Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Research Paper Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

The Mission of the MRO

The specific instruments/features aboard the MRO

MRO’s support to other MEP missions/spacecrafts

The contribution of the MRO in understanding Mars


Works Cited

Introduction Over the last one decade, several space agencies have had several missions, which form a core part of the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). Prior to the launching of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, several spacecrafts were already operating in the planet under the MEP.

The Mars Odyssey was launched in early April 2001 and arrived at its destination in late October 2001. It was designed to aid in the determination of the planet’s surface besides detecting the presence of water and ice in the planet (Mustard et al. 305). Additionally, it is capable of studying Mar’s radiation environment. The next mission was the Mars Express that was launched in June 2, 2003. The European Space Agency and the Italian Space agencies joined forces in the planning of the mission.

NASA also participated in the mission to enhance its success. It explores the surface of the planet and its atmosphere. The third mission involved the Mars Exploration Rovers, which landed on the planet on January 4, 2004. Its main goal is to search for evidence of the availability of liquid water in the planet. Following the Mars Exploration Rovers was the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).

The MRO performs several tasks in gathering information that is essential in understanding both the past and the present features or rather nature of the planet. This paper explores the mission of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in relation to Mars Exploration Program, gives detailed information about how it is able to achieve its mission as well as the significance of its findings to the study of the planet.

The Mission of the MRO The series of the missions under the MEP aim at providing scientific information, which is essential in the continual exploration of the planet. The MEP operates in accordance to the scientific objectives that were set by the World’s scientific community regarding the exploration of Mars.

The objectives include the search for past and/or present life on the planet, assess the presence and nature of the resources available in the planet for human exploration as well as understanding the climate and the history of the planet. The program also seeks to help scientists understand the geological processes of the planet and their role in shaping both the subsurface and surface of the planet. All the objectives of the program are based on the existence of water on the planet as well as the role it plays in life.

The National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA) launched the MRO on August 12, 2005 and arrived at Mars on March 10, 2006. The MRO seeks to achieve four primary science goals, which are in line with the MEP’s overall mission of finding evidence about the existence of water in the planet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The four goals include the determination of whether any living organism has ever existed on the planet, Characterization of the Martian Climate over a decade, Characterization of the geology of the planet as well as the provision of essential information for future preparation of human exploration of the planet.

To enhance the materialization of the four science goals, the MRO has its specific objectives. One of the objectives is to understand not only the past but also the present processes of climate change. The objective is achieved by observing the daily variations and the seasonal cycles of carbon dioxide, water and dust (Johnson et al. 10).

The scientists also need to elucidate all the factors that control the variable distribution of the three elements and distinguish the processes of oelian transport. This can be achieved by the characterization of the planet’s (Mars) global atmospheric circulation, surface changes and atmospheric structure as provided by the MRO.

The search for the evidence of aqueous and/or hydrothermal activity in Mars one of the scientific objectives of the MRO mission. To enhance the materialization of this objective, the MRO plays the role of investigating local areas in search of compositional evidence of such phenomenon (Johnson et al. 10).

The main indicator, in this case, is the presence of surface materials that have the ability to preserve biogenic materials or rather materials that exhibit some form of biological activity. In the detailed search for aqueous activity, the MRO will not only need to observe but also quantify the geomorphology of key areas on the surface of the planet that indicate the presence and persistence of water in liquid water.

The MRO is expected to probe the horizontal and the vertical structures of the planet’s upper superficial layer and its potential reservoirs of the two main forms of war in the planet-water and ice.

The MRO plays several roles in unveiling the geosciences of Mars. It enhances a better understanding of the nature and evolution of the various types of Martian terrain. The MRO maps and characterizes the composition, geomorphology and the stratigraphy of the surface and the subsurface of the planet in different global locales (Johnson et al. 10).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also provides data about the gravity of the Martian crust, lithosphere and the atmospheric mass variation. By so doing, the MRO plays a pivotal role of characterizing the Martian gravity field. Finally, it aids the relay of scientific data from the Mars-landed satellites to earth during a relay phase

The specific instruments/features aboard the MRO The MRO has several science instruments that operate differently with their findings geared towards achieving the goals of the satellite. One of the science instruments is the Mars Colour Imager (MARCI). It produces daily global maps of weather on the planet. However, its primary role is to find traces of water in the planet by tracking the ozone, which acts as a proxy for water vapor. The photochemical processes that occur in the planet increase the anti-correlation of water with the spatial distribution of ozone.

The phenomenon enhances the device’s ability to track the ozone. It is also capable of detecting changes in surface properties, which include the local, regional and global redistribution of dust around the planet. MARCI derives its potential to carry out its functions from its main components-two framing cameras. The first camera has two spectral bands in the ultraviolet. The second camera has five spectral brands in the visible (Zurek, and Smrekar 3).

It plays a complimentary role to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). MARCI is expected to provide weather updates of Mars for a decade on a daily basis thus giving the climate of the planet. Besides providing a decade-long climate record, its maps also assist in not only the entry but also the landing of the NASA’s Lander missions such as the installation of the Mars Science Laboratory.

Research has shown that the data produced by the MARCI is also essential in alerting the other MRO instruments to ‘atmospheric seeing conditions’ (Zurek, and Smrekar 5). MARCI has played a pivotal role in the expansion of scientists’ ‘climatological’ records of Mars’ atmospheric processes, their variation as well as their inter-annual variability.

The Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) also plays a pivotal role in the overall functionality of the MRO. It provides atmospheric profiles of water vapor distribution, temperature and dust. It does so through the application of remote sensing measurements at thermal infrared wavelengths.

The measurements are essential in the measurement of the specific underlying mechanisms that cause the planet’s seasonal changes as well as their annual and inter-annual variability. It also monitors the appearance of frost in the Martian atmosphere that enables scientists to closely study the climate changes over different periods.

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) is also an important component of the MRO (Ball and Aerospace Technologies Corp 12). It comprises of a well-calibrated instrument that has a high precision, high sensitivity and cooled detectors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main function of the CRISM is to provide both the NASA and the European Space Agency, among other space agencies, with compositional evidence of the presence of water on Mars. It has the capability to detect water in aqueous form, which acts as the basis of all its findings.

Additionally, its ability to unveil the surface composition of water can be attributed to its ability to provide the data required to remove all atmospheric interferences such as features from the sun that are reflected by not only the Martian atmosphere but the planet’s surface as well. With a combination of the compositional data provided by the device and geomorphologic data, scientists have been able to learn more about the history of the Planet’s climate.

The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) provides images of the planet. It has a high-resolution camera. It is the largest and the highest-resolution camera that has ever been sent beyond the Earth’s orbit (Mitchell 8). Its components enable it to not only produce black and white images but also color images. Additionally, it is able to produce hundreds of stereo-image pairs and three-dimensional digital elevation models.

During the MRO mission, Ball Aerospace and technologies Corporation expect the camera to process a thousand extremely large high-resolution images. For the smaller high-resolution images, the camera will produce nine times the amount of the large high-resolution ones. Research has shown that “it would take 1,200 typical computer screens to display just one large image at full resolution” (Ball and Aerospace Technologies Corp 12).

The context imager (CTI) works simultaneously with the HiRISE. It produces medium resolution images of the planet. Unlike the high resolution HiRISE that has a limited coverage on the planet at any given time; CTI covers a large fraction of the planet. This enables the scientists to gather a variety of medium resolution images that they interpret with respect to the images produced by HiRISE. CTX has been able to provide data about the relationships between different surface features.

Such information is essential in the provision of new insights into local, regional as well as global features of the Martian atmosphere and climate (Zurek, and Smrekar 7).

Installed in the MRO is the Shallow Radar (SHARAD). Its purpose is to unveil more properties of the planets subsurface. The previous missions to Mars had detected several features in the subsurface. Some of the features include buried craters, which have some ice deposits. They had also detected layers of ice on the northern plains or rather the North Pole. Similar features were also detected in the South Pole. The instruments that scientists had previously used to do these detections were installed in Mars Odyssey.

The SHARAD has a significantly higher vertical resolution power than the Mars Odyssey instruments. Unlike the Odyssey facilities, the SHARAD is able to penetrate the planet’s subsurface to a depth of half a kilometer. Through its ability to probe many meters into the surface, the SHARAD will be able to provide information that will assist scientists in defining the relationship between the ice found on the planet’s subsurface and other features.

Scientists will be able to tell whether the ice is merely at an atmospheric equilibrium at any given time of the planet or whether it is at the top of a deeper permafrost regime or a deeper cryosphere. The information is also important in testing various models of the patterns of climate change associated with changes in orbital eccentricity or rather phasing. The information further intensifies the study of the Martian regolith.

MRO’s support to other MEP missions/spacecrafts Orbiter relay is one of the support mission objectives. It revolves around the value of telecommunications’ support by orbiting spacecraft. This occurs through the relay of a series of commands from the control system on earth to the landed spacecraft on the planet. It also incorporates the downlink of scientific data/information from the landed spacecrafts (on Mars) to earth (Dunbar 3).

One of the systems that has been able to relay such information is the 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) which supports the Mars Exploration Rovers. To ensure that this support objective is achieved, the MRO flies a UHF antenna and a radio relay package (Electra). They were able to support the Mass Science Laboratory in 2010 and the Phoenix Lander in 2008.

The MRO also helps in site characterization that is accomplished by the scientific instruments. The instruments provide information that enhances the identification of sites on Mars for future exploration. The two properties that aid in the identification of such sites are the freedom from hazards and the area’s potential for further scientific study in the planet.

One of the initial priorities as far as site characterization is concerned was the observation of the prime candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Phoenix.

The MRO flies two demonstration technologies namely the Ka-Band operations and the Optical Navigation Camera to accomplish its technology demonstration goals.

The two operations are carried out on non-interference basis with the principal mission science. The Optical Navigation Camera provides precise navigation information by imaging the moons of the Mars on approach (Mustard 308). The information is fundamental in guiding spacecrafts to a highly direct entry into the Martian atmosphere. Consequently, it reduces the landed error eclipse.

The Ka-band function of the MRO characterizes the utility of Ka-band frequencies for the purpose of routine data return via the earth’s atmosphere. Unlike all the nominal X-band packages that NASA employed in its previous missions to Mars, the Ka-band has the ability to transmit data at a very high rate using less power and with a greater bandwidth.

The contribution of the MRO in understanding Mars There have been several missions to Mars. All the missions are geared towards providing information that is essential in understanding the nature of the planet. The MRO has been able to identify and characterize the water found in the planet. With the help of the HiRISE aboard the MRO, scientists have been able to identify five craters in the planet that are 1.5-8 feet deep. Inside the craters are several white bright blotches. Scientists identified the blotches as ice due to the capability of the HiRISE to provide clear high-resolution images.

Further monitoring of the bright blotches led to the realization that the water that exists in Mars is in pure form, i.e. it did not contain any extraneous materials such as duct (The New York Times 7). After a few months, the bright blotches in the crater disappeared. A close observation of the rate at which the blotches, previously identified as ice, disappeared with the help of computer simulations, scientists concluded that the water was in pure form.

The MRO has also enabled scientists to find the position of certain features of the planet relative to the Equator. Contrary to prior information provided by other spacecrafts in the planet, scientists have evidence to prove that the ice in the mid-latitudes was very close to the Equator. Additionally, they have been able to conclude that in the past high humidity was one of the key characteristics of the Martian climate (The New York Times 12).

The MRO has helped in the identification of landing sites for other spacecrafts on Mars among which is the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL landed in Mars early last month. The core business of the MSL is to find whether the planet has the capability of supporting life with specific interest on the life of microbes or rather microorganisms.

Therefore, its main mission is to determine the inhabitability of the planet, which is of much value as far as the Mars Exploration Program is concerned. Other than the landing of the MSL on the planet, the MRO continues to provide more information essential in identifying sites for the landing of future spacecrafts on the planet.

Conclusion The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is one of the most advanced spacecrafts in the Mars Exploration Program. It has a set of scientific instruments that has enabled it to provide different types of information to scientists. As aforementioned, the MRO has four main goals. The MRO is involved in the identification and characterization of sites that have experienced hydrothermal/ aqueous activity on the surface of the planet. It seeks to identify safe sites for the landing of future Mars Missions.

It also provides information that enables scientists to understand the Martian atmosphere and climate. Furthermore, it plays a supportive role in enhancing the relay of information from spacecrafts landed in Mars to Earth for scientific analysis. It has also enabled the landing of other spacecrafts in Mars, e.g. the Mars Science Laboratory that has the role of finding the ability of the planet to support life.

The MRO thus acts as a multidisciplinary gadget that enables space agencies such as the NASA, ESA, and ISA establish scientific information about Mars. From the above discussion, it is evident that the roles of the MRO can be divided into three main categories: global mapping, high-resolution targeting of specific spots on the surface of the planet as well as regional surveying.

Works Cited Ball and Aerospace Technologies Corp. “Ball Aerospace High Resolution Camera to Launch on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.” 2010. Web.

Dunbar, Brian. “MRO: Mission Overview.” 2011. Web.

Johnston, Martin et al. “The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: From Launch to the Primary Science Orbit.” 2006. Web.

Mitchell, Steve. “Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Analysis of Primary Mission Characteristics.” 2009. Web.

Mustard, John et al. “Hydrated Silicate Minerals on Mars Observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM Instrument.” Nature, 454 (2008): 305-309. Web.

The New York Times. “Red Planet may be Better Known as the Wet One.” 2009. Web.

Zurek, Richard, and Suzanne Smrekar. “An Overview of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mission.” Journal of Geophysical Research 112. 5 (2006). Web.


Housing problems in Saudi Arabia: Challenges facing sustainable housing in the region Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Climatic challenges

Challenges of rapid growth

Challenges of privacy


Achieving sustainability



Works Cited

Introduction Several sectors such as the government, public, and the housing industry may offer strong support to enable Saudi Arabia achieve sustainable housing and elevate itself into the next generation of living in terms of housing. However, currently public support is not strong enough, which may be caused by factors like poor understanding of the language and deficiencies in public awareness.

Archibuigi stated that the “sustainability or sustainable design is simply a rephrasing of some of the forgotten values of traditional architecture and urbanism” (177). This paper aims to scrutinize the levels of public awareness of sustainable housing in the region of Saudi Arabia. The paper also aims to proffer some of the solutions to these challenges that are faced by the populace. While addressing the plight of the people of Saudi Arabia, the idea of sustainability is set to go a long way in enhancing their lives.

In as much as the infrastructure will be enhanced by the adoption of sustainability, the actual process of endearing the concept to the people starting from the people right up to the governing body may encounter a few obstacles, which may slow down the process. Only when the idea is fully accepted will the country realize the full impact the sustainability has on its economy.

Many developing nations such as Saudi Arabia have recently experienced a quickened rate of urbanization, making the opening of the theory of sustainability an inevitability since there are hardly any resources (Smith 198).

There is quite a big number of sustainable methods that can be used such as passive solar design, ventilation, and natural light as well as the complete use of the design of the site. Many reports have been written by hundreds of researchers in a bid to understand the realization of the prospective of sustainable housing in Saudi Arabia.

However, most people interviewed during the studies, more than a half of the total number of interviewees had a total lack of understanding of sustainable housing. The studies came up with the recommendations that people of Saudi Arabia ought to be educated on the advantages of sustainable achievement compared to their existing infrastructure as well as the new ones in terms of housing. The best forum for educating people, according to most researchers, is the local media, which most of the people have easy access to.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most rapidly developing nations in the region of the Arabian Gulf. The last two decades have seen it expand quickly, and the estimated number of people living in the region is around 25 million (United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Global Land Tool Network 27).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With land space of around two million square kilometers, Saudi Arabia covers quite a vast area (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 131). The number of houses owned by people in the region is about 1.5 million and the number of houses that have been leased is around the same figure of 1.5 million (United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Global Land Tool Network 27).

Several reports from UNICEF among other human rights organizations indicate that almost 82 percent of the population is urbanized. With such a high rate of urbanization in the country, it is not surprising to find out that there are severe challenges that the region is grappling with. One of the main challenges that comes with the rate of urbanization is the cost of living at the present time.

Although, like in many other places, the main challenge that the people in Saudi Arabia may encounter is the costs of living, which encompasses the costs of construction, as well as the cost of maintaining the living standards, Saudi Arabia faces a number of other challenges that may not be common for other regions around the world. They may be considered unique, since the conditions are found in this region.

Climatic challenges The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia endures climatic changes, which bring about diverse environmental challenges to the people who reside in the country. With harsh climatic conditions that comprise desert conditions and excessive temperature disparities, which vary from 51.1 °C to -11°C, the climatic conditions in Saudi Arabia pose a serious challenge to housing and development that is hardly found elsewhere (Girard 365).

Apart from this, the problem associated with water is also one of the main challenges that the country faces. Hutchins proved “many Arab countries are reliant on non-renewable groundwater supplies to augment their scarce water supply in order to respond to growing demand” (219).

Challenges of rapid growth Laws and rules that govern the idea of sustainability ought to be enacted through various departments in the government and the same bodies of the government must implement the ideas. This is more so in countries that are developing just like Saudi Arabia, and that are going through a high rate of growth as well as ratio of factors like urbanization.

However, economics is not the only issue at hand in Saudi Arabia as well as in many other developing nations (Roseland 210). The rate at which the limited resources are disappearing is a key factor that must not be overlooked. The full implementation of solar deigns and natural light as well as ventilation and site design will go a long way in achieving sustainable housing.

We will write a custom Essay on Housing problems in Saudi Arabia: Challenges facing sustainable housing in the region specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Challenges of privacy Most people in Saudi Arabia face the greatest challenge of violation of their privacy. This is especially common in the city of Riyadh. With the lack of properly structured building codes, it is common in Riyadh to find people who have put up a high rise building in the area where there are low-rise homes of a private nature.

The laws do not prohibit this making it difficult for the developers of low-rise homes to work efficiently. The challenge of privacy plays a major role in the issue of sustainability since in the past there was hardly any sort of unwanted invasion of privacy as opposed to the present days.

Together with the fact that there are strict regulations in terms of religious inclinations, this would be one of the greatest challenges. Due to the fact that the city is so cosmopolitan, it will be quite typical to find people from different religious faiths living in either the high-rise or the low-rise buildings that may be situated next to each other.

This may lead to one or another feeling uncomfortable with the other peering over their fences while they carry out any sort of acts that can be required of them by their religion. Pinderhughes states, “The proximity of multiple-story complexes to these homes creates social and religious conflicts of privacy widely practiced in the MENA” (243).

The issue reverts to the age-old problem of security with the invasion of people’s privacy. Pinderhughes argues this point and states, “While many of residents of Riyadh enjoyed the living styles of detached single family dwellings, many of the foreign workers would rather live in densely-populated apartment complexes” (243).

Application The actual use of sustainability to a construction site is a complicated issue apart from using sustainable materials to put up the building. For example, using an environment friendly piece of glass on the roof of an Arabian house where the high temperatures go up to 51ºC is not sustainable (Smith 32).

A number of inventive ideas that may support the concept of sustainable housing, although the citizens of Saudi Arabia have not yet embraced them Archibuigi stated, “Sustainability or sustainable design is simply a rephrasing of some of the forgotten values of traditional architecture and urbanism” (177). Most people are awed by its modernism as well as the general idea that it will be quite costly for them to act as prohibitions for people to embrace the ideas.

However, among most of the housing business experts in Saudi Arabia, understanding of this new theory on sustainable housing and economical improvement is on the rise. A fundamental side in the sustainability outline is the associations among the local governments, schemers and the residency part taking in the decisive arrangement and accomplishment phases (Perlman 114).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Housing problems in Saudi Arabia: Challenges facing sustainable housing in the region by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is significant to look into how inhabitants in the expanse look upon sustainability and their enthusiasm to partake in putting into operation the model so that they can know how to have an appropriate control of the segments that are involved into implementing the theory (Perlman 114).

The rate at which the country has evolved in the last century is one of the key factors that may determine the success of sustainability. This is a major challenge, since almost 80 years ago people were living in tents, and they are now expected to switch to high gear and adapt to the modern ways of living at the speed at which it is evolving.

Achieving sustainability The stakeholders as well as the governments of the developing countries may work in collaboration to ensure that sustainability is achieved in terms of modern housing. Some crucial Saudi developers are checking out sustainable building as a main option, and with ever-increasing political awareness; it will only be an issue of time before green guiding principle becomes compulsory (Girardet 142).

The building industry grumbles about the deficiency of resources to empower the hi-tech transformations requisite for the sustainable application, and that their profits will be reduced (Smith 198). According to De Roo, “a report published by the US Green Buildings Council, a green building on an average saves 70 per cent of electricity, 50 to 60 per cent of water and 36 per cent of energy” (319).

This argument lays the foundation for people in different sectors such as the government, stakeholders, investors, homeowners, and developers in the business of housing to consider actual application of the idea and techniques of sustainability in order to lower the running costs of a building. Some suggestions have been brought forth in a bid to embrace sustainable construction in the city. Some of them include the suggestions to:

Take on a framework for regulation of the sustainable construction projects

Lead the way forward as an example for the rest

Offer funds for training personnel and educating them on the idea of sustainability

Increase the levels of awareness among the political landscape as well as the government officials

Create a government advisor stakeholder council

Embrace all the new niches that are being created by sustainability in terms of the services that are offered as well as the tools and materials that are available

Create markets for the innovative idea of sustainable construction

Many forums can be used to introduce the public as well as all the other stakeholders in the industry to the idea of sustainability. These forums can utilize different methods to raise awareness among the public and encourage commitment to protection of several aspects that are influenced by any sort of construction.

Roseland states governments are the ones to “initiate changes with the development of a legal framework to encourage the application of appropriate standards and procedures. It is known that unless pressured, the construction industry will not introduce the required adjustments” (297). An explanation is to revolutionize the mode of predation of private sector experts and the community as well.

They need to become conscious of the gains and benefits of a built environment, which is safe to both the natural world and to the inhabitants (Roseland 297). Roseland further says, “In most countries, there are financial incentives to retrofitting or building using ‘green’ principles that business owners should take advantage of or soon legislation will force the issue” (297). Most developing nations are yet to embrace the ideas and thus the intervention of a foreign government.

They are yet to take into consideration the scale of the issues that are at hand. The consequences of metropolitan expansion in the third world nations give an idea about sustainable building and sustainable expansion that are not the main concern so far (Nelson 19). Nelson further states “This is a concept managed by professionals in certain fields and only recently have governments begun to pay attention to it, due more to international pressure than to internal conviction” (19).

The differences in the architectural designs and materials go a long way in showing the advantages of embracing the idea of sustainable houses. The idea of sustainability in traditional houses was achieved much more effectually than it is in modern times. The ability of the people to cool the temperatures using mud as insulation is just an example of the notion of sustainability being put to good use back in the day. Natural light was also trapped in ways that are more effective.

Solutions Among the most crucial parts of construction when using the concept of sustainability is the site design as well as the layout. With majority of the construction sites starting with leveling of the ground in order to commence work of putting up the structures that they intend to, sustainability calls for more integration of the construction with the existing landscape as much as possible rather than changing the land.

The building is supposed to blend in with the already existing undulations and incorporate all the environmental features that can be maintained. The most environmentally steady improvement is one that perturbs as diminutive of the accessible site as it possibly can (Smith 198). One of the most effective ways of achieving this is by using daylight as a method of sustainable integration in any of the buildings that are being constructed. This is done by using a combination of electricity and natural light in the same place.

Particularly, this can be achieved by using the natural light during the day as much as possible, and using electricity only when it gets dark. Burton indicated, “Day lighting design is the use of good design sense, not the application of technology. It is the pattern of light in the sky told as a story in the building’s form and details” (281).

Solar energy is one of the most effective sources of renewable energy and a good way to diminish the consumption of non-renewable energy. Burton further explains, “The basic idea of passive solar design is to allow daylight, heat, and airflow into a building only when beneficial” (281). Burton explains, “The objectives are to control the entrance of sunlight and air flows into the building at appropriate times and to store and distribute the heat and cool air so it is available when needed” (281).

Conclusion With one of the highest construction rates in the world, and being a developing country, Saudi Arabia is one of the easiest places where the idea of sustainability can be implemented. This is compounded by the fact that the country is still going under thorough construction in many regions. It may be important to note the use of locally found materials as well as the knowledge used in construction, and this must be taken into consideration.

In order to attain success in projects that incorporate sustainability in the construction that is carried out in Saudi Arabia, the use of natural resources that are available in the region such as solar energy is imperative. The success of these projects revolves around the proper implementation of these sustainable features. The costs of construction ought to be checked so that they do not discourage the locals from indulging in the exercise of construction of buildings.

It is vital for all the localized bodies that deal with engineering as well as the government to work together in order to control and ensure the proper application of sustainability in the country. Another important aspect is the understanding as well as the awareness of the community members about the implementation of the entire concept of sustainability.

Without this, the other bodies used in implementation will actually be helpless. One of the main things that is highly recommended is the enhanced research of public awareness, which needs to be carried out in order to be able to use sustainability in a perspective where most of the people who are involved are the ones renting the premises rather than the owners.

Once they are fully aware of the benefits of sustainability, the owners will have no option but to adopt the concept of sustainability. Sustainability is one of the greatest concepts that ought to be embraced by all developing nations in a bid to ensure that globalization does not overrun their economies, thus rendering them incapable of offering competitiveness in terms of trade and commerce among many other things.

Works Cited Nelson, Anitra. Steering Sustainability in an Urbanizing World: Policy, Practice, and Performance. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2007. Print.

Archibuigi, Franco. The Ecological City and the City Effect: Essays on the Urban Planning Requirements for the Sustainable City. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 1997. Print.

Burton, Hugh. Sustainable Communities: The Potential for Eco-Neighbourhoods. Oxford: Earthscan, 2000. Print.

De Roo, Gert. Integrating City Planning And Environmental Improvement: Practicable Strategies For Sustainable Urban Development. Bristol: Alastair Sawday Publishing Company Limited, 2009. Print.

Girard, Luigi Fusco. The Human Sustainable City: Challenges and Perspectives from the Habitat Agenda. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2003. Print.

Girardet, Herbert. Cities, People, Planet: Urban Development and Climate Change. Hoboken: John Wiley


Bridalplasty Television Show Essay best essay help

Reality television shows that were developed immediately after the advent of the concept did not elicit much controversy since they had a clean image. Their history started with contests and simple dating shows (Coontz 378). Such shows are still popular in the United States. However, the nature of modern bridal television shows has changed a lot. Most of them are defined by women who dress in unconventional manner.

Among the most common reality shows that have featured on television include American Idol, Top Chef, The Real Housewives and Miami Ink. In most of these shows, sexuality features prominently as individuals compete for lovers. As a result, the shows usually attract many viewers. This essay will provide an analysis of a bridal television show known as Bridalplasty. It is important to provide an analysis for this bridal television show because it arguably portrays the rot in the American culture.

Bridalplasty is a reality television show where women with intentions of getting married compete for an ultimate makeover. Apart from focusing on makeup and hair, the show awards the ultimate winner a total makeover. This is done through plastic surgery for the whole body.

The women who compete in the show usually list their surgery wishes. The dream of some of them is to undergo more than fifteen surgeries by the end of the show. They continue to compete until the winner who undergoes one surgery from her wish list is identified. After this, the ultimate winner gets all her surgery wishes granted. In addition, she gets a fully paid celebrity-style wedding. This is what all the women in the show look for and such a woman becomes the happiest of them all.

Bridalplasty is based on the principle that the bridegrooms of the women in the show value the physical appearance of their women. This prompts the women to attempt all possible methods to appear physically perfect. They strongly believe that physical perfection is something that can give them the happiness they desire in life. This is emphasized in the initial episode of the television show where the importance of physical perfection is mentioned more than ten times (Coontz 383).

An analysis of the content of the show brings out one important fact, that all the women who compete for the ultimate prize highly value their physical looks. The show also revolves around a wedding thus love features prominently throughout its episodes. However, the women express other values which highlight the importance they attach to flat tummies, big breasts, being slim and perfect noses.

These are the conversations that take place in the first episode where about sixty percent of them revolve around the mentioned subjects. There are also conversations about their husbands, fame and informal subjects like the nature of houses they would like to have during the period of the show.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is surprising to note that the most prominent topic throughout their discussions is criticism against other people. It is often said that one of the reasons why people criticize others is because they feel insecure. It is evident that the women who compete on Bridalplasty show are highly insecure.

The information that the show passes to the entire American population is of great concern. It is therefore important to know whether it has any negative effect on the viewers. On the basis of Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner, it is obvious that it affects the viewers negatively (Hekker 414).

The theory assumes that television is a powerful tool that influences the way human beings perceive reality and their surroundings. It changes their attitudes and certain thinking patterns. On the basis of this assumption, the effects brought about by the number of hours people watch television vary from one individual to the other.

As a result, Gerbner went ahead and classified people into three groups. The first group is comprised of light viewers, the second one moderate viewers while the third group is made up of heavy viewers. He also pointed out that people tend to believe television messages when such messages show association with certain situations or events in their lives. The messages become part of their lives and they treat them as normal occurrences.

The Americans should be concerned about Bridalplasty television show because it has the potential to affect them and their culture negatively. The show mainly focuses on physical perfection. This makes the contestants ready to do anything in order to achieve it. According to them, physical perfection is the only source of happiness in life. It is true that they expose themselves to many risks as they look for perfection.

However, this fact is never taken seriously or even highlighted. The show tries to inform them that physical beauty is what defines women and any woman who lacks beauty cannot be happy. It also passes a strong message that, it is not good enough for women to remain the way they were created regardless of whether there are men who wish to live with them (Cherlin 424).

The most critical concern about the show is the consequences it might have on children, teens, and young adults since their attitudes about reality and life are not fully developed. Researchers have identified that when female students frequently watch idealized images, they develop body comparison habits that make them dissatisfied with their bodies.

We will write a custom Essay on Bridalplasty Television Show specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They have also conducted research in a bid to understand the effect of reality television shows like Bridalplasty on young women. The results have revealed that there is a close link between the number of people who watch plastic surgery shows, their real life resemblance, and their influence on the decisions to look for consultation that patients make.

The results conform to the findings of Gerbner in his Cultivation Theory. Although Bridalplasty show earns plastic surgeons a lot of money, it makes young women and men desire to achieve unrealistic physical standards. The show clearly portrays the problem with the American culture, something that the Americans should be concerned about.

Works Cited Cherlin, Andrew J. “American Marriage in Transition.” Writing and Reading across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman-Pearson, 2011. 424-29. Print.

Coontz, Stephanie. “The radical idea of marrying for love.” Writing and reading across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman, 2011. 378-88. Print.

Hekker, Martin T. (2011a). “Paradise lost (domestic division).” Writing and reading across the curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman, 2011a. 414-15. Print.


Five Major Themes of the Qur’an Critical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction The holy Quran is the basis of Islam. The divine revelation contained in the Quran helps Muslims to understand Islamic teachings. As a result, Islam cannot be understood without first having understood the basics of the Holy Quran. For one to fully understand the Quran and its teaching, he or she has to go beyond the five pillars and realize the divine intellect contained in the Quran.

The objective of the essay is to explore the five major themes contained in the Quran. This will be achieved through an exploration of different Quran Suras and verses. The five themes have been derived from the Sura of Mary, the Sura of the Prophets and the Sura of Counsel. The significant issues of the Holy Quran are God, prophets, man, divine scriptures, and sin.

The first major theme of the Quran is God, also referred to as Allah (Madigan 82). According to the teachings of The Quran, there is no other God other than Allah, the mighty and the highest (Madigan 80). God in the Quran has been regarded as compassionate and merciful to humankind.

God is merciful to man, and as such, man has the obligation of serving God. As noted in The Quran, God is “the mighty, the wise, inspire thee and those before thee “(42:1). The implication is that God is wise, mighty and inspires man through His creation. Also, He is the highest in addition to being above what is found on the earth and in heaven. Moreover, God watches over those who stand beside Him.

He is kind and compassionate. He forgives man from his sins. This observation is supported by the Sura of Counsel as contained in The Quran which states that “God is kind to His servants; He provides whom He will, and He is the mighty, the glorious” (The Quran 42:18). God created both heaven and others, and as a result, he is above all his creations. God also created day and night and gave man the power and will to differentiate good from evil (The Quran 21: 34).

The second theme of the pillar is God has given that man free will and choice. The presence of God in man’s life gives it meaning, both personally and collectively. A man was created by God, who has endowed him with free choice. According to The Quran, God watches over man and forgives man from his sins (The Quran 42:3). The Quran teachings go ahead to explain that God “answers the prayer of those who believe and do right, and gives them increase of His grace; but the misbelievers, – for them is keen torment” (The Quran 42: 25).

This implies that the man who believes in God does the right thing and prays to God. In turn, God answers the prayers of such a man. Also, God shares his blessings with such a man. However, a nonbeliever faces the wrath of God for his sins. This is because man has been given the free will, choice, and the ability to differentiate good from evil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, God’s mercy on man is shown through Zachariah who was given a child at old age and with his barren wife (The Koran 19:1). Therefore, whereas God remembers man all the time, on the other hand, a man remembers God only when he is in need. A man who believes in God and lives by his teaching and remains a loyal servant like Zachariah is endowed with God’s grace.

The third theme of the Quran is the prophets. Based on the teachings of the Holy Quran, God speaks to the man through the Holy Scriptures as envisioned by early prophets like Muhammad. The prophets reside besides God, and they are found on earth and in heaven (The Quran 21:22). An excellent example of the prophets is Muhammad. Another proclaimed prophet was Abraham (The Quran 19:42), the father of all nations and humankind.

Others include Moses, Ismail, Idris, and Aaron, among others. According to the Holy Quran, Mary was able to conceive by receiving a breath from the prophets, “And she (Mary) who guarded her private parts, and we breathed into her of our Spirit, and we made her and her son a sign unto the worlds” (The Quran 21:19). This means that Mary was able to give birth to a son through the power of the prophets who breathed their holy spirit on her. Prophets have lifted so many people, according to the Holy Quran.

At the end of times, prophets will drag men and devils around hell, and they shall be answerable to God on judgment day (The Quran 19:70). The presence of prophets is shown through a messenger to Mary. The divine scriptures state that “I am only a messenger of thy Lord to bestow on thee a pure boy” (The Koran 19:19). This implies Mary bore a child through the will of God and this was communicated through a prophet.

The fourth pillar of the Quran is sin or evil. God gave man free will and the choice to differentiate evil from good. Because of their sin, men will be dragged in hell and brought on their knees (19:70). The Holy Quran speaks of the theme of evil (sin) which is personified by Iblis or Satan (Madigan 82).

Satan disobeyed God, and since then he has remained the most significant rival to man. Besides, Satan is always encouraging man to disobey God. Wickedness is drawn from Satan’s strength which compels a man to sin. However, because God is merciful, he forgives and pardons the sins committed by man (The Quran 42:24). According to the teaching from the Holy Quran, God pardons those who have sinned against him and rewards those who do well.

The Quran warns the man to be on guard of the Iblis since he is always on the trail of the man. The prophets reside on earth to protect man and save the believers from the evil and evildoers (21:87-88). As a result, man is kept away from sin.

We will write a custom Essay on Five Major Themes of the Qur’an specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fifth and last theme of the Quran is divine scriptures. The Quran contains sacred scriptures which were revealed to Prophet Muhammad through God (Allah). The religious scriptures assist man in keeping close to God and preventing him from sinning. The divine scriptures act as a guide to man, thereby aiding him to operate following the will of God. God’s mercy and the work of the prophets are proclaimed through divine scriptures.

The Quran state that, “God it is who has sent down the Book with truth and the balance” (The Quran 42:16). In this context, the “Book” is used to refer to the Holy Quran which contains the divine scriptures as revealed to Muhammad by Allah. The sacred scriptures act as a guide to man through God’s power.

The word “Book” which contains the divine scriptures is mentioned severally. For instance, it appears in Sura 19, verse 16, 42, 52, and 57. Therefore, the holy scriptures as depicted in the Quran, talk about God, Man, His relations with man, and the relationship that man has with nature. It is through the divine scripture that man is kept away from sin.

Conclusion To sum it up, the Holy Quran acts as the basis of Islam, and its teachings are pivotal in understanding Islam. Based on the essay, it can be concluded that the major themes of the Holy Quran are God, prophets, man, divine scriptures, and sin. God is merciful, forgiving and is above all what is on earth and in heaven. Man is guided by the sacred scriptures which were a revelation of Prophet Muhammad. Through divine scriptures, God can protect man from sin.

Evil originates from Iblis (Satan) who is always trying to deceive man to disobey God. God pardons the man who believes in Him and does according to His will. Prophets, as depicted in the Quran, reside with God both in heaven and on earth, and they will gather all men and bring them before hell. Man will have to kneel before hell as God passes judgment. Rewards shall be accorded to men who walk in the path of God.

Works Cited Madigan, Daniel. The Cambridge Companion to the Quran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

The Koran. Sura 42: Counsel. n.d. Web.

The Quran. Oxford World’s Classics. Trans. M. A. S. Abdel Haleem. Oxford, Mass: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.

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Religious studies and theology- Major themes in Quran Critical Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Background

The theme of God

The themes of Jihad and Mercy

The theme of Justice

The theme of tolerance

The themes of love and faith

Works Cited

Background The Islamic religious text has been widely regarded by scholars as one of the finest literatures written in Arabic language. The verses of the Quran comprise of 114 Suras and have been classified as either Medinan or Meccan. McAuliffe points out that the Quran is believed to have been inspired to Muhammad by angel Gabriel in 609 CE (76). This religious text is made up of central themes such as Jihad, the Bible, love and tolerance. This paper explores the major themes within the Quran.

The theme of God The Quran is an important and divine book that covers extensively the attributes and nature of God. It talks about God as the shaper, maker and creator of everything that is in existence. In particular, the Sura of prophets claims that “And of His signs are the ships that sail like mountains in the sea.

If He will, He calms the wind, and they become motionless on the back thereof: verily, in that are signs to every patient, grateful person” (Q 42:39-24). This is one of the scriptures which indicate that God is in control of the events happening in the Universe.

The themes of Jihad and Mercy The Sura of counsel 42:39 strongly brings out the theme of Jihad within the Quran. Jihad is regarded as a religious duty of the Muslims. It can be well defined as a struggle in the way of God. According to Sunni scholars, Jihad is a major sixth pillar of Islam and has been regarded as an important religious duty.

The verse asserts that “and who, when an injury is done them, avenge themselves” (Q 42:39). The latter strongly reflects the idea that the religion permits the use of force to defend spiritual ideals or religious beliefs. While this has been misinterpreted by many as a move that encourages acts of conflicts, it is worth mentioning that the main aim of Jihad was to repel evil and advance Islam.

Besides, the sura of Mary strongly brings out the theme of mercy when it talks about the mercy of God and how he expects Muslims to show mercy. In Sura 19:58, the Quran explains how the prophets of God worshiped him when they heard of his mercies at the time of Noah. In Sura 19:96, it says “but the Lord of Mercy will give love to those who believe and do righteous deeds” (Q 19:96).

This is central in bringing out the nature of God and how merciful He is. McAuliffe indicates that the verse is reflective of the various struggles that Muslims face and which they are commanded to overcome at all costs (80). By asking the assaulted to avenge himself/herself, the Quran does not disapprove the need for mercy, but encourages a Muslim believer to struggle and hold onto the Islamic faith, strive to create a better Islamic society and use force where necessary to defend Islam.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theme of Justice The portion of the verse that says “and who, when an injury is done them, avenge themselves” (Q 42:39) explains the need to protect the religion which has been regarded by non-Muslims as a major threat. The main aim of Jihad is the establishment of a strong Islamic religion through conversion of other religions, a consideration that is largely modeled by the previous Islamic revolutions (McAuliffe 74). However, the fact that Muslims believe God to be the judge points out to the theme of justice which is given by God.

Another perspective of the theme of Jihad is that the Sura of counsel (42) is a tool that guides believers into personal inner struggles that do not involve the use of violence. A good example of violence is the rising cases of suicide bombing that reflects Muslims’ use of any means that aim at hurting the enemy. In the Middle East, a religious faction such as Hezbollah is strongly against the existence of Israel which it considers was established illegitimately on Palestinian land.

Due to the current tremendous developments in technology especially in nuclear weapons, the determination held by believers of the Sura of Counsel (42) remains as one of the greatest threats to the Jewish state of Israel. Agreeably, Jihad is divided into Jihad against liars and heretics, Jihad against unbelievers and hypocrites, Jihad against Satan, and Jihad against the soul. Those Islamic extremists engaging in terrorism practice a lesser Jihad and not a greater one that encompasses fight against desires.

The theme of tolerance While there is no particular unequivocal commandment in the Quran that states ‘thou shall be intolerant to others’, it is without doubt that religious tolerance on values, truth and beliefs are yet to be realized. This is due to the fact that different religions have developed some nature of competition.

Studies indicate that the capacity a religion has to live alongside practices and beliefs of another religion has been massively affected by competition, religious condemnations and conflicts. In the Quran, the theme of religious tolerance is an important component that encompasses a moral reason by the Muslims to practice restraint from making interferences, counterproductive or useless, with the affairs of other religions.

The Sura of Mary (19) and the Sura of counsel (42) strongly bring out the theme of religious tolerance. In Sura 42:11, Quran notes that the “initiator of the heavens and the earth. He created for you from among yourselves spouses-and also for the animals. He thus provides you with the means to multiply.

There is nothing that equals Him. He is the Hearer, the Seer (Sura 42:11).

We will write a custom Essay on Religious studies and theology- Major themes in Quran specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this verse, the nature of God has been brought as one who is transcendent above all and who demands all people to treat each other as spouses, brothers and sisters.

This verse points out that people are equal before God regardless of their race or religion. The ability of adherents from different religions in society today to practice religious tolerance in the limelight of their diversity is a key platform towards greater cooperation.

It aids in bringing about a holistic contribution by all people and eventual growth and development of society. Minimizing religious conflicts as reflected earlier from contributions by Sunni and Ahmadiyya scholars has been considered by the Quran as the main principle that can facilitate a new outline towards a highly united society at the local and national level.

The theme of tolerance as reflected in the aforementioned Suras in the Quran indicates that addressing problems affecting religious tolerance requires a holistic approach from all levels. One such difference as already indicated in the paper is the practice by Christians to forcefully convert Muslims.

The themes of love and faith The Quran just as the Christian Bible has used the word love and faith countless number of times to reflect how societies should co-exist. The book of 1John 4:7-21 offers penetrating discourses of the theme of love and dimly reflects the love in Quran. In the latter, Allahu Akbar is the Allahu muhibba-the God of love.

The Quran uses the word love 69 times and speaks of human love, God’s love, and negative love among others. This is reflective of the love of God to man. It is also worth to mention that another scripture from the Sura of Mary notes that “On those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, Allah will bestow love” (Sura 19:96).

To sum up, the discussions in this paper are based on the notion that the Quran bears very significant and fundamental themes that guide and control human behavior and relationship towards others and God. As reflected in the paper, the themes of Jihad, love and tolerance define how societies should co-exist.

While many critics have claimed that the theme of Jihad best explains the unending terror acts by Muslims, one cannot fail to see the need for mercy as brought out by the Quran, a call that Muslims have been able to heed to and thus maintained and established their religion amidst greater resistance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious studies and theology- Major themes in Quran by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This does not support acts of terror, rather it calls for greater harmony, tolerance, respect and the adoption of better behaviors that encourages development and progress within the society. Moreover, religious differences have been known to trigger lack of religious tolerance since each religion seems to idealize its practice and regard others as inferior.

Works Cited McAuliffe, Jane. The Cambridge companion of the Quran. Cambidge, UK: Cambridge University Press 2006. Print.