Abstract The report presents the issue of marriage in the postmodern society. It carries out a comprehensive study on the status of the marriage institution in the 21st century by defining marriage under a postmodernist perspective: symmetrical family’s justifications and criticisms.
It then shifts its focus to the factors that are currently either affecting, or threatening the validity and desirability of marriage, namely, the appeal of and availability as an option of singlehood, the increase in divorce, and cohabitation. Consequently, it is apparent that the marriage institution has definitely evolved in the 21st century society.
The aforementioned variables are just but a few of the possible explanations. The question that remains is whether a universal gauge is in existence to which society should strive to adhere in terms of the ideal marriage. If so, what is the standard? Since this is just a report, the paper avoids committing to any specific answer to that question thus opting to leave it to the reader’s exercise of action.
Acknowledgement I would like to express my profound gratitude to my parents who have been very helpful in the compilation of this report by offering interesting insights on marriage that I shall share in the report as examples.
I am also very grateful for the library resources including the large volumes of sociology textbooks and the internet, which were priceless sources of information and insights into the history of the marriage institution. The library staff members were much cordial. I am grateful for them having availed the facility for my use for both research and discussions.
Finally, I would like to thank my professor who gave me constant feedback and guidance towards the completion of this report projects, as well as the respective group members for their time and dedicated input into the project.
Introduction Marriage refers to different things to the diverse people in different societies. However, all these diverse personalities throughout the world seem to converge into an agreement on one critical factor that marriage is a merger between two or more parties with the intention of establishing a family. Beyond this very general definition of marriage, there are numerous diverging opinions on what marriage consists of, ranging from same sex marriages to polyandrous marriages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Circa 900BC, the world only knew one type of marriage, at least the Judeo-Christian history, which is the best documented type that indicates that marriage was between a man and a woman with the option of an increase in the number of wives if the man was wealthy enough to provide for them (New Advent Para. 2). This point introduces a very interesting yet somewhat underestimated or contemporarily downplayed variable in the marriage institution, which is the economic perspective.
Research indicates that, in the past, marital unions were majorly determined on economic and social grounds rather than the emotional basis of marriages in the 21st century. According to the proponents of this school of thought, this qualifies to be the reason why the marriage institution today is highly unstable, as people no longer look at unions for their profitability purpose. In fact, today, if a woman singles out a wealthy male and targets such a man for his wealth, she shall be referred to derogatively as a gold digger.
Conversely, arranged marriages of the past were very stable despite the lack of emotional basis. The proponents for this school of thought cite economical stability of the husband or the wife in cases where women had large fortunes as the cause of stability as opposed to unwise or unprofitable unions based solely on love and affection, or on the notion of soul mates.
Brief background into the history of marriage Marriage dates back into time immemorial. What becomes apparent as one transcends centuries looking is that, in the past, unions were strictly between a man and a woman who were monogamous. The notion of polygamy started later during the Abrahamic era. Even then, it was only in very special circumstances that the man could take more than one woman to wife.
What has become known as polygyny or polygamy today began innocently enough as a permissiveness of society towards promiscuity among males (Sociology Guide Para. 3). This was a manifestation of the excesses of a patriarchal society. Men saw this patriarchal status as a justification of their superiority over women. Soon enough, the worth of women was diminished and equated to that of property. A wealthy man could take as many concubines as he pleased to his harem (this was the case in Arabic cultures).
In other cultures, this was manifested by the permissiveness of society towards male sexual expression, as it became acceptable for men to have affairs though it was a cardinal sin for a woman to be caught in a sexual transgression. The offence was punishable by death during Jesus’ time. It is interesting to note that, even then, men who were responsible for women committing adultery rarely suffered equal punishment.
Another piece of evidence for this chauvinistic attitude is found in the meaning of the word ‘prostitution’, which originated from the Latin term, prostituta, which means a harlot or a woman who offers up her body indiscriminately, usually for money. Further evidence is in the term ‘male prostitute’, which only got attested in 1948 (Etymology Online Dictionary Para. 4).
We will write a custom Report on Marriage in the Postmodern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These examples are an indication of the evolution of the status of the marriage institution. In the past, dowry was a very significant part of marriage because the economical aspect was a critical decision maker. Chastity was also very crucial as evidenced by the number of “shotgun” weddings, which occurred on a very short notice when a certain male compromised a woman’s virtue.
Variables that have contributed to the status of 21st century marriages Upon a fast tracking to the 21st century, marriage has become a fundamentally different institution from what it was in time immemorial. Today, people have a very different perspective concerning what they consider an ideal marriage (Cherlin ‘The Marriage-Go-Round’ 18). This case can be seen from the myriads of marriage types that have infiltrated the post modernist society.
Some of these interesting developments in the marriage institution include same sex marriages, cohabitation (come-we-stay), polyandry and polygamy, and open unions (whereby the partners are married to each other, but they are allowed to have other sexual partners and relationships without the bonds of matrimony).
Other than these types of unions that have been formally recognised and even named and studied by sociologists, millions of married couples are having affairs from even the sixth month of the marriage. Such kinds of shocking news lead one to enquire, ‘why should we get married in the first place?’
This question is interesting. To source its answer requires one to travel back in time and look into traditional marriages. The reasons for marriage back in the days were interesting because they were politically, socially, or economically motivated except for the shotgun wedding scenarios.
People married to form strategic alliances between kingdoms, families, or to benefit from the spouse’s fortune. They married because they were avoiding a scandal that was likely to ensue after having been caught in a compromising situation or in honour of age-old promises between their predecessors whose promises usually consisted of conditions and a promise of a reward or sanction if the conditions addendum to such a promise were either complied with or defaulted upon respectively.
In short, love and affection were rarely the reasons why people got married. Today, the society has completely turned around from these old motivations to marriage. People get married only when they are in love with each other or when they end up pregnant after having engaged in premarital sex and so marriage is hastily done in a bid to save face (Cherlin ‘The Marriage-Go-Round’ 27).
In short, the post modernist society has the traditional view towards marriage backwards because, whereas people in the past were accustomed to getting into matrimony as strangers and then growing into love with each other, today, people fall in love first after which they get into matrimony based on this love.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marriage in the Postmodern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The unequal distribution of wealth in the society, and specifically the gap between the rich and the poor, is also another significant factor in the analysis of post modernist society. Of course, this perspective requires a wider review of the economics of the post modernist society, specifically concerning the gender differences in wealth that are manifested in today’s society as compared to those in the past. This shall be the first factor that shall merit a discussion in this report.
The Dynamics of Economic Balance The civil war in the early periods of the second half of the twentieth century in the United States of America is a magnificent example for use to explain this factor of economics. At the time, civil rights activists and feminists came together to advocate for equality of men and women as they felt that the society was a reflection of the male chauvinism that was suffocating and insulting to women’s dignity and development as a sex since time immemorial (Sociologyweb Para. 5).
This was a relevant complaint at the time because the society had always been rather private and silent on the status of women. Society was clearly patriarchal. However, since the industrial age and the intermittent world wars had proven to the world that women too could get an education and manage to provide for their families in the absence of their men, the government had no justifiable excuse for continuing to undermine women’s capacities.
Consequently, in the US, the Affirmative Action took effect. The results were reflected in the increased emphasis on the ‘girl child’s’ success. Women thrived. They went to school and got scholarships to college. The barriers to college entry were utterly destroyed. If anything, they got a more favourable treatment than their male counterparts did (Cherlin ‘Public and Private Families’ 84). The effects of this mollycoddling are now felt as society is filled with prosperous women who do not need to rely on men to survive.
Suddenly, society is confronted with a phenomenon that has never before been manifested in such great proportions throughout history. Therefore, there is no hope for alluding to past solutions to apply them into the current problem.
Initially, marriages were stable because the woman relied on the man for all and any expenses that she accrued as evidenced by age-old common law principles in matters such as bankruptcy of women whereby married women could not be adjudged bankrupt. In case a woman was actually bankrupt, her debts would be answered upon the head of her husband.
Now, women can afford to stay single indefinitely because, when they age, they simply move out of their parents’ homes and get a personal apartment. This case means that parents no longer need to stress about supporting adult daughters. This situation on the other hand results in less pressure being exerted upon the daughters to get married. This factor advises the next segment of this report’s discussion.
The appeal of and availability as an option of singlehood In the 21st century, there is nothing surprising or shocking about being a woman who is more than 40 years old, and not having a husband. Neither is it shocking for a man to be without a wife at a similarly advanced age. It is only an issue if the said adult still lives with his or her parents at that advanced age.
Research indicates that, as time lapses and adults fail to marry, or get married at a particular point or a period in their lives usually when their peers are getting married, they are likely to remain single for the rest of their lives or marry when they are very old. The same case applies to newlyweds that are widowed shortly after their wedding day.
In 1901, only one out of ten households contained a single individual contrary to one out of every three households today that have a single person (Sociologyweb Para. 6). Conversely, in 1971, two-thirds (2/3) of people in single households exceeded pensionable age, which is sixty -five for men and sixty for women. Today, only half of those in single households exceed the pensionable age.
Apparently, more people prefer to remain single in the twenty-first century. There are various reasons proposed to explain these alarming figures, including that the rate of marriages is declining, with an increase in divorce and separation. Secondly, people are delaying marriage or opting to cohabit until they are older.
To explain this situation, the age bracket between 25 and 44 is dominated with bachelors. However, beyond 65 years, the numbers are opposite, with doubled women relative to men who are single at this point of their lives (Sociologyweb Para. 2). The explanation for this case is that women have a higher life expectancy.
Nevertheless, the reasons why people are choosing to remain single deserve further discussion. The next segment carries out an in-depth analysis of divorce as a cause of singlehood, which is a factor that is affecting the institution of marriage in the twenty-first century. It is interesting that this next segment is double pronged because divorce too affects the institution of marriage. Therefore, the segment shall discuss it under both faucets.
The Increased Rate of Divorce The available several causes of divorce include individualism; dissatisfaction of conjugal rights, independence of women, social and legal permissiveness, and mass media influence.
Most cultures in the 21st century are very individualistic. If two individualistic individuals come together in marriage, they are likely to carry this trait into wedlock. It becomes manifest in spending their time separate from each other with each pursuing personal interests.
This case is especially common when the two individuals are career-oriented with distinct professional goals that are different but equally important to them. Alternatively, when the husband has this trait, it means that he spends most of his time at work and/or hiding behind the excuse of being the sole breadwinner as the justification for staying away from home for so long.
This scenario usually culminates in the development of romantic relationships with females at work, which if discovered, could result in divorce. Women too are integrated in the career world. When they see their male colleagues, who may be married, carrying on in this lecherous manner, it serves as a strong reason against marriage.
Dissatisfaction of conjugal rights
Dissatisfaction of conjugal rights is usually the next step after the development or continued sustenance of individualism. The spouse shall then start eying attractive options at the place of work, usually out of the boredom of having had only one partner for an extended period. An interesting observation now is that the survival rate of a marriage usually has a lot to do with the past sexual experiences of the spouses.
If the spouse was accustomed to jumping in and out of relationships on a monthly basis, it may only take one month after the wedding for such a person to cheat. On the other hand, if the spouse had a more disciplined outlook to relationships prior to getting married, it is likely to last longer before feelings of boredom invade his or her mind. Other parties become interesting candidates for adventurous affairs.
However, this explanation is not absolute, as there are those couples whose past life was very promiscuous, yet they survived longer than their more chaste counterparts did. In the end, the determinant is usually the amount of diligence exercised by both spouses about making their marriage work.
Independence of Women
Independence affects marriage in two ways. First, since women are now employable and that they can comfortably make their own income, they can easily get out of an unhappy marriage, which is unlike the olden days. Traditionally, despite the horrendous treatment that the wife was receiving in her marital home, she stayed on because she had nowhere else.
Going back to her maiden home was some sort of proof that she was a failure as a woman. However, concerning this point, it is interesting to note that illiterate women who have no skills to market may still find themselves enslaved to their husbands, even in the twenty-first century. This assertion is deductable from the countless accounts of abuse in the matrimonial home and a closer review of the victims’ personal credibility in terms of independence.
The second dimension to independence is that women are more focused on their jobs today so much such that what was initially known as the “second shift” in the representation of the role a husband plays in the household after he comes home from work has been renamed the “third shift” for women.
It is inclusive of their professional lives’ demands, household chores and childcare, and emotional needs and fulfilments. Women are finding themselves very involved in work that they hardly have the time to deal with the emotional drama that comes with being in the relationship. This case causes the relationship to suffer, with divorce rates escalating.
Social and Legal Permissiveness
Society and the law have become more accepting of divorce. Whereas it was initially almost impossible to divorce one’s spouse, today, divorce proceedings in court last for a month for the case to be settled. If anything, the only contentious issue is the distribution of the marital property or the prenuptial agreement, which is another interesting development in the twenty-first century marriage arrangements.
The society blatantly encourages divorce for unhappy unions as evidenced by marriage therapists and married or divorced friends telling their troubled colleagues to leave their marriages. In the past, marital problems were dealt with rather than pushing them under the rug and/or being allowed to fester because people knew that they were stuck with each other. Therefore, they had to work things out, which is no longer the case and divorce is seen as the exit clause in the event of major marital differences.
Mass media influence
Celebrities, who unfortunately, are the people’s icons, record the highest rates of divorces. When girls and boys dream about their future spouses, they fantasise about celebrities. When such impressionable youths then see such celebrity couples getting divorced barely two months after the wedding, they are disillusioned and misinformed about the marriage institution.
Over time, their entire perspective on marriage becomes ruined. That case has led to the outrageous permissiveness that infests the twenty first century in the first place because, thanks to the fast dispersal of information, centuries-old traditional values of marriage and the family institution are being eroded within hours of watching certain movies or news bit on the latest contemporary marriage that went awry.
Most couples in the twenty first century are forming a pattern of cohabiting rather than getting married. Watching the TV Series, “Better with You” that is directed by James Burrows neatly covers such a situation as Ben (acted by John Cooke) and Maddie- Maddeline (acted by Jennifer Finnigan) have been cohabiting for nine years.
When the sitcom begins, they call their arrangement a “Valid Life Choice”. Sixty percent of couples that start cohabiting for the first time eventually get married. Seven out of ten couples give the same address on their marriage license while 56 percent of these carry out religious wedding ceremonies (Cherlin ‘Public and Private Families’ 97). It is becoming a norm to move in together and blatantly engage in sexual relations before marriage.
The reasons for this include the availability, affordability and increased efficiency of contraceptives, and the geographical separation from the traditional family set ups, which allow couples to live together while not married without censure from relatives and other older generational members in the society among others.
Status of marriage in the post modernist society The marriages that are prevailing in the post modernist society seem to follow a certain pattern. They seem to be symmetrical in the role of men and women although the extent of this symmetry is highly debatable. It has been the cause of much contention among feminist groups.
The evidence of this symmetry is made manifest in the interchangeable and flexible roles of man and wife and the professional lives of both spouses as both are usually engaged in a paid employment meaning that the husband often helps in the housework. In fact, it does not make sense to leave it all to the wife yet both were in the office throughout the day.
Additionally, since the wife is making a relevant contribution to the family’s income, the husband may feel obligated to help in the house. This income contribution also means that the wife and husband both engage in decision-making. Finally, the wife and husband in a symmetrical marriage share common friends and leisure activities thus giving them time and opportunity to bond and build their relationship.
Criticisms of this deduction are mostly voiced by feminist activists who state that helping in the home is irrelevant as men count ironing their clothes as a form of helping. Women are still the primary homemakers and child caregivers in the home. Therefore, symmetry cannot be said to be in effect. Additionally, women have an emotional toll that they have to bear solely. Their role cannot be said to be equal to that of the men.
Conclusion This report has carried out a comprehensive study of the marriage institution in the post modernist society by first looking into the history of marriage and then looking at the matters that have come up since time immemorial to distort marriage. These factors include economic liberation of women and the social and legal permissiveness towards divorce among others.
The factors prove the inevitability of change in the marriage institution. Finally, it has looked at the symmetrical status of the twenty-first century marriages. In conclusion, it posits that marriage has evolved significantly since historical times and will only continue to do so as society continues to evolve.
Works Cited Cherlin, Andrew. The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family Today. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. Print.
Cherlin, Andrew. Public and Private Families: An Introduction (Sixth edition). London: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.
Etymology Online Dictionary. etomologyonline.com, 2010. Web.
New Advent. Catholod Encyclopedia: History of Marriage, 2009. Web.
Sociology Guide. Marriage, Family, and Kinships, 2012. Web.
Sociologyweb. Sociology Changes in the Family, 2013. Web.
Major Influences on American Government Essay best essay help
A careful analysis of American government reveals the operation of ideas that have been developed over time in the discipline of political science. Concepts like legitimacy, rule by law, and democracy, undoubtedly influenced the structure of American government. Ideologies during the Enlightenment period of the 17th and 18th in Europe also helped shape the early form of American government.
Lastly, a number of experiences during and after the Declaration of Independence in 1776 firmly set the pace for political discourse as well as direction for American government. Proceeding paragraphs examine these influences, with the aim of outlining the foundations of American government.
A fundamental and immediate influence, the European Enlightenment of the 17th-18th century coincided with the rise of the Union. John Locke, in his Second Treatise of Government, further refined the idea of government legitimacy and the natural rights of human beings.1 Rousseau, as opposed to Thomas Hobbes, devised a more humanistic framework of legitimacy that deeply influenced American democracy.2
Just as important as the Enlightenment philosophers, important English documents like the Magna Carta of 1215 and the Declaration of Right of 1628, provided templates for drafting the American Constitution. Their importance lies in the contribution they made to giving commoners a ‘voice’ in government and checking state power.3 Indeed, the influences of the Enlightenment philosophers served to establish a uniquely American democratic heritage.
Democracy is a form of government that gives power to the people. Indeed, its etymological roots reveal its nature.4 Democracy, designed in the Constitution in 1787 as essentially representative, ensured that American governments drew their legitimacy from the will of the people rather that the more obscure ‘will of God’.5
Fundamentally, the Declaration of Independence, drafted by representatives from thirteen initial states, showed the illegitimacy of King George III’s rule and simultaneously set out democratic values that would guide nation-building, that is, liberty, equality and justice.6 Clearly, the desire for democracy was an important aspect in rejecting oppressive British rule and guiding discourse.
Though the democratic theme recurrent in early American politics is central to the foundation of American government, the deliberations leading to the crafting of the American Constitution and Bill of Rights also influenced American political attitudes and policy making.7 The debates between federalists and anti-federalists cultivated a political culture where everyone has a right to be heard and opinion mattered .8 The document that resulted put into place a tradition of democracy, devolution of power and importance of public opinion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These influences helped shape an American government that seeks to heed public opinion, protect democracy and protect the American people from tyrannous rule. As has been seen in the importance attached to such instruments as the Gallup polls, American democracy is as alive today as it was during the Constitution Convention.
Federalism: The Epitome of Synergy A look into the Great Depression, urbanisation and immigration as well as World War II offers the opportunity to see the synergy of federal and national government at work. Since the Constitutional amendments of the 1780’s, their relationship has been strengthened through their dual approach to tackling major issues in American history.
The Great Depression provided for the concerted efforts of both the national and state governments to act. For instance, the national government worked to stem unemployment through the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and Civil Works Administration through Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’ of 1933.9
States also overhauled their tax systems during this time, creating general sales taxes and personal income taxes for example.10 The Great Depression is regarded as a ‘defining moment’ in US history precisely because it transformed the way national and federal government’s work.11
Urbanisation spiked significantly in the years 1870 to 1920, raising challenges that would be more appropriately handled by federal governments.12 Federal governments contributed to suburbanization through subsidization programs and infrastructural improvements.13 European immigration between 1880 and 1920 led the national government to designate Ellis Island as an immigration station, regulating the influx of people into the US.14
World War II brought with it exponential growth at the federal government level. This was primarily because of increased spending on war-related goods and services.15 The war, constitutionally led by the national government, led to the growth of spending and staffing by federal governments.
Larger budgets by federal governments during the 1940’s could only be attributed to the decision of the national government to go to war. Stagnating private investment would have to be compensated by increased federal spending.16 In this instance, it is therefore clear decision by the national government had repercussions at the federal level.
We will write a custom Essay on Major Influences on American Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The citations above point to an apparent fact: significant events and phenomena in US society have historically been tackled at both the national and federal levels. Federalism as envisioned in the Constitution does indeed have a synergistic quality about it and there is no doubt that the recently passed ‘Obama-care’ will be handled from both sides of American government.
Bibliography “American Government: Democratic Values – Liberty, Equality, Justice.” US History. Web.
“American Government: Foundations of American Government,” US History. Web.
Christiano, Tom. “Democracy,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.
Higgs, Robert. “Government and the Economy since World War II.” Independent Institute. Web.
Smiley, Gene. “Great Depression,” The Concise Encyclopaedia of Economics. Web.
Snell, Ronald. “State Finance in the Great Depression.” National Conference of State Legislatures. Web.
“People: Urbanization of America.” The USA Online. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Major Influences on American Government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rockoff, Hugh. “World War II and the Growth of the U.S. Federal Government.” Rutgers State University of New Jersey. Web.
“United States Immigration before 1965.” History. Web.
Waluchow, Wil. “Constitutionalism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.
Global Sourcing of Capital Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The global sourcing of capital refers to obtaining financial resources from debt, equity, money or capital markets. Amongst these, debt refers to those financing sources which provide financing opportunities for both short and long terms. Equity, on the other hand, refers to obtaining finance for a business through issuance of stocks in local and / or international markets.
Money markets refer to those financial and lending institutions from which a business can acquire finance for short term and in a relatively quick manner. On the other hand, capital markets are providers of finance for longer terms. The need for global sourcing of capital arises due to the fact that businesses are always in search of raising capital with the most suitable or lowest possible cost (Eiteman, Stonehill,
Analysing an Organisation using Nadler a level english language essay help
Introduction Geopolitical and demographic changes together with changes in technology and even intense pressure on the physical environment of an organisation drive the need for organisational modification to meet the corresponding emerging needs. Such changes also need to be combined with various security concerns together with governance issues that help to generate pressures that drive organisational change (Bruch and Gerber 87).
Development of awareness for technological needs, political, sociological, and economic characteristics of the external operational environment of organisations is crucial in the effort to drive strategic initiatives for organisational success. Therefore, it is important for an organisation to develop theoretical models for analysis of the operations of organisations. This paper proposes Nadler and Tushman’s model as one of such theoretical models.
To highlight how Nadler and Tushman’s model can be applied in the analysis of organisations, McDonald’s business is used as the organisation whose operations environment coupled with strategies of success can be analysed from the perspective of this model.
However, before this analysis, a consideration is given to lay a background of both McDonald’s business and Nadler and Tushman’s model. The report then categorises the key components of the environment, strategy, tasks, formal system, and the key individuals to determine what outputs are desired, and whether they are achieved by the chosen organisation.
Secondly, an attempt is made to determine whether the strategies for McDonald’s business are in line with organisation’s environmental inputs and/or whether the transformation process (the key tasks, the formal organisation, the informal organisation, and the key individuals) all align well with McDonald’s business strategies. The intention is to evaluate how these elements interact to produce the outputs.
Thirdly, the report responds to the query of whether evaluating McDonald’s business outputs at the organisational, group, and individual levels, yields anything that might help in identifying issues that the organisation should address. In the last section, the report considers the query of whether some aspects of how McDonald’s company works create difficulty in understanding the operation of the organisation. If this query yields a positive response, the study will select the materials for use to aid the investigation.
Background to McDonald’s Company McDonald’s company stands out as one of the biggest global fast food retailers offering fast foods in more than 119 countries all over the globe. McDonald’s restaurants and franchises, which stand at about 33, 500, continue to grow as the organisation penetrates new markets in Asia (Wilhelm Para. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This immense success of McDonald’s business is attributed to a number of factors among them being the incredible emphasis on engagement of consumers, an appropriate leadership that fits well with the business of the organisation, and the exceptional investments of the organisational resources in brand management. The franchise business model of the company has managed to ensure that the products and services offered at the franchises are consistent with the services offered at the company-owned restaurants.
McDonald’s business principally focuses on development of a business model, which pays attention to the concerns of employees. The organisation uses employees to deliver organisational values through delivery of healthy, safe, and hygienic foods (Gogoi and Arndt 18).
The main strategy for McDonald’s business is to use its people to deliver services at outstanding high-service rates so that customers do not waste their time waiting for services as such a move undermines the purpose for which fast food restaurants are established. To achieve this goal, the organisation advocates for a bureaucratic formal management structure. In fact, formal organisational structure is one of the essential subsystems considered in the Nadler and Tushman’s model.
McDonald’s company pays inconceivable attention to people as the most important resource it can utilise to enhance its success both in the long-term and in the short-term. For this reason, the company’s brand inventories highlight the brand elements of the company, which drive the image that consumers have in their mind in relation to the company’s products and services.
The company also conducts brand exploratory to determine how customers perceive its products. New products are innovated and designed to meet the emerging needs of consumers based on the information derived from brand exploratory studies.
This means that McDonald’s company pays attention to all factors that may help to enhance its performance. It deploys such factors in the development of products and means of delivering its services thought the company-owned stores and franchises. The goal of this paper is to evaluate how Nadler and Tushman’s model can be applied in the analysis of various strategic decisions made by McDonald’s company.
Background to Nadler and Tushman’s Model
We will write a custom Report on Analysing an Organisation using Nadler
Investment in International Portfolios Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The global economical conditions have drawn attention of investors in international investments. Investors are often found to be anxious about investment (domestically or internationally). This is because of the economical and political instability in many countries. This issue has become one of the major highlight of the investing sector (Chong, 2004).
The question that has gained attention is whether the investment shall be done in a diversified international portfolio or a diversified domestic portfolio. (Maginn
Analysis of the UN Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Development of the UN is a reflection of the development of humanity. People reveal a growing interest in global cooperation and a variety of UN activities show these efforts. According to PIPA, people in many countries support the idea of UN accepting new members (“23-country poll,” 2005).
This proves the assumption that people are ready to make a mutual effort and forget about disparities so as to be able to address urgent global issues, i.e. environmental, social, economic, political, etc. Apart from expansion, the UN is undergoing certain structural changes. It is clear that there are growing concerns for peace and financial security.
The UN responds to these concerns as the UN officials claim the organization is being restructured. The UN bodies obtain wider powers and they increase cooperation with other global organizations (e.g. IMF) and governments of different countries (“General assembly president,” 2011). Admittedly, these changes will favourably affect development of the UN as well as the globalized society.
This will enable people to develop better patterns of resources distribution which, in its turn, will help address such issues as poverty, famine, etc. The organization will also be able to more effectively address issues concerning refugee flows. The reorganized UN will potentially affect governments of countries preventing them from starting military campaigns.
It is necessary to note that the positive changes within the organization are due to the activities of different UN state members. All state members contribute greatly to the development of the organization. However, it is clear that some states have greater influence. As far as I am concerned, the USA is one of the most influential state members.
This country shapes the policies of the organization to certain extent. US officials claim that this influence can be easily justified as the country’s monetary donation is considerable, i.e. “22 percent contribution to the world body’s operating budget” (Gaouetten
The Myth of the Culture of Poverty Essay (Article) best college essay help
Introduction Paul Gorski’s “The Myth of the Culture of Poverty” is a very informative article that talks about some of the commonly held stereotypes regarding poor people. This article explains that poor people have been unjustly judged by the society, which attributes their present state of affairs to the believes, values, and behavior they purportedly share.
Some of the most commonly held believes or perceptions regarding poor people include poor people are unmotivated and have weak work ethics, poor parents are uninvolved in their children’s learning because they do not value education, poor people are linguistically deficient, and they tend to abuse drugs and alcohol.
As explained by Gorski, such stereotypes are incorrect and it is indeed wrong and unjust to come up with values and attributes that claim to describe an entire demographic of people based on their current economic status.
Unfortunately, rather all of the stereotypes regarding poor people are widespread in many societies and this has served to further increase the problem of generational poverty. Poor people are regarded to be in the state they are in because of their own making. Therefore, little is being done to remedy this situation.
It is indeed true that in many societies, poor people are perceived to be lazy, lacking in ambition and, therefore, unable to rise above their current statuses. As Gorski rightly puts it, such perceptions must be done away with in the society and learning institutions, which are meant to mould students to achieve their greatest potential. It is only after doing this that the society can manage to effectively address the issue of poverty.
Racial profiling has been and continues to be an issue in the United States and many other developed countries. There are various times in history when the United States government has justified some of its actions that can be described as downright racial profiling.
In the wake of the September 11th attacks, the United States government, through its various agencies, some of which were created just after the attack was involved in various acts of racial profiling. The government targeted members belonging to the Arab and Muslim communities for special scrutiny in many public facilities including airports, malls, and subway stations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to that, the government targeted both legal and illegal immigrants belonging from these two communities, arresting, and detaining them in Guantanamo and other detention facilities on suspicion of being involved in terrorist related activities. The government used national security to justify their actions claiming that the people held were genuine suspects and, thus, must be held for questioning.
During the Second World War, hundreds of Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans were subjected to unauthorized searches where their property and houses were searched by the government officials in the wake of the Pearl Harbor attacks.
In addition to that, most Japanese Americans and immigrants were forced to leave their homes and stay in concentration camps as a result of a government issued order. In this incidence, the government claimed that it was acting for the greater good of the American people and that taking such an initiative was necessary to ensure the safety of all American citizens including the Japanese Americans.
PepsiCo and Coca-Cola: Competitive Strategy essay help: essay help
The history of the corporate development of such brands as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo is associated with the prolonged market competition for the greatest share in the market and industry and for attracting more consumers. In spite of the fact that the products of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are similar in taste and quality, both these companies take the leading positions within the market of soft non-alcohol drinks.
To understand the particular features of the companies’ competition, it is necessary to focus on differences in the corporate cultures. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo follow different competitive strategies and focus on various elements of the corporate culture in order to help consumers differentiate the brands and their missions along with the brands’ images.
Corporate culture is the complex notion according to which people working in the company share the same organizational values, visions, and norms. There are definite systems and principles basing on which the leaders organize the employees’ activities. Corporate culture also includes such concepts as corporate beliefs and ideals distributed in order to attract consumers to share these beliefs and values (Balmer
The Application of Social Media Promotion of Organizations’ Businesses Essay essay help
Reasons why Social Media Marketing has become exceedingly popular among businesses The use of social media marketing has experienced a significant increase in the past few decades. The application of social media promotion of organizations’ businesses has led to the diminishing trend in the application of traditional forms of marketing (Dobele et al., 2005).
Studies show that the social media attract millions of people who visit the sites every day. On this note, websites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Blogging among others have become major destinations for business organizations in posting their services, website links, photos as well as assessments (Dobele et al., 2005).
As such, businesses have been able to share with the global community and interact with the clients. Consequently, the contacts create a large pool of online society that is customer-driven thereby making it influential. In addition, through social media marketing, an online community trust and common interest is achieved.
Moreover, with social media advertising, the companies are capable of publishing highly accessible information that allow the clients to share and read the news contents of the companies’ services (Li
Influences of language Essay writing essay help
Language in America English is an important language in America because it makes it possible for many people to communicate easily. English brings people together and encourages them to share ideas and resources to improve their lives. The American society is multi cultural and all residents need to speak a common language to help them communicate effectively. This makes it easy to unify people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds.
Language has a large impact on culture because it helps one understand values and ideas that are cherished by people in the society he lives. People need to be encouraged to learn their native languages to make them appreciate their cultures more (Barrientos). This will encourage all people to be more conscious about their roots which will strengthen multi cultural relations between people living in different societies.
Many people speak their native languages at home when they are interacting with their friends and family. This gives them a sense of belonging and comfort because they are able to share a lot of personal experiences that are very important to them. They are able to discuss various topics of interest freely because they are at ease and enjoy spending quality time together.
Tan reveals “…a person’s developing language skills are more influenced by peers” (2). People work hard to conform to expectations of their peers to ensure they communicate in a language everyone understands. Many employers prefer their employees to speak in a common language to ensure workplace functions are performed effectively.
Influences on Language Some people are heavily influenced by the media in the way they speak. For instance, people pick up new slang terms and accents from famous musicians, actors and other notable public personalities. The media is the main avenue through which people learn various aspects of popular culture such as language, fashion and other trends. This gives them an idea on how they need to speak to conform to people’s expectations in a particular area.
Both school and home environments have a big influence on the way people acquire various language skills. A school environment exposes learners to languages which are widely spoken, which are different from their vernaculars. They get to interact with their school mates and this helps them learn popular slang terms that help them relate with their peers easily. Many parents teach their children their native vernaculars at home to make them appreciate their cultural heritage (Silko 2).
The American society presumes that for one to be recognized as a resident, one needs to learn how to speak English more fluently. However, this presumption may not necessarily apply to everyone that lives in the country. Silko reveals “At Laguna Pueblo, for example, many individual words have their own stories” (2).This presumption needs to be changed to encourage more people in the country to acquire multi-lingual skills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More English needs to remain the national language of America because it is spoken by a majority of people and is used by major government agencies to perform various functions. English is also used as a medium of instruction in schools and it is a vital part of the American heritage. However, school children and other citizens need to be encouraged to learn more languages to improve their linguistic skills.
Works Cited Barrientos, Tanya Maria. Se Habla Español. Maine Humanities Council Podcast, 2008. MP3.
Silko, Leslie Marmon. “Language and Literature from a Pueblo Indian Perspective.” Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: Essays on Native American Life Today. New York: Viking Press, 1996. 1-13. Print.
Tan, Amy. “Mother Tongue.” Teachers’ Study Files 5 July 2013. 1-4. Print.
A Brief Introduction to the New Testament Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents The Christian Canon
The Synoptic Problem
The Christian Canon A canon refers to a standard or a rule. Concerning New Testament in the Christian bible, canon refers to books accepted as making up the New Testament. The canon consists of twenty-seven authoritative books (Ehrman). The canon implies that no other book can find a place in the New Testament and no book should miss from the New Testament (Ehrman).
The New Testament as currently composed is a product of a historical process involving various individuals and religious groups. Before the year 140AD, there was growing awareness that various individuals were writing scriptures (Ehrman).
Three concepts prove that there was such awareness (Ehrman 34). The first concept, apostle, manifests in the New Testament referring to Christ’s representatives entrusted with spreading the Gospel. They validly attested to salvation and later took a new concept of witnessing (Ehrman).
They witnessed through both oral and recorded documents and such documents make up the New Testament. The third concept, tradition, is very authoritative and refers to what passes from one generation to another in an authoritative way. As such, authority refers to authoritative spreading of the gospel granted to apostles by Christ himself (Ehrman 41).
Despite various opposition and debates on the canonicity of the New Testament from individuals and groups, the New Testament in its current composition came into being in the year 220 during which time the following books received acceptance as inspired and authoritative books (Ehrman).
The four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, the Acts of Apostles, thirteen Pauline epistles, letter of John, Hebrews, James, Jude, letters of Peter and the Revelation of John. Luke authored the Acts of the Apostles (Ehrman 56). Various books never made it to the New Testament canon. Such books include the letters of Clement of Rome, The Gospel of Thomas, The Gospel of Peter, and the Gospel of Judas among others (Ehrman).
Oral Traditions Oral traditions refer to passing of information from one group or generation to another by word of mouth (Seraphim). The New Testament contains evidence of oral traditions and the testament is itself ninety percent oral tradition and ten percent written tradition (Seraphim).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various evidences of oral tradition even in the New Testament and an exhortation to Christians to uphold oral tradition. The protestant Christians have held to scriptures alone but the Catholic Church has incorporated traditions in its teachings (Seraphim).
Long before literary forms of the Gospel appeared, preaching of the Gospel took place through oral traditions (Seraphim). St Paul, in his letter to Thessalonians continuously thanks God, because converts received the word spread through the mouth by Paul and his companions as true and authoritative.
Paul did not use any written documents to preach to believers but used what he heard from other Apostles and passed it to believers (Seraphim). The author of the letter to the Hebrews asserts that oral traditions were necessary for the spreading of the salvation message. The message of salvation got to people through word of mouth long before it appeared in written form.
Communication of God’s redemption through oral traditions is an old tradition and has passed from one generation to the next as St Paul writes in his letter to Philippians, “The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, practice these things; and the God of peace shall be with you (Seraphim).”
The Synoptic Problem The synoptic problem refers to attempts to explain the cause of various differences and similarities arising from reading the first three Gospels namely Matthew, Mark and Luke (Theopedia). The three synoptic gospels have a unique relationship as much as they have glaring disparities.
For instance, the Gospel of Matthew has around 90 percent of Mark’s content while the Gospel of Luke has around 50 percent of Mark’s content (Theopedia). Synoptic problem defines the task of trying to figure out why such features present themselves to scholars (Theopedia). Various theories explain the origin of the synoptic problem.
The first theory, two-source theory, proposes that it is likely that Matthew and Luke adopted Mark’s narrative setting and later on added materials from oral traditions and sayings (Theopedia). The second theory, Farrer theory, implies that Mark’s Gospel is the earliest and that Matthew copied from it and then Luke copied from both Mark and Matthew (Theopedia).
We will write a custom Essay on A Brief Introduction to the New Testament specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Griesbach theory posits that Luke copied from the Gospel of Matthew and that Mark used the two Gospels to author his own version of the Gospel. This theory holds that Matthew is the earliest of the synoptic Gospels.
The fourth theory, Augustinian theory, asserts that Matthew is the earliest Gospel, followed by Mark and Luke in that order (Theopedia). Mark depended on what Matthew had written while Luke depended on what Mark wrote. A closer opinion to this theory suggests that Mark and Luke copied from Matthew and that the Gospel of Matthew was originally in Aramaic before the Greek translation surfaced (Theopedia).
Works Cited Ehrman, B.D. A Brief Introduction to the New Testament. London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Seraphim, Benedict. Oral Tradition in the New Testament. 2005. Web. .
Theopedia. Synoptic Problem. 2013.Web. .
Effects of PTSD and Correlation between Diagnosis and Violence Research Paper college admission essay help
Post-traumatic stress disorder commonly referred to as PTSD, is a mental trauma that mostly affects people who have witnessed horrible events in their lifetime. Events such events as sexual harassment, sudden deaths, accidents, wars and harmful natural catastrophes have led to post-traumatic stress disorder over time. These events distort the biological mechanisms of a normally functioning human being. PTSD affects both children and adults and may become complicated with time.
Victims who have been diagnosed with PTSD are associated with lack of sleep, frightening dreams during sleep, and tend to avoid various things. It is also worth noting that there is a correlation between PTSD and violence, though this has been cited to be of minimal significance. This paper will discuss the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder to victims. It will also examine the existence of a correlation between post-traumatic stress disorder and violence.
Effects of post-traumatic stress disorder Victims of post-traumatic stress disorders are likely to develop sleep disorders associated with high risk of mortality, weight gain, depression, and coronary heart diseases (Kobayashi, Cowdin,
Fashion designers: Coco Chanel Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
This paper is aimed at examining the main elements involved in the artistic process. In particular, it is necessary to focus on the work of fashion designers. The main difficulty is that there is no universal pattern that can accurately describe their activities. This is one of the main peculiarities that can be identified.
On the whole, one can examine the artistic process by looking at the work of Coco Chanel. This fashion artist made a very revealing statement about her work. In particular, she said, “I set fashions precisely because I went out, because I was the first woman to live fully the life of her times” (Chanel as cited in Crane 65). This quote is relevant to this essay because it indicates that the experience of clients and their needs guide the work of a fashion artists.
Overall, it is possible to distinguish several stages of the artistic process: 1) introduction of a new concept or modification of previous ones; 2) evaluation of various alternatives that help a designer to implement his/her ideas; 3) experimentation, and 4) the selection of particular products that can be offered to the public. In the course of his/her work, a fashion designer relies on the method of trial and error or repeated attempts through which a person identifies possible limitations and improves the final product. These are the main issues can be singled out.
At first, one should focus on the creation of a new concept. At this stage, a fashion designer can adopt several strategies. In particular, he/she can introduce a modification of already-existing articles of clothing. In some case, this modification can be very successful because a fashion artist can make these products more attractive or comfortable.
For instance, it is possible to change existing cardinal suits, sweaters, and so forth. In contrast, a fashion artist may put forward a dramatically new model. Coco Chanel preferred to create new styles that could better correspond to the lives of women (Crane 65). In some cases, fashion artists prefer to study the previous works of other designers.
In this way, they derive inspirations for their work. This is another approach that should not be overlooked. Furthermore, while looking at the creation of new articles of clothing, it is also necessary to consider the identity of a specific brand or a fashion house. In other words, the work of a designer should comply with certain standards that are established in this organization. This is one of the main issues that should be considered.
Furthermore, it is critical to evaluate different options that are suitable for the implementation of a design. This is probably the most important step that should be taken by a fashion artist. At this point, a fashion designer has to decide how exactly his ideas can be put into practice. For instance, Coco Chanel chose to eliminate superfluous elements that did not serve any practical (Crane 65). Therefore, her major criterion was functionality, rather than only aestheticism (Crane 65).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, she chose to use such a material as jersey that had previously been used only for the clothes of workers. Other designers can take different approaches while evaluating various options that are available to them. At the stage, when an artist has already assessed alternatives, it is possible for him/her to procure necessary materials or create detailed drawings and description of future products.
Additionally, it is important to focus on experimentation or the method trial and error. This technique is critical for the work of a fashion designer because he/she has to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the new clothes that were created. Moreover, one has to understand how the new products will be perceived and used by potential clients. These are the main goals that should be attained. This is why fashion shows play such an important role for many designers.
In this way, one can identify possible limitations or wind ways of improving the new designs. Furthermore, it is vital to focus on the selection of particular clothes for the collection. A fashion artist should determine which pieces will be best received by critics and clients. This task is also critical for a person working in this area, because ability to choose certain products is an indicator of one’s artistic taste. Each of the stages described in this paper are vital for the success of a fashion artist.
The artistic process can be viewed as a continuous search for innovative and original decisions. One can see that the work of fashion designers is very complex because they people should take into account various factors such as the needs of users, existing trends, or willingness to innovate.
Overall, this process is complete when a designer has created a new type of clothing or any other product that can be used by potential clients. However, one should keep in mind that many fashion artists can be described perfectionists who continuously rework existing designs in effort to eliminate any drawbacks. This is one of the details that can be identified.
Works Cited Crane, Diana. “Fashion Design and Social Change: Women Designers and Stylistic Innovation.” Journal of American Culture 22.1 (1999): 61-8. ProQuest. Web.
EBay Company’s Marketing Managment Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Reasons why eBay have succeeded as an online auction market place Kotler and Keller assert that the success of eBay was as result of their capability to create new pricing strategies that enabled the bidders or buyers to establish the values of the products they need 411. The ability of the consumers to predetermine the prices created a feeling of control among the consumers. Consumers also had the capability of bargaining the best prices. Moreover, the website enabled the consumers to reach a wide variety of sellers as well as the products to choose (Kotler and Keller 411).
On the other hand, the eBay platform enabled sellers to meet a variety of customers at reduced costs. In fact, eBay established a distinctive online business that attracted both the customers and the auctioning firms. The uniqueness of eBay attracted customers from the competitors resulting in most of the competing firms merging or shutting down (Stevens 141).
The online firm has been successful on the online business because of the knowledge of the needs of the customers. Moreover, eBay had a proper knowledge of its customers and targeted their needs that the competitors did not give much attention (Kotler and Keller 411). In fact, the firm was fast to identify the requirement of the people, do business in second-hand quality goods, and earn cost-effective proceeds.
The company became conscious of the fact that there is need for a platform where auctioneers for second-hand products could meet the buyers (Kotler and Keller 411). The company applied its technological competence to create the required platform that enabled free trade between the auctioneers and the buyers.
The firm has been able to build its credibility among the customers. The credibility the firm established during the first years of operation enabled many potential customers build trust on the firm (Stevens 141). Creditability is critical in the cyberspace where sellers meet potential customers virtually and exchange takes place.
The company builds this credibility through having high quality website that increases the capability of customers and sellers to interact (Stevens 141). Moreover, the company also embraced a well-established payment system including the WorldPay as well as PayPal that increased the customers’ confidence on the business. In fact, the reputable money transfer firms turned many non-believing customers to the business (Stevens 141).
Essentially, the success of the online auction was attributed to the simplicity of the user interactivity, the ability to offer wide variety of products, increased degree of trust among the customers, enhanced level of development and adaptability, augmented connection capabilities, improved levels of commitment and the ability to adopt the reputable and reliable payment options (Stevens 141).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ability of the company to attract large volume of traffic also boosted the customers’ confidence and enabled increased frequency in buying. Moreover, the company developed an easily to use website that enabled increased interactivity. In addition, the company’s website has advanced features that allow easy navigation, increased availability, high-usage interaction and clutter-free (Kotler and Keller 411). All these features contributed to the success of the company.
The company has also been able to acquire similar firms that would have offered competition hampering its growth and development. Through these acquisitions, the company has grown from a simple online firm to a large international online firm operating in many countries.
Evaluating the eBay fee structure The company attains its financial gains through fees it charges on the auctions. According to the company pricing policy, there is a fee charged for each listing while there is a final value charged on the fixed price. In fact, the seller meets all the charges. Taking an example in the case, there is a percentage charged on the $25 of each action. The percentage reduces depending on the amount sold.
A particular percentage is also charged on the remaining amount. For instance, the company will earn $5.69 in an auction that costs $100 dollars to the buyer. In other words, the seller will be charged 8.75% on the first $25 and 3.5% on the remaining $75. Numerically, (2.19 3.5) this equals to $5.69.
The fee structure could be improved by lowering the percentage on the fixed charge and increasing the percentage on the remaining amount. In other words, the pricing structure should be flexible to enable the company remain competitive.
Flexibility in the pricing structure should be made in such a way that it still deter the low-priced items auctioneers while at the same time increases the company competitiveness. The online business is currently becoming more competitive. Therefore, online businesses must ensure flexibility in all their operations to gain the competitive advantage. The pricing structure of eBay should not only be flexible but also enhance efficiency.
The future of eBay The successes that the company has achieved will enable its growth and expansion as well as remain competitive in the market. There are high possibilities that many competing online firms will emerge. However, the company will use its capabilities in terms of technology, finance and market share to remain at the top (Kotler and Keller 411). Moreover, the company is still capable of acquiring the competing firms that will add value to its customers. The future of the company also lies on the way it addresses the challenges it is facing.
We will write a custom Case Study on EBay Company’s Marketing Managment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The way the company addresses the challenges coming from the sectors such as the real estate markets as well as expensive collectibles will determine its future growth and development (Kotler and Keller 411). In addition, the company is facing challenges arising from regulations, honesty in the part of sellers as well as in the internet security. Besides, tackling these challenges, the company has to offer quality services to the sellers and the buyers. The quality services will enhance the confidence of the users of its site.
Forming partnerships with other online businesses such as Wiki together with social networking sites including Facebook and twitter is another opportunity the company can exploit for its future growth and development (Kotler and Keller 411). Partnership with these online companies will ensure increased market share and be found within the market niche of these online firms.
Moreover, the social sites will ensure continuous popularization of the company. The company must also come with innovative and unique ways of doing business in order to remain relevant in the market.
In addition, the company should make considerable investments to expand in new markets found in various developing and developed countries that lack the eBay presence. Further, the fixed-price options should also be a focus of the company. The fixed price options should provide superior prospects and enable the firm to advance into new markets (Kotler and Keller 411).
Works Cited Kotler, Philip and K. Keller. Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2012. Print.
Stevens, Robert. Marketing Management: Text and Cases. London, UK: Routledge, 2012. Print.
The ethical dilemma: Siemens Case Study college essay help
Table of Contents The costs and benefits of bribery
Nature of the FCPA punishment
Fining Siemens and other measures
The “bad apples” or a “bad barrel”
The costs and benefits of bribery The ethical dilemmas identified in the Siemens’s case study are conspiracy, fraud and false statement that have negatively affect such parties in the form of bribery. Based on the code of ethics, the parties should exercise integrity when reporting accurate information to all stakeholders.
Moreover, good moral ethics define objectivity and motivation in maintaining trust in interaction. Unfortunately, this is not the case in the Siemens’ situation. The bounded bribery tends to justify unethical behaviors as stimulated by psychological tendencies and organizational pressure within the Siemens Company.
In relation to the above dilemmas, the bounded bribery applies to the psychological tendency of the conspirators to fulfill selfish interests of self enrichment at the expense of the shareholders’ goals and objectives. Specifically, due to their top hierarchy in the authority ladder, they succumbed to incentives of power and deviated from discipline, responsibility, and sincerity undertaking their duties.
Bribery is characterized by inflating the asset values, overstating the reported income and cash flow and eliminating the liabilities off the financial records. These events may make a company to go bankrupt. Siemens’ bribery scandal resulted in a massive loss that had never been experienced in the history of the United States of America and Germany at that time.
First, shareholders of the company lost several billions of dollars as a result of the falling share prices in four years. Secondly, Siemens’ creditors and energy entities incurred hefty losses (Sinclair 46). The employees also suffered losses resulting from the loss in value of the shares. The total market failure that resulted from the Siemens’ scandal amounted to several billions of US dollars.
Nature of the FCPA punishment A number of analyses have been carried for the Siemens’ scandal. This can be attributed to the fact that it impacts heavily on the economy. The analyses revolve around the causes and effects of the scandal. For instance, analysis carried out by the US Federal aimed at improving accounting and auditing profession and also to mitigate the risk which stakeholders are exposed to.
Thus, the punishment by the FCPA was appropriate considering the size of the company. Basically, ethics denote set of laws or moral systems that provide a basis for discerning whether an action is correct or erroneous. Therefore, members of a profession can come up with ethical principles that guide them when carrying out their duties (Devito 19).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The five common ethical principles are “independence, integrity, responsibilities and practices, competence and technical standards, responsibilities to clients, responsibilities to colleagues, and other responsibilities and practices” (Anthony 10). Since the company was aware of this provision, the punishment was right in checking negligence and irresponsible business practices.
From the case, it is evident that the two parties used information that was not known by the entire public to obtain undue benefits. In their actions, there is an outright breach of the professional ethical code of conduct such as integrity, confidentiality, professional due care, and professional behavior. This calls for even harsher punishment than that which was imposed by the FCTA on the Siemens Company.
Fining Siemens and other measures Considering the nature and magnitude of unethical business practices, the Siemens Company should be fined to a tune of more than 3 billion dollars. This fine is heavy enough to motivate the company to promote healthy work culture. Besides, the fine will ensure that the company becomes more accountable and structural in addressing its ethical dilemmas through ethical models. These models define expected behavior, procedural patterns, and response to every deviation.
As a matter of fact, stable mind performs optimally with little or no supervision. In line with this, an organization will always work alongside its staff to promote healthy communication ethics by recognizing and where necessary, supporting staff that make steady commitment in practicing accepted desirable healthy organizational communication ethics in their work departments (Bustin 21).
Besides, Siemens Company should remodel its organizational and leadership ethics which determine the level of participation by the employees who after interaction with each other identify hale and hearty workplace interventions. These interventions are passed through a feasibility test for implementation to initiate cultural shift in the organization. Besides, communication ethics define content policy based on the need to address work related habits in order to strike a balance on environmental friendly work place in practice.
The target of this policy implementation is the entire hierarchy of staff members from the top management to the casual laborers at bottom of the ladder. As a result of properly structured communication ethics, the work environment becomes holistic, soft and socially friendly to the staff. Besides, healthy ethical communication culture creates structural goals which develop norms, expectations of specific behavior display, and appropriate guideline controlling interaction with one another.
The “bad apples” or a “bad barrel” From the above reflection, it is apparent that the organization culture at Siemens is wanting. This organization culture lacks defined structures for monitoring activities of the employees besides reinforcing healthy work ethics. Basing on LPI assessment, the organization has not strived towards development of the following five personal competencies. First, every individual should be a role model of the other.
We will write a custom Case Study on The ethical dilemma: Siemens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, they should develop self-confidence by elucidating own individual values. This is possible through setting good examples through conforming to shared values of the team. Secondly, the team needs to enliven a common vision. Indeed, they should visualize the future through perceiving to achieve pleasant and excellent possibilities. This is within reach through interaction with various project matrices to achieve common objectives that are important in execution of the project at hand.
Thirdly, the team should create learning environment through challenging inspiration team work. Moreover, people like to take risks in order to learn through experimentation. Therefore, project execution will be made possible through making mistakes that can be tracked within the small workforce.
The team should promote collaboration through embracing team work. This is helpful not only to restore trust amongst individuals but also to support people by sharing common objectives. Lastly, the team should appreciate and encourage each member’s determination and contribution towards the project goals. Unfortunately, none of the above elements is properly aligned in the organization culture of the Siemens.
In any ethical organization, the ideal perspective would by a commitment to fairly develop ethics after a great improvement in response channel. Ethical considerations are observed at educational level, executive management level, and the government and private stakeholders.
The major concern has been with the integrity of seniors in the Siemens organization who were reportedly involved in big scandals. These scandals range from abuse of power, bribery and embezzlement of the company’s funds due to lack of a structured and systematic system for regulating activities of the employees (Bustin 31).
As an ethical reassurance policy, the company should carry out psychological test in the employees’ selection procedures. Indeed, psychological test is focused on certain aspect of applicant’s performance, behaviour, and attitude since management position is associated with decision making and calmness under pressure.
Psychological test is important when the number of candidates is large in order to reduce it. Psychological test is able to show applicants who scored above a certain fixed mark and assumption is made that they are possibly good performers than those candidates who attained below the mark limit.
The part of principles will encompass laid down rules to enable the organization to be more efficient. This will be in the form of a well organized hierarchy of workforce from management with administrative roles to service providing worker.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The ethical dilemma: Siemens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Managers are empowered by the organization’s constitution to perform the role of prefects and offer leadership solutions upon consultation with one another. To control group behavior, desirable leadership attributes are necessary, which are possessed by the managers gained over time in experience (Sinclair 23). Management plans, tests and implement company policies in line with the preset ethical goals. As human nature dictates, the above philosophy carries with it enticements.
When these are timely offered, they may lead to a deep attachment with the object over which such a motivation token is given in a strategically planned communication model. Motivation can be in the form of behavior review and increment, recognition for a well performed duty, equality, and fair treatment. Whenever there is a strong professional relationship nurtured on the values of appreciation and respect, hidden talents are easily displayable and are needed for organizational ethical sustainability.
Works Cited Anthony, Phillip 2010, Insider Trading in Financial Markets: Legality, Ethics, Efficiency. PDF file.
Bustin, Gerald. Take Charge: How Leaders Profit From Change. Irving, Texas: Tapestry Press, 2004. Print.
Devito, Lynne. Human communication: New Zealand Edition. Auckland, New Zealand: Addison Wesley, 2006. Print.
Sinclair, Michalel. Fear and Self-Loathing in the City: A Guide to Keeping Sane in the Square Mile. London: Karnac Books, 2010. Print.
Ethical Dilemma: “A weak Dollar Versus A strong Yuan” Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
The importance of Yuan relative to the dollar The relationship between the two currencies is critical in evaluating the balance of trade in both countries (Williams and Donnelly 96). In fact, weak Yuan in relation to the dollar has advantages and disadvantages. The argument being advanced by economic pundits is that China has increased benefits from devalued currency.
However, the benefits accrue to both economies. From the China’s perspective, weaker value of Yuan relative to the dollar encourages foreign direct investment, increases wages and encourages employment (Williams and Donnelly 96). In addition, the devalued currency will also keep the deflationary pressures at an average rate. Further, appreciating Yuan will result in decreased Chinese exports, which by extension depletes the supply of dollars that would have been used for foreign direct investments.
China views the way its currency is pegged against the dollar as a means through which its economic stability is kept (Bernanke 55). The undervalued Yuan also have some benefits to the US or any other country that trade with China. As indicated, the US consumers can access products at lower prices.
Moreover, US producers using Chinese goods as raw materials can access the inputs at low-costs. In addition, the cheaper Yuan in relation to the dollar ensures decreased inflationary pressure in the US economy (Bernanke 56). On the other hand, the undervalued Yuan will be beneficial to the Chinese industries competing with US expensive products. The result is the reduced production in the US, which by extension leads to decreased rate of employment (Bernanke 56).
In terms of balance of trade, the undervalued Yuan will make US products exported to China to be expensive thereby decreasing the volumes of products being sold to China. Conversely, low Yuan reduces the prices of the Chinese products being sold into the US economy thereby encouraging the imports (Eichengreen 101).
As Chinese government continues to peg its currency below the required levels, the balance of trade between the two countries continues to widen. On the other hand, the US economy continues to suffer while Chinese firms and industries benefits from the economic situation.
Moreover, the continuous increasing value of Yuan against the US dollar is a clear indication of the strength of Chinese economy. Most of the speculators and investors in the world major stock exchange markets forecast growth in the Chinese economy enabling the Chinese currency to increase its value (Bernanke 56).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact the value of Yuan have enabled China grow its exports and manufacturing that in effect have contributed to the general growth of its economy. Moreover, the weaker Yuan has increased the demand for Chinese goods domestically and internationally. The increased demands have boosted the production with effect on reasonable portion in economic expansion.
Weak Yuan has also encouraged consumer spending on Chinese products both at the domestic and international levels. In other words, weaker Yuan have encouraged the purchasing power of Chinese consumers within the country and abroad. Most of the consumers can access the Chinese products at affordable prices. In fact, low prices have boosted the consumer confidence on the Chinese products.
Moreover, weak Yuan have also encouraged exchanges among the international corporations operating in China (Williams and Donnelly 96). International corporations such as Wal-Mart can easily produce at low-cost and sell their products at cheaper prices into the international market. The low-cost production in China exacerbated by weak Yuan against the dollar is a competitive advantage to firms operating in China (Bernanke 56).
Therefore, it is critical for the currencies to be pegged at a particular value that is deemed beneficial to both economies. Like any other commodity, the demand for currencies decrease or increase depending on the situations in the market (Eichengreen 102). The supply of the currency should also be kept in response to the demand in the market.
In other words, the Chinese central bank will maintain a particular amount of Yuan to keep the balance needed in the market. In most cases, countries trade in their currency to maintain the exchange rate as well as determine the amount to be accumulated through the balance of trade (Eichengreen 103).
Appreciating Yuan against the dollar would result in less accumulation of Chinese foreign reserve in terms of dollars. In effect, the Chinese economy will be destabilized because of decreased trade with US as well as the rest of the world. In essence, the Yuan rates against the dollar must be pegged at an agreeable rate that would foster the abundance of trade existing between the two countries (Eichengreen 101).
The report on China’s currency manipulation Over the years, China has been accused of manipulating its currency thereby creating imbalances in international trade. Many countries particularly US believed that China’s economic growth has been exacerbated by its ability to manipulate its currency. In this regard, currency manipulation means devaluing the currency in order to give China trade advantage (Bernanke 58). In other words, low values of Yuan create a balance of trade in favor of China.
We will write a custom Case Study on Ethical Dilemma: “A weak Dollar Versus A strong Yuan” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effects of devaluing a currency are on both sides. As indicated, low values of Yuan encourage the China’s exports while result in the reduction of the US exports. Industries and firms producing competing products with firms from China are disadvantaged since they produce at higher cost (Bernanke 58).
On the other hand, Chinese firms located in US will produce at low-cost since they utilize cheap imported raw materials from China. Specifically, compared to the US firms, the Chinese firms have greater competitive advantage due to the devaluation of Yuan.
However, US firms operating in China have greater advantages. The firms operating in China are capable of producing at low-cost thereby increasing their competitive advantage (Bernanke 58). US firms like Wal-Mart that would have been rendered un-operational due to high costs of business processes in the US have the opportunity to produce and export due to the cost advantages. Moreover, US citizens are capable of accessing several products at low-cost due to cheap imports from China.
Despite the fact that devaluating Yuan have negative influences on the US economy, appropriate policies should be put in place to enable the balance of trade between the two countries. In fact, Chinese government should be encouraged to peg the value of its currency at an agreeable exchange rate that will not affect both sides of the economy. In addition, the Chinese currency exchange rate has been appreciating over the years thereby enhancing the US balance of trade.
Moreover, appropriate trade and monetary policies that cushions US firms against foreign currency devaluation should be adopted (Bernanke 58). China should also be encouraged to float its currency to allow market forces determine the value. The exchange rate that is determined by the market forces creates a balance in the currency value that encourages firms in both economies to have equal opportunities and cost advantages (Eichengreen 101).
The current situation is that China is appreciating its currency against the world major currencies. The Yuan value against the dollar has been stabilized at a particular rate that has encouraged balanced trade between the two countries. China realized that devaluing its currency against the dollar not only affects its trade with the US but also with other countries round the globe (Bernanke 58).
The actions of Wal-Mart due to appreciating value of Yuan Appreciating value of Yuan means that the cost of production in China will be increasing. In other words, the Yuan value is decreasing against the dollar. The appreciating value of Yuan enables goods and services produced out of China becomes more competitive (Williams and Donnelly 97).
The meaning is that firms operating in the US and China will have equal competitive advantages. As such, companies such as Wal-Mart should start looking for strategies that would enable low-cost operations. The firm should adopt cost-cutting strategies such as laying-off workers, closing down some of its plants as well as other financial prudent measures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Dilemma: “A weak Dollar Versus A strong Yuan” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the company should also consider relocating to the other developing countries that have low valued currencies compared to that of US dollar. In these countries, the firm can still operate at low-cost and export its products to the US. Moreover, Wal-Mart will still enjoy the cost advantages it used to have in China. Besides, Wal-Mart can change its operational and production strategies.
The company can increase its share in the market through absorption of the competing firms. At the same time, the company can scale down its production to reduce the increasing costs resulting from the appreciating Yuan. The company should also consider relocating back to the US since the cost of production in China and in the US would be similar.
Whether exporters from Argentina, Indonesia, Malaysia, or South Korea should accept payment in Yuan Accepting payment in Yuan will depend on its value against the dollar or its value against the country’s currency. Most of the countries’ currencies are pegged on the value of dollars. Moreover, countries will accept payment in currency that can be exchanged into dollar at a stable exchange rate (Williams and Donnelly 97).
The values of Yuan against these countries’ currencies are higher enabling exporters to have greater gains. In addition, the value of Yuan against the dollar has also been stabilized enabling other countries to gauge their currency against Yuan. In other words, the exporters from these countries cannot suffer huge losses arising from shocks within the foreign exchanges. Since these countries’ currencies are undervalued, accepting Yuan will boost their exports and by extension production of most firms.
As indicated, the values of these countries’ currencies pegged on Yuan are low. The existing balance of trade will be in favor of these countries enabling exporters to earn more from the commercial dealings with China.
Even though China’s main concern is to transform Yuan into leading world currency and increase its foreign reserves, exports from these countries will be increased due to augmented gains from such exchanges. In addition, the overvalued Yuan will be beneficial to these countries industries competing with China’s expensive products (Williams and Donnelly 97).
Works Cited Bernanke, Ben. “International capital flows and the returns to safe assets in the United States 2003-2007.” Financial Stability Review, 15.3 (2011): 54-63. Print.
Eichengreen, Barry. “Global Imbalances: In a Saving and Investment Perspective.” World Economic Outlook, 16.1 (2005): 100-104. Print.
Williams, Brock and M. Donnelly. “U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts.” Bureau of Economic Analysis, 34.6 (2010): 91-99. Print.
Fall the Soviet Union Report (Assessment) college application essay help
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was instituted in 1917 and later succeeded the Russian empire in 1921. The USSR did not last long; it collapsed in the year 1991. There were political, economical, and cultural reasons that led to the collapse of the USSR.
The political set up of the USSR was based on a philosophy of socialism; it eventually became a communism state. This state had a centralized political and economic system. The political leadership had total control over all matters taking place in the state, whether economical, social, or cultural.
USSR ended up becoming a dictatorial state. This led to internal resistances within the USSR. The assimilation policy put in place by the political leadership failed. More than half of the USSR citizens were of non-Russian ethnic groups. They were opposed to this policy. These resulted to resistance, which weakened the government leading to its collapse.
The economy of USSR crumbled. This facilitated the fall of the USSR. There was very poor economic planning. Most of the government’s funds were used for armament, leading to other important functions that needed funding unattended to. This resulted due to cold war between the USSR and the USA.
People of the USSR started experiencing poverty, shortage of basic needs such as education, health services. This resulted to resistances that involved people refusing to work, further weakening the economy. The USSR’s economy reached a point where the amount of income generated by the government could not support major functions in the government leading to its collapse.
By late 20th century, so many people had acquired university education. There was a good number of well-learned people in the USSR. This people were exposed to the knowledge from the outside the USSR. This made them to start fighting for liberalization, democracy, and human rights. They also were against the government policy of assimilation; they wanted their government to embrace diversity. This led to revolts all over the states that made up the USSR.
A more liberal leader, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. He embraced liberalization and democratization. This is what led to the splitting of the USSR into different states.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The freedom of speech given to people gave them a platform to fight for their rights, criticize the leader for failed economic plan, and hold rallies that preached democracy. The economic changes, which decentralized the economic system, allowed people to see the negatives of communism leading to its failure. This leader came into power when communism was losing favor in the east.
He did not put in measures to counter that. This leader also came into talks with the USA to rescue his country’s economy by ending the cold war. The measures put in place to end the cold war further weakened USSR. By the time, Mikhail Gorbachev had put in place the measures he believed were the best for his country’s future. The level of liberalization and democratization witnessed could not allow for the continued existence of the USSR.
Even though the USA played a role in the failure and eventual collapse of the USSR, the effect of USA could have been negligible had Soviet Union put in place measures that could have guaranteed the survival of the union in to the future. The union was involved in power struggles with the United States instead of building the economy.
Once its economy crumbled, its collapse was inevitable. The leadership in the Soviet Union did not involve the citizens in its functioning. This made USSR citizens to feel as if they were subjects in their own country resulting to uprisings, which facilitated the collapse of the union. Those people who were in leadership made communism to fail as most people viewed it as dictatorship. This led to the collapse of communism as it had lost favor among people in the east.
How Effective Communication Improves Employee Performance Term Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Building relationships with employees
Introduction Communication is the act of passing messages from one person to another through a given medium. Communication in an organization is vital because it facilitates how decisions are passed from the top level management to the lowest level management. Communication is used to facilitate the delivery of guidelines and policies that necessitate the proper management of any given organization.
Thus, communication is a crucial process in any organizational operation. In this case, it determines how guidelines are followed. It also establishes new ways to manage the resources and the human power in the organization (Murphy
Night by Elie Wiesel Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
In the introductory part of this book, Elie is introduced as a teenage boy. During this period, Elie’s teacher, warned the Jewish residents about the future plan by Hitler to destroy the Jews communities (Wiesel 4).
Initially, everyone thought that the teacher was psychologically disturbed. A few months after his warning, Gestapo forced the Jewish communities into the ghettos. During the following months, more Jews were forcefully turned out of their homes into the concentration camps by the Nazi fundamentalists. During this horrifying process, Elie and his father were separated from the rest of their family.
According to the book, Elie detailed that this was his last time he had ever seen some of his family members. Through this book, Elie argued that life in the concentration camps shaped his destiny (Wiesel 7). This paper seeks to analyze Elie’s experiences in the concentration camps, and focuses on how the holocaust changed his life.
The book illustrates that before the attacks on the Jewish communities, Elie spent his childhood learning Jewish religious traditions. As such, his mother taught his many Judaism teachings. After the attack, Elie’s life changed completely. According to the book, experiences in the concentration camps changed his life as a Jew and as a man (Wiesel 56). The book notes that when the Jews were forced into the concentration camps, Elie and his family remained calm and obeyed every directive from their oppressors.
During their first day in the camp, Jews population increased with each passing hour. With an increase in the population, situations in the camp worsen. They were forced to live on minimal food and water. Further the book provides details on the third day, when the camps were filled with horrifying flames and stinking burnt flesh of those who had been killed by the German soldiers.
During the same day, the author’s mother and his three little sisters disappeared from the camp, and Elie and his father had an emotional trauma due to this. The author says that he continuously feared that his family members could have been killed. After losing his mother and sisters, Elie remained with his father who later died of dysentery. All through these experiences, Elie was emotionally affected.
In the camps, the Jews were physically affected by the poor living conditions. The book reveals that before the horrific experiences, the Jews were healthy. However, a few months after the attack, the Jews became emaciated. These conditions were escalated by the little food and water offered in the camps. Elie asserts that the quality and the amount of the food they gave him in the camps made him weak. Similarly, the author attributes their change in health to hard work conditions they endured in the concentration camps (Wiesel 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Before the holocaust, the author remarks that the Jews lived together in harmony and never fought against one another. However, in the concentration camps, enmity grew among the Jewish prisoners. The author attributed the enmity among the Jews to the scarcity of food in the camps. At one incidence, fellow Jewish prisoner fought with Elie’s father over a plate of soup and bread. After the fight, Elie abused his neighbors disregarding them for their behaviors.
More than once, Elie had to bribe their neighbors with bread and soup so that they could leave his father in peace. With respect to these behaviors, the effect concentration camps had on the Jews lives is revealed. In the book, we note that it is unusual for Jewish neighbors to fight one another. However, in the concentration camps, poor living conditions and inadequate food and water led to the rampant fights.
Another major effect the concentration camp had on the author and the Jews was their religion and faith. The author illustrated that before the holocaust, they believed that God was their protector. Through this perception, the Jews believed that God was always ready to punish the Jewish enemies.
Similarly, the book reveals that the Jews believed that everything that happened was attributed to God’s plans. For instance, Elie illustrated that when they heard the rumors of the planned horrific attacks against them, their rabbis consoled them asserting that God would not let anything bad happen to his people (Wiesel 46).
As a result, the Jewish community collectively believed that God was by their side and nothing bad would happen to them. However, during and after the holocaust experience many Jews doubted God. For instance, during the early days in the concentration camp the author believed that God was testing their faith. Some Jews believed that God was punishing them for their historical wrongdoings. Despite these injustices, the book notes that the Jews’ faith in God remained firm.
As days passed by, several Jews were killed and burnt publicly. With these occurrences, the author and some Jews began to doubt their faith in God. It was not until when he saw babies being thrown into the fire by the German soldiers that the author changed his perception about God completely. Since then, he rebelled against God and religion. He was shocked that the God they had faithfully served had allowed their oppressors to undertake such horrifying deeds against His people.
To him, God had remained silent to their prayers. The book notes that at the end of the holocausts, only few individuals still had faith in God. Many believed that God was a cruel being. The book illustrates how the energy once spent on worshiping and praising God was transferred to cursing, challenging, condemning, and denouncing God. At the end of the book, the author questioned whether man was God’s ally or a toy.
We will write a custom Essay on Night by Elie Wiesel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After being released from the concentration camp, Elie’s activities signified the effects the concentration camps had on him. In the book, it is detailed that as a young boy, Elie had never expected that one day he would be a writer. Instead, he thought that he would be a religious leader. However, the sufferings and the experiences in the concentration camps later forced him to be a writer. By being a writer, Elie has managed to detail his first hand experience during the holocaust.
After his release from the concentration camps, we realized that the author had no interests in religious studies anymore. Later, Elie became an activist challenging human oppression and injustices. All these acts have been motivated by his experiences in the concentration camps. It is alleged that the author married a holocaust victim. Through this, we can argue that the common experience the couple shared played a key role in their union. In general, Elie’s experiences in the concentration camp shaped his destiny.
Works Cited Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Hill and Wang. 1982. Print.
Business Ethics: When the Work-Life Scales Are Unequal. Analytical Essay college admissions essay help
Work-life balance is a flexible working program that has become common in several organizations in the US. Some firms have introduced flexible working hours for their employees, who need to balance between family and work responsibilities. Work-life balance is a trend that has picked up in various places of work in the US. This work-life balance has an impact on relationships that employees have with each other. Workers who have children have found flexible working hours more rewarding for their careers and family lives.
The workplace environment is experiencing a lot of changes. Employers have realized the importance of offering their employees flexible work schedules, which help them balance between work and family life. However, the work-life balance approach is not getting support from all workers as expected.
Workers with no children and families to care for, feel that their colleagues who have families use this as a pretext to avoid performing their duties. They feel that they shoulder the burden of their absentee colleagues because they have to perform extra duties. It is difficult for working class parents, especially mothers, to balance their commitment to work and family effectively.
However, some workers are very supportive of their colleagues who are forced by family circumstances to stick to flexible working hours. These workers understand the importance of their colleagues being involved in the lives of their children. A flexible work schedule makes such workers more effective.
This is because of the satisfaction they get from performing their work duties and spending time with their children. Employees who are away from their work stations can be telephoned or emailed if an urgent issue that needs their input comes up at work. This has created a lot of harmony between workers, in firms which have work-life balance schedules.
Many firms are finding it difficult to implement flexible work systems. Some employees do not have children but still need time to attend to their family members, who need their attention. Employees who care for their elderly parents or grandparents feel that their colleagues who have children are favored more by the work-life balance schedules than them.
They claim that they also deserve to be given flexible work schedules, which allow them to care for their elderly relatives more. Human resource specialists argue that, for a flexible work program to succeed, all employees with alternative interests away from work need to be considered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employees in firms who offer flexible work schedules should focus on how their duties are going to be done during the period they are away. This will lessen the burden that is shouldered by their colleagues when they are away from work. Firms need to monitor the time each worker spends at the workplace, to determine every individual’s productivity level.
A work-life balance program can only be effective if all employees communicate with each other easily, regardless of their locations. Workers also need to notify their colleagues if they are planning to leave their workstations early. Flexible working programs need to be fair to all workers to reduce resentment between them.
Organizations need to meet crucial deadlines and performance targets. Implementation of a work-life balance program should ensure that productivity levels in the organization remain consistent. This case confirms that many firms face difficulties when implementing flexible work programs for their employees. All employees need to be given equal consideration when a flexible work program is being implemented.
Possession of knowledge and ethical responsibility Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Knowledge refers to the acquisition of skills, information, consent and awareness of given happenings in the society. It entails apprehending truth, facts, being learned and familiarisation of oneself with situations through a process of logical reasoning and assessment of circumstances.
Whether or not a single perfect process of acquisition of knowledge can be determined is a debatable issue as it remains a mystery as to how exactly people possess knowledge (Raffoul 27-34). According to Raffoul (165-167) and Rest (5-14), acquisition of knowledge involves easily and effectively embracing reality through experience or in thought as it is based on the proven scientific evidence, acquaintance, perception and experience.
Different fields of knowledge such as mathematics, science, geography, science, psychology, religion and engineering do exist. Value judgment among people depends on the knowledge they possess. On the other hand, like morality, ethical responsibility demands that a person fulfils certain obligations in the best possible way and for the common good of all concerned (Lucas 36-45).
At times, ethical dilemma can compel an individual to choose from a number of ethical principles that adhere to the moral law of doing right. Possession of knowledge and ethical responsibility Whether voluntary or unintentional, existence of praise and blame are major aspects of ethical responsibility for people with a certain level of knowledge.
As dictated by normative ethics, application of conduct and acquired knowledge demands that existence of information and its application to decision making and other human practices be effectively employed in making rational decisions. Majority of people use applied ethics and the common societal laws and principles which guide people’s lives to judge human behaviour (Lucas 41-78). Ethics and morality entail doing what is right and avoiding evil.
Knowledge of ethics and morality should be focused on enhancing maturity, benevolence, prudence and rational reasoning in undertaking critical decisions. In view of the fact that acquisition of knowledge has “nothing” to do with being certain of the prevailing or possible circumstances, moral law dictates that all human acts should be perceived in an objective, realistic, rational, and focused manner with the interest of the majority at heart (Rest 78-112).
Withholding knowledge and refusing to act is definitely not a moral act and as it contradicts the concept of undertaking ethical responsibility based on one’s acquired knowledge. For instance, scientists who have the expertise to develop nuclear bombs should often be aware of the possible dangers that could emanate from such “wonderful” initiatives (Lucas 16-21).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguments that are in line with social and moral relativism are likely to compel people with certain knowledge not to act in a morally upright manner. Unlike in a utilitarian ethical perspective in which the needs and good deeds of an individual are superseded by those of the majority, possession of knowledge dictates that one avoids joining the majority and remain focused on doing what is reasonable and right. According to Lucas (33-42), being in custody of knowledge demands that one acts in an ethical manner.
This fact is no longer an issue of concern to most people in the contemporary society. What individuals do with the knowledge they possess is fully dependent on their decisions and will to do exactly that. Ways of acquisition of knowledge are many and varied. Whether or not a person’s knowledge of something should make him or her answerable to certain acts is a very contentious issue. It leads to constant confrontation and demands by people to desist from taking responsibility of the different situations they face.
It can be argued that awareness, familiarity and apprehension of knowledge carry ethical significances. Human intellect should be employed in analyzing situations and critically assessing the degree to which given acts are ethically correct.
History and natural science are vital means of acquisition of knowledge. The two methods enable an individual to learn and accept certain truths that can never be concealed through false and unfounded logic (Lucas 28-46). However, it is vital to ensure that any form of reasoning is neither biased nor is it fully based on mere perception of real life situations or emotions.
Portrayal of false image or biasness is equal to being selfish, self centred, uncouth and deceptive to the common moral law. For instance, doctors who possess actual knowledge and intelligent reasoning of patients’ diseases have the ethical responsibility of ensuring that patients are given the most appropriate diagnoses and that all their medical concerns are addressed in an amicable and informative way (Lucas 79-85).
Another indicator of the fact that being knowledgeable requires that one becomes ethically responsible could be demonstrated by a case where an individual witnesses a crime being committed. A crime witness can use his or her knowledge acquisition gained through perception, language and sight in determining what actions to take which may include reporting or ignoring the situation.
Like a doctor, driver or a teaching professional, professional ethos, ethics, code of conduct and acquired knowledge demand that one fulfils an ethical act (Rest 147). To what degree would one say that indeed knowledge has an ethical responsibility? Pretence is a likely phenomenon that could dominate people’s lives once they learn that their acknowledgement of possessing knowledge could imply being fully answerable to both negative and positive occurrences that relate to the situation.
We will write a custom Essay on Possession of knowledge and ethical responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Lucas (138-149), the act of acknowledging the existence of something should never make a person to be ethically responsible. Rest (5-11) argues that people should only be ethically responsible to acts which they have the will, desire and duty of doing. Undertaking an act with the aim of preventing greater harm is crucial.
Albert Einstein’s unparalleled knowledge of nuclear physics led to the invention of a nuclear bomb. Einsten’s invention was good because it involved the use of his possessed knowledge. It was not in Albert’s ability to control the degree to which the nuclear bombs would be developed. The invention of nuclear physics by Einstein culminated into massive physical destruction and loss of lives such as the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan (Rest 6-11).
Regardless of the kind of knowledge that one possesses and the process that one undergoes in possessing the knowledge, modern ethical points of view dictate that human beings have a perceived obligation of attempting to create the most possible benefit that would in turn satisfy most people with the least possible harm. A picture of man and lady holding hands could lead to the perception that they could be couples. However, that does not make one ethically responsible for the acts committed by such people.
In fact, such a witness would not be contradicting any moral laws by not involving himself or herself in the daily endeavours of the couple. This fact shows that acquisition of knowledge does not always compel one to be ethically responsible in all situations (Raffoul 59-64). It is highly likely that knowleageable people could falter in their decision making process.
Certain situations could pose a dilemma. A situation of a dilemma should never be treated as a justification for committing evil. The knowledge that a biologist and a nuclear researcher possess and the manner in which such knowledge could be utilized should never be measured or judged on equal standards but rather be analyzed based on the result of the act, the surrounding circumstances and the intention of undertaking the specific act. A biologist or a nuclear researcher should be highly disciplined.
The said professionals should never share critical secrets that pertain to how one can use certain substances for destructive purposes like uranium. Conclusion It is evident from the above analysis that knowledge has an ethical responsibility especially with regard to the manner in which professionals and people that interact with a group of other people carry out their duties and responsibilities. This fact is evident in situations where the responsibility in question is likely to cause harm or offer misleading information to people.
Though possessing knowledge would often have little or no effect on people, it is evident that acts and decisions made by people with such knowledge are the ones that need to be undertaken in a conscientious, ethical and reasonable manner. While people have the right to acquire and fully possess knowledge, it is imperative to ensure that the knowledge acquired is utilized in an ethical manner.
Works Cited Lucas, Peter. Ethics and Self-Knowledge: Respect for Self-Interpreting Agents, Preston, UK: Springer, 2011.Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Possession of knowledge and ethical responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Raffoul, François. The Origins of Responsibility, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press, 2010.Print.
Rest, James. Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics, Moral Reasoning in Medicines, New Jersey, USA: Tailor
Organizational Behavior Concept as a Management Tool Term Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The concept of organizational behavior is one of the most important tools in management. Organizational behavior refers to how the organizational structure and practices influences the behavior of an individual and how the individuals influence the organization. Managers should have a good understanding of organizational behavior to manage the affairs of the organization effectively.
Organizational behavior strives to capture how people operate in an organization to ensure that they achieve the highest performance for an organization. Organizations ensure that their employees are highly motivated to ensure that they have high performance. Organizational behavior ensures that employees are motivated towards a common vision. Understanding organizational behavior would help me become a better leader and improve my relationship with other employees.
For an organization to motivate its employees towards a common vision, it is vital to understand why people have certain behaviors. Some of the major work behaviors that an organization should understand include job performance, absenteeism, and turnover. Job performance refers to how an employee undertakes their duties as prescribed in the job description.
Job performance is the major factor that determines whether an employee will receive a promotion. The treatment that employees get from the organization determines their job performance. Employees of organizations that treat them well usually have high job performance (Bauer
Domination in the Book “Animal Farm” Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Propaganda
Dogs (Military Force)
Censorship (No Body Can Talk)
The 7 Commandments (Rules Changed for Whom in Power)
Patriotism and Keeping the Animals Always Busy
The animals believed in the concept of equality and democracy. According to them, a good life without working for others (humans) was pivotal in the society. They fought and risked their lives for democracy within the farm due to these convictions. However, nothing ended up as they expected. It is notable that the democracy turned out to be a dictatorship. On the other hand, working hard turned out to be slavery propagated by adverse ideologies.
It is obvious the animals were left with nothing to stand for in the end. There are five basic reasons why Napoleon attained superiority in the Animal Farm (Orwell, 2003). The factors that promoted this include propaganda, dogs (military force), censorship and the seven commandments. The principal rules changed to favour people in power. Animals were always kept busy in the pretext of patriotism. This discussion highlights some of the factors that influenced the social life of the animals within the farm.
Propaganda The leader applied the concept of propaganda to instil fear amongst the animals. This aspect was also used to cause tension and anxiety. The animals feared the system of rule. The oppressive regime used the principle of “divide and rule.” This propagated the state of anxiety in the entire farm. The oppressive regime recruited different lead animals as potential personalities that caused fear through propaganda. Dictatorial regimes have applied this concept to oppress their followers.
The “less equal” animals became disadvantaged and suffered neglect (Orwell, 2003). Exploitation was the key theme in the farm. This included material and strength in the form of labour. The grievances of the animals never reached the higher levels of rule. This is because propaganda, fear and anxiety caused significant tension and apprehension amongst the regular animals of the farm.
Dogs (Military Force) The dogs in the animal farm represented the military force. The force caused a considerable stir and impact in the management and protection of the farm. Under the pretext of citizen protection, they managed to curtail and oppress the regular animals. They applied dictatorship to inspect and supervise work activities within the farm. Apart from this, they applied selective judgment and punishment of the “offenders.” Apparently, the highly discriminated animals were innocent (Orwell, 2003).
Napoleon used the military force to encourage and sustain tyranny within the farm. In fact, it is observed that many of the innocent animals died out of frustration and neglect. The military supported too much work with minimal pay or income for the regular occupants of the farm. Indicatively, the role of the dogs during the instances of rebellion and uprising within the farm can be noted. They helped Napoleon to scatter the riots, arrest and molest the various leaders and lobbyists within the farm.
Censorship (No Body Can Talk) Additionally, the dictators within the animal farm operated through censorship. The animals facing the oppressive rule could not complain. The authority undertook various security surveillance measures (Orwell, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These measures targeted advocacy groups and other informal leaders who complained against the severe oppression and dictatorship within the farm. Every animal was to remain obedient to the overall authority. Total submission was encouraged and regarded as an important indicator of patriotism, hard work and dedication.
The 7 Commandments (Rules Changed for Whom in Power) The regime designed seven basic commandments that governed the animal farm. It is critical to note that all these commandments only favoured the people within the high ranks of power. The regular animals were not involved in the development of these discriminative rules (Orwell, 2003). The rules encouraged hard labour. The normal animals within the farm only executed these manual and tasking jobs.
Notably, the leaders did not engage themselves in the core manual duties. However, they were the main beneficiaries from the proceeds of the farm. Their families benefited from the large portion of the harvest. On the contrary, the regular occupants of the animal farm did not benefit. Instead, they were used as tools for hard and demanding labour. The seven commandments were used to propagate these forms of oppression. Therefore, the rules were crucial in enhancing the suffering of animals in the farm.
Patriotism and Keeping the Animals Always Busy The animals were kept busy with the daily manual jobs. The concept of patriotism also made the animals believe that all activities were done to promote the overall growth and development of the farm. Patriotic belief made the animals work hard in the spirit of development.
The animals that complained were punished and regarded to be unpatriotic (Orwell, 2003). In this regard, many animals endeavoured to sustain compliance and obedience to the farm and its leaders. The leaders also discovered that the animals could work effectively if they were kept busy at all times. Generally, the occurrences in the animal farm reflect a typical dictatorial society. Such occurrences are evident within many societies. George Orwell applied a satirical and reflective literature to elucidate these negative trends.
Works Cited Orwell, G. (2003). Animal Farm: 1984. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.
China after Mao’s Death Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Liu Dapeng, Sun Yat-sen, and Tang Qunying Thoughts
Openness and Reform Policies
Deng Xiaoping’s Rise and fall and Rise, and Rae Yang’s Memoir
Liu Dapeng, Sun Yat-sen, and Tang Qunying Thoughts The Chinese Revolution is famous because it lasted for an extremely long time, and covered numerous territories. China’s bizarre feature during the 1980s refers to the coexistence of capitalism and communism. Conventionally, the revolution began with the 1839 Opium War and came to an end after Mao Zedong died in the year 1976.
Considering that the revolution was a protracted conflict, it had few rivals (Bergere 17). These include the French Revolution, the American Revolution that resulted in the 1861 Civil War, and finally in the 1958 Voting Rights Act. It is worth noting that narrating the fall of old and rise of the novel Chinese nation took several decades. Numerous transformations took place during that period.
Tang Qunying (1871) associated herself with Sun Yat-Sen’s revolution, which was in denial of the Qing dynasty in Japan in 1905. By then, she was a student and a young widow.
She has fought for women’s equality and rights between the 1910s and 1920s. She often grew mad when an elite visitor came to have a photograph of her since the visitor considered her a hero of the 1911 Revolution (Bergere 251). She once remarked to her daughter-in-law that people were extremely different since they did not take into account the people, nation and women’s liberation.
She regarded their behavior as sad and shameful, and that they only talked and thought about their creature comforts. During her political life, Tang had participated actively in many activities, and she fought aggressively for women’s rights. Her death was slightly before the Nanjing government included global female and male suffrage in the draft constitution (Bergere 29).
According to Yat- sen, China’s enormous size and the borders had inadequate defense, and it was a reflection of the national governance challenges. Moreover, there were no chances for political careers and individual growth.
The author acknowledges that China has a certain pattern of feelings and ideas about authority and power (Vogel 592). Together, these feelings and ideas made political navigation from monarchy to the republic, and from empire to nation, extremely challenging. The suffragist Qunying struggled hard for the rights of women, with thousands of women behind this fight.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is worth noting that men never made any efforts to consider both sexes as equal and full citizens (Spence 5). Tang and Sun possessed the talent of drawing public attention, as well as effective leadership styles. The two persons had common loyalty bonds as their guiding principles were against marriage or romance. Assessing their lives is a perfect chance to identify separate and shared women’s and men’s experience in Chinese Revolution.
Openness and Reform Policies The development policies in China can only be recognized through using institutional economics’ perspectives (Vogel 29). Therefore, keen attention has to be paid to the cultural, political and historical contexts, where there has been extreme economic development.
There are numerous political events which resulted in 1978 China’s decision to initiate economic reforms. This also includes how Deng Xiaoping planned to usher the new developments. Communist Party leaders who had authority in China successively prolonged the development policies that Deng had.
Since the year 1978, there have been exceptional institutional transformations in China. The changes have been extremely successful in enhancing economic growth, as well as advancing worldwide status. China has acquired institutional transformation in a planned and methodical manner.
This has affected the economic system immensely. On the same note, the structure of the political system in China still remains the same. It is also worth noting that China is still a one-party state, with a heavy reliance on Communist Party leadership guidance for directions (Spence 135).
Institutional economists argue that a country’s development can be better comprehended by scrutinizing the manner in which its institutions develop and transmute, or absence of these. Therefore, there is the need to monitor the economic, social, and political settings. The significance of this vital role is evident in the case of China, where the government possesses an extremely vital role in reforming the institutions, beginning from 1978.
“Extremely few people in 1978 could have reflected on the social and economic progress that China would have achieved in the consequent thirty years, after introducing open- door policies, and embarking on economic restructurings” (Vogel 342).
We will write a custom Research Paper on China after Mao’s Death specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sole aim of the reforms in China was to come up with Chinese characteristic socialism. The reforms led to transformation of the economy in China (Bergere 67). The transformation of the economy moved from the one where the market forces were virtually passive, to the one where the forces played extremely vital roles.
Moreover, China virtually lacked foreign investment and had an extremely low level of global exchange and trade. Currently, China is a key international foreign investment recipient. In addition, its foreign exchange reserves, as well as trade are extremely high compared to national production level (Vogel 83). Various indicators prove that China’s economic welfare has been growing quickly for the past 30 years.
Therefore, Vogel (459) asserts “a political leadership transformation was vital for bringing about the novel economic changes.” In the absence of transformations in the political system, China would still be in the old economic groove, possess a negative world outlook, and well- worn philosophies (Spence 35). Hence, the political transformations have been extremely essential in the making China more receptive to novel ideas.
The economic transition and growth in China poses intriguing social scientist questions. In reality, the central leadership in China has enabled appointment of top provincial officials. Moreover, central- provincial fiscal associations can be reconfigured. The immense growth has enabled the expansion of the middle- class in the social realm. However, the increased inequality sharpened class conflicts and social cleavages. Rising social conflicts and sharpened social cleavages
Deng Xiaoping’s Rise and fall and Rise, and Rae Yang’s Memoir Rae Yang is a former Red Guard in China. His memoir represents a tale of lies, love and idealism under Mao. China did not go mad just once. In the memoir, Spider Eaters, it is evident that lunatics have authority in asylums. Once, when Yang was travelling in a train, a revolution took place. This purposed at unveiling the class status and family background of travelers in the sleeping compartments. Non- soldiers, workers of lower and poor middle- class peasants gave up their beds, unlike individuals from the high class.
Funny enough, Yang’s book has a twisted and terrifying impact. Old women and men, as well as class enemies who were running away from Beijing got beaten and thrashed off the train. She saw an old woman who had grey hair and blood pouring from her head mishandled by a girl who was approximately sixteen years. Yang pities the old woman, but acknowledges that violence was necessary and inevitable to ensure a veritable revolution (Spence 50).
For seven months, Yang had experienced awful things. However, she says that these were the most memorable and delightful months in her lifetime. Her generation lost immense things. Conversely, Yang confesses that although the achievements are hard to narrate, they have vital value since they are an experience; inner strength. My opinion is that the memoir is a compelling and complicated story that concerns a young lady whose eyes painfully and slowly open to face the truth.
Similar to other young Chinese, Yang joined Mao’s revolution, with the belief that the result would be a better society. In her imagination, there was an idea of a clean and better society, which was free from corruption and bureaucracy. She narrates that Mao had sent them to the countryside so that they could familiarize themselves with countryside experiences and peasants. The main lesson gathered from the peasants was that the party was lying. However, Yang was not sure whether Mao intended this to be their lesson.
Not sure if you can write a paper on China after Mao’s Death by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are numerous ordinary people in China who have done a lot and contributed to China’s history, but have not yet been recognized in history books. They possess immense witness to history, and have inherited the community’s folk memory which they will pass down to their children. Ordinary people are never aware of the life their leaders lead.
It is worth noting that Deng Xiaoping fell that there was a whopping contradiction between the sector’s modernization, and the prevailing policies during the CR. Although there was a solution for CR inequities, Mao and “Gang of Four” were a challenge (Vogel 67).
The critical contradiction revelations occurred in November 1975, when there was the rightists’ movement powers counterattack, and Deng Xiaoping’s criticism. There are numerous individuals who contributed to the civilization in China. Presently, they are honored because of their efforts.
Works Cited Bergere, Marie- Claire. Sun Yat-sen. London: Stanford University Press, 2000. Print.
Spence, Jonathan. Mao Zedong a life. New York: Penguin Group, 2004. Print.
Vogel, Ezra. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. New York: Harvard University Press, 2011. Print.
Jean-Francois Lyotard’s “What is Postmodernism” Research Paper writing essay help
Jean-Francois Lyotard was a French sociologist, philosopher and a literary theorist. He remains one of the most prominent philosophers of the twentieth century. This scholar was interested in defining the current society in the context of modernity. This scholar noted that the world has changed a greatly, and there are factors that did not exist before which exist in the modern society. This scholar focused his study on post modernity.
The world today, according to this scholar, has advanced in various fronts. He looks at the factors that are brought about by post modernity. Modernity has brought about a number of changes in society. In fact, social problems in society today are attributed to modernity. A modern society is full of technological changes implying that humanity relies on technology heavily. In this regard, all aspects of life rely on technology.
This scholar defines postmodernism in respect to modernity. When the world adopted the aspects of modernity, a number of factors came into existence. Of interest was the fact that the society came to accept the importance of painting. Painting was considered an extremely valuable art that was used to pass given information. Such prestigious places as the church heavily depended on paintings to communicate to its audience.
This scholar notes that leaders of the church could explain their ideas through the word of mouth. However, other details could only be explained through painting. For instance, people were convinced that God was a significant being that was seen by a few exceptional individuals in the past.
Moreover, it is recorded that he came in different forms and, therefore, it was impossible to come up with his image. However, it was recorded in the bible that Jesus lived amongst us. People would want to see an image of Jesus and other saints. It was only through paintings that such an image could be reproduced.
Postmodernism seems to change this pierce of art. The world is no longer a place where people cherish painting. Photography seems to have thoroughly overtaken painting as a form of imaging. People currently rely on photos to present their images. It is not only easy and less time consuming, but also more accurate than the baroques that existed in the old era.
Another factor that has characterized postmodernism, according to Lyotard is literature. Modernity saw a rise in literature. Literature was becoming particularly relevant in society in different fronts. Children needed literature as a form of entertainment. Listening to a piece of literature to them was a very good experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They found it not only funny, but also scary at times. Parents, therefore, realized that they could use literature as a way of guiding their children. Literature could be used to discourage undesirable behavior in children. In high schools, literature became even more powerful.
Teachers used literature to gauge whether children had the capacity to comprehend a given volume of information. Literature was also used as a way of taking children through a rite of passage. During modernity, parents did not have the opportunity to teach their children some values that were expected of them when they became adults. This task was pushed to teachers. To achieve this objective, literature became exceedingly crucial.
Lyotard says that postmodernism did not come to change the above facts. He states that postmodernism did not come to end artistry. Painting was not to vanish because of photography. It was supposed to advance painting. Movies and the film industry in general were not supposed to end literature. It was supposed to be the period when literature would be advanced. It was a time when literature would flourish because technology would make it easy to write.
According to Lyotard, postmodernism is part of the modern society. He says that postmodernism is not the end of modernism. It is not a new era whereby modernity can be brought to an end. However, this scholar says that postmodernism is part of modernism. He defines it as a stage of modernism. It is advanced modernism characterized by a host of new approaches of doing things. According to this scholar, postmodernism is a new approach of addressing issues that are already in existence.
In the current society, it is extremely rare to see children listening to tales from their parents or reading books. This is because of two main factors. The first factor is that the current society has both parents earning a living for the family and, therefore, they have limited time with their children. The time for telling tales is not available to these parents. The emergence of television and such programs as cartoons have attracted attention of children so much. Reading books is boring to them and hectic.
Despite this apparent change, nothing has changed. The cartoons and the movies still have the narrative that existed in literature only that their presentation has enhanced. Photography remains as advanced painting. It is, therefore, true according to Lyotard that nothing has changed amidst the perceived massive changes in the environment.
Subversion of Gender and Sexual Norms in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night Shakespeare’s literatures remain extremely popular several centuries after his death. Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night is one of the most thrilling plays that were tremendously popular in 1600s. This play brings to focus subversion of gender and sexual norm during this period. Shakespeare has written many books where gender identity of an individual would be concealed from others and the dramatic turn of events that would follow this disguise.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Jean-Francois Lyotard’s “What is Postmodernism” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the play Twelfth Night, we are presented with Viola, who is the protagonist of the play. Viola and her brother Sebastian were on high seas when their ship was wrecked by a bad weather. A captain, who later helps her find a job as a pager of Duke Orsino, helps her. She believes that her brother Sebastian perished in the wreckage.
Luckily, Antonio, who becomes fond of him, rescues Sebastian. Duke Orsino is deeply in love with Olivia, a beautiful rich maiden whose father and brother passed on recently. Orsino is convinced that one day he will win the heart of Olivia. While working as a pager for Duke Orsino, Viola is frequently sent to Olivia with messages of love. Orsino believes that Viola is a man. He takes her as his confidant and reveals to her how much he loves Olivia.
Olivia becomes exceedingly fond of Viola because she is a frequent visitor. Olivia knows that Viola is a man. She considers Viola as a remarkably handsome man. As Viola continues to visit her, a new twist springs up in the play. Olivia falls in love with Viola, the pager. Orsino does not realize this fact. He continues sending Viola to Olivia, and the more this happens, the more Olivia develops strong love for Viola.
This brings a serious subversion of gender. Viola has presented herself as a man. Save for the captain who rescued her in the high seas, everyone else in this land knows that Viola is a man. The intrigue about the sexual norm surrounding Viola comes in two ways. As a pager of Duke Orsino, Viola becomes so close to the Duke. She falls in love with him. This is extremely natural because she is a woman who has fallen in love with a handsome man.
To Duke Orsino, however, Viola is a man. Despite this, the Duke develops exceptionally strong feelings for her. This is particularly evident when he confides in her. The way Orsino talks to Viola is not a normal way that a master would talk to a servant. He betrays his emotion towards her. This is subversive to the cultural norm. Although the audience knows that falling in love with Viola is normal because she is a woman, to the eye of Orsino, Viola was a man.
It is normal for Olivia to have fallen in love with Viola because she (Viola) disguised herself as a man. Olivia was, therefore, seeing her beauty and considered her a remarkably handsome man. However, Viola knows that she cannot fall in love with her. She knows that Viola has mistaken her for a man, and therefore does not return the affection given to her by Olivia.
Another intrigue comes between Sebastian, the brother to Viola, and Antonio the captain. Antonio rescued Sebastian from the wreckage at the high seas. He takes good care of Sebastian and provides him with all his needs. The fondness becomes so intense that Antonio decides to accompany him to Illyria.
Although Antonio is not directly saying that he is in love with Sebastian, his actions betray this strong love. This is confirmed when Sebastian marries Olivia at last. He is melancholic after this marriage. He resigns s to his fate, a sign that he has lost a battle he was sure of wining.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jean-Francois Lyotard’s “What is Postmodernism” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The marriage between Sebastian and Olivia was purely out of mistaken identity. As explained above, the mistaken identity started when Viola concealed her real identity. Olivia had tried to suppress her love for her and could not withstand it anymore.
Emotion overwhelmed her, and she decided to tell her that she loved her. When she meets Sebastian by a coincident, she professes her love to him and demands that he should marry her. She knew that she was talking to Cesario, who is Viola. Sebastian is a little shocked at the act of this beautiful but strange woman.
The Duke finally realizes that her servant, Cesario is beautiful woman Viola. He instantly professes to her that he had always developed strong feelings towards her, but could not speak out because he believed that she was a man. The two plan to marry as the play comes to its end.
Early Modern Ideas about Marriage Portrayed In the Play The play Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare clearly portrays ideas about marriage during this time. One of the most common factors about marriage that comes out clearly is that it was made from a decision of two consenting adults. One could not force marriage on the other partner if the partner did not wish.
The society that Shakespeare portrays in this play is one, which every member of the society has a right to choose his or her partner. Duke Orsino could not use his power to force Olivia into marriage. He had to convince her. He had to use every available means to attract her attention and win her heart.
This even includes using his servant to pass his message to her. This freedom is further demonstrated in the actions of Olivia. She refused his charms and made it clear to him that she was not ready for any serious relationship for the next seven years. Funny enough, she falls for Cesario (Viola) the messenger. This demonstrates that the argument that she was not ready for a relationship for the next seven years was an excuse.
Another factor about marriage in during this time in this society was that there was no form of discrimination based on the social class. His fellow workers that his mistress, Olivia, was in love with him convinced Malvolio. When he received a letter purported to be written by Olivia, she strongly believes it. This shows that the social class was not an issue. This is further confirmed when Duke Orsino finally makes the decision to marry Viola who had served him for some time.
Another clear fact that comes out in this play is that marriage was considered as normal when it was between a man and a woman. A relationship between a woman and a woman was considered abnormal and unacceptable. Antonio developed strong emotions towards Sebastian. The fondness was near romance, and that is why he had some sense of nostalgia when he realized that Sebastian was marrying fair Olivia. Viola liked Olivia because of her attitude towards her.
She was kind to her, and she always felt particularly comfortable in her presence. When she realized that it was getting romantic, she started sympathizing with her. She knew that they could not get romantic at all because of their gender. Both were women, and the love that Olivia had for her was misplaced. She knew that they could not have any relationship because the society considered such acts unnatural.
Ways in Which Early Modern Ideas about Marriage and Same-Sex Desire Differ From the Modern Society Same sex marriages or what is commonly referred to as homosexuality remains one of the most controversial issues in the current society. Same sex desires are increasingly becoming extremely common. Men marrying other men or women marrying other women is common phenomena in the current society. This trend is exceedingly common in the west.
This play presents some form of the same sex desires. Sebastian was uncommonly handsome man. He resembled her fair sister Viola. When Antonio rescued him in the high seas, Antonio developed a serious fondness towards him. Antonio was well aware that Sebastian was a man, and the best that could come out from the relationship could not be anything than best friends.
However, the captain developed a strong urge to be near him always. He did not want to lose sight of him, a fact that made him follow Sebastian to Illyria. It would make one guess that Antonio wanted to get romantic with Sebastian.
Some facts in this play make same sex desires, as one expressed by Antonio, different from what it is in the present society. Antonio’s motive was driven by his need for a companion. He needed someone who could always be with him and share his feelings. He saw this person in Sebastian.
This is different from the drive that is witnessed today. In the current society, individuals are motivated by the desires for sex. A new crop of individuals has emerged who are not sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex. They are men who want to get intimate with fellow men, or women who have such desired. In the current society, it is common to get scenarios where people in authority rapping those who trusted them the most that they can never do such an act.
Scenarios where fathers sexually molest heir sons are very common in the contemporary society. This proves beyond any reasonable doubt that in the current word, the drive for same sex desires is to have sex.
The play demonstrates this in two main ways. First, for all the time that Antonio was with Sebastian, he never gave any indication that he wanted to get intimate with him. He had power over him, especially after rescuing him from the high seas. Sebastian also liked him much, but knew that to get intimate, he needed a woman, and Olivia was the one he desired.
The second proof is the relationship between Orsino and Viola. Orsino knew that Viola was a man. Although he developed some serious fondness towards her, he never made any serious move to show that he wanted to get intimate with her. He could not understand how a man could get intimate with a fellow man. Orsino had Viola within his rich. However, no attempts were made towards being intimate.
The play presents a society that respects the institution of marriage. Marriage in this society is purely based on love. This love had to be based on mutual agreement between the involved parties.
Olivia did not have any romantic feelings towards Duke Orlando. She therefore turned down his proposal despite the status and amount of wealth commanded by Duke Orlando. This is a little different from what is taking place in the current society. People in the current society are very materialistic. They put a lot of emphasis on material benefits than on emotions.
They can therefore, fake emotions in order to benefit materially. Same sex desires is flourishing in the current society because people are easily swayed with money. For this reason, a person who is wealthy and his sexual orientation is towards an individual of the same sex will always have his way. They will use their wealth to convince those whom they desire to be their partners. This is one of the strongest pillars of same sex relationship today.
The modern day society has changed in various fronts. People are always busy trying to meet specific targets in life. Women in the modern society have become breadwinners in their families, and they will always prepare for this even before marriage.
Romance is beautifully portrayed in this play, something that is on the decline in the current society because everyone is busy. People in the modern day work six hours in a week. They have limited time to socialize with others. Decisions about marriage are therefore made in a rush. People get into marriage only to realize that they cannot withstand each other.
This emphasis on climbing the social ladder in the society is slowly killing romance in the modern day marriages. Couples have limited time to share together as husband and wife, or lovers. One may argue that the marriage between Olivia and Sebastian was rushed up. However, to the eyes of Olivia, Sebastian was Cesario whom she had known for a long time as a messenger of Duke Orsino.
Sebastian agreed to the marriage based on two factors. First, his sister Viola had confirmed to him that Olivia was a good person who could make a good wife. Because of the trust he had towards the sister, she believed her. The second reason was that he was attracted to her and was convinced that they could make a family.
He fell in love with her. When Olivia came to know of the identity of Sebastian, she did not change her mind. To her, Sebastian was the Cesario that she had admired for a very long time. The fact that he was a brother to Viola made it even easy to internalize this fact.
It can be concluded that poetry is an imitation employed by writers to express views ad opinions in society. In many fictional poems, characters are portrayed with either better or worse behaviors as compared to behaviors of real characters. Other writers try as much as possible to match the objects of poetic imitation with real life events.
In his works, Aristotle differentiates between humor and tragedy. He notes that tragedy entails presenting objects of poetic imitation in a better way than they would appear in real life. In other words, tragedy is the presentation of characters in an idealized form. Therefore, a tragic poet tries to present better life as compared to real life. This would mean that tragic poetry criticizes the existing form of life. The characters in a tragic poem have better qualities as compared to the qualities of characters in real life.
History of Hippie’s Culture Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Historical Development of Hippies and Communes
The First Communes in East and West Coast
Introduction Hippies emerged from the mainstream culture of the 1950s and 1960s, following in the footsteps of an earlier counter culture group, the rebellious youth movement known as the Beat Generation (Issitt 1). According to Miller (xiii) communal societies have long been an American cultural fixture, with anywhere from dozens to hundreds of them operating at any given moment.
However, nothing in the American communal past would have led any judicious observer to predict the incredible communal explosion that began during the 1960s. The years that followed saw the number of communes and hippies increase in different parts of the world.
The size and diversity of the new communitarianism made accurate counting of communes and of their members impossible. Nevertheless, the overall significance of the 1960s era as a watershed in American communal history communal history is undeniable.
Despite the fact that there have been challenges trying to the population of communes, the exact number of communes has continued to increase. Today, we are no longer dealing with communes numbering in the low hundreds but rather with thousands and, probably tens of thousands of them.
Numerically, however, the hippies probably constituted a minority presence on the 1960s communal scene, as thousands of other communes sprang up as well. In addition, there were new communes founded by spiritual seekers of all sorts.
Historical Development of Hippies and Communes According to Miller (5), more than a generation has elapsed since the communes of the 1960s era burst onto the American scene. At the same time, those who were involved in the great American 1960s era communal experiment, whether still living communally or not, are more accessible than they used to be in the past.
Apparently, the majority of the 1960s era communes were short lived, but their impact on American life has been really solid. According to some scholars, communes have for a very long time had social influence beyond their own memberships and typically, brief lifespans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many of the 1960s communards were well educated, and they produced a variety of creative works that help us to understand the period from which they emerged.
Communal Census Practically, it is impossible to establish the number of communes who existed during the 1960s era. The plain fact is that no one has a better idea than that of just how widespread communal living was in those days. Of the many observers who visited and tried to track the communal America, dozens made estimates of the size of the communal outpouring, but in all but a few cases, those estimates were simply wide guesses, utterly without foundation, or quotations of the wild guesses of others.
The most recent guesses as to the number of communes were in the low thousands. An article in the New York Times in the late 1970 gave the figure of nearly 2,000 communes in America. Although the article makes an attempt to explain how the 2,000 was arrived at, it appears to be simply a guess and nothing more.
Benjamin Zablocki, writing about the same time, offered another widely cited of about 1,000 rural communes (Miller 15). Other scholars provided estimates of local communal populations much higher than the figures already given. William Speers, a newspaper reporter writing in 1971, calculated that 100 to 200 communes existed in his city of Philadelphia alone.
In the same year, another observer reported that members of the Christian World Liberation Front, a leading Jesus movement organization, counted over 200 Jesus communes in California alone, a number supported by pins stuck in a wall map (Miller 25). Also, in 1971, Mark Perlgut surveyed his immediate neighborhood in Brooklyn and noted several communes close by, with at least four on one specific street, leading him to conclude that New York alone probably had as many as 1,000 communal houses.
A scholar writing in the mid 1970s found estimates of 200 to 800 communes in Berkeley and 200 in Vermont in 1972. In spite of the fact that some of these numbers are not solidly founded, they generally would point toward a count of American communes well up in the thousands.
The First Communes in East and West Coast According to Oved (64) the first communes begun to appear in California in 1965. The background to their creation was the same as that of the original appearance of the hippies. It resulted from protests against the changes in the American society, and aversion of materialism, as well as the experiences of young members of the New Left in the struggle against the Vietnam War.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Hippie’s Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disillusion from politicians that became stronger after the events of the Democratic conference in Chicago also led to a major turning point. Although political groups became more violent, there were also many who sought a new way of life. The romance of a return to values that had been abandoned by the prevalent culture which included the return to the community, to social obligation, to relationships with each other, and to nature and the land, also played its part (Smith 25).
The communal movement of the sixties began in the eastern and western regions of the United States, and spread from there to the center of the continent. Beginning in California it reached Oregon, and, later northern New Mexico and Colorado, and on the East coast, from Vermont southward to Virginia.
This wave was at its height from 1967 to the early seventies. After its initial stage in the mid sixties, the trickle became a flood and young people established communes in hundreds of localities in and outside the big cities. Many scholars and journalists have tried to estimate their numbers. Newsweek claimed that in 1969 there were some five hundred communes, with ten thousand members.
Benjamin Zablocki distinguished between rural and urban communes, and estimated that in 1971, there were about one thousand rural and about two hundred urban communes. The urban communes were small, with no defined doctrine. They were pluralist and poor, practiced partial cooperation with no independent productive branch, and generally lived in rented accommodation. Considering that the communes were not included in the urban census reports, it became quite hard to estimate their exact number.
In Boston, attempts to determine their numbers in the autumn of 1972 concluded that there were approximately 200 in the city, 350 in San Francisco, another 200 in Berkeley, and about a thousand in New York (Oved 64). In addition, there were similar communes in most of the big towns, particularly those with a number of universities. Despite their impressive numbers, the urban communes are not a representative sample of communalism, since they encompass many temporary phenomena connected the students’ way of life.
According to the New York Times, there were some two thousand communes in thirty four states in the year 1970. In his book, Families of Eden, Jerome Judson claimed that at the beginning of the seventies, the communes numbered 5,000, and that rural communes had a membership of about 250,000.
Richard Fairfield’s estimate, in the preface of his book, Modern Utopia, is similar. He maintains that the average membership of the rural communes is between twenty and forty and that most of the members were in their twenties (Oved 66). Apparently, the rapid expansion of the communes was connected with the development of the media such as television, radio, and the press.
There is no doubt that publicity in Time, Newsweek, and Life encouraged the growth of the communes. Through the media, local events made a resounding impression and influenced parallel processes on the national level. Interest in communes reached its peak between 1968 and 1971, when the media displayed considerable interest on the phenomenon. They saw in it and outstanding expression of the counter culture and the realization of its deals (Smith 35).
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Hippie’s Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Although the hippies’ individualism and anarchism would seem to conflict with their tendency to foster communal life, whether in small groups traveling together over highways in America, or in urban communes or more stable rural communes. For most of the young people who adopted this life style, the commune was not a permanent way of life. It was simply a temporary refuge that gave them a place of retreat in which they could reassess the individual’s disappointment with the society.
Clearly, the escapist tendencies of most of the hippies who joined communes led them to form a picture in their minds of the society from which they were fleeing, rather than an imaged of an ideal society.
Works Cited Issitt, Micah. Hippies: A Guide to an American Subculture, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Miller, Timothy. The 60s Communes: Hippies and Beyond, Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1999. Print.
Oved, Yaacov. Globalization of Communes: 1950-2010, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2012. Print.
Smith, Sherry. Hippies, Indians, and the Fight for Red Power, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Should the United States Stop Immigrants? Essay online essay help: online essay help
The United States of America considers illegal immigration as one of the national issues that need immediate concern. In his article, ‘‘Kidding Ourselves about Immigration’’, Michael Kinsley argues that the immigration process is not as easy as it was some 50 years ago (Kinsley 12). This is because the American government is very strict on offering immigration permits to foreigners.
The author believes that the Americans should clarify the meaning of their opposition towards illegal immigration. Most American politicians argue that they support immigration but oppose illegal immigration. The point of concern is whether the law is right or not. According to Michael, in contrast to the political perspective, Americans are not actually bothered by the legitimacy of the immigration but the immigration itself (Kinsley 12).
If the concern is about illegal immigration and not legal migration, then legal immigration should be increased or even doubled. The republicans perceived the issue of immigration as cultural, while the Democratic-led opposition believed that the issue was predominantly economical.
Immigrants renew the national identity of the Americans but do not destroy it. Critics of the registration process in the United States are of the opinion that if a large number of immigrants are invited into the country and assume permanent citizenship, the process will steer a fading of social cohesion.
They argue that this may lead to the immigrants being more intertwined into the United States fabric. If United States can offer opportunities for the rising mobility of immigrants, it can strengthen what the nation requires for its identity. They worry that the newcomers may destroy their identity as Americans (Kinsley 12).
In his article, ‘The next Americans’, Tomas argues that some eugenicists felt that Southern Europe Immigrants who were dark-skinned would infect the gene pool of the Americans. The concern was also politically motivated, as there was worry that the population power of the immigrants would grant the Pope the guts to seek leadership in the country, as most of the immigrants were Catholics.
They were worried that immigrant anarchists would destroy the American democracy. This did not occur as the pope does not have any authority over the American political affairs and the American gene pool is still good.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This clearly indicates that the immigrants of the European origin as well as their descendants effectively incorporated into a monolith of an American society. There is substantial evidence that the immigrants are playing an important role in significantly redefining the American identify. There is evidence that the immigrants especially the children born of immigrant parents in the US are adopting the American way of life and thus changing the American identity.
For example, there is a rapid growth increase in the population of non-English speakers in the United States. In particular, the number of Latinos and Hispanics is on the rise. Even in some American states with a large number of foreigners (such as Los Angeles with a foreign population of more than 36%) English remains a strong language. All the immigrants’ children born in the United States speak in English (Jimenez 251). The immigrants as well as their children have become very different from the ones in their ethnic motherland.
The immigrants of today keep in touch with their relatives in their home countries and support them financially. The availability of the recent technology, which is affordable such as emails and telecommunication, helps them to communicate constantly and since they have dual citizenship, they can contribute to their countries’ political affairs from abroad.
Back to their home countries, the recognition of Americanism in the immigrants is evident because families and friends easily recognize their American accents, new American ways of life and the detachment from their culture. In American identity, the immigrants have caused some changes. For example, holiday traditions, entertainment, food and language.
However, these changes are not an important social factor among the Americans. United states believe that their identity is a land of opportunity. This easily ensures that children born of immigrant parents are able to revive their American dream. It is important to provide them with better public schools and inexpensive college education. In the United States 14th Amendment, all persons are citizens of the United States provided they have legally obtained American citizenship.
In the article ‘Anchor Babies’, Reynolds Holding argues that the controversy occurs where children are born to illegal immigrants but in the United States. These are referred to as ‘Anchor Babies’ (Reynolds 232). Any child with as legal American citizenship, regardless of ethnicity or background, should have a gross salary of not less than 125 percent higher than the poverty threshold in order to file for his or her parents’ visa.
Thus, the illegal immigrants must illegally remain in the United States since they have children in United States .Those who oppose birthright citizenship claim that there is no need for amendment. This is because it may keep illegal workers in a country making them take the jobs that could otherwise benefit the legal citizens. An estimation of 7 million illegal foreign workers have taken most of the jobs thus causing unemployment and low paying jobs to millions of children born in America
We will write a custom Essay on Should the United States Stop Immigrants? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The best way to fight illegal immigration is by making it difficult for illegal immigrants to work in the United States. This can be achieved by fixing the E-Verify system that allows the employer to verify that job seekers are in the States legally. About 30 million Americans are not well educated, most of whom are immigrants. In addition, these immigrants are jobless.
These people are actually disadvantaged by anything that does not quicken the process of illegal workers returning to their homeland, as they cannot get jobs (Jimenez 251). However, the United States should not stop immigration; rather it should regulate it by allowing only the legal immigrants.
Works Cited Jimenez, Tomaz. “The Next Americans.” Time. 29 May. 2007: 251-254. Print
Kinsley, Michael. “Kidding Ourselves about Immigration.” Time. 6 Dec. 2007: 12-13. Print
Reynolds, Holding. “Anchor Babies.’ Time. 1Feb. 2011: 232-234. Print.
Young black people in the United States Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Black Panther and Gender Politics
Competing Gender Ideologies
Introduction By the middle of the 1960s, young black people in the United States were growing weary of civil rights leaders telling them to turn the other cheek so that they could overcome someday. The inspiring eloquence of Martin Luther King, Jr. had been challenged, even ridiculed by the fiery message of Malcolm X (Jones 267).
For black youth, who increasingly found themselves trapped in overcrowded Northern urban ghettos, many of the old movement slogans and ideas, particularly non violence as a philosophy, were becoming obsolete.
In spite of the gains of the Southern black freedom movement, civil rights organizations and leaders, especially king, were slowly but surely becoming aware of growing dissatisfaction among blacks with the limitations of hard won legislation, especially its failure to ensure economic gains and tackle seemingly intractable forms of Southern and Northern racism. As a result, the call for Black Power became the order of the day.
Beginning in 1964 and continuing each summer through 1968, disillusionment, frustration, and economic disenfranchisement fueled urban rebellions in Black communities across the country. It was within this context that the Black Panther Party for Self Defense (BPP) was formed and staked its claim for leadership of the black masses. In the year 1966, Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale officially founded the party in Oakland, California, one of many U.S. cities noted for its racists and repressive police force.
The main targets of their initial organizing efforts were disaffected urban black male youth, and their activities centered on addressing police brutality through armed self defense. Although the actual size of their constituency and membership is a subject of debate, the party had a significant impact on the consciousness and political developments of the late 1960s and early 1970s both nationally and international (Jones 267).
The issues raised by the Black Panther Party were salient for the black communities at the turn of twenty first century. Economic conditions for the majority of the black people had already declined and as a result, most blacks were in a very pathetic state. The decline was in a large measure as was as a consequence of structural adjustments in advanced capitalism in response to global competition and the shift from industrial to service based economies, all of which undermined the security and safety of workers globally.
The social consequences of these changes, including more sophisticated and insidious forms of racism and sexism, demand not only new responses, but also a closer investigation of and learning from past practices of collective organized resistance (Joseph 119).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apparently, the current feelings of dissatisfaction with traditional black middle class leadership, especially among the young African Americans, are reminiscent of the sentiments that led to the revolutionary youth movement of the late 1960s in which Panthers played a critical role. Yet, in spite of renewed popular interest, the political ideology and inner workings of the BPP still remain hidden from those most likely to take up the mantle of resistance in this era.
The first two years of Black Panther Party’s development were fictionalized, romanticized, and popularized in the recent larger than life Hollywood film titled Panther, complete with a supporting cast that looks like a black entertainment television top forty count down.
Allegedly, then content of many contemporary popular sources influence our collective memory of the Panthers, including movies, hip hop, magazines and music, and mainstream newspapers, may in fact serve to reproduce rather than rectify mistakes and miscalculations of the past.
The goal of this essay is to provide a perspective on an often ignored aspect of history and legacy of the BPP, namely, its gender politics. The gender ideology of the BPP, both as formerly stated and as exemplified by organizational practice, was as critical to its daily functioning as was the party’s analysis of race and class dynamics in black communities.
Rather than the party’s gender politics bring secondary to the larger struggle against racism and capitalism, one may instead that the politics of gender were played out in most aspects of party activity and affected its ability to function as an effective political organization.
Black Panther and Gender Politics In my view, gender is not to be understood as a discrete category unto itself, but one of several interacting factors such as race, class, color, age, and sexual orientation that together make up individual identities as well as the social terrain upon which our realities are experienced.
As noted by Jones (269), the category of gender was not as fully politicized and theorized during the late 1960s as it is today. One must, therefore, resist the temptation to impose current standards to measure the feminist, nationalist, revolutionary credentials of the BPP. Each of these social theories must be understood as being historically specifically. Clearly, what may constitute feminism or radicalism in one time period may not necessarily be recognized as such in another (Joseph 219).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Young black people in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ideas about gender and gender roles were far from static within the BPP. As the party spread numerically and geographically, class and gender diversity within its ranks increased.
New members brought new and old ideas with them. Despite the initial self conscious creation by the leadership of a masculine pubic identity for the Panther, some women and men in the party challenged the characterization of the struggle as one solely for the redemption of black manhood and worked within its constraints to serve the interests of the entire community.
Somehow, the stories of the BPP can not be reduced to a monolithic party line on the woman question or a linear progression from an overtly and overwhelmingly sexist organization to a pro black feminist or womanist one. Instead, one must pay attention to internal conflict as well as agreement, overt as well as covert manifestations of this dialogue, change over time, diversity of individual experiences, and internal as well as external influences.
While it can justifiably be argued that the BPP at various points in its history was a male centered, male dominated organization, this point should not negate the important ideological and practical contributions of its female members or of the men who resisted chauvinistic and sexist tendencies.
Indeed, the diversity, both in terms of geography and personnel, of an organization whose existence spanned from Oakland to Algiers and from 1966 to 1982, can not be understood and appreciated through simplistic explanations or superficial head counts of official leadership roles. Undoubtedly, black women were critical players in the BPP, and the party overall had a significant impact on the political life of an entire generation.
Competing Gender Ideologies The designation, conscious or otherwise, of specific gender based roles for women and men within the Black Panther Party began with the party’s inception. Obviously, this process did not happen in a vacuum. In addition to having their own ideas about the roles that men and women should play in the society and within the party, the founders and members were also influenced by competing ideologies and vice versa.
These competing ideologies could be either supportive of or opposed to the status quo of American society. Three such ideologies that bear mentioning because of their enormous impact on the period are cultural nationalism, feminism, and the black matriarchy or tangle of pathology thesis. These three ideological discourses illustrate historian Francis White’s contention that counter discourse struggles against both dominant and competing oppositional discourses.
In other words, the oppositional rhetoric of the BPP challenged and was challenged by other alternative as well as mainstream perspectives. There were, of course, many other important hegemonic and counterhegemonic theoretical constructs vying for prominence. These three are highlighted because of their impact on the consequences of the period in general and on the BPP specifically (Gore et al. 34)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Young black people in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most popular proponents of black cultural nationalism, at least on the West Coast in the late 1960s, was the Los Angeles based US organization headed by Maulana Karenga. The US organization stressed the necessity for cultural awareness among blacks to be gained primarily through the revival of African traditions, whether real or invented, of dress, language, religion, and familial arrangements as well as the rejection of White supremacy.
The relationship between Karenga, the US organization, and the BPP changed over time just as the panthers’ own ideological positions changed (Ogbar 84). In the early years of the party, Karenga participated in meetings are rallies in support of the BPP. However, over time as their respective ideologies were clarified and contradictions exposed, the BPP became scathingly critical of the US organization.
Mainly, the party’s critique was based on the fact that Karenga’s group promoted cultural nationalism and black capitalism. Drawing on the theories of Frantz Fanon, the panthers repeatedly asserted that cultural pride was a necessary phase in the political development of black people. It, however, did not guarantee black liberation, nor did black skin necessarily identify on as an automatic ally.
The open conflict between the two organizations came to a head in the year 1969 when two prominent panthers were killed by US members in a shoot out at a black student union meeting. This incident sparked numerous articles and political cartoons in The Black Panther that criticized cultural nationalism in general and Karenga in particular.
There were even charges leveled that Karenga himself was on the payroll of the FBI and various other police and government agencies. One major component of the US rhetoric called for women’s submission to traditional male authority, and promoted the notion of complementary gender roles (Ogbar 113).
Conclusion Based on the arguments presented in this paper, it is obvious that women had a big part to play in the advancement of the Black Panther movement. This is a stand that was, however, refuted by Karenga who regarded men highly and considered women as subordinates.
According to Karenga’s teachings, what makes a woman appealing is femininity and she can not be feminine without being submissive. A man has to be a leader and he has to be a man who bases his leadership on knowledge, wisdom, and understanding. There is no virtue in independence.
The only virtue is interdependence. The role of the woman is to inspire her man, educate their children and participate in social development. In general, male supremacy is said to be based on three things. These are tradition, acceptance, and reason. Equality is, therefore, regarded as false and the devil’s concept.
Works Cited Gore, Dayo, Theoharis, Jeanne,
Problems Facing Human Beings In 2050 Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Currently, infrastructure has become paramount in our daily lives. In every country, infrastructure determines the growth of its economic and social sectors. Over the last century, improvements in infrastructure have resulted in better standards of living. In spite of these benefits, environmental researchers suggest that the future advancements in infrastructure would result in numerous challenges. Currently, several countries are planning to invest massive resources in infrastructural developments.
In this regard, environmentalists assert that all the relevant stakeholders should address the future infrastructural challenges. By focusing on the future land-based transportation issues, this paper seeks to highlight challenges that would be faced by human beings in the year 2050.
At the present, the effects of climate change are widespread. According to environmentalists, by the year 2050 climate change will have increased in its intensity and occurrence. As such, climate change will ultimately have an effect on our land-based transport sectors. The increase in temperatures will affect transportation in a number of ways. Higher temperatures will lead to an expansion in the metals used in the railway lines and bridges.
As a result, bridges’ joints and the efficiency of our railway transport will be compromised. If the government fails to reconstruct our transport facilities to suit the current changes in climate, delays and accidents in the industry will be rampant by the year 2050. It is estimated that the world population in the year 2050 would be 9 billion. Owing to this factor, many individuals would be negatively affected by the situation.
Equally, recurring floods will affect both land-based transportation system and water infrastructures. In the coastal and lowland regions, climate change will result in unprecedented floods leading to an interruption in the flow of traffics. The flooding will not only interrupt traffic, but will also result in frequent infrastructure repairs and delays in construction. Similarly, bridges and motorway safety will be threatened by the consequences of climate change in the coming decades.
Personally, disruption in land-based transport systems will lead to delays, increase in the cost of travelling, and increase chances of being involved in disasters. Considering the fact that the world population would have increased significantly by the year 2050, implies that more time will be wasted travelling back and forth to the workplace. Since a significant amount of time will be spent on travelling, my production will be negatively affected leading to a decrease in my returns.
With the thoughts of future infrastructural challenges in mind, I wonder whether the challenges faced in land-based transportation system in the future will have significant effects on other infrastructural sectors. Equally, I cannot comprehend whether these challenges will reduce the economical gains achieved by then. With the ever-increasing consequences of climate change and the governments’ unwillingness to formulate appropriate mitigation measures, I wonder whether the looming risks are avoidable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my opinion, the threatening infrastructural challenges that would be faced by the year 2050 are real. In this regard, governments and relevant sectors must acknowledge the risks posed by these infrastructural challenges, and create and implement appropriate mitigation measures.
Similarly, environmental engineers should work together with other engineers in developing infrastructures that will sustain the risks resulting from climate change. Through this, the risks associated with the future infrastructural challenges will be reduced fostering sustainable economic growth at the present and in the future.
Greek and Roman Art in the Campus Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents The Three Works
Greek Roots in Irish Mother and Child
Roman roots in Mona
Roman Roots in Night Without Dawn
The Three Works Admittedly, Greek and Roman art traditions have affected the development of the contemporary arts. At present, it is possible to find Greek and Roman traits in many works of modern artists. Our campus is also decorated with works which are influenced by Greek and Roman arts. It is possible to consider such works as Night Without Dawn, Mona, Irish Mother and Child by Glenna Goodacre. These bronze works bear characteristics which are associated with Roman and Greek arts.
Greek Roots in Irish Mother and Child Irish Mother and Child can be regarded as a work inspired by the Bronze Age in Greek art. The figures are quite idealistic, which was a characteristic feature of Greek art at that period. The faces have perfect proportions, especially when it comes to the girl. The faces are quite distant and no meaningful emotions can be traced.
The absence of emotions is obvious and it is even stressed as the figures are depicted in motion. The child is holding her mother tightly. Therefore, it is possible to state that this work is more Greek in nature as it is characterized by major peculiarities of the Bronze Age in the Greek ancient art, i.e. people are idealized, people’s emotions are not depicted.
Roman roots in Mona On the contrary, Mona is characterized by great tension and particular realism. In the first place, this is a bust depicting an ordinary person. It is not a deity or some famous personality. Depiction of ordinary people is a characteristic feature of Roman, not Greek arts. Apart from this, the face is depicted with a specific precision.
There is no trace of an idealistic depiction of youth and beauty, which was typical for Greek arts. Mona is an old person who had a really hard life. Every hard year is revealed in numerous wrinkles. The expression of the figure’s face shows present suffering of the person. Thus, it is possible to note that the present artwork is inspired by Roman arts as Roman bronze works are associated with realistic depiction of ordinary people. More so, emotions and aging were quite central to Roman works.
Roman Roots in Night Without Dawn As far as the third work is concerned, it also bears Roman traits. In the first place, the sleeping figure is very realistic. Again, there is no idealistic depiction of perfect forms and perfect faces. The face of the figure bears traits of aging and suffering. One more characteristic feature of this work is that it does not depict a famous personality or deity. This is an ordinary person who is overwhelmed by hardships of his ordinary life.
Conclusion On balance, it is possible to note that the three works are quite similar as they bear traits of Roman and Greek arts which shared common values, i.e. exquisite depiction of people. However, the work Irish Mother and Child differs from the two other works as it bears Greek traits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The figures are depicted in quite an idealistic way and no emotions are revealed. In contrast to this work, the other two works follow Roman tradition. Ordinary people are depicted and the major focus is on facial expressions and realistic depiction of people’s emotions as well as appearance. Of course, it is also necessary to note that even though the works bear traits of Greek and Roman arts, these are artworks reflect trends that reign in the contemporary society.
The Role of Responsibility in Creating and Maintaining a Civil Society Essay argumentative essay help
Politicians and sociologists agree that the question of determining the characteristic features of the civil society is rather controversial because there are a lot of details and aspects to take into consideration. Nevertheless, the notion of civil society is closely associated with such concepts as social or collective rights and freedoms.
From this point, it is possible to state that the civil society is the society in which collective interests of individuals are met with references to their personal freedoms and rights as citizens. That is why, it is important to pay attention to the rights and freedoms of all the citizens in the society to discuss it as civil.
Although the ideas of providing equal rights and freedoms should be followed without references to the people’s race, gender, and class, there are a lot of examples in history when these principles are violated in relation to such phenomena as discrimination, colonialism, or slavery; that is why, the question of the citizens’ responsibility should be discussed from this point, and social freedoms and rights should be really equal for everyone in the civil society.
During the 18th-19th century, the Westerners justified their actions and the ideas of colonialism and slavery from the point of necessity to civilise the population of the colonised territories. However, the actions of colonists were based only on the economic reasons.
Thus, Britain colonised the African lands, and “the biggest prize won by Britain is control over local trade. Once, this had meant gold and enslaved humans…” (Getz
“The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The Secret is a book authored by Rhonda Byrne that was published in 2006. It is based on a film of the same name produced in March of the same year. The Secret centers on the law of attraction. Byrne expresses positivism about notions that can change life. The book has been translated into more than forty languages.
Byrne has used the power of the pen to impact positively on people’s lives. Her well-choreographed description of the chronology of events helps her make the change. This is what makes me like her style of writing and delivery of the message. This paper seeks to prove this success.
Byrne starts by explaining the dynamics of the law of attraction, and then she explores how men and women used its power to gain wisdom. This shows how well she is prepared before beginning to write the book. Byrne explains that people through their positive thinking can change their health, expand wealth, and become happier. She analyzes the law of attraction in a perfect way. She illustrates how the law attracts events, situation, and experiences of people by matching their feelings and thoughts.
She further inspires people from the fact that two years before she wrote the book, she underwent a terrible condition that brought trauma. This gave her the opportunity to read varied genre of literature by great scholars and thinkers. Through this, she gained wisdom and proper methods of delivering the message to the world. Therefore, when you sit down to read The Secret, you know you are reading a piece of work by the author who was ready for her job. This book is planned well and its content collected over time.
The Secret is a well thought out book based on rich wisdom that Byrne acquired by reading widely and internalizing from articles that enriched her mind, giving her adequate capacity to write.
To confirm that she did a better job, The Secret gained popularity selling more than nineteen million copies earning Byrne a call to appear on The Oprah Winfrey Show. The fortunes from the sales of the book were marvelous. I contributed to this because I acquired a copy to make sure that I am part of the population that benefited from this knowledge.
The book plays a big role in empowering people who want to be self-reliant. Her explanations of the thoughts and feelings transmitting into the surrounding from the human brains, to attract equivalent actions and situations and therefore creating experiences are very fascinating. Through this, the book has managed to transform the thinking of many people. People’s thoughts have shifted to the positive minds. This has created confidence and self-belief, which are key elements to success.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Byrne uses metaphors to pass her message to the readers with clear expressions. She does this by comparing the power of thoughts to a transmission tower. The tower transmits frequency to the universe and then relays the same to the earth in equal measure.
Her prowess is captivating and is felt when she derives from the Bible to create her three-step process for manifesting the dreams. Byrne outlines that it is Ask, Believe, and Receive. She combines these by capturing the complete human body very well. She points out gratitude and visualization as the driving forces for achievement.
Using her conscience that is very clear, she understands that being grateful rests in the human heart. Similarly, having vision is centered in the mind. By doing this, she manages to put together the human mind and heart. This is the best way a human being can move forward and change his destiny. In order to succeed the mind should first think about success. The law of attraction will then reorganize the events to make sure success is achieved.
The Secret is without doubt a product of great minds in various fields including art, philosophy, and great thinkers. Synthesizing this, together with the first intention of the author that is to bring joy to many human beings, it becomes an educative and interesting book.
Byrne’s organization of her work is exemplary. She delivers her message through the film and then follows up with a captivating book. This indicates the value she put on the message organized to deliver. She creates a deeper understanding from the reader’s perspective by dividing the human thoughts into three categories.
Remembering that comes first puts the mind in the past, observation that is second puts the mind in the present, and imagination that comes at the end puts the mind in the future. Synthesizing the three steps, Byrne gives one an opportunity to look back, see his present mind-set, and by changing his focus, he can change his thoughts to align with success.
Her explanation of positivism elaborates how change from a positive mind is more powerful than negative thoughts. The more positive the mind the closer the results are achieved. Byrne excellently transfers thoughts to feelings. Good feelings are because of positive thoughts and a proof that one is ready to receive good results.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She explains that feelings predict outcomes to me this is true. For example, if I am from an interview my feelings will show the outcome. If my feelings are good, then definitely I have done well at the same time if my feelings show low self-esteem then the chance that I have fared poorly is high.
In her words, feelings and thoughts consist of emotional guidance system. Byrne has used the book to help people open up to themselves and the world. With oneself, personal life is evaluated including their health. To the world, the key to financial successes as well as secrets of relationships are analyzed.
Assessment of these factors puts one in a place to develop and expand. The reason attributed to this is that one’s status is a result of his past thoughts and feelings. I totally agree with her. Taking students’ performance in class for instance can be seen through examination preparations (Byrne 78). Their feeling and thoughts can be overheard in grapevine. Their expressions are used to decide how they are going to do when the results come out.
Byrne identifies that the state of the mind now and the feelings find one’s future. Preparations that are done now create the type of situation in future.
The future status is projected now. In conclusion, we are justified to state that Rhonda Byrne has succeeded in achieving her first intention of bringing joy to millions in the world. She achieved this through her organized and thought out arrangement of ideas. Evidence that she has done this arises from various accolades the book and she have received, the sales not withstanding.
Works Cited Byrne, Rhonda. The Secret. New York: Atria Books, 2006. Print.
Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem Research Paper college essay help online
The reality of domestic violence in most homes is that many men and some women often show intolerance against those who face this issue. The main questions are always the same. Why victims of domestic violence do not just go away? If the problem of domestic violence is a social problem, why is not it solved up to now?
The problem of domestic violence was raised many yeas ago. Nowadays, this problem is considered as one of the most urgent ones, still it has not been decided yet. There are a lot of possible reasons which may be the main reasons for presence of violence. Today, in the debate surrounding domestic violence, it is believed that society concedes that mental state of many victims of domestic violence has often been psychologically changed or culturally habituated, so they cannot escape the abusive relationship without outside assistance.
In this action, victims of domestic violence do not display rational or reasoned behavior because of a myriad of extraordinary complicated circumstances. Their mental state has often been psychologically tainted by an experience that often can leave them intellectually incompetent of making rational decisions regarding the situation they have occurred in. The understandable belief is that through most of human history, men have been in charge of making the family decisions.
In the modern society, each of the cohabiting spouses, because of current social changes, wants to dominate the decision-making process. Conflicts and violence can occur as there is no process in place that regulates family life. The ethical principles of fairness and equality arise from a mutual human respect for the extent in which we can all act with an awareness of our actions and their consequences.
Nowadays, many specific actions are made in order assist those who have been abused at home. Ultimately, we must come to understand that the primary obstacle to modern society’s ability to reach an agreement regarding the domestic violence is that too many studies and several critiques about domestic violence basically support measures which are to be taken after the violence has occurred. This frequently presents people with two disconnected and separate notions of the problem.
Some people believe domestic violence to be a central concern in the society, while others do not consider it to be a problem at all. Domestic violence is not an issue of gender as it is rather about how social and economic decisions are made within relationships at homes (Ratterman).
A person in relationships that has control of the decision-making process will often use threats and/or violence to keep control over the partner. It must be fully apprehended that to ask an individual to stay in a relationship when it becomes too domineering for them is immoral and diminishes the value of their life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is not to argue that a man cannot be the victim of domestic violence or that women cannot be the primary assaulters of a domestic violence occurrence. Men can be the victims of domestic violence as well as some women can be the primary assaulters (Ratterman). The reason of one becoming an offender or a victim lies in one’s character as the person who dominates is to be more stubborn or more steadfast (Folstad).
Domestic violence is a world problem and there are a lot of initiatives and programs aimed at eliminating the effects and complicated consequences of this issue. There is a phone number where people who have occurred under the affect of domestic violence may call and get a piece of advice.
Such phone numbers are aimed at assisting psychologically those who need help. People can get the assistance in further behavior and treating of those who abuse them. People can get the information about the places where they can go. T is very important to know that there are people who can assist you. It is also important to speak to somebody. It is a universal problem that those who are abused, mainly women, do not turn to police.
There are many reasons for such decisions, however, these women still need help. Speaking about this problem, those who appear under the affect of a domestic violence do not usually want others to solve the problem, they just want to tell about their problem and to express their ideas about it. Many people who call to such centers do not even need advice they just tell about their problem and disconnect. It is also possible to report about the case of domestic abuse in the neighboring house.
Ultimately, in times of fast social change, there are always deceitful machinations to avert or slow societal change. In current society, as a result of the confused emotional change in relationships between men and women, they often emerge to be worried, suspicious, and fearful of each other. Coming to police before the violence is committed results in nothing as police is sure that fear for violence is always a result of emotional instability of a weaker position in family relationships.
Thus, some cases left without attention remain just the cases, but the part of such requests for help usually result in further violence. For example, Patty Prickett, the counselor (Catania), was the witness of a situation when a woman who came six months before to police to ask for help was refused and she was killed at the moment. It is impossible to combat the problem dealing with its results. It is important to make sure that the causes of the problem are considered.
The absence of the correct social programs at schools and the lack of desire of government and police to pay more attention to the prevention of the problem while it is not too late are the main reasons of the increased number of the cases of domestic violence.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the problem was considered before the irreversible effects appeared, it would be easier to reduce the rate of domestic violence in the country (Abner). Looking at the current situation, the most reasonable actions which are to be done are the implementation of the school programs directed at reducing the number of the domestic violence cases and an implementation of an initiative devoted to preventing the causes of domestic violence rather than dealing with the consequences.
David A. Wolfe and Peter G. Jaffe are sure that adolescence is a particular time when crucial cognitive and social processes occur in the development of youths. During this time adolescents “learn to think more rationally and become capable of thinking hypothetically” (Wolfe and Jaffe). At this stage of development, adolescents understand the main idea of complex interpersonal relationships with reference to possible risks and consequences of decision making processes.
Trying to implement such an initiative, the effectiveness is to be considered along with the specific measures which are to be taken. As for consequences, it must be stated that if people are taught from their youths that domestic violence is something illegal, awful and incorrect, it is possible to reduce the number of the cases of domestic violence in the future. Many people commit such actions just because they are unable to solve problems in another way.
The main idea of the initiative is to develop the school lectures which show students the cases of domestic violence and teach them solve problems without applying to violence. Adolescents are to understand that there are a lot of particular situations where emotions may become predominant, however, emotions must never rule people and their decisions. So, the implementation of such initiative will help give students some knowledge about handling relationships, coping with conflicts and preventing domestic violence.
The potential victims should also be taught the basic principles of behavior. Domestic violence is a very complicated problem as sometimes the victims of the accident are guilty in the fact that such a case took place. Inappropriate behavior, failure to select necessary words and many other factors may cause unpredictable outcome.
The knowledge about the psychological grounds and some useful information may prevent a crime or at least to reduce the consequences. Much attention should be paid to those children whose parents have been involved into domestic violence. Having already been at the side of a victim, such children should be involved in the discussion of a problem to help them overcome the already existing fears (Gemma 113).
Another proposed measure in dealing with domestic violence is trying to prevent the act at all. There are several specific measures which may assist police in preventing the domestic violence before it is committed. First of all, it is important to have a list of all the houses where the case may take place. Additionally, police is to react to any sign of possible abuse and take some measures.
For example, the requests of aggressive behavior of one member of a family must not be ignored, even though there are no signs of violence of abuse have taken place yet. It is inadmissible to wait until a crime is committed. It is necessary to find the reason (e.g. drunk condition, aggressive behavior, etc.) and to isolate a possible abuser. Additionally, it is essential to make sure that a possible abuser does not think that it is a family member who has taken a police to the place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Domestic Violence and Social Initiatives in Solving the Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A possible criminal is to come though the psychological treatment in order to make sure that he/she looks differently at situation and aggression has been treated. It is important to visit the homes where domestic violence took place once, but the offender was allowed to remain in the family. Such families are to be under special control (Krueger and Labbe 40).
Therefore, it should be concluded that there are a lot of measures which are taken in order to reduce the number of the cases of domestic violence, however, not all of these actions are effective as in most cases the measures are take after the crime is committed. It is important to think about the specific actions which may help prevent domestic violence at all.
School lectures for students is one of the ideas which is to be implemented. Moreover, attentive following of the homes with possible domestic violence cases is to be conducted as well. The country should be under constant control. Even though much is done in order to reduce the number of cases of domestic abuse, there are a lot of measures which may still be taken.
The problem is not going to be solved by means of changing the criminal or civil court systems. The change of this doggedness must start in community involvement through a multi-strategy educational plan. The use of civil preventive orders and compulsory arrest policies by police departments without appropriate criminal approval to alleviate the ills of domestic violence is a deception in which firm realities are inadequate and it is difficult to tell reality from fable.
The regrettable fact is that many empty spaces must be filled before proceeding any further and the only way to realize this is by using political smoke and mirrors to change facts.
Society must merge empirical studies with psychologically held ideas and become more loyal to the judgment of reasonable problem solving. Society must also become more practical and ask questions about who the people are and what the suitable relationship between men and women should be. The society must understand that success is distinguished by what is put in life and not by gains. It must become the responsibility of the community to identify what the current social positions should be in terms of gender and family.
Works Cited Abner, Carrie. “Addressing Abuse.” Print.
Catania, Sara. “Domestic Violence: The Counselor.” Print.
Folstad, Kim. “Are You Shackled to a Bad Boyfriend?” Print.
Gemma, Ellis. “The impact on teachers of supporting children exposed to domestic abuse.” Educational
Thanksgiving History and Significance Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Significance of Thanksgiving
Introduction Thanksgiving is a day celebrated in the United States every year. The tradition of Thanksgiving celebrations in the United States can be traced back to the year 1863. Important to note is that Thanksgiving Day is a public holiday in the United States which is celebrated every year in November, (usually the fourth week of that month) and ” it is a big deal in America because Americans believe it to be the unique holiday, hardly found in this form anywhere else on earth” (Baker 1). This holiday is celebrated with a lot of merrymaking and communal
Thanksgiving as it is the day celebrated with an aim of showing gratitude for all the great things that life has given to a person, for example, family, friends, positive feelings and emotions. In an argument advanced by Bradford, “children should be enlightened on the importance of Thanksgiving so that it can be easy to preserve and pass the tradition to the present and future generation” (144). Even though Thanksgiving is often referred to as the harvest festival, it is something more than what it seems to suggest at first sight.
History Thanksgiving Day was created by people, who were religious people that were running away from persecution in England; they were referred to as pilgrims. Initially, the pilgrims went to settle in the Netherlands, but later, they went to the North America for the purposes of setting up a colony.
Most of the pilgrims arrived in North America in the year 1620 at a time when the autumn season was welcoming the winter season. As Snow says, for them it was “a day of prayer and meditation, not necessry connected with a harvest or a feast. It was a special day of religious observance to acknowledge an act of God’s benevolence” (108). Unfortunately, a big number of the pilgrims died in the North America due to the cold weather they encountered.
The pilgrims began to engage in farming activities during the spring season. During their short stay in the North America, the native Indians assisted the pilgrims by means of guiding them on how to do farming, and also how to cook.
By the end of the summer season, the pilgrims had managed to get a bumper harvest and as such, they were able to store enough food to last out to the winter season . Following the good harvest, the pilgrims decided to organize a festival for the purposes of showing their gratitude to God for the good harvest they got.
Discussion Throughout the existence of mankind, the greatest happiness emanates from contentment of the individual. As such, it is always prudent for an individual to show his or her gratitude especially to those who in one way or another enabled this or that person to achieve what they were eager to achieve.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Needless to say, the foregoing principle forms the basis of Thanksgiving celebrations in the United States. During Thanksgiving, people celebrate and honor those who forfeited their own interests for the sake of others. The sacrifice made by the native Indian Americans is, therefore, celebrated and honored during the celebration of Thanksgiving. The United States sacrificed their land and gave up their culture for the greater interest of the nation.
Appreciating people is a simple and yet very powerful way of encouraging people for them to continue making more sacrifices and doing what is best for the sake of others. What is more, appreciating others through Thanksgiving presupposes a clear and loud message that the sacrifice made is recognized by the person it was meant for, and that it was satisfactory. “After all, the phrase thank you is cited as a virtual that is above all other virtues in the universe” (Weaver
The Problem of Ocean Pollution in Modern World Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
As a concerned member of the community, I am writing to relay my thoughts on a considerable geo-social issue affecting the community. It is of considerable concern how pollution in the ocean has been a major predicament, which is not only affecting the water masses, but people as well. The pollution of the water masses not only inhibits water life, but also affects people’s health as well as other natural resources.
Although there are many natural wastes that affect the ocean life, it is evident that people are the principal cause of ocean pollution. Wastes such as toxic matter, plastics, and human wastes are some of the major sources of pollution in the ocean. In addition, chemicals such as bathing lotions, sunscreens, and other chemicals used by humans affect the toxicity level of water, which in turn affects marine life. Water is the most valuable resource for human beings, as such, it is pertinent for people to protect it.
Parent (7) asserts that solid content kills marine life, for instance, fish die due to their consumption of plastics. Up to 90% of foreign bodies, which float in the ocean, consist of plastics. it imposes some danger since it does not break down for a very long period of time (Parent 1).
When fish ingest plastics, they are unable to digest it since it cannot be broken down by their stomach chemicals. Eventually, they end up dying out of starvation being unable to find food. Large marine animals are also not exempted. They are affected by chemicals present in plastics and other things abundant in the ocean.
Chemicals from plastics in their turn increase global warming, which has been a major issue that affects the ocean causing water to rise in level eventually influencing animals, and humans near the ocean. Many people consume fish as food; when marine life is affected by toxic substance in the ocean, they can adversely affect humans to the extent of causing food poisoning, and even deformation of unborn children (Parent 8). Therefore, to save marine animals, it is necessary to conserve the ocean.
In order to make this dream a reality, people need to adopt changes starting from their own culture of behavior. These include aspects, such as training themselves to use reusable bags while going for shopping. Furthermore, people should avoid littering garbage and chemicals used in their homes into the ocean. Parent (4) contends that people should be interested in making the ocean pure and not polluted (Parent 1).
The government has been a supportive mechanism in this initiative by ensuring they provide litter bins in the surrounding areas near the ocean to enable those at the beach to put litter in the correct place. The community should work hand in hand with the set up organizations that ensure the safety and maintenance of the ocean. The organizations should also set up classes to educate the community on ways to protect the ocean, and the dangers they expose themselves to when they do not take care of it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I do believe that if every person is to do all the right things in order to ensure the safety and maintenance of the ocean, people would be creating the best environment for themselves and their future generations.
Works Cited Parent, Jason. Ocean Pollution Sources, Effects, and Prevention. 2010. Electronic Print.
Traditional Forms of Media vs. the Modern Ones Essay cheap essay help
Of all the treasures in the world, information has always been the most valuable one. In the present-day world, its value should have dropped. However, weirdly enough, the “inflation” has never taken place. Because of the increasing importance of the new forms of media, the old ones can possibly become obsolete. Therefore, the question of which of these is more valuable and whether people should pick one of these or maintain the use of both arises.
Though the choice seems obviously be in the favor of the new media, there are a couple of issues to consider before passing the verdict. It is obvious that the modern forms of media namely, the online media, are very accessible. While there might be no place to buy newspapers or other media in the vicinity, the online media is always close at hand, except for the cases of power cuts. Hence, online sources are on par with the traditional media in terms of accessibility.
When it comes to reliability, the traditional media is in the winning position. However, the traditional media comes first by a very narrow edge. The key reason why it should be considered more reliable is that no one can edit it anonymously.
The final point of comparison between the two media types is the person delivering the information. At this stage, the two media types have a lot in common. As much as in online media, in newspapers and journals, the author’s name can be easily omitted or altered. Hence, the traditional media seems to have more potential.
Therefore, the rivalry between the traditional forms of media and the recently invented ones is obvious; moreover, it seems that the given contest is going to continue for a while and is highly likely to make one of the kinds of media disappear or, at least, become very unpopular. If comparing the viability of each of the forms of media in question, one must admit that the newest and the most recently developed forms of media, such as social networking or online blogs, are most likely to be the winner in the final battle of the media.
However, the given hypothesis does not mean that the older forms of media are going to be washed away by the sands of time. It can be suggested that the “survivors” are still going to be used, though by considerably less people than it used to be, and on certain occasions. Hence, none of the media forms will ever disappear completely, since there will always be the people who will prefer to use less popular one.
The Problem of Bullying Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Bullying is primarily based on intimidation and fear. The victim is physically assaulted or psychologically tortured to bring him or her to submission. In most of the cases, bullying involves verbal intimidation, physical assault and psychological torture. Victims of bullying are usually physically weak, socially disadvantaged, or both.
Since bullying takes various forms, it is not well defined by most laws (Ericson, 2001). However, it is obvious that most elements of bullying are criminalized in the United States. A person who is considered different among peers is likely to be a subject of bullying.
While bullying is common among small children and teenagers, it is also found at the workplace. Supervisors and colleagues at the workplace may bully subordinates and other people who are not necessarily junior to them (Zapf
Gender Studies: Advertisement and Gender Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Advertisement is considered by many people to be the most ‘actual’ method or approach of communicating through the media. As a result of this, it is important to analyze the qualities that are expected of a woman, according to the way she is represented in advertisements.
Barthel Diane explicitly described in “A Gentleman and a Consumer” that the quality that is expected of a woman, according to the way she is represented in advertisements is the reflection of their values, wants, needs and beliefs.
In the field of advertising women, appearance has traditionally been in a limited number of stereotype roles. Women’s roles frequently entail being women first, that is, women take part in limited roles limited to their gender. These include being viewed as a sex object (the image of the slim, sexually seductive, scantily clad figure) in their relationships with men, and as emotional and unpredictable being.
Furthermore, Barthel Diane described that the qualities that are expected of a woman, according to the way she is represented in advertisements are sexiness, glamour, and a comfortable life (Barthel 1983).
The qualities expected of a woman from advertising perspective are to be desirable in terms of what they look like, not what they think or do. They (women) encourage a positive satisfaction and even egotistical attentiveness (Barthel 1983).
Ultimately, the woman is the attention getter and thus the reason for the sale becomes the woman and not the product. This state of affairs of using women in advertising is due to the present society which promotes materialism above all else and has no equal qualms in treating women as objects which could result in higher sales.
Works Cited Barthel, Diane. “A Gentleman and a Consumer: A Sociological Look at Man at His Best.” Boston: Bedford Books, 1983. Print.
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The ethical and legal guiding principle Essay essay help online free
It is crucial for a supervisor to develop and enhance the professional competence of the intern through correction and guidance. Because the intern is sincere and motivated, a good supervisor will soon turn the weak points of the incompetent intern into strengths.
The ethical and legal guiding principle see supervised clinical experience as a prerequisite for competency and credentials. However, clinical competence alone is not enough for supervisory competence. Due to the motivation of the intern, it is only a matter of time before he or she grasps the rules of the game and becomes able to perform to the satisfaction of the supervisor.
However, the supervisor should be ready to offer positive criticism where the intern is not doing as expected. The supervisor benefits when the intern is able to learn from the experience of the exposed supervisor and integrate the new knowledge with what was learnt in class. A good working relationship between the supervisor and the intern usually yields very good results and leads to a high level of knowledge accumulation within a short time by the intern.
Although it is paramount that interns who are in sensitive areas like the medical field are not allowed to do mistakes, it is crucial to allow the intern time to improve their skills and gain new knowledge.
However, the amount of time will depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to motivation, degree and frequency of errors among others. It may take a few days if the task at hand is simple to several weeks if the task is complex. But again, it will depend if the action in which the intern is making mistakes is severe as to warrant immediate or quick removal from contact with clients.
The show titled, “mom before Dr.Phil” in Youtube shows a family dealing with teen pregnancy. The main character of the show is Emily who wants to be a teen mother. Her mother, Jeanie supports her decision to keep the baby while her step father, Charles, is against this idea.
Emily’s younger sister thinks that although Emily is too young to be a mother, if given support, she may end up raising a child well. According to Dr. Phil, statistics indicate that most of the teen mothers end up poor as a result of dropping out of school. Emily’s mother does not believe that statistics always predict the truth as she talks of her background whereby she was successfully raised by a teen mother.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is despite her parents forcing her mother to give her up for adoption. Dr. Phil’s instant decision and advice to the mother is to offer the child for adoption. He sees this as good for the child who will grow in a complete family having a father and mature parents. According to the Doctor, a child without a father is more likely to end up poor and in prison, than a child with a father. Therefore, Dr. Phil advocates for adoption of the baby.
This show by Dr.Phil does not address the whole issue and is therefore not very helpful to the young mother. For example, the show does not go to the root cause of why Emily is engaged in teen sex. Was it as a result of lack of parental love? Emotional turmoil of the expectant young girl is not taken into account. However, the show wants to portray the picture that giving up the child for adoption will make all people in the family happy.
Feng Shui: Does it work in modern times? Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Fung Shui originates from the ancient China and is a philosophy of a harmonious coexistence of humans and the Mother Nature. Feng is the Chinese word for wind while Shui is the Chinese word for water (Montenegro). The Chinese believe that these two components of nature are instrumental in the establishment of good health (Montenegro). Consequently, good health and affluence are because of good Feng Shui while bad health and misfortunes denotes bad Feng Shui (Montenegro).
The idea is concerned with the surroundings as well as the constitution and interiors of buildings (Montenegro). They say, building constructed in a good landscape bring good fortunes while the opposite is true. The ancient Chinese believed that the effects of Feng Shui influence the location of one’s home and they may experience good or bad fortunes.
Good fortune included things like good health, joyful relationships, and abundance of food and economic muscles (Montenegro). On the other hand, bad fortunes included things like sickness, death, scarcity, and distress among other things. They believed that, by occupying a home that is located in a landscape that has a bad Feng Shui, it would attract bad fortune and vice versa.
It was an ancient Chinese belief that the study of water and wind can help the human race to create and achieve health, wealth, fame and fortune (Montenegro). This ancient philosophy concentrates on the balancing of the environment and Chi is a vital component of this study (Montenegro). Chi means the vital life force of energy.
On that note, it is important to note that Feng Shui is a process of maintaining a good environment for Chi to function properly. In traditional explanation of Feng Shui, Chi is protected from being dispersed by the wind as well as retaining it with water (Emmons). This is how the philosophy balances the environment creating better conditions for human existence.
The concept of this balance is as follows: Chi is an energy flow and needs to be in circulation for the society to benefit from it. Consequently, its protection from dispersion by wind comes from barriers such as trees and mountains are vital to keep Chi contained. Having a good Chi in one’s location signified well-being (Emmons). Water, on the other hand, holds Chi together but, again, to avoid stagnation, the water must be flowing to achieve favorable Chi (Emmons).
The best description of Chi is as the soul or better still or as one’s destiny as the Chinese saw it (Emmons). It can have mass and sometimes can lack mass hence the complexity of describing the exact form of Chi. In today’s environment, people may discredit the existence of Chi but looking at the current philosophical world, it exists even in the 21st century. The three types of Chi, which included the heavenly luck, the earth luck, and the man luck, are true to date (Emmons).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a modern setting, the heavenly luck is what they call birth luck in China. This includes the things one is born with, that give him or her advantage over other people. The second Chi, which is the Earth’s luck, in the modern setting, is the advantages the environment you are in. In addition, the third chi, which is the man luck, is the luck you create for yourself through your personal efforts.
This describes the three Chi in a modern context thus proving that the philosophy still works and has passed the test time to be true. The human Chi or man Chi is however the most important. The human luck greatly depends on the choices one makes and the actions he takes in his or her life. This shows that Feng Shui actually works but there has not been a scientist proves to substantiate the philosophy.
However, Feng Shui is an act of faith and only through faith; we can realize its full potential and experience it as well. There are practitioners in the 21st century that specialize in professional consultation on one’s Chi. These professionals offer services such as mapping out Chi flows of a person’s environment (Montenegro). Feng Shui is all about the surroundings and, to start the process of achieving a positive environment, “Sheng Chi”, one must start by tidying their environment.
The principle of Sheng Chi finds its influence mainly through beauty. The opposite of having an excellent setting is the Sha Chi, which means repulsive smell (Montenegro). Sha Chi promotes a negative energy and is a component of bad Sheng Chi as taught by the Chinese philosophers. The principle of Feng Shui teaches that small things or events around us influence our lives greatly more than we think. That is why, the philosophy deals with the environment and surrounding.
The principle of the effect of small things in our lives as the Feng Shui teachings are comparable to the principle of water drops on a rock. Drops of water may not have a great impact on a hard rock but with time, they build a hole in the same rock. This is the basic principle of the Feng Shui and it works even in the 21st century (Montenegro). This is reality.
Feng Shui teaches that disorganization drags energy and through the negative influence of objects around us, and things that invoke a negative thought in our brains (Montenegro). Feng Shui teaches that things and objects surrounding us possess a form of energy and that they influence us either negatively or positively (March). Today’s philosophers are teaching the same although in a modernized language.
The modern psychologist is encouraging people to cheer up and surround themselves with positive materials, which is Feng Shui the 21st century version. Bottom line, although it may seem like it is superstitious to practice Feng Shui, its philosophies are purely logic and nothing magical (Montenegro).
We will write a custom Essay on Feng Shui: Does it work in modern times? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the body of this research work, we can see that the existence of the Chinese work of philosophy is still alive and in motion even in this advanced generation. Feng Shui used in the ancient China and is still used in modern China as well as in other countries around the globe (Montenegro). Therefore, to answer the question whether Feng Shui works in modern day, yes it does work in the modern days and is still in use.
Feng Shui relates greatly with the Japanese Yin and Yang. Feng Shui shares the same fundamental principles of Yin ‘negative, dark, wet, and feminine’ and Yang ‘Positive, bright, active hot and masculine’ (Li). Both relate philosophically as they share similar ideology of having a harmonious balance between humans and their environment.
Works Cited Emmons, Charles. “Hong Kong’s Feng Shui: Popular Magic in a Modern Urban Setting.” Journal of Popular Culture, 26.1 (1992): 47-48. Print.
Li, Liu. The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. London, UK: Cambridge University Press (2004). Print.
March, Andrew. An Appreciation of Chinese Geomancy. The Journal of Asian Studies, 27.2. (1968): 253–267. Print.
Montenegro, Marcia. “Feng Shui” New Dimensions in Design.” Christian Research Journal. 26.1 (2003): 26-29. Print.
Kinship among the Inuit of the Arctic Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help
Kinship systems among cultures that depend on foraging and horticultural activities are usually very well formulated. Foraging and horticultural based societies are often faced with harsh climatic and environmental conditions.
Such realities make it necessary to have a strong kinship system in which all members of the group take care of one another. One of such cultures is that of the Arctic Inuit. This paper will explore the kinship system of the Inuit, and how it affects its members’ behaviors. The kinship system of the Inuit and its effects will then be compared to those of my society.
The Inuit people have their home in the Arctic area of North America. The culture of the Inuit people also known as the Eskimo is unique mostly because they have managed to live and survive in a cold desert. Their territory is vast and covers several continents along the Arctic. Kinship among the Inuit is mostly emphasized on the father’s side.
However, in some instances kinship on the mother’s side can be considered. This bilateral mode of tracing kinship is not very common among the Inuit. The Inuit live in groups consisting of nuclear families. This family consists of a father, a mother, and their offspring. A group will therefore include an extended family. This family is mostly on the paternal side although sometimes it stretches to the maternal side. In the Inuit’s kinship system, there are usually strong ties between sons and their elderly fathers.
The kinship system of the Inuit has a direct impact on their behavior. For instance, the Inuit do not own any property. The only property owned by an Inuit includes a few personal belongings and tools. This usually eases tension between potential property owners and enhances kinship. Properties such as land and houses are owned collectively. Another behavior of the Inuit that is affected by their kinship system is their hunting pattern.
Usually, members of one band consisting of about fifteen families come together during this exercise (Nowak
Analyzing the Relationship between Frustration college essay help
Although the phenomena of human anger and aggression have been of scientific interest for many years (Lange 60), academics and practitioners argue that they have gained particular prominence in recent years, given the high incidents of school and domestic related violence (Fives et al 199). Today, more than ever, mainstream media outlets are often flooded with reports of people who go berserk when exposed to minimal provocation, while others go to the extent of murdering their childhood friends and workmates in range.
A recent trend observed by researchers is that frustrating experiences, especially among the youth, are increasingly acting as predictors to aggressive behavior rather than consequents to aggression (Harenski et al 402). The interest of this topic, therefore, stems from the need to explicate why frustration is increasingly playing the role of predictor to aggressive behavior.
As acknowledged in the literature, “…decades of research on the etiology of individual differences in overt aggressive behavior have pointed to the importance of temperament and interplay of biological and environmental factors” (Deater-Deckard et al 992).
This assertion points out to three possible predictors of overt aggression – genetic factors, environmental influences, as well as negative affectivity (e.g., frustration or anger). Some environmental influences, such as lack of understanding from parents and peers, disciplinary issues in school as well as conflict of interests, have been known to enhance aggressive predispositions in children and adolescents (Fives et al 200).
For example, an adolescent who feels that he or she is not understood by parents may engage in aggressive behavior triggered by the immediate environmental influence of not been understood. However, available literature suggests that such aggression is reactive and spontaneous, implying that it is not planned (Lange 60).
Another strand of literature reveals that “…psychopaths show high levels of reactive aggression due to their increased susceptibility for experiencing frustration” (Harenski et al 401). These authors further posit that the enhanced vulnerability to frustrating experiences originates from cognitive deficiencies in stimulus-reinforcement learning and response reversal, leading to repetitive unproductive goal-directed actions that are frustrating to the psychopath.
It may therefore be argued that normal persons experiencing lapses in their cognition, particularly after injuring their ventromedial prefrontal cortex, may be prone to ‘acting out of character’ after exposure to frustrating experiences, leading to aggression (Harenski et al 401. Such individuals, it seems, are never able to apply behavior learnt in childhood to control the situation due to abrupt cognitive impairments in their stimulus-reinforcement mechanism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The discussed instances have demonstrated how frustration is rapidly becoming a predictor to aggression rather than its consequent. It is important to note that aggression has far-reaching ramifications on the social life of the individual concerned as well as the society he or she resides in. Reactive aggression triggered by environmental incidences not only makes social interactions with significant others impossible, but also acts as a barrier to inclusion in social activities affecting the community (Deater-Deckard et al 995).
Parents of aggressive children live in fear and record heightened stress levels than the general population because they are not sure how their children will behave in different environmental scenarios (Dill et al 359). It is therefore important to look into this topic in more detail, with the view to develop interventions that could be used to assist people faced with this type of aggression cope with their frustrating experiences without reaching a breaking point.
Works Cited Deater-Deckard, Kirby, Charles Beekman, Zhe Wang, Jungmeen Kim, Stephen Petrill, Lee Thompson and Laura DeThorne. “Approach/Positive Anticipation, Frustration/Anger, and Overt Aggression in Childhood.” Journal of Personality. 78.3 (2010): 991-1010. Academic Search Premier. Web.
Dill, Judy C., and Craig A. Anderson. “Effects of Frustration Justification on Hostile Aggression.” Aggressive Behavior. 25.5 (1995): 359-369. Academic Search Premier. Web.
Fives, Christopher J., Grace Kong, J. Ryan Fuller and Raymond DiGiuseppe. “Anger, Aggression, and Irrational Beliefs in Adolescents.” Cognitive Therapy and Research. 35.3 (2011): 199-208. Academic Search Premier. Web.
Harenski, Carla L.,
The Magic of the Family Meal Essay essay help: essay help
In her article The Magic of the Family Meal, Nancy Gibbs discusses the importance of family meals. In particular, the author argues that they can improve the relations between parents and their children. Overall, it is possible to agree with this argument; however, one should bear in mind that family meals bring benefits only in those cases when children sense that parents genuinely care about them. Provided that this feeling is not present, they are not likely to affect the wellbeing of families.
Overall, Nancy Gibbs provides convincing evidence that confirms the importance of family meals. The writer believes that they can be viewed as civilizing moments during which children learn behavioral norms and values. Moreover, in this way parents can learn more about the possible problems that children can face in school. So, these experiences can be important for every member of the family. The main role is that they help to promote communication between parents and children
Nevertheless, this effect can be achieved provided that parents know what their children value and what they need. For instance, such meals may not necessarily help families in which domestic violence takes place very often. Similarly, they will be useless in those cases, when parents constantly quarrel with one another or vent their spleen on children. Under such circumstances, children will only avoid family meals in every possible way. This is the main issue that parents should keep in mind.
So, family meals are important for the socialization of children and their wellbeing. Yet, they may not bring any improvements if there is certain conflict between parents. So, people should not assume that such events will automatically help families.
Social Media: A Force for Political and Human Rights Changes Worldwide Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Social Media and Politics
Social Media and Human Rights
Introduction The media has great power in society since it informs people, provides the basis upon which people make sense of new information presented to them, and focuses attention on particular issues.
For this reason, traditional media such as TV, radio, and newspaper have influenced the society greatly over the past century. However, with the huge evolution of technology and new media over the past two decades, people no longer depend entirely on traditional media. People are more skeptical about news and advertisements reported in traditional media.
Unlike traditional media in which people are only allowed to read and listen , new media offer a variety of communication channels in which new media users are allowed to interact with events and news instantly. In this essay, I will discuss the effectiveness of traditional media and social media, and how social media has a better participation in changing the world in terms of politics and human rights.
Social Media and Politics Social media acts as a powerful agent for change when it is used to encourage people to fight against social injustices. Historically, the traditional mass media has been used as an agent of change with professional journalists acting as the society’s watchdog.
These professions have brought to the public’s attention issues that need to be dealt with and called for action. However, this great power of the traditional media suffers from too much government scrutiny and media houses that are anti-government can be penalized in authoritarian states.
Social media provides a more potent tool for encouraging people to fight against injustices. Social media can be used to encourage popular uprisings, as was the case in the Arab Spring. In Tunisia, the civil unrest was organized through social networking sites that encouraged people to protest against government oppression (Alqudsi-ghabra 154). Political change was achieved by using social media to mobilize people to fight against government injustices.
Social Media promotes political activism in people who would otherwise be apolitical. Many social media forums encourage individuals to be politically active with people being persuaded to take part in activities such as online protests or join certain online causes in order to make their voices heard. People who visit social media spaces for entertainment purposes may be drawn into discussion forums where people share opinions on political issues therefore sparking in them an interest in political discourse (Himelboim 95).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opponents of social media as a tool for political change assert that this media promotes low-risk activism that does not motivate people to make a real sacrifice for their cause (Joseph 150). This argument has some validity since some people just propose to support certain ideals through their computer but do not take any action towards achieving the ideals.
However, social media helps people to obtain information on the political status of their country and start a debate on the topic (Joseph 152). Political change can then be catalyzed because of these functions of social media. Himelboim notes that the political awareness of people is greatly enhanced through the political discussions that take place through social media (93).
Social media helps the audience to access information that is free from bias. While traditional media sources claim that the information they provide is objective in nature, this is not always the case since the private bias of the journalist of the media house influences how the reporting is done.
Traditional media reports are structured in such a way that the recipient will form a certain pre-determined opinion on the subject. The report of scandals by a high-ranking politician may appear objective but the analysis of the issue provided by the journalist will be highly subjective. To make the matters worse, traditional media is driven by self-interest such as making a profit and expressing the sentiments favoured by the corporations that sponsor them.
The CCHR notes that new media promotes citizen journalism where individuals report events instead of waiting for the traditional media to give the information to the public (21). While the reporter’s opinion and attitude will color their reporting even in social media, the effect of this bias is tempered by the availability of many social media outlets. The audience can therefore form their own opinions on the issue based on the many different sources reporting the same thing.
Traditional media can be used as a tool of propaganda by tyrannical governments. In most cases, traditional media houses are centralized in nature with a well-defined chain of command (Joseph 151). While this centralized leadership structure is a major strength of traditional media, it poses a significant problem.
It is possible for an outside party to dictate on the reporting of the traditional media by simply commanding or corrupting the top management to express certain ideas through the media. When used for propaganda, traditional media polarizes people and makes them take stands that they may not have taken without being persuaded to. This misuse of the media is best illustrated through the case of Nazi Germany.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Media: A Force for Political and Human Rights Changes Worldwide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hitler and his subordinates made use of traditional media to advance unpopular ideas and encourage hatred of the Jewish community. Social media is not prone to this governmental manipulation since it is run in a decentralized fashion. Anyone who wishes to use it for manipulation would have to corrupt so many independent parties to achieve this end. In most cases, the people engaged in social media are unknown to the government forces and they can therefore report without any governmental influence.
Social media is free from most of the political restrictions that traditional media suffers from. In countries experiencing authoritarian rule, the government keeps a close watch on the media outlets and regulates the information released to the public. Alqudsi-ghabra observes that in the authoritarian regime of Tunisia, the government closely controlled the traditional media (151).
Traditional media outlets are forced to stick to the regulations and avoid any inappropriate content. This is not the case with social media, which is characterized by high mobility and lack of a well-defined network. Social media activists can therefore operate outside of government control and foster greater political changes in their country.
The interactive nature of Social media gives individuals a platform through which they can engage in conversation with others and therefore forms political opinions. Traditional media is characterized by being one-way; with the audience being passive recipients of information doled out to them by the reporters.
Himelboim elaborates that “Information flows in one direction via traditional media (newspapers, television), allowing audiences only to consume information” (94). In this kind of relationship between the information provider and recipient, critical through is not encouraged since there is no meaningful exchange.
Social media acts as a facilitator of mass conversation among the many receivers of the information and this leads to meaningful debates. Himelboim states that online social media is gaining popularity as a public forum for political discussions with more people consuming political content using this medium (93). Joseph notes that it is this social media attribute that has caused some governments to take steps to monitor, limit, and even block social media forums (155).
Social Media and Human Rights Social media can report more freely on human rights issues in a country. Historically, the society has relied on traditional media to bring human right issues to the public’s attention. By publicizing human rights violations, the media has helped elicit reactions and positive changes.
However, this reporting by the traditional media is greatly regulated by legal obstacles that sometimes make it impossible to address human rights violations by the incumbent government. Social media can exploit the lack of regulations to highlight human rights issues. Alqudsi-ghabra corroborates this point by revealing that a creative use of the lack of legal obstacles can help journalists tackle issues that would never be addressed by the traditional media (153).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media: A Force for Political and Human Rights Changes Worldwide by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Social media has provided the means through which oppressed people can highlight their problems and gain the support and assistance of the international community. Some human rights violations occur since the victims do not have the power to speak out on their own behalf.
While the traditional media has in the past tried to give voice to the victims, it could only deal with few cases. Social media is available to most people and they can articulate their own issues and solicit for action from the relevant authorities (the Cambodian Center for Human Rights 3). By using social media tools such as tweets that reach a global audience, local activists can expose the human rights violations going on in their country to the international community.
The timely nature of social media tools makes them very useful for the task of monitoring human rights issues. Most human rights violations occur in secret and the victims keep suffering in silence.
By the time the violations are made public by traditional media, very little can be done and there may not be evidence of the violations. This point is reinforced by Joseph who observes that in 1982, “the Syrian army apparently massacred tens of thousands of residents of the town of Hama in roughly one month and the world did not learn of the killings until much later” (154).
Social media assist to overcome these limitations of traditional media by providing real time information from activists or even the victims of human rights abuses. For example, the tweet feeds of a jailed Bahrainian human right activist’s daughter provide a window into the human rights issues in the country at the present time (Joseph 153).
Social media assists in the prosecution of human rights abusers. Traditionally, the perpetrators of human rights abuse have been able to avoid facing justice because of lack of evidence. The words of the victims in many cases are the only evidence available. The CCHR asserts that while evidence is of great importance, many human right cases only rely on the testimony of witnesses (3).
Without more evidence, the case may be dismissed and the human rights abusers walk free. Social media helps remedy the situation by allowing witnesses to document and publish the evidence of human rights abuses as the crimes happen. This video or photographic evidence offers solid proof and it can be used in the criminal justice system.
Conclusion This paper set out to argue that social media is a more effective in promoting political and human rights activism than traditional media. The impact of social media on society is quickly increasing even as a marked decline in traditional media’s reach is experienced. This paper has highlighted how social media gives citizens the opportunity for political and human rights participation.
It has noted that social media does not suffer from problems such as government censorship, propaganda, and media bias that are inherent in traditional media. Social media should therefore be promoted in all countries since it increases participation in changing the world in terms of politics and human rights.
Works Cited Alqudsi-ghabra, Taghreed. “Creative Use of Social Media in the Revolutions of Tunisia, Egypt
The Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
I have recently had a chance to take a look at the famous Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings. Its construction was completed in 1941 and now it is regarded as one of the most famous attractions in Houston (Reynolds 131). This architectural complex can be discussed in connection with the topics raised during the class, namely globalization, gender, empire, orientalism, and identity. On the whole, the analysis of these questions can give people better understanding of how American culture evolved.
Moreover, this example demonstrates that culture often transcends national borders. Moreover, it is closely related to the norms and values existing in a certain society. These are the main issues that should be discussed in this paper. In my opinion, this architectural masterpiece can be of greatest to people who want to have a better idea about Houston and the history of this city.
First of all, the Esperson Buildings shows that architecture transcends national borders. It cannot be limited to only one country, region or culture (Reynolds 131). In part, it is the result of the globalization process. This is the term which is used to describe the movement of people or ideas across national borders. This concept can also be defined as international integration (Marter 549). It is often argued that this process began in the late twentieth century.
Nevertheless, this integration began much earlier, at least in the early nineteenth century. For example, this architectural complex was partly inspired by Italian Renaissance that was developed in the fifteenth century (Reynolds 131). In particular, one can speak about the use of such elements as columns, dome, as well as terraces (Reynolds 131). Similar buildings can be found in Rome, Venice, Florence or other Italian cities.
Nevertheless, this architectural complex can be viewed as a traditional American skyscraper. The very idea of a skyscraper emerged, because people had to find more effective uses of land (Reynolds 131). It should be noted that the Esperson Buildings were constructed by at the time when many architects preferred such a style as post-modernism. According to it, a designer or an artist can freely combine different national styles (Reynolds 131).
His creative freedom should not be limited by any formal boundaries (Reynolds 131). On the whole, the Esperson Buildings show that art is created when different ethnic cultures interact with one another (Reynolds 131). This is one of the reasons why this architectural complex stands out among other buildings in Texas. So, to a great extent, this architectural complex is also the result of the globalization process.
The second topic that should be examined is gender, especially the stereotypes about gender and the role of women in society. In this case, one can speak about the importance of Mellie Esperson who initiated the construction of this architectural complex. It should be taken into account she was one of the few women in the United States who played an important role in the business world of Houston (The Mellie Esperson Documentary Project unpaged).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To a great extent, Mellie Esperson was able to break popular stereotypes according to which women could not participate in business activities or create successful projects (The Mellie Esperson Documentary Project unpaged). Not every person, who lives in Houston, knows that it was Mellie Esperson who commissioned the construction of these buildings (The Mellie Esperson Documentary Project unpaged).
It seems that Mellie Esperson is different from the female characters who were discussed during the classes. For instance, one can mention such a character as Umm Hamida from the novel Midaq Alley. She is accustomed to the idea that women are dependent on men and she cannot understand why a woman can “remain single for so long” (Mahfouz 40). In his book Sea of Poppies, Amitav Ghosh also explores this theme.
In particular, he mentions women who care only about “shawls, jewelry, and jobs for their relatives” (44). The book Season of Migration to the North written by Tayeb Salih also describes the subservient position of women in the Sudanese society (8). Mellie Esperson would not be the role model for the characters described in these books.
Additionally, such as concept as an empire should also be discussed in the paper. In this context, the term empire should not be understood only as a powerful state that colonizes other countries or nations. It is also used to describe a powerful company or corporation.
These buildings were constructed for Niels Esperson who was a very successful entrepreneur in Houston and the entire Texas (Marter 549). To a great extent, this architectural complex was supposed to demonstrate the power and efficiency of corporate America (Marter 549). In this case, one can draw parallels between the contemporary urban landscape of America and Roman Empire. At that time, buildings had to reflect the power and greatness of the Empire.
The same thing can be said about the Esperson Buildings that had to illustrate the greatness of the United States and the rapid growth of its economy. So, one can say that architecture often reflects the political and economic situation in the country and its development in the course of history. This is one of the main issues that should be taken into account.
Furthermore, it is vital to speak about such an issue as the relationship between Western and Eastern cultures. The differences between these cultures have always been important for architects, writers as well as artists (Said 11; Chen 8). Very often, they are believed to be in conflict with one another. Additionally, in many cases, the role of Oriental culture is overlooked by Western scholars (Said 11). The Esperson Buildings can be viewed as an example of Western architecture.
We will write a custom Essay on The Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The oriental elements are not present in this architectural complex. Overall, its influence is not noticeable. This is one of the traits that immediately attract attention to these buildings that represent distinctly Western art that is based primarily on the Italian tradition of architecture. This is one of the trends that emerged in American architecture in the first half of the twentieth century.
The relationship between Western and Eastern cultures is explored in the books studied in the class. For instance, one can mention Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North. In particular, one should focus on such a character as Mustafa who tries to reconcile his Western education and Sudanese cultural heritage, for instance, when he secretly recites poem in English, but does not to admit that he studied in England (Salih 23).
On the whole, the Esperson Buildings can be regarded as a great example of the post-modern American architecture. It shows that works of art can incorporate different styles and movements that could be developed in different countries. Moreover, these buildings suggest that in many cases, people should not rely too much on popular gender stereotypes.
Additionally, one should bear in mind that modern architecture reflects the values and norms of a certain society, especially the need for efficiency and the willingness to demonstrate ones power or strength. This is why the Esperson Buildings are worth attention.
Works Cited Chen, La. Tradition and Modernity: A Humanist View, London: BRILL, 2001. Print.
Ghosh, Amitav. Sea of Poppies, London: John Murray, 2008. Print.
Mahfouz, Naguib. Midaq Alley, New York: Transworld, 2011. Print.
Marter, Joan. The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art: Aalto, Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Niels and Mellie Esperson Buildings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reynolds, Richard. Texas Then
Introduction of Information Technology to Canadian Public Administration Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The use of the Nolan Model to eliminate information lag
Technology conversion and reforms
Managers’ role in implementing information systems
Introduction In pursuit of implementing an information technology, there are common aspects, such as information lag, that arise and are sometimes inevitable considering that the information system of technology is implemented in an environment that is not used to information technology. Such information lag was evidenced in the city of Montreal. In order to run various information systems, the aspect of management of the very information is very crucial in such a case.
As a matter of fact, information lag can be described as a delay created by the system before the information is made available to the end-users. In this case, the system is described as ineffective as it does not fulfill its main goal within the given organization. Therefore, improving information management within the city was the primary objective. In such a case, the Nolan model was critical in improving the situation. The use of the Nolan model in eliminating the information lag below is discussed (Watkins, 2012).
The use of the Nolan Model to eliminate information lag The first phase of Nolan model is the initiation stage. At this stage, the director of information technology is to introduce the information system technology as a new concept to the city. The information system should prove that it aims to ensure there is a better management approach to information, and as such it requires new technology to be implemented.
During the initiation stage, the director of information systems should create awareness among various departments involved. In addition, information technology experts must be sourced or availed to oversee the implementation of the information system. A team of information technology personnel should undergo training to be able later to perform an information technology planning. This planning entails identifying applications to be used to ensure the system is effective in terms of time and cost reduction.
The second phase is known as a contagion stage. The contagion stage eliminates the existing information system. Apparently, this oversees opposition from many of the employees, who feel alienated by the new system. The new system may lead to adoption of new and complex applications. Consequently, running of these applications requires professionals to be employed. During this stage, the management plays a critical role in explaining the significance of a new system to the staff.
The third phase of the Nolan model is known as the control stage. During this stage, information lag is eliminated by ensuring that there are check-ups of time and cost spent on the system. For example, a need to control the cost of operating various computers and networks becomes of paramount importance.
Then control improves the flexibility of data to be processed. Nevertheless, this stage ensures that a management control policy or mechanism is implemented to eliminate end-user’s frustrations. The mechanisms include central controls to ensure compatibility of applications, mostly done by IT professionals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fourth stage of the model is integration stage. This stage ensures that the new system is integrated with the already existing one. Moreover, the system must be user-friendly in order to promote control. By the onset of this stage, data processing is harnessed, and accountability in information management is evidenced.
The fifth phase is known as data administration stage. This stage emphasizes more on managing data that is being processed. This stage ensures that information is used according to its purpose. Moreover, data processing and storage are performed at this stage.
The sixth and the final stage is called maturity stage. This stage gives a general reflection of information management from its well-organized information systems. The organization starts to use information in implementing its key strategies. Moreover, decision making is influenced by available information.
For the above to be achievable, an information technology learning program can be used to ensure there is a smooth transition of a new system with a co-operation.
Technology conversion and reforms Technology conversion is an effective tool in implementing reforms. In order to engage the public in a broader perspective, the availability of information should be ensured. New technology systems like Internet have harnessed interaction between humans, and as such they can be used in the Montreal case study.
In such a case, the use of blogs and website is very important. In the case of the public enterprise, making available information that relates to enterprise is undeniably important. This offers unforeseen opportunities that many people would not have been given unless the information available. As a matter of fact, these will make the elimination of the information lag justifiable, considering the benefits that will emanate from the use of information system management.
Managers’ role in implementing information systems It is important that the management department fulfills its critical role in ensuring information systems are implemented. In this case, management responsibility in planning, controlling and implementing is critical (Rothwell, 2001). Moreover, managers are supposed to influence other staff members to accept that information systems are beneficial. Many of the employees are supposed to be assured of their job security. In this case, managers should use their skills to resolve crisis and influence the employees.
We will write a custom Case Study on Introduction of Information Technology to Canadian Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Rothwell, W., J. (2001). Workplace learning and performance roles: The manager and the changer leader. Washington, WA: American Society for Trading and Development.
Watkins, J. (2012). Information technology, organizations and people: Transformations in the UK retail financial services. New York, NY: Routledge
Comparison of Empathy in the Novels “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” and “Flight” Essay best college essay help
Empathy is one of the things that distinguish a human being from other species. This concept can be understood as the ability of an individual to recognize and understand the feelings and emotions of another person.
In some cases, the word empathy implies that a person can accept the humanity of others despite social, economic, or political differences. This paper is aimed at discussing two novels, namely The Reluctant Fundamentalist written by Mohsin Hamid and Flight by Sherman Alexie. These novels have recently attracted much attention of critics and scholars.
One of the main themes that the authors explore is that the ability to empathize can often be impeded by the borders of race, nationality or culture. Moreover, it can be limited by the memories of violence, humiliation, and loss. Nevertheless, both Mohsin Hamid and Sherman Alexie create protagonists who can transcend these borders. These authors focus on the idea that empathy is essential for the fulfilling life of an individual. The writers also undermine popular stereotypes about the behavior of an individual.
For instance, Mohsin Hamid shows that the need to achieve success does not deprive people of their ability to feel loyalty to ones country or fellow countrymen. In turn, Sherman Alexie demonstrates that different worldviews and ideologies do not necessarily separate people and make them hostile to one another. These are the main questions that should be examined in more detail.
Special attention should be paid to the narrative techniques that the writers employ. They rely on the first-person narration which is particular suitable in those cases, when the author wants to focus on the feelings, attitudes, and emotions of the protagonist, rather than people with whom he/she interacts.
For instance, Sherman Alexie starts his novel with the following introduction. ‘Call me Zits. Everybody calls me Zits. That’s not my real name, of course. My real name isn’t important’ (Alexie 1). To a great extent, this is an allusion to the famous novel Moby Dick by Herman Melville. Similarly, at the beginning of Mohsin Hamid’s novel, Changez introduces himself to the reader and identifies oneself as a Pakistani.
Overall, this form of narrative voice is important because it implies that the major characters may be very subjective when evaluating the behavior of other people and their own actions. Overall, such form of story-telling is often regarded as unreliable narration. It is possible to say that subjectivity is one of the things that prevent a person from being empathetic because he/she is unable to place oneself in the position of others or look at the problem from a different perspective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This statement is particularly applicable to Zits and his unjustified hatred toward others. Moreover, they tend to focus on their own experiences and may disregard the feelings of others. So, extreme subjectivity is one the main challenges that both Changez and Zits have to overcome.
There is another thing that Zits and Changez have in common. They are aware that they are different from the majority of the population since they are perceived as non-white people. They also understand that they may not be fully accepted by others. This is one of the things that the protagonists are keenly aware of.
For instance, Changez knows that as a Pakistani he had to face more challenges when he was applying to Princeton (Hamid 4). In turn, Zits also understands that he has a complex identity. In particular, the protagonist says, “I’m not really Irish or Indian. I’m a blank sky, a human solar eclipse” (Alexie 5). He cannot identify with any particular group in part because he has never felt the care of his mother or father (Hamid 3).
This lack of care is the underlying cause of his animosity toward others. On the whole, the problem of identity is important for each of these characters. Changez wants to become a full member of the new society, but at the same time, he is attached to his Pakistani heritage.
In turn, Zits is convinced that the community in which he leaves is hostile to him, in part because his father was a Native American. Thus, the concept of identity plays an important role in each of these novels. In both cases, the characters understand that they are different from others. This is one of the main things that should be taken into account by the readers of these novels.
One can identify other barriers that can make empathy very difficult for the protagonists. For instance, Changez has to be competitive in the workplace, and this competition prompts an individual to focus on his/her strengths, but it is difficult for him/her to be sentimental or compassionate.
On the whole, the author shows that Changez’ need to achieve success as a professional and his willingness to integrate himself into the society can often impede his ability to empathize with other human beings. Changez has a chance to climb a career ladder in the firm but he eventually rejects this opportunity and returns to his homeland. So, one should remember about this decision when discussing this character. This is the critical moment in the development of his character and his attitudes toward others.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison of Empathy in the Novels “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” and “Flight” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his turn, Zits is afflicted by the memories of abuse both at home and in school. He cannot expect anything good from other people, especially from adults. Moreover, this boy is keenly aware of the social inequality that has become typical of the modern American society. For instance, Zits says, “I hate my country. There are so many rich people who do not share” (Alexie 26). It should be noted that this boy frequently uses the word hate, and it is directed against various social, ethnic, or religious groups.
The protagonist does not explain why he feels in such a way. He cannot even accept the possibility that other people can face the same misfortunes. Certainly, one has to admit that this boy has endured a lot of suffering, but he cannot accept that other people do not deserve his hatred. So, at the beginning of the novel, empathy is not typical of him and he even tries to reject it. This is how the character behaves at the very beginning.
Nevertheless, Mohsin Hamid and Sherman Alexie show that an individual can overcome these obstacles that prevent a person from being empathetic. To some extent, they are able to recognize the humanity of other people and see that they can encounter the same problems. However, their empathy takes different forms.
When speaking about Changez, one should first speak about the September 11 attacks and increasing suspicion of Pakistani people. This is why Changez begins to empathize with his compatriots, especially when he notices that they can be treated unjustly. This is why he quits his job at a prestigious consulting firm and prefers to move back to Pakistan. On the whole, the behavior of this character undermines the so-called common sense story according to which an individual strives primarily for success.
Certainly, it is important for the wellbeing of a person, but he/she also wants to have a sense of belonging to a certain community. Without it the life of a person can hardly be fulfilling. This is one of the reasons why Changez chooses to highlight his Pakistani descent, for example, by growing his beard (Hamid 130).
Later, he decides to become a teacher in a Pakistani university, but he could have made a career in a prestigious American firm. This is how he deviates from the traditional common-sense story. Still, one should bear in mind that his empathy is primarily directed to his compatriots; Mohsin Hamid does not show that Changez can be equally compassionate toward people representing other nationalities or religions. So, his empathy still has national boundaries and to a great extent it is very limited.
The main protagonist of Flight also undergoes a dramatic change. Sherman Alexie is able to create a series of flashbacks during which Zits places himself in the position of other people. For example, he sees himself as a mute Indian boy, an Indian hunter, and most importantly the father of the protagonists. On the whole, these flashbacks demonstrate to him that his hatred leads only to self-destruction. He can see that other people can encounter the same problems or similar forms of injustice.
Thus, he can see the futility of violence and its adverse impacts on an individual. He understands that his deviant behavior, such as shooting can actually harm other people who have nothing to do with problems. So, in this way, Sherman Alexie was able to show how empathy could overcome such barriers as the memory of loss and the feeling of alienation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison of Empathy in the Novels “The Reluctant Fundamentalist” and “Flight” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Only when he comes to this conclusion, he finds the family where he can feel at rest. On the whole, Sherman Alexie has been able to show the transformation of the main character and this is one of his major achievements as a writer.
These novels tell the stories of people are different in terms of age, education, nationality, and cultural background. However, they struggle to find their way to empathy. The protagonist of Sherman Alexie’s novel is affected by alienation from others, abuse, and the feeling of loss. This is one of the reasons why he is obsessed with hatred, and the very idea of empathy is unacceptable to him. In his turn, Changez is affected by the need to achieve success and integrate himself into the society.
However, due to various external factors, the main characters realize that the ability to empathize is critical for the happiness of a human being. It gives a person a sense of belonging. This is one of the messages that Sherman Alexie and Mohsin Hamid try to convey. The main message that the writers try to convey is that political, cultural or national differences do not deprive a person of his/her right to empathy.
Works Cited Alexie, Sherman. Flight, New York: Grove Press, 2007. Print.
Hamid, Mohsin. The Reluctant Fundamentalist, New York: Harcourt, 2007. Print.
Sociology and Religion Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Sociological features of Religion
Sociology of Religion
Introduction Sociology and religion have significant relationships, as sociology is the study of human behaviors and interactions at the individual level or group level. On the other hand, religion is composed of a group of individuals having the same beliefs, values, and principles, and thus they influence one another and society in the development of social systems that hold people together.
Usually, sociology has two important aspects in the study of groups or individuals. First, sociology enhances understanding of group dynamics in terms of their functioning, nature, interaction, and individual differences. Secondly, sociology provides a way of understanding how a social group influences individuals and humanity in the society.
The process of socialization has enduring impact on one’s life because from birth to old age, social forces shape human behavior and societal beliefs, values, and principles. Fundamentally, religion comprises a group of people that share the same social dynamics and have the same influence on individuals and society, thus it is of great interest to sociologists. In exploring religion in society, this essay examines sociological assumptions and features with a view of observing the sociology of religion.
Sociological Assumptions The first sociological assumption is that an individual is a biological organism. As a biological organism, an individual has physiological needs, drives, potentials, and limitations that are subject to biological factors.
Essentially, biological factors can either limit or enhance the socializing influence of groups on individuals and society. In this case, religion is a group that has the capacity to socialize and influence biological factors of an individual. As religious beliefs, values, and principles differ from one religion to another, they have varied influence on individuals.
While some religions are liberals, others are very restrictive, thus they have a differential influence on the development of human behavior and social interactions. For example, a religion can have beliefs, values, and principles that encourage its members to segregate from the rest of society. The influence of causing segregation is central in sociology because it changes biological factors that determine human behavior in the society.
The second sociological assumption is that human beings have the ability to attach meanings and symbols to certain things that they associate with within their environments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the process of socialization, human beings build consensus on how to label or attach meanings and enhance communication. In religious circles, people can attach meanings to abstract concepts such as love, righteousness, wickedness, and happiness. Symbolization enables people to communicate effectively among group members without involving other people.
Moreover, symbolization enables people to communicate intricate meanings regarding religion given that different religions have different beliefs in which people can best present them symbolically. The use of symbols in religious activities allows people to internalize religious beliefs and gain a deep understanding on religious mysteries. Thus, the interpretation of religious symbols indicates maturity of religious growth for symbols have intricate meanings that enable believers to comprehend the essence of religion in their lives.
The third sociological assumption is that groups play a central role in human development because, through socialization, people can gain their human nature. If social groups do not exist in the society, people will not gain their human nature. As babies grow into adulthood, the experiences of socialization influence their development into humans, who have internalized societal values, principles, and beliefs that people hold in the society.
Normally, when children grow up, they acquire their behaviors from the immediate environment, which has significant influence in their lives, thus shaping their behaviors in society. In the aspect of religion, children grow up while internalizing religious beliefs, values, and principles, which shape them to behave as dominant members of the religions. Therefore, a religious group has considerable impact in humanization of people through the process of socialization.
The fourth sociological assumption is that human actions exist because they are important in problem-solving. Every action that human beings carry out in society has the ultimate function of solving a given problem. For instance, one can struggle to get biological needs, such as food to avoid hunger or strive in school to improve literacy and gain new knowledge and skills.
This aspect implies that hunger and illiteracy are problems that human beings struggle to overcome, for without their resolution people would perish. In this case, religion enables human beings to solve problems because by adhering to religious laws, beliefs, values, and principles, they avoid evil behaviors that have detrimental effects on their lives. Hence, religion is important in the society because it promotes peaceful coexistence in the diverse society by pushing for good moral behaviors.
Since sociology examines interactive behaviors of people, the fifth sociological assumption is that various social phenomena that exist in a given group interrelate. Different social phenomena interrelate either in an indirect or direct manner. In religious groups, religion influences humans and humans in turn influence religion.
We will write a custom Essay on Sociology and Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From a sociological perspective, religion is both an independent and dependent variable having the ability to influence or be under influence respectively. The interrelationship of sociology with other social phenomena in a cause-effect manner is central in understanding the sociology of religion.
Sociological features of Religion The first sociological feature of a religion is that it is a group phenomenon. The group phenomenon is an evident feature of sociology because people gather in hundreds or thousands in worship places. People gather as they have common beliefs and expectations in a given gathering.
For example, Christians gather during Easter to celebrate the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ, while Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca to celebrate the life of Prophet Mohammed. For a gathering of people to become a group, sociologists state that a group must have two or more people who share common goals, norms, responsibilities, assigned functions, and should profess as a member of the group. Based of these characteristics, a religion qualifies as a sociological group.
Additionally, in religion, one becomes a member of a given religion voluntarily without undue coercion, which means that religions cater for individual interests. Hence, religion exists as a group of people with common beliefs and interests, which hold them together since individuals are independent agents who have the freedom to interact and associate with other people irrespective of their religious backgrounds.
Religion comprises a body or a system of beliefs, which is its second feature. The major difference amongst religions rests in the body of beliefs that a religion professes. The differences that exist among religions such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism emanate from differences in religious beliefs and principles. People choose to belong to a certain religion based on the religious beliefs that it holds.
The diverse religious beliefs originate from teachings passed from one generation to another and scared books. Sacred books such as the Quran, the Bible, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Book of Mormon form the basis of religious beliefs that have caused the existence of diverse religions in the modern society. Although the diverse religions started from a given geographical location, the spread of beliefs across the world has led to the growth of religions, thus having considerable impact on society.
The third feature of a religion is that it comprises a set of practices that people perform. Different religions have their own religious practices that they perform according to their ritual beliefs. Some of the prevalent religious practices include foot washing, baptism, Last Supper, Mass, dancing, fasting, and offerings. Although these practices are common amongst Christians, other religions have theirs.
For example, Muslims perform their prayers four times a day, while Buddhists perform their prayers as many times as they can. Actions that religions perform when they gather constitute religious practices because they have their basis on religious teachings, which are present in holy books. The religious practices are important because they define how people should conduct their worship in holy places. Worship usually entails rituals that guide worshipers to adhere to religious beliefs and principles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociology and Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An important feature about religion is its role in prescribing morals in the society. In different societies, people agree that religions have a noble role of determining moral principles that are prevalent in society. Without religions, it could have been hard for the society to be the custodian of morals since it is very diverse and does not qualify to be a group with significant influences on societal members or other groups.
Therefore, religions are not only custodians of moral values and principles, but also define them so that societal members can acquire moral behaviors. Through religion, supernatural powers influence society by causing transformation of human behavior. Since religious followers subscribe to given moral principles, they also advocate for these moral principles in the society, thus transforming societal perceptions on certain moral issues like abortion and drug abuse.
The last feature of religion is that it entails sacred elements and teachings. The basis of any religion is sacredness. Religious leaders and followers alike believe that their religious beliefs are sacred because God has blessed and ordained them for humanity.
Presumably, if human beings follow all sacred teachings and adhere to religious laws, one day they will link up with their God, who provides spiritual nourishment and healthy life to people. The sacredness of a religion is evident in the use of scared symbols like cross, manner of worship, offering of sacrifices, belief in blessings or curses, and respect for holy places of worship. Therefore, religion is a social group that values sacredness of their beliefs and practices in society.
Sociology of Religion Based on sociological assumptions and features, it is evident that religion is a social phenomenon, which interacts with other social phenomena in the society. Since religion interacts with other social phenomena, empirical studies can determine how interactions occur and establish their extent in causing social changes that shape the society.
Through the scientific method of study, sociologists can conduct systematic research to disapprove myths and verify theories associated with sociology. Although religion entails spiritual powers and supernatural forces, it is hard for sociologists to measure its impacts in shaping the society. However, given that religion is a social phenomenon, examination of its interactions with other social phenomena provides a means of empirically studying the sociology of religion.
Sociologists have examined religion from two different perspectives. The first perspective is substantive approach, which views religion from the perspective of its core principles.
Examination of the core principles that underpin religion is central in the sociological study because they provide the foundation of the religion in question. The “substance” or “essence” of religion in society forms the basic understanding of the impact of religion on society because beliefs, values, and principles that it advocates are important in shaping human behavior in society.
Owing to the complexity of substantive approach in studying religion, the second approach, viz. functional approach, is effective in studying the impact of religion on society. From the functional approach, sociologists examine what religions do to the society and how they influence human behavior. This perspective is important to sociologists because it facilitates the examination of how religion, as a social phenomenon, interacts with other social groups that exist in a given society.
Conclusion As religion comprises a group of people sharing the same beliefs, values, and principles about life, it qualifies as a sociological group. Based on sociological assumptions and features, religion meets the requirements of a social group in terms of being a group with common beliefs, practices, morals, and sacred teachings.
Religion is a powerful social agent that aids in shaping human behaviors at the individual level or societal level. Therefore, sociology of religion is imperative in enhancing understanding on how religion interacts with other social phenomena, thus causing significant influence on human behavior in society.
Traditional Vs. Modern Medicine Essay college admission essay help
In the modern society, traditional medicine is considered the most appropriate way to treat sick people. In other words, modern medicine should incorporate technology-based medicine and traditional practices. This would let the doctors to dispense medicine in the best possible way to satisfy each cultural group. Modern doctors and physicians tend to neglect traditional practices in favor of modern technologies.
This creates a conflict between traditional medicine and modern medicine. In this regard, effective healing is affected because patients are reluctant to disclose information to doctors that do not consider culture when asking questions. As Anne Fediman observes, the misunderstanding between patients and doctors affects service delivery in a number of ways. This clearly shows that culture plays a significant role in enhancing the healing process. It makes sense to argue that little medicine and little need facilitate healing.
In her book, Fadiman (1998) notes that Lia could have lost her life due to cultural differences between her parents and doctors. Doctors interpreted Lia’s condition differently, because they believed that she suffered from ordinary epilepsy. On the other hand, Lia’s parents believed that their daughter suffered from a traditional disease.
They based their interpretation on the Hmong culture, which was considered powerful in the community. Doctors could not embrace the ideology of the Hmong community because they believed the culture was inferior to science. On their part, Lia’s parents questioned the methodology employed by doctors when diagnosing diseases.
This misunderstanding could have been resolved in case doctors understood the cultural values of Lia’s parents. For instance, doctors could have used records from Lia’s parents to identify the medical problem. The author shows that culture helps understand the way of living of a particular community. Doctors can come up with the best ways of delivering their services if they understand cultural practices. In the modern society, western medicine is believed to be accurate, yet it is full of mistakes.
Religiously, colonialism shaped the religious practices of Americans because people were forced to abandon traditional religious beliefs in favor of modern forms of religion. For instance, people were forced to adopt Christianity and drop traditional religions. In fact, religion was used to pacify the population.
Even in the modern society, religion is still used to pacify the population. Ethnically, colonialism generated ethnocentrism whereby people would identify themselves with certain ethnic groups. This led to discrimination because groups would judge others using their cultural standards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More References Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Noonday Press.
Gurung, R. (2010). Health psychology: A cultural approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Quantitative data analysis Essay (Book Review) college application essay help
After having looked at quantitative data collection, Grinnell, Williams and Unrau move into a critical and important step in social research which, in this case, involves analyzing quantitative data covered in chapter 15. Quantitative data analysis is the process of making sense out of numbers in order to allow meaningful interpretation.
This process involves four key steps which include data organization, doing calculations, interpreting information and explaining limitations. The authors break down each step of analyzing quantitative data, through explaining what quantitative data entails, definition of terminologies in quantitative data analysis and expounding on the steps involved in quantitative research. The authors also show how the analysis of quantitative data is significant by giving various examples of data sets to illustrate the process of data analysis.
The authors begin by stating that quantitative data is the type of data that measure a quantity or an amount. The process of measuring quantities or amounts involves using specific rules to assign labels or numerals to the attributes of observations, events or objects. There are various levels of measurement in the analysis of quantitative data.
These levels, according to the authors, determine degree to which characteristics of a data set can be modeled mathematically. Grinnell et al list four measurement levels as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. The nominal classifies variables by assigning names as compared to the ordinal which classifies variables by rank. The interval has an arbitrarily chosen zero point while the ratio has a non-arbitrary, fixed zero point.
After defining the levels of measurement with illustrations, the authors examine the three main measures of central tendency which are the mean, the median and the mode. The mean is the average score in a data set. The median is the middle value of a specific data set arranged in order of magnitude. The mode is the most frequent score in a given data set. In addition the authors illustrate how these measures of central tendency are useful in the analysis of quantitative data.
Quantitative data analysis also involves the use of variables in measuring data. A variable, according to the authors, is a concept with attributes that can take on different values. Variables are classified according to their attributes and the type of data set to be analyzed. The relationship between the variables is then determined using the measures of variability. There are two main types of measures of variability that are common in quantitative data analysis.
These methods are variance and standard deviation. The authors demonstrate how to derive these measures of variability and their role in the analysis of quantitative data. The analysis of quantitative data includes data coding and analysis through the use of t-tests and computer applications such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The t-tests involve assessing whether the means of two groups of data sets are statistically different from one another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the process of analyzing quantitative data ends by interpreting and discussing of information. During interpretation meaning is attached to data by judging the results fairly and carefully. This process helps in identifying the emerging lessons which are important in discussing the limitations of the data analyzed. In conclusion, the process of analyzing quantitative data helps a social researcher to carefully organize data, do calculations, interpret information and discuss the results.
References Grinnell, R.M., Williams, M.,
A Pool of Opportunities or the Scourge of the XXI Century? Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
There is no secret that social networking has become an integral part of the present-day reality. Personal conversations are no longer as popular as they used to be in the recent past, and live communication has been substituted by its virtual equivalent. It goes without saying that there are a number of advantages in communicating online; however, the latter also possesses a lot of negative features, not to mention the fact that it ousts live communication out and, therefore, can trigger further complexities in teenagers’ interaction in reality.
To be fair, one must introduce the key advantages of social networking first. As a matter of fact, there are a number of issues that make social networking worthwhile, and the key one is the pool of opportunities for learning, experiencing and getting new skills. As Godwin stresses, such applications as Innovative Language Learning (Godwin 5) are no longer something out of the ordinary. Hence, learning opportunities for teenagers is a massive advantage of social networks.
However, when speaking about the negative impacts of the social networking and the way it shapes teenagers, one must take into account the reasons which stand behind a teenager’s decision to create a profile in a social network. According to the recent researches conducted by Danah Boyd, what attracts teenagers in online networking is the fact that they can get closer to their idols, i.e., movie/music stars, DJs, etc.
Herein lies the difference between the behavior of an adult and a teenager in a social network system: “While many adults find value in socializing with strangers, teenagers are more focused on socializing with people they knew personally and celebrities that they adore” (Boyd 121-122).
Hence, for teenagers, social networking functions as a worldwide fan club, which also affects the communication negatively, focusing it on a single aspect. In addition, though social networking does score a couple of points for the above-mentioned feature, it is still necessary to admit that the given means of communication has failed to improve some of the issues which appear regularly in the course of live communication among teenagers.
For instance, the problem of social outcasts, weirdly enough, exists even in online social networks, such as MySpace and others. According to the research conducted by Costa, Beham, Reinhardt, and Sillaots, in which students were to engage into microblogging, “Some respondents also alluded to the fact they decided to adopt a more passive approach, as they preferred to take part in the microblogging activity as observers and not engage fully with it (Costa, Beham, Reinhardt, and Sillaots 7).
Hence, social networks in general and microblogging in particular do not solve communicational problems – instead, they take it to another level. For those, who find communication difficult in reality, online networking is not a chance to engage in a conversation incognito, but to watch the others communicating. Hence, the feeling of loneliness is enhanced and the decision to stay away from socializing is undertaken with even greater conviction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, social networking has a lot to offer, and one of the most alluring offers is its incredible accessibility. What used to take days and even weeks, e.g., sending a friend a letter, now takes less than a millisecond. In addition, the information can be squeezed to the size of a nutshell, which is also a huge advantage.
As Catanese, De Meo, Ferrara, Fiumara and Provetti explain, “The growing accessibility of the Web, through several media, gives to most users a 24/7 online presence and encourages them to build an online mesh of relationships” (Catanese, De Meo, Ferrara, Fiumara and Provetti 1).
Still, it seems that computer networking and its effect on teenagers is yet to be researched. Among the most important concerns that arise in the course of analyzing people’s behavior online and comparing it to the one in real life, the tendency to develop a virtual self should be mentioned.
As Best, Krueger, Hubbard and Smith specify, the decisions of the Internet users are quite different from the ones of the people without the access to the Internet. Creating multiple online personalities, one can finally end up in a stressful state or even in a depression. While the emphasis on the importance of online communication is important, such facts as losing one’s own identity in the multiple online clones must not be swept under the rug either.
According to the arguments mentioned above, it can be concluded that both live communication and social network have their positive and negative aspects, especially when considering them not only from a psychological standpoint, but also in terms of studying and international communication. Therefore, it must be admitted that none of the alternatives should be eliminated completely for the sake of the development of another one.
Although the newest technology can offer efficient communication between the teenagers who can be in completely different parts of the world at the moment of the conversation, it still hinders personal communication much.
However, it opens great perspectives for the entire world and its further development. Hence, supporting the evolution of the social networking as an efficient communication medium, it is also required to encourage live conversations and make it clear that social networking is merely one of the many options existing.
We will write a custom Research Paper on A Pool of Opportunities or the Scourge of the XXI Century? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Best, Samuel J., Brian Krueger, Clark Hubbard, and Andrew Smith. “An Assessment of the Generalizability of Internet Surveys.” Social Science Computer Review. 19.2 (2001): 131-145.
Boyd, Danah. “Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life.” Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. Ed. David Buckingham. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge MIT Press. 2008. 119-142. Print.
Catanese, Salvatore, Pasquale De Meo, Emilio Ferrara, Giacomo Fiumara and Alessandro Provetti n. d., Extraction and Analysis of Facebook Friendship Relations. PDF file. 4 Dec. 2012. .
Costa, Christina, Guenter Beham, Wolfgang Reinhardt, and Martin Sillaots 2008, Microblogging in Technology Enhanced Learning: A Use-Case Inspection of PPE Summer School 2008. PDF file. 4 Dec. 2012. .
Godwin-Jones, Robert. “Emerging Technologies Mobile Computing Trends: Lighter, Faster, Smarter.” Language Learning
Health Behavior change. Theory and Application Research Paper best essay help
Health is a condition of being physically, socially, mentally, and emotionally well (Carstensen, 2006). Behaviour involves a collection of dealings and characteristics that individuals make within their surroundings. With this respect, health status of an individual can cause behavior change and vice versa.
Carstensen (2006) provides that there are many factors that can cause behaviour change. They include age, peer group influence, and financial status just to mention but a few. Age, as a sole factor, determines physical, emotional, mental, and social characteristics of a person.
This research paper deals with health behaviour change for ageing people especially those aged sixty five years and above.
Physical, Emotional, Mental and Social Characteristics of Ageing People Physical Characteristics
Biological functions slow down and reserves get depleted.
The skin looses elasticity and becomes dry and wrinkled.
Coldness is felt as blood supply to the skin is limited.
The skin becomes thinner, might be prone to breaking and eventually contract infections.
Loss of teeth, lengthening of the nose, and whitening and thinning of hair.
Decrease in the bone mass and compression of backbone causing a bowed back.
Loss of bone elasticity making them to become more brittle, thus increasing the chances of breaking.
Sense of hearing, sight, taste, touch, and smell become less sensitive.
The above characteristics cause discomfort and illness in old people. For example, they may lead to loss of appetite leading to poor eating habits. This may result to malnutrition, disorientation and inactivity. Lack of coordination may results in failure of the nervous system leading to wrong perception of reflex messages such as thirst, hunger, walking, chewing, and breathing. Those disorders make an aging person to isolate himself/herself from the community. This makes them to suffer from depression, lack of appetite and decreased vitality.
The memory of an ageing person decreases progressively. Moreover, the ability to handle large tasks and recall them diminishes. However, the ability to learn does not decrease, for those individuals who do exercises continuously. Their short-term memory declines while long- term memory remains sharp. Mental illness in aged people is another old-age characteristic associated with infection, poor nutrition, poor medication and hydration (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1998).
Major Health problems of aged people (65 years and above)
Common health problems associated with old-age are as discussed below:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Incontinence
Incontinence is a condition of loss of control of the bladder leading to involuntary urine leakage (Eisdorfer, 2007). It is caused by stress and urge urinary incontinences in women. According to research work done by several specialists, the urethra may fail to provide the necessary support. This usually results from the damage of the pelvic structure which occurs during childbirth. It is identified by the leakage of small amount of urine when the abdomen experiences a rise in pressure through coughing, lifting, and sneezing. Other causes include caffeine beverages, which stimulate the bladder, enlarged prostrate (in men above 40), other disorders such as injury of the spinal cord, strokes, and multiple sclerosis which interfere with the functioning of the bladder nerves (Eisdorfer 2007).
Heart diseases include: heart attack, high blood pressure, stroke, and coronary artery disease.
Coronary artery disease
The main symptoms of coronary artery disease include nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness, sweating, and chest pain, discomfort, heaviness, and pressure and fullness .This condition is also experienced in the arms, back, neck, jaws, shoulders, and the throat.
It is characterized by heaviness, discomfort, pressure, pain in the arms and chest, fullness, heartburn, sweating, dizziness, vomiting, indigestion and nausea. However, some people (more particularly diabetic people) suffer from heart attack without experiencing any symptoms.
Stroke occurs when brain cells die abruptly due to limited supply of oxygen. It can be caused by the blockage of blood flow to the brain or breaking of the artery that supplies the brain with blood. The affected individual may become unconscious or get paralyzed one side of the body. Research provides that stress exists in two types namely ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Ischemic stroke is more common as compared to hemorrhagic. It occurs when blood flow into the brain is hindered. On the other hand, hemorrhagic stroke occur when a blood vessel on the surface of the brain breaks, and hence limiting blood supply to the brain. Blood from the ruptured vessel fills the space brain and the skull. Severity of a stroke depends on where it has occurred and the amount of brain distressed (Adelman
European Jewry in the 18th And 19th Centuries Essay best essay help: best essay help
Jews have a history of conflict with various governments. One of the reasons for this is the nature of their culture and the fact that they share history with Christianity, which most of them did not adopt (Brenner 159). Jews have lived in almost all sovereignties in Europe and have faced constant segregation and mistreatment.
Jews have always struggled for equality among other communities with which they have coexisted. For a long time, Jews had settled in Poland after migrating there from other kingdoms of Europe (Brenner 161). Perpetual anti-Semitism in Europe necessitated the migration.
However, in the eighteenth century, Poland began disintegrating. By this time, Jews had not managed to acquire freedom and equality among other races in Europe. In 1792, a civil war broke out in Poland and Jews were caught in the middle (Brenner 164). Russia and Prussia divided the country and annexed parts of it. The first partition of Poland by Russia and Prussia occurred in 1793 (Brenner 167). The regimes that took over administration were largely anti-Semitic. For this reason, Poland revolted against the conquerors.
However, the revolt ended with the Russian empire capturing a bigger territory with Jews living in it. At first, Jews received a mild treatment from the government (Brenner 169). Education was offered to them, but they were separated from the Christian population by the Russian government. Most of the problems faced by Jews were due to the government’s quest to make Jewish populations to integrate into the rest of the people in religious and cultural terms.
While children were sent to schools to learn, the government tried to make them abandon their religion. The failure of the government to make Jews abandon their religion even led to more severe consequences for them. More restrictions and harsh policies were implemented against Jews. One such policy required conscription of Jewish minors into the army (Gartner 51).
Several incidences triggered the emergence of Zionism in Europe. The most significant cause of Zionism was the statelessness of the Jewish people. For centuries, several empires hosted Jews and treated them with contempt. Poland, being one of the few states that could accommodate Jews, became a haven for them (Brenne 168).
Even then, anti-Semitism was rife. However, with the partition of Poland between the Russian empire and the Prussian empire made life unbearable for the Jews. Their last vestige had been annexed, and was slowly becoming uninhabitable for them. Due to this pressure, an idea developed among Jews that the Jewish community had to become a state rather than a common religion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Jewish fraternity had to be regarded a nation. Several isolated incidents accelerated the adoption of this idea with some dire consequences for some empires in Europe. Haskala, the education of Jews and Jewish children to adopt cultural ideas of the larger society, was the cause of secular Zionism that began emerging in Europe (Gartner 55). Haskala was the major cause of the secular Zionism that has persisted to the present day. Political ideologies and labor movements characterized the secular movements.
By the end of nineteenth century, the Jewish people were seeking to establish a nation where they could reside as equals with other people. However, just before the end of the nineteenth century, an incident that would eventually cause a revolution occurred (Gartner 56). In the 1890s, there was tension in Europe. It was at this time the European countries were competing for superiority within their continent and within their colonies (Gartner 57).
Military buildups were common, and suspicion and mistrust were the order of the day. In1894 a French intelligence officers noticed that German military was unusually informed of the progress of French military regarding armaments (Gartner 59). The intelligence officer, Jean Sandhe, raised the issue with higher authorities. However, due to the influence of the informant who was leaking the information to the Germans, a decision was made to accuse a Jewish army officer of the betrayal (Gartner 71).
Alfred Dreyfus, the victim of accusation, was arrested and tried for high treason. He allegedly informed German officials of the progress within the French military (Gartner 73). He was sentenced to life in prison, and was incarcerated in French Guiana. Two years later, another officer was put in charge of the intelligence office. This officer took interest in Dreyfus case, and realized that another military officer had been the real traitor.
To avert controversy the intelligence officer who raised the issue was relocated to a new outpost. Somehow, the printing press, which constituted much of the mass media then, uncovered the plot to accuse Dreyfus falsely in favor of the real traitor. A debate on anti-Semitism arose in the French community.
An author known as Zola wrote a passage in a national newspaper accusing the French government of trying to protect perpetrators of high treason by accusing and imprisoning Dreyfus (Gartner 81). Earlier, the French citizenry had been led to believe that their nation bas based on Christian values that included equal treatment of all people.
The author of the inflammatory newspaper article had to flee the country after he was convicted of criminal conduct. Some other newspapers and periodicals followed suit and accused the government of impartiality and criminal activities. To reinforce the perception that Dreyfuls was guilty, the French government subjected Dreyfuls to a second court martial, and added ten years to his prison sentence (Gartner 84).
We will write a custom Essay on European Jewry in the 18th And 19th Centuries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, protest continued and France became politically divided between those who supported the government’s position and those who claimed Dreyfus’ innocence. This division seemed to be a struggle between anti-Semites and those who had other liberal ideas. To ease the pressure due to the Dreyfus’ case, the government retried Dreyfus and acquitted him of all charges. Furthermore, it brought him back into the French military and made him a major.
He later resigned in 1907 due to poor health. Dreyfus made a comeback to serve as an officer in the First World War. He died in 1935, and was buried in a state funeral. The Dreyfus affair made the plight of Jews and the prevalent anti-Semitism an open issue in France and the neighboring countries (Gartner 102).
The Dreyfus affair had significant political effects for Europe. Anti-Semitic factions and liberal factions dominated the French political scene. Theodor Herzl, a journalist, who investigated and reported on the events following revelation charges against Dreyfus, continued to publish articles that aimed at persuading Jewish people to create a Jewish nation in another location away from Europe.
This was based on the assumption that Jews would never be accepted as equal citizens in any European state (Brenner 115). Even within the French government in the twentieth century, there were differences regarding the Dreyfus affair. At one time, a sculpture made in the honor of the soldier was never put to public display because senior officials in the French government could not agree on whether it should be displayed or not.
In central and western Europe, Jews were encouraged or coerced to assimilate into the mainstream European communities. This way they could avoid persecution. Emancipation in western and central Europe led the Jews who resided in these areas to believe that their only hope for freedom was through creation of a pure Jewish state (Brenner 115).
This Jewish state could only be possible outside European territories. Since Jews in central Europe had tried to integrate themselves into the European community, Zionism arose in this are with a characteristic intellectual aspect. The Jews in central and western Europe were less religious unlike those in Eastern Europe. They relied on a secular government for maintenance of civil order.
Due to the enlightenment of the western and central European Jews, the influence of Judaism on their communities was not significant. Most of the Jewish communities in central Europe were convinced that all other solutions had failed and only the formation of a Jewish state would liberate them form serfdom (Brenner 117).. These Jews were the minority compared to the vast Jewish population in Eastern Europe.
Jews in Eastern Europe maintained their culture and religion. In addition, no emancipation occurred in Eastern Europe. For these reasons, Jewish communities in Eastern Europe were governed by the wealthy among them (Brenner 121). Judaism was the major religion and its practices were the major tools of instruction. The rulers were also scholars and relied on the communities’ adherence to religion to establish their authority.
Not sure if you can write a paper on European Jewry in the 18th And 19th Centuries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, with the emancipation of the Jews in the west, some of the scholars in authority in the east became worried about losing the grip they had on their societies. The scholars and the wealthy started becoming ore dictatorial to avoid an uprising against their rule. The autocratic authority was reinforced by the Russian imperialists of the time. Most of the communities in rural areas migrated into towns and began clamoring for better treatment by the authorities.
In the late nineteenth century, Jews in Eastern Europe were vigorously resisting the new regime of the new tsar, Alexander III. The new ruler had become anti-Semitic. He conducted pogroms, or mass killings of Jews. For this reason, Jews lost hope of liberation by intellectual movements, and went on to shift to cultural and religious movements for support (Brenner 130). These mass movements were created to depose the tsar of Russia due to his aggressive and hostile policies against the Jewish communities.
All Jewish communities in Europe hoped to establish a purely Jewish state all the time. Even those communities that were under the autocratic authority of Russian monarchy hoped to one day migrate to Palestine, which was of significant cultural importance to all Jews.
While Jews in central and Western Europe hoped to acquire political power in the countries they resided in, those in the east were bound to their belief in their religion and ancestry in Palestine (Brenner 125). For this reason, Jews in central Europe had a primarily intellectual stance while those in east were adherents of mass movements.
The most influential Zionist figure was Theodor Herzl. He was a German born in Hungary to Jewish family of Serbian descent. His parents led a secular lie, so he was brought up a secular boy. Although he was fond of the idea of emancipation of European Jews as a boy, his perception of the situation changed after the Dreyfus affair. The hatred of Jews displayed by native Germans influenced his perception of the Jewish question. However, he was never completely convinced of the importance of religion in Jewish affairs throughout his life.
While Dreyfus was being persecuted in the 1890s, Herzl wrote a book about the aspirations of Jews and their desire to establish a Jewish state (Dubnow
Use of Animals in Research Testing: Ethical Justifications Involved Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Discourse about the use of animals in research has characterized the domain of science for a couple of decades now. Debate about whether animals should be subjected to experimental research remains divided, with advocates suggesting that this is a matter of necessity (Francione, 2007), whereas critics use the ethical bandwagon to demonstrate that use of animals in research settings is neither ethical nor justified (Portaluppi et al., 2010).
The present paper argues that it is ethically justified to use animals in research settings if the goals of the research process are noble and oriented towards the advancement of human life.
As postulated by Kent (2003), “…research using animals has led to substantial advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms which results in sickness, disability and premature death” (para. 3). In the absence of this knowledge it is clear that much of what is known today would still exist in the realms of the unknown, with the consequence that researchers would now be further away from the prospect of making timely and accurate diagnosis for various diseases affecting certain segments of the population.
Equally, individuals would be constrained in their application of effective treatment regimens that have been made possible courtesy of the knowledge acquired from animal-based research. Consequently, it can be argued that the noble goal of availing medical breakthroughs to solve health issues that have been affecting mankind justifies the inclusion of animals in research.
Critics to animal-based research often point out to the pain subjected to animals in scientific research laboratories as comprising enough ground to do away with the practice. More importantly, they argue that scientists should use alternatives to conduct their research rather than subject animals to intense pain and death in the name of making scientific discoveries (Francione, 2007).
But when critically evaluated under the ethical lens, these assertions are without justifications because it is yet not possible to exclude the use of animals entirely without compromising the safety and health of humans in dire need of medical interventions to cure their ailments, with the consequence that the pain or harm subjected to animals in research settings would be transferred to individuals in the form of disease prolongation, ineffective therapeutic interventions, as well as lack of scientific data regarding the pathophysiology of various diseases that continue to affect mankind (Kent, 2003; Francione, 2007).
Scientists who have realized this noble goal are currently experimenting on monkeys to understand and cure the Parkinson’s disease (Portaluppi et al., 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Of-course it is inherently wrong to inflict “unnecessary” suffering on animals to derive pleasure, amusement, or mere convenience (Portaluppi et al., 2010). However, the goal of advancing knowledge for the advancement of mankind supersedes other issues presented by critics, including the argument that animals are sentient and have an interest in not being subjected to suffering (Francione, 2007).
Indeed, this author further posits that “…we can ignore that interest when it benefits us to do so because animals lack some characteristic supposedly unique to humans – must usually a cognitive characteristic – and are thereby the natural inferiors of humans” (p. 245).
This assertion demonstrates that the goal of human advancement is supreme to any other argument; however, it should be the task of scientists using animals in research settings to ensure their comfort, proper housing, feeding, sanitation, as well as minimal exposure to painful experiences through the application of anesthesia.
References Francione, G.L. (2007). The use of non-human animals in biomedical research: Necessity and justification. Journal of Law, Medicine
Martin Luther King JR. “I have a dream” Essay college admissions essay help
Martin Luther King is optimistic that African Americans will have basic rights including voting and other social rights in the future. Such rights will allow African Americans to vote, live in good neighborhoods and interact with White Americans without any discrimination (Gates 107).
In a perfect society, all Americans will be treated equally by the constitution. According to Martin Luther, freedom is about people being judged based on their characters, but not ethnicity (Gates 107). In a perfect society, the constitution will protect all citizens equally. Martin Luther defines freedom as the ability to live how individuals want and to attend any school or motel of choice without restrictions based on race (Gates 108). Luther urges people not rest until freedom is attained.
The speech “I have a dream” by Martin Luther King continues to challenge leaders today (Hansen 23). Today, this speech has continually challenged Americans to recognize everybody’s potential in areas of politics and leadership among other fields.
However, cases of police brutality and incarceration of African Americans are relative high in the American society today (Gates 109). Just recently, there was an African American young man who was shot three times in the neighborhood for walking in White’s settlements. When lobby groups enquired about this incidence, police officers argued that the boy was a criminal. This is an indication that Americans have not yet attained freedom.
The coming of President Obama to power has given most African Americans hope (Gates 109). In fact, the number of African Americans who turned out to vote in the last election is an indicator that Americans are ready to attain freedom. Evidently, Africans and White Americans are now getting to a level where they are putting their differences aside for development.
Works Cited Gates, Louis. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York, NY: Norton press, 2004. Print.
Hansen, Drew. The Dream: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Speech that Inspired a Nation. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2003. Print.
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Well-Being as a Happiness Definitions Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
It is always pleasant to experience positive emotions. Everyone strives to attain a positive mental state. There are various perspectives that define happiness.
Many religious approaches and perceptions on happiness define happiness as a spiritual fulfillment that is transcended with inner peace and contentment. Such religious perspectives towards achieving happiness are advocated by religion factions such as Christianity and Buddhist. Psychologists also have a strong view on happiness. In this perspective, psychologists view happiness as a scientific concept.
Nonetheless, the sociological approach in defining happiness is more satisfying. For example, the approach acknowledges that happiness has two dimensions; psychological and economical (Hirata 5). As a matter of fact, many people are accustomed to the above dimensions whenever happiness and well-being is discussed. Personally, I always feel happy when I am able to meet my basic needs and afford a luxurious life.
For example, if I don’t get sick within a year, I tend to think that as a sign of positive well-being. Moreover, if I can buy a luxurious car, a house and afford a balanced diet, education and entertainment, I will consider to be living in happiness. The following discussion below highlights how happiness and well-being is viewed from both a psychological and economical perspective.
Michael Marmot in his book The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity tries to justify happiness from a social perspective. In his article, Marmot alleges that social standings can only be viewed from an economic perspective.
In his article, Marmot justifies that one must have a certain economic stability to have good health. According to Marmot, an individual’s happiness can only be derived, if the individual is employed, healthy and well educated (Marmot 2). The writer exemplifies how a well educated person is in a higher social hierarchy than an average educated person.
An educated individual understands the importance of family planning, and controls his earnings and lives in a good house. To the author, these are the basics towards achieving happiness and living healthy. Marmot highlights how the poor in America die early. This is a social trend that Marmot describes as very common in the underdeveloped communities. He alleges that people who live below the poverty line are more prone to depravity of basic needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, Marmot is very categorical in his theory of the status syndrome. According to Marmot, the status syndrome does not necessarily affect the poor, but also the rich (6). The status syndrome determines an individual place in the society status hierarchy. From the status syndrome, the author demystifies the assertion that lifestyle diseases are only associated with the rich. Marmot uses a sociological, scientific and political approach to analyze the status syndrome concept (18).
From a personal point of view, happiness can only be achieved, if one has control over certain aspects of life. For example, control over economic, social and political independence is critical in achieving happiness. A happy life should be void of diseases, poverty and lack other essential commodities.
A happy life should consist of political freedom and respect to personal rights. An economy that allows people to develop and grow financially is an ideal environment for happiness. In such environments, families afford luxuries and enjoy holidays, when the society’s economy allows affordable health care for all. I believe that with a good education, I will be able to get a well-paying job or at least create an economic project that creates profit and eventually benefits the society.
Works Cited Hirata, Johannes. Happiness, ethics and economics. New York, Taylor
The End of the Free Market by Ian Bremmer Essay online essay help
The end of the free market by Ian Brimmer is an important book that explains economic concerns of the various global economies. The inexistence of cooperation between states has continued to prompt the increase in number of national and state conflicts.
This fact necessitates the formulation of proper operational mechanisms aimed at enhancing a high sense of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Different aspects of a free market economy stipulate how state capitalism affects both local and international economies. The existence of authoritarian governments remains to be a major focus of the global economic development.
Economic struggles and capitalist policies have increasingly become major issues of concern as they shape the manner in which economic development and efficiency are enhanced. Dictatorship and ineffective authoritarian governments also exist in state capitalism and free-market states. Authoritarian governments continue to play a pivotal role in shaping the overall global economy and enhancing a high sense of efficiency and cost-effectiveness.
The existence of free-market economies is believed to be a serious threat to the economic development of a number of states and national economies. As analyzed below, critical issues that relate to free-market economies include dictatorial leadership structures, capitalism and the failure of corporations to adhere to the rule of law. Other aspects include increase in global economic crises and emergence of new economies. The mentioned issues are vital economic issues that deserve proper planning and streamlined business strategies.
The explanation of the manner in which state governments approach the economic aspects of the country through the purchase of key state corporations is clearly highlighted to depict the level of seriousness of various financial strategies of the governments. Book summary The book depicts state capitalism and free-market capitalism as two very different entities. In a state capitalism, society, politics and success in profit-making is the core driver of national decision-making process.
State-based capitalism, therefore, poses a lot of challenge to a country’s economy as it is likely to limit the extent to which free-market is undertaken. In reference to the emergence of the recent patterns in the global economy, Brimmer, the author of the case study book reveals that the expansion of non-western states and the overall expansion of the global economies contribute to the increase in economic freedom of said states.
The differentiation of capitalism is very dependent on the manner in which wealth is used to create more wealth and establish control of global economies. According to Ian Bremmer, both state capitalism and free-market are best defined by their ability to use wealth, spread the wealth and enforce better wealth creation strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Capitalism and free-market economies emerge as the major drivers of the economy. The free-market form of capitalism is dominated by a country’s constant implementation of wealth creation and state enforcement of legal procedures that would enhance business contracts and limit the influence of immoral acts. Immoral acts in this context include greed, selfish desires, unworthy business contracts and sabotage of development strategies of emerging economies.
Initially, state-sponsored capitalism led to the perception that countries like China, Saudi Arabia, and China had perverted economic strategies. However, the book reveals that the economic approaches have come to be appreciated. A number of benefits and economically sound business processes are equated to the economic approaches.
The domination of the government in a given economy often influences a number of happenings. An authoritarian government can focus on enhancing its economic superiority rather than realize profitability on the investments made. Secondly, the government can end up fostering economic, social and political interests that only address its needs and issues aimed at enhancing its international relationship.
The rise of new forms of market economies reflects a paradigm shift in the operation of major economies of the world. This fact is a sure indicator of the emergence of a new form of capitalism in areas that were originally dominated by communist practices.
It also emerges from this book that the end of communism was influenced by a number of factors and that its collapse was never followed by the existence of free-market economies but rather by international politics and a struggle between modernized forms of state capitalism and free-market liberalization. The concept of state capitalism aims at ensuring that the form of capitalism practiced is restricted to addressing the economic wellbeing and political goodwill of the state.
Free markets are only allowed to exist if the business strategies employed are aimed at limiting countries’ dependence on those states that are usually considered to be superpowers. Ideas from the book Government ownership of a country’s big business organizations and other investment opportunities are a sure concept that is developed throughout the book. It is evident that this idea aims at enhancing strict accountability of all existing businesses of the governments.
The book intends to demonstrate the manner in which government agencies can be employed in ensuring that large corporations that have excess capital are controlled by the government. The government, therefore, uses such investment strategies for social and political gains. There exist a number of vital insights of business persons, policymakers and investors. The idea of state capitalism as explained from the book is a distortion of how free-market economies should operate.
We will write a custom Essay on The End of the Free Market by Ian Bremmer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This concept partly explains the reason why western companies have been compelled to compete across the globe against business organizations that have enormous political and financial support from their home countries. In the end, it is evident that new business strategies emerge with the view of encouraging international cooperation and overreliance on global economic state leaders. What has been known to be a global free-market economy is no longer in existence.
Dominance of states in the local or domestic economies is a sure proof of the existence of state capitalism. This idea leads to the revelation of the continued use of state dominance strategies. The strategies focus on ensuring that political leaders and major market economies foster national unity as well as encourage the initiation of a number of state strategies aimed at encouraging national growth, transparency and tranquility.
For the government to achieve its development goals, state-owned business organizations and privately owned government-friendly companies are used in enhancing a high level of efficiency, cost-effectiveness and overall success of government strategies. The intervention is mainly done on major aspects of global economy such as the energy sector, aviation industry, power generation, shipping and related aspects of transport and communication industries.
Other sectors include metal, mineral, and petrochemical among others. A government strategy that outlines the degree to which government agencies can work towards enhancing efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of all operational strategies being employed is necessary. The strategy can improve state-based capitalism.
State-sponsored capitalism emerges as a critical issue of concern in the book, The End of the Free Market by Ian Brimmer. However, it is clear that the term “state capitalism” carries a slightly different meaning from what has been used with reference to a fascist engagement and the socialism economic model used in East Germany. It, therefore, emerges that unlike the socialism and fascism models, the state capitalism model does not dwell on economic ideologies.
State capitalism, as explained in the book, refers to the different political and economic ideologies that are put in practice and which are unique to every country. On the existing capitalism concerns in the book, it is evident that the invention of state capitalism, as is articulated in book, The End of the Free Market brings about sensitive issues.
Through the analysis of the interaction between state capitalism and the challenging global economy, the book brings out vital global aspects that demand to be accorded due attention, proper allocation of time and other related scarce resources and streamlined management strategies. State capitalism is likely to pose a number of challenges to the global economy. The emergence of state-owned business firms has increasingly continued to shape the ever-changing financial status of the various global states.
This trend continues to be heightened by protectionist and populist economic pressures from the developed states and the emergence of state capitalism. Sadly, state-owned multinational companies receive a lot of financial, political and cultural favors, thus reducing their operational costs. This aspect leads to a major imbalance in the economic competition in state-owned corporations. State capitalism also presents a number of challenges to the modern economies. Global free markets are very dynamic and complex in nature.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The End of the Free Market by Ian Bremmer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They demand proper planning and strategic management of all resources with the view of fostering healthy national economic relations. State capitalism’s dangers are varied, many and likely to cause a lot of conflict in future economic developments of various states. Regardless of the economic situation in question, it is highly likely that there will always be major issues that relate to the existence of many competing economies across the globe and hence the end of free-market economies.
Economic competition can take a unique and different approach. Countries like Russia employ state capitalism in achieving political mileage within countries that were originally neighbors of the Soviet Union. However, due to unforeseen capitalism issues such as emergence of the most unpredictable superpowers, it is apparent that the success of certain state-capitalist strategies are limited by the existence of complex economies such as Kazakhstan and Ukraine which have other security, political and commercial interests.
The future of the global economy The future of the global economic development is an important aspect of global economic progress. A strong economy employs effective economic policies. Many global states today encourage diversification of their existing investment strategies.
The United States of America no longer possesses unmatched dominance and control over the global economy. As outlined in the book, it is evident that greater and fair economic competitions are emerging. The competitions are focused on issues and not a country’s ability of being depended upon by other global economies. It is therefore evident that the United States of America has to formulate other competitive or reliable long term economic solutions in order to effectively have a long term development strategy.
The possible continued existence of authoritarian governments is a sure indicator of the direction that the global economic is likely to take. Political and economic drivers in China, Russia and many Arab monarchies agree that they are not better placed to determine long-term economic growth and development. Major global economies are likely to continue developing political systems that would be tailored to fulfill the economic and political needs of the majority in society.
Rather than focus on state capitalism, free-market economies, dictatorial state governments, and some countries’ desire to achieve market autonomy, it is crucial for all states to contribute towards the expansion and steady growth of global business strategies. This step should be undertaken on a non-discriminatory basis and in line with the stipulated international obligations and the need to enhance global economic wellbeing.
State capitalism is an ever-growing global concept that is believed to be a major threat to the economic development and wellbeing of the different national economies. The Intersection of economies and state-owned firms in Iran, China, Venezuela, Persian Gulf, Russia, the United States and Japan plays an important role in shaping the operational strategies of a free market.
With regards to a free-market economy, it is least likely that state capitalism can emerge in the United States of America though it can happen in many world nations, albeit not with similar political and economic ideologies as those that shape China and Russia’s state capitalism. This fact is partly because the interconnection between government agencies and state contractors seems to move quickly into the domain of cybersecurity and information system.
In the U.S., economic challenges such as the global financial crisis have managed to shift the balance of financial decision making authority from the Wall Street to the Washington State. Due to the continuous development of the global economy, the benefit of self -evaluation is likely to be exploited to transform retrogressive social, political and economic statuses of a number of leading global economies.
The existence of a “long boom” resulting in the implementation of dynamic economic strategies is an important aspect of the future of the global economy. Implementation of technological platforms, fair economic competition, and existence of environmentally sustainable economic strategies, formulation and implementation of economically sound policies can foster a “long economic boom” in the near future.
Evidence to support the views The concept of state capitalism is supported by a number of real-life global undertakings. Policymakers demand proper organization as well as integration of business leadership, policymakers and formulation of new internal and local political mechanisms of enhancing reliability.
As the biggest, renowned, and most influential state capitalist, it is its unique strength, challenges, and philosophy that have continued to uniquely separate China from other state capitalist states. While China’s state-capitalist perceptive comes from its long-term relationships and government support for state-owned business corporations, Russia thrives on the ownership of a lot of natural wealth while Saudi Arabia is rich in oil.
China’s success is likely to convince many other countries to embrace ideologies that promote national growth. The slow emergence of the cold war strictly associated with the global market economy remains a major challenge. Capitalism related issues are of great concern and cannot be ignored.
The continued rise of many “emerging markets” such as Brazil, China, Japan and a host of European states illustrate the degree to which the world economy can help enhance a greater level of efficiency and also implement economically appropriate strategies of dealing with serious financial crisis.
The emergence of the global economic crisis, political tension and lack of economic vitality supports the fact that free-market economies are concepts that no longer have significance as state capitalism has increasingly become popular in many countries.