Europe( Cohan 2009, p. 19). Other countries had problems because their currencies lost value. In the process, they could not make payments on loans.

Impact on Australian and world economies Because of the global financial crisis, Australia has had a lot of current account deficits. This has been mostly on its transactions with the rest of the world. It can be explained from the fact that the country has been financing its deficits from overseas borrowings (Cohan 2009, p. 21). This means that foreign banks that are currently controlled by their governments will not be willing to lend to Australia.

It also implies that Australian banks don’t have the necessary capacity to replace previous lending. Australia’s exports have been affected because of deep recessions (as a result of the global crisis) on its major trading partners. Business and household finances have fallen because of a drop in the country’s share prices (Haigh 2009, p. 28).

On the other hand, business confidence has fallen drastically because of bad news from abroad as a result of the global financial crisis. Although the global economic crisis has affected Australia, there is good outlook from the economic indicators.

GDP and real net national disposable income Chain volume measures, Trend – Quarterly % change

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Financial Crisis Impact on Australian and World Economies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the graph, GDP and real disposable income are slowly picking up. Foster group is Australia’s leading brewer and as matter of fact it, has been greatly affected by the global economic crisis. The groups wine business has continued to struggle as a result of exchange rate movements and US market conditions (Chappell 2009, p. 4). On the other hand, the global financial crisis has affected the group through a sluggish demand that has created an oversupply.

Sales in Australia have also dropped because people do not have enough disposable income to spend on its products. This means that wine consumers have been switching to less expensive brands as a result of the economic downturn. On the other hand, global wine sales have also drooped by 5.3% (Chappell 2009, p. 7).

Unfavorable exchange rates are expected to reduce the groups earning in both frontiers. A 9¢ increase in exchange rates with the US dollar will affect profits because the dollar is used globally as far as exchange rates are concerned.

USD Per Australian Dollar Currency Exchange Rate Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Web.

A strong Australian dollar will continue eating into the groups profits (Chappell 2009, p. 8). In addition, poor economic conditions are expected to affect sales volumes in both markets (local and global).

As a result of the global economic crisis, many world economies are likely to initiate a banking shake out. This means that interest rates will have to be reduced for sustainability. Economies have witnessed a significant drop in their economic growth leading to a downward trend in their forecasts (Haigh 2009, p. 28). This is because there is a drop in trade and commodity prices. As a matter of fact, most economies have seen a drop in remittances from abroad.

The future for Australia’s economy It is evident that regional growth variations will vary as resource boom states come back to life (Ferguson 2008, p. 9). As much as there has been lot of down falls in different economies, Australia’s banking sector is still in good shape. The government has initiated good monetary policies that have worked effectively. This is because interest rates have fallen drastically.

Markets have lost confidence because of the global economic crisis. As a matter of fact, the government needs to initiate good policies in relation to growth theories. For instance, it needs to stimulate aggregate demand in a bid to increase consumer spending (Goodman 2008, p. 23). According to the Keynesian theory, when consumers experience an increased aggregate demand, they will create an excitement in the economy. This creates a good environment for economic growth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Financial Crisis Impact on Australian and World Economies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, there is need to focus on the three building blocks of economic growth. These include; the saving function, production function and the labor function (Goodman 2008, p. 27). For these to be attained, the Australian economy needs good and strategic fiscal policies. On the other hand, retail property yields have increased by 50-100 points.

According to the Harold Domar theory, growth will depend on national saving ratios. Savings will only increase after an upsurge in economic growth. Australian banks have not been greatly affected by the global financial crisis like other banks in Europe and America (Ferguson 2008, p. 14). This means that banks can still lend to spur growth that will increase consumer spending.

The multiplier theory can also be used to stimulate economic growth. This will be done by increasing the marginal propensity to consume. These will later on increase equilibrium income in these economies. On the other hand, autonomous consumption will increase by large margin.

There is need to enhance the supply of credit and craft good mechanisms that will increase demand for such. Some foreign banks are withdrawing their operations from Australia and this will put pressure on the availability of credit. Because of this, there is need to increase investments in the financial sector (Williams 2010, p. 32). Export prices and commodities are expected to fall in coming months and good measures should be put in place to revert this.

Reference List Atwood, M., 2008. Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth. Toronto: House of Anansi.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010. Australian Economic Indicators. Web.

Chappell, T., 2009. Oversupply and GFC hits Foster’s Group wine sales. Web.

Cohan, W, D., 2009. House of Cards. Tale of Hubris and Wretched Excess on Wall Street. New York: Doubleday.

Ferguson, N., 2008. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. London: Allen Lane.

Goodman, P, S., 2008. Credit Enters a Lockdown. New York: The New York Times. McGraw-Hill.

Haigh, G., 2009. Stupid Money. Queensland: Griffith University.

Tett, G., 2009. Fool’s Gold: How Unrestrained Greed Corrupted a Dream, Shattered Global Markets and Unleashed a Catastrophe. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Williams, M. T., 2010. Uncontrolled Risk: The Lessons of Lehman Brothers and How Systemic Risk Can Still Bring Down the World Financial System. New York: McGraw Hill.


Analysis of Language in Relation to Cognition Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Language and Lexicon

Features of Language

Levels of Language Structure and Processing

The Role of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology


Reference List

Introduction Language is important in daily interactions among people. This is especially so for communication purpose which plays a key role in the cognitive development and psychology. The definition of language is affected by the fact that language is generally associated with culture and the languages that are spoken such as English, French and Chinese among others.

The need for the definition of a clearer meaning of language and lexicon is necessary. Additionally, the evaluation has to involve the analysis of the features as well as levels of language together with the role that language plays in cognitive psychology.

Language and Lexicon Language definition is generally associated with the main objective of acting as a communication means (Willingham, 2007). The definition of language has been associated with systems and the joint definition with lexicon with more emphasis on the spoken word (Gibbon, Moore


What Can Lawyers Learn From ‘Othello’? Essay essay help free: essay help free

Written by William Shakespeare, Othello is a fascinating story, whose setting is on a street in the provincial capital of Veneto, Venice. Shakespeare has employed one of the literature elements by using major characters like, Othello, a hero and the head of armies, Desdemona, Othello’s covert wife, Michael Cassio, Othello’s deputy, Lago, ranked below the lieutenant, among others. Following Cassio’s promotion by Othello, Lago has not been in his terms because, according to him, he deserved the promotion.

He declares his hate to his boss, Othello, and secretly manipulates a way of bringing Cassio down from that rank. Cassio later gets the demotion! This story is rich in lessons for all people, but Shakespeare seems to have dedicated it to lawyers. In his works, Shakespeare likens Lago to a lawyer. Shakespeare wanted them to learn that manipulation, as expounded below, is a vice, and ought to appear nowhere in their services to people.

Othello’s secret wife, known to be more than a friend, is compassionate enough to assist in whichever situation one is in, provided she is able to. Lago’s plan to have Cassio demoted succeeds. Cassio is demoted, not because he has offended anybody, neither is it based on his job performance.

However, he is demoted anyway! Lago is a fox, whose words seem well organised and sensitive as if they are true, but hardly are they. “This is a key Lago tactic. One of the ways he is so successful at controlling others is by leveraging their positive qualities to serve his own ends” (Maslanka October 7, 2010). Lago intentionally approaches Othello’s wife and owing to her sympathetic attribute, he convinces her that if she raises Cassio’s issue of demotion before her husband, he (Cassio), will be restored.

This happens, a case that induces questions to Othello, who wants to know why his wife should be the one talking on behalf of Cassio. He imagines an underway relationship between the two, a situation that forces him to kill his wife. In this case, Lago is responsible for the death of the innocent Desdemona, because of his manipulative trait. It is a lesson to lawyers who bear the same character that whatever they do, will affect them at some point.

In addition, the issue of rationality, as portrayed by many lawyers, is quite sensitive. They ought to apply it with a lot if vigilance. Many people, driven by their ill motives, end up creating stories that favour them on the expense of others. Lago has been tirelessly looking for a promotion, which he never gets. He approaches Othello and raises the issue of the unfaithfulness of Desdemona. He posits that she has been having affairs with Cassio, though it is a lie.

Othello accepts the lie, even without consulting his wife to confirm the validity of the act, showing how rational he is. He ends up depriving her of her life even after others like Emilia rise to support Desdemona’s faithfulness. Shakespeare is addressing the lawyers who, based on invalid excuses from their clients, end up applying the trait of rationality wrongly. They ought to investigate matters first, before declaring sentences to those claimed guilty by others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, Lawyers ought to be wise when tackling the subject of promotion or demotion of employees. A demotion can carry with it productive results. It can also be a disaster to them.

From the story, it stands out clear that if Lago were offered the promotion, instead of Cassio, the death of Desdemona would not have occurred. Othello, who is now likened to a lawyer, ought to have considered the possible repercussions of Cassio’s promotion. If this were the case, he would have realised its effects on others like Lago and probably conflicts therein, as it was evident.

In conclusion, though Shakespeare is dead and forgotten, he speaks volumes today through his works. Othello is a story, whose lessons form the basis of arguments for lawyers, not only of today, but also of generations to come. For the upcoming lawyers, Othello is a recommendable book, which can equip them with the knowledge that, they need a good deal of vigilance when interacting with their clients, failure to which they will suffer the consequences.

Works Cited Maslanka, Michael. “What Can Lawyers Learn From ‘Othello’?” Web.


Depression in Older Adults Expository Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Abstract


Depression in Older Adults


Works Cited

Abstract This paper examines depression amongst the old adult population in the world with specific references to the United States of America. It gives a background on what depression is and discusses situation under which it develops in older adult population.

Besides, it examines depression in older adult population in relation to such factors as gender where females are found to be more prone to depression than their male counterparts, it also considers sexual orientations in which it discusses how lesbians and gays are more likely to have stress than heterosexuals and it finally compares how race and culture play a role in depression amongst the elderly in society.

With respect to homosexuality, the paper examines the various ways through which older adult population get discriminated by the members of the society who are anti-homosexuality and institutions that do not recognize both lesbianism and gay as a form of lifestyle that should be accepted as in existence.

Introduction Depression is a condition that mostly affects the cognition of a human being. It means different thing to different people; it can be symptomatic as when an individual says he or she is feeling depressed, it also be a sign as when someone observes that another person is depressed or at the same time it can be a disorder that is clinically diagnosed.

When a clinical diagnosis of depression is done, it implies a disorder which has a significant length of time and having particularly observable signs and symptoms, that significantly interferes with an individual’s functioning or that causes great personal distress or both (Jefferson 10).

But one may ask “What are the causes of depression?” depression has varied causes amongst the whole of the human race regardless of age or gender. It is almost always caused by a combination of factors. Such factors are inheritance or genetic predisposition, developmental factors such as early loss of parents, cognitive factors such as intense grief reaction and stress such as coping with unemployment and or physical illnesses; these two combine to result into a common pathway for inducement of depression.

Research has indicated that each individual has a pattern of genetic, developmental, environmental, social, personality and physiological factors that coalesce to permit or protect against depression at any point in time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The understanding and modification of the contributions of these factors is the ultimate goal of the clinicians who engage in the treatment of depression. This paper examines depressions in older adults. It will deal with how depression occurs in older adult population; besides, it will also discuss the main causes of depression in older adulthood and how it affects them (Jefferson 10).

Depression in Older Adults Depression is the most common mental disorder found amongst older adults in the parts of the world, but it should not be seen as part of the aging process; in fact a good number of older adults . It is one of the most disabling conditions among the older adult population. In the United States alone it is approximated that over six million adults aged 65 and above experience clinical depression; the adult population represents about 15% of the adult population above 65 years of age in the United States.

Prevalence estimates in older adults range from 5% in community samples to about 20% in nursing home residents and close to 30% of the older adults witnessed in primary care setting. Research has also indicated that approximately 50% of the adults who are admitted in hospitals experience clinical depression (Williams 59).

It is important to note that depression in older adults is caused by varied numerous factors and may be different from the causative factors leading to depression in the younger people. In addition to the biological etiology of depression in the older adults, there are vividly cognitively contributing factors.

The adult’s life events and the interpretation and response to event contribute to the risk of developing depression. The predominant life events that place older adults at risks for depression as well as contribute to the experience by older adults and receptiveness to treatment for depression are medical illnesses, bereavement or death of a son, daughter or any other significant other, disability, impaired social support and or trauma.

These factors do not necessarily exclusively lead to depression, but may combine with other factors in a chain of events ultimately leading to depression in older adults. Research findings have indicated that the risk factors combined with behavioral, psychodynamic and negative thoughts surrounding the events of life seem to have substantial contribution to depression that comes in late life periods.

For example, older adults may have an perception about their lives that no matter what they attempt to achieve, negative things continue to happen and perpetually continue to experience losses in their lives hence they assume a hopelessness position. It has also been found out through research that older adults may not easily adapt to the physical changes they are experiencing as a result of aging and hence may have some unrealistic expectation and have a feeling or perception of that they are likely to continue in failure as an adult.

We will write a custom Essay on Depression in Older Adults specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Majority of older adults fall into one or more at-risk groups for depression. Nonetheless, many are not aware of their symptoms of depression and hence do not make a request or seek evaluation. Besides, research indicates that many older adults have resistance towards seeking medical attention due to stigma labeled against mental illnesses.

According to several research activities that have been conducted, it has been found that black older adults are more likely to suffer depression as compared to their white counterparts (Bernal 403). Besides, other research also indicate that races with the majority of low income earners like blacks, Hispanics are more vulnerable to issues of depression than the white counterparts.

Given racial and ethnic discriminations, it is important to state that races that are subject or victims of racial discrimination are more likely to suffer depression; the older elders may resign into perception where they feel inferior to the perceived superior whites and hence cause them hopelessness and depression, especially when they see their loved ones or fellow race members being discriminated against.

Taking the case for Western and other developed nations where slavery was practiced, it is crucial recognize that those who come from races that experienced slavery are highly likely to experience depression than those within former slave masters.

Some of the depression symptoms appearing some adults may be traces of depression during childhood with which the adult might have lived to his or her old age; this is coupled by inferiority complex. Meanwhile, ethnicity has also been found to have effects on depression amongst the older adult population (Bernal 327).

Gender also plays a significant role in depression. There are a number of research that have been done on how gender influence experience of depression. The research findings have been compiled from data collected in most countries of the world. According to the findings, women have higher chances of experiencing depression than men.

Even though it is not clear what really accounts for this, but researchers acknowledge the contribution of several factors which entails impact of estrogen on stress hormones, the common victimization of women through rape and domestic violence and cortisol (Fredén 163).

Other research findings reveal that both men and women share depression to a certain proportion; however, what also contributes to the difference is the fact that both men and women express their depression in gender specific ways. According to available literature, men are known to mask their depression through various forms like excessive drinking. This implies that the differentiation of the rate of depression between men and women is just done by way of illusion (Fredén 167).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Depression in Older Adults by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many studies have been conducted within cultures and also cross-culture with the aim of identifying symptoms of depression in both men and women. It is argued that women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed of major depression.

Even though this difference is great, it is because older women are mostly likely to seek professional assistance as compared to their men counterparts; the implication here is that even though men may suffer equal measure of depression as women, they are less likely to seek the services of a profession to help them handle their depression.

Culturally, in some regions of the world, men are encultured not to express their sadness, stress or depression in public; in fact, men who do so are mostly likely to be considered as having feminine behavior, so they choose to endure depression within them. On the side, women share their grief with friends and expose publicly their depression; this makes it easy to notice. Moreover, men who suffer from depression are associated with mental illness and as has been discussed earlier, feminine (Fredén 167).

Other research has also attempted to link the rate of depression with sexual orientation. Even though older adults are highly likely to have low sexual performance, their sexual orientation has been found to play a significant role in contributing to their depression statuses. Research indicates that lesbians are more depressed than their heterosexual counterparts.

Moreover, even though much study have not been done, older adult population is very common with lesbians. In fact, this may be accounted for by the fact that it cannot be expected that when gays and lesbians get old, they should switch their sexual orientation to heterosexuals.

There are a number of older lesbians and gays and this part of the aging population suffer a lot of stigma from anti-lesbians and anti-gays. It is therefore not unusual to here of depressed and isolated older adults in the society. Due to stigma associated with lesbianism and gay sexual orientation, many of the lesbian and gay older adults suffer depression as not so many people want to identify with them (Melillo, et al 10).

Since the older adults are almost entirely dependent on others for livelihood and medical care, the lesbians and gays suffer from lack of concern, especially from the healthcare departments as they do not recognize the existence of lesbians and they are unresponsive to the fact that being lesbian and gay is also a form of lifestyle that should not be used as a point of individual discrimination.

Due to this, old adults who are heterosexuals are the ones who have greatly benefited from healthcare plans in most countries, particularly in the United States of America. The implication of this is that the lesbians and gays are left out in terms of medical care plans and hence are subjected to depression as they ponder about their heath and how to get medical services (Melillo, et al 10).

One fact is than most lesbian and gay partners live together, but when it comes to old age, one partner is not legally allowed to participate in healthcare decisions of another partner and this even include being barred from funeral arrangement in cases of death of one of the partner. This also subjects them to depression which may aggravate due to poor adjustment to aging situations.

Again gays and lesbians are greatly concerned about their housing; they always wish to live in communities that dominated by homosexuals or at least a community in which people recognize existence and the needs of lesbians and gays. The problem is that these groups of people tend be isolated and may further be far removed from children and the young people who are feared by the society may get influenced by these lesbians and gays.

Contrarily, heterosexual older adults are not likely to suffer any depression arising from any of these factors. Instead, they are well recognized by the society and may not suffer much depression as their homosexual counterparts.

The fact that is that homosexuality is the universally accepted sexual orientation in the world and hence forms a larger society than the lesbian and gay community. The heterosexuals are mostly likely to get consolations from groups like Christians groups which make them cope easily with depression (Melillo, et al 23).

Conclusion Depression is a condition that mostly affects the cognition of a human being. It means different thing to different people; it can be symptomatic as when an individual says he or she is feeling depressed, it also be a sign as when someone observes that another person is depressed or at the same time it can be a disorder that is clinically diagnosed.

Research has indicated that each individual has a pattern of genetic, developmental, environmental, social, personality and physiological factors that coalesce to permit or protect against depression at any point in time. Depression is one of the most disabling conditions among the older adult population in the world today. Depression in older adults is caused by varied numerous factors and may be different from the causative factors leading to depression in the younger people.

In addition to the biological etiology of depression in the older adults, there are vividly cognitively contributing factors. Research has found that race plays a significant role depression amongst older adults; black older adults are more likely to suffer depression as compared to their white counterparts.

Given racial and ethnic discriminations, it is important to state that races that are subject or victims of racial discrimination are more likely to suffer depression; the older elders may resign into perception where they feel inferior to the perceived superior whites and hence cause them hopelessness and depression, especially when they see their loved ones or fellow race members being discriminated against.

Gender also plays a significant role in depression. According to the findings, women have higher chances of experiencing depression than men (Fredén 167). Even though it is not clear what really accounts for this, but researchers acknowledge the contribution of several factors which entails impact of estrogen on stress hormones, the common victimization of women through rape and domestic violence and cortisol.

Other research has also attempted to link the rate of depression with sexual orientation. Even though older adults are highly likely to have low sexual performance, their sexual orientation has been found to play a significant role in contributing to their depression statuses.

Research indicates that lesbians are more depressed than their heterosexual counterparts (Melillo, et al 23). Conversely, heterosexual older adults are likely to get assistances from the general members of the society as they do not engage in what the members of the society may describe as anti-social. Due to this, they are less likely to suffer depression as compared to their lesbian and gay counterparts.

Works Cited Bernal, Guillermo. Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology. New York: SAGE, 2003.

Fredén, Lars. Psychosocial aspects of depression: no way out? New York: Wiley, 1982.

Jefferson, James. Depression and its treatment. New York: American Psychiatric Pub, 1992.

Melillo, Karen et al. Geropsychiatric and mental health nursing. New Jersey: ones


Industry Analysis of Car industry Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The automobile industry is a major contributor to the economy of the United States. The industry requires diversified supply of raw materials from different parts of the world (Zino, 2010, p. 1). Technological advancements have been of great importance in the automobile industry, because they have helped promote the introduction of new models and contribute to the differentiation of the existing ones.

The global economic recession that was experienced in 2007-2009 adversely affected the automobile industry, because it leads to China overtaking the United States in terms of sales growth (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2010, p. 11). The main players in the automobile industry in the United States are Ford Motors, General Motors Company, Chrysler, Toyota and Honda (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

Dominant Economic Characteristics of the Industry There are many customers for automobile products in the global markets, which makes this industry very attractive to many investors. Customers in this industry include individuals, organizations and governments. There is an increasing need for automobile products in the world, especially with the increases in urbanization, industrialization and civilization.

It is notable that the automobile industry has been very profitable, which is another reason that has attracted many investors. Because the cost of raw materials for manufacturing cars is very high, companies in this industry focus on economies of scale. As such, manufacturing many products gives profits to the existing companies in the market.

Barriers of entry to the automobile industry include high capital requirements and legal restrictions. In addition, establishing a good product image in the global markets is important, and this requires operating in the market for many years. New companies find it difficult to overcome stiff competition in the market, because the existing companies have built a strong customer loyalty and brand image for their products.

The learning curve effect explains the causes of this dominance by the existing companies in the industry, because new companies require a lot of time to learn the market trends and establish a solid background about the existing customers (Feenstra, 1989, p. 103). Most of the existing companies in the US automobile industry have established a strong foundation about their position, making it very hard for new firms to penetrate the market.

The pace of technological change is increasing and new technologies are being developed to reduce cost of production and produce better products. It is important to note that new car models are continuously being invented, because most of adoption of innovative technologies by many existing automobile companies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Efficient and effective manufacturing processes are also continuously being developed, which is reducing the cost of production and minimizing losses (House of Representatives, 2002, p. 29). An example of this is Lean manufacturing, which is a process of innovation that is being adopted by companies in the automobile industry, that are aimed at reducing the losses incurred in production, while improving efficiency in production (Fukuyama, Shulsky, United States Army, and Center, 1997, 24).

Five Forces Model based Industry Analysis Threat of new entrants

Threats of new firms entering the market are low, because there are many barriers of entry. The initial costs of establishing an automobile company are very high, and they restrict many investors from entering the industry. The existing companies in the industry have established a good product image in the international market, which makes it almost impossible for new companies to enter the industry.

Because the automobile industry requires companies to sell products to many customers all over the world, creating a good product image takes time. Customers in the global markets have become loyal to certain products which they have known for many years, and this hinders new firms from entering the market (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

New companies also find it difficult to work with the existing channels of distribution, which is another major barrier of entry into this industry. These barriers to entry, help the current companies within the industry, because it reduces the possibility of more competition, and increases their potential profitability.

Bargaining Power of the Buyers

Buyers in the industry have a low level of bargaining power. In the United States there are a small amount of companies manufacturing cars that are supplying to the larger amounts of customers in the market.

As such, the customers have no control over the activities of these companies, because they cannot manufacture cars themselves (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1). Many customers purchase in small units, and there is no single buyer with exclusive control over the industry. The industry experiences intense product differentiation hence, there are a variety of products in this industry, giving the customer even less power.

Products in the automobile industry are not standardized, because different car models are manufactured by different companies and are appealing to different buyers. Customers can purchase from several sellers and the cost of switching from one brand to another is minimal. Although the cost of switching is minimized for the customer, the profit the company retains by holding the power of the pricing of their automobiles is another reason that it is an appealing industry.

We will write a custom Report on Industry Analysis of Car industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bargaining Power of the Suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers is average . Suppliers in the industry cannot make cars, and this limits their control over the automobile companies in the market. In fact, suppliers in this industry have total reliance on the automobile companies. Raw materials required to manufacture automobile products are sold in packages, and there is no particular supplier who can supply many materials to an extent that they can control the decisions made by the automobile companies in the industry.

There few suppliers to these companies, which provides them with some power to control car manufacturers (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1). The suppliers also have to keep up with new entrants into their industry, which can cause their prices to fluctuate. If many suppliers are available, the car companies in the industry have more power to get a lower price. But if there are few, the suppliers hold more power because they know there are few competitors that these companies can turn to.

Threat of Substitute Products

The industry encounters a major threat from substitute products, because there are many substitutes in the foreign market. Customers in the United States also have the opportunity to buy cars from other companies around the world, and the costs involved when switching from the US-made cars to foreign cars are small.

This provides them with the opportunity to purchase cars from the dealers with the possibility of more appealing products and/or prices. Another factor that threatens the market, is that there are other means of transportation like trains, bicycles, and air transport (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

All of these substitutes are easily and readily available to customers, which can make it harder to gain and retain buyers. The companies within the industry have to make an impression with potential buyers, as to why they should buy American made cars. An example of this can be seen in the advertising of US car companies, which relate buying an American-made car to being patriotic.

Competitive rivalry between incumbent firms

Rivalry among competitors is very high, because the industry is not a monopoly and opportunities to differentiate products are minimal. Rivalry among companies in this industry is high, because there are minimal opportunities of differentiating products or introducing new products in the market (Carfreaks, 2010, p. 1).

The major automobile company in the industry is General Motors, but other companies still compete for market share in the United States and in other foreign markets. Intense rivalry and competition in the industry has caused poor performance for companies such as Chrysler and Ford, which lead to the of the federal government to help stop them from closing (Axson, 2010, p. 127).

There are dealerships for all US companies located in all areas of the country. It is extremely easy for a buyer to browse easily at multiple domestic companies, especially when most dealerships are usually located in the same areas as one another. Companies must come up with ways to differentiate themselves from domestic competitors, which is usually done through technology, brand association, and even pricing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industry Analysis of Car industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above analysis, it is observed that there are many challenges and rewards in the automobile industry in the United States. There are many barriers of entry which can make investors hesitant, but the amount of profits that existing companies are making can be very appealing.

Rivalry among existing companies in the industry is very high, and there exists many substitutes, which can make it difficult to be profitable. The bargaining power of the buyers is low while the bargaining power of suppliers is moderate, both of which show that the companies within the industry hold almost all of the power.

If one has the large amounts of capital required, and can successfully enter the market, and keep up with advances in automobiles, they have the chance to be very profitable. It would not be an easy or fast transition, because there would be a lot of learning involved with starting out in the industry. In the end, the barriers to the market, as well as high competition between rivals, make it even less attractive.

Works Cited Axson, David A. J. Best Practices in Planning and Performance Management: Radically Rethinking Management for a Volatile World. John Wiley and Sons, 2010. ISBN 0470539798, 9780470539798.

Carfreaks. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis – GM. 16 March, 2009. Web.

Feenstra, Robert C. Trade policies for international competitiveness. University of Chicago Press, 1989. ISBN 0226239497, 9780226239491.

Fukuyama, F., Shulsky, Abram N., United States. Army, and Center, Arroyo. The “virtual corporation” and army organization. Rand Corporation, 1997. ISBN 0833025325, 9780833025326.

House of Representatives. Proceedings and debates of the 107th congress second session, Congressional Record, March 11, 2002; Vol. 148, part 3.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Trends in the Transport Sector 2010. OECD Publishing, 2010. ISBN 9282102718, 9789282102718

Zino, K.U.S. Automobile Industry Makes $500 Billion Dollar Contribution to the Economy. TheDetroitbureau. Apr.22, 2010


Epistemology and Materialism Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Real Life Applications



Introduction In philosophical terms, the concept of matter advances the fact that all things are made up of matter and all thoughts are created as a result of the interaction of matter. Conventionally, materialism argues that matter is the only substance in existence. There are currently many schools in philosophy that explain materialism although evidently, materialism can be equated to idealism and at the same time, materialism theories can be contrasted with idealism and neutral monism (Stalin,1938).

However, these concepts relate to their views on reality and the specific answers they give towards perplexing questions in philosophy. Materialism can be best comprehended through its interaction with other theories of immaterialism because it purports that matter is the primary substance of human thought and it builds on itself. This study will further analyze this concept and identify its contributions and applications.

History Materialism developed from several views developed in possibly different geographical locations. Inherently, the first level of concept development started in the axial age which was largely characterized by the works of Karl Jaspers (George, 1979).

In Indian philosophical circles, materialism developed from the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi and Kanada; in China, it developed from the works of Xun Zi, Yang Xiong and Wang Chong while in Greece, it developed from the works of Anaxagoras, Epicurus and Democritus and Lucretius (George, 1979, p 11).

Earlier principles of materialism were developed from the principles that there was no way something could be built out of nothing and equally, “nothing” could have the effect of touch. These concepts were developed from epistemological studies that majorly concentrated on the train of thought and the nature and scope of knowledge.

Epistemological studies sought to determine what human beings know, the nature of knowledge, the acquisition of knowledge, and if human beings comprehend what they know. Most studies advanced from this school of thought sought to determine what people now term as their beliefs, the truth and the justification that makes concepts truthful. Deeper analyses determined how knowledge is produced and how different claims sum up what we now term as knowledge.

From this school of thought (epistemology) materialism developed because it sought to explain how knowledge is acquired. Materialism therefore came in to identify that matter builds on knowledge. Further, materialism explained that a person can only know material objects through constant mediation in the human mind which is facilitated by how the brain is structured. Baruss (1993) affirms that:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Everything objective, extended, active, and hence everything material, is regarded by materialism as so solid a basis for its explanations that a reduction to this (especially if it should ultimately result in thrust and counter-thrust) can leave nothing to be desired. But all this is something that is given only very indirectly and conditionally” (pp. 254-55)

Real Life Applications All substances in the world regardless of whether they are in solid, liquid or gaseous forms often consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons which are components that mediate fields of different substances. Currently, it is believed that about 5% of the universe is made up of such matter and most universal components are composed of material matter, but there is little agreement regarding what constitutes this matter (Sadoulet, 2007, p. 61).

The Darwin theory is also a real life application of the concept of materialism because it identifies that what we know as organic matter today (with regard to the nature of plants, animals and man) was developed from decades of progressive development. This severely dented concepts advanced by the epistemological stand on nature.

The materialist concept can also be analyzed in form of a quantitative to a qualitative process. For example, when water is at room temperature, it has no effects in its present state but a change in temperature causes a shift in the nature of matter to either gas or liquid.

Another example is that, in order for a platinum wire to glow, a significant amount of matter change needs to be observed in form of heat that changes the state of matter of the platinum wire, enabling it to glow. Every matter can therefore be changed through a shift in the nature of matter as can be seen through the illustration of liquid water which changes to gaseous form and at the same time, it can revert back to liquid form. Stalin (1938) affirms that

“What are known as the constants of physics (the point at which one state passes into another – J. St.) are in most cases nothing but designations for the nodal points at which a quantitative (change) increase or decrease of movement causes a qualitative change in the state of the given body, and at which, consequently, quantity is transformed into quality” (pp. 30).

Real life applications can also be found in the field of chemistry whereby qualitative changes arise as a result of a shift in the quantitative composition of matter. For example, when analyzing the components of oxygen, it involves two atoms but if it were to contain three, we would obtain a new qualitative component: ozone.

We will write a custom Essay on Epistemology and Materialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will be a totally new component which if contrasted with the original oxygen; is distinctively different in terms of odor while its reaction is also totally different. In the same regard, we can also obtain a totally different substance if we react oxygen with sulphur or nitrogen (two matters mixing) because we will obtain a different substance that also has a totally different matter composition from the parent substances.

Conclusion Contrary to most concepts that purport a different view other than the materialistic view (like the idealistic view), materialism observes that matter is a realistic thing and not a cognitive sensation as is asserted by the epistemological view (Baruss, 1993, p. 254).

Matter is therefore quite distinct from our thoughts while consciousness is a secondary form that comes from an interaction of matter. Human thought is therefore reflective of matter and it is also a reflection of a high level interaction of matter that occurs in the brain. Materialism therefore asserts that thought is a direct product of matter and that trying to differentiate the two would be a wrong thing. Stalin (1938) affirms that:

“The material, sensuously perceptible world to which we ourselves belong is the only reality…. Our consciousness and thinking, however supra-sensuous they may seem, are the product of a material, bodily organ, the brain. Matter is not a product of mind, but mind itself is merely the highest product of matter” (p. 27).

In a way, we can deduce the fact that materialism was a development of epistemology because it sought to answer important questions of epistemology asking: How do we know what we know? And what is knowledge? Bluntly, materialism answers this questions by affirming that human beings know what they know as a result of interaction of matter and knowledge is a product of a high level of matter interaction in a most sophisticated level of brain development.

References Baruss, I. (1993). Can We Consider Matter As Ultimate Reality? Some Fundamental.

Problems with a Materialist Interpretation of Reality. Ultimate Reality and Meaning: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Philosophy of Understanding, 16(3-4), 245–254.

George, N. (1979). The Origins of Materialism. New York: Pathfinder Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Epistemology and Materialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sadoulet, B. (2007). Particle Dark Matter in the Universe: At the Brink of Discovery? Science, 315(5808), 61–63.

Stalin, J. (1938). Dialectical and Historical Materialism. Retrieved from


Concept of Distance Learning in Modern Education System Essay writing essay help

Introduction Distance learning is defined as a program or course offered by a university or school that provides educational opportunities and is to be completed remotely.

Other terms defining distance learning include online learning, E-learning and distance education. In the modern world, majority of distant learning are conducted online by accessing a computer equipped with the internet services. In spite of this distance learning being a broad term, it also involves traditional correspondence courses that are completed through the mail (wiseGEEK, 2010).

Factors affecting distance learning Accessibility: Technology is a vital element in distant learning. The accessibility of the distance learning courses mainly depend on the awareness of the instructor to the accessibility issues and how the instructor can best handle the course with consideration of accessibility (Cook and Harniss, 2007). Difficulties in accessibility arise when the distance learning concerns people with disabilities e.g. the blind. Moreover, physical accessibility is successfully tackled by distance learning where one does not need to go to class for a lecture (college guide, 2010).

Opportunities: Opportunities unveiled by the distance learning are numerous. Apart from completing 100% of the course via the internet, one can attain knowledge and skills for field choices from the distance learning due to constant updating of the programs (Lloyd, 2007). in addition, opportunities provided by distance learning are not equal after all mainly due to lack of consideration of the disabled people by the educational institutions while selecting features of courseware packages that will suit their instructors and students (Cook and Harniss, 2007).

Barriers: Tipton (2007) cites Language and time differences as the main barriers, which affect the distance learning. This is because the internet has made the world a global neighborhood.

Advantages of distance learning

There are a number of merits associated with distance learning. First, there is no commuting, which means that the distance learning saves time and resources that can otherwise be put into better use. Second, in distance learning majority of the classes are asynchronous; that means it is not compulsory for one to attend a lecture at a stipulated time (college guide, 2010). Third, there is self-paced learning whereby, fast and slow learners are both considered in distance learning, where one can study at a convenient pace (college guide, 2010).

Disadvantages of distance learning

Despite gaining popularity in modern times, distance learning is constrained the following factors among others. First, the program is relatively complex and costly whereby, the program is facilitated by modern technical facilities, which are usually costly (college guide, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, there is social isolation whereby, majority of the students undertake the distance learning individually, thus making them feel isolated from the rest of the society (college guide, 2010).

The gap between “Haves” and “have nots”

In one way or the other, distance learning has contributed to increasing the gap between the “haves” and “have nots”. The high cost involved in enrolling and undertaking the distance learning discriminates the “have nots” from enrolling in the distance learning courses. In addition to this, the modern equipments used in distance learning may not be affordable to all, thus increasing the gap.

Conclusion Despite the barriers and the disadvantages associated with distance learning, the world has embraced distance learning as one of the major component in the modern education system. Advancement of technology has also aided in advancing distance learning globally.

References Cook, D., Harniss, M. (2007). Accessibility and distance learning: An overview. Web.

College guide. (2010). Advantage and disadvantage of distance learning. Web.

Lloyd, B. C. (2007). Distance learning. Web.

Tipton, J. (2007). What’s The Difference between Distance Learning and American Public Schools? Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Distance Learning in Modern Education System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More WiseGEEK. (2010). What is distance learning. Web.


Demand in Health Care Economics Essay essay help online: essay help online

Similar to most goods, the demand of services increases with the increase of income among consumers. It also depends on the quality of the stated services and thus better services are demanded more than poor services. Health care services are no exception. Their demand rise and fall in response to price changes and consumer income changes. The health care market is also influenced by the accessibility of information and the precision between the general practitioner, who is the supplier and the patient-consumer.

Another major determinant of demand for both private and public health care is the insurance premiums rates. The insurance companies, therefore, form a major element in health care economics since they play the role of offering guarantee to the prices charged by medical practitioners.

This however poses a problem in that the medical professionals operates aiming at attaining a certain amount of compensation while all that the insurance companies need is to make profit and as long as they are profitable, then they are contented. The need to provide quality healthcare is not their duty. This is the reason why both medical expenses and insurance premiums keep escalating while the quality of healthcare decreases leaving no space for the genuine delivery of services (Mankiw, 2009, p. 1).

This can actually be solved by getting rid of the insurance companies leaving the medical profession to deal with the customers directly. Otherwise, the government can seriously regulate all the factors that affect health care and ensure consumers of healthcare services are not exploited. This is achievement by making the necessary legislation for proper control of health provision.

Change of behavior is also an exemplary intervention in the health sector and the key to good health. It can be achieved by formally or informally educating people on healthy ways of living or by practicing simple personal behavior such as: washing hands, seeking treatment in time, managing tuberculosis by carefully observing treatment, avoiding HIV infection.

The main idea of behavior change and communication is to provide the public with the necessary information that will enable the people to access good quality health services with little regulations. It also aims at providing people with information on the necessary issues, such as treatment guidelines on regular diseases, proper use of over-the-counter drugs (Cardoso, 2008, p. 9).

As highlighted in the above discussion, appropriate legislation is necessary in order to stabilize the demand of healthcare services. This will also ensure that consumers of health care services are provided with high quality services. It is also necessary to powerfully advocate for cooperation between governments and international organizations and financial institutions. This will ensure that all stakeholders in provision of healthcare services are involved in policy formulation and implementation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human rights approaches have lately been emphasized in the health sector to help increase the demand of health care services. These fundamental rights give citizens certain rights such as freedom from discrimination based on the sex of an individual, torture, slavery, etc. These rights are a precondition to a healthy living; they protect citizens from manipulation.

The health rights which are provided by constitutional laws gives an individual the right to claim any form of treatment or health care at any particular time. These rights have thus advocated for better services and, consequently, more healthcare services are demanded (Cardoso, 2008, p. 7).

Reference List Cardoso, C. (2008). Health Economics or Health Care Economics. Web.

Mankiw, G. (2009). Supply, Demand, and Healthcare Reform. Retrieved from


Why Chinese Culture Leads to High Plagiarism Rate in Chinese Universities Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Research Methodology

Expected Outcome


Cost and Expenses


Introduction The issue of plagiarism in China and other Asian countries has worried scholars from the west and the rest of the world for centuries. The scholars live in constant fear of being denied the rightful ownership of their academic work.

The communism ideals in China dictate that all property (including ideas) is owned by the community and should therefore remain a property of the community. This makes it hard for university students to give credit to an individual for something that rightfully belongs to the community. It is important to look where this notion came from in order to look for effective ways of fighting the vice. Given its magnitude, the problem in Chinese universities cannot be solved overnight.

There is need for patience and overhaul of the existing education system that is itself a byproduct of plagiarism. By having the right mindset, we can succeed in identifying the underlying causes of the problem and effectively solve it. This will be the main goal of the research paper. Although this is hard to attain, the research has an objective of proposing small steps to be taken towards achieving the main goal. (Altbach, 2010)

Literature Review The large amount of literature that has been dedicated to plagiarism in Chinese universities emphasizes the impact that culture has on the issue. This chapter will give a review of the secondary literature available on the subject. With the world having become a global village, education systems have to be harmonized to provide a fair playing ground for students from every part of the world. Different theories are appraised according to their role and significance to the present topic, that is, the rate of plagiarism in Chinese universities.

According to Martin (1994), high-ranking officials perpetuate plagiarism when they use junior staff to write their speeches and later on fail to acknowledge them. Yusof (2009) upholds this claim by inferring that this trend moves down to the lower officials and finally to students making it even more complex. Yusof (2009) further claims that the idea of plagiarism is foreign to students especially from Chinese setting.

According to Gill (2008), having insight in the Chinese cultural dimensions is the first step toward tackling this dynamic problem. Altbach (2010) identifies China’s academic culture as a key issue hindering the plagiarism fight in Chinese universities. According to Friedma


Othello and Desdemona: Emotional Strangers Essay writing essay help

In William Shakespeare’s play Othello, the main character is a man named Othello. He is a Moor, a man with dark skin, who has earned his way to the rank of commanding general in Venice. The play opens with Othello, appearing in nightclothes before an angry mob, trying to defend himself against the accusation that he has shamed the daughter of a wealthy Venetian merchant by joining her in bed.

Iago, another character, helps to incite the mob, but Desdemona appears next to Othello, telling them that she is absolutely devoted to Othello and the two of them are married. It is one of the things that Shakespeare is praised for that these two characters are able to demonstrate such strong emotion.

Their love for each other is seen in their unwavering devotion in this first test of their relationship as they face down the town. However, even this intense emotion, perhaps especially this sort of intense emotion, can easily work against itself. This is demonstrated throughout the play as Iago carefully manipulates Othello’s perceptions, playing off of his insecurities and enflaming his jealousies to the point of violence.

Unaware of what is happening, Desdemona continues to show her fierce devotion to her husband which both blinds her to the truth of Othello’s murderous emotions and feeds them. In the end, both Desdemona and Othello are blinded by their emotions, preventing them from seeing reality which leads to their deaths.

Even before Desdemona appears in the play, it is clear to the audience that she loves Othello beyond all reason. Although much of this idea is perhaps lost on a modern audience, Shakespeare’s audience would have been shocked at the idea that a young girl of good breeding would think to marry someone without her father’s approval or knowledge and that she would marry a man of a different race at a time when that was rare.

She is not a bad girl, though, as she shows her father sincere devotion as soon as she comes on stage. She tells him, “To you I am bound for life and education; / My life and education both do learn me / How to respect you: you are the lord of duty; / I am hitherto your daughter” (I, iii, 182-85). In these lines, she recognizes the care and devotion he’s given her, acknowledges the gifts he’s bestowed upon her and admits that up to this point, she belonged entirely to him.

However, she then says that her duty has been transferred to Othello, who she has taken as her husband. If it is thought that perhaps race didn’t mean anything to the people back then, Desdemona’s father’s reaction to her marriage removes any doubt. This is something Desdemona apparently doesn’t feel is important even though it will limit her social circle. These considerations continue to illustrate the degree of dedication Desdemona feels for Othello.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Othello begins to express his jealousy, Desdemona does nothing to condemn his behavior. Instead, she agonizes trying to figure out what she might have done to upset him. She never thinks perhaps he is acting unjustly, irrationally or improperly nor does she think that her promises to Cassio might have a role in Othello’s strange behavior. Because her love for Othello is so strong, it doesn’t occur to her to consider he might suspect her intentions regarding Cassio.

Knowing him to be a just man and a capable leader, she cannot believe he would think such things of her or of his once-favorite. This strong emotion for him coupled with her puzzlement over his recent behavior makes it impossible for her to realize the dangerous state of Othello’s emotions or their nature. However, even in the final moments before she dies, Desdemona continues to express love for her husband and satisfaction at her choice for marriage.

Unlike Desdemona, who seems to have a pure and innocent nature, Othello allows jealousy and suspicion to rule him throughout most of the play despite his own innate innocence. In the opening scene, Othello shows why he was able to achieve his high rank even though he was a stranger to the Venice society.

He is a strong adherent to the military code of honor. This code of honor meant strong adherence to a specific set of expected behaviors which included honorable combat among matched foes, adherence to home society laws, fundamental trust of fellow soldiers and an action-oriented approach to life.

In defending Desdemona and his marriage, Othello shows his appreciation for this code in his willingness to argue and defend his position while refusing to take up arms against a man vastly inferior in fighting ability and family by marriage. The higher a person’s rank, the more he is expected to honor the code and, as seems the case with Othello, the harder it is for him to conceive of someone else breaking it.

Whereas Desdemona starts the play arguing for their love, Othello receives the first blow to his faith in his wife. This blow comes from her father as he expresses his own fit of rage. He warns Othello, “Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see: / She has deceived her father, and may thee” (I, iii, 292-93). Iago exploits Othello’s soldier’s code after hearing the father’s word as he talks about Othello’s “free and open nature / That thinks men honest that but seem to be so; / And will as tenderly be led by th’ nose / As asses are” (I, iii, 393-96). Thus, Iago uses this moment of doubt and suspicion and his own knowledge of Othello’s inner beliefs and insecurities as a means of poisoning the newlyweds.

Rather than understanding Desdemona’s attempts to reunite him to his friend for what they were, Othello hears the ideas that Iago has put in his head about a possible relationship between Desdemona and Cassio. When he sees Desdemona talking earnestly with Cassio, he assumes the worst even though her words, “Do not doubt, Cassio, / But I will have my lord and you again / As friendly as you were” (III, iii, 5-7), reveal her pure intentions and Othello’s central role in their minds.

We will write a custom Essay on Othello and Desdemona: Emotional Strangers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the nobility and command Othello demonstrates at the beginning of the play, his emotions regarding Desdemona are too overpowering for him to see clearly. Not until his rage is worked out in action does Othello calm down enough to start thinking again. As he learns of her true innocence and his own foolishness, he understands that he cannot live with the tremendous guilt at having killed his love and he runs himself through with his sword.

Both Desdemona and Othello are too blinded by their emotions to be able to see truth. Desdemona tries to demonstrate through her words and actions that she loves Othello and only Othello, but she is unable to see that her attempts at reassurance are only making the misunderstanding deeper. Othello, because of the way in which Iago has painted the scene, is only capable of seeing the ugliness that Iago has suggested.

