Abstract The purpose of this paper was to discuss the laws that govern marriage and family therapy in Connecticut. An individual who intends to work as a marriage and family therapist (MFT) in Connecticut must have a postgraduate degree and work experience of at least one year in order to be licensed.
MFTs are allowed to disclose confidential information about their clients when ordered by a court. Similarly, privileged communication can be disclosed if the client is likely to harm himself or others. Although MFTs are allowed to provide confidential information to third parties as a warning, the duty to warn is not a requirement in Connecticut.
Introduction This paper will focus on marriage and family counseling or therapy profession in Connecticut. In this regard, it will discuss the licensure process and the scope of practice in Connecticut. In addition, it will discuss the state’s limit to confidentiality, privileged communication, and the duty to warn or protect.
Process of Obtaining Licensure
The first step in obtaining a license to practice in Connecticut is to meet the following requirements. First, the applicant must have a postgraduate degree in marriage and family therapy. The degree program must be approved by the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT).
Second, the applicant is expected to provide evidence of having participated in supervised internship in the field of marriage and family therapy during his or her training (DPH, 2014). Third, the applicant is required to have work experience of at least 12 months after completing a postgraduate degree program. During the 12 months, the applicant is expected to gain practical skills by interacting with clients directly to offer counseling services.
However, applicants who are already licensed in other states are not required to show evidence of prior work experience. Third, the applicant must take and pass the National Examination in Marital and Family Therapy. The examination is normally provided by the Association of Marital and Family Therapy Regulatory Board.
After meeting all the requirements, the applicant is expected to send his or her request and the application fee to the Professional Counselor Licensure Board (DPH, 2014). In addition, supporting documents such as transcripts must be sent to the board by the institution in which the applicant received the relevant training in marriage and family therapy. Once the application is verified and approved by the board, the applicant gets a license to practice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Limitation to Confidentiality
MFTs are required to maintain confidentiality by avoiding unauthorized sharing of the information about their clients with third parties. However, the client’s right to confidentiality is limited under the following circumstance. To begin with, MFTs are allowed to disclose information or records pertaining to their clients for diagnosis and treatment purposes.
In this case, a MFT can share the information about the client with professionals such as physicians and mental health practitioners to help them select the right medical intervention. A court order can also lead to the disclosure of the information or records of the client. In this case, a MFT may be required to provide confidential information as evidence that is admissible in a court. However, the information will only be used for the purpose of determining the case to which the client is a party.
Privileged Communication Privileged communication refers to the “exchange of information in the context of a professional relationship in which the recipient is protected from compelled disclosure in a court proceeding”. This means that MFTs cannot be forced by a court to disclose any privileged communication without the consent of their clients. In Connecticut, privileged communication is limited under the following circumstances.
First, privileged communication can be disclosed in the event of a court-ordered examination. This applies when a court requires information about the client’s mental or physical condition during a court proceeding. Second, the client’s information can be shared if the client claims that his or her mental or physical condition has to be taken into account during a court proceeding.
In this context, the opposing party has the right to disagree with the client about the claim. As a result, the court and the opposing party will have to access information about the client’s mental or physical condition. Finally, privileged communication is not protected if the MFT believes that the client is a danger to himself and others.
This means that a MFT can disclose privileged communication to the police or potential victims to protect them from being harmed by the client. However, further disclosures are prohibited after the MFT provides adequate information to protect others. This helps in protecting the clients’ privacy before they commit a crime by causing harm.
Duty to Warn Duty to warn refers to the MFT’s obligation to caution or notify third parties or law enforcement officers about a client who is likely to harm himself and others. According to Conn. Gen. Stat. § 52-146 p(c) (2), a MFT is expected to issue a warning if he believes in good faith that withholding confidential information about a client poses health and safety risks to the public.
We will write a custom Coursework on Marriage and Family Therapy in Connecticut specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this respect, a MFT does not have to seek the client’s consent to disclose information that is considered confidential. The main limitation in applying the duty to warn principle in Connecticut is that issuing a warning is not mandatory. Specifically, the law permits but does not compel MFTs to warn third parties about clients who might be violent or dangerous.
Thus, MFTs can opt to withhold confidential information about their clients without breaking the law. In addition, the law does not define the recipient of the information. Thus, MFTs can choose to share the information only with the people who they perceive to be vulnerable to attacks by the client.
Ethical Complaints Ethical complaints are usually handled by the Connecticut Association of Marriage and Family Therapy (CTAMFT). After receiving a complaint concerning the violation of AAMFT’s ethical standards, CTAMFT examines the grievance to determine its merit and compliance with jurisdiction and filing procedures.
If the complaint is deemed to have merit, charges have to be drafted and presented to the chairperson of AAMFT’s ethics committee (AAMFT, 2014). Once the chairperson approves the charges, the committee will launch investigations to collect facts about the complaint. In addition, the complainant is informed about the ongoing investigations by the committee.
However, the committee can terminate or postpone the investigations if the case lacks merit. Generally, the complainant is required to give consent for the use of his or her personal information during the investigations. Upon the completion of the investigation, the committee discusses the findings before making a decision on the case (AAMFT, 2014).
If the accused is found guilty of violating the ethical standards, the committee must take disciplinary actions. The action taken usually depends on the severity of the violation. Severe violations can lead to termination of membership in CTAMF (AAMFT, 2014). Moreover, the accused can be prosecuted in court if the violation constitutes a criminal offense. However, the committee usually takes lenient actions such as rehabilitating the accused if the violation is not serious.
Scope of Practice According to the Practice Act (1979), marriage and family therapy refers to the evaluation, counseling, and management of emotional problems that arise within families or marriages. Thus, the scope of MFT practice in Connecticut is mainly limited to identification of emotional disorders that might be cognitive or behavioral in nature.
Since the statute does not include treatment in the scope of practice, the interventions provided by MFTs mainly focus on managing clients’ conditions. The therapy or counseling services can be provided to individuals, couples, and families. This gives the clients the opportunity to get the best service quality without compromising their confidentiality.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marriage and Family Therapy in Connecticut by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MFTs in Connecticut are also allowed to use psychotherapeutic techniques to deliver the required services. In particular, MFTs can provide nonmedical psychotherapy with the aid of appropriate psychiatric resources. This includes the use of psychiatric tests to examine their clients’ attributes such as intelligence and addictions. MFTs are also expected to refer their clients to professionals such as doctors to enable them to access specialized treatment.
References AAMFT. 2014. The ethics complaint process. Web.
Conn. Gen. Stat. § 52-146 p(c) (2).
DPH. 2014. Marital and family therapist licensure requirements. Web.
Marketing Audit: Mediafire.com Company Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The Mediafire.com operates in the online cloud support industry and has been in existence for more than eight years. From its inception, the company’s product line objective has been to provide quality products at the convenience of the clients.
The services offered by the company include online file hosting, cloud storage, file synchronization, and software vending. The company has expanded from the US to all other continents due to its customer-centricity business model.
The company’s marketing plan has been successful in customer base expansion and market penetration in the competitive online business platforms. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly carry out a marketing audit of the Mediafire.com Company. The audit reviews product performance, distribution, pricing, promotion, and expanded marketing matrix strategies.
Marketing Audit Products that benefit from quality, feature and style improvements
The Mediafire.com has several products that are able to benefit from quality, feature, and style improvement since the company operates in a market that is sensitive to technological changes. For instance, the Mediafire SharePoint is an application which allows enterprises to backup their documents via a private cloud.
This application by the Mediafire comes with a system for functionality or information delivery via a site. Through its ‘Cloud app model’, this application enables a user to create personalized apps which the Mediafire.com controls and hosts (MediaFire, 2015, par. 3).
In addition, the SharePoint application has series of cross-server communications which might negatively impact on its performance, especially when in use in large organizations (Blythe 2006). Unlike other apps, the SharePoint application is not very flexible and does not provides customized solutions to each business needs, and easy to use.
Besides, the proposed modification will ensure that the SharePoint application has series of options for hosting besides multiple platforms for creating related applications. As a result of modifying the file sharing product, the SharePoint allocation will have the capability of efficiently replacing the sandbox and farm solutions thus, guaranteeing satisfaction to the administrators, users, and third-party application customer.
New products worth adding
There are three new products that are worth adding to the current array of online support that the Mediafire.com offers to customers across the globe. For instance, the company may integrate the OpenStack, Rackspace, Eucalyptus, and CloudStack to ensure that the current cloud deployments are customisable within different servers, as opposed to the current centralized server.
By integrating the above applications into the current cloud hosting system, the Mediafire.com will be in a position to expand its scope of operation since the new products will assist customers in creation, deploying, and hosting of different business applications (Cheverton, 2004).
Besides, the proposed applications can compute, network, and store different all-encompassing cloud deployments. In addition, the new products are compatible with KVM, Hyper-V, XenServer, and Xen Cloud Platform (XCP), which make the Mediafire server user friendly.
The pricing objectives, policies, strategies and procedures
Pricing of products and services is of fundamental importance in the four elements of marketing mix that generates profit for business enterprises. The factors that influence the price of commodities and services can be categorized as external and internal (Dagnino
Alibaba Group Holding Limited Evaluation Essay essay help online
Company Description The Alibaba Group Holding Limited is an online shopping company which offers e-commerce trading in China. Founded in 1999, the company has been active in offering electronic payment, cloud computing, and online shopping platform services to customers within the China market.
The company is currently valued at $231 billion. The group has affiliate companies such as Toaboa, Alibaba.com, Juhuansuan, Tmall.com, Alipay, and eTao among others. Alibaba Group Holding Limited has employed the laggard activism strategy to not only capture the Chinese market, but also leapfrog the dominant e-commerce companies.
The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has good knowledge of the Chinese market. The company operates on the Customer-to-Customer (C2C) platform and Business-to-Business (B2B) platform. In order to penetrate the expanding Chinese market, Alibaba Group Holding Limited’s business platform was modified through introduction of services such as premium customer experience, compact support from the community, and low charges for small businesses.
Mission Statement The mission of the company is to proactively create a reliable and sustainable future e-commerce infrastructure across the globe to meet the expectations of the customers. The mission has internalized the aspects of quality services, affordable products, and long culture of reliability.
The business strategy of the Alibaba Group Holding Limited in achieving its mission functions on the parameters of brand momentum, market innovation, and product excellence. Under the brand momentum, the company has created an effective system for maintaining purity and product strength to position the Alibaba Group Holding Limited brand as a market leader.
As a result, the elements of digitalization, brand recognition, and direct market interaction have become part of the company’s business culture. The attitude of the organization towards localization is an indication of clear vision within the Chinese market.
The goal is to concentrate on the local market through the use of an open-system business model. The strategy was meant to take advantage of the challenge of ‘smallness’ to defeat the giant companies, which depended on the closed-system approach in the execution of their business strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal Analysis The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) system offers the opportunity for an organization to fill the vacuum that often exists between actions and strategies adopted. The system engages a multi-user board in planning for the immediate and long term strategies.
The system has application for tracking feedback against the progress of each strategy and records any changes in the business environment. Thus, the BSC system can be described as a necessary tool for systematic evaluation of the strategies in place against future focus in order to successfully translate the strategies into deliverable variables that can be quantified. This part of the paper carries out internal analysis of the Alibaba Group Holding Limited through use of the balanced scorecard.
The balanced scorecard for the Alibaba Group Holding Limited
Since the Alibaba Group Holding Limited operates in a dynamic and highly competitive e-commerce industry in China and across the globe, it is important to develop an explicit Balanced Scorecard that captures the company’s key success factors such as enhancing learning and innovation, internal business process, financial, and customer management. The Balanced Scorecard in summarized in the tables below for each success factor.
Perspective: Learning and Innovation
Key success factor (objectives) Key performance indicator Target Summary action plan Business environment improvement and sustainability. The performance of the decision science since the management approach is proactive. Emerging the supply chain and the marketing strategies that are customized to serve the dynamic and sensitive Chinese market. The company has been successful in streamlining the supply chain and marketing departments on the basis efficiency.
Effective and organized workforce drawn from the local market. Performance of the employee review system through use of the effective 360 degree feedback and talent promotion. Micromanaging the employee performance through a series of constructive trainings that are designed to create an open workenvironment. The company has been successful in developing a series of employee training modules within the business scope within the expansive Chinese market.
Improving the digital business platform. The number of recorded visits on the company’s online portal has risen from three million in 1999 to 1.2 billion by the end of the 2014. 30% of the private and corporate online visits in a month within China are recorded in the company’s online customer activity tracker. The company has been proactive and focused on recruiting a digital marketing support team as part of the workforce to serve its extensive customer base through the state of art customer care center in Beijing. Creating a flexible learning environment. Proactive business model and workforce that has the relevant talents and skills to support the complex online business platform. There is efficiency in business reporting at the company through the company’s executive directors and regional representative. The company has successfully outsourced training consultants or experts from the Silicon Valley to ensure that its current business platform is the most advanced but user friendly. Perspective: Internal Business Process
Key success factor (objectives) Key performance indicator Target Summary action plan Efficiency in the internal audit channel. Improvement in the business development process and reporting. There are series of proactive internal audit reports to ensure that internal control is within the mission and vision of the company. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited offers training on the required business process auditing and creating a secondary team to audit the reports generated each year to minimize cases of fraud. Micromanaging the audit and management units as dependent functions. Optimal management reports that are generated on a yearly basis. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in creating a rationale internal control system. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in offering mandatory training and performance review for the managers and auditors. Effective services with regards to actual and reported business activities. The actual performance report against preset targets. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in continuously managingits decision making organ through the highly skilled board of governors. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in reinventing its approach towards customer’s expectation management. Micromanagement of the supply chain and online portal. Effectiveness of the supply chain. Smooth flow across the supply chain since all the activities are centralized and paperless. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has successfully automated its supply chain and logistics support centers across the China. Perspective: Customer
Key success factor (objectives) Key performance indicator Target Summary action plan Stratification of different market segments. Positive records of new and old customers in comparison to preset targets. Micromanaging the different branding strategies to meet the demands of the customers. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in implementing the current strategic customer retention strategies such as offering attractive discounts and other after sales services. Management of customer demands. The increase in number of positive compliments from customers. Creating a sustainable customer base. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in offering persuasive and attractive services to customers through the current promotional channels. Customer satisfaction Frequency of same customers Creating a sustainable customer base The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in creating a system for management of the customer loyalty programs. Feedback reporting Frequency of messages from customers Creating a feedback system for online and offline customers The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has successfully outsourced an IT company to carry out customer relationship management on its behalf. Perspective: Financial
We will write a custom Essay on Alibaba Group Holding Limited specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key success factor (objectives) Key performance indicator Target Summary action plan A sustainable financial management The business ethics and professionalism in reporting financial reporting Improving the performance ratios The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in creating a tight financial reporting channel. Improving the daily returns tracker The financial performance per day Constant growth in returns by a positive value The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in implementing the returns management system. Expanding the profitability Improvement in the annual profitability within the set target Growth in the profit margin after every three months of active business The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has been successful in ensuring that there is stability in the performance ratios. Rationalized financial investment Rational financial plans Success of long term investments The Alibaba Group Holding Limited hassuccessfully created a tight financial planning system. The financial ratio performance of the company as compared to its major competitor is summarized in the tables below.
The Alibaba Group Holding Limited
Profitability 2012 2013 2014 Profit Margin % 33.63 18.42 18.78 Asset Turnover 0.58 0.61 0.58 Return on Assets % 19.42 11.21 10.86 eBay China Company
Profitability 2012 2013 2014 Profit Margin % 10.93 9.69 9.43 Asset Turnover 1.07 0.94 0.89 Return on Assets % 11.7 9.14 8.38 The profit margin for the The Alibaba Group Holding Limited declined from 33.63% in 2012 to 18.42% in 2013. The value increased to 18.78% in 2014. On the other hand, it can be observed that the profit margin for its main competitor, eBay China Company, declined from 10.93% in 2012 to 9.69% in 2013.
The ratio further declined to 9.43% in 2014.Thus, it can be noted that the profit margin of the Alibaba Group Holding Limited is higher than that of eBay China Company. This implies that the Alibaba Group Holding Limited performs better in terms of profitability than its main competitor.
Besides, it may also indicate that the Alibaba Group Holding Limited is more efficient in managing cost of sales and operating cost than the eBay China Company.
Applying the Balanced Scorecard The Alibaba Group Holding Limited’s retail model targets user consumers who form the majority of its market catchments. Since this target group frequent The Alibaba Group Holding Limited online platforms, the company has been in a position to conveniently direct the customers to their designated delivery points and stores without having to directly deliver since the customer perspective is properly implemented.
The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has merged the strategy with advertisements since this group of consumers has access to social media. Due to exposure to information sources such as new papers, television, radio, and magazines, product announcement through these avenues has come in handy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alibaba Group Holding Limited by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The decision on the best product relies on information feedback after multiple exposures to different competing products. This approach has been successful towards dominance as it offers a variety of options to consumers, while at the same time, maximizing benefits of economies of scale to the company.
Alibaba Group Holding Limited is the leading company in the e-commerce industry in terms of design and innovation in China. The company is associated with new innovations and attractive designs that appeal to their customers across the world.
Thus, through integration of the training and innovation elements within the Balanced Scorecard, the Alibaba Group Holding Limited has benefited from this strategy in terms of market expansion. Specifically, through product development, the company has been in a position to optimally exploit opportunities available in the innovation market segment and gain a significant share in the e-commerce market in China.
Company’s Major Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths
The Alibaba Group Holding Limited Company depends on the local means of production in running the business. The company’s business model was to create a decentralized system in terms of a management line of the expansion within the Chinese market. The Alibaba Group Holding Limited rolled out an interesting entry into the Chinese market by concentrating in the affordable traditional methods of advertising.
This strategy ensured that the company is sustainable even when it is offering free services as was the case within the first three years of operation. The affordable and visible traditional methods of advertisement ensured that the targeted market was in a position to distinguish the business from its rival. Besides, the company introduced very low charges for its services, which could not be matched by its rivals.
The payment system of the Alibaba Group Holding Limited is internalized within the flexible platform known as the Alipay. This platform is easy to use among the Chinese customers and businesses. The current financial performance of the company is a clear indication of sustainable business since the company has never made loses since its inception in the year 1999.
Generally, when all other factors are held constant, the Alibaba Group Holding Limited is in a better positioned to sustain its business within the Chinese market due to its unique services, wide appeal to customers, and relatively flexible management model.
The Alibaba Group Holding Limited faces stiff competition from companies such as the eBay China, which has mature formula for doing business in the expanding Chinese market. High levels of bureaucracy and inter-functional rivalry are the main reasons that impede the Alibaba Group Holding Limited’s strategy from fully penetrating the Chinese market.
The Alibaba Group Holding Limited has more presence in China than other parts of the global e-commerce market. Specifically, unlike its main competitors, the company has only three physical branches outside China, unlike its competitors. Thus, the Alibaba Group Holding Limited does not enjoy the substantive demand in the global market as its customer catchment area is restricted to the boundaries of the Chinese market.
Besides, the focus of the Alibaba Group Holding Limited is more about the small business platform. This is counterproductive in terms of revenue generation since the majority of its customers are small businesses and private individuals who cannot operate in the global e-commerce platform.
First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. Case Study online essay help: online essay help
First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. is one of the fastest growing producers of high-priced dog food products. Dog food market has not been fully exploited in the US. The company is keen in establishing better ways of promoting its products in Boston, allocating funds for the initiative and enhancing sales.
It is estimated that several dog owners in the USA and particularly Boston do not rely on prepared dog food. Over 50% of owners usually opt for other alternative foodstuffs that are not specifically prepared for dogs. Hence, the dog food market is still untapped.
Issues and problems in the market Since its inception, First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. has grown steadfastly to dominate the kennel market. Retailing into the new dog food market presents several challenges. The decision to sell the Show Circuit brand frozen dog food product will be critical. Therefore, thorough understanding of the market is crucial.
In regards to the products being sold by the company, factors such as quantity of production and packaging should be considered. These will enable the product to gain competitive advantage over others. Pricing strategy is yet another factor that should be put into consideration when marketing the products.
Promotion of the Show Circuit brand frozen dog food is vital in promoting sales. Other factors include the target market, type of advertisement and media to use as well as accessibility of the products.
SWOT analysis Strengths
First in Show Pet Foods’ strength is evident in the quality of its products. They are of premium quality and recommended for dogs. It is the only pet food freezer in supermarkets. This strength differentiates it from other brands.
Cost is a major issue of concern in selling show Circuit dog food owing to the production process that requires the inclusion of cereal grains and fresh meat. Besides, the process of freezing, space requirement and thawing demand enough time and resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most consumers are also poorly informed on the benefits of frozen dog food products. Besides, low margin sale for retailers of Show Circuit dog food is a weakness that affects sales since the products attract lower margins. Poor distribution is equally a weakness since the company has limited resources.
First in Show Pet Foods, Inc has massive opportunities emanating from the untapped frozen dog food market and the increasing population of dogs. Since a few people use prepared dog food, there is a market niche to be explored.
Several dog owners prefer natural dog food and are willing to pay premium prices for the products. Moreover, Boston market is untapped and therefore, it is possible to boost the volume of sales.
The greatest threat of First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. is competition. The most notable market rivals include Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Del Monte Foods Purina PetCare and MasterFoods USA that own about 75% of the entire market share.
This company has not yet grown and established its marketing campaigns even though these competitors aggressively advertise their products. Besides, most buyers mainly purchase from supermarkets.
Conclusion and recommendations In order for First in Show Pet Food, Inc to succeed in promoting and selling its products, it should start gradually by building a base and then opening and expanding to other retail outlets. A gradual start involves operating within the level of a store and working with the limited distribution channels.
The selling point for the products can be within the aisle of the stores. Advertisement via coupon mailer will be beneficial at the start. It can later be advanced to television advertisement. Due to the number of competitors, it is clear that First in Show Pet Food, Inc. understands it has a low market share.
We will write a custom Case Study on First in Show Pet Foods, Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Interaction with customers and developing a strategy on how to enhance distribution channels will ensure proper launching and expansion into Boston market.
The Emancipation Proclamation Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction The Emancipation Proclamation is a historic event in the US, which remains an object of great criticism to date. Abraham Lincoln supported freedom for slaves in America, but he slurred the process, which made his intentions questionable. Arguably, Lincoln never had humanitarian intentions when calling for abolition of slavery.
Lincoln wanted to strengthen ties with the Great Britain because he never wanted the Great Britain to see the confederate as a charitable institution. In his 1859 speech at Cincinnati, it was obvious that Abraham Lincoln only intended to save the confederacy between America and the Great Britain.
Freeing slaves would only be an end to the means because most people referred to Lincoln as the president of the whites. The Emancipation Proclamation and the end of the Civil War remain the greatest accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln as a president of the US in the 1860s. Each president in the US and other countries often leaves a legacy and the competition to leave one always places much pressure on them.
For instance, President Obama’s Healthcare policy received much criticism, but he insisted on the long-term policy because he has a legacy to protect. It explains the commitment Lincoln displayed when leading the Emancipation Proclamation even as the outcomes rarely aimed at freeing slaves completely. The Emancipation Proclamation was not to end slavery as many had believed, but it was only the beginning of a very long struggle for equality and survival.
The Emancipation Proclamation “Gone with the Wind” is a re-enactment of the events that took place in the streets of Atlanta after the American President declared their freedom. Each of them received a mule and forty acres of land in the storyline that measures up to the joy that they had after the Emancipation Proclamation.1 Abraham Lincoln died of melancholy, he lost his first son at the toddling age, and his entire family had problems.
Largely, the events of his life affected the way Lincoln dealt with issues in America. When Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation document, the slaves felt happy, but it never assured them that slavery would end completely. Critics of the Emancipation Proclamation mention that America had a reputation to keep, and the history of enslaving people would automatically interfere with its position in the confederacy.
The UK would withdraw relations with the US if Lincoln supported slavery and became the president of the whites. Lincoln’s campaign agenda was to emancipate the slaves in America. However, he developed reluctance to achieve an objective that was a principal factor throughout the campaigning period.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many Americans expected the president to announce the emancipation, but it came much later. Some delays in the signing of the emancipation document included opposition from the Republicans including the spin-doctor techniques Lincoln had to use in order to gain the greatest support from the single victory vote in the Congress.
Definition The Emancipation Proclamation refers to the long awaited freedom from slavery for the blacks and the African Americans in the US. From the late 16th century, the slave trade in 1750 and the plantation slavery in the 1800s, slavery was a vice that the society needed to curb.
By 1750, European states had trafficked about 80,000 child slaves to various colonial powers to work for them in their farms.2 The intention of using minors and denying them education was to prevent any form of oppression. In the US, prominent personalities including Frederick Douglass and Equiano Olaudah faced cruelty from James Barbot Jr. among other slave owners while crossing the Congo River.
In America, the case was slightly different because most slaves escaped from Europe and they knew how to read and write. The need for freedom from the ex-slaves and empowerment of the slaves in South and Central America became a necessity. States such as Peru and Bolivia worked together to abolish slave trade, but the American president displayed little enthusiasm to end slavery in the Southern and Northern states.
Southern and Central states of the Americas waited for the emancipation after Lincoln openly discussed the matter in the 1859 campaign. Arguably, most states already discarded slave trade by the 1950s and America remained expectant that Abraham Lincoln would make a similar move through his political campaign that focused on the emancipation of slavery.
The Emancipation Proclamation came later in history as a document that formally mentioned that the US would stop slavery. Met with many expectations, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 – four years after he mentioned that he intended to do the same through the Cincinnati speech.
During the same year, America engaged in the Civil War to ensure that the British stopped colonizing parts of North and Southern America. Maryland, Kentucky, and Delaware among other states considered non-rebellious were not part of the emancipation project.3 In essence, they never bordered plantation slavery dominated regions, and they experienced little or no effects of slavery.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Emancipation Proclamation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lincoln received opposition from radical republicans who established that the emancipation was a personal project that could end slavery, but not the animosity of racism. Today, Negroes still live with whites in America and other parts of the world, but the issue of racism still arises in political, legal, and social settings.
Lincoln’s Intentions Saving the Union
The US valued its relationship with the UK and the Great Britain at large. The Great Britain remains very important to the history of the Americas even after the colonization process. It was until the end of the Boston Tea Party that Britain stopped exporting tea from India to America.
About the same period, many slaves worked on the plantations of British masters in America, but European countries already abolished slave trade. In order to be part of the confederacy and enjoy good relations with the union, a country had to stop slave trade.
In the Cincinnati speech, Lincoln mentioned that his intentions were to save the union, and if it would come through ending slave trade, then it was his obligation to maintain the international relations between the Great Britain and America.4 Critics including members of the radical republic group insinuated that Lincoln never had charitable intentions when freeing slaves.
Instead, he wanted the Great Britain to see his generosity, and human nature by freeing the enslaved people. When the president signed the emancipation document, he mentioned that he wanted to create an environment of fairness and communal justice. On the other hand, his campaign speech was clear about his intentions after the emancipation.
Ending the Civil War
Frederick Douglass an American rhetoric once described Lincoln as the white man’s president. Douglass among other activists never expected the president to disassociate himself from the black suffrage. However, he knew that Lincoln would never allow his personal issues including family problems to interfere with his official duties.
As such, when he meant the emancipation, definitely Lincoln would do the same. The beginning of the Civil War equally coincided with his speech when he first mentioned the emancipation of plantation slavery, which would lead to the end of the black suffrage.
After Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation document, the Civil War in America ended. In essence, the union would later restore its relationship, and it would be irrelevant for the Britons to continue dominating their colonies in North America.5 On the night of the celebrations just before Lincoln and his wife set out to watch a film together, the president died.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Emancipation Proclamation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He never lived to witness the celebrations of the freed slaves in Atlanta. The Civil War ended, and it was obvious that the emancipation process achieved its objective.
When the Emancipation Proclamation occurred, it became obvious that other countries within the union had to stop the vice. England among other beneficiaries of slavery built their economies from the trafficked black population from Mali and Ghana among other parts of West Africa. In addition, the British found markets for their expensive products in South, Central, and North America.
It took a long time for slavery to end in North America, but its conclusion in South America meant that Britain lost a great share of market for its tea and cotton from India. South America was equally an excellent transit zone for the British to access markets in North and Central America. When the Emancipation Proclamation occurred, Lincoln mentioned that the need to stay within the union was very important for America.
It meant that freedom for slaves was not particularly of interest to him. The ability of the UK and the larger Great Britain to see America as human and charitable would automatically increase trade and foreign relations interest in the country.6 As such, the involved countries would not benefit from slavery over the short-term, but relationships with the West remained significant for future economic growth.
European countries including England Portugal, and France would not stand being the only countries that support slavery even if plantation slavery was the main source of economic growth.
Establishment of Trade Ties
The union shared close political and economic relationships. Europe became an inventor while America became an innovator that made the products and services reach out to people globally. It explains the reason why most people link the industrial revolution and the end of slavery to America even though the two first took place in Europe.
Critics of the Emancipation Proclamation mentioned that trade ties within the union were strong forces of the abolition of slavery. As such, Lincoln designed the Emancipation Proclamation because other European countries gained from the transition in the past. Lincoln feared that the states with the highest number of slaves would rebel against the union, which would interfere with trade relations within the union.
If there was need to free laves, then Lincoln only had to apply the principles of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. The best technique would be to identify the origins of the slaves and return them to their countries. It was impossible for the great grandchildren of the real slaves in Europe to trace their origins except for the ones that decided to go back to Liberia to start a new life altogether.
Freed slaves were sources of employment in the union countries and markets for finished products, and the emancipation, therefore, would strengthen trade relations between America, the Great Britain, and other European states.7 In 1861, South America displayed great interest in ending slavery in 1861 because of America’s need to portray control over its national boundary and to manage its commercial resources internally.
In the beginning of the 19th century, America started to invest in the railroad, coal, and transportation business and the markets around Europe would equally benefit from the emancipation process.
Strengthening the Confederate Army
The Emancipation Proclamation seemed like a partial move towards abolition of slavery. Lincoln felt that the Federal Government never wanted to interfere with states that remained very loyal to slavery. End of slavery would strengthen relations in the union, which was very important for the confederate army.
In order to keep the army strong and sound, the countries under the union had to share similar governance principles, which had to begin by abolition of slavery.
Criticism of the Emancipation Proclamation
After the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, it became evident that the Emancipation Proclamation was not what the society anticipated. President Andrew Johnson assumed office in August 1865, and most efforts he made aimed at restoring the relationship between the US and the union.
Issues of black suffrage ended while strengthening the confederate army became a priority for the federal government.
The Emancipation Promulgation and Poverty
The ratification of the US constitution signified by its 13th amendment led to the abolition of slavery in 1865. Clearly, the Emancipation Proclamation never ended slavery, but completely served the interests of the union. By January 1, 1863, Negroes went to the streets to celebrate the emancipation, but the death of Abraham Lincoln lowered their expectations of the emancipation process.8 For two years, Negroes operated as partial slaves to the American Federal Government.
Since the Federal Government leased the plantations to the Britons in North America, Negroes from South Carolina and other slavery loyalists lacked employment opportunities. Lincoln approved a congressional principle that allowed the confederate proprietors to acquire property through the Confiscation Act passed in July 1862. The slaves that labored in the plantations for several years would not benefit from their toil.
Instead, the heirs to the farmlands acquired their property. It was an exercise to help reinforce the relationship within the union, and many people began questioning the importance of rewarding the masters instead of the slaves. The value of property also appreciated after 1863, making it difficult for blacks to acquire land.
The appreciation explains why Negro-dominated states still rely on various poverty reduction policies such as the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TAFNF) and Social security fund.9 Black suffrage and its link to poverty are still major problems in different states in America including Louisiana and Missouri because the society feels that the white population enjoys numerous privileges.
Such remains evident in the administration of justice and the employment sector. Most blacks have to work in the causal laboring sector while whites have opportunities in the formal sector that proves less strenuous, but pays well.
The Recommendations of the Promulgation Emancipation
The Emancipation Proclamation never gave a directive to the plans the federal government had with the ex-slaves. Joblessness and provision of lands to masters from North America saw the slaves move towards the North in search of employment opportunities in the plantations.
From a critical perspective, lack of hope and empowerment of masters from the North made the ex-slaves subject to the new landowners. Slaves had to live in pitiable neighborhoods commonly referred to as slums. Exposure to diseases and crime remains a problem in ghettos to date not only in America, but also in other parts of the world.10 When slaves moved into the Northern states, President Andrew Johnson realized that ratification of various clauses in the constitution would help in the restoration of the dignity of the ex-slaves.
The emancipation displayed ethical faults from a universal perspective because it largely aimed at benefiting the US and countries in the Great Britain. Cotton, tobacco, and rice in Virginia, Mississippi, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Alabama, and North Carolina among other cash crops in America would benefit South America and the confederate.
The industrial revolution plans were equally underway, and it meant that the government never planned to create any employment opportunities for the slaves after the emancipation.
Slavery Culture In most cases, it becomes very easy to deal with a vice physically, but the emotional trauma remains very difficult to erase. Among other origins of racism and marginalization based on ethnicity, the emancipation contribution was a major contributor to divisions based on race. In South America, the emancipation led to enrichment of the heirs of European plantation masters.
Blacks, Mulattoes, African Americans, and Indians among others faced segregation based on color. The cultured people underwent a similar oppression as women in South America. Even after the emancipation, the Negroes could not vote, get formal employment, or go back to their countries of origin, which they never knew. Slaves who followed their masters to the North never had an option because it was the only way of survival.
Such levels of subordination resulted in extreme oppression that caused the animosity between the whites and the blacks among other marginalized races. The justice system characterized by constant life imprisonment of black over the whites signifies that the emancipation project also created animosity between the two races.
Marginalized races including the Hispanics, Mexicans, African Americans, and the Indo Asians among others largely depend on outsourcing and casual employment for survival.11 Such as the effects of the Emancipation Proclamation that had a poor deployment plan in the name of ending slavery and black suffrage.
Conclusion In sum, the Emancipation Proclamation was not the end slavery as many had believed, but was only the beginning of a very long struggle for equality and survival. In each type of administration, faults and success stories emerge.
Lincoln had the best intentions for the union, but the way he made the confederate work disadvantaged the black slaves. Slaves began the struggle to find employment in plantations in North America. In addition, they strived to gain political representation through voting as some began tracing their origins.
The troubles for the slaves are continuing even though the thirteenth amendment of the constitution lessened their troubles. As such, the Emancipation Proclamation had political benefits for America, but little concern for the slaves.
Bibliography Blair, W. and Karen Y. Lincolns Proclamation: Emancipation Reconsidered. Charlotte, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Carnahan, B. Act of Justice: Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation and the Law of War. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2007.
Clark, C., Nancy H., Joshua B., and David J. Who Built America? – To 1877: Working People and the Nation’s History (3rd ed.). Boston, US: Bedford/Saint Martin’s, 2007.
Equiano, O. The interesting narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavas Vassa, the Africa, 1789: The African Slave captives. Web.
Ford, C. Lincoln, S, and the Emancipation P. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2004.
Guelzo, A. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon
Kraft Coffee Pod Launch Case Study essay help free
Case overview Indecisiveness especially regarding the issue of marketing is indeed one of the greatest challenges facing Kraft Coffee Pod. It is evident that the company allocates a lot of its resources in advertising and marketing. However, the current product manager (George Herzog) is unable to make a decision whether to launch additional coffee pods in other regions such as Canada and South America.
In actual sense, he cannot determine if the existing marketing strategy in the United States may be replicated in Canada and generate similar positive effects.
Analysis and evaluation The above challenge arises from the fact that Herzog is not in a position to determine the best and most effective pricing model for retail and wholesale products in markets located outside the United Sates. It is crucial to mention that marketing conditions in the United States remarkably differ from other regions.
Hence, a pricing strategy that yields positive results in the US might not necessarily give impressive results elsewhere. In addition, the production manager is not certain about coffee flavors that are generally desired by consumers.
The tastes and preferences of customers are instrumental when introducing a new product or brand into the market. If consumers are not satisfied, it might lead to low volume of sales followed by gross losses. These are some of the reasons why Herzog does not want to make a quick decision.
Apart from identifying an appropriate marketing strategy, the manager also lacks a vantage position to determine the best distribution channels for delivering products. The choice of a distribution channel mainly depends on the available financial resources. As it stands now, the company has limited monetary resources that can be allocated to a more robust and effective channel of distribution.
Moreover, it is agreeable that the company is facing stiff competition from other major brands in Canada and the US. For instance, Procter and Gamble enjoys close to 9 % of the market share in the Canadian market while Nestle occupies 17% of the available market in terms of shares.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other combined private companies assume about 23% of the market. Worse still, Melita and Salton compete directly with Kraft Coffee Pod. The high rate of competition and rival for the existing market are major threats for Kraft Coffee Pod both in the short and long-term period.
Recommendations From the above evaluation, it is highly recommended that George Herzog should go ahead and launch the product in Canada in order to expand the market share of the company. Marketing risks are inevitable and hence, Kraft Coffee Pod should extend its operations beyond the US markets.
Herzog and the rest of the management team should also act aggressively and compete against potential market rivals such as Procter
The Intelligence Community Oversight Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
What do you consider to be the biggest challenge facing Congressional Oversight of the Intelligence Community?
Research has shown that for a long time, the congress lacked adequate information on the components of intelligence. Puyvelde (2013, 140) confirms that for over 25 years, little effort has been put in place by the congress in enhancing intelligence. After critical review of history, Moran (2011, 676) elucidates that there are myriads of intelligence failures across the world.
For instance, a number of regimes have been overthrown from power. Assassinations and incessant uprisings are also rife in various parts of the globe. According to Puyvelde (2013, 140), the congress failed to institute measures to curb both local and international threats until the late 19th century when aggressive intelligence programs began to take shape.
After the end of major world wars, the congress made a deliberate attempt to protect intelligence programs. Instead of facilitating intelligence operations, it ended up establishing restrictive measures. It is worth to mention that the latter has been a major challenge for Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The greatest challenge facing congressional oversight is lack of incentives and time to oversee the management of Intelligence affairs. Puyvelde (2013, 141) observes that “senior policymakers and intelligence officers have at crucial times, demonstrated a reluctance to submit intelligence agencies to external oversight.” It is evident that there have been sharp divisions between the judiciary and executive arms of government on issues related to national intelligence.
Moreover, the congress has not provided ample political support to the intelligence community. Actually, the issue of intelligence in the United States has widely been captured in the media through newspapers and blogs (Puyvelde 2013, 142). The media is apparently compelling the government to demonstrate more interest in the management and overall improvement of intelligence matters by providing necessary incentives to the CIA.
Are the authorities and requirements enough to ensure that the Intelligence community operates within their established lanes?
Puyvelde (2013, 145) points out that the Intelligence Community faces numerous challenges due to limited authority and lack of support from the Congress. Moran (2011, 677) is emphatic that if the CIA can be accorded relevant support in terms of resources, it will be in a position to operate within the established boundaries.
Puyvelde (2013, 143) underscores that the congress uses watchdogs as overseers to restrain activities of the CIA. This has compelled the agency to operate without the input of the public. Members of public are crucial since they have reliable information that can be used to enhance intelligence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Puyvelde (2013, 144) observes that the congress should give the Intelligence Community necessary requirements such as finances and freedom to access crucial sources of information from government archives and records. Puyvelde (2013, 144) argues that “most studies of intelligence accountability in the United States have focused on the institutional system of checks and balances.” Therefore, it is obvious that checks and balances by the congress usually hinder the CIA from operating within the established regulations.
If the congress can be lenient enough and grant authority to the agency, then it will be possible for different interest groups to cooperate with the CIA (Puyvelde 2013, 144). This will not merely improve accountability. It will also assist interest groups to participate in national security and intelligence maters.
Relevant supports such as incentives, political goodwill and adequate funding should be given to the Intelligence Community in order to improve the overall standard of intelligence. The Intelligence Community can only function well if a conducive working environment is put in place.
References Moran, Christopher, 2011. “Intelligence and the Media: The press, government secrecy and the ‘Buster’ Crabb Affair.” Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 5 (October): 676-700.
Puyvelde, Damien. 2013. “Intelligence Accountability and the role of public interest groups in the United States.” Intelligence and National Security 28, no. 2 (May): 139-158.
Special Purpose Vehicle Project Financing Research Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to examine the requirements for special purpose vehicle (SPV) project financing for a large infrastructure project. The project to be financed is a 200-mile underground railroad that will be used by electric trains in the UK. The project will cost approximately 12 billion pounds.
Thus, a special purpose vehicle will be necessary to generate adequate funds to complete the project. In this respect, the paper will discuss the project financing process, advantages of using SPVs, and the requirements for a robust business case for using SPVs.
Project financing refers to “the raising of funds on a limited recourse basis for the purposes of developing a large-scale capital intensive project through a special purpose vehicle”. Generally, the borrowed funds are often repaid using the revenue from the project.
A special purpose vehicle refers to a firm whose “operations are limited to the acquisition and financing of specific assets or projects”. SPVs are usually established as subsidiaries whose assets and liabilities are structured in a manner that makes their obligations secure irrespective of the financial difficulties of their parent companies.
The Requirements for a Robust Business Case
Using SPVs is likely to have a robust business case if the following requirements are met. First, the sponsors must demonstrate the financial sustainability of the project to be financed. In particular, the goods or services that are to be provided by the project must have a clear demand in order to justify funding.
For instance, the railroad must have adequate demand as a transport system in the UK. This will enable the sponsor to collect adequate revenue to repay the loans that will be used to construct it. Thus, the financial sustainability of the project must be examined by modeling the vulnerability of the projected cash flows to macroeconomic changes such as an increase in oil prices.
Second, the lenders and sponsors should be able to identify all the major risks that are likely to affect the implementation of the project. The rationale of this requirement is that an unidentified risk cannot be mitigated. Thus, it will inevitably jeopardise the stability of the project, thereby exposing the lenders and sponsors to the risk of losing their investments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the major risks that often affect the stability of large infrastructure projects adversely include completion delays, cost overruns, sponsor’s poor credit worthiness, and limited access to feedstock. The Channel Tunnel in the UK is an example of a major project whose stability was negatively affected due to poor identification of risks before implementation.
Specifically, the stakeholders did not agree on the key details of the project and contingency measures were not put in place to cater for improvements such as adding the ventilation system. As a result, the project delayed by nearly 19 months, which in turn caused a cost overrun of approximately $3 billion.
Third, accessible financing must be available to ensure a robust business case. The financing arrangements must guarantee high leverage and long tenor to improve the economic viability of the project. High leverage is important because it reduces the amount of capital that the sponsor has to invest in the project at the initial stage.
Long tenor, on the other hand, ensures that the SPV has adequate time to repay the loan in a sustainable manner. In this respect, sponsors of large infrastructure projects use an elaborate mix of financing instruments to access the desired funds.
Some of the major sources of financing that ensures high leverage and long tenor include commercial banks, export credit agencies (ECAs), and the bond market. The City Link in Melbourne, Australia is an example of a large-scale transport infrastructure project that was financed through several sources. The project’s total cost of $2.2 billion was obtained by raising equity capital, bonds, and bank loans.
Finally, political stability is necessary to ensure the success of a large-scale infrastructure project. Political risks such as wars often interfere with the implementation of large-scale projects. For example, the construction process is likely to be suspended during a war, thereby causing delays and cost overruns. Therefore, the government must establish long-term political stability to ensure completion of the project and the repayment of the borrowed funds.
Reasons and Advantages of Using SPVs Reasons
One of the main reasons for using SPVs is to share the risks associated with implementing large-scale infrastructure projects with the financiers. SPVs are often formed as independent legal entities with several shareholders. The common shareholders of SPVs include lenders such as banks, the sponsoring company, institutional investors, and constructors.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Special Purpose Vehicle Project Financing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the sponsoring company usually owns just a small percentage of the SPV. As a result, it is able to share the risks associated with the project with other shareholders of the SPV. For instance, in the event that the railroad project fails during implementation, the losses associated with the failure will be shared by the members of the consortium that will implement it.
Thus, the overall negative financial impact on the sponsor will be reduced. SPVs are also used because they ensure limited recourse. In particular, the funds borrowed through SPVs can be viewed as limited recourse debts since the creditors have “only limited claims on the loan in the event of default”.
The limited claim is achieved by transferring the assets and liabilities acquired using the loan to the SPV’s balance sheet. This means that the creditors’ claims will be limited to only the assets of the SPV if the sponsor fails to meet its debt obligations. Thus, the parent company or the sponsor will avoid the risk of losing its assets to the creditors if it fails to repay the loan.
Using SPVs to access funding for a large-scale infrastructure project has the following advantages. First, it reduces the overall cost of accessing credit and ensures flexibility in financing. SPVs do not depend on the credit lines of their parent companies since they are treated as external entities.
As an independent firm, the SPV is expected to establish its own credit lines. In this context, the SPV has to be presented to “the creditors as a stand-alone entity with its own risk-reward characteristics”. Therefore, the sponsoring firm can improve the credit worthiness of the SPV through adequate capital allocation.
As a result, the SPV achieves favorable credit rating, which in turn reduces its cost of borrowing. In addition, the after tax cost of capital will reduce significantly if the interest paid on the debt is deductible from the pretax profit. Conversely, the sponsoring company can transfer its debts to the SPV to reduce its debt-to-equity ratio.
As a result, the sponsor will be able to access credit easily and at a low interest rate. Apart from borrowing from banks, the SPV can access funding by selling equity to investors. This reduces the cost of capital since the investors will be compensated using the profits generated by the SPV rather than interest.
Second, using SPVs facilitates high leverage financing. For instance, the SPV can enable the sponsor to finance up to 90% of the project through debt. The main benefit of high leverage to the sponsor is that it makes the project affordable and less risky.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Special Purpose Vehicle Project Financing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, if the SPV that will implement the proposed railroad achieves a 90-to-10 debt-to-equity ratio, the sponsor will require only 1.2 billion pounds to invest in the project. This will not only make the project affordable, but will also reduce the financial risks that the sponsor will take by implementing the project.
Third, special purpose vehicle project financing enables the government to achieve fiscal optimisation. In this case, the government uses a public-private partnership (PPP) arrangement to implement a large-scale transport infrastructure project. Specifically, the government uses the PPP to select a private company that finances the project through a special purpose vehicle.
As a result, the government shifts the financing responsibility to the private sector, thereby enabling it to avoid tying huge financial resources in a single project. This perspective is based on the fact that the government amortises the cost of the project over its concession period.
Fourth, SPVs allow financiers to earn a level of return on investment that is proportional to the risks associated with the project. This perspective is based on the fact that the financiers directly obtain revenue from the services provided by the project. For instance, the investors in the SPV will be compensated by charging users of the railroad a predetermined fee.
This ensures cost recovery and a high return on investment, especially, if efficiency is enhanced during the implementation and operation of the project. In addition, charging a user fee improves the success of the project since the users will only pay the fee if the services are excellent. In this regard, the SPV will focus on improving the quality of the project to avoid losing money during the operation phase.
The investors in the SPV are also likely to make excess profits if the internal rate of return (IRR) is higher than the cost of capital. Another benefit is that the assets of the SPV act as collateral for borrowed funds. This allows lenders to recover the borrowed funds if the SPV fails to repay. The sponsor, on the other hand, is likely to benefit from low interest rates if the assets of the SPV can provide adequate collateral.
Fifth, using SPVs enables the sponsor to collaborate with a variety of investors. This not only ensures access to adequate financing, but also access to the technical expertise that is required to deliver the project. For example, technical risks such as poor workmanship can be eliminated if the contractor is one of the investors in the SPV.
The Project Financing Process The project financing process has three main phases namely, the pre-financing stage, the financing stage, and the post financing stage. Each of these stages has specific processes that have to be completed effectively.
The first process in this stage is to identify the project to be financed. Since the proposed railroad is a public good, the project will be identified and announced by the government. This will include identification of the services that will be provided by the project, their demand, and users. The second process is identification of risks and developing strategies for mitigating them.
In this process, the sponsor should collaborate with consultants or technical advisors to identify and quantify a variety of risks that are likely to derail the implementation of the project. The risk assessment should cover areas such as project completion, pricing, operation, technology, environment, interest rate, and insolvency risks among others.
Once the risks are known, effective strategies must be adopted to prevent or minimise their effects on the project to ensure success. The last process involves “conducting technical and financial feasibility studies”. Technical feasibility studies should focus on assessing the suitability of the proposed project location, design, operation, and the equipment to be used.
This will help in identifying and correcting technical problems that might lead to failure. Financial feasibility studies, on the other hand, should include a “business model that highlights the projected financial statements with assumptions, the financing structure, internal rate of return, and the net present value”.
The pitfalls at this stage include identification of a project whose services have no adequate demand. The Betuweroute in Rotterdam is an example of a major transport infrastructure project whose implementation was highly resisted by the public, thereby causing delays in its completion.
The public resisted the project because the technical feasibility study did not consider alternative transport solutions that could have reduced costs, while improving efficiency at the port of Rotterdam. Poor risk assessment is another major pitfall in the pre-financing stage. For example, the lenders and investors in the SPVs that were established by Enron made losses because they could not determine the financial stability of the company.
Equity arrangement or allocation is the first process in the financing stage. This process involves identifying the lead sponsor and the co-sponsors. Additionally, the proportion of equity that will be allocated to angle investors, financial institutions, and non-financial institutions has to be specified.
Once the equity arrangement is complete, the SPV must embark on negotiations and syndication to access the credit needed to complete the project. The negotiations are often followed by equity and loan disbursements. The main pitfall in this stage is failure to negotiate a favorable price and repayment schedule for the loans.
For instance, a high interest rate might lead to financial difficulties in the SPV. Moreover, failure to establish a contractual agreement to guide the relationships among the stakeholders can lead to disagreements that might jeopardise access to funding.
Post Financing Stage
This stage focuses on monitoring and evaluation to ensure that the project implementation is on schedule and within the planned costs. Therefore, the managers of the SPV must evaluate project status reports and financial reports to identify and correct emerging problems in time to avoid default and project failure.
Financial closure is also done at the post financing stage. This involves completing all financial transactions that are associated with the project to ensure that all outstanding invoices are paid before the completion of the project.
Repayment of the borrowed funds is also a major process in the post financing stage. Repayment typically begins after the end of the grace period. Based on the contractual agreements between the SPV and the lenders, the loans must be paid in time through quarterly, monthly, or annual installments to avoid penalties.
In addition, the investors in the SPV can be compensated through dividends. After the project closure, monitoring efforts should shift to the operation process. Monitoring the operation of the project will facilitate collection of adequate revenue to repay the borrowed funds and compensate the investors.
Thus, the main pitfall in the post financing stage is failure to monitor the progress of the project effectively to avoid completion delays. For instance, cost overruns and losses are likely to arise if completion takes longer than planned.
Sustainability Aspects First, economic sustainability is necessary to ensure the success of large-scale infrastructure projects that are financed through SPVs. In particular, the project should be able to generate adequate income during the concession period to compensate the financiers effectively. Thus, the services provided by the project should be of high quality.
In addition, equity and affordability must be enhanced to ensure adequate use of the project, which in turn leads to revenue maximisation. Second, environmental sustainability is a pre-requisite for the success of large-scale transport infrastructure projects.
Large-scale projects often cause environmental degradation through emission of greenhouse gases, destruction of vegetation, pollution of water bodies, and destruction of animal habitats. Therefore, a project can only be successful if its ecological footprint is minimal. For instance, constructing a railroad through a wildlife conservancy or forest can be resisted by the public, thereby causing failure during the implementation stage.
Finally, social sustainability has to be ensured to enhance the success of large-scale transport projects. Enhancing social sustainability involves reducing the undesirable effects of the project on the health, leisure, culture, and economic activities of the community in which it is implemented.
Generally, a project that improves the welfare of the community is likely to avoid resistance and attract capital from lenders and investors. Therefore, social sustainability has to be addressed to enhance the success of the project.
Conclusion A special purpose vehicle should be used to access funding for a large-scale project if there is a clearly defined business case. The main advantage of using SPVs is that they enable the sponsor to access off-balance sheet financing by transferring the assets and liabilities of a credit facility to an independent entity.
As a result, the sponsor benefits from low cost of capital. In addition, SPVs enable the sponsor to protect its core business from the risks associated with the credit and the project to be implemented. However, these benefits can only be realised if due diligence is done to identify and mitigate the pitfalls associated with the various stages of the project financing process.
References Cantarelli, C. (2011). Cost overruns in large-scale transport infrastructure projects. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.
Fight, A. (2005). Introduction to project finance. London, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The Role of the Hospitalist Today Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The number of hospitalists is on the rise. Such professionals are presenting the best health care to many patients. According to Kripalani, Jackson, Schnipper, and Coleman (2007, p. 316), “a hospitalist is a caregiver who takes care of patients in different healthcare facilities”. Such caregivers provide their services in different healthcare facilities. These hospitalists can provide evidence-based support to their patients.
Many hospitalists make sure their patients receive the best medical support. Hospitalists should also communicate effectively with different physicians. This practice will improve the quality of care. The “ultimate goal of every hospitalist is to improve the quality of inpatient care” (Kripalani et al., 2007, p. 318).
These practitioners can produce positive results in different healthcare settings. Many “hospitalists ensure their patients are admitted for a short period” (Sultz
Reform of Education in California Problem Solution Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Context and relevance
Statement of the problem
Root causes of the problem
Critique of the current approach
Context and relevance The demographic changes in the United States transform the cultural landscape of the country. America attracts people who may represent different cultural, ethnic, and religious groups. This trend sets new requirements for educational organizations that need to adopt various strategies to support people who struggle to integrate into the society.
It should be mentioned that the population of California includes people who come from Latin America, Asia, Europe, and other regions of the world. Therefore, one should design policies that effectively support these people.
Statement of the problem The current educational system does not fully empower people representing cultural minorities, and in many cases, their academic attainment and socialization can be significantly impaired. This problem manifests itself in several ways, for instance, one can speak about increased drop-out rates, poor educational attainment, and low expectations about academic and professional career.
Thus, one should single out methods that can be used to address these issues. This paper will include a proposal outlining the reform of K-12 education in California. The recommendations will be based on the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative studies.
Root causes of the problem At first, it is important to examine the factors that contribute to this problem. Researchers point out that the educational success of a student is mostly influenced by school policies, rather than his/her nationality, ethnicity, culture, religion, and so forth (Gibson 444).
Much attention should be paid to the influence of such factors academic tracking, the failure to assess linguistic proficiency of a student, or prejudiced attitudes of educators (Gibson 444). Additionally, many parents point that that existing policies lay stress on the Americanization of students without considering their background (Doucet 2705). Furthermore, teachers should be able to motivate students.
Teachers should encourage minority students to set high expectations for their academic performance (Conchas 501). In many cases, they fail to cope with this task. In fact, some teachers may not attach much importance to the poor performance of these learners. This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about African-American and Mexican-American students (Conchas 501).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Much attention should be paid to the attitudes of teachers. For instance, very often educators and policy-makers can use labels while discussing the experiences of minority groups. For instance, it is possible to mention such as term as “model community” which is usually used to refer to a group of people who are able to integrate into the society (Ngo and Lee 415).
This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about Asian students. This problem can be regarded as a form of cultural stereotyping. By adopting this strategy, one can disregard the problems faced by the representatives of such groups as Asian students. More importantly, it can make teachers prejudiced against other minority groups.
Furthermore, one should not forget about the lack of cooperation between teachers and parents of minority students.. In many cases, they cannot achieve this goal due to linguistic barriers. Certainly, there are some factors that cannot be controlled by educators. It is possible to mention such risks as poverty, gender inequality, drug and alcohol abuse. Nevertheless, these risks can be mitigated by teachers.
Critique of the current approach Admittedly, modern educators pay more attention to the role of diversity and culture. Nevertheless, in most cases, the modern education cannot fully empower students who often believe that their own culture is marginalized (McCarthy, Romero-Little, and Zepeda 660).
This argument can be relevant to various minority groups. Moreover, as it has been said the parents of these students do not have many opportunities for influencing the educational process. Therefore, there is little understanding of the problems encountered by many students.
Proposal Overall, this reform should include a variety of changes that can empower students. Much attention should be paid to the involvement of parents representing diverse groups. This goal can be achieved in several ways. For instance, one can speak the involvement of interpreters during parent-teacher conferences. This approach can minimize the negative impact of linguistic barriers.
Furthermore, these people should have more influencing the curriculum. This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about such subjects as literature and history. In this way, one can include diverse cultural perspectives into the educational discourse (Palmer 110).
We will write a custom Essay on Reform of Education in California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it is important to minimize the impact of stereotypes affecting the strategies of educators. The training of teachers should prompt them to question traditional stereotypes about various cultural and ethnic minorities. For instance, one can mention the use of concepts like model minority.
In order to achieve this goal, much attention should be paid to empirical studies and case studies illustrating that these stereotypes do not accurately reflect the experiences of students (Ngo and Lee 415). It is also important to develop educational practices that can take into account the role of language. This argument can be relevant to various fields including mathematics, physics, or chemistry.
Teachers, who work with ELL students, should provide clear definition of terms and provide illustrations if it is necessary (Bresser, Melanese, and Spher 171). This strategy can be important for promoting the educational attainment of many students who are often disadvantaged. Moreover, researchers speak about the need for dual-education programs that can benefit ELL learners (Billings 384). This is one of the points that can be made.
Furthermore, it is important to promote culturally responsive practices that can empower learners. This approach can be implemented in different ways. At first, it is possible to explore literary works written by authors who may represent different cultures. Furthermore, students should be encouraged to learn more about diverse communities living in a particular town or a city.
Additionally, educators, who work with children, should incorporate narratives imbedded into the culture of minority groups (Au 97). These are the suggestions that can be offered. The main advantage of this policy is that it can contribute to the academic achievement of many students. These people will have many opportunities for raising their socio-economic status.
Moreover, they will not perceive school as a hostile environment. These are the details that should be considered. Nevertheless, one should also mention that its implementation is rather time-consuming, and it will be necessary to set higher standards for the performance of many teachers. The education of would-be teachers should also undergo significant changes. These are some of the difficulties that should be anticipated.
Conclusion On the whole, these examples indicate that there are several ways in which K-12 education of California can be reformed. These changes can support students representing minority groups. These learners and their parents should be able to influence education. Moreover, it is necessary to adopt methods that can help students who do not speak English fluently. These are the main arguments that can be put forward.
Works Cited Au, Kathryn. “Participation Structures in a Reading Lesson with Hawaiian Children: Analysis of a Culturally Appropriate Instructional Event.” Anthropology
Emotional Expression and Perception of Time Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Brief Description
Perception of Time
Brief Description Culture has a direct influence on how its members express their emotions and perceive time. This paper uses two cultures, African and Asian ones, to discuss this influence. The two cultures selected differ in many ways, including geographical location, historical background, languages spoken, and religious beliefs.
As such, the two cultures have various values and attitudes. African culture emphasizes individualism, as opposed to Asian culture which focuses on collectivism (Matsumoto, 2001).
Emotional Expression According to Matsumoto (2001), each culture has norms, attitudes, and beliefs that affect how its members express their emotions. While Asians are a bit reserved when displaying emotions associated with good news, Africans openly express such emotions by smiling broadly (Lewis, Takai-Kawakami, Kawakami and Sullivan, 2010).
Africans show positive emotions through happiness and excitement while Asians express such feelings in a calm and peaceful emotion because they believe that displaying emotions should not attract much attention (Lewis et al., 2010). As such, suppression of emotions would not have any negative psychological consequence among Asians, but would result in feelings of guilt, stress, depression, and low self-esteem among Africans.
Happy events, such as births and marriages, have a tendency of making people joyful, but some persons may feel sad depending on their culture (Lewis et al., 2010). Africans generally feel happy when celebrating such events, but Asians might have mixed emotions.
The reason is that Asians normally involve themselves in conversations that tolerate change and contradiction during happy events. Similarly, Africans express emotions of sadness freely, unlike Asians that have restrictions when grieving over sad events, like deaths.
Perception of Time Time is a vital aspect of human experience. Temporal behavior, including life pace, time metaphors as well as duration and perception of the past, present, and the future, varies across cultures (Hill, Block and Buggie, 2000). Culture also influences how people feel about physical and personal time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, African culture does not place much emphasis on punctuality, but Asian culture considers punctuality to be vital. While both cultures believe in physical time, there exist clear differences when it comes to personal time. Asians perceive personal time as an investment, and therefore they prefer not to start a conversation as a way of passing time if it is unlikely to end.
On the other hand, Africans will not mind starting a conversation that, as they know, will not come to a logical end, since they do not perceive personal time as a valuable investment.
Furthermore, African culture attaches great importance to the present and the future while Asian culture considers the past to be of the utmost significance, as Asians believe that the past shapes the present and the future (Hill et al., 2000).
Both cultures believe in and remember time duration. This happens because they carry out events and activities only for a given period. Asians are, however, monochronic, which means that they only do one thing at a time and fully concentrate on it ((Hill et al., 2000).
They adhere to a timetable and spend the least time possible when performing activities. On the contrary, Africans, especially women, believe in multitasking to complete many activities within a short timeframe (Hill et al., 2000). Unlike Asians, Africans do not follow timetables and they can easily switch between activities, so long as they are all completed regardless of the time taken.
References Hill, O.W., Block, R.A., Buggie, S. E. (2000). Culture and beliefs among black American, black Africans and white Americans. The Journal of Psychology, 134(4), 443-461.
Lewis, M., Takai-Kawakami, K., Kawakami, K.
Perception of Intelligence by Zullu and Kpelle Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Perception of intelligence among different communities varies to a great deal depending on the socio-economic and political factors. The Kpelle people of Liberia had a different perception of intelligence from the Zulus of South Africa. The best way of measuring intelligence in such unique communities is to base the measurements on the local parameters.
Introduction Perception of intelligence varies from one community to the other across the world. While one community may value consultation when making decisions, others cherish creativity or even the ability to process information very fast. The parameters used to measure intelligence in one community may be very different from the parameters used in another community.
In this assignment, the researcher seeks to compare how the Zulu people of South Africa and Kpelle people of Liberia perceive intelligence. The researcher will look at their perception towards issues such as domestic violence, initiations, and marriages.
Discussion According to Matsumoto (2001), different African communities perceived intelligence differently. This scholar says that the Zulu people of South Africa valued communal work very much. They considered intelligence to be the ability to consult the elders whenever one is making a critical decision.
The elders were the think tanks for this society because of their knowledge gathered from years of experience. This community still cherishes the need to consult the elders when making decisions even in the face of the current Westernization in this country. On the other hand, the Kpelle people of Liberia valued creativity in decision-making. Even though they also cherished the relevance to consult, their environment posed many challenges that needed creative ideas.
Members of the society who were able to come up with creative ideas on how to solve the problems of the society were held in high regards. When their creative ideas helped in solving some of the environmental problems, the society members would consider them heroes.
It may not be easy to use a universal test to measure the intelligence between these two communities. As Valsiner (2012) notes, each of these cultural groups defined their measure of intelligence based on the environmental factors. For instance, the Kpelle people of Liberia had different environmental factors from the Zulu people of South Africa.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When using cognitive abilities such as memory, organization, and visualization, the two communities compare very closely. These cognitive factors were particularly important in defense. They had to remember the militaristic of their enemies based on the experiences and organize themselves when it was evident that the community was under attack, and visualize some of the best strategies that can be used to counter the enemy.
As Langley (2012) notes, such strategic approaches to solving problems were not restricted to addressing the threat of an attack. They were also important when addressing other social problems. One of the cultural practices that were common among the people of Kpelle is the marriage ceremony. In such important stages of life, the society considered intelligence to be the manner in which the couple engaged their elders in their wedding preparations.
Although a young man was allowed to look for a life partner of his choice, he would be considered an intelligent young man if he involved his parents and elder members of his community in investigating the background of the preferred bride. This is very different from what was traditionally practiced among the Zulu people of South Africa. Among the Zulu people, the parents arranged marriages.
Intelligence in this case would be the ability to accept the choices made by the elders because it was believed that they could see far into the future (Matsumoto
First English Textbook in Saudi Arabia Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction English language is considered a foreign language in the Kingdom of Saud Arabia (KSA). Learners are introduced to the English language using EFL teaching materials at the sixth grade in public schools and at kindergarten to students who attend private schools.
Teaching materials for EFL in the KSA are developed by the ministry of education. These materials are then distributed to schools and bookshops. According to Shawer (2010), inequity in EFL materials in the KSA is that teachers and learners are not involved in the development of learning materials.
Curriculum developers are employees of the government who are solely involved in all the development stages of learning materials, namely textbooks, radio programmes, and television programmes. Lack of inclusion of teachers and learners in the development of EFL teaching materials in the KSA has resulted in poor relations between teachers and the materials. Teachers cannot completely internalise the materials or fully integrate them into their teaching.
Shawer (2010) recommends that it is important to evaluate EFL teaching materials before adapting them into the teaching and learning system. To begin with, EFL teaching materials are developed without the input of the teachers and the learners who are the main consumers. As such, materials that are presented by the ministry of education lack inclusivity.
It is also important to note that most of the teachers are not first speakers of English. The materials used by such teachers as guides and textbooks should be easily understandable. Secondly, most of the learners in the KSA take English as a second language. Such learners may have difficulties in reading and appreciating these textbooks.
Therefore, evaluation will ensure that EFL textbooks appeal to their language levels. Based on this background information concerning EFL in the KSA, this paper uses ‘Traveler 1 Student’s Book’ by Malkogianni to gauge its suitability as the first English textbook to the KSA learners.
Critical Review of Literature Educational Policy for Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
Educational policy for Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in the Kingdom of Saud Arabia ensures regulation at all levels where EFL is taught. In 1925 the Saudi ministry of education first introduced EFL as a subject. Shawer (2010) confirms that the ministry of education has the power to dictate that EFL be taught from grade six through to the university.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the subjects in the KSA schools are also taught in English language, thus making it an important language of instruction and evaluation. In addition, several immigrants from western and other countries of the world use English in their communication. This observation makes it important for learners to understand the English language. Interaction between the KSA and other nations in diplomacy, peace, trade, aviation, and research also makes English important.
The Curriculum of Teaching English at the Secondary Level
The ministry of education develops the current curriculum for TEFL in conjunction with the directorate of curriculum. The current TEFL curriculum was developed in 1999. As a policy, TEFL was aimed at meeting the need for language skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in the KSA.
Learners of EFL were then supposed to communicate in English with all speakers of the language. The foundation of TEFL in Saudi Arabia was on two-policy documents, namely teaching English in Saudi Arabia 1408H of 1989 and 1421H of 2000. The Saudi Policy of Education is responsible for enforcement of curriculum for TEFL. Teaching of foreign languages such as English in Saud Arabia is engraved in this policy document under Article No. 50.
Under this article, one of the functions of education is to “furnish students with at least one of the living languages, in addition to their original language, to enable them acquire knowledge and sciences from other communities and to participate in the service of Islam and humanity” (Al-Hajailan, 2003, p. 23). This function implies that TEFL is an objective and policy that is undertaken by the government.
Therefore, learners appreciate English as a language for interaction and cultural exchange both at the national and international level. The policy is also aimed at achieving national goals of transfer and acquisition of scientific, technological, and cultural knowledge under the spirit of Islam. The EFL curriculum adapts an excellent instructional design assessment (WIDA) in evaluating learner’s skills in listening, speaking, writing, and reading.
The EFL curriculum also dictates new students joining the system to take a compulsory test that indicates whether they need ESL and if so the level of their conception. Learners also take WIDA-ACCESS test at the end of every year as an indication of their suitability for the next level.
According to Al-Kharabsheh, Al-Azzam, and Obeidat (2009), at level I, English as a second language begins by emphasising the basics of language and its structures. Learners are also taught the basic tenses and vocabularies at this level. This plan enables learners to write simple English statements and paragraphs. Learners should also be taught how to write a topic sentence and support it using simple details.
We will write a custom Research Paper on First English Textbook in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teachers also emphasise the capitalisation and use of punctuation marks. Learners are also introduced to simple discussions to aid in their listening and speaking skills. At this level, the curriculum directs that EFL have two lessons per day.
At level II, learners of English as a second language are introduced to fiction and real stories. This content aids to gauge their ability to understand and discuss stories in English. Learners are also introduced to visual cues, references, inferences, and prediction in reading. Properly written and punctuated sentences are also taught at this level.
Learners should write correct sentences while at the same time ensuring proper punctuation. Finally, learners at this level are taught how to write complex sentences and/or make paragraphs. Learners should also know how to differentiate general ideas from specific ideas.
At level III, complex ideas are introduced. Shawer (2010) asserts that learners are supposed to not only read and understand complex issues but also discuss them. Learners are also taught how to write complex essays. Such essays should have varying themes and structures.
Skills for research and complex writing are also introduced at this level. At level IV, the curriculum recommends teachers to emphasise learners’ skills in communicating in proper English. Teaching and assessment of advanced reading, listening, and writing are done at this level.
According to Al-Kharabsheh et al. (2009), the curriculum also recommends learners to be involved in journal writing where they should compose at least two journals every week. Such journals should have varying themes. Besides, they should portray comprehension of language and arguments. Development of vocabularies and observation of standards in English language are also emphasised and tested.
Evaluation of “Traveller 1” Textbooks and course books for English language learners need to be evaluated because the suitability of the materials presented in the books, of teaching methods and activities is directly connected to the efficiency of the learning process. Such evaluation is based on several aspects of the books. Besides, the books have to answer to the environments the learners typically have, reflect their cultural background.
The main purpose of syllabus evaluation is to provide the educators with the ability to differentiate between the books available for them and to choose the most effective ones. Focusing on the review of “Traveller 1”, the textbook for secondary stage English language learners designed for Saudi Arabian students the following aspects of the book will be evaluated: layout and design, content of the book and teaching methods used in it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on First English Textbook in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Layout and Design
The book is conveniently divided into sections according to the topics. The sections include illustrations and photographs that are necessary for visual connection with the subject. The important parts, rules and notes and highlighted and made more visible. Various parts and tasks are separated, yet, the organisation of the pages is a bit confusing, too many tasks are crowded on the pages.
Too colourful schemes and overloaded pages can be confusing for the students. It is especially noticeable on the pages number ten and eleven. The former is too colourful, the latter is overcrowded. Moreover, the parts with new vocabulary for each section are missing.
Language Skills and Contents
The teaching methods used in the textbook are focused on the application of reading, writing, listening and speaking. Alshumaimeri (2011) studied various types of reading and their efficiency for the learners. “Traveller 1” does not seem to differentiate between these types in the assignments. This means that teachers are to make the decision and use oral reading more often as it is more effective for the learners.
One of the main goals for learning languages is their creative use in everyday life, is not fulfilled well enough. The majority of speaking tasks follows very strict schemes; in most cases students are just requited to repeat the lines from the book. Besides, there is a grammatical error on the page number six. The part that discusses classroom language contains a phrase “Speak in English. Don’t speak in…”, preposition “in” should not be used here.
The first pages of the sections contain main learning objectives and let the students know what the sections are about. The subjects are appropriate for the students as they feature other learners and their typical occupations such as sports, part-time jobs, entertainments, and interests. The book starts with general knowledge material and then focuses on such topics as employment and careers that are the most important for the students targeted for this book.
Overall, the activities vary a lot, the students are asked to complete sentences, fill in the gaps, match the words and pictures, answer the questions, and talk in pairs. This way, different skills are stimulated and different needs are addressed. The syllabus includes tasks for practicing requests, responses, refusals, so it can be evaluated as functional.
Association to Saudi Environment
Al-Subahi (2001) mentions that for decades the syllabus for English learners has been adopted from abroad and clashed with Saudi environment. Even though modern ESA curriculum is designed especially for Saudi students, it still contains overlooked aspects such as vague course objectives, poor selection of learning experiences that do not match the interests of students (Al-Subahi, 2001).
“Traveller 1” is integrated into the cultural context by means of pictures, names, and geographical places referred to in the texts. Besides, some sections mention football practice that is rather popular in Saudi Arabia. This way cultural shock and identity disorientation issues are addressed. The fact that such subjects as employment, job interviews and vacancies are involved answers the needs of the students that learn English to create better employment perspectives for themselves.
Recent Studies that Evaluate the Suitability of EFL Syllabus
Several recent studies have evaluated the suitableness of EFL syllabuses to learners in the KSA. Khafaji conducted one of such studies in 2004. Khafaji (2004) provided an evaluation of the materials for the English language learners that are used in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia. Under his evaluation, he explored the policies that guide TEFL in Saudi Arabia.
In the analysis of his study, Khafaji (2004) realised that inaccessibility of learning materials for EFL in the KSA was an impediment to successful and motivating academic content as recommended by the curriculum. Khafaji’s (2004) evaluation also realised that the use of audio-lingual method of teaching EFL was also a limitation to the teaching and learning of English language at this secondary school level.
Another study by Alamri (2008) focused on the quality of English language textbook at the entry level, namely the sixth grade. The focal point of this assessment was on the superiority of English learning resources in instructing boys’ schools since they were brought in 2004. According to Alamri (2008), one of the foundations of EFL textbooks that form the basis for English learning in the KSA was analysed.
The researcher deployed questionnaires to examine 93 English tongue tutors at the sixth grade and 11 administrators. This research was conducted in Riyadh Educational Zone in the KSA. In his findings, Alamri (2008) realised that teachers and supervisors favoured EFL textbooks, although they objected the adopted teaching methods. The study suggested the upgrading of such teaching materials.
Finally, Habtoor (2012) carried out an evaluation to ascertain the quality of content that was contained in textbooks that were used in teaching English for specific purposes. Habtoor (2012) evaluated the substance of the textbooks that were utilised in teaching sophomore learners who were studying archaeology and tourism. The researcher evaluated the opinions of EFL teachers on the content of the textbook and its efficacy in teaching English language.
According to Habtoor (2012), presentation of learning skills in relation to the learners’ needs and their study level was also evaluated. In this study, Habtoor (2012) realised that teachers recommended the textbook since it could meet the needs of the learners at that level.
Discussion ‘Traveler 1 Student’s Book’ by Malkogianni is a must-read textbook that is used for teaching English as a second language in the KSA. Malkogianni presents the fundamentals of English language. As a first secondary English textbook, the book is written in a simple language with simple vocabulary and sentence structure.
The context of the English textbook for EFL is tailored towards the language level of the learners. O’Neill (2008) asserts that a textbook should have the basics of language and its structure. ‘Traveler 1 Student’s Book’ presents the readers with simple vocabularies that are commonly used in English.
Malkogianni includes the structure of English tenses. He goes further to show how they are used in simple sentences and paragraphs. The textbook has a content that will enable learners at this level to use a topic sentence to write a simple paragraph with supporting details.
In addition, the English textbook also introduces learners to punctuation, listening, and reading skills. These factors will meet the learners’ needs at this level. Students entering secondary schools in the KSA have very low comprehension of English language since it is introduced at a later age as a second language. Learners are not able to distinguish tenses, to punctuate sentences, and/or read well.
As such, ‘Traveler 1 Student’s Book’ has been set to cater for these fundamentals of English language. The content of the syllabus for first secondary school entrants is appropriate for the psychological characteristics of the learners. Learners at this level are not ready for complex language structures and comprehension. Therefore, the syllabus is tailored to meet the language needs of these learners.
The structure of the syllabus directs that learning at this level begin by being taught simple vocabularies, tenses, punctuation, and other basics of the English language. Teaching of the fundamentals first before introducing complex sentence structures ensures that learners are at home with the process for learning. Introduction of simple to complex language structure ensures a procedural approach to the mental comprehension of learners.
In addition, individual differences in abilities, interest, and level of intelligence are also catered for in the EFL syllabus at this level. Learners are required to take examinations and assessment tests that indicate their language level. For example, new learners are required to take a test to guide teachers on whether the learner is acceptable in the class.
In addition, at the end of every term, learners take examinations that indicate their learning ability. O’Neill (2008) confirms that through these examinations, learners are evaluated on their listening, reading, and writing skills. The teachers then use the results in addressing the language needs of individual students. The syllabus also takes care of learners’ language differences through recommending the use of group discussions.
Learners are supposed to form simple paragraphs, which they should discuss with their classmates. Teachers are also required to guide and direct the discussions. In doing so, teachers can spot any differences that exist between learners. Internal oral and written skills are also useful in addressing the language needs of individual learners. The purposes that are stated in this textbook meet the needs of the learners. The language needs of learners at this level include grasping basic language concepts.
Learners are taught basic vocabularies, tenses, and sentence structure. Learning of tenses enables learners to begin making correct English sentences. Basic vocabularies that are taught at this level prepare learners for the next stage where they can understand simple sentences.
Learners’ Age and Needs
The substance of the syllabus is appropriate upon bearing in mind the students’ psychological status and speech development. At this level, learners’ level of skills in English language is low. Therefore, it is important to address it in a strategic developmental approach. The syllabus recommends teaching of basic tenses.
According to Shawer (2010), learning of basic tenses at this level enables learners to comprehend change in time and actions that are expressed in basic sentences. The syllabus also recommends teaching of basic sentence structures to enable learners to piece up simple words together in making basic sentences.
Teaching of basic listening and reading skills also ensures that students can read ‘Basic English’ statements and/or listen to ‘Basic English’ audio materials. This step forms an important foundation for the next levels where more advanced structures are taught. The syllabus also addresses language development procedure. For example, it takes care of listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills. These basics form the basis for comprehending a new language.
EFL Goals and Context
The content of the textbook is also tailored to meet the Saudi EFL goals and purposes because English is taught and used in KSA as a second language. Since English language is introduced at the sixth grade in most public schools, there is a need to form a foundation as learners get into secondary schools.
Shawer (2010) affirms that Saudi EFL goals include the development of English language for use in the academic development of learners. Examinations and teaching of students at all levels from the sixth grade is done in English. Therefore, learning of English language prepares learners for academics.
Trade and international relations in the KSA is also done in English. Teaching of writing and listening skills is important for this goal. Moreover, many Saudi citizens communicate with foreigners by means of English language. Therefore, learning of listening, reading, and speaking skills meets this goal.
The social and religious needs of the KSA people are taken care of in the EFL syllabus. Having been developed by the ministry of education in conjunction with the department of curriculum development, Zarei and Khalessi (2011) confirm that the syllabus incorporates religious and social needs of the people. For example, in the introduction, the importance of learning the English language is stated for the people of Saud Arabia.
For example, the language will enable the people who learn it to interact better with those of other communities in an effort to spread their ideologies. Therefore, the English language will enable learners to socialise with the international community. For example, English language is used in international diplomacy.
According to Zarei and Khalessi (2011), Islamic religious goals of the Kingdom of Saud Arabia are also taken care of in the EFL syllabus. Learning of the English language will also enable learners to read religious writings if they are written in English. The syllabus promotes the Islamic religious values.
Learning of speaking and listening skills in English will enable students to socialise with other Islam believers in other parts of the world. Better comprehension of other people’s religions and culture will also be promoted by the learning of English language, which is spoken in many countries.
Zarei and Khalessi (2011) say that the cultural environment of the Kingdom of Saud Arabia is also reflected in the EFL syllabus. The need for scientific and technological acquisition and exchange is enshrined in the goals of the EFL syllabus. Therefore, learning of the English language will ensure that people of the KSA can easily interact with the international community.
Issues such as reading and understanding scientific materials are imperative in the acquisition and exchange of information. English language will enable students at the upper levels of learning to carry out research and/or interact with others across the world. Those who understand the English language can also spread the culture of people of the KSA easily to other English speakers across the world.
Essential Elements in the Modern Syllabus
The modern EFL syllabus is based on several foundations that are based on modern life situation. For example, in terms of teaching tenses, the syllabus recommends the use of placards that indicate drawings of activities. Discussions of simple stories are also based on modern life and situations that happen in the day-by-day life of the student.
For example, learners are told to make simple sentences in the application of the learned subject. In teaching listening and speaking skills in English, the use of audio materials is recommended by the syllabus. The stories and examples that are used in such materials are from the real-life situations in the KSA. For example, when teaching students on new vocabularies, the teacher uses words in the context of what students do in their daily life.
According to O’Neill (2008), pictures and illustrations on the EFL textbooks are customised to the KSA environment. Such materials also enhance learners’ autonomy in thinking. Learners can learn by themselves from the environment. The use of simple language structure and illustrations that relate to their personal lives also motivates them to learn by themselves.
Conclusion Evaluation of first secondary English textbook in the KSA indicates that both the syllabus and the textbook are appropriate. The textbook is organised to meet the learning needs of national and cultural goals. The structure of the curriculum is also procedural to enable leaders to build on skills that they have acquired from lower levels. Assessments at different levels also ensure continuity of language competence development.
Recommendations This evaluation recommends the department of curriculum development to take in the opinion of teachers in developing the curriculum since they (teachers) are the direct end users.
Secondly, the ministry of education should consider the needs of the learners when developing the curriculum.
Thirdly, there should be a comprehensive training of English language teachers before they are posted to teach in the various KSA schools. Finally, there should be an inclusion of more integrative methods of TEFL in the syllabus.
Reference List Alamri, A. (2008). An Evaluation of the Sixth Grade English Language Textbook for Saudi Boys’ Schools. KSA: King Saud University.
Al-Hajailan, T. (2003). Teaching English in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh: Aldar Alsawlatiah
Al-Kharabsheh, A., Al-Azzam, B.,
Opening Ceremony Company Overview Coursework cheap essay help
Introduction Opening Ceremony is a Specialty store located in West Hollywood and was founded in the year 2002. The West Hollywood store is a shop that deals in fashion, art, and traveling products. The store has also cleverly rolled out a traditional client interaction strategy as part of its business channel.
This element revolves around investing money by offering unique and diverse products to customers who buy in the store. In addition, the Opening Ceremony’s customers have better offers due to consistent and attractive discount. The store has always aspired to provide quality products and services to customers. The store currently offers direct sales to its consumers within admirable standards of flexibility.
Apparently, the success of the physical specialty store channel forms the rationale for this research since it motto is provision of diverse, high quality, and unique fashion apparels. This channel has been customized to ensure that clients are served within the most reliable and efficient methods.
The success of the channel could be attributed to its partnerships and quality assurance to its diverse customer segments. Despite the high prices for its high-end apparel, many high-income customers prefer the store because of the high quality apparel besides the customized shopping experience.
The location of the store is strategy to tap into the celebrity market segment since more of its customers are celebrities residing around Los Angeles. The company has interesting customer care services and strategic partnerships with other designers as a strategy for improving its product visibility.
The mixture of elements such as appropriate mission and vision, tactical and relevant market positioning strategy, and specific market segmentation, the Opening Ceremony store has become a global leading fashion brand in the US and beyond.
History The Opening Ceremony store was founded in New York by UC Berkeley graduates Carol Lim and Humberto in the year 2002 as a joint partnership venture. After a trip to Hong Kong, the dynamic duo decided to start the company through the integration of the Olympic Games mission statement, which is to adopt a multinational strategy to their retail business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company is renowned for retailing household and emerging fashion designs. The designs range from known brands to small brands that are emerging in the domestic and international market. As a result, the specialist store has been able to proactively transform the Los Angeles store into an open and expansive market for international capacity and exotic souvenirs. The Opening Ceremony is currently a privately owned enterprise in which the two members are equal shareholders.
Key Dates and Events 2002: The first store was established in New York.
2003: The Los Angeles store was expanded to include the children apparel and opened a branch in Brazil.
2004: The Opening Ceremony opened a subsidiary branch in Germany.
2005: The Opening Ceremony successfully established a subsidiary brand in London.
2006: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in Sweden.
2007: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in Los Angeles.
We will write a custom Coursework on Opening Ceremony Company Overview specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2008: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in Japan.
2009: The Opening Ceremony signed a memorandum of understanding to collaborate with brands such as “Rodarte, Topshop, Pendleton, and Maison Martin Margiela” (Opening Ceremony par 3).
2010: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in France.
2011: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in Argentina.
2012: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in Korea.
2013: The Opening Ceremony opened a new branch in Belgium.
Location The Opening Ceremony has headquarters in, 35 Howard Street, New York, NY 10013. The store has three subsidiary branches in Los Angeles, Chicago, and Miami. The company has more than ten subsidiaries across the continent. These subsidiaries are located in the UK (London), Japan (Tokyo), Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Argentina, France, Korea, Belgium, and Sweden.
Mission Statement The Opening Ceremony has been consistent in growth within its business mission “of exploration and friendship, working with a family of contributors to forge a creative environment that reaches far beyond the fashion world” (Opening Ceremony par 3). The mission of the Opening Ceremony is to be a superstore with quality fashion apparel and services that guarantee customer satisfaction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Opening Ceremony Company Overview by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The business vision for the Opening Ceremony is designed to continually build sustainable business with customers through quality service provision and offering competitive prices. The vision promotes a proactive relationship with the customers, suppliers, and employees of the Opening Ceremony. The three main elements in the Opening Ceremony’s mission statement are superstore, fashion center, and value for money.
Customer Service Philosophy and Programs
The Opening Ceremony has a unique motto of customer satisfaction which is achieved through careful selection of different fashion products displayed in the store. The store has an active contact management which provides a decision support system to select the best market access on suitability, distribution structure, and integration of contact channels among the customers.
The contact management system in the store takes the form of Debit card services and a 12-hour call center to connect to their customers (from 8.00am to 8.00pm) (Opening Ceremony par 3). The store operates from 8.00 am to 8.00pm from Monday to Saturday in all branches.
In order to guarantee customer satisfaction, the Opening Ceremony’s customer management system is built using standard operating procedures to promote consistency in processing customer orders and all other channels. For instance, the Opening Ceremony’s call center has been successful in addressing client concerns in a timely and professional way (Best Buy, par. 5).
Opening Ceremony has employed the laggard activism strategy to not only capture the global market, but also leapfrog its dominant competitors. The store operates on the Business-to-Customer (B2C) platform which enables it to directly interact with the customer interested in a product. As a result, the Opening Ceremony has penetrated the fashion market due to a balance in factors such as the Western business style, global business approach, and flexible business channel.
In order to infiltrate the expanding global fashion market, Opening Ceremony’s business platform includes services such as premium customer experience, compact support from the local community, and low charges for loyal customer.
For instance, the company’s product multi-branding as a positioning strategy has enabled it to survive competition. For instance, the direct shopping is tailed to address the individual customer needs. Besides, the company has managed to balance the elements of intangibility, inseparability, and heterogeneity in the 4Ps of its market mix due to improved product visibility for each target customer segment (Rai 23).
The goal of the Opening Ceremony’s customer relationship strategies is to concentrate on the local market through use of an open-system business model. The strategy was meant to take advantage of the challenge of ‘smallness’ as compared to other giant specialty stores offering similar products.
The store depends on the closed-system approach in execution of its business strategies. Unlike other stores which developed a fixed entry strategy in the market that was characterized by overconfidence and inertia, the Opening Ceremony was packaged as a humble and flexible fashion products trading platform (Opening Ceremony par 5).
The Opening Ceremony store has made the shopping experience an easy task with its strategy of all-under-one-roof, from renowned designer products to upcoming designer products. A customer is in a position to literally find all types of fashion products within a single location.
This saves on time besides allowing a customer to plan for a single shopping activity that covers for all his or her needs. To support this mission, the store has one of the most attractive reward plans for its loyal customers in the form of shopping points that are redeemable, seasonal discounts, and annual rewards.
For instance, the store has special promotions and discounts of up to 25% on assorted products on holidays such as Christmas Day, Thanksgiving Day, Independence Day, Black Friday, and spring sale. The store has a 24 hour return policy for goods sold as long as the product is returned in its previous condition (Opening Ceremony par 7).
Employee Relations, Philosophy and Programs In the Opening Ceremony store, there is a laid down structure formulated in order to keep its staff in healthy and stable mind in their duty of serving the store’s interest. The store uses the iCIMS software to manage its human resources. The system is significant in skill tracking, allocating monetary to employees, and managing the master payroll.
The store’s human resource management team has been active in building a strong and healthy workforce. At the Opening Ceremony store, programs are periodically designed in line with objectives and goals for sustained happy employee-employer relationship through the human resource department. This department is also mandated with the duty of hiring and firing employees, promoting health organization culture, and discovering special talents at the Opening Ceremony.
The methods used at the Opening Ceremony include direct participation by the employees and promotion of healthy organization culture through different training programs (Opening Ceremony par 8). The Opening Ceremony store has attractive employer paid benefits that offer health cover, mileage, work compensation, retirement, and disability among others.
The compensation plan for the Opening Ceremony inspires optimal performance through job satisfaction since the total annual compensation and different benefits are relatively attractive. Besides, the store has a continuous 401k retirement plan for employees. Each year, employees are given the opportunity to buy 1% of the Opening Ceremony stocks at a discount of 10%. The actual hourly salary for the sales associates is $50, besides a comprehensive medical cover and annual salary increment of 5% of the previous year salary (Opening Ceremony par 9).
The corporate governance structure of the Opening Ceremony store has a strong system for promoting the elements such as culture, structure, systems, and strategic alignment among the employees. The compensation plan for the Opening Ceremony store are aligned to a supportive work environment, concrete learning processes, and personal development that reinforce competency.
The company has annual promotion plan and continuous employee training program. The promotion is based on performance and academic qualifications. The training program is in-house and is managed by the HRM department (Opening Ceremony par 6).
Employee selection at the Opening Ceremony is focused to evaluate resumes of applicants for essential requirements which in this case include possession of management and analytical skills in fashion design environment. In this case, the process is systematic, and through aptitude test, elimination of those lacking analytical skills is possible within minimal prejudice or biasness. In the Opening Ceremony store, social and highly skilled employees are allocated the right duties than keeping them in a secluded environment (Opening Ceremony par 4).
Conclusion Apparently, the store has the strengths of strong brand presence, expansive distribution channel, diverse product multi-branding, and strong customer base within the specialty channel. The Business-to-Customer platform adopted by Opening Ceremony has created and successfully implemented the marketing strategy to ensure customer loyalty and market expansion.
In addition, the store has special vouchers that target corporate organizations and private customers as part of its strategies for building a strong customer relationship management system. For instance, adoption of the hybrid system of customer service management by the Opening Ceremony is meant to ensure direct contact with customers within the shortest time possible. The hybrid system is very successful in contact management and positive attitude reassurance at the store.
Since the company has not invested heavily in offline and online advertising, it is currently facing strong competition from similar stores such as Satine, Boutique, Madison, and Kitson. Besides, the store operates in a dynamic market where changed customer preference may negatively affect its profitability. In addition, the Opening Ceremony is facing the challenge of increasing its customer based since most of its products are considered expensive my ordinary Americans.
Works Cited Rai, Alok. Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Cases, London, UK: Kogan Page, 2012. Print.
Opening Ceremony. About Us. 03 Dec. 2014. Web.
The Stavropol State Agrarian University Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Particularity of the Organization The Stavropol State Agrarian University is one of the leading institutions of higher learning in Stavropol city, within Russian Federation. Started in 1930, this institution has experienced massive development in various areas as it seeks to be in line with the international standards of learning at this higher level. The management of this firm has a reputation when it comes to freedom in research and development.
As defined in the mission statement of this firm, the organisation has high regards to morals and societal values, and there has been a concerted effort to merge science with culture. SSAU is a fully chartered university that does not only target the local students but also the international learners within European Union and in the global society.
The management of this institution appreciates the fact that competition in the education sector has become very stiff. For this reason, there has been effort to introduce management practices and strategies that would make the university attractive to the local and international society.
The institution has introduced programmes, which focus on improving the students’ experience. When it was started, the focus of this institution was to offer products, which at this time was standardized with knowledge in various fields.
The management had to realize that all the lecturers attended their classes and the syllabus was covered as was expected. However, things changed systematically based on the changes in the environment. The institution’s focus changed from product to service. The management realized that it owes their clients (students) a lot, and there was a need to offer them good services.
It was in this era that the university introduced new courses to meet the diversified needs of the learners. In this era, the management of this institution has realized that offering services to the clients is not good enough. There is a need to offer solutions.
Institutions of higher learning are seen to be the solution to any issue that is affecting the society in one way or the other. This means that offering learners the courses they need in an effective learning environment is not enough. The current society expects more from these institutions. They need solutions to the social and scientific problems they face from time to time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management of SSAU has been offering this solution to its clients in different approaches. Each of the departments at this institution has its own budget that is specifically meant for research. The university believes in solutions that are obtained by conducting reliable researches both socially and scientifically.
The graduates from this institution go into the job market after they have been fully prepared to offer solutions to some of the problems that an organisation or society may face. This has put this institution at a prestigious position where the society seeks solutions to some of the problems they face. SSAU is an institution to reckon with not only within the Russian Federation, but also in the entire region of Eastern Europe.
Good Practice at the Company Achieving success in the current competitive market is not an easy task. It requires a concerted effort by the management to do what is right, in the right manner, at the right time, and with the right people. The management of this institution has started various programmes, which are meant to enhance good practice as a way of enhancing its competitiveness.
The first programme was the focus on concentrating talents. The management of this firm introduced internationalization process in hiring the staff. It came to the attention of the top management that most of the staffs at this institution were professionals who are citizens of this country. This was not a big issue, but it had negative impacts on the marketability of the institution as a global learning centre.
The management, therefore, started a programme that aimed at concentrating talents. Most of the positions were left open to both the local and international staffs in order to enhance competition. The process of hiring staffs was made competitive in order to select the best-qualified candidates irrespective of their nationalities. This enhanced diversity at this institution as the new staff members came from various countries in Europe, North America and even other parts of Africa.
Concentration of talents was not just restricted to the teaching staff. SSAU has been keen when it comes to selecting students for various programmes. Students also have a massive potential when it comes to enhancing research in various fields. The institution has one of the highest bars when it comes to selecting of the students for various courses. Having such a pool of talented students and teachers enhances the capacity of the university to engage in research.
The second approach that this firm has been using to enhance good practice is to diversify its resources. The institution has introduced new ways of earning extra income besides what is generated from the students. Currently, this institution is the largest consultant in various fields within this country. Private institutions and non-governmental institutions have been coming to this firm for consultation in various fields.
We will write a custom Assessment on The Stavropol State Agrarian University specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The institution can now be commissioned to research on both social and scientific issues by these private institutions in order to find solutions to some of the issues that are affecting them. The biggest single client of this institution in the field of consultation is the government. The government has consulted this firm on various scientific and social issues that affect the Russian community.
These consultations have earned the firm good income, which supplements what is generated from the learners. This firm has been a leader in technology advancement. Many firms have relied on this institution to help them improve their communication systems, maintain their machines, and various other services related to technology. These extra incomes add value to the main clients at this institution.
The management can afford to lower its fee without necessarily affecting the quality of education. The university is also able to offer subseries to some of the best but needy students in order to improve their experience.
The university also introduced optimal management as a way of enhancing the way processes are managed. The institution has introduced the Decision Support System (DSS) in most of its managerial activities to ensure that every decision is supported by valid facts.
Key Results Demonstrating Achievement of the Objectives
Introduction of the best practices at this firm has brought with it positive results that have helped the university advance in various areas. Coordinating personal goals of the employees with the strategic goals of the firm has been made very simple.
This has been achieved through the employee involvement in strategic planning. This way, it has become possible for them to integrate their personal plans with that of the organisation. This has helped the firm build a large pool of highly skilled human resource that meets the international standards.
The new strategy has also helped in making the contribution of the learners relevant in the overall research at this institution. It has encouraged the student-learner relations at this firm, making it a better research centre.
Use of the RADAR Methodology by the Company
The management of this university has been using RADAR logic to question the performance of various departments in this organisation. The firm has been keen on defining the results that each department is expected to achieve within a specified period. The heads of the departments are tasked with the responsibility of setting the targets that every employee should achieve within a given period.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Stavropol State Agrarian University by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has developed sound approaches that are meant to help each department achieve the set goals. The management has also been effective in deploying the approaches to ensure that the most qualified candidate addresses each task in the right manner.
Deploying of the employees has largely been based on the qualifications and interests of the individual worker. This has helped the firm to improve the levels of employee morale in every task they do. Finally, the firm has developed effective ways of assessing and refining the results of each employee and each department of this firm. To help in this area, the management introduced a new system of ‘ideal employee’.
In this new system, employees are encouraged to assess their own performances and to involve peers in finding solutions to their identified weaknesses. With these new strategies, it is believed that the firm will emerge top in this year’s EFQM Good Practice Competition.
Program Evaluation: Outcomes-Based Evaluation Analytical Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Description
Strengths and Limitations
Reliability and validity
Description Outcomes-based evaluation involves systematically gathering and analyzing data to assess program outcomes, benefits or changes and their effectiveness in meeting objectives. Outcome-based evaluation is ideal for short-term, intermediate term and long-term evaluations. Outcome-based evaluation measures how and whether a program has affected people’s lives.
Outcome-based evaluation has certain basic components, which include inputs, activities/processes, outputs and outcomes. Inputs consist of resources used to implement a program. Program activities or processes include initiatives taken to meet the objectives.
Outputs reflect units of service provided, such as the number of people served to meet program objectives. Outcome-based evaluation also focuses on outcomes to show actual results, benefits, change or impacts. Outcome targets depict outcome goals desired from the implemented program while outcome indicators are observable and measurable achievements toward the target.
Indicators show any progress made so far. Before conducting an outcome-based evaluation, it is necessary to conduct pilot tests with one or two programs to improve the instrument.
Outcome-based evaluation has specific steps required to accomplish a program evaluation. Sridharan and Nakaima (2010) have identified ten steps to show the need for integrating theory-driven evaluation and other methods of evaluation, as well as to improve evaluation designs and methods.
Program Evaluation The first step involves identification of primary outcomes intended for examination. It is imperative to identify the program mission and intended impacts. It helps to avoid justification of unnecessary activities. The second step requires the evaluator to choose the most important outcomes for evaluation, and they should be prioritized based on time and other available resources.
The third step requires the evaluator to identify observable measures or indicators for every outcome. This is the most important stage in outcome-based evaluation. The fourth step involves defining target goals of the evaluation. This should reflect the potential number of participants needed to achieve specific outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the fifth step, the program evaluator must identify information required to demonstrate indicators, for instance, the number of participants in a given program. The sixth step involves identification of methods for collecting required information efficiently and realistically.
The approaches may include observation, documentation review, focus groups, interviews, questionnaires and case studies among others. Finally, outcome-based evaluation requires the evaluator to analyze and report the findings.
Strengths and Limitations Outcome-based evaluation is the most common method of identifying success of a program. It focuses on the results of the intended objectives. This method is robust because it can evaluate a program on short-term, intermediate and long-term basis. It identifies clear program outcomes at the initial stages with the aim of constructing ways of obtaining results.
Integrity Outcome-based evaluation is robust and supported with scientific principles used in designing research methods. Although it is not a formal research method, evaluators can achieve high-levels of integrity with outcome-based evaluation by ensuring that study instruments are valid and reliable.
Reliability and validity Outcome-based evaluation could achieve high standards of reliability and validity if the instruments are reliable and valid. However, if the evaluator fails to ensure reliability and validity of the instrument, then the method may lack effectiveness. Low response rates, design method and collection of detailed data could be significant sources of weaknesses.
Overall, the strength of outcome-based evaluation is in ownership. It is a tool designed by an organization to serve its management processes and projects, and therefore there is a great deal of ownership over the process, which enhances how findings will be utilized to fulfill different purposes.
References Chen, Y.-M., Hedrick, S.,
Cybernetics and Social Construction Research Paper essay help: essay help
Abstract Cybernetics is the study of various systems in biology, sociology, psychology, and physics. In sociology and psychology, cybernetics is used to describe how social and psychological systems work. The theory is based on the structural functionalist theory which operates on the principle of interdependence of various parts of a system for the stability of the whole system.
Social construction has to do with the way people perceive various aspects of life. Both cybernetics and social construction theories are applicable in family therapy. However, they differ in terms of how they address the issue of diversity.
Cybernetics theory One of the key concepts in cybernetics is feedback, which refers to an output and which triggers positive or negative feedback in a system. A positive feedback is considered as that which brings a change in a system while a negative feedback is considered as that which maintains the status quo in the system (Metcalf, 2011).
One of the basic assumptions of the cybernetics approach is that a family is like the human body which is composed of several organs, with each organ having a specific role to play in the body (Dallos, 2010). The other assumption of the approach is that all families have a structure, either vertical or horizontal.
The relationships within the family structure are important for the well being of the family and therefore, there is need to ensure that all family members play their roles effectively so as to make the family stable (Wetchler
Analysis of Apple’s Annual Reports Report essay help free: essay help free
Introduction The purpose of this report was to analyse annual reports for Apple, Inc. for the past three fiscal years (2012 to 2014). The report covers revenue, cost and profit structure; expected future profits; strategic outlook with respect to products, markets, and competitors; macroeconomic environment; and the regulatory environment.
Steven Paul Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Gerald Wayne established Apple, Inc. in 1976. It is head office is based in Cupertino, CA.
Apple, Inc. designs, makes and markets mobile communication devices, computers, digital music players and sells other various related software and peripheral pieces of hardware components, services and networking solutions alongside third party products and services. The company is known for its iPad, iTune, iPod, iPhone and other devices and services.
Revenue, Cost and Profit Structure Gross margin for 2014, 2013 and 2012 are as follows (dollars in millions) – source:
2014 2013 2012 Net sales $ 182,795 $170,910 $156,508 Cost of sales $ 112,258 106,606 87,846 Gross margin $ 70,537 $ 64,304 $ 68,662 Gross margin percentage 38.6% 37.6% 43.9% Net income 39,510 37,037 41,733 The gross profit margins for the last three financial years were 43.89%, 37.62 % and 38.6% for the year 2012 2013 and 2014 respectively. Although the margin for the year 2012 was slightly high, Apple, Inc. has recorded year-over-year decline in its gross profit margins. These fluctuations could have been occasioned by several factors.
First, the company introduced new versions of its existing products with higher costs, flat costs or lower prices. Second, consumers chose products with lower costs. Third, changes in the company’s service structures and warranty policies.
Fourth, foreign exchange fluctuations from overseas markets could have affected the margins. Finally, higher mix of products’ sales and improved net sales were responsible for the increased profit margin in the year 2012. At the same time, the US dollar became stable and stronger against other foreign currencies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gross profit margins for Apple, Inc. show that the company has effective ways of managing its costs of inventory and controlling other related costs. Hence, it can pass low costs to customers.
Net Profit Margin
= Net Income/Net Sales = _____
41,733 /156,508 = 0.267 = 26.7 %
37,037 /170,910 = 0.217 = 21.7 %
We will write a custom Report on Analysis of Apple’s Annual Reports specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2014
39,510 / 182,795 = 0.2161 = 21.6%
Apple, Inc. makes profits from every dollar after paying all its expenses. The margin ranges from 26.7%, 21.7 % to 21.6%. This represents profits that Apple, Inc. makes from a dollar in terms of cents. However, the company’s profitability fluctuates because of several factors.
Apple, Inc. has increased and decreased prices of some of its iPhone and iPad products when it launched the new versions. These changes influenced the number of quantities sold, which have affected the firm’s profitability. Getting the perfect price for products is a major challenge for many entities.
Consumers consider Apple pricing strategy as premium. This is a challenge for the company because the mobile and electronic market has become highly competitive. Overall, Apple’s pricing strategy can either increase or decrease its net profit margin.
Apple, Inc. “inventory affected its net profit margin”. Apple may not be able to record the sales of its inventory until it realises the actual sales. Changes in the market affect the prices of inventory. The devaluation of some of the products have decreased the company’s net profit margin while “moving inventory, particularly the pre-orders have greatly increased the company’s sales”.
Variable costs also influence net profit margin of the company. These are costs associated with labour costs, taxes, costs of raw materials and changes in foreign exchange markets. While these costs may not change, they have significant impacts on the net profit margin of Apple, Inc.
Future profit prospects based on past performance
Today, Apple, Inc. appears to be performing well financially and this reflects the company’s ability to maintain upward trends and growths. The company’s CEO predicted all-time record sales for new products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Apple’s Annual Reports by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apple, Inc. has adequate financial strength. For instance, in the fiscal year 2011, the company had over $81.6 billion in cash alongside other short-term assets. In the fiscal year 2012, the company used this cash to pay dividends of $2.65 per share. This is something, which Apple, Inc. had not done in several years.
Although the company’s past performances indicate that it would do well in the future, Apple maintains that past performances are “not necessarily indicative of results of future operations”. The company notes that its abilities to continue to develop and provide innovative products and services shall determine its future financial position and operating outcomes .
Apple, Inc., however, believes that it provides the best, innovative and integrated products and services for its customers. Currently, major competitors of the company have financial and human resources to develop more sophisticated products and services. Moreover, some of these competitors may be ready to offer their products and services at significantly lower profits or no profits at all in order to capture market shares and compete with Apple.
Apple, Inc. notes that it has traditionally noted significantly higher net sales during the “first quarter relative to other quarters in any financial year, probably because of increased demands during holiday periods” . At the same time, any new products or services in the market could affect the current offerings, earnings and expenses.
The company’s production capacity could also affect net sales, particularly when it cannot meet demands, distribution channels and keep adequate inventory . Many consumers tend to wait for the next big launch to purchase new gadgets, which affects the production of available products.
On this note, Apple, Inc. notes that no specific historical data or patterns could be used to predict or provide reliable indicators for its future production, sales or financial performances. Apple, however, must focus on profitability through innovative products and services.
Strategic outlook with respect to products, markets, and competitors
In the future, product introduction and transition could be a major hurdle for the company. Apple, Inc. competes in a highly volatile and competitive IT and telecommunication industry. The company, therefore, must continue to “introduce new products and services to enhance its growth and profitability”.
This stimulates the demand for new products and services. However, the introduction of new services and products depends on several other factors. Apple, Inc. must ensure timely and successful development of new products, consumer acceptance, risks management, immediate availability of the required components and effective management of orders and inventory based on the expected demands.
In addition, product availability, resources to support product for expected demands and risks related to defects or deficiency of such new products or services also affect product introduction. Apple, Inc., therefore, lacks the capacity to determine how its new products will influence the market. It is imperative to note that Apple, Inc. sells complicated, state-of-the-art hardware and software products and services.
Hence, there are possibilities that these devices could have design and manufacturing defects, as was the case of iPhone 6 Plus. After the release of iPhone 6 Plus, many fanatics discovered that the device had unexpected design flaw. These claims have also been linked to iPhone 5 and 5s alongside some of the Android devices.
In addition, sophisticated software that runs these devices normally have bugs, which could affect the expected operations. Its online services may also experience outage from time to time due to “maintenance, service slowdowns, outages or errors”. The company also deals with third parties to “supply product components, which could cause defects on final products and services”. Apple, Inc. acknowledges that it could be difficult to identify and fix all defects in its products in a timely fashion. Failure to fix these defects has significant impacts on the company’s revenues, brand, warranty and other expenses.
Apple, Inc. competes in “a more competitive global market”. The industry players are aggressive and involved in price cutting strategies. This would affect the company’s margins negatively as consumers opt for cheaper products and services. At the same time, “product short life cycles, frequent introduction of new products, changing industry standards, changes in product pricing, disruptive and adoption of new technologies and consumer price sensitivity” also affect the company’s margins.
The company’s ability to remain competitive in the global market depends on its abilities to “introduce new innovative solutions continuously”. Apple, Inc. believes in its uniqueness. Its products and services are uniquely designed. It also introduces new solutions to support existing products.
Consequently, Apple, Inc. aims to enhance its investment in R
Marks Dairy Industry Lean Management Report essay help free
Introduction Marks Dairy Industry is a company that deals in the collection and pasteurizing of milk and processing milk products that are later sold to the market in the form of pasteurized milk, butters, and cream. However, the management has realised that the processes are experiencing significant problems in delays and wastages that occur because of the problems with the logical organisation of teams and the management hierarchy.
Stevenson and Hojati (2007) maintain that the management intends to adapt the concept of lean management to identify the problems and improve the processes to achieve the benefits of lean management by reducing lead time, increase the efficiency of the teams, and reduce inventories and other benefit that might arise.
The lean management concept has its foundation on the lean manufacturing philosophy that was introduced in 1990 by the Japanese in the Toyota Processing Systems (TPS) to optimise manufacturing resources and reduce waste. The concept of lean management is one of the areas of production management that Marks Dairy Industry intends to adapt into its systems that many firms have widely adopted in running the production processes in the hope of reducing waste.
Womack and Jones (2010) argue that by continuously improving the quality of products to increase efficiency and effectiveness increases value, creates effective value stream processes, and optimises inventory and resource investments. Sacks and Goldin (2007) add to the concept of lean management as enabling effective time and space utilization, and increases perfection using less people in the transformation processes of production or service delivery to meet and even exceed customer needs and expectations (Martinez
Getting a Teenager to Clean His/Her Room Coursework college admission essay help: college admission essay help
It is possible to analyze behavior of a particular teenager. Let it be Jimmy who is 13. In the first place, it is necessary to note that such things as cleaning the room or completing, at least, some tasks can be effectively taught at an earlier age. The target behavior is cleaning his room every weekend (Saturday).
This will teach Jimmy to be responsible and it may also make him understand that a tidy room is a norm and it is a great convenience. This may develop into a habit. It is necessary to break the behavior down to manageable parts, as this will enhance the chances of effective learning (Pear, 2014). Jimmy is expected to tidy his room, which includes making his bed, putting his things to the corresponding places, dusting, vacuuming, and cleaning the window.
To shape Jimmy’s behavior, it is necessary to use operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is beneficial when it comes to shaping people’s behavior. It involves learning through reinforcement (Coon
Nortel Company’s Issues in Canada Research Paper online essay help
Abstract In the world of nowadays the causes of financial crises are carefully studied and analysed by thousands of experts all around the world, yet as well as countries, large business organisations tend to go into crises from time to time. This paper is focused on studying the case of a corporation called Nortel, which was a major Canadian telecommunication company.
In the end of 1990s and the beginning of 2000s it went through impressive success and turned into a business giant and every business maker’s role model. Yet, a couple years later Nortel’s value decreased massively and the company suffered a huge meltdown. The analysis of Nortel’s business processes revealed a series of frauds directed at the disguise of its poor performance.
This phenomenon occurred because the company’s managers who happened to be at risk due to the decreasing stock options of Nortel tried to protect their own welfare and hide the fact of failure from the shareholders. This paper is focused at the examination of the issues of Nortel from the perspective of ethics. First of all, the factors that contributed to the downfall of the company will be listed and described.
Then, the paper will elaborate of what mechanisms are to be there to prevent risks of Nortel. After that, the meltdown of Nortel will be presented as the failure of people, but not of capital market processes and the repetitive nature of this big fail will be explored. Finally, a number of remedies helping to avoid Nortel’s mistakes will be prioritised.
In the contemporary world there is a variety of large and rather rich corporations that widely are viewed as examples of ultimate success business strategy. Huge companies that manage to stimulate the growth of their capitals and revenue within several years and expand their businesses becoming highly influential and recognised as brands are every business maker’s role models.
Their tactics and paths towards success are carefully studied, followed and copied. At the same time, the majority of the large and influential brands regularly go through big downfalls and stop being as important or seize to exist whatsoever every fifteen years. Statistically, the list of most frequently used brands changes completely within a couple of decades; at least forty per cent of the companies that used to be at the Fortune 500 top in 2000s were not there anymore ten years later (SAP, 2013).
This paper is focused on the case study of Nortel, the Canadian telecommunication giant of the end of 1990s and the beginning of 2000s, and its steep rise and fall. It will discuss the factors that contributed to the rise and fall of Nortel from the ethical perspective, mechanisms that align managers with the stakeholders, the nature of this failure and remedies for it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From an ethical perspective, describe the factors that contributed to the rise and fall of Nortel
Generally, there are four main factors that are viewed as the main contributing influences that may have caused the meltdown of Nortel. The first factor is the company’s board of directors and its composition and size. First of all, the number of board members in Nortel was significantly larger than recommended.
The independent board elected by the stakeholders failed many of its important functions due to the complete lack of knowledge of the company’s operations and revenue acquisition. This occurred because the board of twelve directors at Nortel did not include anyone who could perform high-quality financial expertise. Besides, many board members were too busy with their executive work to properly focus on their duties.
Ethically, the board was unsuitable for the company and elected based on the personal achievements that did not reflect the efficiency of these people as the curators of the company. The second factor is executive compensation. The CEO of Nortel John Roth had an extremely generous compensation package, which was a lot larger than the ones of his executives.
This created an unethical situation, as his leadership was perceived as authoritarian. Besides, the excessive revenues of the company owners always cause rumors about egoism, frauds, theft, or tax avoidance. Executive stock options were the factors that made the people push the company’s performance or its image to keep having stock option profit.
The next factor that contributed to Nortel’s downfall was its ownership structure. The organisation’s stakeholder base included many transient investors that sought the opportunities to profit because of the stock changes. Ethically, the stakeholders were not dedicated to the company’s growth but to their own profit. The final factor is the management of Nortel’s earnings. The company hired multiple analysts to monitor its business, analyse and explain it.
Projecting and predicting of the company’s future profit caused the “benchmark beating game” where the managers were focused on exceeding the projected positive outcomes and disguise the company’s poor performance in order to preserve their own compensation, which was in direct dependence from stock options. Human factor plays key role in this situation, everyone tried to hide the negative sides so hard that it eventually led to the company’s meltdown, when all the disadvantages were revealed.
What mechanisms should be put in place to better align managers with the interests of shareholders?
Nortel’s managers are the subordinate group, whereas the stakeholders of the company are the representatives of the dominant group in relation to stock options dependant revenues and compensations. Alignment of the incentives of these two parties is the key to ethical leadership and the only way to avoid complete lack of transparency of the working process and fraud.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Nortel Company’s Issues in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Managers of Nortel, as the employees whose commission directly depended on stock options were at risk of going bankrupt in case of company’s performance became poorer. Nortel’s downfall happened due to the wrong kind of employee empowerment. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is shown that physiological and safety needs are the two most important and basic categories of needs. In the contemporary world money and income represents the main way to address these needs.
This way, the managers were tempted to manipulate the data and information in order to protect their income and welfare. To secure the relationship between managers and stakeholders certain employee code or contract should have been employed.
The regulations preventing managers from information manipulation would definitely align the relationship between subordinate and dominant groups and secure organisational trust (Collins, 2012). Besides, if the company preferred to be based only on dedicated investors that would remove the risk of imbalance between the managers and shareholders.
Would you describe the meltdown of Nortel more as a failure of “people” or of “capital market processes”?
I would describe what happened to Nortel as a failure of people. According to the definition of utilitarianism in normative ethics, it is based on the quality of action. The action, independently of its motives, is considered right in case if it results in the happiness of its agent and everyone affected by the action (West, n. d.). At the same time, if the action is done to please just the agent, it is considered selfish and unethical.
From the perspective of utilitarianism, Nortel’s meltdown became the result of the selfish actions of its managers as well as its shareholders as both of these sides acted egoistically in order to preserve and secure their own profits. The inner relationships in the organisation were dry and only based on business and revenues.
The company was definitely an outstanding business project, yet it did not survive for long because of the company’s little care about the people it was based on, and the people’s little care about the organisation. The clash of egoistic pursuit typical for human nature and sequence of selfish actions seem to be the main causes of the downfall of Nortel. Besides, the risky actions of the organisational leaders based on its prior success were rather emotional instead of being rational and wise.
Lack of organisational trust and regulations restricting information manipulations among the managers along with organisational injustice in reference to John Roth’s huge compensation created the disruption of inner culture within this corporation. In my opinion, ethical leadership in Nortel was not present and this is not an issue of capital market process. I view Nortel’s case as a demonstration of what happens when marketing process is unregulated by policies and leaders, which eventually turns it into total chaos.
What happened to Nortel is similar to what happened to WorldCom and Enron in the early 2000s, and to Lehman Brothers, Citigroup, and many other banks during the 2008 financial crisis. Why do business people keep making the same mistake?
There is a belief that corporations such as WorldCom, Enron and Nortel did not collapse due to a mistake in accounting, and that the actual reason for their downfall was the failure to cover up its financial weakness (Cato Handbook for Congress, 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nortel Company’s Issues in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Risky actions and bold steps are parts of strategic planning for the companies that profit from the stock options. This has always been this way. The loss of some major companies in the beginning of the 2000s as well as during the financial crisis of 2008 affected a variety of state economical and financial aspects in the United States of America and Canada.
As a result, the leading organisations were suggested to take voluntary measures to prevent risk of undergoing the same tragic circumstances. The human factor contributing into the wrong risk assessment had to be reduced, as it was identified to be the main cause of the meltdowns of large corporations.
5. Discuss how to prioritise the following remedies to stop such recurrences: business education, regulation of accounting/financial markets, regulation of incentives, or regulation of punishment. Also, tell me your thought process about your decision about priorities.
Thinking of the listed above remedies I tried to focus on the principle of virtue ethics, which requires one’s choices to be based on virtuous motives and targeted at moral outcomes (Virtue Ethics, 2013). In my opinion, proper business education is one of the main keys to securing the performance of a company.
After all, the best success of Nortel occurred in the years when the corporation hired dozens of analysts to watch over its business. Besides, the lack of properly educated and experienced board members led to the board’s total unawareness of the processes happening within Nortel. The companies need to have clear mission and vision statements so that the employees and the shareholder are motivated by the same purposes.
This would help to establish incentives regulation in the organisation. Regulation of punishment is also a crucial measure, but, to my mind, it has to be limiting only up to the point of excellent fulfillment of motivation for the employees and executives. For example, the regulations are to provide organisational justice and maintain its moral culture, serve as team building factors and correct work-life balance of the employees (Collins, 2012).
Since it became clear that accounting errors are not the key factors that contributed to the failure of large companies such as WorldCom, Enron and Nortel, I put them last in the list of priority issues that need to be addressed to fix the performance of corporations and avoid risks of bankruptcy.
In conclusion, the case of Nortel is not a rare scenario. Unfortunately, many companies followed the same path after taking too much risk while being financially weak. Since risk is a necessary aspect of any successful business complete avoidance of risk is not possible. As a result, some other measures need to be taken in order for the companies of the future not to follow the failed businesses of the past.
Reference List CATO Handbook for Congress. (2003). Policy Recomendations for the 108th Congress. Washington, DC: CATO Institute.
Collins, D. (2012). Business Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
Evaluation of the Partnership Against Domestic Violence Essay best college essay help
Description Perhaps, one of the most famous nonprofit organizations, Partnership Against Domestic Violence (PADV) has become a household name in people’s lives all over the United States. Founded in 1975, the organization has been providing support for the victims of domestic violence ever since. According to the official mission statement of the organization, PADV is aimed at improving the overall wellbeing of families all over the world and helping those that suffer from domestic violence (About us, 2014)
The organization’s primary goal is to meet the needs of the people that have experienced domestic violence and to support them in their attempts at healing their emotional scars. In addition, PADV does everything possible to spread awareness concerning domestic violence so that the instances of domestic violence occurrences could be brought down to zero.
Organizational Culture As it has been stressed above, the provision of decent services is the primary concern of the leaders of PADV. Consequently, the improvement of the staff’s performance and consistent upgrading of their skills makes the basis for the company’s organizational culture.
To be more specific, the organization is obviously aimed at creating the environment that will help the victims of domestic abuse recover faster. While the members of the PADV organization never spell it out exactly they still make it rather obvious that their efforts are aimed primarily at the people that have suffered domestic abuse.
Effects of Norms, Customs and Traditions on Decision Making
Seeing that people, who have experienced pressure and/or physical violence from the members of their families make the primary audience that PADV works with, the fact that the organization puts a very strong emphasis on the significance of cooperation and trust between the patients and the PADV members is quite understandable.
Indeed, according to the official statement made by the organization, a reciprocal and unceasing communication with the victims of domestic abuse, which PADV assists in dealing with their emotional traumas, is the key premise for the successful operation of the organization and the efficient delivery of the corresponding services (Domestic violence in the workplace, 2012).
Company’s Policies and Ethical Dilemmas
It would be wrong to assume, however, that the company, with its rigid moral polities and ethical standards, does not have to deal with any moral dilemmas whatsoever; quite on the contrary, facing a range of issues related to child health, the organization must make very complicated choices on a regular basis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Seeing that the organization’s decision must be indispensable and at the same time must align with the set of moral principles, which PADV members comply with, it is crucial that the required choices should benefit their target audience, i.e., domestic abuse victims.
However, a comparatively recent report claims that the 2010 PADV Organization is aimed primarily at acquiring financial resources rather than considering whether the products marketed by it are actually harmless, not to mention taking the concerned parents’ opinion into account (Partnership Against Domestic Violence benefits from ProviDyn’s private cloud, relocates headquarters with ease, 2012).
For an organization that has been devoted to providing charity services to people in need, even the slightest deviation from the established ethical principles may turn out disastrous. Therefore, the issue needs an immediate solution (Cooper, 2012).
Internal and External Controls as a Tool for Public Administration
Much to the credit of the organization, PADV uses both the internal and external tools for controlling its processes in general and the process of communicating with its audience in particular. As the organization’s leader claims, numerous audits are the key tools for facilitating a smooth and uninterrupted performance of PADV staff, whereas the modern communication tools serve as the basic external controls (Smith, 2013).
While the specified tools can be viewed as rather efficient, the results that they deliver cannot be considered fully credible, though. While an audit allows for only a rather subjective opinion to be shaped for the most part, questionnaires, in their turn, have the opposite problem; as a rule, their results are often overly generalized. Therefore, it can be suggested that an additional tool for evaluating the efficacy of the company’s performance should be introduced into the existing framework.
Solutions to the Ethical Dilemma
Since the decisions that are taken regarding the means of attracting the target audience and promoting to it, as well as the sponsorship and advertising concerns, are dealt with on the corporate level, but on the level of the company’s numerous affiliates, it will be reasonable test the efficacy of the existing leadership approach adopted in PADV.
While the principle of laissez-faire, which is the model that is currently adopted in the company, is incontrovertibly efficient for creating the premises for sustainable use of the company’s resources and adequate human resource management, it still weakens the cohesion between the company’s departments.
We will write a custom Essay on Evaluation of the Partnership Against Domestic Violence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, controlling the possible breaches of the corporate ethics becomes complicated. Hence, tightening internal and external controls with the help of a more efficient supervision system, i.e., a flexible system of audits and reports, can be a viable solution for the ethical dilemma in question.
Reference List About us. (2014). PADV. Web.
Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator. An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.) New York, NY: Jossey-Bass.
Domestic violence in the workplace. (2012). PADV. Web.
Partnership Against Domestic Violence benefits from ProviDyn’s private cloud, relocates headquarters with ease. (2012). RedCribt. Web.
Smith, J. C. (2013). PADV Atlanta. Web.
Evaluation of Relevant HRM Issues in Germany Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Globalisation has influenced the contemporary business environment substantially due to the emergence of different market forces coupled with the unparalleled increment in the intensity of competition. Subsequently, firms have been forced to be competitive. Quintanilla and Ferner (2003) affirm that organisations adopt different HRM practices depending on their national settings.
Some of the factors that lead to the variation of HRM practices include governmental policies and regulations, competitive priorities, cultural idiosyncrasy, and the adoption of different managerial practices, for example quality management and Just In Time [JIT] (Ahmad
Effectiveness of Various Conflict Management Practices Proposal essay help online
Introduction When investors establish projects, they hope that they will have employees, who will work together towards the progress of the entire project. However, in the contemporary world, it is almost impossible to have a conflict-free working environment. In one or more occasions, people may tend to have some negative attitudes towards their workmates, and they may end up discriminating them.
Moreover, there could be aggressions, tensions, and antagonism that may bring frustrations in the workplace. The mentioned issues play a significant role in raising conflict at the workplace, where employees ought to work together in harmony. The most interesting thing about this topic is that conflict is inseparable with humanity, and people can only learn to avoid it in their daily errands.
Essentially, conflict is a natural aspect that is necessary if people have to progress positively. Moreover, managing conflict at the workplace is an opportunity to portray personal growth. Whenever managers display their potentiality to manage conflict and cope effectively with the potential quarrels that may arise at the workplace, they prove to be competent for their positions.
Indeed, it is a requirement for every manager to be able to recognize a conflict, identify its source, analyze its possible constructive or destructive effect to the organization, and have a practical way to address the conflict. The study on conflict management at the workplace is imperative, as it address vital issues that affect people in almost all organizations.
Most managers may disagree that they have shortfalls in their approaches of dealing with conflict management; however, the bitter truth is that they have gaps to mend if they aspire to be great managers. The study will explore the various ways that employers and managers ought to employ while dealing with ambiguous situations in the workplace. Essentially, the researcher will seek the information from the affected employees.
The vital information will enable managers to identify the gaps in their conflict resolution approaches, and work towards improving the approaches. The research will play a great role in enhancing the decision making process of the managers, as they will base their decisions on the best approaches to conflict management defined in the research report.
This research aims at examining the various conflict management practices in various workplaces. The researcher will employ various ways to identify the possible sources of conflicts, and the best ways to resolve the conflicts. A great comparison of the various approaches that different managers employ will be beneficial to interested stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the successful completion of the study, the researcher will make decisive conclusions and recommendations that will be very useful in increasing employees’ productivity. It is noteworthy that companies will be the greatest beneficiaries of this research, as enhanced conflict management skills will result into an increased performance of the entire company.
Since conflict management is one of the core variables of the productivity of a company, the entire society will enjoy the benefits of increased productivity. Customers will be indirect beneficiaries of the improved conflict management approaches as they may obtain enhanced products and services afterwards. With the enhanced productivity, the economy will replenish, and every individual will enjoy the benefits of a replenished economy.
Literature review A project manager is obligated to handle the difficult role of managing all kinds of conflicts regardless of the level of emotion involved. In fact, competent managers take the shortest time possible to resolve conflicts using minimal resources. Unfortunately, most managers spend time that ought to add value to the company on managing conflict.
Apparently, most middle level managers spend 25% of their time managing conflicts at the workplace instead of working towards the progress of the project (Boddy 76). This is one of the challenges that the managers ought to overcome, as they ought to develop approaches to manage conflicts in the most professional manner. It is noteworthy that conflict at the workplace arises because of the different situations that generate incompatible goals among different employees.
Conflicts at the workplace have proved to be a great threat to the smooth progress of any project; therefore, managers have to find all possible ways to resolve conflicts before they escalate to adverse levels. Employees will have different values, goals, motives, and ideas concerning a particular thing. Most organizations will require employees to work collaboratively; unfortunately, the high interdependence rates create room for conflict (Aquino 180).
The employees will obviously have different ways of thinking and behaving, and they might differ in one way or another. In the workplace, some employees will struggle to achieve goals of their interest according to their needs. It is also noteworthy that external factors play a great role in bringing differences between two groups of people.
Conflict management in the workplace is a designed way to resolve disagreements between two groups of people. Once employees or two groups of people disagree, a mediator ought to come in and try to achieve some kind of unity through all possible ways. Sometimes, the situation becomes difficult, and the mediators have to annihilate one of the parties to achieve reconciliation.
We will write a custom Proposal on Effectiveness of Various Conflict Management Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Project managers are usually the mediators, who have the obligation to manage conflicts and prevent future conflicts. Essentially, project managers are the key people who must have defined goals to achieve when dealing with issues to do with conflict management.
The first approach in handling conflicts is finding the sources of the conflict. Apparently, every workplace has its own conflict culture, and similarly, the parties involved have different ways of managing their conflict. Some managers have invested the culture of having an open-minded debate to resolve conflicts, while others are ignorant to the extent that their employees prefer to avoid conflicts.
Essentially, people who resolve conflicts in an open-minded debate perceive conflict as an opportunity to air their views, while those who prefer to avoid conflict regard it as a threat. The response to conflict will obviously determine the way in which the resolution process unfolds. In the same way, the unfolding of the conflict will determine if the conflict at the workplace has positive and negative effects to the organization.
Reduced productivity, stress, decreased trust and poor teamwork are some of the negative effects of conflicts at the workplace. Moreover, personal-focused conflicts create negative emotions, which play a great role in increasing tension in the workplace. However, conflicts also bring some positive effects in one way or another. By airing their conflicts, some employees feel relived, as the managers are able to resolve their grievances.
Conflict also plays a critical role in stimulating the thinking process of the decision makers of a company, as well as enhancing the decisions that they make. Conflicts that focus on resolving problems help in decreasing tension and improving group functionality. Although rare, preventing the occurrence of conflicts at the workplace is one of the most effective ways to manage conflict at the workplace.
Managers should always persist on organizational justice and intense interactions among employees to resolve conflicts at the workplace. It is noteworthy that most employees will always struggle for distributive, procedural, and interactional justice within the organization. