Marriott International, Inc. is a one of the leading and most reputable lodging companies that operate globally. The first Marriott restaurant was opened by J. Willard and Alice Marriott in Washington, DC, in 1927 (Marriott, 2015). Marriott International appeared as the hotel and restaurant chain in 1993.
Today, Marriott holds its properties in more than 80 countries. The annual revenues of the company are more than $12 billion, and the business success depends on the prominent leadership (Marriott management philosophy, 2015, p. 2).
This paper aims to present the analysis of the prevalent leadership style typical of executives and directors in Marriott International; to discuss the connection between the leadership style and ethical practices; to determine possible ethical problems; and to propose appropriate solutions to address identified leadership issues.
Prevalent Leadership Style in Marriot International Marriott International is the franchising company that operates in many countries all over the world. This aspect influences the leadership style followed in the company. As a result, top-level leaders who promote the mission of the company perform as transformational leaders.
Still, middle and lower-level leaders in many hotels and restaurants over the globe are inclined to act like relations-oriented and change-oriented leaders (Marriott management philosophy, 2015). Therefore, the prevalent leadership style in Marriott International differs depending on the hierarchy and culture.
Leadership Model of Top Managers The distinctive leadership style followed in the company is associated with activities of such persons as J. Willard Marriott, the founder of the company, and his son J.W. Marriott, Jr., the current Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board of Marriott International.
Mr. Marriott started developing his leadership abilities while promoting the family business, and then, he became Chief Executive Officer of one of the largest global company in the hospitality industry (Marriott, 2015). Today, Mr. Marriott is known for his transformational leadership style. Another prominent leader in the company is Arne M. Sorenson, Marriott International President and Chief Executive Officer (Marriott, 2015).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mr. Sorenson also follows the principles of the transformational leadership style promoted by Mr. Marriott because it is based on the ideas of inspiration, motivation, and innovation valued by the company. Transformational leaders combine the advantages of change-oriented and relations-oriented leadership behaviors while stimulating employees intellectually. They also focus on individualization or employees’ interests and needs correlated with the company mission (Zopiatis
Human Trafficking: Definition, Reasons and Ways to Solve the Problem Analytical Essay college essay help
Introduction Modern world can be characterized by the blistering development of the issue known as globalization. People are able to communicate, share the latest news and even make bargains with the help of the Internet, which obviously makes the life of society easier. However, globalization also has a great number of negative effects and the world nowadays faces the aftermath of this very process.
The first and most dangerous thing is obviously terrorism as this phenomenon also becomes global and all countries of the world can suffer from it. Governments have to respond to this hew challenge as it can threat security not only of a certain country however, they can destroy the whole modern society. The issue of human trafficking is of this sort.
Definition of Human Trafficking To understand the problem better, a clear definition of the issue should be given. Nowadays, under the term human trafficking people understand the trade of human beings with different purposes1. In other words, it is a sort of modern slavery which coherent humanity is supposed to be got rid of.
Traders use the similar schemes which slave merchants of the past used. People, who are being sold, become a good as they are deprived of any rights and privileges. Very often, they do not have documents and depend on their master totally. Under these conditions, they have no choice but to obey because there is no other chance for them to survive. Moreover, very often force is used to control these people.
That is why, it becomes obvious that slavery, which is taken as the remnant of the past, prosper in the modern world and a great number of people suffer from it. According to statistics, about 800000 people are sold every year2. Moreover, the following diagram shows that women comprise the greater part of this trade, while the demand for men is lower3. The threatening fact is that children are also sold.
The main reasons However, the given statistics becomes more understandable if to take into account the main purposes of human trafficking. There is a great number of different reasons, however, it is possible to state the most important ones. Sexual slavery is one of the main cause of human trafficking. There is a huge market of sex slaves in the world and, that is why, a great demand exists.
Horrifying fact is that the average age of children who are sold is 13 years4. That is why, women comprise the majority of people who are sold because they can be forced to work as prostitutes and this commercial sexual exploration can give great benefits to their owners. Thus, men and children can also be involved in sex industry, however, their number is lower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next important reason is forced labour. In this segment men slaves are more demanded and appreciated as they are more enduring and can bring bigger profit. Finally, there are also such reasons as forced marriage and even extraction of organs and tissues5. Unfortunately, very often children suffer from the last reason and this cruelty cannot but horrify.
Moreover, the next table shows the main causes which make people sell themselves or become sold.
The main causes of human trafficking Unemployment Poverty Chaos in a state Absence of real power Discriminated layers of society other Table 1.
The main ways It should be said that there are many ways in which slaves can be transported and delivered to their owners. Globalisation and development of different means of transport make this process easier. Nevertheless, it is obvious that usually slaves are not taken from the regions where their owners live.
It is much easier to obtain people from poor countries where conditions of living are catastrophic and very often people have no other choice but to become slaves6. They can make this step in their own volition because they do not know how to survive. Additionally, very often slave traders choose countries with weak governments and judicial power as they could not guarantee security for their citizens.
That is why, the necessity to deliver these people appears. Very often ships or cars are used for this purpose as they are more commodious and it is easier to hide people there. People are transferred under horrible conditions, though it is the cheapest way. Additionally, it should be said that there are special places where such cars or ships can cross a border without any complications.
Besides, it should be said that the are some countries which are taken as traditional suppliers of people for some European countries. The next table shows the number of representatives of different states which came to the UK.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Trafficking: Definition, Reasons and Ways to Solve the Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Table 2.7
Incomes Nevertheless, it is still a risky business as according to the law there is a severe punishment for people who trade slaves. Thus, the possibility of punishment does not scare them. The thing is that it is a good source of income and giant sums of money can be obtained with its help.
Moreover, according to the latest investigations, it is possible to say that there are certain organisations which deal with this issue and which have aligned mechanism of human trafficking8. Terrorist organisations belong to the main actors and nowadays they are also great suppliers of slaves. Human trafficking is another way for them to earn money which will be spent on weapon and recruiting9.
Moreover, activity of these organisations very often leads to the appearance of chaos on certain territories. The government of a state, to which these territories belong, is not able to resist terrorist organisations and they can take people with impunity. Due to this fact, the issue of human trafficking becomes one of the main sources of incomes for different terrorist organisations.
Interested actors Besides, it is silly to deny the nude fact that even these organisations need patrons from developed countries which will be able to protect them and control the whole market of slaves. Very often these patrons are representatives of governments of different developed countries or some global international organisations which main task is to fight with this very issue.
Cynicism of these people impresses, though it is easier to control human trafficking if a person has real power. Moreover, the amount of money obtained due to this trade should not be forgotten. “The United Nations estimates the total market value of illicit human trafficking at 32 billion US dollars”10.
That is why, there are many people who want to get part of this money and guarantee their prosperity. Additionally, the sum is not final as a great number of bargains connected with human trade remain unnoticed and incomes from them can be used for different purposes.
Threat to security Besides, distribution of these very incomes can be taken as a threat to security of the whole world. It has already been stated that this money are used by terrorist organizations to buy weapon and equipment. Having obtained new remedies, they will be able to continue their activity and bring chaos to other territories, enlarging the areas where slaves can be obtained, which, in its turn can lead to the further development of slave market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Trafficking: Definition, Reasons and Ways to Solve the Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the growth of terrorist organizations is also a great threat to the whole world. Thus, there is one more danger connected with the development of human trafficking. Humanity devoted a great number of efforts trying to get rid of slavery and guarantee equal conditions to different people.
However, nowadays, it returns. People are deprived of their rights and many of them are taken as a good. It is a very threatening tendency which leads to corruption of the main principles according to which our society functions. That is why this process holds a great threat to the modern world.
Ways to solve the problem Under these conditions, it becomes obvious that some steps should be made in order to stop further development of this issue and guarantee security and rights for abused people. However, it is a rather complicated task nowadays. The thing is, that modern world suffers from crisis, both political and economical. Additionally, terrorist organization known as ISIL adds tension to situation and makes it more complicated.
That is why there should be the complex of measures which main aim will be to stop development of terrorism and human trafficking. Almost all countries in the world try to solve this very problem as terrorism has already led to thousands of victims and continues its development11.
Global organisations However, it is useless to struggle with it alone. It is the obvious fact that only the combination of efforts of a great number of countries can solve this problem. The work of different international organizations like United Nations should be aimed at looking for a good solution for this problem.
Additionally, it is possible to suggest that some new organization, which activity will be the struggle with human trafficking only, should be created. This organization should be comprised of the most powerful states like Russia, China, India, the USA and countries of the European Union.
Moreover, the Vienna forum, which was organized with the aim to discuss this issue, could also help to solve the problem as it addresses three main issues of human trafficking. Participants of the forum try to understand why human trafficking occur, what the consequences are and what measures can be taken.12
Conclusion With this in mind, having analyzed the issue of human trafficking, it is possible to make a certain conclusion. First of all, it should be said that it is a very threatening problem which can destroy modern society. It humiliates dignity of a person and deprives him/her of his/her human rights.
Additionally, another threatening fact is that the bigger part of incomes obtained with the help of human trafficking is spent to finance terrorism and promote its development. That is why, this very problem can be taken as one of the most important nowadays and the most efficient solutions should be found.
Being a global problem, the issue of human trafficking can be solved only be the combined efforts of a great number of different countries which should control this issue and punish people and organizations which deal with it. Only under these conditions the possibility to get rid of this problem will appear.
Bibliography “Eleven Facts About Human Trafficking“. Do Something. Web.
Eurostat. “Trafficking in human beings“. Eurpoa. Web.
“Factsheet on Human Trafficking“. UNODC. Web.
“Hotline Statistics“. Trafficking Resource Center. Web.
“Human Trafficking“. Globalization 101. Web.
“Human Trafficking is…“. Stop The Traffik. Web.
“Human Trafficking is a Problem 365 Days a Year”. Polaris. Web.
The Effect of Physical, Social, and Health Variables on Diabetes Report essay help free: essay help free
Introduction This paper analyzes data of three hundred individuals’ health records. The data summarizes the diabetes status of the sample and presents their medical, social, physical and economic characteristics. Previous public-health studies have investigated and identified the relationship between variables and the prevalence of diabetes. The results will be compared with the findings of previous research on diabetes.
Ten variables used to analyze the results were gender, race, salary, education, height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), allergies, family history of diabetes, and family history of allergies. Subsequent sections analyze the relationships between the variables.
Analysis The relationship between each variable and diabetes may be observed by comparing the mean values for the two groups. Table 1 summarizes the mean values of the numerical variables for participants in the two groups.
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics of Numerical Variables
Diabetes N Mean Age Yes 109 70.47 No 191 38.95 Salary Yes 109 $70,226.45 No 191 $45,522.11 Height Yes 109 70.42 No 191 65.02 Weight Yes 109 187.87 No 191 142.70 BMI Yes 109 26.524 No 191 23.563 Two findings are deducible from the results presented in the table. The average age of those with diabetes was 70.47. However, those without diabetes had an average age of 38.95 years. This finding is supported by a previous study which reported that the decline in protein synthesis in aging tissues increased the risks of diabetes in older people (Yamamoto, et al., 2014).
The effect of income on diabetes is observed in the table. The average salary of those with diabetes is $45,522 and for those without diabetes is $70,226.45. These findings can be compared with previous research that suggested low-income earners were more likely to have diabetes than their wealthier counterparts (Lysy, et al., 2013).
Although discrepancies can be observed in the mean scores between the two groups, it is important to test the level of significance of these variations. Chi-Square tests and t-tests were used to investigate the significance of the difference in mean values. Table 2 summarizes the results of the Chi-square test. The p-values for salary (0.001), height (0.000), weight (0.000), BMI (0.000), family history of diabetes (0.000), and family history of allergies (0.000) showed the variables were related to diabetes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results are similar to previous studies, which suggest that income (Lipscombe, Austin
US Border Protection and Drug Policy Term Paper college essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
The History of Military Assistance
Reasons for the Increasing Military Involvement
Criticism of the U.S. Drug Policy
The Timeline of the U.S. Drug Policy
Abstract The United States of America has always given special priority to the homeland security. The U.S. Border Patrol is the primary governmental authority responsible for border control of lands and ports. However, the U.S. Military Forces take the active part in the so-called supporting Border Patrol in executing their functions.
Since the 1960s, the role of the military involvement in border security increased. The situation changed dramatically after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. After this terrible event, the U.S. made everything possible to reinforce the homeland security. The U.S. drug policy is often criticized for being ineffective.
The drug policy commenced with the “war on drugs” during the Nixon’s administration. Since that time, little has changed in the drug policy of the country except for the legalization of marijuana. The issue with marijuana legalization for recreational usage is still controversial. Nevertheless, it is the only law concerning drug policy that has been altered drastically since the 1960s.
Introduction The borders security has always been of great significance for the United States of America. The homeland security became of extreme importance after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Since that time, the level of the involvement of the U.S. military in border protection increased.
The drug policy in the U.S. is the second significant aspect. Since the 1960s, the government aimed at reducing the level of the abuse of the illegal substances. Still, modern scholars argue that the U.S. drug policy has not changed significantly over the last forty years. One exception refers to the usage of marijuana for recreational purposes.
Background The United States Military Forces are not responsible for controlling borders in the country. Despite this, the role of the military should not be underestimated in the U.S. border security. The primary law enforcement agency is the United States Border Patrol. The aim of the military is to support Border Patrol if needed.
Nevertheless, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) should monitor and prevent potential terrorist attacks, control border protection, and immigration. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is a part of DHS. It has the primary responsibility to secure the borders of the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More CBP should prevent terrorists from entering the country and enforce all trade and immigration laws. Finally, the U.S. Border Patrol, which is the part of CBP, has the key goal to indicate and prevent all illegal activities across both borders. The international Canadian and Mexican borders comprise 7000 miles while coastal borders — 2000 miles.
The History of Military Assistance The history shows that the U.S. did not face significant challenges in protecting the Northern Border. Southwestern border region has been always problematic for the country. As it has been already mentioned, the military forces do not have a direct right to protect borders. Nevertheless, the indirect support is conducted under the general legislation of the military to safeguard the borders on the federal, state, and local levels.
Since the 1980s, the Congress legally expanded the authority of the armed forces to provide support for local law enforcement agencies. In 1981, the basic authority for military assistance was introduced in Chapter 18 of the U.S. Code — “Military Support for Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies”. According to this law, the Department of Defense had the right to support Border Patrol in operations aimed at fighting terrorism attacks or the enforcement of customs requirements, immigration laws.
Since 1989, the level of the authorized military involvement in border protection increased. The Congress continued to expand the military role. For instance, the Congress made DOD the primary federal body aimed at monitoring and identifying maritime and aerial transmission of the illegal drugs (Mason, 2013). Terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, have become a watershed moment in the U.S. homeland security.
Since that time, the modern era of the border protection began. President Bush considered that border security should be increased and changed. As a result, the Department of Homeland Security was established. As Vina (2006) states: “After September 11, for example, President Bush deployed roughly 1600 National Guard troops for six months to safeguard officials of the state border and provide a heightened security presence” (p. 5).
The main restriction that prohibits military participation in the civilian law enforcement activities is known as the Posse Comitatus Act (PCA). According to it, the Army and Air Force, the Navy, and Marine Corps are not authorized to execute the domestic laws. Nevertheless, the increasing number of potential threats always gives the government the reason to provide the military with more authority to protect borders. Currently, PCA is the subject of many arguments as far as numerous laws contradict it.
Reasons for the Increasing Military Involvement Chambers (2013) dwells on the fact that the high level of the military involvement in the U.S. border protection is predetermined by the fact that there are many threats to the safety of the country. The first significant threat deals with the terrorist access to the U.S. borders. Currently, the most dangerous threat is the border with Mexico.
We will write a custom Term Paper on US Border Protection and Drug Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This border represents an entering route to the U.S. for terrorist organizations. What concerns the Canadian border, experts are sure that it is highly protected against terrorist attacks. The second issue refers to the Transnational Organized Crime. Drug smuggling, human trafficking, and terrorism are the most urgent issues in America.
These threats explain the reason for the military involvement in US border protection. Still, many people argue that the U.S. Army has nothing to do with border protection and consider that the federal government abuses its responsibilities.
Criticism of the U.S. Drug Policy The American government is often criticized for being passive in improving and developing the drug policy. Most critics describe the drug policy as ineffective, extremely punitive, racially not fair, and too expensive. The legal regulation remained almost unchanged for the last forty years. The only exception concerns marijuana. The new law has increased the accessibility of the drug in several states.
The representatives of African Americans more often commit drug offenses. The number people who take narcotics increased drastically since the 1960s until the 2000s. The decline in drug abuse followed these years. Such a situation brought a relief and drug policy lost its urgency. Current problems with the U.S. drug concern several issues. The first question refers to the level of severity of sentencing for drug offenses.
Second, some scientists believe that the government should take into consideration the idea of harm reduction. This principle underlies the fact that the administration should pay attention to the harmfulness of the drug, and not only to the number of drug users.
The third issue deals with the legalization of such substances as heroin and cocaine. This case is very controversial and is not widespread among the population. However, the representatives of the educated elite consider that the legalization of heroin and cocaine will lead to the decreasing interest in these drugs (Reuter, 2013).
The Timeline of the U.S. Drug Policy In the 1960s, the U.S. faced the period of the rebellion of the youth. Drugs were symbols for social upheaval and freedom. President Nixon was the first to realize the threat of narcotics. People started experience health problems due to the drug abuse. The government had to react and reverse disaster. In 1971, Nixon declared “war on drugs”.
He did his best and promoted the establishment of various agencies aimed at monitoring and fighting the situation with drug abuse. The most significant step in the war on drugs concerned the formation of the Controlled Substances Act. This act classified types of narcotics into five sub-classes and presented laws that regulated the distribution and the usage of substances (Robinson
General Mental Ability in the World of Work Critical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Key Findings of the GMA Analysis
Personality Traits as the Guarantees of Occupational Success
Introduction The research study evolves from the idea of General Mental Ability (GMA) resurgence in the field of modern psychology. The conception, which was first described by Spearman in 1904, integrated some individual features that could measure intellectual performance. It was initially suggested that the GMA mechanism stems from genetic features.
Therefore, the primary objective that the study set was to investigate a correlation between General Mental Ability indication and the occupational traits (Schmidt and Hunter 162). Moreover, the authors analyze the predictive abilities of the testing system since it is acknowledged that GMA differentiates the key qualities that influence future achievements of a person.
Finally, the work explores the core features that impact the ability of an individual to learn and to gain occupational proficiency. Therefore, the fundamental task of the scientists, who conducted the analysis was to inspect the place of GMA in the world of work.
The Key Findings of the GMA Analysis The research investigation was sustained on the basis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies inspection. The general analysis of cross-sectional works revealed the primary occupational ratings. Due to the results of this study, the individuals, who score high on the GMA testing, are likely to obtain responsible positions at work.
In contrast to it, the workers, which possess low GMA rating can not enter distinguished and respectable professions. The practical investigation of longitudinal studies revealed the tendency of the GMA early tests to show the subsequent job hierarchy characteristics. Moreover, the study showed that people with higher GMA tend to earn more than those, who demonstrate lower results.
Besides, the analysis showed that there is a direct correlation between IQ results and GMA scores. A sophisticated examination of the occupational performance disapproved the claim, according to which GMA testing results account exclusively for academic performance. The authors of the work compared the achievements of separate professionals, who perform contrastive types of work and linked it to their GMA scores.
There are some additional evaluative schemes that are often compared to General Mental Ability test. These are individual traits, aptitudes, and job experience measurements. Due to the findings of the work, such alternative tests can measure specific practical abilities. However, it was concluded that GMA ratings are the only indicators of training performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, according to Schmidt and Hunter (2004), there is a strong connection between performance and General Mental Ability. The work made a claim, due to which abilities are more significant in the job market than general training aptitudes and experience. Therefore, the research study discloses the theoretical foundation of occupational performance and can serve as an evaluative technique in modern educational programs.
Personality Traits as the Guarantees of Occupational Success The most surprising finding of the research study is an establishment of the interrelation between the personal traits and work outcomes. Specifically, it was acknowledged that such quality as conscientiousness accounts for low performance in all professions. The conclusion is quite controversial since it is believed that some occupational spheres require patient and calm workers.
Nevertheless, the argument may support the idea of extrovert nature of the modern job market, which operates with speed, decisiveness, leadership, and creative solutions. The final discovery that is made by Schmidt and Hunter accounts for relative unimportance of occupational experience. Thus, the writing claims that performance quality depends exclusively on personal traits.
Works Cited Schmidt, Frank and John Hunter. “General Mental Ability in the World of Work: Occupational Attainment and Job Performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86.1 (2004): 162-173. Print.
Soil and Groundwater Contamination in the UAE: The Other Side of the Technological Progress Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Soil and Groundwater Contamination as a Threat to Environment
Lack of Care and Space
The SWOT Framework
Solutions and Recommendations
Introduction Despite a significant progress, which the United Arab Emirates have made over the past few years in terms of technology (Panambunan-Ferse
Water Resources Deterioration Consequences in the GCC Countries Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction The deterioration of water resources is a significant social, economic, and environmental problem in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Thus, water supplies are of the critical importance for these arid countries because of their role in meeting the populations’ demands for the fresh water, development of agriculture and irrigation systems, and the growth of industries in the region.
Still, the level of deterioration of water resources in the GCC countries is extremely high, and this situation prevents the public from using all available water resources efficiently. The quality of water in the GCC countries decreases because of such factors as the overexploitation of ground waters, the ineffective work of desalination systems and plants, the soil pollution, and the discharge of the wastewater and industrial waters in the subsurface (AlRukaibi 2010; Al-Zubari 2009).
Thus, the problem is in the inadequate control of water deterioration processes and the inability to manage the exploitation of water with the focus on increasing its quality. This paper aims to analyze the current status of water resources in the GCC Countries, discuss future challenges in this region focusing on consequences of the water deterioration processes, present the SWOT analysis, and provide the recommendations to address negative outcomes of the water resources deterioration.
The GCC Countries Profile and Status of Water Resources Countries that are included in the Gulf Cooperation Council are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These drought territories are characterized by the shortage of water resources to cover the populations’ needs in the fresh water and the agricultural and industrial water (Kannan 2012, p. 10).
According to Dawoud, “natural water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands, unsustainable use patterns, increased water pollution and weak management institutions and regulations” (Dawoud 2006, p. 189). Rare rainfalls, long summers, and extremely high temperatures are causes of the high level of evaporation, and the GCC region authorities need to find new approaches to address the demands of the growing population.
Thus, the highest levels of the fresh water consumption are observed in the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar (more than 0.400 billion m3 annually) because of actively developing agricultural and industrial sectors along with the constant increase in domestic demands (Al-Rashed
Stories of Change Problem Solution Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Change is a dynamic process that organizations have to undergo each day. Sometimes, change initiatives fail simply because of disconnect between the initiative and the implementation process. This may be in the form of miscommunication, excessive complacency, and permanent bottlenecks in organizations.
This paper will explore change errors identified by Kotter in order to make justifiable recommendations to reverse the errors.
Change Errors and Recommendation Error 1: Allowing too much complacency
Many companies fall in the trap of too much complacency because “they overestimate how much they can force big changes on an organization and underestimate how hard it is to drive people out of their comfort zones” (Kotter, 1995, p. 5).
Besides, such companies may fail to acknowledge the fact that some actions might only lead to reinforcement of the status quo. Kotter also identifies the element of confusing the aspect of urgency for change to simple anxiety.
In the case of Adrien, the new head of production of a chemical company, the initiatives he proposed simply collapsed because there was disconnect between action plan and the urgency of each proposal.
It is important to note that change does not just occur because it seems to be a good idea, but it occurs the moment responsible people are satisfied to justify the difficulties of incorporating transformation (Hannan
Strategic Growth Methods of Air France and Emirates Airlines Report college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages and disadvantages of the strategies
Introduction When organizations operate in a competitive market, managers are compelled to formulate strategies for their organizations to gain a competitive edge in the market. The idea of strategic management can also be relevant to non-profit organization when competing for resources in the market.
This paper seeks to analyze the business environment, resources and strategic growth methods employed by Air France and Emirates Airlines.
Emirates Airlines Emirates Airlines was invented in 1985 when it was issued with two aircrafts and ten million dollars as a starting capital by the government of Dubai. Its first routs were from Dubai to Karachi and Bombay to Delhi (Senge, 1990, 44).
Emirates is a successful organization because it has employed successful strategies in its operations which has helped in the management of the company. The company has employed the strategy of acquisition and mergers in its operations and this has resulted into greater benefits to the company (Carnall, 2007, p.42).
The Emirates merged with Qatar airways and Etihad so as to increase its profit margins. By merging with the two airlines, Emirates has been in a position to set high flight costs since there are no other competing airlines in the regions (Mintzberg, 1994, p.38).
The Emirates devised another strategy of ensuring that it offers high quality services to its targeted customers so as to gain a competitive edge in the market.
The company decided to order three hundred and fifty five wide body jets for Emirates, Etihad and Qatar airlines so as to overtake their competitors in the European and United States markets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has attracted many clients who are willing to spend so as to enjoy the luxury and comfort of the Emirates air flights. Studies show that this strategy increased the profit margins of the company by nine percent in 2012 as well as its market share by three percent (Grant, 2012, p.98).
Research shows that Emirates is registered as the fastest growing company in the airline industry since 1990s. Their revenues have always increased by ninety nine million dollars each year.
This growth was accelerated by the Gulf War because during this time, Emirates carried over sixty seven thousand passengers and one point five tons of cargo (Burnes, 2009, p.56). In 2010, Emirates registered a net profit of nine hundred and sixty five million dollars in the first and second quarters of the year.
The company has experienced an increase in passenger traffic that in 2012 the company registered sixteen million passengers in the first half of the reporting period as compare to the previous fiscal year.
During the same financial year, Emirates managed to increase its profits up to three thousand five hundred and sixty dirhams as well as increased its sales by three point seven percent from the previous business year (Johnson, Scholes
Strategic HR Practices in Emirates Airlines Report essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Approach to Management
Internal HR Management
Communication, Employee Engagement and Organizational Culture
Leadership Style and Change Management Processes
Kotler Eight Step Process
Change Implementation Processes and Innovation in the Company
Introduction Strategic human resource practices require a business firm to focus on creating value in their internal functions to increase their competitive edge in specific industries they operate in.
This requires a firm to link its organisational culture with its operational structure and business objectives to attain positive outcomes (Boxall
Organisational Behaviour: Job Satisfaction Problem Solution Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
An employee’s degree of contentment in a particular task is referred to as job satisfaction. Various facets of a job may be liked or disliked by an employee. Job satisfaction can also be measured using feelings or cognition of the needs of workers.
Therefore, employers should put in place strategic employee recognition systems and reasonable reward plans in order to boost job satisfaction.
The effects of job satisfaction can be best understood using the EVLN (Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect) model. When an employee leaves a situation, it is referred to as exit.
Any change attempt is known as voice. However, patient employees are known to be loyal (Seo, Park,
EIA Assessment for Loch Urr Wind Farm Coursework essay help free
Carbon Emissions by the Loch Urr Wind Farm Wind farms are located on the peat lands that usually accommodate huge stocks of improperly protected carbon (Energy sources 2012).
The project, therefore, poses a great threat in the increase of the overall carbon losses. The soil in the Loch Urr has surface organic horizon which is greater than 50 cm in depth (Werner 2010, p. 201). Hence, the project is set to impact carbon emissions to the environment.
The carbon is subjected to loss when constructing wind farm, where carbon is lost from the excavated peat (Shogren 2013, p 214).
Carbon is also lost from the project area due to drainage (Built Environment-Scottish Government 2012). Some of the constructions that lead to carbon emissions include track preparation, construction of the turbine foundations, and transportation of the materials to the project area.
The legislation and policy covers for carbon emissions In Scotland, there are several policies that have been formulated to govern all projects causing the emission of carbon into the environment.
Some of the governing bodies involved in the implementation of the policies include the Scottish Planning Policy (SPP), The National Planning Framework (NPF), and the local policy. NPF is a national policy providing the principal planning approach for Scotland.
The regulations set by the national government to control the development of projects in Scotland have been outlined in it (Great 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The stipulated laws dictate that require that all the applications of the planning permission must be formulated in consensus with the development arrangement where the exceptions are indicated and directed otherwise (Great 2012).
The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is a vital organ that determines and ascertains whether the project developers have accurately outlined the regulations of the carbon losses and savings to reduce the overall emissions.
This policy necessitating the involvement of SEPA is fundamental in ensuring that the project developers do not pollute the environment since they follow procedures directed towards sustainable development (Energy Sources-Scotland n.d.).
The final policy is the European EIA legislation which participates in covering this parameter. The project developers must adhere to the directives set in the various articles within the European EIA legislation (Montini and Bogdanović 2011).
The primary need of this legislation is to protect the environment in accordance to the article five that advocates against release of pollutant gases to the environment (Proposal for a Directive-European Commission- Europa 2012).
Discussion and examples of the baseline data Even though global warming emissions are not always associated to the functioning of the wind turbines in the farms, there are some cases where these releases arise from different stages in the development of their life cycle (Environmental impacts of wind power n.d.).
Some of the activities that lead to emission of carbon by the wind farm in Loch Urr include material’s production, on-site construction, transportation of materials, projects that involve operations and maintenance, dismantling, and decommissioning (Koeller, Koeppel and Peters 2006, p. 21).
We will write a custom Coursework on EIA Assessment for Loch Urr Wind Farm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The available data on the level of carbon emissions from the wind farms shows that the power results to insignificant emissions of carbon (Shogren 2013, p. 214). However, arguments have been raised that carbon dioxide takes 72% of the effects on global warming.
A comprehensive cross-examination of the carbon emitted by the wind farm indicates that there is a high percentage of carbon emitted from its activities (Bryce 2011, p. 148).
In this regard, the life cycle of carbon emissions in relation to the on-shore wind generation have been estimated at 10 kg per 1 MWh of the electricity generated (Shogren 2013, p. 214).
This implies that generating electrical energy to serve cities lead to heavy carbon emissions. However, it is anticipated that prior to following the regulations on gas emissions, the releases will reduce by 42% by the year 2020.
Apparently, the investigation of the gas emissions, there remains a gap due to lack of adequate investigation on the release of the non-greenhouse gases during the production process (Lyster 2006). Few developers tend to give estimates of the other percentile gases that the project will emit into the atmosphere.
It has been reported that there are many incidences where the construction of the wind farm contributes to the loss of carbon compared to its saving (Bryce 2011, p. 148). This does not imply that there is no savings made on the carbon from the wind farms (Shogren 2013, p. 214).
The calculation of the carbon emissions that can be attributed to the drainage of peat is obtained from the discharge happening when soil is left in its natural state which is retrieved from the emissions arising from the removal (Transport Scotland n.d.).
It is assumed that the total percent of carbon lost when decommissioning the farms is a hundred percent (Energy sources 2010). It is, therefore, advisable for the project developers of the wind farm to follow the strategies that will emit least carbon to the environment strictly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on EIA Assessment for Loch Urr Wind Farm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion on the type of prediction methods that could be used for the parameter Prediction would involve the techniques that have been used to forecast the future impacts of the project. There are two types of the prediction methods that can be employed to estimate emissions. These are the extrapolation method and the scenario method.
In the scenario design, the process is a situation based planning process used to order someone’s perception concerning the substitute future environments where the present decisions may play out (Richard 2011, p. 89). The extrapolative methods draw trends on the past and the present data (Morgan 2001, p. 89).
In this process, there are comparisons made concerning the situations as well as the study of direct impacts on several related projects (Richard 2011, p. 89). Using this method may also necessitate primary surveys in order to get information.
The technique will involve visiting Loch Urr area to examine the soil condition and then make comparisons with the other related projects situated under similar soil conditions.
The other important method that can be used is the normative methods. This works by assessing the project’s environmental context and its potential to achieve the desired outcomes (Richard 2011). In Loch Urr, the desired direct impact of the carbon emission is the change in Europe climate.
Discussion on the possible mitigation measures for the significant impacts on carbon emissions There are numbers of significant impacts caused by the emission of carbon in Loch Urr. The significant impacts are loss of carbon from the soil and increase in the level of the greenhouse gasses leading to global warming (Dinan 2008, p. 24).
The mitigation measures that can be undertaken to minimize these impacts are as follows:
Carbon emitted as a result of transportation- This scan is reduced by the use of the transportation means that may not make many trips to the construction sites (Energy Sources-Scotland n.d.). The mitigation measure will involve the use of bigger carriers that will travel to the construction site a few times compared to the small carriers.
During the construction, the constructors should put mechanisms that curb the emission of the carbon into the environment such as burning of the construction materials (Good practice during wind farm construction, 2010).
Loss of carbon due to drainage- The project developers should put in place the reinforcement measures such as the stabilization of the hillside through insertion of the elements for the reinforcement in the ground, and the mechanical treatment (Energy Sources-Scotland n.d.).
Decrease in the level of carbon in the soil- This can be prevented by the construction of the “floating track”. Floating tracks will ensure that the supporting subsoil and the vegetation in the area remain intact. This measurement may result in the production of less amount of carbon into the environment as compared to when the land was excavated during the construction of roads (Energy Sources-Scotland n.d.).
Operational maintenance should also be conducted in the wind farm. The maintenance should be done with care to ensure that little or no carbon is emitted into the air (Energy Sources-Scotland n.d.). Waste management should also be checked to prevent the emission of carbon through unintended ways.
Agencies Involvement The agencies involved include the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), Directorate for the Built Environment, and Transport Scotland. The SEPA will be involved in the scoping stage. This agency is bound to provide important information on the proposed scheme (Energy Sources-Scotland n.d.).
The directorate of the built environment will also be involved since they are mandated to formulate, implement, and monitor legislation and policies concerning any construction. This agency will be involved before the construction of the floating track.
They will provide important information on the guidelines of how to construct the floating tracks and the rules governing their construction (Transport Scotland n.d.).
This bureau is also concerned with the examination of the development plans in Scotland implying that their involvement throughout the project implementation would be of high impact into the success of the project (Transport Scotland n.d.).
Lastly, the Transport Scotland would be involved through consultation during the construction phase. The agencies would provide very important information based on the impacts of the turbines’ constructions and some of the possible mitigation measures that would be built up by the developers to curb any negative impact of the project (Transport Scotland n.d.).
Use of EIS by competent authorities The EIS would be presented to the Scottish ministers to help them in determining whether the project is practical or not. They will use this EIS to countercheck the developers’ statements based on the expected emissions and savings.
After the ministers have considered the merits and the demerits of this project, they will be in a position to say whether the project developers should continue with the project or stop its implementation.
The provided impacts on the carbon emissions will guide the Scottish ministers to evaluate whether the developers have set all the mitigation measures to curb the problems that would arise from the impacts.
Otherwise, the government would not be in a position to give any directions concerning the state of the project. Therefore, the concerned authorities should comprehensively examine the EIS.
References Bryce, R. 2011, Power Hungry the Myths of “Green” Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future. New York, Public Affairs.
Built Environment-Scottish Government. Web.
Dinan, T. 2008, Policy options for reducing CO₂ emissions, Washington DC, Congressional Budget Office.
Energy Sources-Scotland. Web.
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power. Web.
Good practice during wind farm construction, 2010. Web.
Great, B. 2012, National planning policy framework 2012: report from the London, TSO. Web.
Koeller, J., Koeppel, J.
Dr. Oz Presents Various Concepts Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The article about Dr. Oz presents various set of concepts, ideas, and perspectives for what entails legitimate contributions to a given research field. A paradigm is a view or pattern of how things are expected to work as accepted by an individual or society.
This paper seeks to identify three items from Dr. Oz’s article and explore the importance of the concepts of a paradigm to the items. First is the knowledge about a supplement, which is referred to as green coffee extract. According to the article, this supplement serves as a solution to weight loss for many people.
This knowledge is based on a study that was critiqued and perceived as useless and later retracted on claims that it was not scientifically proven. Dr. Oz is trying to find a solution for weight loss. Why should individuals eat certain diets, but not others when they need to lose weight?
To Dr. Oz, taking green coffee is a paradigm and through his research, he tries to show what might happen to people who subscribe to his paradigm. To others, who retracted the use of green coffee, viewed this knowledge as the inappropriate paradigm.
Even though this knowledge is partly proven, some quarters in the medicine field like the British Medical Journal experts are not willing to let Dr. Oz intrude a field that they control.
Largely, they imply that any new knowledge should be subject to their approval and their interests catered in the process. Dr. Oz finds this bureaucracy unnecessary and derailing to any kind of progress in promoting human welfare.
The second issue is exercising, eating fruits, and sleeping right, which are natural approaches to a healthy life. Essentially, Dr. Oz seeks to sensitize people about a paradigm he thinks can be highly beneficial to their health after which research indicated it was worth in terms of weight loss.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, despite giving the message to many people, who were unaware of the health dangers of obesity, this information was highly questioned by those who want to prescribe medications for personal gain. However, diversity of opinions leads to new knowledge.
Today’s disputed experiments have the potential to transform the future’s standard models in medicine. The third aspect is the individuals’ freedom to express own ideas and thoughts towards developing more knowledge in the treatment realm.
Dr. Oz’s way of creating change and expressing ideas is different from the conventional bureaucratic manner that most of his critics want him to follow in a bid to ensure that his ideas are kept to himself.
The bureaucratic system is a barrier to freedom of expression and without freely expressing thoughts, there would be no paradigm shift in the health sector. What is real or genuine? When do people recognize that something is genuine?
Dr. Oz shows that these elements can be determined through testing and experiments. The people’s perception and thoughts enable them to plan for the future by making decisions as to which information is dealt with, and which is ignored.
These decisions results in new knowledge and in most cases, they are influenced by various factors that may be complex for anyone to prove as reliable. Individuals cannot be aware of everything, but their perceptions.
Dr. Oz suggests that since the US offers the freedom of speech, everybody should feel free when expressing his/her ideas, which might have the potential to change things for good.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Dr. Oz Presents Various Concepts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the past decade, the United States’ security agents have highlighted the problems associated with the bureaucracy. Hummel indicates that managers have trouble controlling the bureaucratic structures and employees are less motivated working on the same.
Despite all the anticipated changes in the US security agents, it has proven difficult to avoid the bureaucratic machinery. Following the 9/11 attack in the US, critical decisions were made that resulted in a steady decline in quality operations by the Secret Service.
The US Congress and the George Bush administration enforced stringent bureaucratic measures, which have contributed to the current string of security loopholes in the White House.
These security lapses are attributable to the bureaucratic battles that gained root during the Bush administration. Now, they persist through the Obama administration.
To Hummel, strict bureaucratic procedures in most cases have created a cycle of stagnation in decision-making. Both the Secret Service and the Department of Homeland Security seem to be using the strategies designed in the 19thCentury, but twisted to respond to challenges of the 21stCentury.
The agency with the mandate of protecting the country’s leaders, for instance, needs leadership that is open to criticism, accountable to its lapses, and focused on a defined mission.
Leaders must be strong enough to push the Congress for enough funding, be transparent enough to ward off any sort of bureaucratic encroachment, and courageous to stop the president from playing loose with the security guidelines.
From Hummel’s viewpoint, bureaucratic values can lead to mistrust and lack of morale in policy implementation. Members of the current Congress have often expressed their distress about the ill will and lack of motivation that many security agents have developed towards their bosses.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dr. Oz Presents Various Concepts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Agents and officials are expected to be accountable to their bosses, yet they are not adequately involved in the decision-making process. This model can easily lead to a conflict of interest and result in serious security breaches.
For instance, a review of the September 19 incidence in which a man successfully jumped over the White House fence established that various agents on duty lacked the skills to stop the intruder. Others were not aware how the White House Communication procedures should have worked following such incidence.
A former DHS agent, Cummiskey, noted that such issues emerged from budget constraints. It is unthinkable when the lawmakers and the Obama administration slash budget for the Secret Service, thus crippling most of its activities.
Unfortunately, the problems face the officials on the grounds as they are expected to perform with the little budget. Even though the Secret Service budget is expected to go high in the year 2016, it has to pass the approval of lawmakers, and this process derails change.
Security issues will not wait until the budget is passed, and thus the US remains vulnerable to security threats targeting its leaders.
The process of hiring and firing workers is also a long and complicated one. For example, Joseph Clancy, the Secret Service Permanent Chief, indicated that it was difficult for him to take action against two security agents who had been involved in an accident not until he obtained all the facts.
The slow pace of action and excessive consultations have failed to offer substantial and timely solutions in many cases. Due to the long bureaucratic procedures, reporting an incidence as well as acting on it takes a lot of time yet swift decisions are needed to make desired changes.
Workers are not willing to cooperate with their bosses on a bureaucratic structure. In addition, service providers are not willing to work with a highly bureaucratized system due to delays and sometimes failures.
Bureaucratic values hinder the possibility of innovation because workers are supposed to operate within set guidelines. Even when they have easier options to tackle a situation, they are compelled to stick to usual procedures. This aspect leads to fatigue and stress.
This scenario has been reflected amongst the agents in the Secret Service who often get involved in alcohol consumption as a way of relieving job-related stress.
For almost a decade, the DHS has suffered a weakened position in decision-making and it is evident that it will continue to face bureaucratic challenges if necessary reforms are not put in place.
Basing on Hummel’s view, the US has to stop revitalizing a 19th-Century era institution and adopt a radicalized model. This change is not only needed in the Security agencies, but virtually in every institution because most have lost confidence and trust in the American society.
As Coleman notes, fresh perspectives and approaches should be adopted to ensure that workers feel free to change situations when necessary to increase efficacy and save time wasted through excessive consultations.
The Secret Service should rethink its organizational culture, consider unifying its force in a way that embraces cross training, and eradicate rigidity in the security force.
With the current trend in the security matters, it is necessary to have a flexible security force that has the capacity to respond to different challenges without having to go through complex bureaucratic procedures to initiate a simple response. Inclusive leadership will increase the morale among agents and security officials.
Economies of Greece Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Greece is a capitalist economy, which is comprised of different economic sectors. The public sector accounts for approximately 40% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Moreover, the country’s per capita GDP is approximately 75% of the leading economies in the Eurozone.
The tourism sector accounts for 18% of the country’s GDP. The country’s annual growth rate between 2003 and 2007 was estimated to be 3.3% of the total GDP. Despite the positive economic performance, the country was adversely affected by the 2008 global economic recession.
Consequently, the country experienced tight credit conditions. Greece is a major recipient of the European Union aid. The total annual aid is estimated to be 3.3% of the country’s GDP (“The Heritage Foundation” par. 8).
In spite of the negative economic performance experienced over the past few years, Greece ranks 130th amongst the freest economies according to the 2015 index. The country’s economic freedom score declined by 1.7 to 54.0 by the end of 2014. The decline arose from lapse in government control on public expenditure.
Moreover, the negative economic performance is also associated with the decline in the level of labor, fiscal, and business freedom. The country ranks 40th amongst the 43 European countries with reference to economic freedom, which places it below the regional and world average (“The Heritage Foundation” par. 9).
This research paper seeks to undertake an extensive analysis of the Greece economy and financial environment.
Analysis Internal and external economies of scale
The existence of market fragmentation is a major hindrance in countries’ quest to achieve economic growth. Kollias affirms that market fragmentation mainly arises from socio-political atomization (88).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, in order to be competitive in the global market, it is imperative for governments to focus on developing external and internal economies of scale.
Kollias further asserts that internal “economies of scale are attained when industrial firms have a sufficient size and production level that guarantees that resources are combined efficiently and therefore output has a competitive price” (92).
In order for industries established in different economic sectors to derive the benefits associated with large-scale economies of scale, it is imperative to adopt the concept of expanding their geographical market. Therefore, trade should not be limited within the national borders.
On the contrary, firms should seek larger markets by entering the international market.
In a bid to stimulate economic growth, firms should adopt the concept of external economies of scale by establishing strong inter-firm relations with reference to diverse aspects such as labor force training, research and development programs, and subcontracting joint supplies.
Additionally, firms should integrate the concept of backward and forward relations.
Kollias further affirms that in order for a “firm to benefit from external economies of scale, the national productive base must be rich in productive activities” (92).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Economies of Greece specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is considerably difficult for small economies to attain external economies of scale on their own unless they are open to economic cooperation with the neighboring countries. Therefore, most small economies have adopted an open economy regime in an effort to increase their geographical market.
The neighboring countries constitute an important trade partner that governments should consider in formulating foreign trade policies. Kollias affirms that neighboring countries present economies with an opportunity to access a relatively large market due to high product preference amongst the involved countries (97).
Furthermore, establishing trade relations with neighboring countries leads to the emergence of regional multiplier. The regional multiplier arises from lower transportation costs and similar product preference.
Past studies show that the adoption of the concept of external economies of scale has played a fundamental role in improving countries’ export capacity. For example, investment in external economies has considerably enhanced India’s emergence as a major exporter of information services (Kollias 101).
Moreover, Kollias asserts that growth in one country can be transferred to the neighboring countries due to the established export relations (106).
Greece understands the contribution of international trade to its economic growth. In an effort to improve its economic growth through trade, Greece has appreciated the gravity model, which underscores the importance of establishing bilateral trade relations between countries.
The model underscores the importance of taking into account distance, borders, barriers, and other trade impediments in establishing trade relationships with other countries (Mann and Otsuki 83).
Greece has entered bilateral trade agreement with different countries in the European region. The trade relations mainly relate to the importation and exportation of different products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economies of Greece by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Greece’s adoption of international trade is based on fact that no country is self-sufficient by producing all commodities required to meet the population’s needs.
Furthermore, Heckscher-Ohlin Model, which postulates that trade between countries occurs due to the existence of different in factors of production such as capital and labor, further supports the occurrence of trade between countries.
Onkvisit and Shaw affirm that governments should evaluate their production possibility curve in order to determine the extent to which engagement in international trade can lead to attainment of relative and absolute advantages (84).
Consideration of the PPP provides governments with insights on the most optimal trade options to take into consideration. In order to benefit from the PPP, a particular economy must have sufficient resources, viz. labor and capital.
By the end of 2013, Greece total exports were estimated to be 27,556 million Euros, which accounted for 15.1% of the country’s total GDP. The country has continued to increase the volume of its exports despite the adverse effects of the recent global economic recession.
Its total exports into the European Union countries in 2013 were estimated to be 46% of the country’s total exports. The bilateral trade agreement between Greece and the EU underscores the extent to which the country is committed to implementing the gravity model. Table 1 and graph 1 below illustrates Greece main export partners by 2013.
The construction of the production possibility curve enables an economy to determine the range of goods and services to produce for export coupled with what to import. This goal is achieved by the determination of the opportunity cost.
The production possibility curve affirms that a country’s optimal production point occurs at the point whereby the value of production is maximised. Onkvisit and Shaw further contend that countries have unique production possibility curves due to the unique set of their products (24).
The core export commodities include chemicals, petroleum products, industrial products, food, and beverages.
Country Proportion of exports Turkey 12% Italy 9% Germany 6% United Kingdom 4% Gibraltar 4% Cyprus 4% Bulgaria 5% Table 1
Graph 1: (“Enterprise Greece” par. 8)
The country’s trade imports include food, fuel, chemical products, vehicles, and machinery. Greece mainly imports from Iraq, Russia, the Netherlands, China, France, and Italy. The graph below illustrates the proportion of imports from the respective countries.
Country Proportion of imports Russia 14% Netherlands 5% France 5% China 5% Iraq 8% Italy 8% Germany 10% Table 2
Graph 2: (“Enterprise Greece” par. 9)
In an effort to stimulate trade relations with other countries, Greece has integrated the concept of preferential trade agreement [PTAs]. The European Union is a well established PTA, which has faciliated trade relations amongst different countries in the European region.
Since its foundation, the EU PTAs has faciliated growth in trade exports by 70%. Greece joined the EU in 1981. Over the past years, Greece has been extensively engaged in entrenching its trade relations with the EU.
One of the aspects that underscores the country’s commitment to the EU entails the incorproation of the foreign policy. The country has adopted the Southern Dimension, which is a critical component of the the European Neighbourhood Policy [ENP].
The objective of the Southern Dimension is to develop a strong bilateral relathoship with the Mediterranean countires in order to foster social-economic developments.
Since its accession to the EU, Greece has reduced its tarrifs significantly. The European Union has adopted a harmonsed system across the member countries. The member countries including Greece have integrated preferential tariffs.
The average tarriff rate in the EU is estimated to be 1%. Furthermore, Greece ascended to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) by accepting to comply with the trade regulations. The country has eliminated tarrifs with reference to IT products.
Free Trade Zones
Greece economic performance over the past few years has further been enhanced by the adoption of the concpet of special economic zones [SEZs]. Through this approach, Green has considerably improved the volume of international trade in addition to attracting foreign direct investment (FDI).
Moreover, the concept of Free Zones has enabled Greece to maintain protective barriers to unfair international trade (Tiefernbrun 2010). Tarriffs are a major barrier to international trade because they increase the cost of trade. Tarrifs increase the price of product in the local market, hence reducing the demand of the product.
Therefore, the consumers are affected adversely. Greece has established three SEZs located at Heraklion, Piraeus, and Thessaloniki (“Australian Trade Commission” par.7). By adopting the concept of FTZs, Greece allows imports into the free trade zones without incurring any taxes or custom duties.
Moreover, goods imported into the SEZs are free of any duties even if they are re-exported. The adoption of the FTZs has played a fundamental role in improving the country’s attractiveness to international trade.
In line with its commitment to promoting international trade, Greece has made incredible steps in eliminating non-tarrif barriers. Tiefernbrun (2010) cites non-tarrif barriers as one of the main strategies currently used by different countries in an effort to protect the economy.
As a member of the WTO, Greece is committed to adjusting non-tarriff barriers in order to facilitate international trade. This aspect explains why the country is characterised by a comparatively high trade freedom index.
According to “The Heritage Foundation”, trade freedom index includes “a composite measure of the absence of tariff and non-tarriff barriers that affect imports and imports of goos services” (par.1). Over the past few years, Greece has maintained a considerably high trade freedom index.
Table 3 below illustrates the trend in Greece’s trade freedom between 2007 and 2014.
Year Trade freedom index 2014 82.8 2013 81.8 2012 82.1 2011 82.6 2010 82.5 2009 80.8 2008 81 2007 81 Table 2: (“The Heritage Foundation” par. 3)
One of the non-tarrif barriers that the Greece government has implemented relates to the regulatory restrictions, which are comprised of issues such as domestic content and licensing. Greece has adopted import licences as one of its non-tarrif barriers. However, the import license is only applicable to some products.
Katsimi, Pagoulatos, and Sotiropoulos assert that import licences “are required for some products including a number that have restricted licensing” (12). Greece has integrated special licenses in order to allow some imports into the country. The special licenses mainly apply to imports from low-cost countries.
The EU has integrated quotas with reference to such imports. In addition to the above issues, Greece has mainly maintained nationality restrictions with reference to a number of professions. Some of the professions that have been affected by the restrictions include the legal and business service profession.
Furthermore, Greece has restricted foreign investment in some economic sectors.
The evolution in the country’s macroeconomic developments has arisen from the adoption of effective models. One of the issues that Greece has focused on relates to the improvement of the labour makret. Between 1970 and 2000, real compensation amongst employees in Greece increased by 58.7% (“OECD” par. 4).
Furthermore, the growth in real compensation between 2000 and 2009 increased by an additional 18.5% (“OECD” par. 4). The table below illustrates the trade in the volume of investment in the EU from 2008 to 2014.
Year Rate of investment 2008 -2% 2009 -11% 2010 1.90% 2011 3.50% 2012 1.70% 2013 1% 2014 2.60% 2015 3.20% Table 3: (“OECD” par. 5)
Table 3 above shows that the Greece’s rate of investment declined considerably between 2008 and 2009 due to the negative effects of the global economic recession.
However, the rate of investment has experienced considerable improvement between 2010 and 2015. It is projected that the country will experience positive economic growth between 2015 and 2016. The growth will rise from the increase in the volume of exports and the rate of investment.
This aspect will play a fundamental role in improving the country’s copetitiveness. Furthermore, the country’s level of unemployment is projected to decline in 2016 (“OECD” par. 7)
In addition to the adverse economic effects caused by the 2008 global recession, the Greece economic climate has been very turbulent due to the debt crisis. The crisis arose from the lack of effective control mechanisms.
Some of the major causes of the Greek debt crisis include massive tax evasion, corruption, high government spending, and lack of adequate financial control measures. Greece joined the European Union by agreeing to the specification outlined in the Maastricht Criteria.
The criteria outlines the conditions that countries are required to adhere to inorder to integrate the single currency, viz. the Euro, succesfully.
First, the EU member states were required to maintain a rate of inflation that is not greater by 1.5% of the average rate of inflation of 3 European Union countries with the lowest rate of inflation over the past fiscal year.
Secondly, the national budget deficit should be less than 3% of the country’s GDP while the national public debt should not be over 60% of the country’s GDP (“BBC” par. 9).
In its ascession to the European Union, Greece did not meet the Maastricht Criteria. In spite of this aspect, it joined the European Union, which led to extensive economic inconviniencies. Thus, the country was affected adversely by the global financial crisis. The level of revenue in the two sectors declined by 15% in 2009.
In an effort to meet the high public sector wage bill, Greece extensively relied on borrowing from international capital markets. Greece has been characterised by a higher government expenditure as compared to revenue, hence creating budget deficit.
Moreover, the country’s ability to generate revenue has been hindered by tax evasion, which has been increased by political clientelism.
The governments’ reliance on external borrowing to finance trade and budget deficits have led to a reduction in the level of investor confidence. Subsequently, the government is unable to raise revenue from the public.
The government’s heavy reliance of borrowing plunged Greece into a 300 billion Euro debt crisis in 2009. However, the government has undertaken a series of austerity measures over the years in an effort to restore confidence in the ecoomy.
In 2010, the Euro Zone countries approved a $145 billion rescue package for Greece. Additionally, the government integrated tough austerity measures. Some of the measures included high tax rates. In 2011, the EU further approved an additional 109 billion Euros to the rescue package.
Due to the prevailing financial crisis, Greece’s credit rating was downgraded. A new bailout plan involving a debt-swap with private-sector was adopted in 2012. Between 2012 and 2013, Greece recieved bailout loan amounting to 13.5 billion Euros from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Union.
Moreover, the government suspended the operations of the state broadcaster in an effort to reduce public spending. The economic changes experienced in Greece have led to a fluctuation in the rate of unemployment. Graph 3 below shows that the rate of unemployment in Greece has increased steadily from 2008.
The highest rate of unemployment was recorded in 2014 at 28%.
Graph 3: (“Trading Economics” par. 6)
The financial crisis in Greece has affected the country’s economic growth significantly. From 2010, the country’s GDP annual growth rate has been negative as illustrated by the graph below.
However, the austerity measures implemented by the government are steering the country towards economic recovery as illustrated by the trend in the GDP annual growth rate.
Graph 4: (“Trading Economics” par. 7)
Conclusion Despite the fact that countries’ economic performances are affected by macroeconomic changes such as recession, it is imperative for governments to appreciate the importance of integrating effective economic policies. One of the areas that governments should focus on in their quest to stimulate economic growth entails international trade.
Small countries such as Greece should consider partnering with neighboring countries in order to benefit from external economies of scale. Such economic cooperation will play a fundamental role in promoting growth in different economic sectors.
The adoption of the open trade policy in Greece by signing the European Union preferential trade agreement has played an essential role in its economic growth over the past decades. Joining the EU has improved the country’s geographical market, hence leading to a high GDP.
Furthermore, the adoption of the free trade zones has further improved the Greece’s attractiveness to foreign direct investors, hence increasing the volume of its exports. Despite the open trade policy, Greece has protected some of its economic sectors by integrating non-tariff barriers.
Moreover, the country’s economic performance over the past few years has further been affected by the financial crisis that mainly arose from ineffective fiscal and monetary policies such as overreliance on borrowing to finance public expenditure.
Therefore, in order for the country to benefit from the bailout plan that is being implemented currently, the Greece government should consider restructuring its fiscal and monetary policies in order to safeguard the economy from contagion effects, which are mainly associated with economic crisis.
Works Cited Australian Trade Commission: Tariffs and regulations; Greece 2012. Web.
BBC: Greece profile; timeline 2015. Web.
Enterprise Greece: Trade 2013. Web.
Katsimi, Margarita, Thomas Pagoulatos, and Dimitri Sotiropoulos. Growing inequalities and their impacts in Greece; country report for Greece 2013. Web.
Kollias, Chrestos. Greece and Turkey in the 21st century; conflict or cooperation; a political economy perspective, New York: Nova Science, 2003. Print.
Mann, Catherine, and Tsunehiro Otsuki. Assessing the potential benefits of trade facilitation; a global perspective, New York: World Trade Publications, 2003. Print.
OECD: Greece; economic forecast summary 2014. Web.
Onkvisit, Sak, and John Shaw. International marketing: Analysis and strategy, London: Psychology Press, 2004. Print.
The Heritage Foundation: Greece 2015. Web.
Tiefernbrun, Susan. Tax free trade zones of the world and in the United States, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2010. Print.
Trading Economics: Greece GDP annual growth rate 2015. Web.
Gramscianism Approach to Media Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Media can be analysed using various approaches, including the Gramscianism approach. This method creates a link between the media and society by examining the factors that make the media what people know it. In discussing the Gramscianism approach, the keywords are race, media and culture.
This paper looks at the Gramscianism approach to media. It also discusses the role of the media and how this role affects the society. Lastly, the paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. The paper aims to prove that the Gramscianism approach is the best approach to analysing the media and how it affects the society.
The Gramscianism Approach to Media The Gramscianism approach to media states that there are racial representations in the media (Hardy 17). The statement can refer to two things. The first is that the media supports racism; therefore, it favours some races over others. The second meaning could be that the media promotes racism among the viewers.
This section of the essay will look at both angles. A lot of controversies come up when discussing the relationship between the media and the society. Hardy (6) explains that the controversies arise because of both the positive and negative impacts of the media.
This section of the essay will look at the relationship between the media and the society, based on the Gramscianism approach.
As mentioned, the approach states that there are racial representations in the media. Gramsci explains the economic determinants that affect the influence that the media has (Alexander 13).
For example, the advertisement of a young, rich white woman shopping in a store will encourage more people to buy things from that store than that of a young, rich black woman. This can be attributed to the aspect of the class.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of race did not start the other day; white people have been perceived as the superior race not only by themselves, but also by other races. Thus, people feel that they will get the class of a wealthy, young white woman if they use the same stores she is using.
However, many people will not have the same perception if it was a black woman.
It can be argued that the media supports racism by encouraging one type of race to participate in matters concerning the media. For the longest time, people in the media were white. Black television presenters were rarely given the opportunity to present news in the major television stations.
If they were given the chance to become show hosts, then the shows would either be about gossip or require very little interaction with the people. However, it is crucial to note that the black community became very prominent in the media due to the comical shows in the mid-1960s to late 1970s.
Unfortunately, this confirmed the stereotypes that black people are only good for comical effect, but not serious things. Looking at stand-up comedies, many of the most successful comedians in the world are black people. However, this does not mean that white people do not do stand-up comedy.
In the same vein, looking at film and movie production, one will note that many of the film producers and directors are Caucasian. Davis explains that award ceremonies have tried to include other races in movie and film production in the recent times (16). This has seen the avid participation of Arabic producers in the industry.
The black community has focused more on series production, which are longer. However, a further analysis will prove that they do not participate in some genres in films, like science fiction and action movies.
We will write a custom Essay on Gramscianism Approach to Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hesmondhalgh disagrees with the Gramscianism approach to media. He argues that currently, the media has done a lot to stop racism (31). For example, looking at a media platform like CNN, it includes all people regardless of their race. CNN has employed blacks, Caucasian, and Asians in an attempt to offer equal opportunities to everyone.
Looking at this argument, one can say that even though CNN has hired different races, it is only the Caucasians who have been given the best times and the best shows in the station. Additionally, other influences have forced CNN to take up other races.
Technology, globalization, and digital media have all allowed television to go global (Croteau and Hoynes 17). Thus, for business purposes, it would be good for CNN to use other races that will want to watch news content that is presented by a person from their race.
Mosco explains that the issue of media and race does not only involve the different races in the world (19). Instead, media has also created a drift within the races. For example, the media has created a rift in countries where one race is predominant.
Many countries in Africa have black communities. However, there are people that are of a lighter shade within the black communities. Such people are drawn into the media due to their appearance and colour.
This proves two things; that people still believe a lighter shade of skin to be prettier and more attractive, and media is all about media.
The second angle mentioned is that the media promotes racism among its viewers. Christians et al. (14) argue that the media also encourages people to be racist towards one another by supporting racism within the media.
For example, there are countries where colour, body appearance, and hairstyle are deeply rooted in the perceptions aroused by the media. For example, Lebanon is one of the countries where the media significantly determines fashion and body appearance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gramscianism Approach to Media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, many of the women in the country look up to the media to know which plastic surgery they need.
It suffices to mention that the Gramscianism approach also states that popular culture shapes the content in the media, which dictates the role of the media.
For example, if popular culture involves smoking cigarettes, then television stations will quickly take up advertisements that support cigarette smoking and buy programs that have characters that smoke. In this sense, the media has been affected by the society.
Gramscianism Approach to New Media It is crucial to point out that the media has, indeed, changed. What was common in the media in the past is not common today. This can be attributed to the change in the society and the change of norms and expectations. For example, in the past, video vixens did not dress as skimpily as they do today.
One can argue that the Gramscianism approach does not apply to new media because the media has been fighting racism for a long time. Whereas this might be true, it does not mean that the approach cannot be used when analysing the relationship between media and the society.
Alexander (15) explains that the Gramscianism approach also states that the media affects society by creating a common culture. This can be both positive and negative. The negative aspect has already been discussed. The positive side involves the bringing together of people.
Chomsky (14) argues that new media has brought people together more than any other form of media. For example, people can connect with other people from different parts of the world using a platform like Facebook. This brings a sense of togetherness.
In the same breath, countries have come together through social media in times of crisis. For example, with the current war in Yemen, the country itself has started hashtags on Twitter and created fan pages on Facebook to allow its citizens to comment on what can be done to ease the situation.
Similarly, new media has been used to keep current information flows faster in new media than on the traditional media. For example, on Twitter, breaking news can just be retweeted, quoted, and shared to reach as many people as possible. Similarly, news content on other platforms on the Internet can also be shared with people on social media.
The cycle of transfer of information is faster than that of television, radio, and newspaper combined. It goes without saying that it also helps in times of danger.
Baker reveals that community policing has also been made easier using these services (9). For example, lost persons are put up on social media to help with identification. Charities have also taken to social media and new media, in general, to promote their causes.
The Role of the Media in Society The media has been tasked with several things that affect the society. Many people believe that the media should have positive, rather than negative impacts on the society. This section discusses the role of the media in the society as it is currently.
The media is meant to influence people, whether in a positive or negative way. Currently, the media has been criticized of influencing people by encouraging them to partake in violent, criminal and unwanted behaviour. Meehan and Riordan (43) argue that the media was initially used to shape the society.
However, today, more of the negative stories sell than the positive ones. For example, looking at news content, a story on urbanization and investment will probably receive very little airplay than a story of a thief who managed to con 50 people.
In addition, the story of urbanization and investment will receive less feedback from the viewers compared to the other stories.
Dayan and Katz assert that the media influences all parts of life. People depend on the media to make some of the crucial decisions they need to make (14). For instance, when a hospital is highlighted on the television to have horrible services, people will stop visiting the hospital.
Similarly, there are many people who believe that the media is always right. Therefore, any scandal about a company might push investors away. If a person wants to check out the best schools for their children, then they will use new media. New media includes the Internet and social media.
Such platforms make it easier for people to make decisions, thereby influencing the people in all manner of ways. For example, if a person wants to buy a pair of shoes, they will just have to visit a web page; search for the shoes they want, and compare the best stores where to buy the shoes.
In addition, the person will order the shoes online and have them delivered to their doorstep.
In the same breath, advertising also influences people. The high competition that has engulfed all industries has made advertising one of the most competitive businesses in the world. People believe that the best adverts sell their products; thus, they invest millions in advertising.
Croteau and Hoynes explain that the influence of advertising is so intense that there are countries that have banned advertising to children because it changes their behaviours (13). It suffices to mention that media has been accused of influencing people in the wrong way.
For example, Curran and Park explain that there have been numerous cases of people copying crime that was highlighted either in traditional or new media (18). As mentioned, parents have also complained that the children misbehave due to direct advertising and watching some television shows.
Moreover, the advertising of cigarettes has led to the rise in cigarette smoking in the USA, especially among the young adults.
Curran and Park argue that the influence of the media greatly depends on the extent of the media (18). For instance, book, newspapers and magazines were very influential in the earlier days. Anybody that would write a column in the papers or publish a book would, in turn, be influential in the society.
Today, books are not as influential as social media and television. In fact, more people will believe something they see on television and social media than they would if they read it in a book.
Given that social media is international and television stations have also gone digital making them global, their extent is much wider than that of the old media. However, this does not mean that traditional media has lost its place in the society.
Gender has also been linked to media in several ways. The first way is the representation of the two sexes in the media. Meehan and Riordan explain that the media has sexualized women (14). For example, women television hosts are often dressed in a very attractive manner to hook the audience.
Their male counterparts are often dressed sharply, yet decently. Looking at individual television shows, one will note that women are portrayed in a sexual manner compared to men.
The female characters in shows are either too sexy or too masculine. In fact, as Winseck and Jin observe, shows that have a tough female character that gets ‘conquered’ by a male character are very popular (8).
Alexander argues that it is only until recently that women were given ‘important’ positions in the media industry (17). Before then, they would be used for small presentations and general news presentation. Nowadays, there are many women in the media who work as camerapersons, production managers, and other executives.
Women have also been given priority in holding discussions, such as presidential and political debates all over the world. Despite this, there are some regions and countries that still have a very little representation of women in the media. Such countries attribute this to their culture or religion.
As Calabrese and Sparks observe, the most affected countries in terms of lower representation of women in the media are Islamic in nature (45). For example, Saudi Arabia has very few women in the media.
It suffices to mention that, Lebanon, a country in the Middle East has used the media to objectify women. Dayan and Katz explain that the Lebanon media exposes women to plastic surgery in an attempt to make them look perfect (19).
In fact, a recent study showed that over 60% of women between the ages of 21 and 35 have had one form of plastic surgery or another. The women do not believe they are beautiful enough; thus, they do whatever it takes to get that perfect image.
On the same note, one current role of the media is to define beauty, which is mainly the case with women compared to men. Another aspect that can be used to show how women are objectified is music. Nowadays, video vixens have shaped the perception of fashion, dance, and music.
They are always naked and promote a specific aspect of their body. In addition, the video vixens also influence young people by making them take up the fashion sense and behaviours of the vixens.
Pornography has also been used to objectify women. Sex in pornographic films is all about the man. In fact, the sex ends when the man ejaculates. Bondage is also one of the standard porn categories today. It is interesting to note that bondage involves hanging women and tying them up before the sexual interaction.
In addition, the women are beaten and tortured. The porn stars act like the whole ordeal is enjoyable in order to make it sell. However, as Winseck and Jin argue, the porn actors get scars and bruises in the process (10).
To conclude this section, the media has been used to define gender in the current society. The gap between how women and men were perceived in the past and how they are today is very broad. Whereas women were oppressed in the past, they were also seen as sexual objects. The media has made this the number one role of women in the society.
Media is responsible for keeping current with technology, more so with new media, like the Internet. In fact, Chomsky (19) observes that the media grows when technology grows. Technology has touched on various things in life.
Not only do people use technology while using the Internet, but they also use technology when opening doors, using a lift, writing a text message, communicating, and ordering food and so forth. In all aspects of life that one can think of, technology has made an impact. Media is just like technology in that it affects all aspects of life, as mentioned.
In the same tone, whenever something is revealed in technology, it is highlighted in the media. Traditional media has been known to promote such inventions. For example, if a person found a way of building an environmental friendly car, then it would be shown on the news.
In addition, shows have been created to support and appreciate the advancement of technology. For example, the very popular car show ‘Top Gear’ discusses the latest and most loved car trends in the world.
The host and the guest have to ride the car not only so that they can comment on its power, but to also make the crowd see for how fast and powerful the car is. All these are efforts of the media promoting technology.
It suffices to mention that media itself is revolutionary due to the amount of technology used. The technology does not just start and end with the product that showed on the television. Instead, a lot is done during the pre-production phase of the shows.
The development of the media has ensured the advancement of equipment used in the media, for example, cameras and lights are appreciated.
Curran and Park argue that there are other things that the media has helped advance in terms of technology (18). For example, when the media highlights the deplorable state of a hospital or a school, the involved parties help improve the condition of the institution by investing in technological equipment for the institution.
It would seem unfair to discuss the media and technology and not consider new media. New media is as a result of technology. People get to see news content, movies and music from all over the world due to new media.
In addition, the viewers also get to interact on a one-on-one level due to the ease of access that new media has encouraged. Curran, Media and Democracy, explains that the media and technology strengthen each other (17).
Democratic Role of the Media Media and democracy have a complicated relationship. Baker (17) explains that the media is tasked with being the watchdog of the government. In fact, a free media denotes democracy. It is very difficult to claim the existence of a democratic state in the world due to the enormous impact that politics has on media.
Many a time politics and politicians try, and succeed, to control the media. When the freedom of the media is jeopardized, the country in question is not a democracy.
Alexander (15) reveals that the media is supposed to act as a public advocate of the government. This means that the media should highlight the things that the government does that are not right by the society’s expectations and standards.
The main problem with the definition of this role is the influence the media has on the decision that is to be taken. Is the media supposed to comment on what the government does, or is it supposed to highlight their actions and leave it at that?
In addition, is the media responsible for influencing the government to change their actions and techniques or is that task given to the public that is watching?
The first question raises the question on the power invested in the media by a democratic state. In numerous cases, the media is not involved in judgment. This means that the media, as a watchdog, only highlights the activities of the government. Judgment is left to the people.
However, it is interesting to note that the people in the media are also political animals, as Plato once described human beings. Thus, they are bound to have political affiliations. Media is designed in such a way that those involved, especially those who can interact with the public, are not allowed to show their political affiliations.
In the same breath, the media can act as a platform for judgment. Thus, people can pass judgment on what they think of their government through the media.
Many a time television stations, radios, and even newspapers ask for opinions and feedback regarding the stories they just presented, which is equivalent to allowing people to pass judgment on the stories.
The second question posed can be answered by a simple ‘no’. Chomsky explains that the media is not supposed to influence the decision of the government (24). In fact, despite the current role of the media, it is also not supposed to influence the people.
The people should in turn ensure that the government works as expected, and if not, they are the ones that have to push the government for the change their want.
Radical and liberal media
In discussing democracy and the media, it is crucial to address liberal and radical media. Alexander asserts that liberal media is free media (9). It serves all without bias. As mentioned, it is very difficult to determine how open a media platform is due to the external forces that always try to control it.
Radical media, on the other hand, is controlled and the most common media in the world today.
There are several factors that can control the media in a ‘democratic’ state. The first, and most common is politics. Chakravartty and Zhao explain that politicians have been known to pay off journalists so that they hide negative stories about them (21).
In addition, the scholar explains that politics has been used to inflict policies that are oppressive to the media in order to control them. There are countries that are also not democracies. Such countries make it very difficult for other media to report on stories in their countries.
Iran and Iraq are not democracies and for the longest time they made it very difficult for journalists to report stories about their culture. Countries that use the sharia law are difficult to work in.
Curran, Media and Power, explains that media democracy touches on five things (15). The five concepts include a liberal media as opposed to a radical one. The second aspect is the ideology that the media is a public advocate and not just an entertainment tool.
Thirdly, the concept of citizen journalism where the citizens report, give their opinions and even judge the news they have seen has to be encouraged in a media democracy. Lastly, the media has to ensure that they promote democratic ideas, for instance, support freedom of speech and such.
Media and Morality Going back to the Gramscianism approach to media one can note that it indeed applies. Media has shaped morality in the society. To many, it has made morality worse than ever. Traditional media and new media have both encouraged immorality in various ways.
For traditional media, sexuality and immorality have been promoted through movies and music. As mention, in music video vixens have to be sexy in order for the video to sell. Particular emphasis is given to body parts to promote sex. In movies, sex scenes and nudity have been used to make a profit.
When young people watch this, they not only get excited, but they also develop an individual perspective to the notion of sex, their bodies, and the bodies of others. It is common to find nowadays that many young people do not respect their bodies, or the bodies of others due to the ease of show of nudity in the media.
It is crucial to point out that young people are even more prone to having sex than they were before. Tomlinson explains that many teenagers start having sex at the age of thirteen (7). This is unlike before when sex was perceived to be sacred and for adults only.
In the same vein, traditional media has also encouraged sex through films. Movies such as Spartacus and the series Game of Thrones have very explicit sex scenes. It is true that the mentioned films are masterpieces in their genre. However, they are not for viewing by teenagers.
Despite this, they are shown on national television, can be downloaded from the Internet by anyone and can also be watched by anyone.
New media has shaped morality through pornography and the perception of beauty. It is very easy for young people to access pornographic materials from the Internet. Indeed, there are some sites that require the user to confirm that they are above the age of eighteen.
However, all it takes to prove this is the click of a button. A hormone-charged teenager would not hesitate to click on the button especially since there are no other restrictions. The ease of sharing the information has also enhanced immorality.
Winseck and Jin also add that morality should not just be used to refer to sexuality (8). However, even using this argument, it is still correct to argue that the media has adverse impacts on morality.
For example, cyber bullying has been identified as a crime in many countries. In fact, there have been cases where individuals have committed suicide due to cyber bullying. New media encourages these types of crime.
Tomlinson argues that even though media affects morality, there are more factors to consider on the topic (9). For instance, the upbringing of the child involved. The scholar admits that indeed the Internet has very little restrictions, which makes finding adult content accessible.
However, it is up to the child to decide the wrong and right thing, thus, their upbringing has a lot of weight in the decision made. This argument has been met with a lot of criticism. Winseck and Jin argue that whereas upbringing has a lot of impact on the morality of a person, biological stages make children act out (19).
Thus, for a thirteen-year-old boy, regardless of whether he was brought upright or not, looking at a naked girl will excite him. Therefore, imagine a boy who has just seen a semi-nude video vixen, even by mistake on the television.
The boy will be excited and will want to see more. In turn, he will either turn to the Internet where he knows he can find things quickly, or he will ask his peers.
Indeed, the issue of racism cannot be pushed to the side even if times have changed. Objectifying women can also be seen as immoral. As mentioned, television shows and even advertisements have been used to objectify women.
Women sell because sex sells. The women are portrayed as sex objects, and this attracts people to watch the show, or buy the product. It is important to clarify that there are some advertisements and shows that do not use this tactic and are still very successful. This goes to show that the objectification of women in the media is unnecessary.
Media and Justice Alexander explains that the media has been used for justice (23). There have been cases all over the world where people have gone to the media to push for justice. For example, the case of the South African Paralympic who had allegedly shot dead his girlfriend took advantage of the international coverage.
The court case was made public, and the accused used this to his advantage. At the beginning of the case, the public was of the opinion that the man was guilty. However, as the case progressed, more people started sympathizing with the former athlete.
He was able to connect with the public by explaining how sorry he felt for accidentally shooting the love of his life. In addition, he was able to show raw emotions, by sobbing at the memory of her or even crying loudly when he was shown the pictures of the lady.
All this affected and had an influence on the perception of the public towards the whole case. By the end of the case, a majority of the public believed his to be innocent. The court also found him innocent. Currently, the parents of the lady have appealed the court’s decision and the case is still ongoing.
It is also very common to find activists using media to get justice for a cause or an individual. For example, the case of a girl who was raped in India by a gang caught the attention of the world due to new media. Activists used the media to tell the world of the girl.
The event led to the support of other countries and individual from different parts of the world in the seeking of justice for the young lady.
Gay rights and activism have also benefitted from the media. Recently, gay people in the USA held a protest in an attempt to push the government to allow same-sex marriages in the whole country. The ordeal, which was initially meant for just the citizens of the United States of America, became a global ordeal.
Both homosexuals and heterosexuals joined hands and made the event a global show. They created pages on social media platforms to support their cause. Traditional media that is the television, radio and newspapers also gave the event full coverage. The media, thus, served as a platform for justice.
Strengths and Weakness of the Gramscianism Approach Thornham argues that one of the disadvantages of the Gramscianism approach to media is that it criticizes the media only (19). In fact, he adds that the central theme of the approach is the disconnection between the role of the media and the intention of the media.
Alexander uses the Gramscianism approach to argue that the role of the media and the intention of the media conflict in various ways (11). Many media platforms, including those presented by new media are a form of business; therefore, they have to make profits.
Looking at the example of sex, it will always sell. Thus, the media is prone to using sex to make profits. Thus, you find that the competition for the sexiest advertisements is higher since the media owners know that many people will tune in to watch them. This shows how media influences people, just as the Gramscianism approach claims.
One of the strengths of Gramscianism approach to media is that it allows the analyst to evaluate the role of the media from both the positive and the negative sides. For example, whereas one can say the media changes people by influencing popular culture, one can argue both positively and negatively.
In arguing positively, it would be correct to say that the media brings people together, thus, forging a popular culture of unity. On the other hand, in arguing negatively, one can say that the media promotes immorality, thereby promoting an immoral culture in the society.
Another advantage of using this approach in analysing the role of the media is the ability of the analyser to compare all types of media. In fact, this paper can be used as an example.
The paper has discussed several roles of the media and how they are related to the approach showing very clearly how the approach encompasses all the aspects of media one can think of. Similarly, there are several other things that pop up during the analysis.
For example, the fact that there are existing differences between new and traditional media is well considered in the approach.
Dayan and Katz explain that the Gramscianism approach is very different from all other approaches to media because it involves other aspects of life (17).
For example, the discussion presented has shown how sexuality morality, advertising, marketing, learning, obedience, biological development, and even curiosity all fit in the approach. Indeed, there is no other approach to media that can combine with many other aspects of life in one analysis.
Conclusion In conclusion, the Gramscianism approach has more strength compared to weaknesses. The approach argues that race is a predominant factor in the media and that the media encourages and instils popular culture. One of the biggest benefits of the approaches is the ease of application to different types of media.
There are two major categories of media, traditional media, and new media. Traditional media includes newspapers, television, books and radios while new media is very specific to the Internet. While the two types of media differ in various aspects, the Gramscianism approach can be used to analyse both of them.