He accepts it because he has survived by listening to his men before anyone and believing Iago has the same fierce loyalty to his captain that Othello feels for his superior. Had Desdemona not been blind to Othello’s doubts of her love, she might have found a way to reach him. Had Othello not been blinded by his complicated emotions forcing him to fall back on his soldier’s code, he would not have reached the point of violence

Works Cited Shakespeare, William. “Othello.” The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Alfred Harbage (Ed.). New York: Penguin Books, 1969.


Difficult Gospel Term Paper online essay help: online essay help

The gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ renews our thinking and re-directs our ways in the knowledge that there is nothing we can ever do in our own strength that will be sufficient to earn us peace. Jacob tried various ways and means to reconcile himself back to his uncle and his brother Esau, he tried every form of bribery which proved unsuccessful.

Esau brushed away all the offered luxuries and accepted Jacob unconditionally with lots of favour. This act brought new dawn into Jacob’s life which made him recognize the likeness of God the father (Highton 2004, 15). The consequent results of deceitfulness often make us think that we can always negotiate ourselves back to freedom and acceptance. The divine scope of God’s love is revealed through the lifestyle of Jesus Christ (Highton 2004, 28-30).

It is difficult for transformation to take place when life’s foundation is built on the principles of defensiveness. Gospel is all about unconditional love that accepts us irrespective of our background. The love of God spells out freedom that disorganizes our self defensive mechanisms and presents us with the reality of life.

“It saps the deep belief that our place in the world is something to be ‘laboriously perfected, precariously possessed and violently defended” (Highton 2004, 17).

Despite all forms of competition that we face in every dimension of our lives, we need not operate on assumptions but know that on our own we’ve got limited control; there is freedom in the gospel. William says;

“The Gospel frees us from fear and fantasy… it is the great enemy of self-indulgent fantasy” (Highton 2004, 25).

The love from the gospel upholds us with such concern that enables us recognize our true selves in the hands of God. We have to pass through discipline processes to be able to accept all these and be justified (Highton 2004, 18). Gospel is not a private matter since it teaches us on how to relate with others, it breaks all boundaries and make one to realise how important his/her life is to others, just as Jesus said;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the son of Man has nowhere to lay his head” (Highton 2004, 21-31).

God is the supreme authority and does not take pleasure in the death of his people. People have taken God’s absolute love for mankind for granted and sometimes tried to manipulate things to suite their own desires other than God’s. The use of theology in understanding the love of God can sometimes be insufficient. God’s love is well defined through the life of Jesus of Nazareth; it triumphs over power and judgement (Highton 2004, 39). This is reflected by the answer to the question of objector

“In what court could we possibly bring God’s arbitrary power to trial?” (Highton 2004, 39)

The answer is only in the Gospel. The central theme of Christian life should revolve around the revelation brought by the life of Jesus of Nazareth. All the power and authority that controls mankind should be drawn from life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Highton 2004, 40).

It is in the power of the Gospel to shape the behaviour and thinking of Christians. Theology needs to be restructured to reveal more about the true love of God that triumph over power (Highton 2004, 41-42). Christian theology should portray God as one who is not limited by space and time

“There is nowhere we can go in God, no extra we can think about or point to, no reservation, no sanctuary in which God is not engaged, involved, loving and relational” (Highton 2004, 42).

Man should not direct God instead it should be vice-versa. All creation should depend on their creator’s principles for survival. Man must realise that God is all we need to discover ourselves and to shape up our destinies. God is omnipresent and hence cannot be confined as an idol; His presence through Jesus Christ is beyond comprehension (Highton 2004, 49).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Difficult Gospel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lack of knowledge about who God is in our lives prevents us from enjoying and accessing the divine glory. The way of the cross though seem unpleasant, is the only avenue in which our hearts can grow to accommodate the fullness of God. We should live a life of total radical surrender to God.

The Gospel is first heard before it can be proclaimed; one must first be taught the basics underlying the Gospel. It is through teaching that one can understand God’s love through Jesus and the Christian faith that proclaims it. God’s love is clearly revealed through biblical history which contains reality about God.

This implies that the scriptures should be studied with deep understanding since true witness about God is shown through the scripture texts. People have devised several ways on how to avoid scripture truths. They are used to ways that they can easily twist to satisfy their insatiable desires. The roughness of the scripture requires sober study and understanding while acknowledging the fact that it takes time to unfold the meaning of the whole text (Highton 2004, 64).

Studying the scriptures should not in any way involve ignoring some parts that seem bitter. It should be studied in its entirety since there are lessons that should be learnt even in the scriptures that look uncomfortable.

“The bible is not a human record from the distant past, full of a mixture of inspiring and not-so-inspiring stories or thoughts; nor is it a sort of magical oracle, dictated by God. It is rather the utterances and records of human beings who have been employed by God to witness to his action in the world, now given to us by God so that we may learn who he is and what he does; and the ‘giving’ by God is by means of the resurrection of Jesus.

The risen Jesus takes hold of the history of God’s people from its remotest beginnings, lifts it out of death by bringing it to completeness, and presents it to us as his word, his communication to us here and now” (Highton 2004, 67).

God uses different kinds of people to teach us lessons through the bible. The church is used as an instrument in teaching the Gospel and pointing the right way to the society (Highton 2004, 68 -69). The church is however not the bearer of complete righteousness that it spread to others, only Jesus Christ presents the complete righteousness.

The revelation on this Gospel comes through continual learning process (Highton 2004, 75). The language of the Gospel should be learnt by every Christian to permit faithful operations and to avoid church doctrines that may bring unnecessary confusion (Highton 2004, 87).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Difficult Gospel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Gospel is a source of nourishment that makes Christians to grow spiritually from immaturity to maturity. Adulthood maturity enables one to be receptive to the word and at the same time able to teach it out. Mature Christian living encompasses a life of giving and receiving brought about as a result of spiritual nourishment.

Everybody grows by the grace that God has abundantly given us. Maturity comes with the realization that we are in control of our environments, have choices to make and must exercise self-control. The level of what we have received determines the extent to which we can perform. This is mostly influenced by the kind of teachings we receive and the environment where we have been brought up (Highton 2004, 89-93).

“My actions have had effects and meanings I never foresaw or intended; even the meanings I did intend have become involved with the speech and the story of other lives” (Highton 2004, 94).

However, there is need we realise that all we have is as a result of acceptance by a Supreme Being. There is a call for complete trust and dependence upon God who enables us to live in this material world with absolute control and without any form of resentment. The Christian life can only find peace after being inhabited by the word of God.

The scripture do not in anyway grants us away of escape from the world but shows us how to relate with it. There is hope for redemption from the Scriptures hence Christians should strive to live meaningful lives in the world. The journey towards perfection is long and tedious but rewarding in the long run (Highton 2004, 98). The journey leads towards godliness and requires great patience and attentiveness.

There is need for harmony amongst every group of individuals within the society. God is the creator of diversity and also peace and justice. Human beings are all headed towards a common destination; this should grant us the visibility to see the need of living together in peace.

This can only be achieved when Jesus Christ, the prince of peace, forms the central theme of our lives. This is what will make us loose our differences and earthly desires. Jesus showed us through his own lifestyle how we can live our lives for God. He deals with individual lives and transforms them into his likeness through the work of the Holy Spirit (Highton 2004, 116).

Different religions have different teachings administered to their followers which in-turn influences the way they behave privately and publicly. Christians should bear Christ-like nature everywhere they go so as to give an example to other religions on what it means to have the peace and the love Jesus within the heart (Highton 2004, 121).

The vision of achieving peace within the world only comes when we undergo difficult situations that enable us not only to give but to receive much. Christ through the Gospel has the ability to transform any life. For people to co-exist and relate in harmony they must first understand the fact that they belong to each other as William says

“Christians will believe that we are all held in God’s loving regard, and called to a common future, and that means that whether our disagreements are resolved or prove intractable, we simply can’t dispense with one another; we can’t avoid one another” (Highton 2004, 124).

This means that individuals within a society must dialogue to cooperate and learn from one another’s inefficiencies .This is what is referred to as politics; it helps in discovering unity within the diversity. Despite all these, revealing the character of God should be the ultimate goal for all Christians (Highton 2004, 134).

Making moral decisions seem demanding but is necessary for the fulfilment of a life committed to God. Atkins diet morality states that

“we see ourselves as consumers faced with a supermarket shelf of possibilities; we check our rule book to see which ones we are not allowed, and then happily and without deliberation are able to do whatever we like with the items that remain” (Highton 2004, 135).

This suggests that life is full of several choices upon which we have the authority to decide on which principle or choice to follow (Highton 2004, 136). Making the right choices with ultimate goal of revealing God’s character is far much demanding. All our actions should focus on the mutual edification of the body of Christ. Before making any decision in life Christians should seek help from God through prayer.

Answer to moral dilemmas lies in careful study of the scriptures and putting into practice what the Gospel teaches. Sexual desire is one of the strongest emotions, it leads to exposing ourselves to others in order to be desired, loved and held (Highton 2004, 143).

This means that sexual relationship can be used in such a way as to edify the body of Christ. Sexual relationships should not be used as a means of reducing others as mere objects of perversion. The kind of sexual practices that are in line with the Scriptures are those that are led and insired by the spirit.

Conclusion God’s true love to mankind is revealed throughout the scriptures. God so loved the world through the experiences of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection. The spirit of the Lord is responsible for the work of shaping the lives believers into godly lives. Christians should allow the fullness of God to control their day to day living. Christian faith is born out of belief and full trust in the word of God, out of this there is assurance of eternal joy and peace in the Holy Ghost.

Reference List Highton, Mike. 2004. Difficult Gospel: The Theology of Rowan Williams, 14-152. New York, NY: Church Publishing Incorporated.


Parents Need Help: Restricting Access to Video Games Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help

The latest generations of games are facilities complex and emergent interaction using elements of Artificial Intelligent (AI) technology within new social and cultural worlds.

These environments helps students learn by demanding integration of higher-order thinking skills, social engagement, and technology within a challenging, learner-centered instructional setting, although some of them have adverse negative effects. The effort to develop games is not merely an attempt to create relevance for today’s tech-savvy students, but rather it is a movement to invigorate the social studies with the wonderful educative power of technology (Conrad, 2010).

For along time, people have held the perspective that, it is the responsibility of parents to look after their children. To some extent, this is true although the results may not be that good. The society too has a responsibility of looking after these children especially now that the world is going through many changes socially, economically, and technologically. Parents can not be able to solely look after their children because they may not be able to educate them in some issues.

With the advancement in technology, many things have changed and communication has become easy. Almost every one (including the children) can access the internet which is have now become a necessity in many homes? Some of these games can be accessed over the internet (Roddel, 2009). Some children are even smarter than their parents and can be able to access much information from the internet more than the parents can think of.

It is clear that, these children need other people who can guide then in shunning away from such behaviors. The society is an agent of socialization and through it children are able to learn and appreciate who they are. It is through this socialization that children make friends (some good and some bad). A parent may not be in a position to know who the child meets once he is out of the house and therefore needs the help of the society (Whitehead, 2005).

Video games have become popular in many parts of the world and children like playing them. However, not all these games are good for the development of the children. Some of these games contain pornographic content which may be detrimental to the children. As far as the society may be willing to lend a hand in protecting these children in accessing such materials, the parent has a greater role to play. For instance, children like emulating what is done in the house because they think it is good.

If a parent watches video games in the presence of the children, he can not be able to restrict the children from doing the same. Parents are in a position to control what the child does in the house. First he has to earn the child’s respect if he is to succeed in bringing him up. He has to avoid watching or involving himself in some activities which he believes are bad. It is the work of the parent to control or dictate what should be watched and at what time and what should not be watched at all.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The parents should scrutinize what the child takes into the house before he uses it; he has to read the contents of each video game before allowing the child to watch. If he finds something questionable about the game, he has a right stop the child from watching it and instead of being harsh towards the child; he can buy him something educative and advice him on the dangers of watching bad video games.

It is the work of the parent to ensure that children get the right information from what they watch. This can be done through taking a thorough preview of the games that are to be viewed by kids. Also a parent can take his/her time to preview the websites that are friendly to the kids then encourage the kids to view them.

This will reduce the chances of the kid viewing pornographic content because kid friendly sites rarely show pornographic content (Olson, 2007). Much of the money used by these kids to buy video games comes from the parents. It is the work of the parent to ensure that, the child gets only what is important for him and should avoid giving him unnecessary monies.

Teachers should work in collaboration with the parents in bringing up the children. When a parent takes the children to school, it does not mean that he is incapable of bringing them up but because the children have to be educated and taught some of the things the parent may be ignorant about. Teachers should not only educate the children to fulfill their responsibility as the curriculum dictates, but should take the responsibility of instilling discipline in these children (Baek, 2008).

Video games can be used in schools for both entertainment and education. Presently, there has been the raising debate on the use serious games in schools. These are games used by the teachers to teach children issues that would rather take time or be boring if taught in class. These games have some entertainment and also some educative aspect in them. Serous games have a precise and cautiously spelt-out educational purpose and are not in any way intended for entertainment (Zyda, 2007).

According to Kremers (2009), serious games are used in the education sector primarily for solving problems. He observes that just like other games, serious games are entertaining although they are designed for the purpose of training, investigating, and/ or advertising. They do not form part of a game genre but they are a specific category of games used for solving different problems. By watching serous games, children develop the yearning to learn more from then, and this decreases the chances of the child watching bad video games.

Children develop listening and communications skills through plays and socialization, right from tender age they are involved in a number of games, which may be manipulated to form an artificial setting aimed at developing certain skills in the child. Instead of letting child watch video games and the like, the teachers together with the principals and educational administrators should set aside a day or some few minutes every day when children are allowed to be creative and act in games (Singell, 1971).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Parents Need Help: Restricting Access to Video Games specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People in daily life constantly invent and reinvent situations in order to learn from them. Yet too often people fail to recognize that reinventing a situation in which one has been an actor and perhaps reliving or revising decisions made is, in effect, to play a game.

According to Wyld (2009), the abstract representation of real life in game form does not render the game any less capable of teaching “true” knowledge. He observes that, one does not have to be Shakespeare to understand his plays, but acting in the plays can yield a more vivid and lasting view of Shakespeare than would a teacher’s reading of the plays to a class.

The government too has a role to play in ensuring that, children do not access video games. Laws should be put in place that restricts the sale of video games to children under the age of 18 years. However some kids are smarter than we would think and may ask other people to buy them on their behalf or even bribe to get these games. It therefore remains the primary role of the parent since he is the only one in a position to restrict what is taken into the house and where the child goes.

Reference List Baek, Y. (2008). What hinders teachers in using computer and video games in the classroom? Exploring factors inhibiting the uptake of computer and video games. Cyber psychology


Strategic Management: Culture and Planning Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The aim of this research is to critically evaluate two schools of thoughts of Strategic Management, culture and planning. The role of culture and planning has been increased in the productivity, developments and then perfection of the national as well as the multinational organisation in this globalization world. In this respect, this study will initially consider the origin and the basic principles of each of the school of thought.

This paper will also present a critique of each school of thought, in addition with the example of an organisation that has either successfully or unsuccessfully pursued this cultural and planning observation.

Origin of each SoT (Cultural and Planning Culture is the outcome of widespread knowledge and backgrounds that really drives the culture in its essence-are the wise, distributed, taken-for-granted assumptions on which persons groundwork their every day behaviour. Culture is the outcome of mutual knowledge and backgrounds.

It works out one-by-one demeanour, collective demeanour, and the procedures of seeing, concern patterns and values (Zammunto and Krakower, 2001, 83-114.). The source of the formation of culture is a highly pragmatic, junction discovering method over time where a certain set about was taken to overwhelm a difficulty, to deal with a kind of connection or to fit into the organisation’s natural environment and the outcome was successful.

There is a possibility that rapid advances could be implemented wrongly with incorrect credible sourcing. It had been observed and noted to happened previously. The bias should habitually be to outlook your culture as power, because it is a composite of the seen determinants to which past achievements are attributed.

Culture builds up a specific society’s behaviour. Business organizations, like communal schemes need a very fast and productive connection scheme method in alignment to effectively come to their targets. In the Citigroup organisation, the enterprise culture is personal to the demeanour of each one-by-one employee (Jenkins and Collier, 2007, 1-7).

The enterprise tends to “overemphasize interior determinants and underemphasize external causes”. According to the research by Quinn and Spreitzer (2001), Culture is the addition total of all the distributed, taken-for-granted, often subconscious assumptions that an assembly has wise all through its history. “Its evolution can be traced all the way back to the organisation’s initial “reason for being” or raison d’etre and the one-by-one culture of the founder” (Quinn


International Marketing Tervis Tumbler product Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Product Description

Cultural Influences

Product and promotional emphasis

Works Cited

Product Description Tervis Tumblers, a family owned company produces the ultra sonically sealed indestructible tumblers, which come in six different sizes together with a 2.5qt ice bucket.

The company makes use of double walled technology in producing the tumblers as well as the ice buckets and this greatly aids in insulation properties as well as personalized design. The fact that Tervis tumblers bear specific logos, words, or pictures as per the customer’s request has greatly promoted the products. It is also worth noting that customers get a lifetime guarantee on the Tervis tumblers that they buy; this means that if the products are damaged during normal usage, a replacement is guaranteed.

In the year 2006, the company’s sales grew by 38% through September, and in the same year, Tervis Tumblers was named the company of the year by the Sarasota County Economic Development Corporation in the United States (Anon Para 1).

Tervis Tumblers currently has the headquarters in North Venice, Florida and most of its products are sold in the United States. Bearing in mind the quality of the products it is imperative to think of how well the product would sell internationally. Moreover, according to Lynn (Para. 3), most of the tervis tumblers cost between US $10 and US $14 whereas the ice buckets go for US $40 in the market.

Cultural Influences Tervis tumblers have been widely marketed in many parts of the world but hardly in Africa. In Africa, one of the countries with the most stable economies and very high purchasing power is South Africa. In 2009, the country had an annual GDP purchasing power parity of US $ 488.6 and its Per capita GDP is US$ 10000; and according to UNICEF (2008) statistics, South Africa has an adult literacy rate of 88%. Due to these reasons, South Africa is an ideal candidate for international marketing of Tervis tumblers.

In addition, South Africa has one of the most diverse and culturally rich societies in the world. Moreover, South Africans are very hospitable and the country is actually home a variety of cultures including the black people, whites, colored, and Indians among others (South Africa – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette Para 1).

South Africans have very close family ties and they largely operate on mutual trust in their relationships. Those who live in rural regions are more culturally conservative than the urban dwellers and as such, city dwellers are often materialistic and live on the fast lane. Therefore, the immediate target market for the products should be the city dwellers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this will greatly depend on the specific ethnic group the company will be dealing with putting in mind that each of the three main ethnic communities – British, Boers, and native Africans – has unique cultural heritage and purchasing behavior (Ahlstrom and Bruton 228).

South Africans highly value the creative arts, with many musicians, movie stars, and authors being highly acclaimed all over the world. Arts galleries are held all over the country, most of which cater for tourists.

The South Africans’ love for arts is one aspect that would highly be exploited for Tervin tumblers’ marketing purposes considering that the tumblers are embossed with the customer’s design/artwork of choice. South Africans also love the national colors, especially because they value their cultural heritage. Indeed, a product containing or colored in the national colors would be highly marketable.

Product and promotional emphasis This being a new product in South Africa, importing it from the United States to cut down on the colossal costs of setting up a manufacturing plant will be more appealing. In South Africa, many goods, especially industrial inputs are imported duty free and where duty is applied, the rates are always competitive (Guide to importing into South Africa Para. 5).

Moreover, the country has become one of the prime market targets for many global producers of various products in the recent years, thus Tervis Tumblers will have to move fast to exploit this attractive market (Wilson, Abiola and World Bank 248). This therefore means that the product will not end up being too expensive because of transport costs, taxes, and customs duty.

Through proper correspondence with the Tervis Tumblers headquarters in Florida, some of the products will be embossed with artworks that show South African heritage.

This will enable South Africans to identify with the tumblers. The company will need to engage an agent to help with the distribution as the study of the market and the strategies used by the competitors continues. The agent will also help in selling to the established wholesalers and dealers as well as departmental stores and retailers such as Abtech, Corporate Gifts, and Glow Sticks among others.

We will write a custom Research Paper on International Marketing Tervis Tumbler product specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most populous cities in the country that include Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, East Rand and Pretoria will be the primary target markets because they offer a higher probability of reaching the masses. in addition, the rich mass media industry will provide a ample avenue for advertising, thus making it easier to market the products.

Moreover, considering that South Africa has a high adult literacy rate, the company will have to market the product by placing advertisements in the popular Newspapers as well as websites such as

As a good marketing strategy, there will be need to carefully cultivate good customer relations, learning of the changing demographic and buyer patterns as well as getting to know the emerging, neglected and poorly served markets for tumblers in the country (Parley 10).

In order to counter the challenges that arise from marketing through the traditional media, the company will also do conversation marketing, which involves dialoguing with the target markets and getting feedback from potential customers (Lurie 9). The internet is a very good means of conversation marketing as it allows a marketer to respond to comments posted by customers or interested buyers in the particular website.

Works Cited Ahlstrom, David and Bruton, Garry D. International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. Cengage Learning. 2009.

Anon. Tervis Tumbler marks 60 years with strong sales, awards and recognitions. 2010. Web.

Lynn, Janet. Tervis No Sweat Tumblers – Lifetime Guarantee. 2010. Web.

“South Africa – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette.” kwintessential. 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Marketing Tervis Tumbler product by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “Guide to Importing into South Africa.” Guide to Importing into South Africa. 2010. Web.

Parley Norton. The Manager’s Guide to Competitive Marketing Strategies. London, Thorogood. 2005. Web.

Lurie Ian. Conversation Marketing; Internet Marketing Strategies. Washington, Potent Interactive Inc. 2006. Web.

UNICEF. Statistics: South Africa. 2008. Web.

Wilson, John S., Abiola, Victor O. and World Bank. Standards and global trade: a voice for Africa. World Bank Publications. 2003. Web.


The psychological explanation of terrorism Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The advantages of the psychology of terrorism

Limitations of the psychology of terrorism


Reference List

Introduction Terrorism can be defined as an act of violence, terror, or aggression whose objective is to achieve coercion and fear in non-violent individuals. However, there is no generally accepted definition of terrorism because of its broad and extensive application in different circumstances and behaviors.

Therefore, according to the constitutional meaning given in the Terrorism Act of 2000 in the United Kingdom, terrorism entails those actions carried out by non-state individuals with the aim of influencing the government’s policies and decisions besides intimidating the general public (Randy 2004, p. 9). These terrorist actions include violence against individuals, damage to property, engaging in activities that endanger or threaten the security of other people, and the use of firearms to threaten the State or its citizens.

On the other hand, terrorism can be sub-divided into several categories, which include terrorist activities carried out by regimes and governments; non-state terrorism, national terrorism, and international terrorism (Moghadam 2006, p. 18). Moreover, terrorism as a whole can be categorized into corrigible and incorrigible terrorist acts.

Under corrigible terrorism, there is always a way of reaching a compromise between the two conflicting parties, thus ending violence and aggression. However, under incorrigible terrorism, the terrorist group employs maximalist approaches in attacking their target and the only solution to stopping their activities is to use force in containing violence and aggression (Schmid


Holden Ltd Automaker Company International Business Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

National business environment of Vietnam

Cultural issues

What the government can do to promote Foreign Direct Investment

Reference List

Introduction Holden Ltd is an automaker company that engineers, designs and manufactures engines and vehicles (Grant 2004, P. 6). These products are produced for Australian domestic sales and other export markets. Holden Ltd is a subsidiary company of General Motors (a US based company). As a matter of fact, the company is in charge of GM brands in New Zealand and Australia (Grant 2004, P. 15). The company is a significant commercial enterprise because it produces more that 691 vehicles in a single day.

On the other hand, it has developed and maintained good standards to make work and business as a whole more efficient (Blackburn 2010, p. 15). In recent years, there has been a decline in sales of large cars in Australia and this has forced the company to venture in international markets (McDonald 2009, p. 12). This is aimed at increasing profitability. It’s against this backdrop that the company has considered doing business in Vietnam. This will be done by opening a new branch in the country.

National business environment of Vietnam The county’s business environment has been becoming friendlier as time goes by. This can be demonstrated by various efforts that the government has initiated to improve its business environment and attract investments. For instance, the government has been promoting the emergence of a strong private sector to enhance growth and development (Vision 2010, p. 9).

Many investment climate reforms have been instituted and this has seen authorities and companies compete to attract investments in the country. Generally speaking, the country’s business environment is characterized by various aspects. These include a lot of rent seeking, unstable property rights and on the other hand high levels of informality (Vision 2010, p.159). The country has had a good industrial policy aimed at increasing foreign investments.

Vietnam has a good economic climate. This is because its economic growth rates can only be rivaled by China in the region. Poverty reduction has been successful as time goes by and now stands at 16% of the population. For instance, its economic growth rate has quickened to 6.5% in 2010 (General statistics office of Vietnam 2010, p. 14). This has been aided by the fact they the county is switching from agriculture to full industrialization. The economy has been expanding because of high industrial output and a vibrant service sector.

It will therefore be wise for the company to invest in the county because of the governments’ goodwill to increase investments (Gover 2009, p. 13). On the other hand, the economy is growing significantly and needs to be taped into as the country moves to industrialization. Increased industrialization means that there will be a lot of commercial activities and this implies that the company can make more sales.

As much as the country might exhibit positive economic aspects, there is need to enhance its infrastructure framework for sustainability. As a matter of fact, the company will be forced to more cautious as it expands to areas other than major urban centers (HSBC 2010, p. 17). Although this is a reality, the government is in a major drive to attract investments in infrastructure and this is expected to improve as time goes by.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The political environment plays an important role in determining a country’s investment and business climate (Do 2006, p. 3). There is a new political leadership that is determined to come up with good market reforms that will stabilize the business environment. In recent years, the country has had a stable political environment. The current administration is business friendly and on the other hand determined to encourage investments in the country coupled with good policy making (HSBC 2010, p. 17).

So long as the political environment is stable, there will be no threats to the continuity of the country’s economical policies. The county’s foreign policy is aimed at encouraging more friendly partnerships in business and investments. This implies that the company will be safe from any political instability threats. As far as this environment is concerned, there are no negative implications to company’s continuity and operations (Gover 2009, p. 13).

The country has a very unique social business environment that needs to be well mastered for effective and efficient business operations. For instance, it has a reasonably well educated population. On the other hand, the country has a relatively cheap labor force. This means that the company will not incur a lot of labor costs (this is economical in a business perspective).

Housing space and accommodation are also well guaranteed and supplied. Most buildings have met international standards and are available for rent at cheap prices (Vision 2010, p. 9).

This means that as far as housing is concerned, the company should not worry as this will be taken care of. International and local travel is well developed as there are a large number of airlines with business operations in the country (Brown 2010, p. 21). As for land travel, there are a large number of buses and trains that are mostly used within the country. This means that the company will not have problems navigating and advancing its operations in the country (Brown 2010, p. 26).

On the other hand, the country’s communication network has been advanced to cater for increased market demand. Electronic and English communication is common in the country. By mastering this, the company will be able to understand the market well and carry out its operations without any problems (Vision 2010, p. 28).

Vietnam is said to have an incomplete legal system that needs to be reviewed. After seeing this as a hindrance to the success of businesses and investments in the country, the government is currently reviewing its legal system to make it more effective. For instance, the legal process is slow and might not attend to pressing issues with urgency (Vision 2010, p. 28).

We will write a custom Report on Holden Ltd Automaker Company International Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a general policy that all businesses go through state administration and this might be compromised with vested interests. In addition, there are a lot of bureaucratic barriers that need to be looked at (HSBC 2010, p. 17). This will be tricky for the company as it will need partnerships for sustainability. This is necessary because the company will have to pass through legal processes in the course of doing business in the country.

As far as environmental factors are concerned, the government has put in place tight environmental measures to protect and conserve the country’s environment. All companies are therefore expected to comply as far as environmental conservation is concerned. On the other hand, the country’s climate is as complex as its topography (Vision 2010, p. 28).

There are also a number of environmental issues in relation to pollution that need to be addressed. To be on the safe side, the company must come up with environmentally friendly products. On the other hand, the country needs to come up with environmentally friendly requirements that will improve market accessibility.

Cultural issues Australia has a highly skilled and multilingual workforce that the company is used to. The society on the other hand does not like any form of differentiation. This means that mutual respect is highly preferred in any case. People don’t pay much attention to academic qualifications or business success (Cybolink 2008, p. 31). There is a high preference for privacy which demands a lot of caution when dealing with different people. In Australia, people value openness. This is in relation to how business and daily lives are conducted.

Punctuality is highly valued when conducting any business meeting (Cybolink 2008, p. 34). In addition, business appointments must be scheduled one month in advance. People value space when conversing as one is not supposed to be close to the other person. These are some of the cultural issues that guide the way business operations are carried out in Australia. Since the company is expanding its operations to Vietnam, it is important to understand various cultural aspects that guide the way business is conducted in the country.

In Vietnam, presents are highly appreciated especially during holidays and this is not a common practice in Australia. This means that the company will be forced to adhere to such expectations from employees and business partners to create a good working relationship (Vision 2010, p. 28).

There is a lot of corruption in Vietnam and business partners are not always straightforward. The company needs to be prepared for such as this is the direct opposite of doing things in Australia where openness is highly advocated for as far as business is concerned.

Greetings are mostly done by shaking hands and this should at times consider the age. It implies that the company should always ensure that such issues are taken into consideration (Do 2006, p. 11). Business cards are highly valued in Vietnam (as a way of introducing an individual). In Australia, privacy is highly valued and things like business cards are not a necessity. Vietnamese workers believe in Superstition and symbols and need to be understood for a good working relationship (Do 2006, p. 13).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Holden Ltd Automaker Company International Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People do not show their feelings but they keep on smiling and this might be misunderstood unlike in Australia where openness is advocated for. This is enforced by a belief that one is not supposed to show any anger or aggression. The company might be used to scenarios where issues are negotiated in an open and direct manner and needs to adopt to this culture. This is because cultural issues shape the way an organization conducts its business (Cybolink 2008, p. 31).

What the government can do to promote Foreign Direct Investment The government needs to come up with a vibrant foreign investment reform. In this case, it should be able to see beyond its protectionist beliefs that have continued to discourage foreign direct investments in the country. There is need to educate the population to change its perceptions about foreigners who come to invest in the country. Since there is poor infrastructure development in other towns apart from major urban centers, the government needs to increase investments in such areas.

This will attract direct foreign investments in other parts of the country. The country’s legal process should be completed and enhanced. In addition, bureaucratic processes are supposed to be reduced to give investors more confidence. The country has burdensome tariffs that can end up making production more expensive. The government should further reduce the profit remittance tax to encourage more investors.

More deregulation of banks should be enhanced to ensure that foreign investors have quick access to banks as a source of capital. There are some land clearance difficulties that need to be dealt with. This is because land is a factor of production and will determine the way investors rate a country. As much as the country is moving in the right direction to review its legal system, it should enhance the pace of promulgating legal documents.

Reference List Blackburn, R., 2010. Holden appoints new boss. Australia: Fairfax Media.

Brown, N., 2010. The long road to reform: An analysis of foreign investment reform in Vietnam. Web.

Cybolink., 2008. Australia: Australian business etiquette, manners, cross- cultural communication and Geert Hofstede Analysis. Web.

Do, Q, D., 2006. Business environment in Vietnam. Web.

General statistics office of Vietnam., 2010. Monthly statistical information. Web.

Gover, P., 2009. Pontiac pays the price. UK: Herald.

Grant, T., 2004. Holden Ltd. Michigan: Thomas Gale.

HSBC., 2010. Vietnam builds on economic growth. Web.

McDonald, N., 2009. Holden posts $70m loss in Australia. Melbourne: The Sun-Herald.

Vision., 2010. Doing business in Vietnam. Web.


Concept of ‘structure’ used by Levi-Strauss and concepts of ‘structure’ and ‘function’ used by Durkheim, Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowsky Essay custom essay help

The definition of concepts of structure and function is important for explaining various anthropological phenomena. The anthropologist’s choice between the structuralist and functionalist methods has a significant impact on further development of his/her theories. Besides the concept of ‘structure’ used by Levi-Strauss, the concept of ‘function’ was implemented by Radcliffe-Brown, Durkheim, and Malinowski.

Raising a question of similarity of myths throughout the world, Levi-Strauss offered a method of structural analysis for establishing the relation between this cultural phenomena and peculiarities of human thinking.

Using Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole for drawing a line between the structural and statistical aspects of the language, Levi-Strauss emphasized the importance of specific structural patterns used in the majority of myths. He describes how relationships are built and sustained within communities where people have different behaviors.

The anthropologist further sought to show how cultural transformations lead to impact on an individual, concluding that people have always been thinking equally well, these are only new spheres for implementation of knowledge that became the reason for the progress. “The kind of logic in mythical thought is as rigorous as that of modern science, and the difference lies, not in the quality of the intellectual process, but in the nature of the things to which it is applied” (Levi-Strauss 231).

Emile Malinowski’s research of the local traditions and myths of the population of Kula may become a brilliant example for supporting Levi-Strauss’s statement that the processes of human thinking remain the same disregarding the time and space parameters.

Social involvement includes different stages where individuals participate in the different stages of life. Malinowsky describes the structure of a society to have interactions, spread of new knowledge, movements and participation of those within a society. He argued human interaction was kept more alive by face to face interactions therefore need to find social functions that bring people together.

“Owing to their [Kula] magical knowledge they were able to escape dangers, to conquer their enemies, to surmount obstacles, and by their feats they established many a precedent which is now closely followed by tribal custom” (Malinowski 102). Malinowski’s research has proven that notwithstanding the level of development of the community, it implements the existing knowledge, using the traditional structure in the frames of the laws of logical thinking, functioning as an effective mean for meeting the demands of the social organism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Durkheim, the father of anthropology, defined structuralism as that which bring and keeps a society together such as having similar cultures, from fragmenting away. Drawing the parallels between social and organic life, Durkheim defined the concept of ‘function’ as “the correspondence between it [a social institution] and the needs of the social organism” (Radcliff-Brown 394).

The anthropologist put emphasis on the concept of function, defining the social act as “any way of acting, whether fixed or not, capable of exerting over the individual an external constraint, which is general over the whole of a given society whilst having an existence of its own, independent of its individual manifestations” (Durkheim 59). Durkheim and Radcliff-Brown considered the concept of ‘function’ to be significant for explaining the anthropological processes and phenomena.

As opposed to Levy-Strauss’s theory concerning the significance of the laws of human thinking and structure, Radcliffe-Brown, Durkheim, and Malinowski used the concept of function in their works, emphasizing its importance.

Works Cited Durkheim, Émile. The Rules of Sociological Method. Trans. Sarah Solovay and John H. Mueller, and ed. George E. G. Catlin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1895. Print.

Levi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. Trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Schoepf. New York: Basic Books Publishers, 1963. Print.

Malinowski, Bronislav. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: Routledge. 1932. Print.

Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred. “On the Concept of Function in Social Science.” American Anthropologist. 1935. vol. 37, (1935): 394-402. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of ‘structure’ used by Levi-Strauss and concepts of ‘structure’ and ‘function’ used by Durkheim, Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowsky specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Solving the Ethical Dilemmas Essay (Critical Writing) cheap essay help

With the shift to employees-centered policies within the majority of organizations, the issues of ethical behavior and both individual and organizational responsibility require special consideration.

At present, a number of firms have vacancies for communication specialists who could train employees to behave ethically in both formal and informal settings. Ethical training has impact on employees’ judgments as to wrongness or rightness of their actions in working environment but the final decisions depend upon their personal views and priorities.

Facing moral dilemmas, employees often hesitate before making a choice between their egoistic inclinations and altruistic values, following ethical norms or their own life views.

The problem of these inner conflicts is rooted in mismatches between the ethical standards within a particular organization and individual’s system of values. “Value congruence (the similarity between individual and organizational values) between employees and their organizations has a significant effect on organizational commitment” (Shockley-Zalabak, 2009, p. 105).

Obtaining a profound knowledge of ethical norms, an individual still can hesitate, deciding on a particular principle for finding the appropriate way out. Considering the issues of basic moral rights for solving particular problems, an employee notices that they can overlap and contradict one another, giving rise to people’s doubts. For this reason, these are personal values that become the assessment criteria of wrongness or rightness of one’s own actions and behavior of others.

Weighing all pros and cons of a particular moral choice, an individual should set the priorities and view the situation from various perspectives before proceeding to actions. For example, interpersonal relationships between employees can become the reason for controversial situations in which workers will have to decide between ethical standards and their individual values.

In a situation when a person overhears a conversation between managers concerning the refuse of promotion for his/her best friend and hesitates if it is admissible to inform a friend on it or keep silent unwilling to hurt a friend and because of the manner in which the information was received.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is the topic of the conversation and peculiarities of the situation that matter in this individual case. According to the norms of professional ethics, I should have kept silent. However, evaluating the situation critically and considering the fact that a friend would lose an interesting job offer from another department without my interference, I would disclose the secret. However, this choice would be more problematic if there were no offer from another department.

Then this information would be useless for the friend and could only frustrate him/her. Sharing information that has no any impact on reality is close to spreading rumors. In this case the principles of basic rights for privacy and free will overlap and the choice between them depends upon the employees’ personal priorities.

The human factor has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the working process. Besides the professional qualities, the importance of issues of psychological compatibility of the members of a team and their ability to cooperate should not be underestimated.

The working atmosphere and general mood of a team are significant for enhancing the effectiveness of the collaborative process. “Executives reported that they waste 7.8 hours per week, or 2.3 months per year, in unnecessary meetings” (Messmer, 2001, “Conducting effective meetings”).

For this reason, rating time at its true value, employees should plan their meetings beforehand, putting special emphasis on meeting the targets. In a situation when a member of a project team developing a training program for customer support representatives observes reluctance of two members of a team to make a contribution to the project and gets to know that they spread rumors about his/her lack of proficiency, a person faces a moral dilemma.

On the one hand, the behavior of these employees is unprofessional and inadmissible. On the other hand, making particular decisions, an individual should consider the ethical norms and consider the consequences of one’s choices, bearing in mind the success of the program.

In this situation I would follow the norms of ethical conduct directly, asking these members to make more efforts, pointing at the objective reasons of my dissatisfaction without mentioning any rumors or other unreliable sources of information. “The value of communication is equal to the costs plus the efforts of what you’re communicating to the power of perception” (Sierra, 2003, “Sierra’s theory of communicativity”).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Solving the Ethical Dilemmas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Disregarding the importance of the atmosphere within a team, business should not be sacrificed to discussing the interpersonal relationships. Even if other employees do not implement principles of corporative ethics, it does not mean that an individual should put them in their own coin.

Ensuring the basic rights for their employees and considering the ethical training while planning the company’s programs is expected to enhance the effectiveness of its working processes. The human factor and similarity between individual and organizational systems of values play an important role in company’s success. Evaluating the rightness or wrongness of a particular action, employees implement ethical principles only after adapting them to their personal views.

Reference List Messmer, M. (2001, June). Conducting effective meetings. Strategic Finance, 82(12), 8–9.

Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2009). Fundamentals of organizational communication knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Sierra, L. (2003, June/July). Sierra’s theory of communicativity. Communication World, 20(4).


How Director is Able to Yield Higher Productivity of the Artists? Essay online essay help: online essay help

Directors have a very major and important role to play when it comes to processing of a project or art. Previously, directors had more responsibilities to perform comparatively. In the modern age directors have more technologies to work with. Despite advancement in the technology, the role of director still remains crucial and imperative. This paper aims to propose the ways through which directors would be able to yield desired productivity from the artists.

Directors can impact the overall productivity of artists by actually going through a profound thought process. It is very imperative for the directors to understand the need of performing effective thought process. A director is actually a person who already pictures each and every act of a character in the mind.

A successful directing is thus only possible in case the director is capable of having a deep and thorough thought process. Being aware of each and every action to be taken on sets would automatically result in increased productivity of actors. In other words it could be said that only an informed director would be able to yield productivity out of artists because he will exactly know the objectives of the file, theatre or drama (Goodridge, 2002).

Another most important thing that a director is supposed to do for impacting the overall productivity of the artist is to inquire. A director is one who is highly knowledgeable about art and who sees society from a different perspective unlike other individuals. This could be regarded as a distinctive quality of the director (Goodridge, 2002).

A director should inquire and carefully research if the actors are able to deliver the desired action or not. A director is more like a base of a movie who is able to take decisions for the film from selecting the type of wardrobe of the first scene to the emotional mellow drama of the final cut.

A director would be able to impact the productivity and creativity of an artist when he exactly understands the role. Director’s thinking goes beyond the thinking of any other official in arts. An art director is supposed to look at a scenario from all direction (Goodridge, 2002).

The word directing itself defines the way how the overall productivity of artists could be achieved. A director can impact the production of creativity of artists by actually looking into the matters which could be problematic in the long run. A director needs to take care of all the fallacies and risks which are associated with the project. A change that could affect the creativity of artists must be completely omitted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Directors are able to understand the fallacies by observing situations. It is first and foremost responsibility of a director in the current age and success years (Goodridge, 2002). Artists and other team professionals might be busy with the processing of their tasks and therefore be not able to understand the small errors that could result in the complications ahead. In such a situation, a director can play an avid role by actually observing, planning and then halting errors.

Through the above analysis it could be said that through effective thought-process, observation and thorough planning, a director is able to yield higher productivity of the directors. Directors in the modern age have more technologies but the fact remains the same that a director is the basis and indirectly responsible for all the processes of a project.

Reference Goodridge, M. (2002). Directing. Oxford: Focal Press.


Returning TARDIS to Profitability Report essay help

HoKTok, through TARDIS currently operates five thousand call boxes around Australia, which has a “small population spread across vast areas” (The Communication Law Centre, p. 2). It offers untimed calls at a fixed rate of $0.40c. This popular service, unfortunately, is no longer profitable. The key to TARDIS’s popularity is its fixed charge on untimed calls.

Changing this fixed price could negatively affect consumer choice. As part of the Australian telecoms industry, TARDIS must endeavor to provide services that, “best meet the social, industrial, and commercial needs of the people of Australia” (Bolton et al, 1993, p. 32). It is recognized that telecommunication technology “continually shapes the very fabric of our global society” (Hill Associates, 2002, p. xvii).

The basic strategy for returning TARDIS to profitability requires either, a reduction in overheads while maintaining current revenues or increase in revenues while maintaining overheads at the current levels. To attain profitability, Howard advices that, “you must first wake up to the internal rules you are currently playing by and expand you field of possibilities” (2004, p. xvii)

Increasing revenues is a better way of assuring profitability compared to reducing overheads. This is because other parties set the cost of most overheads and these costs will continue to rise, eating into HoKTok’s margin. HoKTok cannot pay less for the services it consumes to run TARDIS, but will actually pay more in the future.

Similarly, it cannot reduce its workforce in order to spend less on the wage bill because this may compromise service delivery and may actually end up risking the current revenues. In addition, it cannot reduce the workers’ wages without precipitating labor unrest. Baker warns that. “Labor will not permit a reduction in the standard of living” (2009, p. 5).

Katz adds that many companies struggle with “how to reduce labor costs while retaining employee commitment and an appropriate skill base” (1997, p.3). While HokTok must continue to “implement various measures to lower cost” (Suzue, 2002, p. 1), it cannot rely on them to regain profitability. This should not encourage HoKTok to make cost discipline, “an incidental reaction to events” (Institute of Management and Administration, 2006, p. 3)

TARDIS can return to profitability by introduction of prepaid cards, optimization of profitable segments of the market and introducing a service for call centers and telemarketing companies. Introduction of prepaid cards will secure revenue. It will lock our clients in the network and it will mean they will always have to find a TARDIS call box from which they can make their calls. The idea of being locked-in may not be very attractive to clients, and will require a careful marketing campaign to ensure acceptance of the cards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Optimization of the profitable market segments means that HokTok increases the number of call boxes located in areas where clients naturally call for shorter periods such as airports, train stations, and bus stops and reduces the call boxes near schools, restaurants, and residential areas where callers talk for longer.

The third option is introducing TARDIS to new clientele such as call centers and telemarketing firms whose business depend on volume of calls. Since they aim at making the most number of calls per unit time, they will provide a larger revenue base for TARDIS. In fact, it is possible to offer them lower call rates per call and break even on the assured call volumes. However, we must take into account Retske’s insight that, if prices are “set too low, profit opportunities will be missed” (2002, p. 172).

On a priority basis, I recommend that we pursue optimization of profitable market segments. This will see TARDIS increasing the number of call boxes in areas where callers take a shorter time per call, while reducing the number of call boxes where callers take longer. No substantial investment is required to move some of the call boxes from high cost market segments to low cost market segments. We must act quickly ahead of our competitors because in the telecommunication industry, services “spring up and quickly” (Peterson, 2000, p.9).

References Baker, RS 2009, The new industrial unrest: reasons and remedies. Cornell University Press, New York.

Bolton et al 1993, The communication service: Negotiating structural and technological change. International Labor Organization, Geneva.

Hill Associates 2002, Telecommunications: A beginner’s guide. McGraw-Hill/Osborne, California.

Howard, C 2004, Turning passions into profits: Three steps to wealth and power. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

We will write a custom Report on Returning TARDIS to Profitability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Institute of Management and Administration 2006, Cost reduction and control best practices: The best ways for a financial manager to save money. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey.

Katz, HC 1997, Telecommunications: Restructuring work and employment relations worldwide. Cornell University Press, New York.

Peterson, KD 2000, Business telecoms systems: A guide to choosing the best technologies and services. CMP Books, New York

Retske, G 2002, A guide to competitive international telecommunications. CMP Books, New York.

Suzue, T 2002, Cost half: The method for radical cost reduction. Productivity Press, New York.

The Communication Law Centre 2004, Australian telecommunications regulation. University of South Wales press Ltd, Sydney.


Role and Powers of Presidents Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents ‘Great’ presidents

Presidential Leadership

What it Takes for a Candidate to be Elected

Works Cited

The president is supposed to exercise the powers which are granted to him or her by the Federal Constitution or the Congress act in the interest of the public. However there have been divergent arguments among the people holding this presidential office arising from different references and reasoning.

All the arguments insist that each is function best for the public welfare (Cronin and Genovese 43). In the above view, the president has the responsibility to act in the interest of the public, ensure all situations are right for the interest of his people and make right judgments because they directly affect the lives of the ruled.

The president can at any time withdraw any entry into U.S’ public lands and put aside part for forestry, for irrigation purposes and water resources. Jackson Lincoln held the view that the president must be capable of forming judgments for himself and his juniors (Cronin and Genovese 45).

Today’s presidency has both informal and formal leverage to command decisions at any time. They can certainly come up with personal initiatives and decide on whichever matters. Additionally, the role of presidents has seemingly become that of main agenda setters in the making of policies at federal level. The president is also surrounded with a bureaucracy that further extends his mandate and powers.

In the modern days, presidents have the capacity to drive political systems in the way they wish because they are the main actors in the systems hence obscuring the role of their subordinates (Fine and Waterman 25).

The president also has the power to take significant measures that can have dynamic implications on the nation. For example, the president can deploy tactical nuclear weapons. The impact of this executive power is magnified by the fact that their decisions have direct impacts on the general public understanding (Cronin and Genovese 54).

The different views held come from the ambiguity in defining the role of the president. For many years now, presidential practices have varied. Roosevelt for example fostered palace politics, Kennedy concentrated on collegial informality, and Eisenhower assumed the role of building his staff. The ambiguity in defining presidential roles makes it easy for the office holders to shape their roles on personal basis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ‘Great’ presidents Both presidents that have succeeded and those who have failed are considered as great leaders. For example, most scholars claim that President Lyndon Johnson’s extraordinary legislative system has a record in success. Despite his success, scholars argue that Johnson highly contributed in the disastrous war in Vietnam.

Additionally, Dwight Eisenhower is a president that most scholars consider passive during his reign. However, history credits him with very few significant accomplishments. It is in fact argued that it was during his time that Korea went into war and corruption cases within his administration increased. Woodrow Wilson is also one of America’s presidents that is remembered for the Senate’s dismissal of Versailles Treaty (Pfiffner 25).

These are some of presidents known as great although with remarkable failures during their administrations. A survey conducted in 2000 that ranked 10 different categories of leadership indicated that the public and politicians have different views on what presidents should have and be like.

One expectation that makes one a great president is the ability to function more than just managerial or party leaders. Studies indicate that a president must demonstrate great leadership capabilities because they represent the nation at large. The rating in this context falls between being a weak or a strong president.

This is the view that most presidential candidates rise to power with. However, the divergent views of a successful or a failed president must be defined in consideration of different contexts. To meet this expectation from the public, presidents must function ahead of their times.

There are different political times that presidents function well and avoid getting ahead of their time including reconstruction, articulation and disjuncture periods. In this regard, presidents need to know the expectations accompanying their type of leadership. Studies show that there are further different political period that different presidencies have taken place in America (Pfiffner 35).

The patrician period that occurred between 1789-1832, the partisan time occurring between 1832-1900,the pluralist period (1900-1972), and 1972- to date plebiscitary period. Considering the first period, Americans great presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington exhibited great interpersonal skills during their political views with legislators. Additionally, James Madison and John Adams proved weak leaders when gauged against the first political period.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Role and Powers of Presidents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson, who led national partisan movements, functioned under the second political period hence relatively advantaged. With the centralization of the economy, American presidency was expected to have strong leadership strengths with much emphasis on economy. This was at the pluralist period and effective confrontation of foreign policy.

This was a further consideration in rating whether a president was great or a failure. More so, the presidents in this period must exert full responsibility for national issues by establishing an expansive bureaucracy. In the present plebiscitary period, the presidents sometimes rely less on political organizations and have less capability to bargain as it was seen in the past regimes. With such considerations, the presidents are therefore expected to directly persuade the public (Fine and Waterman 47).

Most scholars believe that presidential power is the ability to persuade the public, Congress members and other political actors in order to reap positive outcome. However, it argues that a president is not considered powerful on the merit of his/her presidency. It says that cultural, constitutional and political factors also empower these individuals to become successful presidential leaders.

However, political power differs among presidency holders mainly because of the diversity in strategic challenges and political resources available to them. Most of America’s presidents have ruled with the belief that the ability to persuade the public, political actors and Congress members determines whether one is a successful president or a failure (Cronin and Genovese 21).

Presidential Leadership Scholars argue that the definition of leadership must encompass good leadership. But good leadership does not always result into positive results. There are times when poor leadership has yielded positive outcomes. Leadership is therefore the ability to successfully use one’s political skills and the leverage exposed to an individual to yield satisfactory outcomes.

President’s performance is influenced by various factors that expose them to particular challenges. For example, a good economy contributes to high ratings of successful leaders.

The vice versa is also true. If on the other hand, a president has restricted power to influence the economy, scholars question as to whether such presidents should be termed as failures or successful (Cronin and Genovese 22). Ideally, presidential leadership means persuading other political actors to act for their own interests. This is because a leader is supposed to inspires others to do as they desire hence influencing their behaviors.

The challenge that presidential leaders face while convincing the other political actors is the fact that different situations and contexts call for different qualities and skills. Scholars argue that some personal skills can be useful at certain circumstances while others are not (Waterman and Rockman 23).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role and Powers of Presidents by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, different presidents encounter dissimilar political scenarios on coming to office, because the circumstances change with time hence the different political leverage during the different terms. More so, successful presidents are measured by the ability to respond and manage political outcomes. The important thing is that which the president is interested in and the personal capability to accomplish it.

Presidential leaders are limited by the resources, tools and political capital present to them. The tools include external political supporters in Congress, economical state, the political stability of the nation and the overall international political mood. With such factors, presidential skills as well as political powers are vital in accomplishing their political ambitions (Cronin and Genovese 23).

Presidents have got copious resources, tools and political capital within their reach. This therefore describes the extent of their ability to structure, slant and adapt organizational functions towards favorable angles that match their political and policy interests.

With the constitutional powers presidents can considerably control presidential appointments to advance their political interests. Another leverage tool is their ability to shape and influence the bureaucratic agencies budget. This is because the federal budget often goes with what the Congress passes.

Therefore, when the Congress is controlled by the party’s president, he or she can shape the budget too fit his preferences. Presidents can also use the veto to shape the final legislature’s budget. Studies show that in the 20th century, presidents have used this executive power to gain control over particular institutions that are significant to their presidential leadership (Cronin and Genovese 36).

Most people have no demarcation between leadership and its outcomes but scholars argue that there are possibilities of having good leadership systems resulting in poor performances. Scholars argue that personal leadership skills must be differentiated from the outcomes. In an example, if one has a team of ball players that frequently loses in games; this has little to do with the manager’s skills, the fact is that the team’s quality is poor.

This therefore indicates that it is very possible to have good leadership but on the other hand have poor results. This further illustrates that between the outcome and skills, quality is an intervening variable that must not be ignored. The manager can however influence the outcome through his skills hence maximizing on his leverage.

If a president takes over from a recessed economy, the president has limited tools through which he can influence outcomes in his/her leadership. Therefore there are chances of being unelected back to power. Some may argue that the individual failed to demonstrate presidential leadership skills (Waterman and Rockman 15). However scholars argue that no matter the extent of skills and abilities, it is impossible to achieve the desired outcomes.

If the president inherits an economically stable nation but has limited knowledge, then it can be said that the leader was a bad one, however if the economy was stable yet with minimal leadership knowledge, positive outcomes can still be manifested. Therefore, it is important to consider such factors as to why and how the results were achieved.

At some times, a president may be having personal political skills that results into effective policy or political outcomes. Whereas at other times the president may be having no skills yet there are positive results. Additionally, a president may display skills yet the results turn out negative, at other times, a president may be having no skills but the results become unsuccessful (Waterman and Rockman 18). Leverage is an intervening variable in the first and second case that determines the outcomes.

Historic periods and economy state are also intervening factors that determine the success of a presidential leader. Leaders that rule during pacific times have fewer chances of being termed successful leaders than those who rule during periods of change. Therefore if all these factors are combined with the leverage that a president exerts in his/her governing, then the relationship between leadership and success is clearly manifested.

The Indiana Jones Model depicts a scenario whereby the president has considerable skills, but at the same time has no or minimal leverage, yet the outcomes are significantly great. Although the president may seem gifted, the context doest not provide chances for any positive results. However the president just prevails as a result of luck. This is therefore independent of the president’s leverage or skills. At certain times, it is possible to have positive results with no president’s persuasion and skills.

On the Pseudo-leadership model, the president may be having no skills, has leverage then successful results. This is a case that occurred with President Eisenhower. In this case, leaders in Congress contributed in the passing of significant legislations. The president paid little attention to the issues but much credit went to him. The president displayed no skills (Cronin and Genovese 26).

At other times there are chances of good fortune accompanying the outcomes. For example, Calvin Coolidge appeared a lucky president; it was a matter of being at the right place, at an appropriate time. The president enjoyed a very stable economy that left praises for his name yet he demonstrated no skills and had no leverage within his reach in which to exert influence. It was just his lucky period.

On the other hand a president may have skills and much leverage at his disposal but gets no positive outcomes. In the case of Johnson and the Vietnam War, even if he had substantive public support and extensive Democratic support from both houses, chances of successful outcomes were thin.

More so, recent tapes have shown Johnson mourning because he knows that going to the war provides no chance of winning the battle, however, he also knows that if he does not, he will forever be blamed for the Vietnam defeat. This is a no-win situation in which leadership success is independent of the president.

At another scenario, the president demonstrates leadership skills and is exposed to a considerable leverage that gives him/her significant success. This is a common Neustadt’s case of presidential leadership. Franklin Delano Roosevelt maximized on his extra-ordinary political wit and leverage during the economic recession and World War 11 era to design policies for the New Deal hence the positive war efforts. In this scenario, the president’s success was dependent on his skills (Cronin and Genovese 27).

What it Takes for a Candidate to be Elected For a candidate to be elected as the president in a federal office, the individual must have attained the age of thirty five years, must be a resident for a minimum of fourteen years. The Electoral College has the provisions that the two houses of Congress and the state participates in electing the president. The state chooses the electors (Electoral College) who eventually elects the president. The candidate that garners majority votes of the electors becomes the president.

If none of the candidates attains majority voles, the House chooses the president while the Senate selects the vice president, each state delegate therefore votes once. However, members of Electoral College can be elected from party states and themselves vote for their fellow party nominees hence influencing the strategies of presidential candidates. This will definitely change the conduct and nature of electing a president (Edwards 34).

Critics of the Electoral College system argue that it is often flawed and that the runner up candidates must not become president, this is because the candidate that garners most votes becomes the president. This perspective, they argue, inflicts a serious burden on the minority leader according to the evolving U.S’ democratic values.

However, they argue that America was initially never expected to have pure democracy and neither was it thought that U.S will be guided by the notion of majority rule (Edwards 31). They say that government institution was meant to be a republic with people’s representative in the government. More so, the separation of powers that has checks and balances was supposed to curb hindrances of change.

In this context, Bill of Rights is implemented to regulate majority’s will from going against citizen’s rights. The explanation given for the president to be elected from direct citizens’ votes is because the president and his vice wholly represent the people amongst al the nationals. And that it is the people’s best chosen candidate. However, the critiques argue that it is not enough to say that people’s will must be the only determining factor for the nationally voted government officials.

They therefore argue that because the president must be voted for by the majority of the population does not mean every other element of the government must be popularly elected (Cronin and Genovese 24). The powers of the modern president are the results of initiatives and patterns that have formed over centuries as far as presidential history is concerned. This is inclusive of crises political realignments, economic depression and institutional changes.

The powers of the president, as Thomas E. Cronin says is very powerful but always inadequate. He argues that at certain times it is weak and limited while at other times it is profound and abused. The public is ambivalent about the powers of presidents. They sometimes enjoy seeing this power reduced and their presidents humbled but at the same time desire to have heroic presidents who have the ability to attain Americans dream (Cronin and Genovese 5).

Opponents of the Electoral College argue that in this system the ballots cast are not equal because different states have varying populations.

They argue that this benefits the small states. In their propositions they argue that the automatic plan would significantly do away with faithless electors voting by automatically enabling state’s electors to vote for the most pluralist in the state (Edwards 45). The strength in this process is that individual electors will not vote in person hence minimal probability of votes being cast in unintended directions.

The district plan would grant one electoral vote the popular plurality’s votes within the state in a congressional district. It says that this plan will allow Electoral College vote be specific in popular vote. However the weakness is that the district plan will not completely eliminate chances of runner-up from becoming the president. The national bonus strategy would preserve constitutional and state’s roles in the process of electing a president (Pfiffner 56).

The Electoral College system also proposes amendments to the Constitution so as to allow for direct populace voting for a president. However the objection to this proposal is that popular election would demean the federal nature of U.S government. More so critics argue that direct popular election will reduce the common endless frauds and recounts.

Those who advocate for direct election of presidents argue that federalism is rather necessary but the electoral votes within small states does not command active campaigns of the main candidate in the party. Significantly, the larger states contests will only take place in the case of massive votes being either ways.

Direct popular election will mean that all votes would be required for the candidate to win presidency. More so, minor political actors will also have an opportunity to vie for presidency hence a multiparty system scenario. This will mean that in a contested election a candidate will have to persuade the public to vote for him or her hence garnering majority populace votes.

Critics of the Electoral College are justified in the sense that for a democratic nation there is always the need for checks and balances in order to control excessiveness of power and responsibility. The critics argue that the reforms are meant to benefit the public in their representation in government offices (Cronin and Genovese 25).

Works Cited Cronin, Thomas and Genovese, Michael. The Paradoxes of the American Presidency (3rd Ed.). Oxford, Mass: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Edwards, George C. Presidential selection: the flawed foundations of the Electoral College. Texas: A


Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction to Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches Human society is one of the most complicated aspects of the analysis regarding the relations between individuals, groups of individuals, and other entities that can be allocated in terms of resources of influence. Sociology of power emphasises the power relations between different communities and identifies the real influencing aspects that can alter a situation and the governance as well as the process of rule making.

In this respect, it is necessary to dwell on the principles of rule making and different approaches to this process as related to the political rule and social power that can be considered the most important factors while assessing the influence of certain resources on the power, governing power, and resulting in the political regime.

Different theories of power distribution can be analysed with regard to the power of influence and the amount of resources to influence others or situation. Though history saw many examples of both approaches, pluralist and power elite, it is necessary to enlarge on the principles of power distribution in society in different periods of human civilization’s activity with regard to the economic situation and social movements.

Moreover, the political power and the power of influence cannot be analysed as a single and the only aspect for the political regime establishment; these two concepts can be even opposed to each other or exist at the same period making one of those principles more important than other.

In other words, the distribution of power in society cannot always be analysed in terms of theories of political rule making. Besides, the power to make political decisions does not always arise from the real objective interests and can be characterised by the interests and preferences of the political participants (Lukes 2005: 29).

The pluralist approach is largely opposed to the power elite one in terms of ‘the business of rule’ and the process of rule making due to discrepancies in the regime’s strengths and the overall theoretical advantages of a definite approach. In other words, the pluralism approach highlights the equality of influencing powers regardless its real situation whereas the power of elite approach enables the most influential individuals to make rules.

So, the main idea of the current paper consists in analysing and assessing the contradictions between the pluralist and power elite approaches taking into account the distribution of power in society and allocation of resources compared to the political power and the process of rule making.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theories of Political Rule and Social Power Theories and the power elite approach.The power elite approach is mostly referred to as the one existing in the era before the French Revolution and is largely opposed to the democracy of the contemporary United States of America (Bull 2002: 8-9).

However, it is necessary to note that the concept of state and the problem of rule making are closely connected to the distribution of power because the power exist in a certain society while a society has certain rules and common interests.

In this respect, some states can exist regardless of a definite territory or a restriction of rules to a certain territory because the main concept of power distribution happens among individuals and groups that can be situated within the territory (Bull 2002: 9).

Nevertheless, though political power is spread over the population, it is often limited to a certain territory and can change regarding the interests of the same nation and preferences existing in various regions of the same state.

The main theory of power elite approach in rule making concerns the command as the way to allocate the process of distribution of power in society; however, it is necessary to emphasise the principle when the interests or rules are characterised as good or legal contrasted to the objective principles or unification of preferences that is typical of a power elite approach (Poggi 1978: 2-5).

In additions, the existence of visible diversity and other so-called advantages of the pluralist approach can be considered irrelevant because these concepts do not guarantee the appropriateness of political power or genuine equality in the power allocation principles (Lukes 2005: 47).

State and society are approached in different ways in by a power elite principle whereas the process of unification is more obvious taking into account the principles typical of the pluralist approach. So, the theory of differentiation is the core of the power elite approach because it enables a single leader to make decisions and make laws (often in association with another part of social elite) and there is no necessity to fight for political power as the main concept of influence is the command.

We will write a custom Essay on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Theories and the pluralist approach. The pluralist approach to the rule making process makes the United States of America the most prominent example of this principle in action.

Though there is a number of irrefutable evidence of this method’s inappropriateness and secrecy (regardless of the observable openness), its benefits are largely promoted and supported by the global community and international society. Collective behaviour tradition can be considered the core concept for the pluralist approach to the process of rule making (Gamson 1975: 131).

This causes the unification of the relations between individuals, groups, and individual-group/group-individual relations in society. As social relations are commonly unified in accordance with the pluralist approach, inequality arises from the democracy as it appears in a contemporary society because interests are unified as well as preferences though the resources of influence can differ greatly which can result in relocation of political power and, hence, the change of the principles of rule making.

The main theories of the pluralist approach include the inferiority of the social preferences compared to the preferences and interests of the political power. As a rule, the pluralist approach is aimed at meeting the requirements of the democracy regardless the genuine principles of power allocation and the amount of resources of influence.

Thus, collective goals unify the social interests and make common rules serves the reaching of those goals; the political behaviour can be analysed with regard to the goals of a community opposed to personal interests and preferences (Gamson 1975: 138).

Benefits of the pluralist approach can be neutralized with the differentiating nature of the contemporary policy in the international society opposed to the principles of unification brought about by other communities that popularize the differentiation concepts. As the core aspect of the pluralist approach to the rule making is the unification, this theory can fail to address all existing interests and preferences topical for the current members of a society.

Distribution of Power in Society Discussing the contradictions of the pluralist and power elite theories is incomplete with the consideration of the distribution of power in society.

In particular, these issues matter when applied to common analysis of presented theories either approving or disapproving the leading role of society in forming the power relations. Another difficulty arises when dealing with the problem of democracy and inequality. In this case, there is the necessity to make an emphasis on the character of the leading power and the triggering principle of power relations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pluralist and Power Elite Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major controversy appears when considering distribution of power in society in terms of pluralist views. Due to the fact that this approach is based on meeting the needs of democracies, social power is distributed according to the principle of equal impact on the government.

The problem is that equal distribution of power among physical entities is not always possible because of irrational resources allocation presented by material object, social status, and ethical considerations (Dahl 1961:3). In response to this problem, the necessity to introduce the elite power approach to social order is inevitable due to the rigid inequality of property, knowledge and social position, and publicity between the members of society (Dahl 1961:6).

In order to reconcile the needs of power elite and the constellations of influenced groups, it is necessary to consider power distribution with reference to institutional arrangement and command. These two concepts presented by Poggi (1978:3) seem to be quite reasonable from the perspective of political order and legitimacy.

Indeed, favorable distribution of resources on the basis of command is more effective that that based on custom and exchange. This is explained by the ideas that the body of custom end exchange cannot sustain the exploration and mobilization of new resources and values. In addition, it does not allow society to prevent various contingencies enabling the members to choose the most appropriate patterns to act (Poggi 1978:4).

Arising from everything mentioned above, the main principle of power allocation should be based on unanimous legitimate arrangement on the two-polar power system. Therefore, society should be directed by one or a specific set of goals that would encompass social and political order. Alternatively, the disposition of views and approaches, which is typical of pluralistic order, will lead to appearance of different values and beliefs (Bull 2002:4).

Bull’s approach to the distribution of power is predominantly based on monopolistic views that exclude the pluralist techniques for the decision-making process. Therefore, the introduction of democratic approaches will strike the balance within the domain of social and political dimensions (Emerson 1962:32).

Comparative Assessment of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pluralism and Elite Power Approaches Highlighting the strengths of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Each of the approaches under consideration has some strong sides due to their great contributions to the arrangement of social and political order.

Considering the pluralist theory, the positive side of pluralist approach implementation consists in its focus on social relation as the leading factor of power formation. In particular, the main underpinning of social power is not the leading actor, but the relation itself (Emerson, 1962: 33). The leaders possess power only when they have a specific group to impose power on.

In addition to this, the pluralist approach is more effective as far as a decision-making process is concerned. Lukes (2005:17), thus, places an emphasis on the social behavior as the triggering factor of social relations and as an indicator of power. Consistent and successful process of decision making generates a healthy competition that, in its turn, positively contributes to social, economical, and political development of a state.

In contrast, the main merit of the elite power approach in the process of rule making is also valuable. According to this theory, the social relations are governed by one purpose where all decisions are made with regard to this purpose.

The success of such monopolistic approach is possible in case the state is headed by the leader who has sufficient resources and who is able to allocate them within society in a reasonable way. The governing of one leader fosters the accomplishment of the established goals and decreases the possibility of disagreement within society (Bull 2002: 9). More importantly, the elite power theory contributes to the formation of social and political integrity.

Considering the elite theory of power through the prism of social order, this approach is more efficient in arranging rules and orders within a state, particularly if the flow of social activities is based on the principle of command (Poggi, 1978:5). Indeed, the exploration and advancement will be considerably facilitated under the auspices of a monopolistic power.

Highlighting the weaknesses of the pluralist and elite power approaches. Although the pluralist approach to the process of rule-making is more productive for meeting the needs of society, it encounters the difficulties when dealing with the equal allocation of sources (Dahl 1961:5). In particular, excessive democracy dictating equal participation in governing can lead to greater discrepancies between communities.

Discussing pluralism from the point of view of order formation, this method of rule making is irrelevant, because the social order cannot be based on the divergent positions. What is more important is mixed views cannot satisfy legal, moral, and economic aspect of decision making as the essence of political decision consist in the necessity to promote specific goals.

The problem of decision making arises when dealing with elite power approach to the process of rule making. By promoting the leaders’ rules and preferences, the government deprives society of political significance and minimizing its role in providing viable solutions.

In other words, the suppression of political role decreases the importance of social relations (Emerson: 1962: 32). As a result, the government can lose the object of power and, therefore, it cannot be considered to owner of the power itself. In addition, the concentration of power can even lead to great inequality of resources distribution.

Conclusion The pluralist and elite power approaches constitute opposite sides of a two-polar system with regard to the process of rule making. This is primarily predetermined by opposite focus on the political systems and conceptual priorities of both approaches.

Hence, the pluralist approach is more concerned with influencing powers and social relations whereas the power of elite approach argues the necessity to establish a unanimous goal to pursue. On the one hand, a pluralistic approach considers social relations as the underpinning of governing and resources allocation.

It also strives to establish the equality in the process of decision-making. On the other hand, elite power concept is more effective in reaching the policy of unification where the international order is subjected to the prevailing superiority-inferiority relations. Taking into consideration all strengths and weaknesses, both approaches simultaneously provide viable solutions and serious controversies when applied to the distribution of power in society.

Works Cited Bull, Hedley. The Concept of Order in World Politics. The Anarchical Society. A Study of Order in World Politics. UK: Palgrave, 2002, Print.

Dahl, Robert A. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Emerson, Richard M. “Power-Dependence Relations”. American Sociological Review. 27.1. (1962): 31-41. Print.

Gamson, William A. “the limits of Pluralism.” The Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood: The Dorsey Press, 1975. Print.

Lukes, Steven. Power: a Radical View. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.

Poggi, Gianfranco. Introduction: The Business of Rule. The Development of the Modern State. California: Stanford University Press, 1978, Print.


Soft System and Social Technical Approaches Report a level english language essay help

Abstract Scientific research has been evolving at an increasingly alarming rate. This has been triggered by the requirement of research community to provide significant answers to what seems as complex and disorderly world problematic situations.

In this effect, scientists feel obligated to conduct an interdisciplinary research project aimed at increasing knowledge in all the disciplines (Bandura 2002). Such research projects are aimed at attending to the challenges the globalizations and advancement in technology present to the users and consumers of information.

The accuracy, integrity, and accessibility of information have become one of the fundamental issues that such research aims at addressing. The issues of integrity of information usage and the security of information is becoming an essentiality.

The design of the information system should be able to address the challenges such as the ethical issues that have become a major headache to the researchers in the information and technology field. The ability to present a system that addressed such challenges will be an enormous milestone in addressing the challenges of the time and age.

Introduction With various factors contributing to any issues in the current world, such variations make the world more complex and disorganized. There is need for an amicable approach in addressing and resolving such issues. It is never straightforward the case of identifying the root cause of the problem or diagnosing the problem instantly. With so much confusion often-surrounding problems, it may seem impossible to determine an appropriate solution.

In order to resolve such issues, a problem-solving approach is paramount. Moreover, the approaches should be able to take various dimensions of the issue into account. This may entail the clearly understanding what is happening and strategies or brainstorm of the possible mechanism of addressing the issue or improving the situation. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is one of the approaches (Bandura 2002).

Soft system methodolgy

Soft Systems Methodology is a product of the continuing Action Research of Prof Peter Checkland, Brian Wilson plus other researchers. It is a guideline tool to problem-solving. The effort was in recognition of the fact that not all problems are obvious and neither do they have a predictable solution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common misunderstandings have emerged where the method has been viewed as planned to solve soft problems such as problems involving the social and cultural aspects. On the contrary, the concept applies to both hard and soft problems. The methodology, however adopts a different approach in every problematic situation.

The ‘hardness’ or ‘softness’ is not n innate characteristic of the perceived problem, instead it relates to how the problem is viewed by those involved in seeking the solution (Checkland 1985). Each and every problematic situation comprise of both soft and hard aspects. A problem becomes a problem boy the virtue of being viewed as such by human beings. This can be equated to such a saying that “one man’s poison is another man’s meat”.

Current explanations and issues relating to soft system Developed in 1970 by Peter Checkland with his colleagues, Soft systems methodology (SSM) was designed to provide interventions in the challenges experienced in management, organizational and policy contexts. The methodology comes in handy especially where neither the problems nor the answers are obvious.

It is closely related to the engineering system approaches. However, unlike the engineering system, it recognizes the central importance of perspective or world-view in social situations. The approach is different from the ‘systems science’ approaches that was advanced in the 1960s, and reflects more on action research in its philosophy and approach.

SSM is different from approaches of hard systems through its mode of dealing with the system concept. According to hard system approach, a ‘system’ is regarded as ontological entity-entities or objects that exist in the real world.

For instance, when one talks of objects such as computer system or transport system, they mean physical things which can be described officially as well as structured to meet a certain need. SSM, on the other hand, regards the concept of ‘system’ as an epistemological entity and not ontological entity- a construction of the mind that aids in human understanding.

When we are looking at an organization as a system, for instance, the things that come in our minds include the activities that take place within that company. We think of the process of converting some raw materials into given finished products; we also think of the efforts to make profits; we also get a mental picture of a number of employees as holders of different positions within the organization. As for the case for the unemployed young graduates, they would look at the organization as a potential employer.

We will write a custom Report on Soft System and Social Technical Approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In essence, different people will have varied perceptions over a given organization. It is not possible for us to provide a given single instruction as either right or wrong while there are other different to understand what is going on in the environment. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the perceptions and values of different individuals to get a clear picture of what concerns them within a given system.

While trying to understand a production company, as a system, for example, we are conscious of the process of conversion of raw materials into the product. The system would therefore be composed of such stakeholders as suppliers of raw material, sugar-cane farmers, for example. We would also have customers to purchase the manufactured products.

When looking at an organization whose sole objective is to create jobs for the locals, the system would constitute a different set of elements. In this case we would be interested in the infrastructure such as improved market infrastructures to enable farmers sell their farm produce.

Improved transport system would also be of importance to allow for easy movement of people and the goods. A reliable communication network to allow timely flow of information would also be of significance. Boundary lines that are different have been drawn basing on different perceptions of people on what they perceive as the system.

The development of SSM was influenced by the need to find solutions to complex situations where the problem to be solved is not clear; and the affected group of people hold different understanding of what constitutes the problem and the possible solution.

For instance how to improve farm productivity by intensifying the use of chemical fertilizers at the same time conserving the environment; also how to realize industrialization without adversely affecting the environment in terms of pollution. A society may also be faced with a challenge of how to deal with youth gangs, who pose a threat to the community or drug abusers.

The approach to solving such challenges may take many dimensions. However, instead of solving the problem, some proposed option may actually worsen the situation. There is need to take a close look at the wider situation and the likely consequences of choosing any given approach.

This is so because, some situations are intertwined; changing one element may have knock-on effects on other aspects. A comprehensive understanding of the relationships that exist amongst situations is paramount. The role of SSM is to offer users with a guideline in developing an improved understanding of the complexity of situations’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Soft System and Social Technical Approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Processes

SSM is characterized by seven stages as follows: 1) Identification of the problematic situation that requires intervention. 2). Conducting a comprehensive research so to capture the bigger picture. 3) Perspective selection and a construction of root definitions (the major processes that need to occur within the desired system). 4) Conceptualization of a change system model. 5) Comparison of the model with the real-world situation. 6) Definitions of the changes to be made.

Review of literature It is necessary to integrate our understanding and modeling over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales in order to address complex societal and environmental Challenges. This calls for an increase in the level of societal meaningful Science (Lubchenco 2008).

System based approaches have been critical in trying to understand humanity and our interactions with the external environment. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy is recognized for his major breakthrough in systems based approaches in the early twentieth century (Lubchenco 2008).

Ludwig Von (Biologist) together with Kenneth Boulding (economist), Ralph Gerard (biologist), and Anatol Rapoport (mathematician) further developed a ‘General systems theory’ aimed at addressing the requirement for a more integrated approach to solving societal problems. This led to the birth of Society for General Systems Research in 1954 whose name later changed to the “International Society for Systems Science (Sage 1992).

According to Checkland, in using a “Participative Approach” stakeholders are most likely to reach accommodations – a common understanding on how to address a given problematic situation. Through such approach, the company can adopt changes that are agreeable to all the stakeholders.

The model of allowing all idea(accommodation) is not same as agreement. “Consensus involves a complete agreement among the stakeholders that the proposed changes best serve all of their needs. The notion of accommodation on the other hand, recognizes that this is an uncommon state of affairs” (Schlager 1956, p. 54), and consequently values that a lot of time different people requires can only be to some extent met by cooperative schemes.

SSM Approach Vs CATWO

Checkland proposed a 7-step learning methodology approach. However this was superseded by the CATWO model, developed by Action Research conducted at Lancaster. Despite this, the methodology is still widely used because of its step-wise approach which makes it easy to be taught. In addition, the model has a barrier which runs across it to draw a difference among the 3 stages i.e.between the Real World, above the line, and Systems Thinking.

“CATWO, formulated by The Lancaster team proposes several criteria that should be specified to in order to provide a comprehensive and rigorous root definition” (Schlager 1956, p.54).

Clients – Who are gainers or losers of this particular system? (Who would gain or lose as a result its operations?)

Actors – all those staff members accountable for putting in practice the systems developed.

Transformation – this is quantified based on advancement and changes that the implemented system brings in the organization(What are the contribution essentials and to which extend or in other words what sort of revolution do these input elements undergo before measureable output can be seen).

Weltanschauung–also, know as worldview. What explicit worldview offers the rationalization to the being of this structure or system?

Owner – Whose mandate is to change this system or review its overall performance

Environmental constraints – what are the external constraints that should be considered?

This type of analysis elucidates the objectives of the user of the methodology. By clearly recognizing these viewpoints, the client of the technique is required to mull over the effects of any anticipated transformations on the group concerned.” Following limitations of ‘hard’ systems including operations research and systems dynamics, Peter Checkland and colleagues developed ‘soft’ system approaches to counteract limitations associated with technical assessments” (Checkland 1985, p. 34).


System approach allows participation by all the relevant actors take part in the problem situation and interact with the analyst.

The approach teases out the problem situation, which offers a good ground for creative problem solving. Some problems in real life are not well defined and cannot be solved using scientific methods hence the system approach helps in addressing them.

The system approach allows for an iterative process, which allows the analyst to learn about the system and hence know how to go about it.


The system approach often ignores power in the organization and this may create in the daily operations. The system relies too much on individuals’ perception and as such, it is fuzzy and cannot be easily applied in practice. Quite often, the system approach may neglect some of the forces that interact in society, such as Social constraints and group norms.

The future of integrative systems based studies There is increasing pressure for scientists and policy makers to adopt more integrated and holistic approaches to understanding how we manage systems from the local to global scale. These include 1) advancement in Systems modeling approaches from systems biology to earth systems science. This involves qualitative network models as well as quantitative process/kinetics based approaches (Borgatti, 2009). It is the network models that have the potential to link systems biology, socio-ecological systems, and earth systems science.

2) There has been a continued improvement in data sharing between individual projects and disciplines. This has been easier by introduction of data and meta-data models To increase the sharing of data between individual projects and between disciplines. Examples of these advancements include markup languages e.g. system biology markup language

ISO 27001 Current Explanation and Issues Relating to ISO 27001

IT Governance and information security

Board corporate governance requirements have in the recent years become increasingly more defined and specific. With information technology becoming pervasive, underpinning and supporting almost every aspect of the organization, manipulation and storing of information on which the organization depends for its survival, the role of IT in corporate governance has become more clearly defined and IT governance getting to be more recognized as a crucial area for board and corporate attention.

IT governance is specifically concerned with the protection of the information. protection of this information is critical as the organization’s decision is heavily pegged on its availability, confidentiality and integrity.

As a result, parallel international standards related to information security have emerged and have become one of the cornerstones of an effective IT governance framework.

The information security standards

British standard Institution came up with BS7799 in 1995 as a standard to guide the development and implementation of an Information Security Management System (ISMS). On the outset, BS7799 was considered, as a technology-neutral, vendor-neutral management system. It was intended that, if accurately implemented, it would guarantee an organization’s management of effective information security measures (Hall 1962).

Those rallying for the BS7799 measures aim at addressing the challenges associated with availability, the integrity aspect and also the confidentiality of the information in an organization.. Protection covers those threats that the organization considers relevant and only to the extent that is justified financially and commercially through a risk assessment.

The Code of Practice (which uses words like ‘may’ and which deals with controls, not with Information Security Management Systems), is now recognized under the dual numbers of ISO17799 and BS7799-1 .

The basis for certification schemes is specification and ISO 27001 mandates the use of ISO 17799 as the source of guidance for the selection and implementation of the controls mandated by ISO 27001.

The most recent version of the Code of Practice, and the one which must be used, is ISO/IEC 17799:2005. BS7799-2:2002 has also undergone revision and internationalization, and was replaced in November 2005 by ISO/IEC 27001:2005. The best way to keep in touch with the changes to the standards is to subscribe to 24743, the free information security newsletter that provides regularly updated FAQs on the new standards, as well as other ISMS information.

The information security and regulatory environments

ISO 27001 refers to a standard containing requirements for a company to implement an information security management system.

There are two main reasons explaining the growing interest in certification to ISO 2700. These are: 1) the proliferation of threats to information this is aimed at curbing the possibility of the information landing on the wrong place or unauthorized persons having access to such information. Such incidences can have elemental effects to the institutions or the organizational functions. In addition, 2) the growth in the lawful and constitutional needs that are associated with information authenticity and protection.

This is mostly useful when dealing with secure information. Such applications are used in the security sector, banks and credit cards etc where the transfer of information is through the protected channels accessible to few authorized individuals. This is aimed at minimizing compromising situation s that may results when the public or unauthorized persons access the information.

Information security and technology

Securing data or protecting computers from threats is normally undertaken by people with IT knowledge. This is done by assigning the users with log in credentials that regulate the person accessing the information.

The ability of regulating who accesses what information also enables the It team to monitor and regulate the information flow and also be able to audit the information access and distribution in the system (Bennett, 2009). The computer user makes decisions about which threats to be protect the system from and what trade-offs between security and flexibility he or she is prepared to accept.

The usage of the computers vary and various experts do various tasks based on the [powers that the computers or the specifications of the job to be done. The variations in the usage rights also enables only certified people to access some classified information. Some of the information in the system can be very confidential and only the qualified personnel should be allowed to have access and possibly distribute such information(Schlager 1956).

Advantages of ISO 27001

The benefits of ISO 27001 emanates from its principles. These are confidentiality, integrity, accuracy, completeness, and availability. The confidentiality allows the clients to have faith in the system and trust using the system for their day-to-day business. The integrity concepts emanates from the fact that the system is able to carry out the specified instructions or transactions pertaining a given action or command instructed. The accuracy assures the users that they will not be overcharged or underpaid thus ensuring that the information validity is not compromised.

The availability of the appropriate information to the right person at the right time. ISO 27001 ensures confidentiality that is information may not be made availed or disclosed for people, entities, or processes without permission.

ISO 27001 ensures integrity. The information is protected from unauthorized changes.

Conclusions Advances in a wide range of systems focused disciplines have increased our ability understand and model socio-ecological systems from the sub-cellular to global scale.

These can be classed as ‘hard’, ‘soft’ approaches, and both are required when you are studying systems across multiple spatial and organizational levels.

Here I suggest that diagramming, network theory combined with markup languages based on data and metadata standards within an analytical-deliberative framework can lead to learning and greater integration across these disparate systems based approaches. I am not suggesting that one approach or framework will address all situations, but highlighting the commonalities that will enable us to integrate across situations.

References Bandura, A 2002, Social Learning Theory, General Learning Press- New York, New York.

Bennett, E, Peterson G


How have ethic and age distribution changed in the British Columbia region of the last 50 years and why? Term Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction British Columbia is found at the far east of Canada and is the sixth Canadian province. The country is known of its natural beauty and strategic positioning for functions like tourist and sporting activities. Its capital city is Victoria, which happens to be the fifteenth largest metropolitan region. The city according to census of 2008 had a total population of approximately 4,419,974 and its current head of state is Premier Gordon Campbell (Belanger, 2009).

The province has undergone massive improvement in different areas with the most notable one being the area of technology in all its processes. The provinces have well-structured infrastructures which have assisted in economic and social growth of the area. This paper looks into how ethic has changed over the past five years and how age distribution has changed over time.

Ethics In the context of a country, ethics refers to respect of peoples fundamental rights and freedom. It means government measure that ensures that it can be held accountable by its people in the way it administers the country. Before the Second World War, countries were not concerned about the need for collaboration and integration to ensure that there is an economic development attained for the entire world.

After the Second World War; politicians engaged themselves in vigorous planning which were aimed at breaking trade hindrances and to promote interdependence which in turn reduces the possibility of future wars. This led to increase in international trade. British Columbia was not left behind but worked in collaboration with other countries to develop an international market. This led to globalization, which in turn increases the enlightenment of people.

In British Columbia people have been enlightened and are aware of their fundamental rights. In recognition of these rights, the government has developed measures aimed at this move. Secondly, to have an enhanced international trading, the company has embarked on massive infrastructure development where it has built road networks, railways, and ports. This is both to facilitate international and local trade (Kluckner, 2003).

Enlightened people have brought about the need for ethical conduct and management of the country. All persons in society, whether in private or public sector, product or services industry are concerned with ethics; Ethics is defined as the discipline dealing with what is good or bad and with moral duty and obligation. Thus, personal ethics has been referred to as the rules by which an individual lives his/her personal life.

Business ethics is concerned with truth, consultant’s fairness, and justice


The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade

Attempts to solve the Conflict

Beyond the obvious

The Bombshell

Reference List

Introduction Indonesia is ranked fourth in the world among the most populous Muslim nations. The spread of Muslim faith in Indonesia can be graded as “moderate” with the country being strategically positioned along the sea lines, which appropriately connect to the energy resources of the Middle East (Vaughn, 2009).

Many peace consultants look at Indonesia as being the most critical partner in waging a struggle against radical Islamist Militants in South East Asia. Over time, Indonesia has continued to persue democracy and develop the realms of civil society and law under new reforms by the current president, Susilo. Nevertheless, there exist unhealed wounds caused by the abuse of human rights with the major culprit’s being the military under the reign of former President Suharto for three decades.

Islam Identity in Indonesia: The escapade Indonesia started as a secular state and managed to survive as one (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is because Islam in Indonesia has integrated or adapted with ancient local customs and beliefs that emanate from a moderate and benign version of Islam. The majority of Muslims in Indonesia are traditionalists; a tendency that incorporates strong elements of Sufi mysticism and pre-Islamic Javanese traditions (Haseman and Rabasa, 2002).

They follow the local based law called “adat” which takes precedence over strict Islamic custom (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). Additionally, Indonesia originally faced a peaceful spread of Islam that was not accompanied by force; instead, winds of Islamic reform had reached Indonesia from the Middle East gracefully uniting with the local beliefs (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). This is why rigid adherence to Islamic shariah law is found to be an unfruitful venture due to the strong mismatching foundations.

During the early part of the twentieth century two different views of Islam in Indonesia started to emerge that caused a split emerged between the modernists and the more conservatives (Paris and Schwarz 1999). The modernist could not accept the integration of Islam with local customs, but demanded that Javanese Islam be purged of its non-Islamic superstitions.

This division was greatly highlighted during the early years of Indonesia’s independence. This occurrence shows that even with the different ideologists about Islam that exist within Islam, there is an internal fight on superiority; each strain would want others to declare them as the true faith of Muslim.

There exists the most basic fact here: Indonesia as a Muslim country has been faced with a lot of political unrest over time, with Muslim being the salient factor Indonesian Politics (Bull and Woodward, 2009). Nevertheless, after the democratic transition, many Islamist groups both in Indonesia and the Middle East have risen up and gotten very active, some being violent and others with an approach of Islam social norms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The irony in this happening is that Islamist groups that would otherwise have been outlawed by today’s democratic rule are being allowed to exist as active political players. The most worrying issue as far as a conflict in the minds of Muslim radicals is concerned is that war cannot be won without being fought (Peters, 2002). The idea here is that this tiff has spread to a national level, eminent before an international platform.

Transnational terrorism was made active mostly after the occurrences of September 11. That very date has since then left an unforgettable mark on the whole world. Relations between different states faced a lot of tiffs with little or no benign subsequent relations whatsoever (Kadir, 2002). September 11 twisted the idea of international relations to take another course; there became a general picture of the abundance of a grudge between the extremist Islam and the Liberal, capitalist and the Christian West.

Kadir (2002) explains that after the tragic occurrence, leaders of the Islamic communities in Indonesia distanced themselves from the radical Muslim faiths that would encourage terrorism, terming them as deviant faiths. The leaders of Muslim faith and the government leaders in Indonesia and South East Asia refuted to have such radical versions of Islam to spread to their countries. Nonetheless, their hopes can be seen as denial of the past political Muslim experiences of the country.

This is basically because, Indonesia faced many years of Islamist military oppression where violence was clear and pronounced (Vaugh, 2009). In the same case, it is the same occurrences, which left nearly 500, 000 Indonesian dead during the “new order” rule of President Suharto. The association of such actions with radical Muslim faith have resulted to the Indonesian Muslim leaders to have a distant attitude towards Radical Muslim faith.

On the other hand, there exists a number of Radical or “fundamentalist” Muslims within Indonesia especially during periods of both Sukarno and Suharto where several attempts to establish an Islamic state in Indonesia were made (Indonesia Backgrounder, 2004). Their jubilance has been given so much media attention in recent years, which has created a misconception that Indonesian Islam, is radical.

According to Fox (2004), there arose a new Islamic movement called “Hitbut Tahrir” that had foundations outside Indonesia. This group sought to revamp and attain the inclusion of global fundamentality in the Indonesian national landscape, against nationalism and state power (Fox, 2004). This notion has overshadowed the truth about Indonesian Islam, which is actually accommodating and moderate as compared to other fundamentalist Muslim traits (Jones, 2007).

Indonesia is composed of a diverse set of communities spread across thousands of islands. It is because of this that during the early years, the focus of the government was to strengthen nationalism and independence. It was during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia that Islam officially recognized (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). This was a first step that would ensure future pressure on the government to accommodate Islamic political aspirations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There eventually arose two major opposing Islamic parties (Masjumi and Hisbullah), which always had heated constitutional debates about the form that new Indonesia state was to take.

On one hand, the Masjumi demanded that Islam be declared the state religion, while other groups demanded for the adoption of an Islamic state that is purely based on the Sharia law (Marshall, 2005). It was here that the government decided to marginalize those advocating the movement for an Islamic state in Indonesia because there was fear that the idea of an Islamic state would destroy Indonesia even before Independence (Paris and Schwarz, 1999).

According to Geocher and Vatikiotis (2006), so as to tone-down the tension between the government and the Muslim community, there was an introduced state philosophy which insisted that the state was to be based on a single belief of a “one supreme God”.

Additionally, it was also made clear that God applied not specifically only to Islam, but rather of the five known official religions: Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholic and Islam (Marshall, 2005). This unclear idea about the superiority and clarity of Islam created high tension between the Muslim community and the new independent government, of which it had helped install during the fight for independence.

During the “New Order” regime, Islam was greatly marginalized through the oppressive centralized government at the time. The new regime was determined to establish the military as the primary broker in Indonesia.

With the defeat of the communists, Muslims groups expected to be rewarded for helping the army, instead the “New Order” acted promptly to rollback abuse to the camp of the Muslims (Gocher and Vatikiotis, 2006). The Muslim were the only religious group left who had the numbers and organizational strength to compete for power with the army.

Consequent events saw Suharto acting quickly to more drastically kill the Influence of Islamic idioms in to the government policies (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). In 1973, Suharto forced the merger of Muslim groups, as an attempt to kill the upcoming unrest.

As a result, Islamists viewed this as a potential policy that sought to view Islam as lacking the viability to influence the government policies or participate it Indonesia’s political landscape (Marshall, 2005). This was followed by an even greater blow to Muslim interests; the government’s decision to require all political and social organizations to adopt “Pancasila” as their sole ideological basis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Battle of Tropical Islam: struggle for an Islamic Identity in Indonesia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was a general belief by the Muslims that Pancasila sought to place man over “Allah” and that the idea was heretical (Paris and Schwarz, 1999). Gocher and Vatikiotis, (2006) summed up the New Order’s primary social achievement; Delivering Indonesia from the tangles of the vigorous tides that had sweeping the world as from the late 1970s. Nevertheless, there are critics who believe that the attempt the curb Islam in Indonesia, has made Indonesia Islamic.

There are a number of forces for Islamic revivalism that has re-introduced debates on whether or not Indonesia should be an Islamic state. First, international influences from Islamic revolutions in countries like Iran have spurred up Indonesian interest in Islam (Paris and Schwarz, 1999).

Additionally, the spread of Islam in campuses and the growing Islamic intellectual influences on the attitudes towards national, social and economic developments have directed such views on the basis of Islam. This force to Islamic revivalism were especially evident in the younger generation, who are seen to be more vigilant in making Muslim faith to be more applicable to life in the modern world than it already is.

Lastly, political dynamics where Suharto was losing his power base as he encountered greater opposition within the ranks of the military; occurrences that twisted his arm and got him to break-ice and coincide with the Muslim groups so as to ensure that the relationship with the military stayed alive.

The most alarming thing about this whole Muslim revival issue is that, on the occurrence of the Asian crisis in the late 1997, there was no shift. More concern and precedence was given to the reviving of relations with the Muslims. This event lead to the fall of the “New order” regime that eventually saw Suharto’s thirty two years of rule come to an end. The result was a major power gap that was space enough for the Radical Islamists to step in (Marshall, 2005).

According to Marshall (2005) the unexpected occurrence has brought about the resurgence of earlier Islamists ideologies and aspirations. More critical is the drastic proclamation of Indonesia as a state of Islamic religion as a defiance to Suharto’s Pancasila regime.

This is proven by attempts by Muslim groups to reintroduce the “Jakarta Charter” which would allow the application of shariah law and transform Indonesia into an Islamic state. For now, they have been kept democratically at bay as the “People’s Consultative Assembly” avoided a direct vote on the issue, rebuffing the Islamic parties in favor of maintaining the original, more pluralist phrasing.

Although the New Order has made it compulsory in the past, a number of parties have recently adopted Islam as their ideological basis instead of Pancasila. Increased freedoms in the post-Suharto period have radical strains of Muslim groups after years of being marginalized politically and socially.

There has also been increase infiltration by radical international Islamist groups seeking to spread their beliefs into Indonesia. The traditional threat of shariah law in Indonesia is now back stronger than ever, and it is important to further strengthen democratic elements among mainstream Indonesian Muslims.

Attempts to solve the Conflict There are basically three models of government that Indonesia can preside in; a democratic regime, a religious regime, and a democratic religious government. These different models lie in the ancient argument between the compatibility of democracy and political Islam (Berger, 1999).

The traditional school of thought holds that democracy and political Islam are not compatible. It is a radical belief, that the “institutionalization of shura and ijma provides the state, which expresses the general will, with a normative role in making basic choices in people’s lives” (Safi, 2003).

The idea that the state is now responsible for our salvation is now brought about as a result. As Safi (2003), explains “individual religiosity is transformed by the radicals into a communal public will, itself transformed into state control, both moral and political. This model involves the implementation of Shariah law and the transformation of an Islamic state.

Scholars argue that this model is inherently inconsistent with the divine sources as Islam can only be understood through human reason; “the institution that emerges from that combination is not a theocratic state” (Berger 1999). This is an absolute model that demands exclusivity which stops short of a pluralistic understanding of Islam.

It is the revisionist school of thought that believes that democracy and Islam are only compatible in an oppressive or despotic form of government. This is happens because in most countries in the Muslim world, democracy is only practiced as the giver of proper legality (Safi, 2003).

So while these countries have democratic institutions, in reality none of these processes is really observed. This was evident in the New Order regime, where Suharto was at the apex of politics in Indonesia. It is in fact these forms of regimes that push people away from such institutions to a more radical form of a complete unity between state and religion; an Islamic state.

The post-revisionist school of thought now holds that there are in fact two different ways to articulate Islam and democratic regime forms without transforming into an Islamic state. This view holds that the relationship between Islam and politics was “never premised on the so-called Islamic state or the comprehensive application of the Sharia” (Berger, 1999).

It rejects exclusive reliance on the religious laws in order to confirm whether or not democratic religiosity is wrong (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002). This school of thought believes that the underlying choice should be made based on the society; because in a religious society an innocently secular government would be against democracy (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002).

This school of thought, believes that the success of each models depend on whether the majority is a secular or a religious one. According to Berger (1999), the former believes in the European way of keeping political authority at bay from Islam while the latter calls for clarify the relations between Muslim and politics instead of either commenting the unity or totally fragmenting them.

The first model believes in a secular democratic regime, whereby there is a clear separation between religion and the state. This is a valid model basically because many people believe that a democratic religious government will lack the humility to be accountable to people (Sadri, Sadri and Soroush, 2002).

According to Berger (1999), Oppositions to the first model claim that “advocates of secularism will appear to be calling on their own societies to abandon their Islamic cultural and religious foundations.” They also believe that secularism came to “Islamic societies in the dubious company of Western colonialism and post-colonial hegemony.” (Berger 1999).

On the other hand, the second model demands the clarification and specification of the relationship between Islam and political authority on the basis of an Islamic approach to secularism. In this model, the “protection of basic human rights, especially freedom of belief, expression, and association, is an Islamic imperative and not merely a requirement of international treaties.” (Berger 1999)

One cannot forget that in democratic societies, religious tolerance is practiced, as “the path of examined religiosity is more open and inviting” (Sadri, Sadi and Soroush, 2002). Either way, one must understand that in order for both these models to work, democracy cannot adjust to religious understanding; it is religious understanding that should adjust itself to democracy.

Beyond the obvious The description of constant unrests in Indonesia has always been rotating around one issue: Muslim religion. As stated earlier, the problem from a single religious unit has grown to be the most difficult puzzle that not even the smartest person in the country with his well thought- out and profound intelligent ideas can solve. This bid dilemma calls for a more rationalized, out of the norm idea so as to solve the rationalized and unprecedented turmoil that lingers in the lives of the world’s most populous Muslim country.

I suggest that is time for us to change gears and look at the issue with an open mind; Indonesia as a country is in deep trouble as far as National democracy is concerned and, the USA is the world’s strongest country as far as democracy, economy and internal liberty is concerned. I the itching query about this should be: what does the USA have to with Indonesia? My idea is not at all based on the lines of Indonesia having to solicit for military assistance or any other donations of some kind from the world’s strongest country, no.

If we take another direction and look at the current president to the United Sates of America, president Obama, we will discover that his connection to Indonesia is deep! As a matter of fact, Barack spent part of his childhood in Indonesia and, yes he was born to an Indonesian mother. Needless to mention, he previously had an Indonesian name; Barry Soetero. I think Barry Soetero was the guardian angel given to Indonesia so as to bring its deepest problems to an end.

It is a fact that President Obama is also known as “Hussein”. This tells us that he has a Muslim background. Both Barry Soetero and Indonesia need not to be told that there is a clear indication of an easy way to solve the problem here.

The Bombshell President Barack Hussein Obama is of an Indonesian Background. He also has a Muslim background. Currently is the president of the World’s strongest country ruling without any problems arising from religious clashes. Barack is a modernized Muslim ruling in a country with no Muslim backgrounds.

President Barack Obama should therefore finish his term in the USA, then head back to his roots, apply for citizenship of which I am pretty sure he will get basing on his current friendly relations with Indonesia. Ultimately, he should plunge himself in to the Indonesian political landscape and vie for presidency.

Basing on his roots being from Indonesia and him having a Muslim background coupled with good speech and a likable character he should win. Eventually o attainting presidency, he should channel American ideas that will help Indonesia attain a “super-power level” of democracy.

In this regard, Muslim will be a peaceful religion, as peaceful as a second middle name (Hussein). The Islamic Identity in Indonesia will therefore have gotten its place without any bloodshed, and with the most suited ambassador of them all.

Reference List Berger. L., P. (1999). The desecularization of the world: resurgent religion and world politics. Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Fox, J., J. (2004). Currents in Contemporary Islam in Indonesia. Web.

Gocher, J.,


Race in United States Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research questions

Literature Review

Relevance of the Study


Empirical Analysis

Works Cited

Introduction United States has stood to be one of the world’s economic power houses. The country has been recognized as one of the nations with more than enough resources that could fully support its citizens. This however, resulted in some negative effects which include ecological destruction and racial discrimination.

Though considered as having some of the best environmental laws, the communities within the country are not given equal treatment. The policies safeguarding the environment have not fully addressed some equal benefits to all members of the society since some communities are generally overlooked when it comes to usage of land and agriculture (Schelhas 7).

Access to arable land has been a difficult task for the minority blacks who live in the USA. Large chunks of land and other natural assets have been dominated by the wealthy, majority of which are whites. The less privileged have been denied access to these natural resources and also used as damping sites for environmental wastes. This calls for the importance of including asset-building in the democratic strategy in order to account for sustainability and most importantly empowering the community (West 13).

Research questions The research will seek to answer the following questions;

To what extent do public policies contribute in reducing or increasing the cases of racial inequality in agricultural and environmental affairs?

What brings about the unequal exposure to environmental protection?

What policies can help reduce racism, raise productivity and increase employment opportunities?

Literature Review According to Collin and Robin (13) political and logistical problems are the main barriers to environmental and agricultural justice. There is no fixed relationship, between agricultural development and environmental stress. Both are determined by national policies and by investments that seek to increase research capacity and the knowledge needed to move from racial based society to a liberal society which treats human being with equal rights (Collin and Robin 13).

Studies have revealed that agricultural work is crucial in the economy of a nation, and much attention should be given to both the rate and pattern of its development. Non-farm activities and policies that affect interactions between agriculture and industry are also important determinants of the level of employment and social status (West 13).

According to Pefia (6), “there is a direct relationship between the persistence of environmental racism in farm work and the political, legal and economic conditions that maintain farm workers in a state of labor repression.” This was an implication that unequal trends in the environmental protection as well as unequal exposure to the environmental dangers emanated from the collective effects of several conditions and these conditions were more of economical, political and legal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government’s public policies and laws that were put in place to give support to the farm labor contractor system gave limitations on legal grounds that could enable farm workers to organize themselves for the protection of their rights (West 13). According to Majka, immigrant status which has not been documented of a large number of farm workers weakened even more the farmer’s capacity to deal with the injustice challenge that face them in the agricultural place of work.

The absence of the legal frameworks or the frameworks that are weak for organizing unions, attaining collaborative rights for bargaining, and the right to protest, presented greatest grave barriers to the achievement of the environmental justice for these workers (Majka and Majka). Basically, this implied that as long as the farm workers were still defenseless and unorganized, they still had limited ability to deal with the environmental racism in their work places as well as in the places they live.

There existed some level of discrimination in US Department of Agriculture (USDA) loan, credit and subsidy program (Schelhas 7). Unequal treatment of farmers of color as well as discrimination imposed by the United States Department of Agriculture engaged a well documented legacy of institutionalized racism. There was acceptance by the internal report made by the Civil Rights Action Team of lack of success of the United States Department of Agriculture to go in line with the laws of federal civil rights.

In the United States of America, Racial discrimination in USDA was left greatly unchecked at a time when Reagan administration came to an end. This was brought back by the Clinton administration in the year 1996 but the destruction had been done and the civil rights enforcement complaints were still eminent all through the 1990s (Swanston, 82).

Global environmental study shows that there are so many environmental issues around the world that people have to contend with irrespective of their race or color. Amongst these environmental hazards include; dirty water, polluted air, waste treatment areas, municipal dumping sites, and government or industrial disposal facilities amongst others.

However, researches have revealed that within the United States these environmental hazards have been worsened by the practice of racism. The existing environmental policies and practices are of great disadvantage to some individual communities of the same race.

These policies have brought about environmental racism which has really benefited northern counties as opposed to Southern counties. According to Majka and Majka, environmental discrimination can be likened to institutional discrimination which is defines as “actions or practices carried out by members of dominant racial or ethnic groups that have differential and negative impact on members of subordinate, racial and ethnic, groups.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race in United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These policies brought about extreme exploitation of arable land and the natural environment in favor of the native population. Those who form the numerical minority in politics and in any other sector were subjected to policy discrimination (Majka and Majka).

The country under its current policies placed numerous strains on the environments associated with the under-privileged within the society mostly people of different race. This is seen in industries dealing with massive mining and extraction of resources. Globalization has made it easier for international companies to occupy places that have least environmental rules and regulations, cheap labor and good consumer base.

Relevance of the Study This research tends to champion for the restoration and non-discriminating use of natural assets. It brings to the realization that natural assets are not limited but comprise variety of things such as land, clean air and water. The study seeks to show the necessity of utilizing agricultural land and environment with equality in mind.

This focuses on reducing poverty level alongside building of financial wealth amongst the communities. The study will seek to identify give clear effects of public policies on natural resources and their effects on both rich and poor (West 13). The report will seek to find out why minority farmers have lost significant amounts of land and potential farm income as a result of discrimination by Farm Service Agency programs and the programs by its predecessor agencies (Schelhas 7)

Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative methods of study will be applied in this case. Literature survey study on the uses and challenges of environmental policies on agriculture and racism will form the basis of the study. The risks, challenges and benefits of Environmental policies will be identified and accounted for by use of examples.

Part of the data will be obtained from the primary sources which provide explicit information on inequality brought about by poor government policies. Questionnaires will be prepared for use during structured interviews respondents being community members and environmental officials

Qualitative method helps in easier understanding of data since it emphasizes on direct information from people’s words and actions. Qualitative method has the characteristic that it should gather information on acquired data, based on quantitative methods. The task of understanding and presenting qualitative research proved to be very demanding as statistics.

Empirical Analysis Inductive coding will be used to reveal how consistent the research is with the information given. The data will be broken down and re-organized to achieve the intended objective. The grouped data will then be categorized for the purposes of comparison that will help in providing practical reality of the research (Straus and Corbin). For quantitative analysis Chi-square analysis test will be utilized. The critical alpha level that will be used to measure discrepancies is 0.05.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Race in United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Empirical research design is developed in order to help in exploring the theory discussed in this paper. Individual calculations will be measured based on the interviews conducted and previous data collected statistically analyzed. Available database having track details on the nature of the effect of public policies on agricultural land and environment based on race will be analyzed.

Meta analysis will be conducted to include all the effects of public policies on racial inequality down the previous years. This research seeks to establish an understanding between the research objectives and findings from the interview (Strauss and Corbin).

This research employ the use of Grounded theory which will be used for the purposes of interpreting the data collected. Collecting, interpreting and understanding of data will be done best in grounded theory, where the collection of data, its analysis and theory are closely related bringing some relevance to the research undertaken (Strauss and Corbin).

There is the utilization of peer debriefing which ensures that the required consistency is achieved. For the purposes of coding, the interview scripts are scrutinized to ensure identification of similar or different opinions, the similar ideas are identified substantiated and all the comments highlighted within the transcript margins.

Two different evaluators are used each making his own coding frame for sampling the sub-transcripts (sub-sample used n=2). The different findings will then be compared to ensure accuracy of the coded data. From this a coding frame is produced that is appropriately utilized on the whole data collected. The data will then be thoroughly compared and analysed to tally with the requirements as per grounded theory approach.

Data collection will also be followed by the process whereby the data is grouped into themes which assist in detailed description of the research based on the social and environmental settings. The validity of the research will be based on transparency and viability of message conveyed. Individual narrative interviews are conducted concurrently with the process of transcription and coding of data which is later concentrated and categorized for analysis (Strauss and Corbin).

Works Cited Collin, Robert


The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The historical recordings of past events are very important in the understanding of the actual happenings, analysis of the flow of past events, understanding the factors influencing past occurrences, explanations of the effects of such events, linking the present and future to the past as well as the decision making based on such events.

The actual recording of past events however utilizes every manner of evidence to be able to adequately support the assertions made. Historians and other analysts are in agreement on the need to use the evidence that creates reality and is supportive, but are divided on the relevance of such evidence as from primary sources which they assert are at the heart of history recording and interpretation, yet still creates subjectivity and questions the fairness and truth of such historical recording.

It is worth noting that personal narratives and records of events and discussions forms part of memoirs. Despite the division on the role of personal narratives in recording of history, their relevance from their nature and role in history cannot be overlooked.

This forms the basis for this essay, that is, the analysis of the merits and pitfalls of personal narratives based on the war memory. It is worth appreciating that the authors to be analyzed, Naruo and Sachiko, present their own personal narratives or historical accounts of the occurrences of the war in Japan based on where they were their feelings and perceptions of war as well as their own descriptions of the happenings of the war.

This presents their characters, beliefs, values, interpretation of events and explanations for actions taken. These narratives form the foundations for the explanation of the merits and pitfalls of memoirs in the recording of the historical events. This analysis focuses on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them.

Background study: The role of memoirs or biographies in history Personal narratives are very important in the recording of past events. They are basically personal recordings of the individual events and happenings that act as a trace of the life of such an individual.[1] Naruo in his narrative of “Doesn’t seem too bad”, focuses on the account around his life in the spring of 1945 in which Japan was in war.[2]

He writes as a fifty two year old man, about the events of war in his life as a 6th grade young boy. Sachiko writes her narrative when she is fifty seven years and in her narrative “When I made Balloon bombs”, focuses on her work at the Kokura munitions factory in February of 1945 as a young girl in her fourth year class in high school where together with her classmates had been mobilized to work in the plant in the production of balloon bombs.[3]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors are very much related in that they were both in school although Sachiko was in high school while Naruo was in 6th grade. This raises the fact that they were knowledgeable of writing and reading though Sachiko being older presents a clearer understanding of the war happenings as compared to Naruo. Basically, Sachiko is a young girl or lady while Naruo is a young boy although both of them write these narratives in their fifties with Naruo being fifty two while Sachiko is fifty seven.

These narratives are very relevant in providing historical information on the war from different perspectives in terms of gender and age since Naruo is around twelve years as a young boy child and Sachiko around seventeen years as a female teenager about to get to adulthood especially out of the great memories of the war in Japan whose effect is relevant even to date.[4]

Further, these accounts present the historical accounts from different locations where Sachiko was in Kokura munitions plant working in the making of balloon bombs, while Naruo has his account on his journey from Hiroshima to north eastern Japan. This analyses focuses on the justifying the reasons relevant for their use in history recording based on their merits and pitfalls in relation to records of history.

Factors that influenced the writing of the memoirs and their use in the recording of past events The war period elicited different feelings and reactions. In the period of 1945, Japan had been in war with China which had started back in 1937 and with America and its allies. The war took the direction of bombings and massive destruction of cities and towns and much later into nuclear bombings.[5]

These personal narratives represent the experiences of the authors with war. The experiences and memories that were so significant motivated them to write them down.[6] Sachiko has the rare experience of making balloon bombs which were used in war, while Naruo travels and sees a burned town to which the psychological state of meeting a person who perceives the situation as bad despite the feeling of fear elicits suspicion on him

It is worth noting that since both writers were in school during that period, the ability to read and write facilitated their writing of their historical accounts.

The magnitude of psychological impact the war had on the authors seemed to have motivated their writing.[7] This is revealed in the fact that Sachiko presents the shock and feelings of surprise at the fact that she actually made a balloon bomb and goes on to describe this process. Naruo on the other hand, has great surprise that despite his lack of much understanding on the war, the man he spoke to creates fear and suspicion to him and causes him to think much about his perception of the war and his statement of not being too bad.

We will write a custom Essay on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The age of the authors also seems to have been a motivation for their personal narratives with the shock and overwhelming nature of the war more than they could bear in their age. It is also worth noting that the issues raised are the involvement of children in war, psychological effects of war, conditions at the munitions plants and the role of gender in the war.[8]

Merits of using memoirs in recording of history The use of memoirs in history recording is based on justified reasons, which form the merits of such memoirs basically with the influence of their nature, degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.[9] Personal narratives as memoirs have the advantage of being useful in various fields other than just the records of history. This includes in the analysis of the issues surrounding the writing of such narratives.

For instance in “When I made Balloon bombs”, there is evidence of information regarding the war, the issues in the munitions plants during the war period, the education basis, gender influences in war as well as the science and art in the making of such bombs. In so doing, Sachiko presents information useful on the history on education, use of girls in munitions plants, the living conditions at the time and the aspects of disease and death as is applicable in the health sector as well as the issues of casualties after the war.[10]

Naruo presents information on a journey in a train with conversation with the neighbour and the creation of suspicion.[11] This is applicable in the learning of transport of the time, communication, education and the protection of children in war. These narratives can also be used in literature learning.

Personal narratives are also advantageous in providing the actual chronological order of events and the differences in geographical locations with actual explanations limited to a specific place.[12] Sachiko focuses on her life in the Kokura munitions plant proving information on the munitions plants in terms of conditions, workers, working environment and their role in history.

Naruo presents information on his journey from Hiroshima to the north eastern Japan raising the importance of Hiroshima as a target area for war hence the eviction of children. They both present the actual dates of the happenings of the war as the end of February in 1945 for Sochika and during the spring of the same year for Norua raising the ability to verify the reliability of the information in comparison with other records of war.

The fact that memoirs are primary sources of evidence increases the validity of history sources since such recordings are not based on any secondary interpretations of information which increases their truth.[13] Personal narratives are personally written with clear indications of the writer to be able to gauge the value of such information and get the perspective from the person. Sochika clearly specifies that she was in fourth class in high school and had been mobilized with her classmates to work in the munitions plants during the war.

Norua on his part presents his journey from Hiroshima and the suspicions from his neighbour in the journey raising the psychological interpretations and effects of the war. Both Norua and Sochika present their narratives in a way that is truly personal since some things such as actual feelings and interpretations cannot be done by somebody else conclusively. This increases their reliability as primary sources of evidence and as such their advantage in records of history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Merits and Pitfalls of using Memoir or Biography as Evidence for Past Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Memoirs also are necessary in history recording especially where there are limited sources of evidence hence can be used to record such events while they provide historical data from different perspectives and based on different events which increases the value and content of history.[14]

This is very relevant due to limited nature of information especially in events of increasing the scope of research and getting to understand a subject from different perspectives.

Sochika presents information of the life at the Kokura munitions plant as a high school girl which may not have been written by somebody else in her position. Norua presents an account of a young boy’s interpretation of the war raising the influence on children who despite their limited understanding of the war had the ability of interpreting what was happening around them due to the magnitude of the impact of the war.[15]

The reliability of personal narratives also lies in their use of feelings and personal expressions to express the meaning increasing the reality of the event. For instance, Norua expresses his shock on seeing the burnt town of Akashi with clear description of the scene and then raises his words of expression “Doesn’t seem too bad” despite his shock.[16]

This increases his suspicion of the man next to him who seems to have heard raising his feelings of discomfort and thoughts of him being a spy. Sochika raises the expressions that were evident with the fact that they were free to go home some silence and shock. Her expression of the responses raises the understanding of the actual condition at the plants and the lack of expectations of release.[17]

Further, personal narratives are very necessary in increasing the fields of application of historical research such as political, philosophical, language, social, economic and cultural interpretations increasing the use of historical data.[18]

This is evident in the narratives of Sochika and Norua that can be used in political understanding of the times from the perspective of the authors, economic status from the nature of the work environment at the munitions plants and the food shortages in Hiroshima, social influences of gender in war, language at the time, philosophical interpretations of such narratives as well as psychological understanding of the war effects such as diseases, frustrations, fear and suspicion as well as the health issues.

Pitfalls of Personal Narratives Firstly, memoirs are individualized and as such reliance on them would provide a biased viewpoint especially where varying perspectives of different memoirs are used.[19] For instance, despite the age difference between Norua and Sochika, both can be considered as children.

However, Sochika is heavily involved in the munitions plant of Kokura in making balloon bombs, while Norua is part of the children that are evicted from Hiroshima to north eastern parts to protect them. This limits the understanding of the influence of the war on the children in terms of their involvement.

Memoirs also are just recordings of such events as the writer deems necessary. This means that the prior events that the author does not see of necessity are ignored thus making it difficult to follow up history. For instance, Sachiko presents information on her making of balloon bombs and the conditions at the plants.[20]

She does not specify on the reasons why they were allowed to leave, the length they had worked and the events after leaving the plant. Norua also considers his journey and his meeting the neighbour.[21] He does not clearly present the conditions at Hiroshima or the destination area limiting their reliability and follow up.

It is worth considering that memoirs are subject to loss of clarity of the flow of events especially due to loss of memory of the event.[22] This can lead to confusion and hence the lack of the actual presentation of the event. The personal narratives of Sochika and Norua are written in their fifties yet they represents the happening of event during the childhood and teenage.

This is subject to memory loss, exaggerations and the failure to remember the main significant issues or history. This however is debatable due to the magnitude of the war that elicited memories which have remained in Japan especially the effects of the bombings meaning that the authors could have clearly remembered the actual war events.[23]

Historians have been criticized of trying to establish the causes of actions, which are limited by memoirs due to the individual differences. Further, history based on emotions is not stable enough to stand the test of time. This is because memoirs are based on expression of the feelings of an individual, which are influenced by different factors. For instance, the feelings of Sochika are more of shock out of being released and frustration from working at the firm and death of the classmates while Norua mainly bases his narration on fear and suspicion.

It is worth appreciating that the characteristics of the writer of historical records have a role in influencing the reliability of such information.[24] Sochika is a young girl who understands what is happening even with her involvement in the making of bombs. This is not the case for Norua who is a young boy and in fact expresses his lack of understanding of the war and as such limits the application of his work in explanation of war perspectives.

Conclusion This analysis has focused on the merits and pitfalls of the use of such the personal narratives as primary sources of history and also on their background and factors that could have influenced the writers to write them. The narratives that have been used are “Doesn’t seem too bad” by Norua and “When I made balloon bombs” by Sochika. The emphasis has been on their merits and pitfalls as sources of historical records and information based on their nature degree of reliability and relationship with other sources of evidence.

Bibliography Fowale, Tongkeh. Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, 9- 23.

Hicks, George L. Japan’s war memories: amnesia or concealment? California: Ashgate Publishers, The University of California, 1997, 13-33.

McCullagh, Behan. “Language and the Truth of History.” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441- 455.

Naruo, Shirai. “Doesn’t seem too bad.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 206-207.

Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980, 6-25.

Sachiko, Takamizawa. “When I made Balloon Bombs.” Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun. New York: Sharpe, 1995, 181-182.

Seaton, Philip. Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II. London: Routledge, 2007, 23-45.

Seraphim, Franzika. War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945-2005. Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143.

Southgate, Beverley. What is History for? New York: Routledge, 2005, 12.

Trefalt, Beatrice. Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 13-24.

Footnotes Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 11.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 24.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 140.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 20.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 30.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950- 1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 14.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 442.

Beatrice Trefalt, Japanese Army stragglers and memories of the war in Japan, 1950-1975 (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 15.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 207.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 15.

Beverley Southgate, What is History for? (New York: Routledge, 2005), 12.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 19.

Franzika Seraphim, “War Memory and Social politics in Japan, 1945- 2005,” Social Science Japan Journal 11.1 (2008): 140-143, 142.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Tongkeh Fowale, Biography and historical writing: understanding the link between biography and history (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 20.

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the advantages and disadvantages of history for life (Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1980), 23.

Takamizawa Sachiko, “When I made Balloon Bombs”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 182.

Shirai Naruo, “Doesn’t Seem too bad”. Senso: The Japanese remember the Pacific War: letters to the editor of Asahi Shimbun (New York: Sharpe, 1995), 206.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 448.

Philip Seaton, Japan’s contested war memories: the memory rifts in historical consciousness of the World War II (London: Routledge, 2007), 39.

Behan McCullagh, “Language and the Truth of History,” History and Theory 44.3 (1998): 441-455, 452.


Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic analysis

Economic feasiblity analysis

The economic impact analysis


Effects of competition in oligopolies


Reference List

Introduction In the world of business, there are various structures that are used to organize the various establishments according to the extents of their involvement. Oligopolies are one such classification and these are well present in countries all over the world. This essay seeks to illustrate how elements of economic analysis can be used to explain the competitive aspects of business entities that take the form of oligopolies.

To this end, a description of the term economic analysis and what it entails shall be provided alongside a complete detailing of all aspects of oligopolies. A section of the paper shall be dedicated to explore the possible impacts of long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm. Finally a conclusion shall be provided and which shall serve as a summation of the arguments presented.

Economic analysis Because of the scarcity of resources, the basic human needs and desires tend to be limited by a number of factors including the purchasing power and the pricing of commodities and services. Economic analysis is the process of assessing the supply and demand patterns as well as the options which customers are exposed to and the incentives that drive them to make certain purchases (Boulding 1966).

This is therefore an analysis of how resources are utilized by a certain group of people. The field of economic analysis is divided into two main categories. These are economic feasibility analysis and economic impact analysis. These two are briefly explained below:

Economic feasiblity analysis Business establishments and state organisations tend to go through periods of uncertainty where great risk-taking measures are required particularly when it comes to the decision making process regarding long-term strategies such as the introduction of new products (Schermerhorn 1978). For a proper economic feasibility analysis to be carried out, it is imperative that the individuals involved in conducting the study commit themselves to ensuring accuracy in the prediction of demand.

To this end, it is necessary that the economic patterns as well as the purchasing power of consumers be taken into account (Schermerhorn 1978). Once the demand aspects have been dealt with, then the supply requirements can be studied and in this regard the firs have to find out which resources would be required for them to achieve their objectives. The feasibility study must also include an analysis of competitors and their basic business strategies.

The economic impact analysis This refers to intense research processes carried out with an aim of providing an estimation of the economic impact of a business establishment to the region in which it is based (Pleeter 1980). The consequence of an economic occurence is a total of the cumulative direct and indirect effects on the population. These effects are estimated by studying the levels of taxation rates, spending chains and saving patterns. These are elements that can only be analysied through scientific surveys in the target populations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oligopoly An oligopoly is a type of market structure where a number of large enterprises exercise dominance in the market (Friedman 1983). The business establishments in this type of market are usually big companies which have a lot of resources for investment and which generally tend to command larger market values.

Such companies are also very well known in the world market because they tend to spend a huge percentage of their profits on marketing and advertising. There are two main types of oligopolies. These are the impure oligopoly and the pure oligopoly (Peeples 1989). The impure oligopoly mainly deals in a variety of products or services while the pure oligopoly mainly deals in the type of product that has no major difference from those produced by other companies in the same line of business (Friedman 1983).

Such homogeneous products include the likes of steel and wheat. In an oligopoly, there are very few sellers gunning for the biggest share of the market and this is primarily because they tend to invest a lot of resources in their daily operations. On average, most oligopolies tend to have between three and four key players (Baye 1999).

The primary feature that characterizes oligopolies is the aspect of interdependence between the companies involved. A basic oligopoly will tend to be made up of very few large enterprises (Friedman 1983). Each player in the oligopoly plays a very distinct role such that any of its actions will have a significant impact on the market conditions. Economic analysis comes in handy to explain the influences of various companies in the oligopoly especially in the view of the fact that the other companies in competition are fully aware of their rivals’ market actions (Peeples 1989). This means that in order for an enterprise to pursue a particular market action, the institution has to consider all the possible counter-reactions by each and every member of the oligopoly.

This sort of strategization likens decision making in an oligopoly to a chess game in which an player has to analyze all the possible moves and countermoves by his/her opponent before establishing a plan for attaining his/her objectives. For instance a company intending to reduce its pricing structure in order to woo more clients has to take into consideration that competitors in the same market might counter the move by reducing the prices even further.

A good example is the ongoing price war between the largest mobile telephony providers in the East African country o Kenya (Zain and Safaricom) where Zain out of nowhere cut all calling rates by 50%, a situation that forced their rivals, Safaricom to cut down their charges as well. This kind of interdependent competition has the negative effect of reducing the price to ruinous levels. Economic analysis helps understand the difference between oligopolies and monopolies in this respect of interdependence.

Economic analysis helps provides an understanding of profit maximization strategies. In oligopoly markets the companies involved are generally fully aware of their competitors’ weak points. As such, the enterprises in competition will tend to exploit such weaknesses to their own advantage regardless of the fact that such actions could spark instances of unfair competitive practices.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic analysis helps scholars understand is aspect of competition by illustrating how oligopolies raise their profit levels by ensuring production happens at the point where marginal costs and expenditures intersect (Baye 1999). It is also through market analysis that it is easy to understand that oligopolies are able to sustain great profits by the companies acting as price setters as opposed to price takers.

In some instances, firms in an oligopoly can join forces in a secret association that would see them control the market and retain the prices at an all time high (Hirschey 2009). Such cartels result in consequences similar to those of monopolies since they tend to discourage competitive tendencies (Hirschey 2009). Economic analysis comes through to provide explanations to how certain companies in the cartels conduct themselves especially since disagreements in such arragements can result in price wars breaking out.

Once an oligopoly has been well established, it assumes the form of an elitist club where new entrants have to go to extensive lengths to prove their worth (Puu and Shusko 2002). In other words there are very many barriers to entry. Economic analysis helps further understand this aspect of entry by laying emphasis on the primary barriers which include economies of scale and idea licensing.

Similarly, concepts of economic analysis will contribute to understanding further why the enterprises that have already established ground in the oligopoly will make all necessary efforts to ensure that nascent companies are discouraged or destroyed.

In this regard, the incumbent firms can easily maintain long-run large profits by ensuring that no sideline companies enter the market to cause a split in the profits. For the sake of economic security, governments have also been known to deny some companies entry into certain lucrative business ventures. Economic analysis also explains that consumers generally tend to have limited information as regards the pricing structure and therefore will fall victims to the oppressive prices established by oligopolies (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Leaving the market is equally as challenging as the entry and from the principles of economic analysis it has been established that this is due to the fact that such an exit can end up causing a lot of economic challenges for the economy of the country where the firm is located (Puu and Shusko 2002).

Effects of competition in oligopolies The primary effect of competition by oligopolies is unending rivalry among the companies involved (Puu and Shusko 2002). This rivalry mainly arises from price wars necessitated by firms cutting down prices with an aim of getting an unfair advantage on their competitors.

However, their are other forms of competition which dont necessarily involve the pricing structures, top on the list being advertising and differentiation (Hirschey 2009). Big companies tend to invest huge amounts of money in promotional campaigns which tend to work in their advantage mainly because they already have secured their own portions of the market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic analysis and competition in oligopolistic firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is however easier for companies to lose this portion of the market than to gain bigger portions and this is the main reason why firms have to constantly make the consumer aware of their presence. Advertising remains the primary way for established companies to maintain their competitive lead. In the field of economic analysis non-price competition is considered to be one of the key oligopoly models and this is because of the benefiting effects that it gives companies (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

As far as the price wars are concerned, one economic analysis model that can be used to explain market phenomena is the kinked demand curve model (Fudenberg and Tirole). This model is based on the fact that oligopolists tend to appreciate that when one firm lowers its prices, other enterprises will follow suit for fear of losing their market share (McEachern 2008).

When prices are decreased by a relatively large percentage, the effect is a comparatively small rise in sales; a phenomena known as inelastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008). However, when one firm decides to raises its prices, other firms will generally tend to ignore this and hope that the can take advantage of the situation to attract customers who will basically tend to go for the lower prices. A relatively small rise in price will come with a sharp decline in sales; a condition referred to as elastic demand (Baumol and Blinder 2008).

Even in the most competitive oligopolies, their tends to be one company that commands the biggest share of the market and as such tends to set the price for the rest of the market. This aspect is explained by an economic analysis model called price leadership where the rest of the companies in the circle have to wait for the dominant firm to set the price for them to follow (Fudenberg and Tirole 2002).

This is a very common model because companies generally have the tendency to match prices with the largest enterprise in the business. As such when this large player decides to drop the prices to ridiculous levels, the other enterprises have no option but to drop theirs as well.

As far as long term strategic commitments on the competitive position of an oligopolistic firm are concerned, there are two basic outcomes that can be arrived at. First, is that the market will gradually align itself to accord such companies superseded advantage over their competitors (Baye 1999). For instance, if a company decides to suddenly reduce the prices of its products by 40%, there is a chance that the competing oligopolies will reduce their prices to match this figure or to an even lower figure.

However, due to the fact that the reduction is of high proportions, other companies may not have the financial potential to drop their prices to such extents and consequently the firm that dropped its prices will gradually gain in terms of customer drain from competitors and will hope to retain these customers in the long-term. The other effect of long term strategic commitments is that the desired effect may not be attained and the company ends up losing heavily (McEachern 2008).

Drawing from the above example of a 40% price reduction, customers may not be interested in shifting their loyalty from the other competitors in the oligopoly because of the quality of service they have been getting. Under these circumstances, the company which dropped its prices may not be in a position to break even and because of pride issues, the company will not be in a position to raise its prices once its plan backfires.

Conclusion This essay has extensively analysed the importance of economic analysis in explaining certain behaviours of oligopolies. Various analytical models have been used to provide logical explanations as to the behaviours of companies in this business structure. Aside from this, a section of the presentation has been used to elaborate on the impact of strategic commitments on the competitive positions of companies.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that oligopoly is a very common market structure which tends to come with difficulties in evaluation. With companies getting bigger and acquiring more power and with the world becoming a global village on a daily basis it is almost guaranteed that this structure will in the coming years be the basic market structure.

Reference List Baumol, W.J.


The Analysis of Economics Essay college essay help: college essay help

In this paper, we intend to analyze three articles, published in New York Times, The Economist and Newsweek. Each of them focuses on such topic as the development of the US economy and its struggle against the ongoing recession. Our main task is to evaluate the arguments, put forward by the authors and determine whether there they are evidence-based and objective.

The first article to be discussed is called Across the US, Long Recovery Looks Like Recession. It was written by Michael Powell and Motoko Rich and was issued in New York Times on the twelfth of October[1]. The authors argue that the US economy will not be able to recover from the recession in the near future. In particular, they say that the aftereffects of the crisis can be overcome in at least nine years. Their prognosis is based on the fact that current rate of job creation is rather slow (Powell


Stresses of being a student Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Psychology and health

Sources of student stress

Positive and negative stress

Implications of stress

Coping with stress

Institutional interventions against student stress


Reference List

Introduction Many young people find it quite demanding to move from home to go and stay in college. This is due to the fact that at home they normally have ample time with parental guidance and support (Keil, 2004, p.659). On the other hand, in college they are on their own.

They have to balance out between all the activities they need to engage in. Personal organization turns out to be quite tricky and most of them get their priorities wrong. At the end of the day such like individuals end up in difficult situations as they struggle to keep up with what is expected of them.

Moving away from home also means one has to leave behind his or her family and other close friends. This turns out to be stressful, especially before one gets to form new friends and other forms of support in the new environment (Keil, 2004, p.659).

Stress refers any state of affairs that stirs up depressing thoughts and stances in an individual. Its symptoms include a condition of anxiety and adrenaline production, short-range resistance as a survival means, fatigue, bad temper and lack of ability to concentrate (Schore, 2003, p. 7). There are also other physiological effects like headaches and increased heartbeat.

Psychology and health These two terms refer to the understanding of how conduct and societal circumstance affect the general well-being of an individual. Psychologists work with other medical experts to explain various behavioral characteristics of people (Tsigos


The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East Essay college essay help near me

Terrorism is not a new word to many of us. This word has so many definitions but according to the government of the United States, it refers to threats of the people, manipulation of the state policy by force or fear, or trying to alter the government by either kidnapping or assassination. This act is dangerous for it can take up to five years while planning and finally causing a disaster to the affected. (Kenny, 2009)

To start with, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors. It is believed that roughly 30 million Kurdish people live in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran. This tribe has its own way of living and language, but has no its own state.

It is said that most of the Kurds are Sunni Islam’s although they hold close to other religions including Christianity and Judaism. It is also said that the Kurds lived independently both nationally and ethnically in Kurdistan their historical motherland. (The Odyssey, 2000)

The Kurds are seen to be undeserving of their own state because they are illiterate. This cannot make them go far since the illiteracy level will make them not see far in life. In addition, advanced infant mortality is another reason that shows slow growth leading to few people those cannot stand by their own. The way they are scarcely populated cannot make them own a nation since where there is scarcity there is no unity and without unity, it is hard to make something strong. (Berkey, 2009)

On its part, the AlQaeda was stared by Osama bin Laden in 1988 to combine the global network he organized during the Afghan war. His main aim was to advance the Islamic revolutions during the Muslim world and resisting strange links in the Middle East.

Bin laden befell in the battle beside the Soviet Union’s invasion and occupation from 1979 to 1988 ending up with a defeat under the supervision of the international militias of Muslim troop sponsored by the U.S., Pakistan and Arabia. By the help of Abdullah Azzam the leader of Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood, Bin laden had different views on how to work with the network they had recognized.

It is during this time when he decided to find AlQaeda based on personal affiliations formed during the fight in Afghanistan also on his own international network, status and admission to a big sum of money. In this process, Azzam was assassinated and after the war ended, the Afghan-Arabs who were the organizers of the war were known and they could not go back home due to the state of the country .

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This benefited AlQaeda’s global reach and finally assisted in refining the second and third generation of AlQaeda terrorists. Bin laden had some key issues, which probably made him have all the knowledge he used in his operations. His family had wealth that gave him admission to the elite Al Thagher model school were he learned Islamic which in turn changed him to become what he is today. In the early 80,s, he worked with the mujahideen in Afghanistan, which finally taught him how to fight. (Zalman, n.d.)

The AlQaeda had carried out many attacks, which cost both lives and properties worthy many dollars. In 1993, the Al Qaeda was reported to have shot down U.S helicopter killing U.S peacekeeper in Somalia while they were patrolling to restore hope.

In 1998, the Al Qaeda attacked the Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar-Es-Salam, Tanzania by bombing the U.S Embassies, which left more than 300 people dead, and at least 5000 people injured. Two years later on 12 Oct 2000 the Al Qaeda was also reported to have attacked the USS Cole in Yemen killing around 17 U.S. Navy and more than 39 injured. All these among others are some of the attacks that the Al Qaeda made. (Cronin, n.d.)

In order to fight all this terror towards Americans, I have been thinking of ways in which they could win the fight. First, they should be organized and preventive. By doing this, they will have tight security that will enable them decipher any plan the terrorism will be deciding to do and by so doing to prevent the damage that would have been caused. In addition, they should be intelligent.

By doing this the terrorism will never get access due to the fear of FBI coordination, which will lead to the penetration of the attackers. They should also redefine law enforcement. This will give the attackers fear of facing reprisals under that firm law. Funding the terrorists should also be stopped. Anybody got funding the terrorists should be dealt with accordingly.

This will help a lot in reducing the terrorism. Stern border protection should be adhered to if the borders will be guarded properly this will reduce the terrorism. This reduction will result since there would be no mingling which brings about peer pressure, which can result in doing the harm. This among others should be done in order to fight the terrorism in the world (Hamilton, 2002)

Conclusion Terrorism has been a great disaster to the world since it has caused so much harm to the affected. It is due to this that many countries are living under fear of the terrorists. Secondly, the Kurdish conflict is not an exemption but is among the most famous conflicts in the Middle East, which involves many states and non-state competitors.

We will write a custom Essay on The Kurdish Conflict in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a nation, which cannot stand by it self due to some failures. Finally, the AlQaeda and Osama bin Laden have played a great role in destroying and pulling back the economy of many countries by the attacks they have been doing. We should all preach peace in order to stop all this from happening.

References Berkey, J. (2009). Preventing conflict over Kurdistan. Web.

Cronin, A. Terrorist Attack by Al Qaeda. Web.

Hamilton, L. (2002). Combating Terrorism and Protecting Our Homeland. Web.

Kenny, J. (2009). What is Terrorism? Web.

The Odyssey. (2000). Speak your mind the Kurdish Conflict. Web.

Zalman, A. Profile: Osama bin Laden. Web.


No title Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

You are to answer the following questions.. According to Blauner, what are some of the similarities between people of color in the U.S. and colonized people around the world (p. 303)?  What does he mean by the “colonial labor principle” (p. 305)?

Answer all questions.

In a discussion form not essay.


Scramble for Africa Report best essay help

The lecture on the scramble for Africa is both informative and educative. It draws its main strength from the fact that it goes back to the late 1880s to provide a clear review of how things have changed in the period that colonialists entered the continent.

This lecture divides into various aspects of the scramble by providing categorical analysis of the forms of rule adopted by the colonialists and there spheres of influence. The appreciation of Africa as a continent with a wide array of natural resources helps provide a clear understanding of why other individuals felt the need to abandon their countries and continents to come set base in Africa.

The theory on neo-colonialism has been well elaborated help create an understanding of the colonial elements that still remain in the continent and. The section that has been given extensive coverage (and appropriately so) is the detailing of the mining and exportation of oil from some African countries. Other aspects that have made Africa so highly cherished by individuals from other continents include the extensive prospects for Agribusiness.

However, it is also worth noting that from the lecture the moral issues surrounding the move by the Western nations wanting to take over all the good things in Africa have been given mention. The section on the unequal struggle by Africans fighting for the control of resources that they should have unchallenged control over serves to offer the entire lecture some sense of balance.

This is because most of the discussion was structured to show the happening of events from the point of view of the ‘offenders’ and it only takes an analysis of the retaliation by the ‘victims’ to make an argument credible.