In the same breath, the approach encompasses several other aspects of life and clearly shows how they are intertwined with the media. It suffices to mention that the Gramscianism approach also questions the role of the media. There are three primary functions of the media.
It is true that the roles of the media have changed with time. In the earlier centuries, the media was used as a public advocate. It acted as the watchdog of government and kept people breast of all government activities.
However, for the media to have done this job well, the state had to be democratic. It might be difficult to prove whether a state is democratic or not, but one thing is clear. There are no liberal media in any country in the world today. All media platforms are either oppressed by state governments or are radical and not desire to be liberal.
In the same vein, the media has changed the perception of the world. The attitude encouraged by the media typically benefits the elite in the society, according to the Gramscianism approach.
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Hospitality Industry in Dubai Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Jumeirah is one of the most profitable companies in the hospitality industry with restaurant divisions, event management and serviced residences, among others. Its success is attributed to human capital investment that is facilitated by special management committees.
The report demonstrates the need for HCI within the hospitality sector in Dubai, UAE. The success of Jumeirah will be used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of HCI in improving value and competitiveness.
Literature Review Companies in the hospitality industry have realized the benefits of a talented workforce in increasing value and productivity. Baron (2011) observed that Dubai is experiencing a high voluntary dysfunctional turnover. The hospitality industry has been focusing on a casual workforce without investing in long-term employee retention programs.
However, the organizations with management training programs were found to have lower turnover rates compared to those relying on a casual workforce. According to Kim and Jogaratnam (2010), HCI enhances the chances of employee retention.
In fact, the study found a significant correlation between employee empowerment and a reduction in turnover rate.
Organizations invest time and financial resources to recruit the best workforce by creating HR teams to spearhead recruitment and training.
HR teams report the challenges, resource gaps, and investment needs to the executive board.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The return on investment is evaluated in terms of employee retention rate and satisfaction levels.
Budgetary allocations are calculated as a percentage of annual expenditure.
HCI enhances the value of an organization by increasing productivity and competitiveness. It is important to employees because it addresses their career goals by enhancing personal and professional skills. One of the disadvantages of HCI is the cost of implementation. Additionally, it exposes employees to talent poachers.
Methodology The research interviewed one director involved in recruitment and improvement of employee skills. Five open-ended questions were drafted that focused on initiating HCI programs in the company.
Findings The director stated that the company was under stiff competition from other hotels and restaurants. Jumeriah has a strong HCI strategy that provides employees with a firm-specific learning and development program to enhance their skills and creativity.
Additionally, they provide basic computer skills, career and self-development courses, and supervisory development. Junior managers are trained best management development practices that include coaching, selection and appraisal, and management change.
The company evaluates the return on investment by comparing the profit margins and employee retention rates with the HCI.
We will write a custom Report on Hospitality Industry in Dubai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It has a budget of $500,000 for training and development every year.
Discussion The interview highlighted some of the best practices adopted to enhance its productivity. There was a significant correlation between the increased value of the company and HCI. Jumeirah’s success shows that there is a need to initiate in HCI practices in the hospitality sector.
The research shows a significant benefit of HCI in improving employee skills, increasing the retention rate and improving the value of a company (Frye
Managing Change at Emirates National Oil Company Case Study best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors that Influenced the Implementation of the Change
The Change Process
Resistance to Change
Critical Success Factors of Change Management
List of References
Introduction The Emirates National Oil Company (ENOC) is one of the players in the oil and gas industries that have spurred the unprecedented economic growth in Dubai. ENOC, headquartered in Dubai, conducts multiple business ventures in Dubai and Northern Emirates.
The company’s primary objective is to facilitate the development of both the downstream and upstream oil and gas functions (ENOC n.d.). These activities include the production and distribution of lubricants, aviation fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), LPG containers and chemicals.
Nonetheless, ENOC has a diversified portfolio that ranges from real estate to shipping and aviation (Bloomberg 2011).
The current business environment has increasingly become volatile and competitive. As such, the majority of companies and organizations are centralising some of their critical operations into Shared Services arrangements.
The Shared Services concept is a novel management model that entails the development of a market efficient unit to deliver corporate support from a central place (Borman 2012). The elemental purpose of this approach is to enhance efficiency and productivity by streamlining the delivery of business functions and services (Wang
The Origin and Definition of Christian Just War Theory Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction As a rule, war is perceived as a social, political and economic catastrophe that profoundly affects the lives of many innocent people. In most cases, this clash between nations is a cruel way of resolving conflicts.
This is why diplomats representing various countries attempt to avoid violent confrontations between nations at any costs. Sometimes, they even make concessions that eventually compromise their ethical principles and integrity.
Nevertheless, there are situations, when it is not permissible to avoid this military conflict because in this way, political leaders can only endanger the lives of many people.
This paper is aimed at examining the principles of just war theory, which postulates that sometimes that military conflict can be called ethical if it meets certain criteria. Overall, it is possible to argue that sometimes war is the only way to stop injustice or aggression that can be orchestrated by a certain state.
More importantly, people, who attempt to avoid this violation, can face severe consequences in the future. This is the main thesis that should be advanced. In order to illustrate this argument, one should focus on various aspects. In particular, it is necessary to examine Biblical evidence, which can justify the use of force.
The Old and New Testaments can show leaders how to evaluate the moral aspects of a military conflict. Much attention should be paid to Christian theory of just war.
Furthermore, one should examine historical cases showing that sometimes it is irrational to avoid the use of military force at any cost.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, this paper should present the discussion regarding the relevance of this issue to contemporary societies. These are the main questions that should be examined in greater detail.
The origin and definition of Christian just war theory At first, one should examine the key principles of Christian just war theory which was introduced during the Early Middle Ages. Political scientists who attempt to examine various aspects of military confrontation have often used this framework.
Theologians Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas formulated the principles of the doctrine1. These theologians attempted to describe the situations when the use of force could be justified from an ethical viewpoint.
For instance, Thomas Aquinas believed that a military conflict should not be driven by self-gain since this motive can undermine the ethical principles that Christians must practice. Moreover, its central motive of war has to be the restoration of justice and peace2.
This is one of the main aspects that can be identified. Thomas Aquinas further asserted that just war was supposed to be supported by a well-instituted authority that represented the common good in the form of peace, which was a true end of man that is God.
In addition, Augustine argued that peace was supposed to be the central motive in any circumstances where there was violence.
Additionally, one should pay close attention to the ideas of Augustine of Hippo. In his opinion, it is unethical to promote peacefulness if a person knows that this strategy will result in the suffering of innocent people3.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Origin and Definition of Christian Just War Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Augustine Hippo asserted that it was possible for a Christian to become a soldier and at the same time serve God as well as his nation honorably. He also argued that people were not supposed to revert to violence immediately, though God had given the sword to the government of any nation for a justifiable reason.
Hence, Christians as part of the government were entitled to aid in the protection of peace while punishing wickedness. Augustine Hippo, further asserted that, the defense of one’s life as well as that of others could be seen as a necessity in circumstances were it could be authorized by a legitimate authority.
He further admonished that Christians had no choice but only to comply with their political masters while ensuring that they executed their war duty with the highest degree of justice as may be required. Thus, the views of these theologians lay the foundations of Christian just war theory.
Certainly, in the course of history, they have often been misapplied. For example, one can mention numerous crusades launched during the middle Ages4. The School of Salamanca also supported just war.
Those who supported the school believed that a state was supposed to use war for the aim of preventing greater evil from taking place. The school also argued that the use of diplomatic agreements were necessary before the commencement of any war.
Some of the examples given by the school as it pertains to just war included;
war used in self-defense provided that there was reasonable possibility of success;
that preventive war was used in order to deter a tyrant who was ready to attack;
war was just if it was used in punishing a guilty enemy;
moral limits must be ensured even after war starts, such as by ensuring that innocent people are not attacked;
that all other obligatory options as relates to dialogue and negotiations must be undertaken before a state engages in war;
the people of any nation have the right of deposing its government in the event that it was waging an unjust war.
Moreover, in the first half of the twentieth century, propagandists justified violence by arguing that some nations had been superior to others. Therefore, one should be very careful when saying that a certain war is just. However, the views expressed by Thomas Aquinas and Augustine still remain valid in many situations.
This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward. Furthermore, it is vital to examine the definition of just war, which can be derived from this theory.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Origin and Definition of Christian Just War Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Overall, the just war can be described as a provoked use of military force that is aimed at responding to or preventing cruelty, wrongdoing or other forms of injustice that can threaten innocent people.
This is one of the ways in which this term can be interpreted. Moreover, this military confrontation has to meet the following standards:
the right cause such as the need to defend innocent people;
lack of opportunities for peaceful resolution of a conflict;
The third criterion means that the adverse effects of this war must not outweigh the improvements that it is expected to bring.
This theory is based on Christian philosophy in reference to the evil of taking human life, that nations are bestowed with the duty of defending justice as well as defending their citizens and that the protection of human life as well as defending moral values may require the use of both force and violence.
The just theory gives specifications in the passing of judgments as it pertains to engaging in war as well as providing conditions on which the war should be fought.
The attributes of just war should be considered because they indicate that political leaders should provide sufficient reasons for starting any military confrontation.
Just War Criterion There are two criterions found in this theory. The first set involves establishing the right of going to war while the second establishes the right conduct within the specific war. The right to go to war was referred to as Jus ad bellum in Latin. This set comprises of several factors that emphasizes on the right of engaging into war.
The first factor is just because that clarifies on the reason behind the engagement in war, it needed to be just, and it could not be merely for punishing wrong doers or rather for the recapture of seized items. This was because innocent lives would be exposed to danger and the proper intervention would be to protect such lives.
The second factor is comparative justice, which holds that even though there may be rights and wrongs on all the sides of the conflict, in order to overcome any assumptions on the use of force, the sufferings of one party because of injustice, must outweigh those of the other party.
The third factor is the competent authority. This criterion holds that, war would only be waged by duly constituted authorities in the public domain.
Justice distinction by systems was important in determining circumstances under which political would initiate just war. A system that undermined the process of justice could not guarantee genuine process of passing judgments regarding just war.
The fourth factor is the right intention. Based on this factor, force would only be used in a true and just cause and mainly for the intended purpose.
The correction of wrongs suffered by states may be considered a right intention. On the other hand, the maintenance of economies and material gains attainment may not be viewed as right intention.
The fifth factor is proportionality. The factor argues that the benefits to be derived from the use of war must almost be of the same amount in relation to the expected evils. Based on the factor, in instances where disproportionate measures were to be used in attaining success, then force would not be applicable.
The last factor is the last resort. This factor holds the view that force must only be applied after all other alternatives of initiating peace have been vigorously tried and failed, or rather the available alternatives may not be practical.
Care must be taken to ensure that opponents of a conflict are not using tactics that are not made to yield meaningful concessions.
The second criteria of the just war theory involves the right conduct within the war. It is also referred to as the Jus in bello in Latin. This criterion explains the way in which combatants should act in the event that war has begun.
The criterion uses a number of factors such as proportionality, distinction, military necessity and fair treatment. The concept of distinction is used to govern the conduct of just war.
The concept holds that, only enemy combatants must be targeted by the acts of war rather than non-combatants who find themselves in confusing circumstances. Distinction concept does not allow combatants to apply such actions that may result to losses of innocent civilians.
Combatants are also not allowed to attack after enemy combatants have surrendered. The sole purpose of any attack must be directed to the defeat of an enemy. The initiated attack must be a legitimate objective of the military.
In addition, the civilians and together with their property must not suffer damages that are exceeding the benefits anticipated by the military. The main aim of this principle is to reduce the number of deaths and destructions that occur in the war place.
The fair treatment principle argues that combatants needed to treat prisoners of war with fairness. It holds that enemy combatants who have already surrendered or rather who are captured need not be tortured or mistreated since they did not pose any threat.
Combatants are not allowed to use any method warfare or weapons that may be considered evil such as the use of weapons whose effects are uncontrollable, the forcing of enemy combatants to fight against one another and the use of mass rape.
Ending of War Several theorists proposed a third category within just war theory in the recent past concerning justice after the war. Orend Brian, Bass Gary and Lasiello Louis proposed Jus post bellum. Justice after war would be brought using reconstruction and other peace trials. Regarding the maintenance of justice in ending war,
Orend proposed the following principles. Firstly, he argued that there was supposed to be just cause for its termination. He argues that a nation could terminate war in the event that there was reasonable vindication of the earlier violated rights and in case that the aggressor was willing to negotiate the terms of surrendering.
The use of compensations, rehabilitation and giving a formal apology may constitute surrender. Additionally, a nation could terminate war in the event that they realize that the goals of the war would not be attained or rather it could only be achieved by the use of excessive force.
Secondly, a state must only terminate war with the solitary goal of attaining the right intention.
Thirdly, Orend argues that discrimination may be applied in differentiating military and political combatants and civilians.
Lastly, there must be a legitimate authority on both sides of the war for the peace deal to be successfully implemented.
The concept of just war in the Bible
It should be kept in mind that the idea of just war is not directly mentioned in the Bible. This text does not include an explicit argument regarding the ethical justification of violence and the use of military force.
Nevertheless, there are several examples indicating that military conflict is an inseparable component of human history.
This issue is explored in the Old and New Testaments. One can say that in many cases, God sometimes commands the acts of violence and coercion.
First, much attention should be paid to the Plagues of Egypt, which are described in the Book of Exodus. The punishment was supposed to make the Pharaoh release Jews from captivity6. One should bear in mind that at the beginning, God attempted to avoid the victimization of innocent people.
For instance, Egyptians had to face such punishments of locust, hail, or darkness. Moreover, the death of first-born children was the last plague or the last method of forcing the Pharaoh to free the Jews.
This example is important for this discussion because it suggests that violence can sometimes be the means of preventing injustice6. However, this coercion should be the means that can be adopted only if there are no other alternatives.
To a great extent, these actions can also be described as the Biblical conception of a just war. There are other examples military acts commanded by God.
For instance, one can mention the fall of Jericho in Josh. 6:21. However, they do not quite comply with the standards of just war theory because these conquests were driven primarily by self-interest, rather than the struggle with evil6. Therefore, one should keep in mind that Christian theory of just war does not always comply with the examples provided in the Old Testament. This is one of the key points that should be made.
One should also focus on the way in which the theme of just war is explored in the New Testament. Sometimes, people argue that Jesus Christ advocated pacifism and avoidance of confrontation. Yet, this assumption is not quite accurate.
Additionally, it is possible to refer to the famous words of Jesus who said in the Mathew 10:34, ‘I come not to bring peace, but to bring a sword’. This phrase has been interpreted in many ways. Sometimes, it can be perceived as the open provocation of violence7.
Yet, such an interpretation does not take account the context of this quote. One of the possible explanations is that it is not permissible for a person to tolerate or accept evil. More likely, such an attitude will lead to the compromise of one’s moral principles. To a great extent, this behavior is self-destructive.
Apart from that, one should mention that Jesus also recognizes the person’s right to self-defense7. For instance, it is possible to examine the following quote from Luke. 22:36.
‘Let him who has no sword sell his mantle and buy one’.
This indicates how Jesus acknowledges the use of legitimate force. It suggests that a person has a right to oppose injustice7. However, at the same time, the New Testaments contains several passages, which show that a person should not perceive violence as the only way of resolving disagreements.
For example, one can mention the Sermon, which took place on the Mount during which Jesus set very high moral standards for an individual. On the mountain, Jesus said that in the event that an individual struck on your right cheek, you should turn him the other in return8.
In addition, Jesus used the Beatitudes in telling people that those who were peacemakers were blessed. Overall, Thomas Aquinas and Augustine of Hippo later elaborated these principles7. This is one of the details that should be considered.
In broader terms, Christians are not allowed to love violence, they are supposed to promote peace always, and at the same time, they should be slow while resulting to the use of force. Additionally, they are not supposed to be afraid in using force when it is needed. The theory further holds that all evil must always be checked8.
In the Bible, in the book of Eccles. 3:3, the Old Testament gives an acknowledgement that there was a time to kill. The Israelites were commanded by God in several occasions to apply force in order to ensure maximum protection of their countries.
In spite of this, the achievement of peace was the solitary goal behind such actions. Hence, the attainment of peace was an important goal, but in instances where it was impossible to achieve it without force, then force must be used instead.
The psalmists, also urges individuals to live with each other as brothers while maintaining peace. New Testament in several instances also acknowledges the use of force. In Luke 3: 14, John the Baptist, acknowledged that the Roman soldiers could keep their job of enforcing peace in Rome.
Overall, one should not assume that Bible promotes unrestricted violence. This text also contains a system of checks and balances that are supposed to prevent a person from committing injustice in the course of military confrontation. Any war that is supposed to be just has to comply with certain ethical principles.
For instance, one should refer to the famous commandment an eye for an eye9. Traditionally, this principle implies that a punishment should not exceed the crime of a person. In other words, the retribution is supposed to be the standard of proportionality.
This argument can also be applied to a military conflict and the use of force. To some degree, this principle is of great relevance to modern political leaders. As a rule, they strive to ensure the military action should be proportionate to the possible risks that are posed by an enemy state.
In particular, they should safeguard non-combatants against possible dangers. These examples are vital for better understanding of this question because they suggest that the Bible can indeed offer moral justification for war.
However, this text also shows that a person has to have some solid reasons in order to inflict violence against other people. This is the main issues that should not be overlooked by modern policy-makers who believe that violent confrontation is the only possible way of addressing current problems10.
The relevance of Biblical arguments to the modern world The principles of Christian war theory and Biblical arguments can be applied to modern communities, which can be affected by geopolitical and economic conflicts. It is important to remember that the preservation of peace can be viewed as a common duty and a common good.
This is one of the opinions expressed by people who believe that different states can eventually reconcile their interests by join their efforts8. The reference to this concept can be found in the New Testament.
For example, the Epistle of Barnabas contains the following quote, ‘Do not live entirely isolated, having retreated into yourselves, as if you were already justified, but rather instead to seek the common good’9.
People who belong to the Catholic Church often use this argument10. This quote implies that it is impermissible for an individual to remain indifferent to the wrongdoings that can be committed in the outside world.
As a rule, this indifference can imperil the long-term interests of a person or even the entire community. In many cases, this principle can be applied to international politics. For instance, the work of many international organizations is supposed to avert the risks of violence committed against innocent people.
Very often, military intervention is the only way in which countries can cope with this challenging task. Therefore, one can argue that sometimes the ability to use force is critical for the preservation of peace.
Certainly, one can say that modern societies as well as international relations are driven mostly by self-interest, rather than common good. In fact, it may sometimes be irrational to expect the government of a country to work for the interests of other nations.
The objection means that the ethical principles postulated in the Bible can only be proclaimed but not practiced. Similarly, it is possible to argue that economic interests, rather than the need to restore justice or save innocent people drive the so-called just wars.
This critique should not be disregarded since it shows how political leaders can misuse the principles of just war theory. Nevertheless, this limitation does not mean that the idea of just war is completely unfounded. This is one of the key aspects that should be taken into consideration.
The theory of just war and its applications in the course of history Moreover, it is important to mention historical cases indicating that sometimes-military conflict was practically unavoidable. Just war was well applied during World War 1. This happened in the 1917, when President Wilson Woodrow of US waged war against Germany.
It was then that the US Catholic head, Cardinal Gibbons James of Baltimore issued a letter to all Catholics urging them to support the war.
William Manning, the New York’s Episcopal bishop argued that Jesus Christ was in support of peace and every American would rather face war than seeing the country’s flag lowered with dishonor.
William then argued that it would be of practical benefit for the country, if all men in the country underwent a universal military training. There were situations when the governments of various countries attempted to ignore aggression.
Such a strategy is often described as ostrich policy, which means that people are unwilling to recognize a problem as well as the need for action. The key issue is that this policy eventually results in a war but its consequences eventually prove to be much more severe than it was expected.
The most eloquent example of this phenomenon is World War II, which was partly caused by the fact that the political leaders representing European nations attempted to appease the Third Reich11.
Additionally, they even signed various treaties with this country. They hoped that this approach would be the safest one. Yet, they forgot that such appeasement could be perceived as a sign of weakness or lack of preparedness.
Later when the Allies struggled against the Nazis, they believed that this war had been just. At that point, they were fighting against a regime that was ready to kill millions of people in order to attain its goals.
This is one of the main issues that should not be overlooked. This case continues to attract the attention of people who study the underlying causes of wars and their ethical aspects. It is usually used to justify a preventive war.
There are recent examples indicating that military intervention can be justified from an ethical viewpoint. For instance, it is possible to refer to Rwandan Genocide which originated from the internal hostilities within a country12.
The main problem is that international organizations were reluctant to intervene even though international leaders knew about the eminent danger. They preferred to believe that the conflict could be resolved without any external intervention. However, this unwillingness to act led to the death of many innocent people.
In this context, the international intervention cannot be described as war because under such circumstances, peacekeepers are mostly concerned with the need to save civilian population13. However, in order to do it, they sometimes have to use military force.
These historical examples show that military confrontation can sometimes be the only way of protecting the safety of people. Moreover, sometimes the avoiding of war can be immoral. This issue is still important for politicians and diplomats who determine which course of action is most appropriate.
The principle of proportionality and asymmetrical warfare One should take into consideration that the just war should meet certain criteria. They were described in the previous sections of this paper. At first, one should note that the expected benefits of this military intervention should be equal to the anticipated adverse effects13.
For instance, it is permissible to start a war provided that it can result even in greater dangers for innocent people14. As it has been said before, this use of force should not exceed the possible threat posed by the opponent.
This is one of the reasons why military leaders have to make sure that the lives of civilians are not imperiled. Surely, it is possible to say that this principle is often violated even at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Such skepticism can be accepted only to some extent.
However, in the course of the last fifty years, the principles of warfare have changed, since nowadays military leaders take at least some effort to protect non-combatants. This is one of the main aspects that can be identified15.
Another issue that is closely discussed by politicians and military commanders is asymmetrical warfare. This term is applied to the conflict between opponents who differ in terms of military power and techniques. For example, one can mention the war between the Israeli Army and Hamas.
Under such conditions, a country, which is more advanced in terms of technology or weaponry, is responsible for making sure that the civilian population is safeguarded against possible risks. Provided that, this government does not attempt to attain this objective, their war is not considered to be just15.
One can say that just war theory continues to be debated by many political leaders nowadays. At this time, this question can be even more important because many countries possess weapons of mass destruction.
Conclusion Overall, this discussion indicates that the principles of just war theory continue to attract the interests of policy-makers, military leaders, economists as well as theologians.
The examples provided in this paper indicate that war can sometimes be justified from an ethical viewpoint, especially if there is no other method for stopping cruelty, injustice, or even annihilation of many people.
This argument can be derived from various religious texts such as the Old and New Testaments. Moreover, there are historical cases, which suggest that war should be the lesser of two evils.
Under certain circumstances, it is unethical to avoid confrontation at any cost because this policy can bring disastrous consequences such as greater casualties among civilians and soldiers.
Nevertheless, it is vital to make sure the war is driven by just cause, rather than by prejudice or self-interest. This is the main precaution that should be taken.
Bibliography Barnes, Rudolph. Military Legitimacy: Might and Right in the New Millennium. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Bell, Daniel. Just War as Christian Discipleship: Recentering the Tradition in the Church Rather than the State. London: Scott Sterling, 2009.
Brueggermann, Watler. Journey to the Common Good. London: Westminster John Knox Press, 2010.
Brunschot, Erin. Risk balance and security. London: Sage Publications, 2007.
Cadoux, C. John. The Early Christian Attitude toward War. New York: Gordon Press Publishers, 1978.
Corbin-Reuschling, Wyndy. Reviving Evangelical Ethics. Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2008. ISBN: 9781587431890.
Gardam, Judith. Necessity, Proportionality and the Use of Force by States. London: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
Geisler, Norman. Christian Ethics: Contemporary Issues and Options. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2010. ISBN: 9780801038792.
Fiala, Andrew. The Just War Myth: The Moral Illusions of War. New York: Rowman
Managing People: The Case of Virgin Atlantic Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Employee Engagement and Involvement
Strategic Human Resource Management
Personal Reflections on Effective Leadership Styles
Introduction The aviation industry has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fastest growing sectors of the global economy. This rapid growth has brought forth both opportunities and challenges.
On the one hand, the increasing demand for air transport has enabled this industry to remain productive even in the face of financial uncertainty (Boxall
Organisation Analysis: The Apple Company Report essay help free
Introduction The Apple Inc. is a renowned manufacturer of computers and mobile communication devices that was founded by Steven Jobs in 1975.
The company has been selected for analysis as it has featured on the Forbes Magazine, the Fortune Magazine, and other global business reporters as a global leader in computer technology and telecommunication industries.
The success of any firm depends on a number of factors that are well defined by various organisational theories. The theories put forward a number of perspectives that explain the interplay of various elements such as the structure, culture, leadership, and management of the organisation among others.
In the light of this conceptualisation, this paper presents a critical analysis of the Apple Inc. with respect to political, cultural, contingency, and bureaucratic perspectives.
Company Overview The Apple Inc. was founded in 1975 by two school dropouts namely Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. The risk of dropping out of college for the two individuals was the first step towards building the global leader of technological innovation in hardware, software, and support services1.
The company specialises in a range of products including computer and telecommunication devices. It has been a leader in the transformation of technology to suit diverse and dynamic economic eventualities. The business survived the 2008 economic downturn that led to the closure of many ventures.
The Apple Company enjoys a reputable and unmatched brand image around the globe. It was valued at $182.795 billion in 2014, making it the highest valued brand in the world. It has more than 98,000 employees around the globe whore are based in its many retail stores in 15 different countries2.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company repeatedly features on the Fortune Magazine and deserves the analysis. It boasts of a unique business model that has remained a mystery for many businesses worldwide. The propelling factors to its success include remarkable leadership that was first incepted by the founder, late Steve Jobs.
It also includes a corporate culture of enthusiasm and innovation that has led to the design, development, and distribution of tech-savvy products. Customers of the company have been known to have strong attachments to the Apple Inc.’s products.
Cultural Perspective of the Apple Incorporation
Organisational culture is a vital determinant of the overall success of any business. It shapes the behaviour and beliefs of the stakeholders of the organisation including the management and employees3.
The creation and management of the organisational culture is an evolutionary perspective that is imposed by the leaders before it gradually diffuses to the members.
Organisational effectiveness is contingent on the ability of the association to induce the right cultural values in the behaviour of its employees.
There are different forms of organisational culture including innovative, entrepreneurial, market, and hierarchical perspectives. There has been empirical support for the existence of a relationship amongst the culture, roles, behaviour, and perceptions of the employees.
Organisational culture can be defined as the pattern of basic premises that a particular firm develops in an attempt to cope with challenges of the macro environment by adaptation and integration of various success factors in the micro-environment.
We will write a custom Report on Organisation Analysis: The Apple Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effects of such developments have a significant influence on the behaviour of the employees. Regardless of the size of the organisation, there are two theoretical problems must be resolved.
Firstly, it has to deal with the organisational survival, growth, and environmental adaptation strategies. Secondly, the internal integration that defines the daily functioning of the organisation and its ability to adapt to both the internal and external environments has to be taken into account.
The Apple Company has a highly pronounced culture of innovation. Through its founder Steve Jobs, the company hinges on technological innovation for its unmatched success that everybody in the world can see and accept through its tech-savvy products4.
Innovation is highly valued in the Apple Company as it is the cornerstone for its success.
The establishment has a group of highly talented people who are responsible for the innovative ability as manifested in the manufacture of the latest high technological electronic devices such as the iPhone, iPod, Apple watch, iPad, and personal computers among others.
It also plays a vital role in software development. The Apple Inc. uses the slogan ‘Imperfect Makes Improvement’ as a concept that shapes the innovation culture in its organisation.
Its organisational culture holds that self-motivated individuals can work harder if they have autonomous control over their efforts than when a boss micromanages their actions.
It is believed that there is lesser time consumed when few people are involved to make a decision necessary to effect an organisational change than when the process involves too many hierarchical involvements of different stakeholders.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organisation Analysis: The Apple Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company’s unique culture is responsible for its swift response to the changes that are effected faster than its competitors. The state of affairs results from decisions that are formulated and executed at the lowest levels possible.
The company also holds that it is easier to launch a new project when there are only a few people who can approve it. In line with its innovative culture, the Apple Company builds on the drive to outperform and succeed as its guiding principles.
The company’s structure smoothly marries with the culture. This aspect significantly contributes to the enormous and sustained growth of the Apple Inc. The organisational structure assumes a top-down philosophy whereby decisions are made by the people on the ground.
Employees at different levels make decisions; hence, the structure allows for quick responsiveness and solutions to emerging eventualities without necessarily having to engage the senior management.
There two types of norms that define the constructive culture of the Apple Company namely competitive and self-actualisation norms. The competitive norms involve settings whereby the employees work hard to outperform each other and rewards for their performance are recognised through appraisal procedures.
On the other hand, self-actualisation is characterised by creativity and quality rather than quantity. Employee development and self-actualisation are vital features of the Apple Company’s culture. The workforce is encouraged and supported to develop individualised role orientations.
A college student Cwynar, who joined the Apple Inc. in an internship program, reveals that the company is offers the best work environment because of the support and development that new employees are given ranging from instillation of company’s culture and role differentiation.
The senior managers once told him that the sky is the limit at the Apple Inc. The managers were always looking for new ways to help him and his less experienced colleagues to grow personally and professionally.
The company embraces robust employee socialisation processes for its fresh workforce and the less experienced. The newly recruited employees are taken through induction processes where the key areas of focus are identified.
Employees are enrolled in comprehensive career development programmes that train them in areas of growth including client service, business development, innovative abilities, and teamwork.
Bureaucratic Perspective Organisational Structure
Organisational structure refers to the allocation strategies of responsibility and power in a firm. It shapes how work procedures are executed by the organisation’s members. It is the internal pattern of relationships, power and communications.
The influence of organisational structure on its overall success has inevitably been exhibited by leading businesses such as the Apple Inc. and Microsoft.
Several organisational structure theoretical constructs exist in modern business management. At the outset, there is the centralisation of decision-making whereby matters pertaining to the organisation are guided by the top hierarchical levels5.
This structure gives more authority to the top managers whilst employee involvement is given less attention. Some scholars refer this form of structure as the locus of authority in the organisation. The delegation of authority is not featured in organisations with the locus of authority.
In times of uncertainty, such organisations are subject to failure as the time taken to make effective decisions can be long.
Centralisation of power and authority on the top management has been deemed ineffective, especially in the twenty-first century where rapid changes and globalisation take the centre stage in business. Collaboration among employees and the management is highly valued in contemporary business practices.
Another organisation structure features flatness in hierarchy whereby the organisation has a number of areas in the hierarchy. In such cases, autonomy is exercised with an aim of controlling the behaviours of the employees6.
It is a traditional command and control form of authority among managers in the hierarchy that functions in response to the directives of the top leaders. The third conceptualisation of organisational structure reveals that the specialisation of the departments and employees exhibits a horizontal integration pattern.
The departments and employees in this structure are specialised and functionally integrated. Employees at the lowest levels can make decisions and implement them to effect changes that favour the organisational production and progression of activities without having to consult the top management.
Organisational theorists posit that a correlation exists between the structure and performance of the business7. An effective organisational structure corresponds with the unmatched success of the entity. Where the structure does not align with the organisational culture, challenges that leverage the level of success and sustainability arise.
The Apple Inc.’s Organisational Structure The Apple Company adopts the third structure whereby specialisation and integration define the relationship between the employees and management. The company is a highly collaborative organisation that values the contribution and competitive edge of each employee.
The Apple Company has its main headquarters in Cupertino, California. It also has branches that are well established in multiple locations around the world.
The business is structured into three main areas of focus including hardware, software, and business support services. A visual representation of the company’s organisational structure as at 2008 is shown in figure 1.0 below.
Figure 1.0 The Apple Inc.’s Organisational Chart (2008)
Decision making processes in the Apple Company are based on the top-down approach. Currently, the Apple Inc. is under the leadership of the chief executive officer Tim Cook who replaced the late Steve Jobs on August 2011.
The CEO is overseen by a board of directors and other members of the senior management. The governance of the Apple Inc. is structured to foster principled actions, effective decision-making processes, and monitoring compliance and performance suitability.
Contingency Perspective One of the core determinants of success in organisations is the ability to manipulate technology in its operations with a view of developing a competitive edge over other businesses8. Technology has been defined by organisational theorists as the means, activities, and knowledge utilised in the transformation of materials.
It involves the improved transformation of inputs into outputs for continued organisation operations. It encompasses both the utilised machinery and intellectual know-how utilised in the conversion of inputs into outputs.
Technology can be either core or peripheral. Core technology centrally defines the operations of the organisation9. For instance, the Apple Company uses both knowledge and machinery to produce iPhones.
On the other hand, peripheral technology acts side by side with the core technology to complement the overall success of the firm. For example, in the Apple Company, technology is utilised to prepare annual reports in the form excel and word documents.
According to Joan Woodward, technology can be classified into three forms based on production10.
Firstly, the small batch and unit production technology produces units in single bits at a time. This form of innovation is common in labour processes where workers play their roles from the start to the end of the product.
Secondly, large batch and mass production technology focuses on the output of many similar products that are simultaneously designed for undifferentiated markets.
Thirdly, it can be regarded as a continuous process of production whereby technology is utilised in the conversion of raw materials to produce multiple forms of products for a differentiated market.
The most important applicable innovation put forward by Joan Woodward is the large and mass production technologies that are associated with both centralised and bureaucratic organisational structures.
Continuous processes are linked with decentralised management structures. The type of technology applied in an organisation determines the degree of autonomy and latitude exercised by the individual employees in the organisation.
Employees have a self-rule over the company’s technological applications to ensure the designing, production, and introduction of high quality and unique products to the market. For the highly competitive industry, technology requires a high degree of employee autonomy as they control their intellectual knowledge.
In this regard, the Apple Company manages the power of the employees in its departments to ensure that their perceived decisions are evaluated and implemented. This situation in turn heightens the commitment and innovative culture in the firm.
The Apple Company’s products combine a mix of technological capabilities to give their customers the best experience of many services in one package. For instance, the iPhone 5 mobile device combines an internet connection, a portable music player, and touch screen interface among others.
Due to its unique features, the device together with other products and services saw the Apple Company generate approximately $80,477 million net sales in 2012. This amount reflected a 71% increment as compared to the previous year, 2011.
The Apple Company adapts swiftly to environmental dynamics, especially the competitive arena offered by other leading dealers in the same products such as the Samsung and Android Operating systems that command the greatest share of the smartphone market around the world.
The emergence of Android Operating System was the biggest challenge for not only the iOS but also the BlackBerry and Symbian software. Surprisingly, the company has remained stable despite the emergence of the competitive brands.
The Apple Inc. and Innovation Technology The Thompson’s classification framework of organisational technology puts forward mediating, intensive, and long-linked forms of innovation that have been used in the Apple Company.
The mediating technology involves the interdependence between organisations in terms of the development that are executed to generate a successful product11. The long-linked technology entails a sequential interdependence of tasks. The output of one task is the input of the following task.
This dependency relationship implies that the success of the succeeding item is contingent on the preceding task; hence, it can only proceed upon the completion of that task.
According to Thompson’s conceptualisation, there is a need for proper management of the sequential technologies to attain the desired output for the organisation. Intensive technology refers to the interplay of tasks whereby various tasks can be performed in either forward or reverse modes.
The performance of one task influences the performance of the other and the vice is also true in a reciprocal perspective. The Apple Company utilises the long-linked technology in its innovative efforts.
There are no structural problems identified in the Apple Inc. This situation implies that the organisational structure is designed in line with the culture, leadership, and business objectives whereby each core unit works in a complementary perspective.
This organisational arrangement puts the Apple Company in an unmatched and inexplicable position in terms of employee behaviour, product design, and market positioning. The firm’s customers manifest an exemplary evidence for the love and loyalty they have attached to its products and services.
It has been reported that the company also establishes a close feedback monitoring whereby customers are given the opportunity to air their views on the product specifications and provide suggestions to some of the problems they face with them.
This monitoring is part of the all-inclusive research and development efforts that the Apple Inc. does in a bid to align its production efforts with the customer requirements on the ground.
Political Perspective The political structure of any organisation is core to its overall performance. It is responsible for relegation of responsibilities and deployment of resources necessary for the attainment of its set goals and objectives12.
The organisational structure should match the allocation of authority patterns for an effective management of its operations. As indicated in the organisation chart in figure 1.0, the Apple Company is headed by a CEO and managers in different departments.
The most conspicuous management in the Apple Inc. revolves around innovation culture. Power in the organisation has been delegated from the CEO through various presidents down to the employees following the top down approach.
The influential leadership style of Steve jobs remains in use to date. His leadership involved the stimulation and evaluation of the different roles of the organisational elements. The management structure of the Apple Company allows the different players to exercise autonomy in decision-making.
The decisions made at the lowest levels do not necessarily warrant approval from the top management for their implementation. This form of leadership enables quick decision-making that ensures that changes are appropriately executed in relation to both the micro and macro environments.
The organisational structure of the firm has been described as obsessively secretive. Many businesses have tried to learn what makes the company unique and its secrets to the extraordinary excellence in vain. Secrecy is highly upheld by the Apple Inc.
This phenomenon has been deemed as the fundamental determinants of its incredible focus and discipline. The firm does not get distracted from what it does no matter the scale of the external factors such as economic crises. The company values competitiveness as it maintains an obsessive secrecy of its functional areas.
The company has thrived on simplicity. This situation poses an enormous threat to the near future of the organisation due to the existing close competitors who have kept the pace of almost reaching its level in terms of sales and profitability.
Conclusion This paper reveals the interplay of different organisational perspectives that determine the overall success of the organisation.
These perspectives revolve around the organisational behaviour as defined by the corporate culture, management, leadership styles, technology application, and authority distribution that leverages decision-making processes in the organisation.
The Apple Inc. has been chosen in the analysis as it is a leading multinational in the technology industry.
Bibliography Daft, R., Organization theory and design, Cengage learning, Boston, MA, 2012.
Hatch, M., Organization theory: modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives, Oxford university press, Oxford, 2012.
Johnson, K., Li, Y., Phan, H., Singer, J.
HRM in Toyota Motor Corporation Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Human resource management plays a critical role in the accomplishment of organisational goals and objectives. The role of line managers in the running of multinational companies cannot be underestimated in a competitive global environment.
In this report, the Toyota Motor Corporation has been chosen due to the implementation of diverse HR functions in its organisation. The efficacy of line managers in the implementation of HRM responsibilities is emphasised.
In addition, it analyses the structure of the company’s human resource management. The report also provides an insight into the role of the HR practices in the management of a large number of employees.
On a different viewpoint, many businesses are restructuring their HR roles for better management of their employees to ease crises in the workplace, improve financial outcomes, and maintain organisational efficacy.
This essay provides a detailed analysis of the HRM delivery in the Toyota Motor Corporation by closely examining the role of line managers.
Background The Toyota Motor Corp. is a global company with fifty manufacturing companies and over one-seventy distribution centres.
It was founded in 1937 in Toyota, Japan. According to the company’s Annual Report (2014), the multinational offers a variety of products and services such as speciality steel, automobile parts, marine vessel engines, biotechnology, real estate, financial services, electrical components, and house appliances (Liker
Operations Management in Oil and Gas Sectors Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Operational management focuses on the administration of processes that involve the production and distribution of goods and services. Various activities in operational management include the design, development, production, and distribution of products.
Activities that are in tandem with this aspect of management include inventory and quality control, logistics, storage, and evaluation. Efficiency is an aspect of operations management that guarantees the lowest costs in production. It brings about effectiveness in the production process; hence, it fosters value creation.
Leadership is critical in operations management due to various critical decisions that align with the company’s ethics and culture. The essay explores the aspects of operational management that are carried out by the oil and gas sector in modern markets that are highly competitive.
Integration of Systems and Techniques in Operations Management Operational management in the oil and gas sector has been significantly influenced by the tremendous increase in commoditisation and globalisation. The integration of modern systems into operations management has enabled many managers to emerge as winners amidst stiff competition.
This situation is evident in the oil and gas sector where companies have gained a tremendous competitive advantage (Campbell, Jardine,
Surrogacy and How it Affects Families Analytical Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Background Information
Reasons for Prevalence Of Surrogacy in the Modern Society
Effects of Surrogacy Arrangement on the Family
Moral Aspects of Surrogacy
Legal Aspects of Surrogacy
Background Information The modern breakthrough in the medical field and specifically in the area of assisted reproduction has resulted in the emergence of new types of families in the contemporary society whereby genetic parenthood does not necessarily guarantee social parenthood (Golombok et al., 2004).
Surrogacy, one of the forms of assisted reproduction refers to an arrangement where one woman offers to bear a child on behalf of another person.
There are two types of surrogacy arrangements; traditional surrogacy which involves situations where the surrogate mother donates her womb as well as her egg in order to provide a baby and this consequently renders the surrogate mother biologically connected to the child since they share genetic material (Ziegler, 2004). This method is widely preferred since it is considerably less expensive than gestational surrogacy.
In gestational surrogacy, the surrogate mother lacks genetic connection whatsoever with the child since and her role is to donate only her womb to carry the child. Both the egg and the sperm are produced by the commissioning parents and the embryo is then created in the lab after which after which it is then transferred into the surrogate’s uterus (Ziegler, 2004).
Although surrogacy has an ancient history dating back to the biblical times, the issue began to raise controversy in the contemporary society in the 80s with major concerns being raised regarding children welfare and women rights (Golombok et al, 2004).
Surrogacy has been executed through artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization which has received a lot of opposition from the institution of family, religion and the society at large.
In fact, of all the assisted reproduction procedures that are being utilized in the modern society, surrogacy remains the most contentious method prompting most legal systems in the world to formulate regulations to govern the practice (Golombok et al, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reasons for Prevalence Of Surrogacy in the Modern Society Some couples opt for surrogacy to provide a solution in case one of the partners is incapable of having a child either due to infertility or other factors (Jonsen, 1998).
The female partner may e experiencing medical complications with her uterus, ovaries or other complications that may inhibit her ability to conceive children and use of a surrogate mother provides the couple with a means through which the couple can acquire a child who is related to one of the partners.
In addition, the use of surrogate mothers provides an easier opportunity for the infertile mother to have a child while avoiding the bureaucratic and cumbersome procedures associated with traditional adoption and also provides her with an opportunity to raise a child who is genetically related to her partner (Jonsen, Veatch.,
Organizational Diagnosis – Palm Inc Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Organizational diagnosis models There are various organizational development strategies which a firm can use to analyze its effectiveness. Organizational diagnosis strategy enables a firm’s management team to asses its current operation in order to undertake effective change interventions (Kotler, 2006, p. 32).
Some of the models used in organizational diagnosis include force field analysis, McKinsey 7S model, the congruence model, Likert system analysis, the Burke-Litwin model and Leavitt’s model.
Force Field Analysis This model entails identification and analysis of the driving and limiting forces in an organization. Through the model, a firm’s management team is able to conduct an analysis of the firm’s environmental factors (Leadership Sphere, 2008, p.5). This is aimed at identifying the factors stimulating the need for change.
On the other hand, restraining forces relate to various organizational factors such as resource constraints and lack of employee’s morale. By identifying the forces, a firm is able to formulate goals and strategies aimed at driving the firm towards the intended direction.
The core objective of this model is to enable the firm reach the desired equilibrium while taking into consideration the social implications. This is achieved by adding the necessary driving forces and eliminating the various restraining forces.
Leavitt’s model The model enables firms to specify particular variables. The variables are categorized into task, structure, human and technological variables. Structure variables relate to the firm’s communication systems, organizational workflow and authority systems while technological variables entail the various machines and equipments which are required to undertake the necessary tasks(Leadership Sphere, 2008, p.7).
The task variables relate to the tasks and subtasks which are undertaken in the process of offering products and services. On the other hand, human variables include the hum capital necessary to undertake the tasks aimed at achieving the organizational goals. However, all the four variables are interdependent. This means that intentions to change one of the tasks will affect the other tasks (Harrison
Four Functions of Management Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Every organization, in spite of its enormity, has fully developed and implemented management concepts that enable smooth running of activities aimed at realising the projected vision, goals and objectives.
The functions of management break down into four areas that take care of strategic, tactical and operational pronouncements of an organization. Thus, management in an organization is a creative tool of solving problems through planning, organizing, leading and controlling. In essence, the functions of management solve a particular problem facing an organization.
Consequently, the results will provide an avenue of accomplishing the goals, objectives and mission of the organization. The functions of management in an organization is to provide a framework of focussing both short and long term views hence, foster it towards success.
Additionally, management as a decision-making process entails a premeditated vision, fixed goals, a crafted plan, all which if executed and implemented properly, will see an organization achieve its mission.
From in-house operations to industry, the functions of management serve to address issues affecting a certain organization for example, effective utilization of resources, appraisal of core competencies, evaluation of the present and prospect participants, and strategic control among others (Himanshu, 2009, p.1).
Nevertheless, the four function of management cannot bring success into an organization minus sound leadership from the mangers. In most cases, the manager’s style of leadership affects the operation of an organization, positively or negatively. Thus, good managers should exhibit certain traits and skills, which will enable an organization, achieve its mission, goals and objectives.
For example, an organization with highly skilled workers makes managers to be allowing, while an organization with less skilled workforce mandates the manager to take a closer look on production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, god managers are the ones who flex their style, train and inspire employees to work towards the realization of vision, goals and objectives. The paper will examine the four functions of management namely: planning, organizing, directing and controlling within an organization (Haridimos, 2004, pp. 289-301).
Planning This is the first contrivance of the four function of an organization’s management process. Primarily, the success of an organization depends on the planning procedure. The planning procedure is the one that determines whether a manager is successful or not. Planning provides logical understanding on how to make decisions, which will drive an organization towards the path of attaining its objectives.
Good managers use a planning process to plan for expectations, and as a blueprint to predict quandaries, which might hinder an organization form achieving its objectives.
In addition, the planning process provides measures for prevaricating intricate issues and a framework of beating competition. Thus, planning is an essential tool of management in that it facilitates control, which is a valuable strategy in decision-making hence averting business ravage.
A good planned business example is GlaxoSmithKline. This is an international pharmaceutical company with a vision of providing superior healthcare services. Both the mangers and employees of this company commit themselves to excellence in line with its mission and vision statement.
The planning process of GlaxoSmithKline entails how to attain quality results, respecting others, and teamwork in order to achieve goals. Since the commencement of this plan, GlaxoSmithKline has grown into an international pharmaceutical company with branches all over the world and a healthcare leader (Bateman
The Global Revolution in Mobile Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Description of 3G Wireless Technology
Features of 5G Wireless Technology
How 5G Compares with 4G/LTE
Prospect Analysis of 5G Wireless Technology
Introduction The global revolution in mobile as well as Internet technology has drastically changed the way we live and operate. Many people in the world today use a mobile phone for different communication purposes. Usually, the mobile phones use one of the many mobile data networks available.
Drawing from a study by Gregory (1), most mobile phone applications make use of bandwidth. This has prompted telecommunication companies throughout the world to think about upgrading to the most modern generation of mobile data network.
While some people are comfortable with 4G services, 5G technology is slowly taking shape and will soon replace 4G networks. According to Jain, Agrawal, and Awasthi (569), 5G technology is bound to make a significant contribution to the world of communication and greatly improve communication.
This paper provides an overview of 5G technology and the major improvements that could be made to it.
Description of 3G Wireless Technology Generally, 5G is a term that is used to refer to the fifth generation of mobile networks and is not associated with any particular standard. Apparently, the discussion surrounding 5G technology can be placed in tow broad categories.
In one category 5G wireless technology is regard as a service-led technology that consolidates 2G, 3G, and 4G Wi-Fi services designed to offer greater coverage and access to mobile services.
The second view is driven by a step-by-step change in data speed as well as order of magnitude reduction in end-to-end latency. Based on a study by Kaplan (1), 5G is described as the very first network designed to enable versatility and scalability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As explained by Kaplan (1), 5G wireless networks are considered to be very powerful and able to provide high quality data services to clients. Considering that a 5G wireless network integrates communication and computing technologies, it has the capability to handle huge amounts of data quite efficiently.
Features of 5G Wireless Technology As pointed out by Jain, Agrawal, and Awasthi (570), the 5G wireless technology has quite a number of advanced technological features that make it very powerful as far as communication is concerned.
It is alleged that 5G technology will be so advanced that it will be possible to link the whole world through a wireless worldwide web (Jain, Agrawal
Human Trafficking and the Trauma It Leaves Behind Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Understanding Human Trafficking
Trauma of Human Trafficking
How to Work with and Help the Victims
Introduction Human trafficking is one of the oldest forms of trade in the world’s history. According to Snajdr (2013), in the United States, most of the Black immigrants who came to the country during the colonial era were actually victims of human trafficking. During that time, slave trade was a legal booming business in various parts of the world.
These immigrants were sent to work in the agricultural fields, industrial sector, or carry to out the domestic duties. However, the United States helped in championing for the abolition of slave trade. After years of struggle, slave trade became an illegal business.
Human trafficking became less common in the society as people started appreciating that no human being should be subjected to any form of slavery.
Walker (2011) says that human trafficking has remained a problem and the authorities in many countries are yet to find the most appropriate way of addressing it. Although it is illegal, the practitioners have found ways of trafficking people from one location to another for selfish interests.
Most of the victims of human trafficking in the current society are women. They are kidnapped and sent to various brothels within the United States to meet the sexual needs of the patrons. Some of the victims find themselves in the pornographic industry. Others are confined in homes to serve various needs of their patrons.
It is important to note that these women are forced into these vices against their wishes, where most of them are physically abused by their patrons. In this paper, the researcher will look at human trafficking and the trauma it leaves behind.
Understanding Human Trafficking Human trafficking is taking a new form in the contemporary world where slave trade is an illegal business. Unlike in the past where men were the most preferred ‘commodity of trade’ because of the physical strength to work in the fields, in the modern society, women form the most valuable ‘commodity’ in this inhumane business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women from all over the world are kidnapped under various contexts, transported to the rich countries such as the United States or Europe, and forced into practices that they would otherwise avoid if given a choice. The adult entertainment industry has largely been blamed for fuelling this form of trade.
In many large hotels, the need for young models to serve various interests of the male patrons is on the rise. Many night clubs and brothels are full of young girls who have been forced into the industry against their own wishes.
They are kidnapped, taken to these institutions, and told to choose either to die or cooperate by serving the interests of their masters. According to Snajdr (2013), some of these patrons would subject the girls who refuse to cooperate to a lot of pain and sufferings to intimidate them and their friends so that they may do as instructed.
Many girls have died in the hands of their captors because of inhuman treatment. Those who accept the demands of their masters are not lucky either. Most of them are forced into relationships with people as old as, or even older than their parents.
In such circumstances, they are subjected to all sorts of pain as they meet the demands of these old men. It is important to note that some of these girls are as young as 14 or 15 years. These are young girls who have not had such relationships before. Some of them get sexually transmitted diseases while in the industry.
The unlucky are infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
According to a report by Anand and Gandhi (2008), the ordeal that these people go through is really bad. When these young girls get pregnant while in the hands of their captives, an eventuality that is very common, very crude methods are used to terminate the pregnancy.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Human Trafficking and the Trauma It Leaves Behind specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In some strange cases, these young girls are forced to carry the pregnancy to term because of the reasons known only to their captors. Their masters are not concerned about the need to take care of such pregnant young girls. They do not get any prenatal care in their entire pregnancy period.
Once they given birth, in case they are lucky enough to have a successful birth, then the child is always taken away from their mother immediately to a place only known to these masters. The mother is given a short period to heal before getting back to the business.
Those who are unlucky die while giving birth due to various complications. Other victims of kidnapping find themselves in private homes serving the rich members of our society. In such homes, these girls are forced to undertake various house hold chores from morning to evening.
They are not allowed to get out of these big mansions. Sexual abuses are also common in such homes, especially for the ladies who find themselves serving the divorced or single men. They face constant physical abuses from the masters who are very demanding.
In the past, it was believed that the United States was the destination market in human trafficking business. Most of the victims came from other parts of the developing nations. However, this is no longer the case. According to Getu (2006), young girls are now facing the danger of being kidnapped and held hostage in their own countries.
Cases have been reported of girls who go missing while they go shopping. The traffickers are keen to identify the young ladies travelling alone. They entice them and lead them to destinations where they are finally taken captives. Others are hijacked while along the road.
This trend is becoming common in the country and it knows no social boundaries. Any attractive young lady is at risk of being kidnapped by these individuals, whether they come from poor or rich families.
Young girls from poor families have suffered the most because they do not have security details around them to offer them protection from these criminals. They are easy targets. The kidnapers also know that parents of such girls lack the financial capacity to hire private detectives to help in the investigations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Trafficking and the Trauma It Leaves Behind by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although some of the girls still come from countries such as India, South America, Middle East and Africa, the local American girls are now at more risks than ever before. The kidnappers consider the American girls to be easy targets because they do not have to spend a lot of money in transportation.
Trauma of Human Trafficking Human trafficking leaves behind trauma that may completely change the lives of the victims. As mentioned above, most of the victims of human trafficking are young girls below 18 years. They are always taken away from the society at an age when they are very hopeful in life.
When they disappear, their parents, friends and other family members are always subjected to a lot of trauma. Walker (2011) says that it is very painful for parents to realize that they have lost their children under very unclear circumstances.
When they realize that their children have become victims of human trafficking, they become stressful as they try to find a solution out of the situation. Some of them become seriously depressed, especially when it becomes clear that finding their children is almost impossible.
The victims themselves face a lot of trauma in their captivity. Those who are subjected to hard labor at various premises are always worried about how their masters will treat them. They suffer from beatings and physical abuses. For those who find themselves in the adult entertainment industry, the trauma is always worse.
The old patrons prefer young girls because of psychological reasons. These young girls remind them of their youth when they were very energetic. This means that these victims have to meet the constant demands of these patrons. The way they are treated is very inhuman.
The girls who are lucky enough to escape from these pits of death are left with serious trauma as they try to recall the ordeal they underwent. The memory of hardships, suffering, pain, intimidation, and constant abuses remain very clear in their minds.
According to Lobert (2015), such victims would develop deeply rooted mistrust towards men. When they come back, the society will never be normal to them. They remember the abuses at the hands of their captors and this make them view the world differently.
When these victims remember their fellow captives who died very painful deaths, the unsafe and painful abortions conducted by the inexperienced brutal individuals, and the relationships with people older than their parents, the pain sometimes become unbearable.
According to Wellstone and Ritchie (2008), the trauma may require a prolonged psychotherapy in order to make these victims feel normal again. They may need counseling for a very long period. The parents may also need counseling, especially those who develop the self-hate because of the feeling that they failed to protect their children.
How to Work with and Help the Victims According to Anand and Gandhi (2008), we need to understand how to handle the victims who are lucky enough to escape from their captors. The last thing they need from us is sympathy or any blame because of something they did or failed to do that led to their kidnapping.
It does not matter if they were held captive for hours, days or years. What matters is that they are received back to the society with open arms, and subjected to psychotherapy to help restore normalcy in their minds without developing undue suspicion to anyone who gets close to them.
Getu (2006) says that the first step should be to listen to these victims and encourage them to talk about their experiences as much as possible to the counselors and people they trust. Talking about these experiences lifts the weight of the ordeal off their shoulders. It reduces the pain in their hearts.
In this process, the counselor should be keen to understand the pain and experiences the victim went through. Of interest should be the incidences that were painful. The counselor should then address these issues by explaining about why these people abused them.
The counselor should be able to explain why the men who patronize these clubs abused these young girls. This should be done in a way that will not make them develop mistrust to all men. They should remember to explain to them how their fathers, brothers, uncles, and male friends suffered and struggled to look for them.
This will make them feel that not all men are as evil as those who subjected them to pain.
Conclusion The analysis above clearly demonstrates that human trafficking is a reality that we should be ready to face. Young girls get kidnapped and sent to facilities where they are subjected to painful experiences. The society should know how to handle these victims of human trafficking once they escape from these facilities.
They should be helped so that they can lead normal lives in the society.
References Anand, A. S.,
Possibility of Attaining a Democracy in the Middle East Research Paper essay help online
Aims of the research This paper aims to assert the reasons for the problematic transition into democracy in Middle Eastern countries. It will give a brief introduction to the political history of the region and better assessment of the system that Syria currently uses.
Secondly, it will address the attempts made by the United States in expanding democracy and heavily emphasizing it in this region. The analysis of the Arab Spring, its evolution and its outcomes, will be vital in understanding the challenges that introduction of a new ideology has created.
Ultimately, this paper will demonstrate why the current structure of the Middle East politically, socially, and structurally, will not sustain a democracy in the near future taking Syria as an example.
Research Background Several countries in the Middle East such as Syria, Yemen, and Iraq experienced conflicts that have lasted for more than a decade. These conflicts are a result of weak democratic institutions or a complete degeneration of these structures.
For instance, in Syria, the democratic institution has been abused by different regimes due to the dynamic nature of that society (Akerlof
General Motors Product Development Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
General Motors’ Leadership
Challenges to General Motors Strategies
Possible Growth Strategies
Introduction The automobile industry is characterized by impulsiveness and indecision due to constant political, social, technological and economic transformations. Consequently, automobile companies find themselves in dynamic situations that call for steady adjustments.
In such circumstances, the companies require effective leadership to help in identifying the most feasible and productive changes. Brown (2007) maintains that car companies should transform their operations in order to remain competitive.
Hence, they need transformational leaders who can identify emerging opportunities and restructure the companies to exploit the opportunities.
The success of General Motors is credited to its effective leadership. In spite of General Motors having numerous competitive advantages over other automobile companies, it relies heavily on its transformative leaders.
The leaders are responsible for formulating operation strategies and establishing appropriate structures to facilitate implementation of the plans.
This paper will discuss the effectiveness of leadership in General Motors. Besides, it will identify various growth strategies that General Motors can pursue.
General Motors’ Leadership According to Bayou and De Korvin (2013), the current state of automobile industry calls for transformative leadership. It underlines the reason General Motors hires transformative chief executive officers (CEO).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the transformative leadership of Mary Barra, General Motors has been able to restore order in all its global units.
Bayou and De Korvin (2013) allege that the most critical role of a transformative leader is to re-establish order and shrewdness into the messy whirl that is the modern day’s business atmosphere. Prior to Barra assuming leadership of the company, General Motors’ product development processes were in absolute confusion.
The company had at least 30 distinct platforms. Besides, the company offered inefficient services and manufactured inferior cars. There were needs to align operations and enhance organizational efficiency (Fogel, Morck
Talent Management at Stamford Hospital Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The success of a firm’s productivity depends on the organization of the human resource management. Reflectively, labor as a factor of production, determines the gross output, performance, and goal achievement at optimal resource use.
The Stamford Hospital has organized its human resource management to accommodate the aspects of employee maintenance, equity, training, and rewards as part of its talent management strategies.
Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly analyze thematic areas that have positive influence on the hospital’s talent management strategies.
Background of the Stamford Hospital Founded in 1896, the Stamford Hospital is one of the oldest nonprofit private health centers in Connecticut. The hospital offers heavily subsidized trauma care within its 305 bed capacity. The facility also offers other medical services to patients within the region of Connecticut and beyond.
The hospital has been successful in specialized care and currently has more than 2,400 employees. The hospital has employed 73% of female out of the total workforce and 27% are male.
Among the talent management strategies employed at the Stamford Hospital include proper remuneration, structured employee growth and development, healthy work environment and culture, attractive pension plan, and series of employee benefits such as free parking, free child care, free shuttle to the train station, and active wellness programs.
The talent management plans are discussed in the next section.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Talent Management at Stamford Hospital Staffing at Stamford Hospital
Staffing is an essential part of firm’s value orientation. Value in a firm emanates from the employees’ satisfaction level since they develop loyalty. The satisfaction of the employees results from quality management practices, policies, and support services that enable them to satisfactorily serve customers.
At the Stamford Hospital, there is special leadership tool that emphasizes on employees’ satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and quality management practices in the staffing procedure.
Therefore, proper staffing has established the correlation between employees’ capability perception and customers’ satisfaction at the hospital (Bohlander
ExxonMobil Information Systems Report college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction and a Background to the Case
Information System Risks at ExxonMobil
Audit Plans and Objectives
Interview Questions and Documents
Conclusion and Recommendations
Introduction and a Background to the Case There were reports in early 2011 that Chinese hackers managed to breach the systems of several leading energy companies in the world and in the process, managed to steal sensitive information of these corporations (Riley, 2011). ExxonMobil was one of the companies that was a victim in these hackings.
Despite the fact that the company asserted that the breach was not serious and hence it was not necessary for them to report to their shareholders, such a breach acts as a risk to the overall knowledge management of an entity since sensitive and confidential information might be exposed and end up in the wrong hands.
ExxonMobil had put in place a knowledge management system that aimed at enhancing its operational efficiency within the energy industry through the identification and transfer of best practices to its personnel (Cohen and Levinthal 2010).
In the course of its operations, ExxonMobil uses several systems to ensure that information is stored, retried, and can be used in an effective and efficient manner.
These systems act as a strong database for the firm’s knowledge and hence its breach by hackers in one way or the other is very detrimental to the operation and sustainability of the firm.
Information System Risks at ExxonMobil In the course of operations in the information technology portal, a business entity constantly faces a number of risks. For instance, the breach of ExxonMobil systems by Chinese hackers posed a security risks on the firm’s knowledge management systems.
Such a breach however, possess several risks to a given entity. In this case, the breach by Chinese hackers posed an operational risk to the firm. Fischhoff et al (2014) defined operational risk as an expected loss that might come about as a result of failed procedures, systems, or policies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hackers usually tamper with the systems that they gain access to affecting their normal operations. If the activities of the hackers are not identified in good time, outcomes that are fatal to the entity in hand might arise (Mischen and Jackson 2008).
Given the fact that the hackers had gained access of ExxonMobil since 2008, there is a high likelihood that their activities resulted in operational failures within the entity.
The period which ExxonMobil systems were exposed as a result of a security breach by Chinese hackers also exposed the firm to financial risks.
According to Liesch (2006), financial risk occurs in an event whereby shareholders stand a chance of losing their investment due to the inadequacy of a given entity’s cash flow to meet its financial obligations.
The exposure that the Chinese hackers had on ExxonMobil financial systems increase the likelihood of inefficiencies within the normal operations of the firm. In most cases, this proves difficult for the firm to achieve the set goals and objectives given its recurrent financial status (Seidl 2007).
This in turn increases its chances of falling into debt hence resulting in a financial crisis. Such a crisis will not only result in the inability of ExxonMobil to meet its recurrent financial obligations but will also expose its shareholders to debt.
Consequently, ExxonMobil stood a high chance of being exposed to compliance risk as result of the hacking activity it had been experiencing.
We will write a custom Report on ExxonMobil Information Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Compliance risk comes about as a result of its failure to act within the agreed regulations and laws, internal policies, or the agreed practices within its industry resulting in exposure to penalties as set by the law or material loss (Neef 2005).
One of the main ways through which the firm would have been exposed to compliance risks is through the exposure of confidential information by the hackers.
This includes the details of its shareholders, information with regards to the agreements that the firm has with third party companies such as suppliers and partners (this might include patents and copyrights), and so on.
Exposure of such sensitive information might be unlawful or unethical and as such the firm will be faced with a number of legal suits which might require it to pay fines, damages, or nullify contracts (Marshall et al 2011).
Such outcomes are usually detrimental to the overall operation of a given entity and might affect its profitability and sustainability in the short run and in the long run.
Audit Plans and Objectives Given the probable outcomes of the security breach to IS information systems, it is critical to conduct an information systems audit with the aim of reviewing ExxonMobil information system architecture, to determine the overall implementation and effectiveness of the set control systems and to report on the possible risks that the firm’s information systems might be facing.
To realise this aim, this audit report will take a two way approach. The first step will involve a vigorous planning and analysis of necessary documents and interviewing specific personnel to gather relevant information for the entire process.
The second step will involve a critical analysis of the internal control systems and structures. For these steps to be effective and efficient, it is necessary for an auditor to identify the control environment, procedure, understand the detection risk and control risk assessments and to equate the total risk (Fischhoff et al 2014).
Not sure if you can write a paper on ExxonMobil Information Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As asserted by Hall (2010), the main role of an IS auditor is to substantiate that the set internal controls are existing and function effectively to minimize the associated business risks. As such, the current audit objectives include:
Ensuring that the firms operations are effective and efficient
Ensuring that the operations of the firm are compliant to the set statutory requirements and regulations
Ensuring that the firm maintains confidentiality and integrity of its stakeholders
Specifically, this audit will focus on three main areas; the operational controls, financial controls, and the overall corporate compliance of the firm. The main objectives of auditing the operational control systems is to:
Daily operations are consistent with the set goals and objectives
Determine whether the company’s performance meets the set standards
Determine the overall efficiency of the operational system of the firm
The main objectives of auditing the financial control systems is to:
Have a clear understanding of the major financial processes is arrived at
Determine the key financial policies and goals of the organization
Determine which financial processes have high levels of risks to the company’s operations
Finally, interviews on specific personnel within ExxonMobil to determine the overall level of risk and the firm’s compliance to the set operational procedures, regulations, and laws. To enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of this process, specific documents within the firm will also be critically scrutinized.
Interview Questions and Documents The study conducted by Douglas (2011) on information systems audit focused its interviews on personnel who are responsible for the running and maintenance of the various control systems within the entity.
As such, this audit will take a similar approach and will interview key personnel who are in charge of running and managing the financial and operational systems.
As such, three open ended questions will be posed to these personnel to gather a wide range of information and data with respect to their operation and effectiveness. In this respect, the following questions will be asked:
What is the process for?
Which other parties are involved in the process?
How can the process be improved?
Since this process is objective in nature, open ended questions are effective in increasing the scope of information that will be received from the clients (Eisenhardt 2009).
For instance, while auditing the financial control systems, this audit might focus on the payroll system and in the process it will be necessary to interview the payroll processing clerk.
By asking this personnel what the system if for, the clerk will be in a position of explaining the entire payroll process, an act that will provide the audit with a clear understanding of incoming and outgoing dependencies of this specific system (Sherif 2006).
By repeating the same question to the personnel in charge of other systems, a clear picture of the overall operation of this system will come out and hence it will be easy to identify possible risks within the system and hence propose mechanisms that will enhance its overall operational efficiency.
Inquiring about the other parties that are involved in a given process provides an auditor with a clear picture of the operating environment (Grant 2009). In this audit process, this question will be useful in providing a clear understanding of the interdependencies between sub-systems and entire systems.
As such, it will be easy to determine the start point, intermediaries, and the end point of a given process. In the process, it will be easy to determine any irregularities that might be present and hence propose corrective measures to ensure effective and efficient operation.
The main aim of an audit process is to detect any flaws and irregularities in the operations of a given entity and hence suggest means through which operations can be improved.
It is evident, however, that the best individuals to come up with corrective mechanisms to specific systems are those who operate them on a regular basis (Liesch et al 2006).
It is due to this fact this audit process will specifically ask the personnel it will interview the possible means through which specific systems can be improved.
This will increase the chances of coming up with long term solution to systems problems that the firm might be facing especially after the hacking incident.
In the course of this process, documents of interest include financial statements, account entries, and system maintenance records. These documents will be vital in providing the necessary information that will be used in this audit.
Conclusion and Recommendations Based on the business and computerised environment of ExxonMobil as well as the risks that have been identified, this audit report recommends the following:
The firm needs to develop and coordinate effective and efficient mechanisms to share vital information that might be a threat to the overall financial and operational control systems.
Research and collaborate with communities of best practice to come up with technological advancements (hardware and software) to combat individual and organized cybercrimes that might affect the overall financial position and operational efficiency of the firm.
The firm needs to develop a strong internal information system audit system that will frequently monitor the performance of all information systems to detect any form of fraud or irregularities to prevent fatal operational and financial outcomes.
Partner up with external firms to develop strong control mechanisms as well as improve the existing ones.
Critically monitor the operational and financial systems and operations to ensure that the firm is compliant to the set policies, procedures, regulations and laws.
These considerations are effective to ExxonMobil since they will ensure that the firm’s operation is effective and efficient by reducing the risk of attack from hackers.
At the same time, the high level of information system awareness that the firm will have will also be influential in preventing other forms of risks that the firm might be exposed to in its normal operations.
These recommendations thus will ensure that the firm realises it’s set operational goals and objectives and hence will be profitable and sustainable in the short run and in the long run.
References Cohen, W and Levinthal, D, 2010, ‘Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation’ , Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 128-52.
Douglas, D, 2006, ‘Intransitivities of managerial decisions: a grounded theory case’’, Management Decision’, Vol. 44 No. 2, pp. 259-75.
Eisenhardt, K, 2009, ‘Building theories from case study research’’, Academy of Management Review’, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 532-50.
Fischhoff, B., Watson, S. and Hope, C, 2014, ‘Defining risk’, Policy Sciences, Vol. 17, pp. 123-39.
Grant, R, 2009, ‘Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, pp. 109-22.
Hall, J, 2010, Information technology audit and Assurance, Cengage Learning, New York.
Liesch, P., Steen, J., Knight, G. and Czinkota, M, 2006, ‘Problematizing the internationalization decision: terrorism-induced risk’, Management Decision, Vol. 44 No. 6, pp. 809-26.
Marshall, C., Prusak, L. and Shpilberg, D, 2011, ‘Financial risk and the need for superior knowledge management’, California Management Review, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 77-102.
Mischen, P and Jackson, S, 2008, ‘Connecting the dots: applying complexity theory, knowledge management and social network analysis to policy implementation’, Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 314-39.
Neef, D, 2005, ‘Managing corporate risk through better knowledge management’, The Learning Organization, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 112-24.
Riley, M, 2011, ‘Exxon, Shell Said to Have Been Hacked Via Chinese Servers’, BloombergBusiness. Web.
Seidl, D, 2007, ‘The dark side of knowledge’, Emergence: Complexity and Organization, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 16-29.
Sherif, K, 2006, ‘An adaptive strategy for managing knowledge in organizations’, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 72-80.
The Suffering Servant Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction The suffering servant in the book of Isaiah chapter 53 refers to the prophet’s song about the future Messiah. Many Jews and other scholars, who mostly refer to the suffering servant as the nation of Israel, misinterpret this controversial chapter.
On the contrary, other scholars argue and interpret the suffering servant as Jesus Christ in the New Testament. The interpretation and application of the chapter have been a debatable issue over a long time, yet the different sides have not agreed on one rendition of the chapter.
The prophetic song describes the sufferings and punishment of the suffering servant in his mission. The chapter is a continuation of the messianic prophecy, which portrays the actual situations and activities of the suffering servant, while executing his sole purpose.
This paper will highlight the actual symbolism of the suffering servant by Isaiah, his missions, and the relationship with the individual servant in the New Testament. Moreover, the paper will describe the relationship between the Messiah and the suffering servant in the prophetic poetic song of Isaiah chapter 53.
The corporate suffering servant The chapter describes the suffering servant as rejected and despised by the people that he came to save. Moreover, the prophecy describes the servant as the one who undergoes suffering by growing in an unfavorable community of impunity.
Isaiah portrays the suffering servant as neglected and unnoticeable in the society during his growth (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 78-85).
The suffering servant is expressed to be filled with sorrows in his mission. In verse 4 of chapter 53, the suffering servant bears the burden of carrying the iniquities and sins of a people gone astray.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prophecy by Isaiah reveals the messianic symbolisms of the suffering Messiah; for instance, he was pierced for the sins and transgressions of many. Moreover, the prophetic song illustrates how the servant would suffer in the quest to bring peace and deliver the oppressed.
The suffering servant experiences punishments and sufferings that are meant to pay the price of the people’s sins. For instance, in verse 5, prophet Isaiah says that by his wounds people would be healed. The servant carries the sins of everyone’s wickedness through his innocent suffering.
Furthermore, the suffering servant would not utter a word of objection when the enemies take him to the cross (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 89). The prophet describes the suffering servant as a sacrificial lamb in silent suffering. The messianic prophecy portrays the afflictions of Christ, who would rescue the world.
The world needed an intermediary to connect the wicked sinners to the Almighty God after the fall of man. The chapter on the suffering servant shows how the suffering servant would conquer death to gain glory and honor after suffering.
The suffering servant interpretation The controversial suffering servant mainly describes the Messiah who is Jesus Christ. The song shows how the suffering Messiah would suffer in his mission to bring salvation to the world. The prophecy foretells the sufferings that the suffering servant, Jesus Christ, would go through in his life.
Many Christians believe that the suffering servant is the prophecy of the ministry of Jesus Christ that comes to fulfillment in the New Testament. Furthermore, the suffering servant, Jesus Christ, is the only person in the Bible who died on behalf of others.
The Bible clearly outlines that the sinless lamb would die and prolong his time, which was fulfilled by Christ after he died and resurrected after defeating the power of darkness. In the prophecy, Isaiah describes the suffering Messiah as the one who would be despised and rejected.
We will write a custom Book Review on The Suffering Servant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the New Testament, this prophecy was fulfilled when Jesus’ teachings pointed out that a true prophet is not accepted in his own land. Jesus himself was rejected and his people did not believe in his miracles nor did they believe that he was the chosen Messiah.
In the book of Mathew 8:17, the prophecy comes into fulfillment by acknowledging the prophetic messianic message by Isaiah on relieving the world with iniquities (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 95). The prophecy was delivered in Isaiah 53:4 whereby the suffering servant would bear the pain of the people’s iniquities.
In addition, the suffering servant is portrayed in Isaiah’s prophecy as the one who would carry people’s pains and diseases. The Messiah fulfills the prophecy by dying a sinless death coupled with being wounded for peoples’ sins.
In the New Testament, Jesus Christ was wounded by being pierced in his ribs. The Bible confirms that via the blood of Jesus, people were healed. This statement is a confirmation of the prophecy by prophet Isaiah that he would be pierced for people’s transgressions.
In addition, Jesus was crucified with other two thieves who were prophesied by the messianic prophecy in Isaiah 53:9 (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 106). The prophecy by Isaiah concludes that the suffering servant would be glorified to justify many people. Jesus Christ was the Gods’ son, who was on a mission to rescue the sinners.
Moreover, the Bible in the prophetic message says that the suffering servant would see his offspring and prolong his days. This assertion is evident after Jesus’s resurrection. The offspring of Jesus Christ includes the individuals who surrender and accept the unmerited Gods’ salvation.
The New Testament affirms that Jesus Christ is God’s son, and thus in a bid to gain salvation sinners simply need to accept him (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 125). This aspect fulfills Isaiah’s prophecy on Messiah that the suffering servant’s days would be prolonged.
Apparently, no other person in the Bible that bore other people’s transgressions except Jesus. Moreover, the Bible refers to Jesus as the blameless lamb in the New Testament, which is quoted by Prophet Isaiah on the suffering servant (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 130).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Suffering Servant by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, Jesus Christ represents the suffering servant who suffers greatly for other people’s sins. Furthermore, the suffering servant’s traits are portrayed in Jesus; for instance, he was born in a humble background, died for the people’s sins, suffered in silence, and prolonged his days through resurrection.
Ultimately, in the history of the Bible, no one had these characteristics of Isaiah’s prophecy except the Messiah.
The relationship between the suffering servant and the New Testament The New Testament fulfills the prophecies about the Messiah in the Old Testament. The suffering servant in the New Testament is regarded as Jesus Christ, who died for the transgressions and iniquities of the people.
The New Testament confirms the prophecies of the Messiah mainly through the great suffering that the Messiah would go through. In Isaiah 53:12, the suffering servant is allegedly rejected and despised because he is in an unaccomplished mission to save ignorant people through divine punishment.
His unique humiliation was beyond human power for the acceptance of the severe suffering and the painful crucifixion. Evidently, sin and the cross are inseparable.
Moreover, Christ’s work in atoning for the sin lies on the cross. Christ absorbed God’s wrath, which was brought about by sin from humanity. Prophet Isaiah prophesies this issue where the suffering servant would bear the inequities of the sinners.
Christ took charge to become an intermediary between people and God. He absorbed the consuming fire of Gods’ wrath in his own flesh and represented every sinner therein (Zuck and Campbell 2002, 136).
The best understanding of the suffering servant comes from the point of view that the Father would send his own son to take all the accusations of sin from his people. He would make a flesh sacrifice for every sinner. In fact, in Mathew 20:17-19, Jesus Christ knew what was going to happen, and thus he told his disciples about his crucifixion.
The Bible further clarifies that Jesus was like a sheep without resistance, which comes out clearly when he was arrested without a warrant, but he never resisted. The death was unfair and unjust. Salvation is the work design of the Father and son. In Isaiah 53:11, the suffering servant knows what he would be doing.
He knew his mission and what his Father needed.
The controversy lies in the definition of the Messiah. Some individuals believe that Jesus was not the promised messiah. Therefore, even though his life’s occurrences and sufferings fit the descriptions given by Isaiah, he does not qualify because he is allegedly not the messiah.
However, to the group of individuals that believe that Jesus was the promised messiah, they believe that he is the suffering servant according to the prophecy by Isaiah.
Conclusion The controversial debate on Isaiah’s poetic song by Jews and other scholars that the prophecy is not about the Messiah, Jesus Christ, lies in the view that they do not acknowledge him as the Messiah. The messianic prophecy in Isaiah is fulfilled in the New Testament through Jesus Christ and his mission.
However, many modern scholars argue that the prophecy is about the nation of Israel. On the contrary, the New Testament shows the fulfillment of the messianic prophecy through Jesus Christ. Through his sufferings and punishments, sins were forgiven and God’s greatness was portrayed through resurrection as prophesied by Isaiah.
Reference Zuck, Roy, and Campbell Donald. 2002. Basic Bible Interpretation: A Practical Guide to Discovering Biblical Truth. New York, NY: David C Cook.
Corporate Governance: Satyam Computer Service Limited Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of the Case of Satyam Computer Service Limited
Case Study Analysis
Introduction For effective operation of an organisation, monitoring and control are necessary. Corporate governance comprises one of the ways of controlling and monitoring of organisational operations (Abdulla
Marketing Communication at Benetton and Yeo Valley Companies Case Study custom essay help
Introduction Contemporary business settings are characterised by dynamic competition trends that have compelled companies to implement robust communication strategies.
Businesses such as the Benetton Group and Yeo Valley are examples of organisations that have been forced to implement various marketing objectives using different theoretical frameworks that define their advertising strategies.
The circumstances under which the marketing strategies have been executed have resulted in either advantages or disadvantages to the companies. Some of the marketing strategies that have been applied in marketing include campaigns and shock value advertising techniques.
However, the way in which the advertising techniques are applied to the targeted audience and environment can be unfavourable. This essay provides an analysis of the marketing communication strategies that have been implemented in the Benetton and Yeo Valley Companies by examining their impacts on the society and environment.
Advertising Objectives of the Benetton and Yeo Valley Companies
Communication strategies play a critical role in any business that is deemed to accomplish its operational goals. A critical analysis of the Benetton and Yeo Valley Companies provide a clear understanding of the advertising objectives that are geared towards the promotion of their esteemed products.
The Yeo Valley Company has executed its advertisement strategies based on six core objectives that include basic goal achievement, information, persuasion, message, communication, and recapitulating consumers (De Pelsmacker, Geuens,
The Legalization of Marijuana Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents The origin and history of marijuana
The effects of marijuana
Legalization of marijuana
Cannabis is considered to be one of the most widely consumed prohibited drugs in the U.S.A, especially among young people. Every year the quantity of middle and high school undergraduates using marijuana increases while the awareness about the health damage of cannabis deteriorates promptly at the same time.
In this essay, we will establish the nature of this illicit drug, the history of its usage in the United States and list the harm that marijuana causes. After observing all mentioned above, we can conclude whether marijuana should not be legalized.
The origin and history of marijuana Marijuana is the term used to represent the dehydrated flowers of the Indian hemp plant mostly. It is essentially used in medicine for its recreational purposes; however, it could be put to use in some spiritual rituals or for the achievement of psychoactive effect. Cannabis has been used as a substitute for obtaining psychotic effects for centuries now; it was defined in Chinese medical research, which is dated from 2737 BC.
After being born in China, this herb went to India, fled to Northern Africa and finally came to Europe almost 3000 years later. The chemical in cannabis responsible for its euphoria effect is called THC, which stands for tetrahydrocannabinol.
This can be called the main feature of marijuana, and it is only one of the 483 known cannabis components. Aside from few doubtful positive reactions (relaxation, good mood and heighten appetite), THC has some major side effects: red eyes, anxiety, dry mouth, a decrease of short-term memory, and more.
According to surveys, marijuana is one of the most used illegal drugs throughout the USA and is mostly consumed by young people from 15 to 35 years old. Also, a quantity of youngsters thinking that marijuana is risky decreases every year.
However, due to its medicinal purposes or adult recreational use cannabis becomes legal in a growing number of countries. As predicted, the legalization of marijuana in several states has led to an increase of marijuana abuse among youngsters
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effects of marijuana Studies have shown a pattern of the use of cannabis and risky behavior of the individuals. It is essential to mention short- and long-term affections on a human body is speaking about the adverse effects of marijuana. Abusive use of marijuana can cause immune system suppression, mood and personality changes, a decrease in libido and even study difficulties (Lane 803).
For instance, research has demonstrated that undergraduate students who started consuming cannabis heavily in their teenage years and had a continuous marijuana use disorder lost a moderate of eight IQ points between ages 13 and 38 (Meier 2658). As a result, the vanished mental capabilities were not able to fully recover even if a person stopped using marijuana in adulthood.
On the contrary, the IQ of the individuals who began the use of cannabis in adulthood has not declined significantly. Short-term effects are anxiety, increased heartbeat, poor coordination and reaction (Gebler 16). These results are achieved during minutes after smoking cannabis. The chemical THC spreads from lungs directly into the blood, where it is carried to the brain and other substantial organs.
The negative effect can be slowed down by using the drug in food or beverages; however, the impact is still inevitable. Tetrahydrocannabinol alters the work of particular brain cell receptors, as they respond to essential chemicals that have almost the same consistency as THC. As these chemicals influence the common brain advancement and operation, cannabis smoking slows down these processes.
Legalization of marijuana Despite some common assumptions, cannabis can be habit-forming. Studies show that 6 out of 11 users of marijuana become addicted and, therefore, have difficulties refusing this drug (Lopez-Quintero, Pérez de los Cobos, and Hasin 122). Going to a group therapy can be helpful for those who are struggling with addiction.
The medicinal purpose of marijuana is disputed because of its primary side effects that have a negative impact on the organism. Nevertheless, one of the few uses of cannabis is a treatment of chemotherapy side effects, such as nausea and vomiting. Also, it appears to increase appetite in HIV/AIDS patients, treat muscle spasms and chronic pain.
Several states try to legalize marijuana; however, many proceed without any success. “In 2012, proponents of marijuana legalization gathered enough signatures to place an amendment to the Colorado Constitution on the statewide ballot” (Blake and Finlaw 1).
We will write a custom Essay on The Legalization of Marijuana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The proposed project was widely known as Amendment 64; nevertheless, the name of the project that was given to it initially was ‘The Regulate Marijuana like Alcohol Act of 2012’. The initiated measure, nevertheless, didn’t receive the support of the opposition. The medicinal utilization of cannabis requires the existence of certain laws, which vary broadly in different states.
“Marijuana is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat any medical condition” (Thompson 2508). There are almost close to none studies that prove cannabis to be a harmless and efficient drug. However, medical programs that allow small amounts of marijuana become more and more popular not only in the USA but throughout the world. Although many do not believe in the positive effects of this drug, self-treatment and, therefore, common legalization is unacceptable.
Works Cited Blake, David and Jack Finlaw. “Marijuana Legalization in Colorado: Learned Lessons.” Harvard Law
Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish Report essay help
Introduction Following a detailed market research on customer behavior and consumption dynamics of nail polish, we have identified the need to provide customers with a unique brand of nail polish that can easily be removed using water.
Through surveys and interviews, many users of nail polish products expressed concern about the additional costs that were incurred on nail polish removers. Some of them are sold at higher prices than the polish itself. This paper presents a marketing plan for a new nail polish that will save consumers unnecessary removal costs.
Company Overview Founded in 1981 by Essie Weingarten, the original idea was to create an all-in-one fun and classic nail polish brand based on color differentiation. The founder filled a market niche that other brands had not identified. The Essie brand was sold to L’Oréal in 2010.
The change of ownership made the brand penetrate into markets that were reachable by more customers including Target and Walgreens that employed masterpiece display methods for Essie products.
L’Oreal has expanded worldwide taking the products to the international arena, a situation that made a great effect on the nail polish industry. This year, the Essie Company is planning to launch a brand new nail polish to reach low middle-class consumers who have been segregated by existing brands.
The research reveals that venturing into this market will help increase the economies of scale besides promoting brand awareness among low-income earners. The new product will help consumers save a substantial amount of money on nail polish removers.
Following its merger with L’Oréal in 2010, the Essie Company expanded significantly, reaching international markets. Currently, the company has over 90 outlets and 250,000 salons globally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry Analysis Nail polish industry seeks to create good looks, especially amongst women, in terms of colors that match with factors such as moods, outfit, and season among other girly preferences. The industry has been booming gradually over the past three decades with many players flocking the industry with unique brands and marketing strategies.
Numerous market surveys have shown that consumption of nail polish has increased since 2012 with brands intensifying marketing campaign using new advertisement technologies such as the internet. Statistically, 35% of the nail polish users consume over 27 bottles of nail polish annually.
This state of affairs can be attributed to the rapid changes in modern fashion. Consumers of almost at status ranging from celebrities to young girls use nail polish. Essie group is among the leading brands as it continues to revolutionize the industry with innovative product development.
The brand has reached diversified markets through Target and Walgreens stores; hence, competing favorably with other brands such as the OPI, Revlon, and Sally Hansen.
Collecting Information and Forecasting Demand The Essie Company collects information regarding market dynamics and consumption trends in a bid make informed decisions prior to the launching of new products. This part presents the information collected in 2014 as the company focuses on the demand behavior of the new nail polish.
The 2014 report on the nails industry statistics depicted a fast booming sector with expenditures on nail polish climbing from $8.28 in 2013 to 8.54 billion in 2014. Experts liken this growth to the tattoo industry by claiming that nail care is a form of self-expression (Redding, 2014).
The products themselves were the sole drivers of the above-mentioned growth. Notably, Gel polish was shown to have revolutionized the nail industry.
We will write a custom Report on Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through intensive market research, especially on the technology involved in the nail polish industry, it has been revealed that customers wish for a beauty product that takes less than 10 minutes in removal.
The social media was deemed powerful in increasing brand awareness for numerous beauty firms including Essie and L’Oreal through viral sharing of the artistic nail work. Most recently, Essie offered a nail polish contest, taking the nail art to the social media and streets.
In fact, nail art forms one among the five most tagged and shared pictures on Pinterest and Instagram (Redding, 2014). Market growth was recorded among women aged between 26 and 35 years with girls between 16 and 25 years-old coming second in nail polish usage.
The report reveals that the growth has been immensely contributed by the youths who are highly associated with the social media. In this regard, Essie brand aims to concentrate on this group through maintain a consistent online presence. Recently, there have been sponsored Twitter accounts popping up in every user’s account.
This strategy intensified advertising campaigns for the cosmetic companies. Constant research on the behaviors of the online community is essential as it provides an insight into the advertisers’ choice of the medium and methodology.
Identifying Market Segments and Targets The analysis of consumer behavior is a vital concept particularly in creating demand and moving a new product. It involves studying the prevailing demographics, psychographics, and consumer behaviors in the target market. This analysis contributes significantly to the successful entry of a new product.
The Essie brand enterprise conducts occasional consumer analysis to ensure sustainable and consistent sales output. The new product targets women aged between 16 and 34 years. This age bracket comprises the main consumers of cosmetic products.
Essie targets a particular class of consumer’s who welcome the idea of removing nail polish with affordable materials such as water. Moreover, the Nail polish will be available for all consumers including users in fashion, TV, and movie shows who are important advertisers of the company’s products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for Water Sensitive Nail Polish by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Essie does rigorous market surveys through many avenues such as the social media forums, its interactive websites, and mass media shows to learn customer behaviors and monitor changes in consumption trends. This strategy helps in aligning product design and development to match the consumer needs.
Through demographic analysis, the company has moved its other products successfully through its dedicated stores and outlets in 65 countries. The new product comes in diversified colors. The company acknowledges its customers’ different color preferences including the queen of England’s preference, ‘Ballet Slippers’.
This fact explains the significance that Essie attaches to its customer analysis. In addition, the Essie brand is recognized for its iconic shades that marry with the different countries in which its products revolve.
The brand boasts of an unshakable reputation for its classic colors. In this regard, moving the new cost-effective product is optimistically a walkover.
Creating Demand Brand creation is a significant aspect of any business. The Essie Company boats of a globally renowned brand name. However, the company intends to incorporate a robust brand campaign throughout its markets to stimulate the demand for the product.
Advertising is a brand campaign and marketing strategy that has been in use for many years. It uses mainstream media including TV shows, in between news, billboards, and web-based internet advertising among others (Panzone
Gender and Human Rights Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Human of Rights
Gender and Human Rights
Defined Right and Culture
Human of Rights Guaranteed by the Constitution and being inalienable since the birth of an individual, human rights still remain on the global agenda (Hessler 2). The concept of a Human of Rights introduced by Foucault in 1950s, and also referred to as humanity is traditionally defined as a “floating signifier” (Douzinas 4) and is related directly to the idea of human rights.
The specified definition of the concept, however, is rather loose, as the notion embraces the issues such as the provision of human rights, the basic principles of equality, etc. (Douzinas 5).
Gender and Human Rights Connecting the subject matter to gender, one must admit that the concept of the human of rights cannot be applied to women in its entirety yet (Davidson 58). Due to the bigoted laws and the prejudices that persist in the society despite numerous awareness campaigns, women’s rights are infringed on a regular basis due to imperfect laws and the biased regulations.
The lack of equality can be observed even in the countries that have progressed significantly in terms of promotion of human rights to all denizens of the population (Cook 39).
Defined Right More importantly, the challenges, which women are forced to fight because of the flaws of the current legal system, are predetermined by social prejudices to a considerable extent. Researches show that the “politics surrounding women’s human rights” (Steans 75) are, in fact, enhanced by the stereotype of women as housewives (Cook 20) and result in women being labeled as unauthorized for “bodily autonomy and control over sexuality and reproductive choice specifically” (Steans 75).
At this point, the issue of a defined right deserves to be mentioned. It is assumed that a right becomes defined once the corresponding law is issued, and the required changes are made to the legislation so that the current regulations should promote freedoms to all citizens and that a specific stratum of the population should be provided with equal opportunities. The integration of a defined right into the framework of a particular society, however, is likely to take a significant amount of time.
Defined Right and Culture The problem in question can be spotted in gender relations easily. Although it is guaranteed constitutionally that women are entitled to the same set of rights that men are, the latter still enjoy more privileges, especially when the lack of equity between men and women is predetermined by the predominant philosophical principles of the society or its religious postulates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Particularly, in some states, women are completely deprived of their basic human rights, which clearly is an issue of major concern. The life of Muslim women is a graphic example of the phenomenon in question; although Muslim women are supposed to have the same rights as men do, “In the name of Islam, women are subjected to cruel and horrible practices” (Ali 2).
Even though the basic principles of equity were established quite a while on a global level, women still experience much more social pressure and injustice based on prejudice than men. Hence, the gender issue is yet to be resolved in the contemporary society. To be more exact, women have to be provided with their rights to be equal; these rights concern not only the political choices, such as the right to vote but also the need to be accepted in the society as an equal member thereof.
Works Cited Ali, Ayaan Hirshi. The Caged Virgin. London, UK: CBS Company, 2006. Print.
Cook, Rebecca J. Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. Print.
Davidson, Judy. “Sporting Homonationalisms: Sexual Exceptionalism, Queer Privilege, and the 21st Century International Lesbian and Gay Sport Movement.” Sociology of Sport Journal 30.1(2013): 57-83. Print.
Douzinas, Costas. “The Many Faces of Humanitarianism.” Parrhesia 2.1 (2007): 1–28. Print.
Hessler, Kristen 2010, Political Legitimacy and Women’s Human Rights. PDF file. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Gender and Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Steans, Jill. “Body Politics: Gender, Sexuality and Rights.” Gender Matters in Global Politics: A Feminist Introduction into International Relations. Ed. Laura J. Sheperd. New York City, New York: Routledge, 2010. 74–84. Print.
Web of Institutionalization Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction This paper aims to discuss the use of web of institutionalization developed by Caren Levy (1998) in assessing the opportunities for community-led development. We will discuss a particular conflict situation, the construction of the Ilisu Dam on the lower Tigris River, and make general conclusions based on our discussion.
The case of the Ilisu Dam is quite interesting: on the one hand, this project may create at least 10.000 jobs; however, it will force more than fifty thousand people to resettle. Furthermore, it will virtually erase a great number of cultural heritage sites (Johnson et al, 2010, p 3). This situation can be regarded as conflict of interests, and one has to carefully evaluate the motives of each party that can be involved in this conflict.
Such tool as web of institutionalization can be applied to assess the opportunities for sustainability of social justice and policy planning. Furthermore, with its help one can develop strategies for resolving the dispute. These are the key issues that will be scrutinized in this paper.
Web of institutionalization as an assessment tool In this part of the paper we need to describe the model offered by Caren Levy. The author defines institutionalization as “the process whereby social practices become sufficiently regular and continuous to be described as institutions” (Levy, 1998, p 254).
To some extent, institutionalization can be viewed as provision of guidelines that regulate the relation between people and help to resolve disputes or conflicts (Shaffer, 2004). The web itself constitutes thirteen elements, yet, their exact number depends on the specific situation, as under some circumstances, the elements of the web may be either very weak or even non-existent1.
This web represents a chain of factors and processes which are needed for the institutionalization of a social phenomenon, for instance, pressure of political constituencies, political commitment, the structures that represent the rights of certain interest groups, methodologies that help to implement a social policy and so forth (Levy, 1998, p 254).
In its nature, web of institutionalization is a guideline that helps a political party or any other organization to work out an action plan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, it can also be used as diagnostic tool. In such case, its main objective is to measure the extent of institutionalization. On the whole, the components of the web can be categorized into four spheres of influence which are as follows: Citizen Sphere, Policy Sphere, Organizational Sphere and Delivery Sphere (Johnson et al, 2010, p 13).
We will study the case from the perspective of interests of those people whose living conditions will be endangered by the construction of the Ilisu Dam. Under the current circumstances, the main task is to provide these people with an opportunity to participate in decision-making and help them to better protect their rights.
We will discuss the Ilisu Dam case considering four spheres listed above and then make generalizing conclusions about how the web of institutionalization can be used in analogical projects with respect to each sphere.
Application of the web to a particular situation Citizen Sphere
If we apply the web of institutionalization, we can say that the citizen sphere will consist of three elements. The first component is the experiences of those people, who will have to find new housing due to the construction of this dam (Johnson et al, 2010).
In other words, the increased public concern will be the most crucial factor that may force the government to re-evaluate the necessity for project or at least to develop alternatives that would better suit the needs of this population.
The second element of citizen sphere is the pressure of political constituencies or forces which influence the government in any possible way. As for the Ilisu Dam case, we can speak primarily about the representatives of Kurdish nationalist movement, because the majority of people, who may need to resettle, are Kurds (Atakuman, 2010, p 119).
The key issue is that as a result of this construction the water will flood many sites that are of historical importance to Kurdish people (Smith, 2006). The power of Kurdish nationalist movement is very strong, in part because the government of Turkey does not want to attract international attention to this ethnic problem of the country (Arat, 2007).
We will write a custom Essay on Web of Institutionalization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second player that can impact the outcome of this conflict is UNESCO. If this international organization decides that Hasankeyf centers are the world cultural heritage, the government may put an end to the construction of the Ilisu Dam (Johnson et al, 2010, p 7). Additionally, one should not disregard the role of non-governmental agencies that operate across Europe.
For instance, we can mention ECA (Export Credit Agency) Watch. This is the institution that regulates international export financing. ECA Watch insists that European investors should not take part in this project as it will have disastrous ecological and cultural effects (ECA Watch, n. d.).
Apart from that, the governments of bordering countries such as Syria or Iraq will also oppose to this project because they are very dependent on water supplies and the Ilisu dam will make them even more dependent on Turkey (ECA Watch, n. d. p, 12). Another group of players that will pay attention to this project are human right organizations.
This project may leave many people homeless, and if the government does not offer them an adequate substitute for their houses, the construction of the Ilisu Dam will be a direct violation of human rights. The combined power of these stakeholders is very strong, and Turkish government cannot disregard their opinion.
The third element of the citizen sphere is the representative political structure or the political party or parties that act in the best interest of these people.
Unfortunately, Kurdish people are heavily underrepresented from political standpoint and there is no party in the Turkish parliament that could voice their discontent (Roy, 2005, p 360). As a matter of fact, Turkish laws do not allow forming parties on an ethnic basis. Thus, we can say that this element of the web is very weak.
Thus, the web of institutionalization can help evaluate the effects caused by the Citizen Sphere powers that will act and complement each other if a project is implemented. These powers are the increased public concerns, impact of political forces that are capable to influence the government, and the political structures that represent people’s interests.
Together, these three powers may have significant influence on the outcome of the project implementation, that is why it is important to consider them when developing the action plan.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Web of Institutionalization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policy Sphere
The policy sphere is also comprised of the elements: 1) political commitment or the willingness of politicians to address the needs of this population; 2) policy planning or those legislative acts that support the rights of people whose wellbeing is imperiled by a community-led development project; 3) resources or ways of translating the policy into practice (Levy, 1998, p ).
As regards the Ilisu dam case, the level of political commitment is very low because Turkish government is not very interested in the needs of people, who will be deprived of their houses. They are only concerned with international reaction to this problem, as the construction of the Ilisu dam can be viewed as discrimination against Kurds.
They will also have to take into account the objections raised by Syria and Iraq if these countries do object to this project. Yet, this is most likely an obligation rather than commitment.
The existing Turkish policies also will not help these people to guard themselves against intrusion into their lives. According to the current legislation, a new resettlement law, the government is not required to inform people about the resettlement plan and the options they have.
Furthermore, these families are not permitted to choose the location of their resettlement. Finally, they will be compensated only for their housing; no other losses will be taken into account (Eberlein, 2007, p 8). Overall, Turkish resettlement laws do not meet the standards, established in the EU and in no way they can promote the interests of these people (Wegerish
Mexican Drug Cartels and Human Trafficking Essay essay help online
Mexico is located in Central America and this geographic location has made it a favorable staging and transshipment point for drugs and human trafficking to US from Mexico, South America, and elsewhere.
Mexico has been a major supplier of cannabis and methamphetamine, though it also traffics other drugs like heroin and cocaine to US. According to the Mexican government, there are about seven drug trafficking organizations operating in the country, which include Gulf, Sinaloa, Juárez, Tijuana, Valencia, Millennium, and Colima cartels (Cook, 2007).
For a long time, Mexico has been reported with high rates of human trafficking with the most vulnerable groups being women, children, indigenous persons, and undocumented migrants. These people are usually tricked with promises of well paying jobs but the motive of their traffickers is mainly commercial sex.
Those who resist on realizing the trick are beaten up, robbed, and raped by the gang members. Others are forced to work in factories or agricultural sector. Mostly, human trafficking is associated with drug trafficking and in most cases it is carried out by gangs in drug cartels (Cook, 2007).
Mexico Drug Cartels Mexico drug cartels refer to the drug trafficking organizations in Mexico. There are seven cartels operating in the 31 Mexico cities and the federal district, Mexico City, the major ones being Juarez, Sinaloa and Gulf cartels. The Juarez cartel operates in 21 states, Sinaloa operates in 17 states, Gulf operates in 13 states, and Tijuana operates in 15 states among others.
They are well founded and stable organization with leaders and good communication channel which makes their operations very efficient and counter narcotics operations very difficult in Mexico. These cartels are able to do their operations freely due to the isolated and rugged terrain in Mexico and the prevalent corruption in the Mexican law and judiciary (Cook, 2007; Shanty, 2008, pg 332).
Currently, the Mexican government has prioritized fight against drug trafficking and this has resulted to capture and death of many cartel leaders. When the leadership position in such cartels remain vacant, there are always wrangles when filling the positions or even to control the drug market. As a result, several cartels have formed alliances due to power wrangles and partly for prison negotiations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It has been reported that Gulf and Sinaloa cartels use personal enforcer gangs to violently control trafficking routes in the United States.
Since drug trafficking brings back a lot of revenue, these cartels have been able to corrupt their way through the government official such that they either allow them to carry out their business freely or even join them in the business. Statistics shows that wholesale operations of illegal drug may amount revenue of $13.6 to $48.4 billions annually (Cook, 2007).
Mexico drug cartels have existed for a long time but they have recently been growing stronger due the termination of the Colombia’s Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s and closure of Florida cocaine transit route. They have now dominated the market of illegal drugs in the United States. Though they mainly produce and transit Marijuana and methamphetamine, a large amount of heroin in the US passes through Mexico.
A Transnational Crime The Mexican cartels have not only been operating in Mexico but throughout the United States and every consequence directly or indirectly affects the associated countries. For instance, the Tijuana Cartel, which was headed by Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo, is considered one of the most violent drug trafficking organizations and is linked with hundreds of homicide cases.
Felix killed a DEA agent Enrique Camerena; his members have been on the FBI most wanted list and ended up in life imprisonment or in the police bullet (Shanty, 2008, pg 333). Since the Mexican government changed their status quo concerning drugs and started giving the drug cartels pressure, the drug cartels have resulted to use of violence to force their way (Rollins, Wyler, and Rosen, 2010).
Drug trafficking organization has become a security interest for the last decade since they have grown in size due to northward flow of illicit drug and availability of market and weapons from the south. Since the inauguration of President Felipe Calderón’s in 2006, drug related murders and kidnapping have increased as the cartels counter act on the presidents vow to fight drug cartels and corruption (Zhang, 2010).
Mexican Drug Cartels on Drug and Human Trafficking Human trafficking in Mexico has been a common scenario as culprits get promises of good jobs only to find themselves in forced labour and prostitution. This has been rising since the Mexican government started fighting drug cartels seriously and it is projected that they are the same organization carrying out human trafficking.
We will write a custom Essay on Mexican Drug Cartels and Human Trafficking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since President Calderón’s prioritized fight against drug cartels, attention to other kinds of crime seized and this has given enough room for human trafficking to grow at very alarming rate. In the recent year, human trafficking in Mexico has been very profitable to these guns giving them annual revenue of about $6.6 dollars.
By 2010, it is projected that over 100 000 women will be trafficked out of Latin America on prostitution basis (Graham, 2010). Reports from Mexico says that due to the pressure exerted on the drug cartels by the government, they have resolved in other means of getting revenue and the major one has been human trafficking alongside kidnapping and extortion (Llana, 2010).
Effects of globalization and technology and information revolution on drug trade and human trafficking War on drugs has played a major role in the rising human trafficking in Mexico since it has dominated the news headline leaving issues related to human trafficking in darkness (Graham, 2010). Globalization and technology and information revolution has reduced the world in to a cyber space thus; people can communicate effectively regardless of their location.
It has therefore been very easy for the cartels to carry out their crimes effectively since they can communicate effectively. Globalization has also lead to influence of one state by the other since sovereignty of nations no longer operate and immigration is common and this has helped Mexico cartels to transit drugs easily across the borders (Bunker, 2003).
The availability of information concerning drugs, their revenue and availability on the internet globally has given the interested culprits information on how and where to find them thus acceleration the rate of expansion of this sector.
Conclusion Mexico has become so vulnerable to the effects of drug and human trafficking, which has become a transnational crime. It has been difficult top eradicate drug cartels in this nation due to their influence on the government officials as a result of large pools of money they are getting from this illegal business.
Efforts to eradicate have only resulted to strengthening of the group as they try to counter attack and in the process of finding other means to supplement their business.
Furthermore, the presence of drug cartels in Mexico has been a pool of war amongst themselves as they fight to control the drug channels in Mexico. The Mexican government ought to be open-minded in the fight against drug and human trafficking as they work hand in hand with other nations since they cannot make it on their own.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mexican Drug Cartels and Human Trafficking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Bunker, R. J. (2003). Non-state threats and future wars. New York: Frank Cass
Management Strategy Models Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Comprehensive business situation analysis can take many forms. Situation analysis involves the evaluation of the situation and the trends in a particular company’s market. The commonest is the analysis on the basis three C’s. According to Orcullo (2007), his particular situation analysis refers to the study of the major elements of the businesses that crucially affect the direction that any business takes.
Gotz and Mann (2006) say that customers, costs and competition traditionally form the core of the three C’s analysis. Strauss (2008) says that, nowadays business situation analysis includes collaboration, the company itself and competitive advantage that the company holds over its rivals.
According to Bohn (2009), another model that will be used to evaluate Morison’s company is the SWOT analysis.
The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that Morrisons is experiencing relative to its competitors will be analyzed to determine the situation and recommend the possible remedies and strategies it should take to avoid losing ground to other supermarket chains.
The C’s Business Situation Analysis Customers
Like the other leading three stores, Morrisons has focused on the mid low-end segment of the population. The company has pursued a strategy focusing on offering unbeatable customer service and a favorable shopping environment. Again, it regularly competes on special offers and other promotions that aim to convince customers as savings oriented.
The strategy has had considerable success evidenced by the number of customers who visit the stores every year. For instance, the store announced that a whooping 10.8 million customers visited the store in the three months leading to November 2009. The figures were way ahead of predictions and further served as a vote of confidence in the customer service polices that is in place.
Morrisons supermarket faces competition from many other retails chains in the UK that already control a big share of the market. Waitrose, Sainsbury, ASDA and Tesco provide for the major competition for Morrisons in the UK. Apart from Waitrose, the rest are way ahead of the Morrisons in the market in terms of diversity of goods and services and regional presence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Company
Morrison Supermarkets plc. is classified as the fourth largest super market in the United Kingdom. It is got a sizable market share in the UK that was estimated at 11.8% in 2008. Currently, it is estimated to employ more than 124, 000. However, compared to its competitors, Morrisons was the smallest in terms of the market share segment.
It is way behind market leader Tesco with a market share of 30.9%, Asda with 16.8% and Sainsbury with 16% (Li 2008). The company majorly deals with groceries and consumer goods that form the core of its revenue sources. Its revenue in the year 2010 is estimated to have hit 14, 528 million pounds. It is made a net profit of 460 million pounds in the year 2009.
SWOT Analysis The C’s analysis above brings out many strengths and weaknesses of the Morrison’s retail chain. Similarly, it analyses the opportunities that can be exploited and the threats that are encroaching on its survival in the market (Fine 2009). Any strategy therefore that the new leader is going to carry out must address the elements identified in the SWOT analysis.
It is apparent that Morrisons has a distinct advantage in the Northern part of the UK. Its historical ties with the place and success in courting low and mid low-end customers is one of the strengths that it boasts over its smaller rivals. The acquisition of Safeway’s retail group has only served to reinforce that advantage of consolidating Northern UK and other parts of the country.
Again, unlike its competitors who have diversified in the products they offer, Morrison is yet to diversify universally beyond groceries and non-food offers. It therefore provides an area of strength that can be exploited by the retail chain to its advantage.
The chain also has enormous strength among the upper middle class segment of the population. Morrison too has its “good quality food” tag that it has cultivated over time and which accords strength that its competitors do not have.
Morrisons has a strong balance sheet besides owning majority of its store portfolio which is estimated at 89%. Estimates put its value of property to be 7.5 billion pounds higher than its market capitalization. With only 19% as its debt equity, Morrisons comes out top in the sector.
We will write a custom Essay on Management Strategy Models specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company therefore is stable as far as asset worth and accumulation is concerned. The above are financial strengths that the company can use to its advantage to increase business
The supermarket however seems unsure which direction it should take. Failure to establish presence in the south when all other major chains did so was a case in point where the retail chain’s top management failed to make quick decisions and take risks to increase its market share in the UK.
Concentration on the low-end market means there still is an opportunity for the supermarket to grow its customer base in the high sections of the population. The fact that its leading competitors have larger market share and make more profits with their low-end client base is reason enough that there is still opportunity in expanding the customer base.
Though Morrisons has ventured into the southern part of the UK, there still is an opportunity to expand its operations throughout the country to make it a nationwide chain hence access a larger client pool. While Tesco for instance has 2282 stores, Morrisons has 447 stores, giving it a huge opportunity to grow its branches to effectively compete with the leading three stores.
All of Morrisons rivals have developed online shopping options for their customers. They have expanded their market reach to accommodate those that rely on the internet for shopping.
Morrison’s new CEO has acknowledged the company is looking into the possibility of developing such a system. It is an opportunity that if exploited could see is customer base grow while the market share will be increased.
The price war between Morrisons and Tesco placed Morrisons at the receiving end. A Tesco advert in 2007 sought to inform prospective customers how Tesco had over 3000 items priced cheaper than at their rival Morrison. The financial muscle and the greater market share of the competitors will always be a threat to Morison’s position and progress as a market leader in the UK.
Strategy development Given the stiff competition among supermarkets in the UK, it is important that Morrisons develops a strategy aimed at maintaining its competitive advantage. Its strengths as identified in the SWOT analysis will be consolidated while the measure will be put in place to stem the weaknesses. The strategy has to focus on exploiting the existing opportunities to increase the revenues of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Strategy Models by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Porter’s Generic Business Model According to Porter’s generic business opportunities model, innovation, quality enhancement and cost reduction form the core of any business strategy (Rundle and Johnson 2010). Innovation aims to increase the differentiation of products and adds value to them.
Kossowski (2007) asserts that differentiation will enhance creativity that will ensure uniqueness of products giving a company’s good s and services an edge over the others. Quality enhancement on the other hand will involve concentration of particular market segments and development of highly developed products for those markets.
Provision of cost leadership involves reduction of costs while remaining competitive on pricing. Charging lower prices will ensure while maintaining an acceptable profit margin on each unit of goods sold will effectively manage costs leading to profitability.
Porter’s generic business opportunities model suits Morrisons as it seeks to increase its market share while raising its revenues. The new Chief Executive Officer needs to focus on new innovations that will bring new customers on board.
Their marketing ways have to change so as the message goes beyond the mid low-end customer base that forms its core clientele. Innovation is also critically needed if the company is to increase the variety of goods that it has offering its customers.
Pricing has been one of the fronts that the super markets have engaged each other. Morrison’s has a strong financial backing which can easily be turned to price offers to customers.
The new CEO will need to focus on specific market segments like they are doing now with a reduced margin and an intention to win the price war. A price war can easily turn against the company especially if the rivals have a considerable financial muscle like that of Tesco and the other two leading supermarkets.
Morrisons has numerous factories where its products are manufactured. Possession of these factories gives them an advantage over their competitors. In the quest to improve sales, the new management should focus on improving the quality of their goods.
This will be easier especially because they have control over the production of a majority of goods for their outlets. The leadership of the company should focus in making goods difficult to imitate by competitors and counterfeits. That way they are able to lock in any intended onslaught on their products by the competitors.
Diversification beyond food products is necessary if market leaders like Tesco are to be challenged. Considering all leading supermarkets target the low-end segment of the market and regularly engage in price competition with Morrisons, it is important the new CEO carefully reviews the strategy. Caution will need to be applied in order to ensure costs are minimized while profits are maximized.
Five forces Model Five forces model is another strategy model that is popular with businesses (Hax 2009).This strategy model suits into Morrisons current needs and the new management can use it to improve its market share while combating the challenges that face the company.
According to Shaw-McMinn et al.(2001), the model involves analysis of the market through five fronts which touches on almost every aspect. Threat from new entrants in the market, the industry, bargaining power if suppliers, the bargaining power of buyers and the threat of substitute products constitute the five forces that shape strategy formulation in many companies.
There are likely to other new entrants in the UK market. Though they present no considerable threat, it is important that the new management of Morrisons take note of them. New entrants normally enter the market with the intention of capitalizing on the existing player mistakes. Lack of online shopping for Morrisons may be one of the weaknesses that new entrants may be targeting.
Considering they will be competing for the same clientele, it is important that Morrisons take steps to consolidate the customer base and ensure loyalty of customers. One way the new CEO can do it is through introduction of the shopper’s card that promises rewards for loyal and consistent customers.
The supermarket industry in the UK is vibrant and any innovation player is guaranteed to keep its place. The new management of Morrisons should increase industry presence through offering diverse types of goods. Morrisons has already consolidated its position on the food sector.
Its time the new management focused on other fronts that as a result will net new customers hence increase customer base. Keeping competitive advantage should also be top of the agenda. Morrisons would want to keep its superb infrastructure that greatly aides its domination of the groceries market.
All goods that Morrisons distributes are obtained from suppliers. Considering it is largely a grocery oriented chain, suppliers come in handy. Suppliers determine the quality of the goods sold by the supermarket. Good relations with suppliers are therefore critical to Morison’s survival in the market. A few years back some industry analysts in the UK felt supermarkets in the UK including Morrisons were being too tough on suppliers.
It is understandable because Morrisons has packaged itself a store that offers quality products compare with its rivals. Considering suppliers too have power and they can decide to sell their produce to other willing industry players, it is important the new management develop a relationship that is beneficial to both parties.
It will be important for the new CEO to avoid the common hostilities that normally characterize supplier-buyer relationships.
Buyers or customers are the main backbone of any business that has intentions of surviving in the market. The bargaining power of customers if not checked and carefully dealt with can easily lead to losses. Businesses have to perform a delicate balancing act where they need to make a sale and gain profit and ensure a customer is not lost or the reputation of the company is not damaged.
The financial strength that Morrisons has plus an expected jump in profits through sound management will be enough for the new management to offer promotions that can double up as bargaining events.
Substitute products offer reprieve to customers when they feel that do not experience maximum utility from the products they are interested in. It is therefore important that Morrison’s stock substitute products that will offer customers a wide variety to choose from if their original intentions are not met. That calls for diversification of the products on offer in the stores in an effort to go beyond food products as earlier said.
Conclusion The models described above do not offer the ultimate solution to Morrisons quest of increasing its market share in the UK. It is important for the management to note that its other leading competitors have overseas operations which gives them a competitive edge over Morrisons.
The new CEO should consider taking Morrisons operations abroad in order for the company to increase its revenues and to improve its international market share.
References Bohn, A. (2009) The SWOT Analysis. Berlin: GRIN Verlag.
Hax, C., A. (2009) The Delta Model: Reinventing Your Business Strategy. New York: Springer.
Fine, L. G. (2009) The SWOT Analysis: Using Your Strength to Overcome Weaknesses, Using Opportunities to Overcome Threats. New York: Booksurge Llc.
Kossowski, A. (2007) Strategic Management: Porter’s Model of Generic Competitive Strategies Theory and analysis. Berlin: GRIN Verlag.
Li, E. (2008) Supermarket Chains and Grocery Market in the UK. Web.
Mann, C. J. and Gotz, K. (2006) Borderless business: managing the far-flung enterprise. London: Greenhood Publishing group.
Orcullo, N. (2007) Fundamentals of Strategic Management’ 2007. Manchester: Rex Bookstore, Inc.
Rundle, S. and Johnson. N. C. (2010) Business As Mission: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice. New York: Inter-Varsity Press.
Shaw-McMinn, Peter, G. and Moss, Garry L. (2001) Eyecare business: marketing and strategy. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Strauss, S. (2008) The small business bible: everything you need to know to succeed in your small business. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Cross-Border Mergers scholarship essay help
Introduction In every part of the world, the business sector is streamlining its operations through diverse types of amalgamation approaches. Amalgamation is done in order to triumph over the many challenges but also harness opportunities created by globalization. The intensity of such operations has been witnessed in different major sectors of the economy in many countries of the world.
In particular, there have been relatively high rates of mergers and acquisitions among the pharmaceutical industries. This phenomenon is attributed to presence of subsidiaries of big multinational companies in many countries the entire world over. This paper investigates into literature written on acquisition and mergers with a special focus on the pharmaceutical industry.
Acquisition and Mergers The term merger and acquisition are often applied synonymously; however, there is a slight difference in the meaning of the two terms. A merger takes place when two firms harmonize to go onward as a unitary corporation rather than remain disjointedly possessed and managed.
When merging occurs, and in most occurrence between companies of the same size, their stocks are surrendered and the new company stock is issued in their place.
On the other hand acquisition takes place when one firm takes over another and establishes itself as the new owner. In this case the target corporation ceases to exist legally, and the buyer’s stockpile continues to be traded, as noted by Hassan (2007, p.58). In addition, Hassan (2007) notes that almost all mergers tend to be between medium size firms and large sized firms.
Cross-border mergers and acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical Industry There are numerous reasons that lead to the majority of mergers in pharmaceutical industries. In reference to most mergers and acquisition in pharmaceutical industries in the United States of America, Kang
Comparing and Contrasting the Assumptions Underlying the Various HRE Strategies Compare and Contrast Essay essay help
HRE Strategy Theoretical Perspectives There are a lot of theoretical discussions on the different strategies applied in human resource management as engraved in the management of organizations and strategic literature. The use of strategies was recognized in the management field leading to the use of different strategies in dealing with the overall management of an organization.
The most commonly used strategies are based on a framework that is structured on SWOT analysis and other internal analysis methods in the organization. From such analysis, the management is able to assess the progress of the organization and determine its financial and competitive position hence they are able to make well-informed and helpful decisions.
Some Major duties of HR Personnel include the management of recruitment, performance and compensation, planning of the labor force, organization of on-job trainings, catering for employee leaves and Management of the employee Benefits, management and distribution of overtime, Distribution of the Pay slips, allocation of duties, Management of the employee information and skill, acting on behalf of employees on their grievances, Employee Survey, Exit Interviews
Planning an Integrated Marketing Communications Campaign Coursework essay help online: essay help online
Situation Analysis Athletic footwear industry is very much concentrated (Eric 2006). The industry consists of a large number of smaller and segmented players. One of the key characteristics which define the industry is the purpose and price of the shoes. However, there is a given degree of overlap amongst the various shoe categories especially with regard to casual wear and performance shoes.
For example, a considerable proportion of individuals wear athletic shoes in non-athletic settings. This is an indication that there is a potential for an increment in the size of the market for athletic shoes.
Currently, large firms dominate the athletic shoe industry account for 95% of the entire market while small firms account for only 5%. Some of the key competitor s in the industry includes Adidas, Nike, Reebok, Puma, Skechers, Van, K-Swiss, Asics, Saucony and New Balance (Eric 2006).
Nike Incorporation is the leading firm within the athletic footwear industry. The firm deals with designing and marketing various a variety of athletic footwear. Nike Air Max is one of the leading athletic footwear produced by the company. The product is effectively designed to appeal the consumer. Nike Air Max has an air cushioning and an innovative foam cushioning.
This makes it to be effective with regard to impact absorbing. A thin plate is sandwiched between the cushioning systems to ensure effective support of the feet (Loscher 2006). The price of a pair of Nike Air Max shoes varies from $ 99 to $149 for men while ladies shoes range from $99 to $ 119 (Loscher 2006). A significant proportion of consumers consider Nike Air Max to be of high quality and stylish.
In 2004, Nike had a market share of 42% as illustrated in the pie chart below. The lucrative nature of the industry in relation to profitability has led to a large number of investors venturing the industry. The resultant effect has been an increment in the degree of rivalry. The high degree of rivalry has had a negative effect on the firm as it is evident in the reduction in its market share.
In order to attain a high competitive advantage, firms in the athletic footwear industry are adopting various market positioning strategies. One of these strategies relate to formation of mergers and acquisition. For example, in 2003, Nike Incorporation acquired Converse Company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was followed by the Reebok and Adidas merge in 2005 (Fried, Shapiro
Nike Company Marketing Communication Coursework best essay help
Introduction Marketing communication has become an integral part of product and services. The process of incoming current consumers and prospective consumers is among the key competencies’ of any company, a successful marketing communication mix will most likely contribute in boosting sales and revenues (Yeshin,1998. 1-16)
A company’s communication mix may have a lot of elements that all gear effort towards delivering messages to consumers it is therefore important that different elements of the marketing mix work together and produce the same net effect that is in line with overall marketing and corporate objectives and therefore for this to happen the marketing department of any organization must work together and develop these messages carefully.
Nevertheless, it is vital that management of any company comes up with a comprehensive plan that will enable the company communicate product attributes effectively to the consumers (Kotler 2003, 88).
It is important that once a company comes up with a product it goes ahead to define its target market and consequently set marketing objectives, communication objectives, creative strategy and media strategy which are relevant tactics that will go into making the strategy a success and an overall control mechanism that will correct any shortcomings as far as marketing communication is concerned (Hummer 1997, 45).
Therefore when a company conducts its research and gathers all practical and theoretical data pertaining to the creation of an integrated marketing model then the company can go forward to form channels of communicating better with its clients.
Ambiguous results from advertisement campaigns have led marketers to consider adopting other facets of promotion in order to realize marketing communication objectives (Kitchen 2005, 13).
Integrated marketing communication model A good integrated marketing communication program should therefore aim to: identifying target audiences, analyzing the situation, setting marketing communications objectives, developing strategies and tactics, setting a budget and finally evaluating the effectiveness of the campaign (Claudia 2009 4-15)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the above diagram it is clear that the message sent must be customized specifically to reach the target audience and therefore bring desired results for the sender.
Therefore the aim of the message is it to inform, remind, persuade, instill loyalty, improve on image, or encourage a trial purchase hence, it should be made in such a way that it will identify with the specific target market that includes consumers of the service or product. (Baumol
Reasons and Solutions for Unemployment in USA Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Unemployment provides statistical evidence of the economic health and performance of a Government and is defined as a count of the number of people who are not actively engaged in gainful jobs, have failed to secure a job in the last four weeks, but have the requisite energy and ability to work on the job they are looking for.
Despite the array of railing disputes on the target and specific causes of unemployment, sanguine researchers into specific causes of unemployment keenly point out a number of them.
The US Bureau of Statistics (BLS) details an analysis of unemployment conditions in the USA and causes of unemployment are presented with staggering figures. News Release (2010) supports its unemployment statistics from a variety of surveys conducted on different households and institutions that span nonfarm and privately employed workers.
By 2010, nonfarm employment level had settled at 9.6 percent with seasonal adjustments. The subsequent months to October of 2010, unemployment rates had hit a 14.8 million mark, a slight adjustment to the 9.6 percentage mark.
News Release (2010) provides a detailed report targeting both male and female employees. By 2010, the unemployment rate for able men was identified to be at 9.7 percent while that one for women had hit an 8.1 percent mark. On the other hand, 27.1 percent of the teenage population was unemployed while whites registered 8.8 percent unemployment and blacks registered 15.7 percent unemployment rate (Kitov, 2006).
On the other hand the Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey (2009) argues that the unemployment rate for other sectors such as the mining sector experienced a temporary decline over the same period in October 2010. However, the slight improvement on employment over the same period was not reflected in all sectors of the economy.
By the same period, a decline in government employment was registered. Additionally, News Release (2010) statistical data highlights reasons for unemployment for different categories of unemployment reasons. These classifications include employees who left or lost their jobs and those who made reentry into their previous jobs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further evidence on the grim prospects of the levels of unemployment is fueled by indicators that facilitate the speculations that the economy is stagnant (Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey, 2009).
Based on the statistics discussed above and other credible sources, it is evident that unemployment levels are ever on the rise the US economy. Among the contributing elements is the population explosion of the United States.
Thus the unemployment component expressed as a variable of the degree of unemployed persons against the available labor force in the market correlates strongly with the population density for frictional, structural, seasonal, cyclical, and residual unemployments.
Population as a cause of unemployment relates to the ratio between unemployed and the population density. The higher the population, the higher the level of unemployment expressed as a ratio of the actual population.
Besides high levels of population evidenced from the movements of people from different parts of the world to the USA, inflation has been identified to significantly contribute to high unemployment rates. This is based on the concept of stagflation. Stagflation bears a relationship with aggregate demand and aggregate supply, variables that behave inversely to the Philips curve.
The accumulated effect of inflation on employee retention is that companies find it exclusively expensive to maintain employees at their jobs and opt to lay them off to offload associated costs of maintaining them. In addition to that, inflation raises the cost of production directly appreciating the cost of goods and services while diminishing customer purchasing power.
A rise in the amount of supply of money in a nation is directly related to higher inflation levels causing companies to find it unwise to invest in human capital to facilitate their economic activities.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Reasons and Solutions for Unemployment in USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among the profound causes of unemployment is trade balance. Trade balance is a concept that defines the trend in trade in terms of the differences between a country’s exports and imports. The gap between imports and exports in the US economy has experienced a drastic rise over the years. It is evident that Chinese firms have favorably tilted the balance of trade to their side gaining overwhelmingly on the US market.
Based on the aggregate supply curve, the relationship between unemployment and income per capita as a function of National income(Y) indicates a strong relationship with the rising level of unemployment in the USA. That notwithstanding, the consumer price index has also significantly impacted on the level of unemployment in the country.
The levels of price have a direct relationship with inflation and the buyer buying behavior and ability. This is based on the inflation as a variable for measuring the level of economic performance of the US economy in relation to varying price levels.
Valletta (2005) argues that American firms have over time been facing fierce competition from firms of other countries that offer cheaper products and services. Significant to this is the resulting loss of a considerable pie of the market and profits resulting in reduced employee force and unemployment in the long term.
The concept of lean manufacturing emphasizes on optimum use of resources and other manufacturing strategies targeted at higher profits at minimum operating costs. This concept has had its way on the approaches and strategies organizations employ in running and restructuring organizations.
Business organizations have found themselves compelled to adapt to flat organizations to reduce costs associated with tall organizations and optimize on profits.
De-layering has had an adverse effect on employee retention within these companies and the resulting consequences have been to lay off some employees. While these unemployment variables have had their toll on the level and rate of unemployment in the United States, technology has come with a rude shock (Valletta, 2005).
Known as technology unemployment, this approach fosters the use of automation in manufacturing and service provision processes that play the role of a trained and skilled employee. Technology consumes significantly far less resources in the form of maintenances requirements without the associated costs incurred as wage bills for human employees.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reasons and Solutions for Unemployment in USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The element of multitasking, an element that is strongly encouraged by most American companies increases the level of unemployment (Kitov, 2006). Multitasking is a concept where individuals can take up more than one job that could be taken up by other people. This hampers productivity though it comes with the benefits of job rotation and job enrichment, a motivational element in growth and personal development.
Policy formulations related to monetary policies that have their genesis on rising duration adversely impacts on wage pressures creating an upward or downward trend for any particular unemployment rate (Valletta, 2005).
To appropriately address the myriads of problems associated with the unemployment levels demands a keen evaluation, identification, and analysis of the unemployment situation and related variables before implementing the solutions.
One of the approaches is to tackle the adverse economic effects of a surging population. While a country cannot stay soundly developed if it adopts negative population policies that undermine the transfer of skills and expertise from different parts of the world, the US needs to design and implement policies that target illegal migrations into the country.
On the other hand, a country cannot develop with a diminishing population. A lean population may have adverse implications on the availability of sufficient labor and appropriate manpower for sustained development and economic growth.
Therefore, the current level of population needs to be maintained while illegal immigrants that may be counted as noise variables when calculating the actual level of unemployment should be controlled (Valletta, 2005).
In addition to the above control, it is recommended that measures to curb high inflation rates and currency depreciation should be implemented by appropriate use of monetary mechanisms to steer the currency from further depreciations in the local and international market, despite the benefits that come with a weaker currency.
While domestic consumption may not offer adequate solutions to unemployment problems, US companies need to revise their strategies in relation to competing firms who may be tagged as emerging threats particularly from India, China, and Brazil.
US companies should establish strong economic and business relationship with emerging markets particularly found in Africa. In addition to that, people should be intensively trained in the use of new technologies to avert the problem of technology unemployment.
References News Release (2010). The Employment Situation. BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. Web.
Kitov, I.O. (2006). Inflation, unemployment, labor force Change in the USA. Web.
Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey (2009). How the Government Measures Unemployment. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web.
Valletta, R.G. (2005). Rising Unemployment Duration in the United States: Causes and Consequences. Web.
How Can Innovations Sustain Brands? Proposal online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Topic Proposal
Aims and Objectives
Scope and Constraints
As branding has become one of the essential components of marketing strategies aimed at promoting the financial success of the company, more and more theories about the methods of effective branding evolve. Innovations are considered one of the tools that can be used to sustain brands.
The following paper presents the proposal of dissertation investigating the specifics of the introduction of new changes and its effects on company’s development and revenues.
Topic Proposal The topic proposed for the dissertation is the impact of innovation on the sustainability of the brand. As more and more marketing strategies continue to develop and be used by companies, the need for careful analysis of such strategies becomes evident.
The exploration of the mentioned topic can contribute to the generalised knowledge about efficient marketing and help to identify whether a continuous introduction of innovations can benefit the organisation and improve brand image.
Aims and Objectives The primary aim of completing the dissertation on the discussed topic is studying the relation between brand sustainability and provision of appropriate innovations.
The objectives of the paper include analysing the relevant academic literature exploring the issue, summarising the results of valid studies investigating the topic, identifying the gaps in the literature, and making appropriate conclusions relevant to the theme of the paper.
All of these steps are supposed to help the author to reveal how the chosen topic is reflected in the experience of companies and valid theoretical concepts and how this knowledge can be used in the future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review A considerable number of academic sources explore the topic chosen for the dissertation. The review of relevant literature helps to identify the current theoretical framework of the issues and investigate the findings of the studies revealing its nature and specifics.
Many study books in marketing present valid information about the role of innovations in sustaining the brand. Such literary sources mostly rely on theoretical knowledge about brand nature while also provide relevant facts reflecting the experience of the companies. Study books give a clear understanding of what are the main goals of introducing innovations and explain how the company can benefit from it and which results can be achieved.
The number of scholarly articles discusses the theoretical framework of the issue. Brexendorf, Bayus, and Keller (2015) provided a conceptual framework to “help structure the interrelationship” between brand and innovations management (p. 548).
The article presents and analysis of how these two notions relate to each other and discusses different stages of introduction of new products and features of the company. The authors also identify the gaps in the knowledge about the issue and suggest future research direction.
Franzak and Pitta (2011) discussed the specifics of service dominant and solution dominant brand innovation and presented valid conclusions reflecting the assumption that the implementation of the latter mentioned concept is the key to enhancing brand sustainability. The authors argue that solution-focused logic may help to improve marketing strategies and make the process of setting new products effective and customer-driven.
Other sources of relevant information about the topics are the articles written based on the relevant studies conducted to present the findings that reflect real experience of companies trying to support their brands with the introduction of new elements, methods, and strategies. Various researchers discuss different aspects of the topic and help to construct a comprehensive understanding of the theme.
Beverland, Napoli, and Farrelly (2009) studied whether all brands can innovate in the same way and came to the conclusion that differently positioned brands need to choose the strategy providing the success of new products that corresponds to the specifics of the brand image.
We will write a custom Proposal on How Can Innovations Sustain Brands? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, the study revealed that companies should consider brand perception as the most significant factor showing the direction of possible changes, brand extensions, in particularly.
Chien (2013) conducted s study shedding the light on the way the company innovations impact customer value. The author used a questionnaire-based survey and revealed the positive relation between the mentioned phenomena. The study contributes to the understanding of the importance of the constant search for new decisions able to boost the organisation’s sustainability.
Chimhundu, Hamlin, and McNeill (2010) investigated the impact of manufacturer brand innovation on the welfare of retailer brands and presented valid information about the most appropriate methods of guiding the process of releasing new products in such way that it benefits both manufacturers and retailers.
Sinapuelas, Wang, and Bohlmann (2015) explained the specifics of the interaction between new changes, brand, and marketing mix variables in line extensions and presented valid conclusions reflecting the assumption that “parent-brand strength” can be considered one of the main factors ensuring the successful implementation of alterations related to the expansion of the brand (p. 558).
The analysis of academic sources presenting valid information about the discussed topic reveals that many aspects of the process of making new changes and its effects on brand have been discussed by the scholars.
Scope and Constraints The scope of the dissertation includes gathering of relevant information about the process of introduction of innovations and its impact on brand’s sustainability, the steps able to minimize the risk of fail, the current methods used by companies, and the theoretical approaches to the explored issue in available books and articles from scholarly peer-reviewed journals and presenting the deep and detailed analysis of the findings.
The main constraints are based on the specifics of the issue and its discussion in the literature, as some gaps can be identified in the generalised knowledge about the issue. While many sources investigate it, only a few of them present relevant information about the long-term experience of companies using innovations to support their brands and provide the valuable comparison of their strategies.
The discussed dissertation is supposed to enable the author to answer some of the vital questions about branding based on the analysis of relevant literary resources. The author is willing to complete the dissertation, as the review of the literature discussing the topic has revealed its importance in everyday decisions made by specialists working in the field of marketing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Can Innovations Sustain Brands? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Beverland, M, Napoli, J
The Shapes, Forms, Use, and Functions of Stone “Lithic” Tools in the Paleolithic Age Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction Stone tools were used during the Paleolithic era by Homo habilis and Homo erectus. Stone was the main raw material, which was touched and refined to produce the desired product. Remains of stone tools provide archaeologists with clues on how human beings made objects using these tools.
Some of the earliest discoveries include the discovery of a hand axe in elephant remains which have been associated with the Pleistocene period in Europe. Lithic tool evolution is dated around 2.6 ma in Ethiopia’s Afar triangle. It was accompanied by emergence of the tradition of Oldowan and the Acheulian tools.
The lithic tool evolution was accompanied with industries like the Oldowan industry and the famous Acheulian industry in the West Turkana region of Kenya during the Paleolithic era.
Acheulian industry came after the Oldowan industry around 1.7 ma. The Mousterian industry followed afterwards and is commonly identified alongside the homo neanderthalensis. Many more stone industries followed suit until when iron and copper industries came into sight.
Stone tool research is also referred to as lithic technology among archaeologists worldwide. Research in this field started in the Scandinavia in the 1830s. These studies help in archaeological analysis so that archaeologists can be able to deduce certain facts in relation to the artifacts made by the lithic tools.
They are pretty important in documenting various facets of prehistoric activities of the Homo sapiens and in exposing their behavioral characteristics. This work tries to explain the forms of stone tools, how they were made and for what purpose.
Stone Tools The characteristic features of stone were the main determinants of the kind of tool to be made from the raw material. Such characteristic diagnostic features include fracture, cleavage, hardness and density among others. Stones which had even fractures were mostly used as raw materials in making flaked tools.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because percussion or pressure flaking, a method of manufacturing stone tools, made them to have a smooth concavo-convex finish. Fractures of such materials are found in rocks which have microscopic mineral grains and include rocks which do not cleave. Chalcedony, Chert, and flints are good example of these rocks (Kher
Comprehensive Strategic Management: Emirates Identity Authority Strategy Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction There are many methods managers can use to succeed in developing their businesses regarding a number of external and internal factors that many affect the growing and prospering abilities. Strategic planning is one of the possible management tools that aim at ensuring managers and their employees that they work properly to achieve the same goals and consider the changing environment (Bryson, 2011).
The success of strategic management depends on how soon a manager is able to notice the need for change and take the actions that can promote the change.
Emirates Identity Authority (Emirates ID) offers an example of how a federal government organization may develop a strategy that can affect organizational performance and introduce a company as a powerful strategic planning figure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Al-Khouri, 2012).
The current paper aims at discussing the background of the strategy, its missions, objectives, and outcomes that can prove the effectiveness of the chosen ideas.
Emirates ID approach is defined as successful due to several factors, and one of them is the company’s intention to be the first federal organization that can implement the customized strategy development framework, analyze its lifecycles, and promote the cooperation of different departments under the control of a single team called a Strategy Support Office (SSO).
The problem statement is connected with the immediate and long-term problems that can take place while implementing the strategy because Emirates ID should know if they have enough sources to cope with the challenges caused by mass enrollment or e-services improvements.
Situation Definition There are many reasons for why a governmental organization should focus on developing strategies and involving a number of people in the chosen practices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1998, Ahoy introduced the concept of a ‘trap’ a number of organizations can find themselves because of the inability to anticipate and get ready for unexpected change and the necessity to spend their organizational time on reacting and dealing with the already occurred changes (Al-Khouri, 2012).
Between 2010 and 2013, Emirates ID introduce a strategy with a properly identified mission, vision, and several strategic objectives that help to achieve success and deal with the external challenges.
Performance, Mission, Objectives Emirates ID is the UAE organization that contributes the development of a central population database that is able to save all biometric and even biographic facts of people, who live or visit the UAE. The success of the company may be explained by several values and intentions of the company. Customer orientation is promoted by the development of trustful relations and the abilities to share feedbacks.
The necessity of teamwork makes employees share their experience and knowledge to achieve organizational goals. The attention to innovation is the requirement that helps employees focus on different aspects of their work. Regarding the needs of the company and the expectations of the customers, Emirates ID offers the strategy 2010-2013 with the help of which the company can meet the external changes of the identified period.
The mission of the strategy is to make a considerable contribution to individual and national security by means of improving personal identity of the citizens and visitors of the UAE, providing a population registration, and promoting innovating e-services. Managers have the vision to become one of the principle references that can establish personal identity and contain population data across all regions of the UAE (Al-Khouri, 2012).
The company makes a decision to prepare its managers for any possible changes that can take place on the basis of mass enrollment or e-services improvements and make sure the members of a new SSO are able to promote communication and execution in terms of the strategy offered. Several clear goals are developed to underline the importance and necessity of the strategy.
For example, the enrollment of a new population register may be regarded as a crucial contribution to National and individual security. The attempt to establish ID cards should help to facilitate the delivery of e-services. The possibility of safe and easy data access helps to simplify transactions.
We will write a custom Case Study on Comprehensive Strategic Management: Emirates Identity Authority Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, the development of a new world-class organization becomes possible with properly developed high-quality services offered in time. All these goals and intents are offered as a basis of the strategy discussed in the case.
Corporate Governance The meaning of corporate governance has been changed during the last centuries. Tricker and Tricker (2012) admit that corporate governance should be defined by the way according to which it is possible to identify and comprehend the power that is spread among different corporate entities.
In other words, corporate governance should describe the relations that are developed among the company’s managers, the representatives of the board of directors, and other people, who may be involved in the development of an organization.
The people of Emirates ID understand how crucial and irreplaceable their work can be for the country. The citizens of the country trust in the achievements of the company and realize that their work improves the quality of life.
The relations that are developed among the employees of Emirates ID may become a good example for other organizations to be followed because its people are able to combine knowledge, trust, and experience to help people informing them about all changes and improvements that are necessary.
For example, the Corporate Governance Office promotes a number of training courses that are available to employees that get involved in customer services centers and asks people not to neglect this chance of personal excellence and quality (Emirates Identity Authority, 2014).
Employees, who can train and improve their qualities, learn new concepts and comprehend the goals of the company regarding the current opportunities and the impact of the internal and external factors. The criteria offered to all UAE international and local organizations make Emirates ID work hard and consider the expectations all the time.
Societal Trends The future of governance also depends on the way of how employees and managers of Emirates ID can understand the importance and worth of societal trends developed by the company. First, the fact of the increased number of tourists cannot be neglected. That is why the questions of demographics and economic development should be constantly discussed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comprehensive Strategic Management: Emirates Identity Authority Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, such trends as multi-cultural relations, social tensions, and sectarian conflicts may influence the development of the strategy under consideration. Finally, the general concepts like the conditions of privatization, globalization, migration, and digital passion are considered by the SSO to promote a successful future of the company with the chosen corporate governance and custom-oriented policies.
Industry Opportunities and Threats The success of a strategic developmental process depends on a proper identification of the industry threats and opportunities as a part of the SWOT analysis that has to be developed in regards to Emirates ID.
Due to the fact that the company was awarded as the Best Federal Authority according to the UAE Federal Government Excellence Program (Al-Khouri, 2012), it is expected that the company should meet the requirements set by the Federal Government Vision 2021 within the frames of which the UAE organizations can understand how to treat possible future initiatives and external factors.
The SWOT analysis is a chance to look at the external environment and identify the threats and opportunities of the industry and possible reactions of the company.
The main opportunities Emirates IA can use are the burning need to create comprehensive statistics concerning the population growth and the changes that can be observed among native citizens and visitors of the country. E-services have to be improved because of the governmental intentions to move to e-government possibilities.
There is also a necessity to explain the importance of registration to as many applicants as possible. Emirates ID has a chance to analyze the strong and weak aspects of its previous strategy and continue approving its practices in regards to the global expectations and competitions.
As for the threats that are not pleasant to the development of the strategy, it is possible to mention the lack of the required awareness and comprehension of customer needs. Though the company declares itself as a customer-oriented organization, the gaps in services and cooperation with customers are evident in the chosen industry.
It is necessary to focus on legal improvements that can control the roles and duties of different local and national entities. Finally, the evident technological improvements are expected, and the company should be ready to use its potential and meet the requirements set.
Internal Strengths The SWOT analysis aims at identifying the main strong aspects of the company that can be used in the chosen industry. The internal environment is strengthened by means of the production of a unique ID card that can be used by the citizens and visitors of the countries for different transactions. Another peculiar feature of Emirates ID is its leaders, who are ready to promote changes and analyze the results.
The company may also use the connection with various federal and local entities that want to promote a reengineered process as a chance to register population, control the changes, and cope with the challenges based on the complexity of enrollment processes and poor mechanisms for sharing information (Al-Khouri, 2012).
In other words, the strengths of the strategy are explained by the ability of the company to identify the governmental needs and introduce fast and credible solutions to a variety of governmental problems.
Internal Weaknesses However, there are several weak points that can put the strategy under a threat or create some challenges in the process. A poor promotional plan and the inabilities to ensure employees to follow the same activities may challenge the strategy. Performance challenges are also observed in the strategy because it is difficult to introduce performance indicators and explain them reasonably using the available resources only.
The needs of the UAE federal government require more time to be met than it is expected. There is also a weakness in the internal communication that leads to the challenges in connection with external entities. People do not understand how they can use their resources and abilities to create good working conditions. All these aspects have to be better articulated by the managers and the leaders of the company.
Strategic Factors The strategic framework helps to combine several key success factors with the help of which the team may understand how to take the activities in order to meet the goals set (deWit
Micro and Macro-Cosmos in Medicine and Care Models for Prevention of Diabetes Essay college application essay help
The Western Care model, including American and European care models, reflects the holistic, humanistic image of the man. Such image derives from Christianity, which serves as the basis for defining the specifics of human nature, which unites soul and body.
While the mentioned care models pay much attention to the microcosm of a human body, they lack precision in reflecting the specifics of the macrocosm of the environment.
Such approach can be considered to lack comprehensiveness, as appropriate caring about the human body is impossible without caring about the external environmental factors. The analysis of the concepts of micro and macro-cosmos in medicine helps to reveal the important components of effective care models for such common diseases as Diabetes.
The theory of micro and macro-cosmos originates from ancient Greek philosophical concepts. According to this theory, a man (micro-cosmos) is a representation of a universe (macro-cosmos). Such thought is based on the assumption that many of the characteristics of human body reflect the structure of the universe. Therefore, a human body is a reflection of a harmonious organization of the world.
Pythagoras was one of the first scientists and philosophers identifying the continuity between the universe and a human while Plato described the “soul of cosmos in its anthropomorphic representation” in more details (“Microcosm and Macrocosm” par.7). Cosmos has a perfect structure that includes the elements that are related to each other and present a harmonious unity.
The human body has the same structure, as all organs and body systems are interrelated with each other and can function properly only as a healthy unity.
As a result of accepting the discussed theory, medicine ensures that treatment of health problems is holistic and takes into account the functioning of all body systems. Such concept is reflected in care models that emphasize the importance of taking care of the whole organism while treating a disease of a distinct organ or system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the described approach to medicine has its clear advantages, it usually lacks the attention paid to the macro-cosmos – the world where we live. However, the environment can be considered one of the main factors impacting the microcosm of the human body. The specifics of the world surrounding us influence the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, etc.
Therefore, the holistic care model should include not only care about all of the body systems but also care about nature systems. One of the most common chronic diseases, Diabetes, is directly related to the impact of environmental factors.
The importance of having a healthy diet consisting of organic products to prevent and lessen the manifestations of diabetes reflects the significance of environmental factors, as they impact the food we eat. The number of scientific studies has disclosed the relation between such dietary factors as the duration of breastfeeding and the quality of products and the elevated chances of getting Diabetes 1(Knip and Simell 6; Deed et al. 288).
Another environmental factor contributing to the prevalence of Diabetes is air pollution, which is considered responsible for triggering Diabetes 2 (Pasala, Rao, and Sridhar 63) and Diabetes 1 (Hathout et al. 86). Water pollution has also been recognized as the factor that influences the onset of Diabetes (Sofi et al. 632).
The knowledge about the external factors serving as triggers for Diabetes 1 and Diabetes 2 should become the basis of Diabetes prevention used in modern care models. Such prevention should be based on the assumption that the quality of our environment is directly related to the chances of the onset of Diabetes in children and adults.
The methods of preventing Diabetes through adjusting care model to the external factors should include the actions that make the general environmental situation healthier. For example, organizing efforts aimed at improving the quality of the grains, vegetables, and fruits raised in the country can benefit the diet of the population, and, therefore, decrease Diabetes incidence.
Moreover, such dietary recommendations to Diabetic people as lowering the consumption of red meat is directly related to the improvement of nature, as the massive production of meat is one of the main factors contributing to air pollution worldwide.
We will write a custom Essay on Micro and Macro-Cosmos in Medicine and Care Models for Prevention of Diabetes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This example illustrates the strong relation between a microcosm of a human being and a macrocosm of the universe, as even the smallest everyday habits have an impact on the world.
Other efforts that should be included in care model aimed at preventing Diabetes should include avoiding water and air pollution caused by heavy industries, transport, etc. The discussed guidelines can significantly decrease the prevalence of Diabetes and are already used by many environmentally-conscious people.
The analysis of the concept of micro and macro-cosmos in medicine and the influence of environmental factors on the prevalence of Diabetes reveals that including care about such element of macro-cosmos as environment is one of the powerful keys to ensuring the harmonious functioning of the microcosm of a human being and preventing the growing rates of incidence of Diabetes.
Works Cited Deed, Gary, John Barlow, Dev Kawol, Gary Kilov, Anita Sharma, and Liew Yu Hwa. “Diet and Diabetes.” Australian Family Physician 44.5 (2015): 288-292. Print.
Hathout, Eba, Lawrence Beeson, Mariam Ischander, Ravindra Rao, and John Mace. “Air Pollution and Type 1 Diabetes in Children.” Pediatric Diabetes 7 (2006): 81-87. Print.
Knip, Mikael, and Olli Simell. “Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2 (2012): 1-15. Print.
Microcosm and Macrocosm. n.d. Web.
Pasala, Sudhir, Allam Rao, and Gary Sridhar. “Built Environment and Diabetes.” International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries 30.2 (2010): 63-68. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Micro and Macro-Cosmos in Medicine and Care Models for Prevention of Diabetes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sofi, Hanief, Radhika Gudi, Subha Karumuthil-Melethil, Nicolas Perez, Benjamin Johnson, and Chenthamarakshan Vasu. “PH of Drinking Water Influences the Composition of Gut Microbiome and Type 1 Diabetes Incidence.” Diabetes 63 (2014): 632-644. Print.
The Role of E-Portfolio to Promote Teacher Reflection Analytical Essay essay help free
Teacher professional development is an integral part of teaching practice, and teacher reflection is one of the methods to develop teachers’ skills, knowledge, and techniques. Teacher reflection shows the way of how teachers may interrogate their practices, pose questions concerning the effectiveness of their work, and meet students’ needs and expectations (Lyons, 1998: 115).
Valli (1992: 140) introduces reflection as a deliberative process within the frames of which the ethical implications of teachers’ work are considered alongside with the students’ observations, and the alternative practices are offered.
The purpose of teacher reflection is not only to change the style of teacher’s work but also to promote the evolution in work and understanding of what can be done to help students benefit with the chosen teaching practices. Though teacher reflection is directed to improve the work of teachers, this practice remains to be student-centered as well because the opinions and attitudes of students are considered.
There are many ways on how to promote teacher reflective practice, and e-portfolio is one of the tools that help to engage students in evaluating tutors’ readiness to cooperate (Lyons, 1998: 115).
The study developed by Jenson (2011: 49) explains electronic portfolio from four main principles according to which students should take responsibility for managing information they give about their teachers, select important pieces of information and share them properly, promote the creation of lifelong records about their learning processes, and develop the opportunities to reflect on their tutors’ work consistently.
The success of this study is explained by the possibility to use self-regulation as a powerful chance to reflect on teachers’ work using personal experience and opinions. The work by Alwraikat (2012: 154) aims at describing e-portfolio as a new study formula that can be used in all developed countries on the basis of graduate students’ attitudes.
The author underlines that the level of academic degree is more important than such factors as gender or specialization. Effective portfolios can also serve as the measurements of reflective practice and a kind of pedagogical space where learning and teaching practices can be properly explained (Parkers, Dredger,
Individual Case: Google Incorporation Evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Google Incorporation is one of the largest internet-based companies in the world. The company’s headquarters is in California. The company deals in areas such as software vending, search engine, and internet marketing. In the recent past, the company has added cloud computing to its products line. The company has grown through product differentiation, acquisitions, and merges in the last ten years.
The main competitors of Google are Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn, which have the ability to offer alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with products offered by Google.
The company successfully used flexible sourcing, retail distribution, and product focused differentiation to survive the impact of these competitors. As at the end of the year 2013, Google had the largest market share of 66.7% which was growth by 4% from 63.7% in the year 2010 (Gamble, Peteraf and Thompson, 2015).
Google utilized retail distribution (software vending and internet marketing) in the recent past to further expand its presence in markets like Japan, China, and Europe. It applied product differentiation strategy to expand and position itself as search engine.
Google’s scope of operations was characterized by online retailing of different internet based products targeting individuals, corporate, and government institutions across the globe market segments. For instance, Google created renowned brands for a number of products within its software vending service.
Google applied a series of grand strategies such as concentration, market development, product development, vertical integration, market penetration, and online retail distribution strategies to expose its numerous products across the globe as the most competitive brand.
For instance, Google managed to expand its markets outside North America within the first two years of inceptions besides launching a series of new products such as internet marketing and software vending across the globe.
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Google has a number of resources that have contributed to its success in the global market over the years. In order to ensure business sustainability, Google has concentrated the focused strategy through clear definition and targeting of specific market segment for its online based products.
The strategies are achieved through provision of high quality and unique internet based products, effective distribution and secure network, individual internet user segment, and variety of the internet based products.
Despite the success of these strategies, Google is threatened by its competitors with more or less similar approach in doing business within the Internet Information Providers industry. For instance, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn threaten to reverse the gains that Google has made in the Internet Information Providers industry.
As a prerequisite for sustainable organization performance, the strategic issues that Google is currently facing pivot around the most appropriate market that the company should focus on or neglect in order to survive competition.
Under this strategic issue, Google currently faces the dilemmas of critical focus on the most reachable software market, potentials and threats of entering the stratified software market, potential of re-branding its current software and internet marketing brands, and the best strategies of increasing visibility without appearing as a copy cat of the main competitors.
Therefore, what are the best strategies that Google should focus on to survive competition in the dynamic Internet Information Providers industry? In order to respond to this question, the following sub questions will be answered.
Should Google re-brand or introduce more brands to its current product line?
What strategy will be necessary to properly differentiate the Google’s brand?
External Environment Analysis Porter’s five forces analysis is necessary for Google as it assists in comprehension of the market strengths and weaknesses. Although Google has been a household name in the global internet information providers industry, there are several players that have limited its competitive advantage in the industry. The five forces determining the competitive advantage of companies operating within the industry are discussed below.
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Threat of entry
It is very difficult for a new entrant in the Internet Information Providers industry to successfully create a strong brand that can challenge dominance of Google, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn among others. It would require massive capital for an aspiring investor to outperform their business prowess.
Therefore, a new entrant may face difficulty in increasing brand visibility and cutting a piece of the market share. Since the Internet Information Providers industry is characterized by the ability to create high quality brands, a new entrant will have to build a following from scratch. This requires a lot of resources.
Threat of substitutes
In the internet marketing and software vending segments within the Internet Information Providers industry, threat of possible substitutes is very strong since most of the products are customized to perform specific functions, thus, rarely have substitutes.
Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn have the ability to offer an alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with products offered at Google Incorporation. Unsatisfied customers, therefore have other alternatives from where they can get the products traded by Google. However, imitations may threaten the market of new or current players.
When the counterfeits softwares make it into the mainstream market, the revenues of genuine companies will decline. In order to remain relevant, the Google Incorporation has established a unique market for its customer through tailored optometry internet marketing and software products that are customized.
Suppliers’ bargaining power
In the Internet Information Providers industry, the influence of the suppliers is highest when large volumes of softwares are purchased by a service provider. When the influence is high, profitability of the establishments in this industry is low since the cost of creating and licensing some of the products is very high.
Since suppliers within the Internet Information Providers industry operate at local and international levels, their influence differs. For instance, China, India, and Japan suppliers the largest volume of softwares that Google integrates in its business platform to offer fast and reliable search engine. Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft and other industry players have more than 1000 suppliers each.
The partnerships between independent manufacturers and vendors of softwares reduce the power of the suppliers in this industry. Google Incorporation has endeavored to use its deep reservoirs as a strategy for balancing the supply forces in the fragile software vending and internet marketing sectors of the US and across the globe.
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There is strong power in the fragmented internet marketing and software vending segments which are indirect and direct to customers. Despite the fact that these search engine businesses have very strong brand names; the buyers in this sector have the power to influence the prices for the products since there are a variety of services to choose from.
The power of the buyers is high since this industry is characterized by high competition. Therefore, each company considers the perception of their customers before setting prices in order to survive competition. Fortunately, Google has been consistent in maintaining their prices at half of the average prices of other brands due to global coverage and high economies of scale.
There are several brands operating in the same industry with virtually all of them dealing with a variety of search engine products and services. Players in the industry must be careful to survive any aggressive move by a competitor through creating a flexible brand name and constant product diversification. For instance, Yahoo provides the biggest competition to Google due to its big market share and expanded network standing at 30%.
With many customers looking for good value for their money, quality in service delivery has remained the main basis upon which customers are making their final decision to purchase products in the volatile Internet Information Providers industry of the US and across the globe.
All the players in the industry are putting measures in place to ensure they attract more customers and therefore expand their market share through creation of a smooth supply chain, diversification, and brand positioning. In line with this, Google has created multiple brands from its internet marketing and software vending products.
Key Success Factors Within the External Environment
Google has established a brand image that enables it to attract customers with less effort as opposed to most of its less established rivals. The entrants have to invest heavily in promotion and advertising for them to attract new customers and maintain their customers. The established brand image has enabled the company to cut on its cost and get increased levels of profitability.
Steady commitment to quality
Strong commitment to quality and product innovation enables the company to get the right experience for their customers. This has been possible through the recruitment of employees with the right skills and knowledge. These employees are further trained to understand the company production strategies. Moreover, the company conducts more market research to ascertain customer thoughts and changing demands.
Google has an active presence in all over America with an expanding presence in all other continents. In the past five years, revenues from sales doubled annually and the company expanded steadily.
Having been in the Internet Information Providers industry for over 10 years, Google has acquired enough experience to compete favorably in the industry. It has had sufficient time to learn from its weaknesses and develop long-term strategies that will anchor it through the future of the market.
Industry Analysis Industry Profile and Attractiveness
The Internet Information Providers industry has experienced steady growth as more customers embrace renowned brands such as Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn. The global Internet Information Providers industry has an estimated market value of over $200 billion.
The US, Asia, and Europe represent 76% of the market share. Despite the economic swing of 2007-2008 financial years, the players in this industry managed to recover and are currently experiencing an average growth of 20% annually.
At present, the Internet Information Providers industry command 18% of the total market value of the consumer internet purchases across the globe. The market share is anticipated to expand further to 22% by the year 2020 (Gamble et al., 2015). The search industry at present is controlled by Google, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn, who have managed to establish a household name for their brands.
Moreover, promotional services adopted by these companies have spurred the growth of internet service market across the globe. In addition, adoption of efficient and reliable technology in the marketing of these products positively skewed the market to the advantage of these internet based giants.
Based on the annual growth and market share, the incumbents are positioned to benefit in the future because the industry is highly attractive, especially in the emerging markets in Asia and Africa.
The Internet Information Providers industry is fragmented because there is no single enterprise with large enough shares to determine the industry’s direction. There are about ten major companies in the industry and the four major players have about 85% share combined and the rest of the industry is made up of small private-owned companies.
The largest, most important player in the industry is Google who currently holds 67.5% of the market share on its own. The second largest player in the Microsoft Company with an estimated 18% market share, followed by Yahoo with a 16% global market share (Gamble et al., 2015).
The industry is very competitive because these companies offer similar products and trade within the same platform. Because of this, the basis for competition in the industry is price followed by product design.
There are five success factors that are the most important to this industry, which include contacts within key markets, guaranteed supply of key inputs, ability to alter goods and services in favor of market conditions, production of services currently favored by the market and a highly trained workforce. The industry is heavily influenced by the state of the economy and consumer’s disposable income.
Growth over the past 5 years has come from a post recession increase in consumer’s disposable income. The recent recession is also a good example of this industry’s sensitivity to disposable income as 2011 saw a 27.9% decrease in revenue as compared to 2010 (Gamble et al., 2015).
Google and other competitors operate in the oligopolistic market structure. The industry has unique operational strategies which can be equated to the ideals of oligopolistic market, characterized by few competitors dominating the global search engine, internet marketing, and software vending markets.
Strong commitment to quality and product innovation has enabled these companies to get the right experience for their customers. Moreover, the companies conduct more market research to ascertain customer thoughts and changing demands. For instance, Google has consistently increased its production modification and diversification of products in the market instead of reducing output with intent of increasing prices.
There are few competitors who dominate the industry such as Google, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn among others. These companies control the industry. The Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Worldwide Incorporation has the largest market control of 24% with the other companies sharing the rest of the market (Gamble et al., 2015).
Since the industry is dominated be few global brands, it is very difficult for a new company to enter in this market and breakeven since the competitors benefit from economies of scale. Besides, the capital requirement for entry is very enormous for a new entrant.
Most of products and services offered by Google and its competitors are perfect substitutes and tend to have similar price ranges due to standardized operational costing and targeting strategies. Since these companies target similar customer segment, they have limited alternatives in terms of multiple pricing.
The companies use self advertisement and other forms of media to market different products. The self advertisement is possible due to their global brand image and active presences in the major markets across the globe.
The industry structure affects the strategies used by Google and its competitors in terms of pricing of products and customer segmentation. Since the main competitors offer perfect substitute products, Google has to ensure that its prices remain competitive to avoid losing customers to some of the competitors.
Besides, the company has to constantly remodel and integrate its products to maintain its current top position, which can easily be taken by the few giant competitors. Since the market structure is oligopolistic, the financial performance of Google has been stable and predictable since it has been able to earn very high profits since the barriers to entry such as large capital and logistic support blocks new entrants from penetrating the market.
Besides, the company has been able to use product differentiation strategy by offering series of brands from similar product category to ensure that the revenues of the company are above that of its major competitors.
Company Situation Financial Standing
The financial standing of the Google Inc. has fluctuated significantly between 2008 and 2012. From the balance sheet, it can be observed that the total assets grew from $2.467.12 million in 2010 to $3,663.10 million in 2013. Further, the liabilities rose from $961.82 million in 2010 to $1,242.50 million in 2013. Also, it can be noted that the value of equity followed a similar trend.
It increased from $1,505,293 million in 2010 to $2,420.70 million in 2013. The highest growth rate was attained in 2008 where sales grew by 21.75%. The least growth rate was attained in 2012 where sales decreased by 5.30%. During the global financial crisis that is in 2009 sales grew by 1.56% only (Gamble et al., 2015).
Return on assets The return on assets improved from 29.79% in 2010 to 33.43% in 2011. It declined to 21.33% in 2012. This implies that the amount of profit generated from a unit of asset decreased over the period.
This shows that the profitability and the efficiency in the utilization of the assets of the company declined over the period. This could also be a signal that the property of the company have dilapidated, thus, they cannot engender a considerable amount of returns.
Return on equity The values of return on equity were high and they improved from 48.82% in 2010 to 54.62% in 2011. However, in 2012, the value dropped to 32.28%. The high values promises the shareholders high returns for their investments. The declining amount of return on equity can also be caused by the increasing amount of long term debt. An increase in debt results in an increase in interest expense.
Current ratio The current ratio was fairly stable during the period. The value of the ratio was 2.56 in 2010 and 2.54 in 2012. Thus, it can be observed that the company can adequately pay the short term obligations using current assets. This shows that the company has a sound financial standing.
Working capital The working capital rose from $773,605 million in 2010 to $859,371 million in 2011. The value rose further to $1,042 million in 2012. It implies that the value of current assets exceeds the current liabilities. The two liquidity ratios were stable during the period. It shows that the company is effective in liquidity and working capital management. This gives confidence to the debt and capital providers.
Debt to assets The value of debt to total assets was stable during the period. The ratio was 0.3899 in 2010 and 0.3880 in 2011. The fractions imply that the percentage of assets that are funded using liability remained stable during the period. The ratios also show that the company maintained a low leverage level during the period.
Debt to equity The debt to equity ratio was also stable during the period. The value of the ratio was 0.639 in 2010 and 0.6341 in 2011. It is a suggestion that about 63% of the assets of the company are proactively funded through the debt option.
The two leverage ratios show that the Google Company has a low debt proportion in the capital configuration. This gives the company room to take more debt that can be used or growth and expansion. Thus, the company has not fully exploited its potential. The growth prospects will translate to better performance in the future.
The stable and management team comprising of directors and several managers is instrumental towards providing necessary support and guidance in provision of software vending, internet marketing, and search engine products to customers and reviewing current operational strategies in line with the demands of their clients at Google.
For instance, the management team introduced the internet marketing service in response to the demands of the clients. This has enabled Google to fund different business project initiatives at affordable loan repayment interest rates.
Google also enjoys a wide network and subsidiaries in the US and several representative offices in different regions outside the US. This is important in attracting more customers in those regions where the company is yet to reach full potential. Besides, the numerous branches have improved its products visibility and accessibility.
Google has increased own software vending and internet marketing business in the last few years, particularly in Western Europe and North America. Company owned software vending and internet marketing products have become growth drivers and important distribution points for the company.
The vivid presentation of Google brands supports differentiated perception by consumers beyond their product experiences, further strengthening the brand image. Moreover, the establishment of a strong and reliable internet marketing product by Google represents a major growth for the company. The other strength of Google is efficient customer relationship management strategy.
Google has more presence in the US than other parts of the globe. Specifically, unlike its main competitor Yahoo, Google has limited presence in Asia. Thus, the company does not enjoy the substantive demand in the global market as its customer catchment area is restricted outside the expansive Asian market. Besides, the focus of Google is more on customized internet based brands and products.
This is counterproductive in terms of revenue generation since the majority of its customers are small businesses and private individuals who cannot operate in the customized platform. Besides, Google has high inventory cost since it software development is very expensive to create and maintain.
Managing some of the research and development projects may not be sustainable in the long run if the annual turnover reduces at Google. As a result of these weaknesses, Google has not been able to efficiently penetrate the small business segment within its Business-to-Business model of operation.
Google focus on quality products has compromised its ability to incorporate views of a section of its consumers, such as addition of more search languages.
Google has an opportunity to expand its scope to cater for expanded product and service lines since its asset base is strong enough to sustain any growth in the market. This opportunity will help in boosting Google’s revenues and leadership position in the global Internet Information Providers industry. As a result, Google will be in a position to double its current revenues and increase the customer base.
The company’s global presence and strong performance in most regions demonstrate that it can be successful in nearly all countries of the world. It is on this ground that Google plans entry into the regions where its presence is not yet felt. Secondly, working in collaboration with subsidiary companies may enable ease of entry into new markets.
The main threat to the survival of Google is the competition from counterfeit products that may act as direct substitute to its brands. Thus, the expansion and market penetration strategies that Google proposes are likely to face opposition if these fake products are expanding their market share. Google is faced with fierce competition from its rivals, which requires adoption of more vigilant strategies.
The soaring demand for software and integrated internet marketing applications across the world may prompt suppliers and independent producers to increase the prices, resulting in high costs of production and lower levels of profitability. Political issues in different markets, such as control of internet accessibility in some countries in Asia and Africa may threaten the company from achieving its profitability objectives in the market.
Generic and Grand Strategy Recommendations In order to remain competitive, the company should implement focused product differentiation strategy by applying concentration, market development, product development, vertical integration, market penetration, and retail distribution as grand strategies as summarized in appendix 3.
Google should ponder concentration to its products in countries which do not have strict laws that protect the business, when expanding further to other foreign markets, especially in software vending and internet marketing product segments. Countries like China do not have strict rules which protect business entities from being copied by competitors.
This will help in safeguarding its products’ brands and making sure that it targets specific market segments.
In the process, the company will gain a fair share of the current market controlled by Chinese search engine companies.
It will also ensure that Google introduces measures in its operative process that would make it distinct in the market from any firm.
Application and justification
The introduction of product concentration should be applied while ensuring that the targeted markets, especially in Asia, have customized products that are unique to that region.
The key performance indicator will be increased revenue in the Asian market by 6% in the first year of implementation and 10% thereafter. Therefore, product concentration will position Google as a strong incumbent brand in the global Internet Information Providers industry.
Google may partner which medium businesses retailing products similar to those of its competitors. For instance, the company may partner with private programmers and software developers to boost its current product brands.
The objective of this recommendation is to expand Google’s market and make it easy for customers to access the products.
Application and justification
This objective can be achieved through created on in-house production, supply chain, and marketing strategies for the software vending through partnerships with private software developers. When properly implemented, the company is likely to counter the strategy of its competitors, such as Yahoo, of reaching the customers through proxy business platforms.
The key performance indicator will be reduced inventory cost by 10% in the first year of application since costs related to running the business are expected to drop. This strategy takes some initial costs to develop the integration concept but the advantages are ability to legally protect the product, creation of some barriers to competition, and general promotion of customer loyalty.
Cost leadership strategy is vital in business management, especially in an industry with stiff competition, such as Google.
The company may penetrate the African and Asian markets further through introduction of customized products that target different market segments such as direct customers through an innovative approach. The objective of this recommendation is to adopt the market leadership strategy to improve Google’s product quality and appearance.
This objective is achievable through creation of different high quality products and distinctive brands.
Application and justification
As a result, this venture will develop a cumulative experience, optimal performance, and product availability through application of alternative technology and human skills. The key performance indicator for this strategy is the ability to create a new product, thus increased number of customer ratings by 3% after the first year of implementation.
An improved approach to product management through diversification will improve the visibility of Google brands. The buyer will make an effort to learn the Google’s values, vision, challenges, and operating environment. Such cooperation will turn new brands into a competitive advantage instead of a cost.
Operational efficiency and market niche provide an indication of how well the company manages its resources, that is, how well it employs its assets to generate sales and income. It also shows the level of activity of the corporation as indicated by the turnover ratios. The level of activity for Google has remained relatively stable despite threat of competition, constant change of taste, and varying preference.
To ensure that the company streamlines its operational costs.
Application and justification
Through implementing this proposal, the company will reduce its wage bill and seal cost loop holes.
Properly designed online marketing and product distribution management facilitate the success and sustainability in online marketing. To increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the current channels of reaching the consumers at Google should be tailored to encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy and a lifetime relationship between the business and its clients.
The new development elements that the company should incorporate include trust, liability acceptance, distribution, fair retribution process, and passing accurate information to target audience in order to restore confidence within these networks.
Application and justification
Essentially, the success of e-marketing depends on proper alignment of a functional team that is responsible for the creation of flexible and quantifiable measurement tracking tools for periodically reviewing results. This strategy will ensure that the business is sustainable.
The above recommendations may become the new blueprint for sustainable expansion, cost management, and product development for Google since the company already has a global appeal and deep capital reservoir.
Through implementation of the recommendations, the company will be able to expand its current market share through competitive pricing, innovation, and multiple-branding of its product. As a result, Google will increase its competitive advantage over Microsoft, Yahoo, and other competitors.
Conclusion Generally, Google has been largely successful in the market, and bears ability to competently survive in the market. Incorporation of the Porter’s market forces in the management of this successful US based search engine giant is directly linked to its consistency, profitability, and efficiency.
Successful execution solely functions of inclusiveness, creation of quantifiable tracking devices for results, and recruiting an informed support team. Generally, the above recommendations should be practiced flexibly since Google’s operation environment is characterized by constant dynamics that may make previous designs irrelevant.
Appendices Appendix 1 – Summary of the Five-Force Analysis
Appendix 2 –SWOT Summary
Strengths Weaknesses Clear product differentiation
Strong global brand image
Positive urban influence
Established online store
Failure to focus on the low-end market
High inventory costs
Opportunities Threats Strong global presence depicts the ease of entry into new regions
Better collaboration with subsidiary companies
High supplier power reduces profits
The threat of counterfeiting products of Google is very high
Appendix 3: Summary of industry ratio
RATIOS SUB-RATIOS Google Ratio Industry Average (Approx) Profitability Ratios Return of Assets 0.34 – Return of Equity 0.29 – Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 2.54 1.60 to 2.30 Quick Ratio 1.36 1.30 to 1.80 Leverage Ratios Debt-Equity Ratio 0.29 Interest Coverage Ratio – Efficiency Ratios Assets Turnover Ratio 1.45 1.20 Inventory Turnover Ratio 3.19 – Reference Gamble, J., Peteraf, M.,
Armored Vehicles Engines Analytical Essay essay help online free
The development of modern mechanics and supporting technologies can amaze even the most casual person in the field. Having a relatively short history of formation and development, armored vehicles nowadays are one of the most reliable, inviolable and unbreakable mechanism one can imagine. Due to the offensive and defensive functions they perform, armored vehicles need highly efficient and fuel-saving engines.
Jackson notes that “today’s armored vehicles are a mix of technology, metal, and speed” with powerful engines than allow them “to move over uneven land and city streets” (8). Armored vehicle’s main purposes are to carry and defend the personnel inside, to withstand attacks and to conduct attacks in case an armed car is equipped with a weapon (Marshall Cavendish Corporation Staff 164).
Armored vehicles can be either wheeled such as, for instance, armored cars and armored personnel carriers or tracked represented by tanks, infantry fighting vehicles (Mastinu and Ploechl 401). As armored vehicles have a high power-to-weight ratio, they need less gear ratio, which in its turn increases tractive effort over the speed range and diminishes the effect of mass factor (Mastinu and Ploechl 435).
Most of the armored vehicles have diesel engines. Before the World War II, petrol fuel was more widely used. The main problem of petrol fuel in tanks and other armored vehicles was its high flammability rate (Dougherty 310). Comparing diesel engines with gasoline, one can state that the first are less fuel consuming, more thermally efficient and can operate for increased amounts of time.
Such peculiarities are especially important in tanks that have to cope with long distances with uneven surfaces and can be fueled not very often. Modern tanks usually carry about 1200 liters of fuel, which can be consumed to cover around 550 kilometers of the ordinary road; uneven off-roads require mode power from the engine, so more fuel is needed (Marshall Cavendish Corporation Staff 167).
Diesel engines are widely used for both wheeled and tracked vehicles. However, in the case of tracked vehicles diesel engines have to take less space. To achieve this aim, engines with air-cooling, steering and transmission systems are built into a power pack (Mastinu and Ploechl 436).
For heavier offensive tracked vehicles developed in the modern decades gas turbine engines are used. In this type of engine, fuel is not burned but the gas is compressed and heated. Afterward, the energy of the compressed and heated gas is converted into mechanical work on the shaft of the gas turbine (Lee 279).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Compared to diesel engines gas turbine engines have much more power and less weight while having the same size. They also are less noisy and emit less smoke. The vehicle with the gas turbine engine is easier to start. Usually, it is a matter of several minutes in comparison with the diesel engine.
In cold conditions, diesel engine needs to warm-up for a substantial amount of time while the gas turbine warms quickly despite the temperature (Walsh and Fletcher 25). At the same time, gas turbine engines require bigger amounts of carried fuel (Mastinu and Ploechl 437).
Overall, it can be seen that according to the goals, sphere and conditions of functioning of the armored vehicles different types of engines may be used. While diesel engines can establish in lighter armored vehicles that need to run a significant number of kilometers, gas turbine engines are suitable for heavy offensive tanks and infantry fighting vehicles.
Works Cited Dougherty, Martin. Land Warfare: From World War I to the Present Day. San Diego, CA: Thunder Bay, 2008. Print.
Jackson, Kay. Armored Vehicles in Action. New York, NY: PowerKids, 2009. Print.
Lee, T. Military Technologies of the World. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2009. Print.
Marshall Cavendish Corporation Staff. How It Works: Science and Technology. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 2003. Print.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Armored Vehicles Engines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mastinu, Giampiero, and Manfred Ploechl. Road and Off-road Vehicle System Dynamics Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2014. Print.
Walsh, Philip, and Paul Fletcher. Gas Turbine Performance. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 2008. Print.
Research Growth Plan: Mirch Masala Inc. Evaluation Essay college essay help: college essay help
Abstract This paper will focus on the development of a growth plan for a restaurant that currently faces some issues, but has the potential to develop and expand that is not entirely realized. The strategy will be focused on the improvement of existing product and service. Such methods as surveys, interviews, and observation will be used during the research process.
Executive Summary Mirch Masala Inc. is a Dubai-based restaurant that provides its customers with a broad range of Pakistani dishes, and the Halal law is taken into account. The primary purpose of this paper is to develop a strategy that would make Mirch Masala a high growth firm.
One of the core aspects that need to be considered is that it currently has an enormous potential to become one of the leading companies in this market, and it is going to be discussed in great detail. It needs to be said that this is a high-risk industry, and it is hard to justify dramatic changes.
The methodology for the research will consist of questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Improving an existing product and service is the strategy that is going to be chosen in this particular case, and it will focus on internal aspects of the business (Barringer
Business Analytics Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Nowadays business analytics has established itself as an efficient tool for improving a management performance. A smart approach towards a company’s data interpretation allows to find out the possible drawbacks, predict potential problems, monitor the collective achievements and, most importantly, to perform a more reasonable and grounded decision-making process.
It is evident today that one has to be capable of processing large amounts of information in order to be a successful competitor. Therefore, companies contribute significantly to the modern technologies and professional personnel that constitute a favorable analytical environment (Pearlson
Etihad Airways to Collaborate with Maharashtra Government for Economic Growth Essay (Article) essay help
Table of Contents Summary
The impact on Etihad Airways
Summary The main issue of the article is an establishment of collaborative bonds between Etihad Airways and the government of Maharashtra.
The author of the article describes the key meeting between James Hogan, who serves as a Chief Information Operator for the crucial airlines corporation and Devendra Fadnavis. The latter works for the Maharashtra government.
The fundamental issues that were discussed during the meeting concern the effects of both external and internal schooling regulations.
Naturally, both sides concentrated their attention on the problems that are common for two institutions and might be solved under the circumstances of mutual understanding and hard work.
Naturally, the CEO or a government deputy speaks to you, and if you are reluctant to speak, there is a ladder to get into you room.
Moreover, James Hogan dwells on the airlines improvement and a tight cooperation of the company with Jet Airways, for the latter serves a similar purpose. It turns out that Jet Airways, as well as the reviewed company conduct flights between India and the former country.
The concept of the airways collaboration represents quite a rare combination of connections since the corporations or organizations, which specialize in similar services, are likely to stand in strong opposition to each other. Despite the fact that Jet Airways tend to conduct a bigger number of flights than Etihad Airways, both companies managed to combine its qualities in a striving to achieve success and enter the arena of the most powerful Asian Airways.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The economic collaboration between two major flight transition corporations already reached a considerable prosperity and yielded positive results.
Thus, today, Etihad cargoes transit approximately 750 million investments of the key Asian industrial bodies. Lately, the corporation started to collaborate with the companies of other world continents. Thus, Etihad ships transit the product and tools from the USA, Europe and so on.
Main Issue The collaboration between Etihad and Jan Airways can promote the economic growth of the major world industries as well as service corporations. Since two airlines possess its unique qualities and systems of transitions, they do not reiterate their mechanisms but add up its features to each other instead.
Thus, the major task of the combination is to provide a diplomatic union of high-quality transition services that could occupy a domineering position in the market for flight services. Moreover, the union aims at extending its properties from the purely industry-driven to the tourist ones.
Other Issue Utilizing the capacities of the resources
Creating partnership relationships
Establishing high-quality services
Entering the arena of domineering world transition services
Extending the scopes of specialization
Creating a beneficial environment for the economic prosperity and well-being
Finding a simple and natural balance between the industry-driven and cultural services
Establishing external connections
The impact on Etihad Airways An enormous number of flights to India were sustained through the Etihad Airways together with the Jet Airways corporation. Etihad Airways produced a significant influence on the investing into the India policies. Moreover, Etihad ship regularly supports the flow of Indian materials from one part of the world to the other since it contributes to the economic prosperity and world politics stabilization.
Recently, Etihad Airways started influencing the global market of transitional services since it launched the first flights and cargo transitions between the European countries as well as the United States of America and Asian countries. Therefore, the Etihad Airways service produced a considerable influence on the sphere of business transitions.
Rate/weight of impact
We will write a custom Article on Etihad Airways to Collaborate with Maharashtra Government for Economic Growth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Issue (s) Impact Rating Weight Expanding the Airline Capacity The possibility of expanding the number of Etihad Airways throughout the week news. The opportunity to extend the purposes of the transitional services by launching the first touristic and cultural flights through the union of Jet Airways and Etihad Airways. H 4 Establishing External Connection Collaborating with Jet Airways so that to reach the worldwide positioning and recognition as the major transition services corporations as we as the stipulators of economic prosperity. It primarily concerns the improvements in the economies of Asian countries. H 5 Tourism and Cargo Passport Matching the quality to the human factor and dedicating the excellent transition services to the touristic and cultural trips. H 2 Urgency of the issue(s)
Issue (s) Urgency Rating Weight Expanding the Airline Capacity Must to increase our airline capacity since it possesses the necessary resources that were gained so that to extend the transitions H 4 Establishing Connection Must to find ways to maintaining the existent bonds with Jet Airways. The union is a guarantee of the future extensions since it was acknowledged that Etihad Airways can reach its aims quickly through maintaining the partnership bonds with its counterpart, which has already certified its status in the market of transition services both in Asian countries and other parts of the world continents H 5 Tourism and Cargo Passport Must be a sustainable business. The development of transitional touristic services calls out a complex of modifications both in structure of the Airways machines and the organization of the transition process H 1 Nature of issue(s).implications on your company, and recommended actions
Issue (s) Impact Urgency Strategic Operational OP Threat Strength Weakness Recommended actions Expanding the airline capacity H4 H4 Increasing of the machinery number as well as a creation of new routes. The introduction of innovative transition methods that is based on automatic mechanism. H5 Increase the capacity with higher flights prices. Since the renovation of the units Airways services will require some financial expenditure, there is a strong need to promote some slight transition price enhancements H4 H4 High capacity and global economy come as the outcomes of the airline extension H3 Considerable financial investments, as well as a possible shortage in clients number since the extension, require prices enhancement Finding a way to travel with Etihad Airways, due to the highest quality standards. Enjoying the advantages of renovated tourism-driven flight programs. Establishing connection Tourism and cargo passport
H5 H5 Finding a creative way to support information and resources exchange To establish a connection between the business-directed flights and touristic flights
H5 Initiating diverse debates on the world platforms, which stipulate the connection supportPromotion of the tourism-driven journeys through India and other Asian countries H5 Being well-secured and protected No Engaging in the discussions that focus on the issue as well as collaborating with the world corporations that can share their experience of the international projects development Usage of the Etihad Airways services with a purpose of organizing touristic trips Reference Poonoosamy, V., Modi, N., Hogan, J.,
Effects of Ageing Population as Driving Force Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction One of the great accomplishments of the 20th century is improvement in life expectancy. For instance, demographic figures indicate that life expectancy in America has increased from 45 years in the early 1900s to 75.6 in the year 2004 (Feldstein 23). Nevertheless, improved life expectancy joint with decreasing birth rates is becoming a major concern in today’s society.
Across the globe, the population is ageing. The situation is being experienced at a time when the number of people required in the workforce is increasing raising fears over its impacts to the society (Firth 56). As such, diverse age groups have dissimilar desires and productive capabilities. Therefore, countries’ social, economic, political, and environmental features will vary as their population ages.
Social Positive effects Negative effects Ageing people contribute positively to society through their services (Harper 4). Compared to the younger generation, the elderly participate more in community voluntary services.
Aging population leads to a lower crime rate.
Older people participate in supporting and sustaining social network enhancing family and community setups.
Ageing population strains medical services. Unlike the younger generation, the elderly are prone to terminal illnesses, which require comprehensive medical services and care.
Older people have specific needs like declining mobility. The above imply that they are more dependent on other persons. A country with increased aging persons is straining its present population numbers.
Ageing population will strain resources in elderly homes.
Economic Positive effects Negative effects An increased aging population will lead to a bigger market for goods and services associated with the elderly.
An aging population has a reduced birthrate. Thus, the government spending on education is reduced.
Aging population leads to shortage of workers leading to increased wages (Jones 20). Through this, the economic growth of a country will be impaired.
Aging population will increase the government spending on healthcare services.
An increase in aging population will lead to a pension crisis. In such situations, a shortage of money to cover pensions will be witnessed.
An aging population leads to increased taxes because of decreased number of employees (Onofri 27). An increase in taxation rates will hurt the economic growth of a country.
Political Positive effects Negative effects Aging population will enhance political stability of a country. Compared to the younger generation, the elderly participate less in conflicts that might fuel wars among communities.
A country with an aging population will attract immigrants from countries with a younger population. Because of this, tensions will arise between the immigrants and the residence. The tension may fuel civil wars.
Environmental Positive effects Negative effects Compared with younger population, ageing people contribute positively to society through their services (Kaiser 4). For instance, participate more in community voluntary services aimed at conserving the environment.
Aging population will require construction of additional home cares for the elderly. Construction and utilization of these structures will lead to negative environmental impacts (Kaiser 2). For instance, these homes will strain the available water resources, water treatment plants, and waste collection.
Available figures indicate that an aging population travels more frequently compared with a younger generation (Kaiser 2). Increased travelling has negative environmental impacts resulting from augmented fuel consumption. Through this, associated emissions will surge resulting in air pollution.
Works Cited Feldstein, Martin. The Effects Of The Ageing European Population On Economic Growth And Budgets. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006. Print.
Firth, Lisa. An Ageing Population. Cambridge: Independence, 2008. Print.
Harper, Sarah. “Editorial: Social Security In An Ageing World”. Population Ageing 2.1-2 (2009): 1-4. Print.
Jones, Gavin. “Population Ageing In Asia and Its Implications For Mobility”. Population Ageing 1.1 (2008): 31-49. Print
Kaiser, Angelika. “A Review Of Longitudinal Datasets On Ageing”. Population Ageing 6.1-2 (2013): 5-27. Print.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Onofri, Paolo. The Economics of An Ageing Population. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Pub., 2004. Print.
Activator Control of Nucleosome Occupancy in Activation and Repression of Transcription Essay (Article) essay help site:edu
Article Analysis The Authors’ Question
The article Activator Control of Nucleosome Occupancy in Activation and Repression of Transcription by Bryant et al. delves on a highly studied area on the relationship between chromatin structure and gene expression (par.1). In this study, the authors assert that the universal activator, namely the Gal4, helps to remove promoter nucleosomes.
In the process, it triggers the transcription of information. However, the way the activator performs this function is a least known process. This gap has been the subject of debate in many studies. To study this area, the research paper focuses on two questions, which include:
Is the reformation of promoter nucleosomes required for gene silencing?
Does Gal4 perform its task in sync with galactose and glucose?
A hypothesis is a central part of a research paper since it guides the process of proving or disapproving any author’s assumptions in a given research. In the article under study, Bryant et al. draw their hypotheses from the research questions (par.3). The hypotheses include:
The reformation of promoter nucleosomes is required for gene silencing
Gal4 continues to function in the presence of galactose and glucose
What they Did to Test the Hypotheses
To test their hypotheses, Bryant et al. used the experimentation method where they applied the quantitative micrococcal nuclease protection assay (par.4). The method is essential in the measurement of any specified DNA fragment together with the population that is covered or occupied by a nucleosome in vivo. Using this method, the authors seek to show that Gal4 recruits SWI/SNF in early steps of gene activation.
Subsequently, it quickly removes the promoter nucleosomes. The authors also show that when SWI/SNF is not available, an augmented degree of gene recording is witnessed. Besides, the gene boosters are freed from nucleosomes.
Once the relocation of body components from galactose to glucose is done, the recording process reduces. Nevertheless, once glucose is included in the cells that develop in galactose, the change of nucleosomes does not occur swiftly, even though mRNA manufacturing reduces.
Following the experiments, the results reveal the nuclease sensitivity in and around GAL1 10 UASg. The experiment shows that transcriptional machinery does not protect the digestion of micrococcal nuclease. These findings correlate with the previous studies that have used micrococcal nuclease.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In terms of the sensitivity of nuclease around GAL1 10UASg, the experiment reveals that each member of the population has its DNA segments well protected. According to the article, the protection follows the presence of a molecule that is bound to UASg. Further, the experiment shows that SWI/SNF is a requirement for the rapid removal of nucleosome.
Besides, the experiment confirms that any delay in the removal of nucleosome causes a corresponding interruption of the onset of the transcription process. Such findings are contrary to the previous studies that have claimed that the mutation of SNF2 does not have any influence and effect on the transcription process of GAL genes.
What the Results Mean
The results of the study indicate that the reorganization of nucleosomes is not compulsory for subjugation or DNA suppression. Further, the results signify that the GAL4 continues to function in the presence of galactose and glucose.
The findings effectively disapprove previous results that have suggested that SNF2 does not have any influence on the transcription of GAL genes. Thus, the research opens a new area of knowledge that needs further investigation to find the reason GAL2 continues to function in the presence of galactose and glucose and the main aim of such function.
Works Cited Bryant, Gene, Vidya Prabhu, Monique Floer, Xin Wang, Dan Spagna, David Schreiber, and Mark Ptashne. Activator Control of Nucleosome Occupancy in Activation and Repression of Transcription, 2008. Web.
Experience of Northeast and Southeast Asia Essay scholarship essay help
Compare and contrast the experience of Northeast with Southeast Asia Geography and institutions play a key role in the long-term growth and development of an economy. Geography determines the ecology, climate and nature of economic activities carried out in a particular region. If the ecology is favorable, it can provide ample fauna and floral species as well as rich minerals required in the process of escalating economic growth through trade and commerce.
Institutions are the formal mechanisms put in place in order to monitor geography, enhance trade and eventually determine income levels in various countries. They are mechanisms established in order to control human activities such as trade, commerce and governance.
Institutions and geography influence development either negatively or positively. This paper compares and contrasts experiences in North East and South East Asia and evaluates how decolonization changed the vicious circle of institutional development in Asia
How “decolonization” changed the vicious circle of institutional development in Asia Evidences from literature have shown that the decolonization era in Asia is a very essential phase since it marks a new development trajectory and opportunity to terminate colonial legacies. This phase led to the culmination of extractive institutions that were relatively worse than pre-colonial institutions.
Research has shown that decolonization led to emergence of new political institutions aimed at enhancing socio-economic growth. In real sense, decolonization resulted into upsurge of independent states such as Taiwan and Korea. Prior to the end of colonial rule, some states adopted repressive institutions that had the characteristics of colonial systems.
These resulted into the rise of socio-economic problems such as wage inequality and income disparity. Eventually, it occasioned the rise of political and socio-economic revolutions. It is important to note that some institutions established after colonization era were developmental while others were extractive. Egalitarian institutions eventually substituted oppressive ones.
Characteristics of the latter included democracy and equality unlike the colonial regimes that spearheaded racism, inequality and exploitation. Decolonization changed the vicious circle of institutional development in Asia by eliminating the powerful elites who wanted to gain power at the expense of development. This also resulted into the end of extractive political institutions that were not innovative and equally destructive to work force.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Comparison between the experiences of Northeast with Southeast Asia During the pre-colonial period, both North East and South East Asia experienced positive economic growth. Besides, the regions had excellent institutions. After colonization, the establishment of extractive institutions took place. The colonialists operated the institutions through land reforms. State
Contrast between the experiences of Northeast with Southeast Asia Research studies indicate that after independence, the South East part of Asia embraced neo-colonial institutions. In this region, income inequality was evident among other economic injustices. After careful review of literature, it is obvious that inheritance was the main method of acquiring resources such as land and property.
Consequently, it expanded the gap between the poor and rich people. However, the North Eastern states adopted developmental institutions in form of estates. In other words, the eastern side was able to break away completely from colonial chains.
Later on, they experienced tremendous growth in almost all the states including Taiwan and Korea. The North Eastern institutions practiced income equalization gradually achieved through land reforms. Extensive research indicates that the introduction of land reforms in the North Eastern part of Asia began as early as 1950s.
This led into an increase in agricultural activities. The trend continued for some decades and eventually accelerated economic growth. This explains why Japan, Korea and Taiwan are among the wealthiest countries in Asia today.
The Case of Etisalat Company Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Research and analysis of the factors that are responsible for the success or failure of any business indicate that good customer service plays an integral part in the success of any business (Goodman 23). Such can be attributed to the fact that the quality of a company’s products or service can be manifested in the quality of service the customers get from the employees of the concerned organization.
Nevertheless, many organizations are yet to embrace customer service as an integral marketing tool. Research has showed that most of the companies that have worst customer service are in the telecommunications industry, with majority of the customers experiencing bad customer services from employees of such companies.
The telecommunications industry requires a lot of capital to make sure that its operations are smooth and effective. In addition, companies in the telecommunications industry are in need of massive client base for them to reach their break-even point. However, having a large customer base can be serving as both a merit and a demerit to the industry in the face of the changing world due to technological advancement.
For example, in the recent years the telecom industry has experienced an increase in the rate of mobile data consumption among its customers because of the introduction of smartphones to the market. With wireless data becoming available, chances are that the consumption rate is likely to rise considerably.
While the industry is recording dramatic increases in consumption of data, and other telecommunication services, no equal dramatic improvement can be noticed in the aspect of telecommunication infrastructure. An upgrade to meet the changing technologies requires a lot of time and capital to be deployed.
As such, many telecommunication customers are experiencing a decline in the quality of services that they get from network and telecommunication providers. Considering the increase in demand for such services, the challenges affecting customer service are likely to increase. This paper thus looks at the importance of customer service and the factors that might lead to poor customer service in an organization.
Therefore, the primary focus is on the case study of Etisalat Telecommunications Company. Etisalat is a telecommunication company that is based in the United Arabs Emirates. It is among the leading network providers and corporations operating in United Arab Emirates. The headquarters of Etisalat are in Abu Dhabi and such a location makes it possible for the company to serve thousands of customers from all parts of the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has been known for its numerous outlets in the country. In addition, Etisalat has had the opportunity of deploying several, fixed and mobile innovative technologies in different parts of the country. The United Arab Emirates has been known to be a leader in ICT for many years now because of the technologies set up by Etisalat.
Presently, Etisalat has the wildest coverage of fast mobile networks such as the 4G and 3G technology. In addition, the company has set up the FTTH Network (Fibre-To-The-Home), which provides homes in the United Arab Emirates with a very fast network. Even though the company has been experiencing a tremendous growth that has enabled it to transform into a reliable provider of ICT solutions, the Etisalat is losing most of its customers because of poor customer service and high charges on products and services.
Therefore, there was a need for the company to find out the factors that are responsible for its reduced quality of customer service among its employees and the subsequent reduction of customers. For this reason, this study prepared carried out a survey with a representative sample for the study drawn from its employees.
Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to find out the factors responsible for the reduced quality of customer service among employees of Etisalat Company. In addition, the study seeks to find out the reasons behind a reduced number of customers buying products and/or getting services from Etisalat Company.
Research Questions Research questions in any study are used to guide the study in coming up with the solutions affecting a given organization. It is the duty of the management of any organization to ensure that all the operations of the organization run as expected. The management can come up with research questions that are designed to help eliminating a given problem within the management.
The variability of the solution to the problem at hand is the fundamental factor in deciding the answer to pick. In the case of Etisalat Company, the management was experiencing a reduction in the quality of customer service among its employees, as well as a low turnout of customers.
Solutions to the problem should be in a way that improves the quality of customer service and number of customers that get service from Etisalat Company. Thus, research questions can be considered suitable tools used by management and research to investigate the reasons behind a given scenario within the organization. Among all the situations brought forward, the management chooses the best result.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Case of Etisalat Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The best method is the most affordable one and one that takes the shortest amount of time to implement. Research questions give a description of the actions to take in rectifying the problem and the advantages and disadvantages of the choice of actions.
The choice of action should provide solutions to eliminate any future chances of the problem reoccurring and ensuring the best results from the situation. With good research questions, the company will increase the number of people subscribing to their services, as well as improve the quality of customer service among employees.
The study therefore, was based on the following research questions.
What are the factors responsible for the reduced quality of customer service among the employees of Etisalat Company?
What are the reasons behind the drop in the number of customers in Etisalat Company?
What measures can the management take to rectify the situation?
Structure of the Project The research study will follow a formal structure. In this case, research questions will be used as the basis for the research questions. For this reason, the target All through the project, the primary target will be answering the research questions.
Method of Data Collection The research will make use of communication study, with interviews and questionnaires being the primary methods of collecting data from the respondents. These methods of data collection will help in getting the necessary answers to the research questions for the project.
Time Dimensions The passage of time may at times dictate the results of any study. As such, it is suitable to factor in the time dimensions in the overall study results. To deal with influences of passage of time, repetitive studies will offer reliable results.
Topical Scope The scope of the project will apply the case study approach. As such, drawing on conclusions in this study will be based on the opinions and results from the respondents. The quality of the data will help in developing a lasting solution to the problem of poor customer service and reduced customer turnout in Etisalat Company.
The Participants Perception of the Research
The study will ensure that all the participating employees are briefed on the requirements of the study. Such awareness is necessary before the start of the actual study since it prepares the respondents psychologically and gives them an hint on what is expected of them during the actual study.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Case of Etisalat Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The participants taking part in the research will follow their actual routine during the period of the project. The purpose of the study is to understand the issues behind the ductile of the sales in the proper environment without interference with the pattern.
Ex-post facto study will be the choice of study in the experimental results. The study will make use of the results from the respondents to draw conclusions on the subject under examination. For this reason, all the analysis will be based on the results obtained from the study.
Customer Service Customer service refers to any form of help that a customer gets from a given organization. As such, it is the act of an organization providing help in terms of addressing customer’s needs through professional delivery and provision of high quality services that is helpful prior to making any purchases, in the course of the purchases, as well as after satisfying the customer’s need.
The success of any business depends on many things including sound and realistic strategies, outstanding marketing policies, and excellent customer service. Even though many people tend to categorize customer service along with marketing, research and analysis show that customer service plays a significant role in the success of any business. Customer service thus is the concept that takes into consideration customer’s interaction in any business.
As such, customer service can be seen as the image of any organization. According to Goodman (23), a customer is a valuable tool that any organization can use in its advertising. Such can be attributed to the fact that satisfied customer will often come back for more services or products. In addition, a satisfied customer will often refer other customers to an organization whereby they received excellent services.
For this reason, good customer service should be founded on promptness, politeness, professionalism, and personalization. However, many organizations do not take into consideration the value of excellent customer service and the role it plays in the success of any business.
Job Satisfaction In organizational behavior, the aspect of great interest is the general attitude of employees towards work of job, often referred to as the job satisfaction. As such, job satisfaction is a form of individual feeling, as well as the outlook that a given person has about a job that they are doing. In addition, job satisfaction refers to the perceptions that are likely to affect the level of confidence among employees in terms of the quality of work they are dong.
As such, job satisfaction has an element of single concept whereby, a given individual can be either satisfied with a given job or dissatisfied. Nevertheless, job satisfaction features a combination of particular attitudes towards the given job that are closely linked to several aspects of the concerned job.
Job satisfaction can be measured through the assessment of several factors of a given person’s job: job supervision, promotion, pay, co-workers behavior and the work itself. It is thus evident that a person can be satisfied with one aspect of a given job but be dissatisfied with other aspects of the same job. Job satisfaction and customer service are directly related.
Highly satisfied employees will often work to ensure that they deliver quality services to their customers. Lack of job satisfaction thus translates to poor customer service.
Dilemma in Management Most of the time, organizations are faced with challenges and scenarios for which they cannot comprehend the causes or the reasons behind such scenarios. Goodman (123) considered such scenarios as management dilemma. As such, the circumstances that cause management dilemma in an organization are equally responsible for cases of reduced productivity, low performance, and reduced number of sales, and decrease in profit margins.
Usually, in any organization, the management plays the role of making sure that the operations of the organization are smooth, and that all policies are geared towards realizing the goals and objectives set by the organization. However, whenever a given company experiences management dilemma, it is likely that there will be adverse effects on one or many aspects of the organization’s strategies.
Such a scenario thus has negative effects in the overall production of the concerned organization in aspects of production, performance, and profit generation. Research and analysis show that several factors such as environmental factors are responsible for any challenges that an organization may face.
Considering the changing needs of customers and employees, it is likely that there are numerous demands that employees of any given organization have. Some of these demands are critical in that they play a significant role in determining the overall level of job satisfaction among the employees. For this reason, it would appear that meeting the demands of employees of any organization would have a direct impact on the performance of employees and the general productivity of the concerned organization.
In the case of Etisalat Company, there was concern over the reason behind the increased reports of poor customer service among the company’s employees. Customer service was initially used in this company as a tool to woo back existing customers as well as to attract new customers to subscribe to some of the services provided by Etisalat Telecommunications Company.
In the global age, many businesses are using online strategies to manage their client base. As such, as opposed to traditional approaches organizations can rely on leads generation and referrals to make sales. However, increasing the sales volume is only possible if the given organization is in a position to maintain its existing customers, as well as attract new ones.
Usually, companies are likely to have repeat customers from happy and satisfied customers. In addition, such customers will often recommend their friends and family members to organizations where they received quality services. On the other hand, if the services of any given organization are poor and of low quality, the organization is has a high chance of losing both existing and prospective customers.
For this reason, organizations nowadays are embracing the power of good customer service as a marketing tool. The advent of technology and computers has provided many platforms that organizations can use to engage with their clients. Some of these platforms include emails and websites, where customers can make enquiries on particular services and products or even seek help about a given product of service.
Management Questions It is the duty of the management in any organization to set up measures that are needed to solve an existing management dilemma within the organization. As such, the management should brainstorm on areas that are likely cause of the management dilemma in order to eliminate it efficiently. Usually, such attempts are aimed at increasing the chances of achieving the organization’s goals, and increasing its profit margin.
For this reason, solving any problem in an organization requires the management to explore various areas to pinpoint the cause of the problem. For this reason, the management ought to apply the necessary policies to enhance the productivity of the business. Management dilemma in any organization serves as a force that pushes the organization to apply diverse policies to rectify the concerned situation of the organization.
Therefore, management questions examines any possible opportunities that once exploited can increase the productivity and performance of any given organization. In the case of Etisalat Company, the management question was based on measures that the company can adopt to improve customer service among its employees as a way of retaining its existing customers, as well as attracting new ones.
The systematic planning of actions that are applied in the collection of information and subsequent analysis of data in a logical manner that help in realization of the purpose of any given study is called the study design (Creswell 29). Examples of the study designs include descriptive, cross-sectional, experimental, and explorative researches.
Research methodology refers to the principles and processes that are applied to collect data that can be utilized in decision making, in business and/or social setting. This section of the paper will therefore concentrate on the research methodologies and design to be used in the research.
Research Designs The research on factors responsible for low customer turnout and reduced customer service among the employees of Etisalat will focus on what has been achieved and the constraints faced by the customers and perhaps the employees in this company. The necessary information will be obtained through a survey and interviews on the employees of Etisalat Company.
The research will be comprehensive and combination of two study designs will be applied, they include descriptive and cross sectional. The descriptive research design will apply to this study, as it is very crucial in assisting to provide answers relating to how research problem has affected a given societal situation.
For instance, in gauging the effectiveness of the customer service on customers’ purchasing power, there will be a need to describe the tangible effects so far and reasons behind the effects. In many occasions, the descriptive study is applied as a precursor for a quantitative. The descriptive study also gives indexes to the variables that need to be examined.
In addition, the descriptive study leads to reliable data from which inferences and recommendations can be drawn. The research on Etisalat Company in United Arabs Emirates will cover a small geographical area. Representative data will be necessary if the results are to be reliable and valid. Descriptive studies are appropriate in collection of reliable amount of data.
However, there are obvious shortcomings of the descriptive study; for instance, the study is mainly depended on instrumentation of measurements and observation. There is thus need for a study design that will complement the descriptive study and ensure that quantitative data is obtained.
Target Population Target population involves the entire people or units of which the study intends to collect information from and draw inferences. According to Creswell (29), the target population depends on the phenomenon to be studied and the data that is desired. The research will target the employees of Etisalat Company in the United Arab Emirates.
Sampling Design A sample is a subsection of the target population. To arrive at a sample size, proper sampling techniques should be applied. A sample should be a representative of the target population. Sampling design comprises of the sampling frame, sampling techniques and sample size.
Sample A sample is usually drawn from the target population. Sampling frame represents the working population that is to be utilized in the study (Denzin and Lincoln 20). According to Denzin and Lincoln (18) if a sample frame is taken correctly it will lead to a sample that can be used for the population as a whole. As such, the study will interview only three employees of Etisalat, and the results from the respondents will be used to represent the situation and opinions of all employees in this company.
Sampling Techniques The sampling technique to be applied is the simple random sampling procedure. This method will allow the research to be very inclusive, bearing in mind that the study aims at collecting reliable data about poor customer service and the reduced customer turnout in Etisalat Company.
The random sampling will give all the employees in the sample frame an equal chance of being represented in the sample. Simple random sampling is very effective in getting a representative sample from a large sample group. The sample frame has many employees and all the employees should be given an opportunity to be included irrespective of the region, thus the simple random will be appropriate.
Creswell (29) noted that the simple random sampling technique is free from human bias and avoids the classification errors, by giving each unit an equal chance of being selected. If correctly administered, the technique leads to highly representative sample population.
In addition to the simple random technique, a purposive sampling will be applied in the identification of the people to be interviewed. The purposive sampling depends on judgment of the researcher in the selection of the people to be included in the study. The purpose behind this sampling technique is to focus on particular aspect of the unit/population that will provide the answers to the research questions.
According to Creswell (29), purposive sampling is advantageous when specific information is required from specific people. In such a case, specific information will be required from the employees. A stratified purposeful sampling, which will target the groups of interest, will be applied. The combination of the simple random and purposeful sampling is expected to give comprehensive data for the research.
Sample Size The determination of the sample size is depended on the number of replication that can be applied in drawing inferences about the population/units. The type of data required for the research normally determines the sample size. Sample sizes are important in determining precision of the research (Denzin and Lincoln 18).
In a research, a sample size can be small or large; the researchers, resources available and the purpose of the research again dictate the sample size. This research by application of the random sampling will have a sample size of three employees.
Data Collection Methods The research is aimed at determining the reasons behind the low turnout of customers in Etisalat Company and the subsequent reduced quality in customer service among the employees of this company. To find out the complexities that may be affecting the quality of customer service and reduction in number of customers’ subscription, there are study questions that will guide the research.
As a result, the type of data collection that will ensure that comprehensive data is gathered will be applied. According to Denzin and Lincoln (20), the method of data collection is normally influenced by the research strategies, the point of collection, and the person to carry out the research. The main types of data collection methods to be used in the study will include secondary sources of data collection.
Design of the surveys The study adopted a causal explanatory format with the primary objective being to find out the factors that are responsible for reduced quality of customer service among the employees of Etisalat Company, and the subsequent reduction in customer in the company. The results from the study will help in answering the research questions and thus provide a lasting solution to the problem bad customer service and the subsequent low turnout of customers.
A purposive qualitative design will be employed in the study. In addition, the study will employ a small sample size considering that the primary aim of the study is on quality as opposed to a large sample size. For this reason, three individuals will be interviewed whereby they will be required to answer a list of five questions.
Interviews are good research instruments that can be applied in collection of information in order to gain insights into attitudes and perceptions. They also serve to explore personal differences, experiences, and outcomes. The interviews will be guided interviews, as they will probe to get specific information from the respondents.
The three individuals will comprise employees of Etisalat Company since the employees have a direct contact with the customers. For this reason, the employees have a high chance of influencing the purchasing power of customers based on how best they handle the customers.
Along with the personal interview, the study will also make use of self-administered survey to collect more data on the company’s problem. The self-administered survey will have 20 questions, which will be designed to suit a qualitative approach.
The Actual Survey The actual survey will have the following questions that will guide the respondents in providing the necessary information regarding the quality of customer service among the employees, and the reduction in the turnout of customers in the company.
What are the factors responsible for the reduced quality of customer service among the employees of Etisalat Company?
What are the reasons behind the drop in the number of customers in Etisalat Company?
What measures can the management take to rectify the situation
What are the factors responsible for the reduced quality of customer service among the employees of Etisalat Company?
What are the reasons behind the drop in the number of customers in Etisalat Company?
What measures can the management take to improve customer service among employees?
What measures can the management take to increase the rate of customer turnout?
Which advertising methods can work for increasing the customer turnout in Etisalat Company?
Can reduction of the charges on services and products make a significant change?
How can the management deal with the competition aspect in ensuring the restoration of sales?
Can the improvement on the design of the service card meet the market expectations?
Did the research conclusively review the course and cause of the drop in sales of the service cards?
Were the measures taken by management sufficient in rectifying the issue of poor quality of customer service?
Was there sufficient promotion of the products and services offered by the company?
Can increase in employee satisfaction and the subsequent employee training and development make a significant impact?
Can the recruitment of new employees bring a change in the quality of customer service?
How did motivation of employees improve the quality of customer service?
Can the reduction of cost of the products and services be a viable option in promoting the company?
What are the benefits of a technological advancement pertaining to the quality of customer service?
Did management employ the best measures in rectifying the customer service issue?
Did the research employ adequate measures in the survey of the reasons for the reduced customer turnout?
Did measures taken by management solve the impending problem?
Are the solutions long lasting and implementable?
Survey Questions for the Three Respondents Part 1
Were the measures taken to resolve the problem viable?
Are the reasons behind the drop in the number of customers in Etisalat Company applicable?
Are the measures taken by the management to improve customer service among employees viable?
Did the measures the management take to increase the rate of customer turnout make any significant change to the situation?
Did advertising increase the customer turnout in Etisalat Company?
Can reduction of the charges on services and products make a significant change?
Can the management deal with the competition aspect by improving the quality of customer service?
Can the improvement on the quality of customer service and the reduction in prices meet the market expectations?
Did the research conclusively review the course and cause of problem?
Were the measures taken by management sufficient in rectifying the issue of poor quality of customer service?
Was there sufficient promotion of the products and services offered by the company?
Can increase in employee satisfaction and the subsequent employee training and development make a significant impact?
Can the recruitment of new employees bring a change in the quality of customer service?
Can the motivation of employees improve the quality of customer service?
Can the reduction of cost of the products and services be a viable option in promoting the company?
Are there any benefits of a technological advancement in improving the quality of customer service?
Did management employ the best measures in rectifying the customer service issue?
Did the research employ adequate measures in the survey of the reasons for the reduced customer turnout?
Did measures taken by management solve the impending problem?
Are the solutions long lasting and implementable?
Results of the survey What are the factors responsible for the reduced quality of customer service among the employees of Etisalat Company?
Lack of employee motivation 2 Lack of training 1 Inadequate resources 0 What are the reasons behind the drop in the number of customers in Etisalat Company?
Poor customer service 1 Competition from other providers 1 Expensive products and services 1 What measures can the management take to improve customer service among employees?
Employee motivation 2 Employee Training and Development 1 Recruiting new employees 0 What measures can the management take to increase the rate of customer turnout?
Improve customer service by ensuring high degree of employee satisfaction 1 Investing in promotion and advertisement 1 Reduction of prices on products and services 1 Responses from the three respondents on the survey questions were recorded as follows.
Were the measures taken to resolve the problem viable?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 1 1 1 Are the reasons behind the drop in the number of customers in Etisalat Company applicable?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Are the measures taken by the management to improve customer service among employees viable?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 1 1 1 Did the measures the management take to increase the rate of customer turnout make any significant change to the situation?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 2 1 0 Did advertising increase the customer turnout in Etisalat Company?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 0 3 0 Can reduction of the charges on services and products make a significant change?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Can the management deal with the competition aspect by improving the quality of customer service?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Can the improvement on the quality of customer service and the reduction in prices meet the market expectations?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 2 1 0 Did the research conclusively review the course and cause of the problem?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Were the measures taken by management sufficient in rectifying the issue of poor quality of customer service?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 2 1 0 Was there sufficient promotion of the products and services offered by the company?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Can increase in employee satisfaction and the subsequent employee training and development make a significant impact?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Can the recruitment of new employees bring a change in the quality of customer service?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 0 2 1 Can the motivation of employees improve the quality of customer service?
Yes No Not sure Frequency Can the reduction of cost of the products and services be a viable option in promoting the company?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 2 0 1 Are there any benefits of a technological advancement in improving the quality of customer service?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 2 1 0 Did management employ the best measures in rectifying the customer service issue?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 1 1 1 Did the research employ adequate measures in the survey of the reasons for the reduced customer turnout?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 3 0 0 Did measures taken by management solve the impending problem?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 1 2 0 Are the solutions long lasting and implementable?
Yes No Not sure Frequency 2 1 0 Conclusion The findings from the study showed that, 66.67% of the respondents cited lack of employee motivation as the major factors responsible for bad customer service. The rest of the respondents (33.33%) agreed that lack of employee plays a significant role in bad customer service among the employees.
However, as far as the reduction in the number of customers subscribing services from Etisalat was concerned, the respondents blamed the situation on poor customer service, expensive products and services, as well as stiff competition from other providers. For this reason, the findings indicated that enhancing employee motivation, training, and development could help increase the level of employee job satisfaction, which would in turn influence the quality of customer service among employees of Etisalat Company.
In addition, it was evident that for the company to restore its image and recover the lost customers it was required to improve customer service by ensuring high degree of employee satisfaction, invest in promotion and advertisement, as well as reduce the prices on its products and services.
There was also the need to promote the products and services of the company as a way of wooing back customers considering that the company would reduce its prices. IN Addition to the above strategies, adopting the use of technology would help a lot in the general operations of the company. Majority of the respondents felt that such measures were long lasting and amendable.
From the findings of the study, it was evident that the needs of both customers and employees are very important for any given business to succeed (Goodman 23). It was also evident that the quality of customer service is tied to the level of employees’ job satisfaction. As such, if the employees are not satisfied with the work they do, perhaps due to lack of motivation, they will not be in a position to offer the best to the customers.
The drop in the number of customers at Etisalat due to bad customer service was enough proof that customer service is very significant in any business. For this reason, Etisalat should maintained high satisfied and trained employees, uphold quality customer service, and charge considerable prices for its products and services. Such approaches will help the company to maintain a large market share and wide customer base.
Works Cited Creswell, John. Research Design. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, 2014. Print.
Denzin, Norman, and Yvonna Lincoln. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2011. Print.
Goodman, John A. Strategic Customer Service. New York: AMACOM, 2009. Print.
Coca-Cola Discrimination Issues Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In every organization, good employee treatment, appreciation of racial and ethnic diversity, and effective communication are the pillars of successful business and growth. Notably, Coca-Cola is an international company, which handles various consumers and employees from diverse cultures and races.
The fact that the company operates in several countries such as the United States makes it one of the companies that encounters issues that pertain to race and culture. Over time, several challenges have been evident in the company. These challenges experienced by Coca-Cola Company range from employees, management, public relations, management structure to issues that regard communication.
Therefore, the essay discusses the discrimination issues raised by four African-Americans that led to a lawsuit, examines actions that would have prevented or minimized the lawsuit, and considers the company’s structural and human resource perspectives and leadership styles.
Discussion The discrimination issues raised by four African-Americans centered on promotions, salaries, and dismissals. In essence, African-Americans complained that Coca-Cola Company was not fair in employee treatment. According to Harvey and Allard (2014), the employees explained that the company discriminated them based on race or gender when they undertook promotions or dismissals.
As a result, many African-Americans and women experienced untimely dismissals and low pay, unlike their white counterparts. Furthermore, racial and gender discrimination comprised unfair promotions, which focused on whites leaving out some women and African-Americans, who were outstanding and deserved promotions.
For instance, during the study done by the oversight committee formed to oversee the lawsuit settlement compliance in the company, one of the observations was the concentration of the Blacks in low-level employment. Moreover, in 2002, the 14-team board members of the company comprised two White women, 1 African-American, and 11 White men, an element that demonstrated the high disparity of fairness in Coca-Cola Company.
Some of the actions that Coca-Cola Company would have undertaken to address the discrimination issues raised by four African-Americans before it became a class action lawsuit included fair treatment of employees and good communication.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the issues presented by the employees concerned racial and gender discrimination, it implies that Coca-Cola Company should have focused on initiatives that encouraged employees regardless of their race or gender. In the assertion of Estreicher and Sherwyn (2009), the company received complaints from African-Americans and dismissed them, an act that demonstrated the absence of concern for employee grievances.
By engaging in the activities geared towards the aspect of gender and race, the company would have effectively minimized or prevented the issues before they resulted in a class lawsuit. By dismissing the grievances advanced by their employees, the company compelled them to present their issues in a court of law.
It is evident that if the company had listened to the grievances such as discrimination and addressed them effectively, the challenge would not have become a class lawsuit. An outstanding example is clear when Carl Ware, one of the high ranked African-Americans in the company, employed problem-solving skills in 1981 and drafted a $50 million program (Harvey
Relationship between Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Business ethics and social responsibility have been topics of heated debates since the middle of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the discussion is still relevant as organizations are trying to adjust to the changing environment and remain competitive in the market. Researchers, business people, customers have agreed that companies cannot focus on their profits only and have to contribute to the social development (or rather its aspects) of communities (Tumay 64).
This is why organizations have to pay attention to such notions as social responsibility and business ethics. Sometimes these concepts are utilized interchangeably. However, it is important to note that although they are related, business ethics and social responsibility are quite different concepts. It is necessary to define the two notions to reveal the relationship between them.
First, it can be effective to consider certain historical perspectives to better understand the concepts. It is noteworthy that the discussion of issues associated with ethics and social responsibility occurred in the first part of the 20th century but it was quite sporadic in nature (Carroll and Shabana 86). Comprehensive and systematic debate on the matter started after the World War II.
Some researchers note that the notions of business ethics and social responsibility were “expanded” as tools to defend “free-market capitalism against… Soviet Communism” (Carroll and Shabana 86). It is also noteworthy that in the 1950s, business ethics and social responsibility were not linked to benefits of businesses. In the 1960s, which was the period of Americans’ struggle for civil rights, people also tried to make business people behave in a more responsible way.
However, businesses still had quite a specific understanding of the concepts. In the 1960-1970s, the discussion was held mainly in the academic world. Numerous definitions were developed. One of these definitions developed by Keith Davis reveals certain restricted nature of the view on the matter.
Thus, Davis noted that social responsibility could be defined as business people’s decisions and actions that went “at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic or technical interest” (qtd. in Carroll and Shabana 87). The 1980s became the period when the concepts started acquiring their modern meaning for the business world. At that, such concepts as corporate philanthropy and management of stakeholders were central to the understanding of social responsibility and business ethics (Madrakhimova 114).
Those were close notions but they could not fully explain and help practitioners to apply the concepts in question. Prior to defining the concepts, it is also important to identify major peculiarities of the modern business world as the transition from industrial to information world resulted in people’s focus on ethics and social responsibility (Dimitriades).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the industrial society, companies focused on production and sales, but the digital world has brought significant changes. It is not enough to produce some goods of certain quality and at certain prices. It is much more important to understand customers’ needs and respond to them in the most efficient way (to be more competitive than others).
At present, public opinion plays an important role in organizations’ development as favorable views hale companies develop while negative attitude may lead to significant constraints or even bankruptcy. Modern consumers do not expect high-quality products only. They expect that companies that make profit will share and will contribute to the development of the community.
At present, business ethics and social responsibility are associated with such concepts as corporate citizenship, sustainable development, corporate reputation and others (Madrakhimova 114). It is necessary to note that many approaches to defining the two notions exist (Godiwalla 1383). For instance, there is a profit-oriented approach that is based on the idea that companies have to focus on their economic gains but in terms of sustainable development.
There is also a stakeholder-oriented approach. It focuses on stakeholders’ needs and economic gains are not primary. This approach is not very popular among for-profit organizations that still strive for profits. There are theories that focus on particular levels (certain types of organizations, certain regions and so on) and some approaches concentrate on global trends.
As far as modern definitions of business ethics and social responsibility are concerned, they are comprehensive and they respond to the needs of the modern market as well as stakeholders involved. Thus, business ethics can be defined as a set of moral principles that is employed in the business world (Dimitriades). It is necessary to add that business ethics is mainly concerned with morality and ethics.
In other words, it is concerned with doing right or wrong. Clearly, there are various universal paradigms, but sometimes business ethics can be biased. When it comes to social responsibility, it is also concerned with doing right and doing wrong. Social responsibility is organizations’ responsibility to make choices and undertake actions that will contribute to the social development of communities at different levels (Tumay 64).
Importantly, the concept of social responsibility includes such components as economic, legal, ethical as well as philanthropic (Dimitriades). In other words, it is not only about doing wrong or doing right, it is about doing right and contributing to the social development through attention to the four aspects mentioned above.
We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Business Ethics and Social Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is noteworthy that there is a significant difference between business ethics and social responsibility as the latter involve particular legal components while the former is more present in the terrain of conventions, culture, morality. With these definitions in view, it is possible to consider the relationship between business ethics and social responsibility.
Researchers stress that business ethics is a broader concept (Belás 120). Hence, it is possible to state that business ethics can be regarded as the basis of social responsibility as it provides a certain kind of paradigm used by businesses. As has been mentioned above, business ethics is developed in terms of culture, beliefs and values of people living in certain areas.
Business ethics sets major rules or even directions that are employed when organizations develop their strategic plans and shape their behaviors. Of course, social responsibility is a narrower notion and one of its major components is economic profits. However, the company has to contribute to the social development of a particular (or global) community and this is the terrain where business ethics and social responsibility are closely connected.
The relationship between social responsibility and business ethics is especially explicit when it comes to operations of multinational companies (MNCs) (Godiwalla 1381). These organizations have a well-established culture. They are committed to contribute to the development of the community and the entire humanity.
At the same time, their values, beliefs and methods are based on business ethics that has been developed in a particular area. There, these companies have a favorable reputation and they are regarded as socially responsible, which translates into economic gains. However, when a MNC expands and starts operating in a new market, it can lose its favorable image as some major morals, beliefs and values may be unsuitable for a particular region.
These companies have to change their operations and the way they provide the policy of social responsibility to adjust those policies to the existing business ethics. Of course, companies have to make sure that their operations are consistent with expectations of customers living in this or that area. Otherwise, they will become less competitive and will have to abandon the market, which will lead to reduction of their economic gains.
In conclusion, it is possible to note that the concepts of business ethics and social responsibility are closely connected. Business ethics can be regarded as a certain background for development of policies used by socially responsible organizations. Thus, business ethics is a set of moral regulations and values.
Social responsibility is a narrower concept and it consists of four major elements (economic, economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic). Companies still concentrate on their economic gains. However, their actions and decisions made are shaped by the public opinion and profitability of an organization depends on the degree of its responsibility. People now strive for development of the society and organizations that have significant resources are seen as potent agents in this process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship between Business Ethics and Social Responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The public makes these agents contribute to the social development and, in return, customers remain loyal to this or that company. Of course, companies that do not operate in terms of the business ethics developed in the region where they operate and do not contribute to development of communities often have difficulties with attracting customers.
Works Cited Belás, Jaroslav. “Social Responsibility and Ethics in the Banking Business: Myth or Reality? A Case Study from the Slovak Republic.” Economic Annals LVII.195 (2012): 115-137. Print.
Carroll, Archie B. and Kareem M. Shabana. “The Business Case for Corporate Social Responsibility: A Review of Concepts, Research and Practice.” International Journal of Management Reviews 12.1 (2010): 85-1058. Print.
Dimitriades, Zoe S. “Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility in the e-Economy: A Commentary.” Electronic Journal of Business and Organization Ethics Network 12.2 (2007): n. pag. Web.
Godiwalla, Yezdi H. “Business Ethics and Social Responsibility for the Multinational Corporate (MNC).” Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing 8.9 (2012): 1381-1391. Print.
Madrakhimova, Firuza S. “Evolution of the Concept and Definition of Corporate Social Responsibility.” Global Conference on Business and Finance Proceedings 8.2 (2013): 113-118. Print.
Tumay, Meltem. “Why Corporate Social Responsibility: A New Concept in the 21st Century.” Yönetim ve Ekonomi 16.2 (2009): 63-72. Print.
Developing and Demonstrating Employability Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Introduction In this paper, I investigate how an individual should develop and exhibit satisfactory employability traits to probable employers by outlining relevant competencies, personal audits, and learning outcomes.
I have also enumerated my reflections and future development plans in regards to the skills and employer requirements that I lack. For demonstration purposes, I have delved into the internal auditor job requirements specified by the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), whose capacity, herewith, serves as the potential employer.
Body Identifying Competencies
PwC has implemented a gratifying graduate recruitment project, which solicits for the best and brightest alumni (Improve 2015, para. 4). The firm recruits persons enthusiastic about relationship building and value creation to equip them with exemplary development skills.
The graduate program functions to ensure that the graduates nurture admissible expertise required in administering proficient services at the workplace (Risk assurance 2012, para. 2). Regarding the Internal auditor (2015), outlined below are the varied skills and qualifications necessary for the commissioning of an internal auditor into PwC.
Competencies and Abilities
Regulations. One should have an exhaustive awareness of the relevant statutes, safety rules, and business proceedings as appropriate.
Accounting Standards. The candidate should thoroughly acquiesce and accede to the statutory auditing concepts and standards, especially the Generally Accounting Accepted Principles (GAAP). Equally crucial is the adherence to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in combination with the FERC accounting guidelines (Risk assurance 2012, para. 7).
Legal Requirements. The candidate must also have an in-depth recognition of the legislations incorporated in the accounting revenues, financing, and budgeting networks applicable in utility settings.
Computer Proficiency. The applicant should know how to pilot personal computers as well as the pertinent accounting software.
Cooperation. The creation of teamwork and concordance with the management are mandatory in the balancing of financial records and assimilation of enhanced systems.
Audit Procedures. The intelligence to execute audit procedures, prescribe amendments, verify accounting transactions, and implement special assignments is fundamental.
Good Judgment. Exceptional reasoning and intuition are paramount in establishing when adjustments are necessary for the current structures.
Reports Preparation. Equally imperative is the adroitness of formulating financial statements in conjunction with revealing haphazard accounting procedures.
Adept Communication. The applicant must also know how to disseminate all findings and recommendations in a coherent, effective, and transparent manner.
Information Confidentiality. Confidentiality of corporate data is significantly vital for an internal auditor to preserve solid working relationships with the external agencies, supervisors, and department executives.
Bachelor’s Degree Education. One must have a 4-year bachelor’s degree apprenticeship in finance, auditing, accounting, or business from an accredited university.
Working Experience. The applicant should have two years of active involvement in accounting or intrinsic auditing.
Driver’s License. One must obtain a legitimate driver’s license from North Carolina.
Personal Audit and Evidence of Development
In this segment, I discuss the distinct ways and means by which I suffice the skills, competencies, and abilities above as set forth by PwC (see Table 1). Over and above that, I have also outlined how I have participated in the establishment of a successful team. My proof of development converges upon three instances of residency, which I secured at discrete firms namely Kingston Smith, Price Baileys, and FRP Advisory.
The internship courses in combination with supplementary mentorship programs, arts, student engagement, and volunteer tasks have helped advance my auditing proficiency. Equally important are the intercultural career guidance, practice pursuits, and the employability challenge week projects, all, which I participated in during my stay at the university.
Table 1: Evidence of Development
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Criterion Eligibility Evidence/ Activities Regulations and Legal Requirements Laws and norms prescribing the conventional accounting conduct have remained utterly crucial in my learning course. Regarding Rayman (2013, p. 14), I have discerned that auditors have to acquit themselves in a principled and ethical manner with respect to the AICPA codes of conduct. Internships.The intensive course schedules have capacitated me with numerous regulative principles including accountability to clients, employers, creditors, investors, and the public. An auditor must characterize trust, integrity, honesty, independence, and objectivity as per the set GAAP modulations (Usurelu et al. 2010, p. 350). AccountingStandards I have reliable knowledge of the pertinent accounting standards including the GAAP, IFRS, FERC, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) as well as the AICPA. According to Campfield (2010, p. 75), these doctrines stipulate the guidelines that financial statement preparers should heed to certify consistent and accessible public readings. Employability Challenge Week Activities (ECW). The twice-yearly ECW projects facilitate essential aptitude strategies encompassing psychometric tests and CV workshops. Naqvi et al. assert that these programs convene on a comprehensive understanding of the accounting standards (2013, p. 8). Computer Proficiency I am conversant and well versed in computer operations. I have worked productively with a multitude of accounting software such as Quickbooks, AccountAbility, and Peachtree as well as various payroll software including ADP and Paychex. I have also trained in other essential computer skills encompassing Microsoft Office Suite, MySQL, Adobe Illustrator, and Windows 7 OS. Student Groups and Society Engagement. The student groups and societies dispensed intensive computer training exercises through OpenCourseWare (OCW) systems. They lectured on multiple accounting courses such as Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, Taxes Strategy, and Accounting 101 among others. Teamwork
Trendr Information Technology Strategic Plan Term Paper college essay help online
Introduction The following represents a background of the company called Trendr. It exists in the small to medium enterprise category. Its revenue is $5 million per year. In addition, Trendr has growth potential. This comes from its revenue targets of $20 per year if it markets its products effectively. This will also come about if the company takes advantage of the emerging business opportunities throughout the country.
Trendr is established in the central business district of London, where it has two boutiques located in up-market malls. The company also has an online presence, where it accepts pre-orders online. The company sells trendy clothing and footwear targeting the 18-32 age demographic in urban areas.
It is a retailer sourcing merchandise from different suppliers in the UK and abroad, which it sells in its two boutiques located in upmarket malls in London. The company’s vision is to transform urban trends as a pacesetter in fashion and style. The company’s mission is the provision of merchandise that enhances the customers’ sense of style, fashion and esteem to increase the expression of self in society.
Company situation – current Trendr intends to come up with several security features for its online business. The aim is to protect against intruders and fraudsters. The management also hopes to use technology to escalate the efficiency of procedures, especially in data management. The company is aware of the risk it faces when it launches its online selling platform. The company is presenting its products as trendy fashions.
It has to appeal to a population that mostly exists online. Although it can also rely on traditional marketing channels, the company is still growing and does not have enough funds to sustain a traditional advertising campaign. Therefore, it must find a suitable strategy to use its limited marketing resources and still achieve sufficient communication with its target customers.
The company is looking for a robust and scalable online integrated marketing communications platform. The platform should be available throughout. It should ensure that the company is accessible to its clients always. It should also ensure that the company can capture market trends. Therefore, consumer intelligence is a priority. The firm requires easy to use technology.
It needs technology that is affordable and allows the management to make informed decisions. Therefore, in addition to consumer intelligence, the firm is also looking for the opportunity to have easy-to-interpret data. The data should be passed from senior managers to store managers and sales people, who are working in the field in different capacities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A description of five IT roles needed for success Based on the required technology solutions for the company, Trendr can proceed with a technology plan after fulfilling the following five roles. The functions should lead to a better traction of customer satisfaction and loyalty. The positions are senior technology administration, security administration, social media administration, database administration, and IT consultancy.
Five or more personnel, depending on the need of the job, may fill these five roles. The networking infrastructure for the business will have a low footprint, given that there are two physical stores within the same city. Therefore, personnel also equipped to handle other roles such as the senior technology administration role can easily cover the role of network administration.
The social media administration role will also cover web administration. The person occupying the office will have to be capable of leading teams, providing web support, and getting additional web support officers when needed.
The work in social media administration will involve setting up of accounts, monitoring activities in social communication, channelling marketing messages through social media, running marketing campaigns, serving customer relations needs, and responding to any other inquiries that arise and are related to the Web 2.0 technology usage by Trendr (Van De Velde, Meijer,
Gospel and Culture Critical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Article Summary The article is a presentation of strategies that the Lausanne committee developed to address the difficulties of cross-cultural evangelism. The presentations comprise nine sections that discuss the influence of the gospel on culture and vice versa. The authors begin by outlining the biblical basis of culture (Lausanne Movement 1978).
They look at the creation of man in Gods’ image, and the command to fill and subdue the earth. When man fell, the perfect culture under the Lordship of God, which God had intended man to enjoy, was taken away and man had to deal with an imperfect, self-centered culture.
In the second and the third sections, the authors define culture and look at culture with a biblical revelation. In a bid to understand the relationship between the two, the authors look at the nature of biblical inspiration. The authors note instances when biblical writers used culture as a means of expressing their message, which they interpret to mean that culture is compatible with divine inspiration (Lausanne Movement 1978).
The authors look at the normative nature of the scripture where they assert that the bible is without error in its assertions even after it was translated into different versions. Further, they look at the cultural conditioning of the scriptures where there are specific messages for people from a specific culture.
The authors state that such scriptures should not be completely disregarded if they differ with our cultures. On the contrary, they are to be interpreted in a context that encourages obedience, but not avoidance.
On understanding Gods’ word in the contemporary society, which is the fourth section, the authors outline various ways in which Christians approach the word. One of the approaches outlined is the traditional approach where a person studies the word without putting into context the time and culture when the word was written.
The author states that this approach is faulty, as it does not seek to understand the times when the word was written. The second approach is the contextual approach where the reader takes into consideration the context and language used. The authors encourage this form of studying the scriptures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors also discuss the content and communication of the gospel and the need for humble servants in evangelization. In this section, the authors look at the appeal of the message being communicated and its relation to the different recipients. They also outline some of the cultural barriers that evangelists may encounter while evangelizing.
In addition, they also emphasize the importance of humility during evangelism especially due to the challenges that come with preaching. In the final sections, the authors interrogate the issues of church, conversion, and culture.
On conversion and culture, the authors note the conflicts that arise from conversion due to the influence of culture. They then offer some guidelines on how converts can balance their new status and culture. The authors look at the role of culture in church formation and the role of the church in influencing the culture.
Critique of the article In this presentation, the authors illustrate the relationship between gospel and culture coupled with equipping evangelists with a few strategies on how to handle cross-cultural evangelism. The Lausanne report begins by relating the Bible to the origin of culture. However, the authors forget that the world can only be looked through the lens of the different cultures first before looking at it through the biblical perspective.
One of the misconceptions in the report is that people first look at the world through the biblical culture. This misconception has led to missionaries trying to convert all the individuals that they meet into the bible culture, which is wrong. The most important task for Christian missionaries is to know Christ in a way that causes others to know him without necessarily imposing a foreign culture.
Even as missionaries evangelize, they have to understand that people are made in the image of God, but not the image of the Christians that the missionaries would want them to be.
By understanding this aspect, missionaries will relate with people easily because they will be looking at them from God’s point of view, but not from the ‘model Christian’ perspective. Respect for other people’s culture in mission work is important because it ensures that ‘conversion makes instead on unmaking.’
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Gospel and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the discussion about the people’s culture and the biblical culture, the report fails to emphasize the importance of establishing a relationship with the individuals before preaching to them. A relationship will show that one cares about the people and s/he is not out to destroy their culture while introducing his/her own.
Key successful evangelists in the Bible like Paul valued the cultures of the different people to whom they were evangelizing. They did not attack their cultures directly. Instead, they related with them in a manner that the people ended up admiring Pauls’ way of life.
This aspect simplified preaching. However, one of the report’s strengths lies in the emphasis that cultural change after conversion is gradual, and thus evangelists need to be patient with new converts.
The last three subsections emphasize on the relations between conversion and culture, church and culture, and Christian ethics and life style. While it is joyous to have new converts, evangelists must keep in mind that their work is only to sow and then God works on the rest. The main objective is to spread the good news to the unreached and let Christ deal with the conversion aspect.
However, the secret is to keep on preaching even when it is hard to get converts due to their cultural inclination. Evangelists should be patient with new converts who are still learning to adjust from their former cultures to Christianity.
In case there is a need for reprimanding, then evangelists should do so with love and gentleness. The overall message when reaching out should be that of love not of comparison of cultures. Evangelists and missionaries should encourage syncretism to avoid rejection due to cultural conflicts. Syncretism will ensure that conversion does not lead to loss of culture.
Despite the minor weaknesses, the Lausanne report has dealt with the issue of culture and the church adequately. The evidence in the article has been represented correctly. The article has adduced valid evidence that almost all Christian evangelists and missionaries can identify with.
The church and culture are intertwined. Therefore, it is important for missionaries to be informed adequately as they go out into the mission fields. This report has addressed the missionaries and evangelists who are already in the field and those intending to join the spread of the gospel to the nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gospel and Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference Lausanne Movement. 1978. LOP 2 – The Willowbank Report: Consultation on Gospel and Culture. Last modified 1978. Accessed from https://www.lausanne.org/content/lop/lop-2
Value Chain Model: Starbucks Analytical Essay college application essay help
Introduction The term ‘value chain’ was first coined by Michael Porter in 1985 to portray how the customer value builds up through a series of numerous activities to produce the desired product or service. It entails internal processes that an organization undertakes including design, production, marketing, delivery, and supporting the product to reach the prospective customer.
Primary activates such as inbound logistics and marketing among others are integrated into the activities of the company. Support activates complement the primary events that are executed by the organization’s staff. This paper aims at analyzing the value chain of the Starbucks Company by providing insight into its information systems.
Value Chain Analysis of the Primary Activates in the Starbucks Company Inbound logistics for the Starbucks Coffee Company entail the identification and formulation of appropriate choices regarding the coffee producers in African Continent, which is the chief source. The utilization of effective information systems to facilitate the communication between the suppliers and agents leads to the delivery of high-quality coffee that meets the company standards.
The agents establish strategic relationships with the coffee suppliers in an attempt to organize the supply chain. The Starbucks Company operations involve more than fifty countries. They include direct operations and licensure of stores in different nations. The company operates over 8800 direct stores and more than 8100 stores under licensure globally.
Outbound logistics involve both direct selling of products through its stores and the current inclusion of supermarkets in the demand chain. Customers can obtain products such as the 3-in-1 from the leading supermarkets in many countries around the world (Seaford, Culp,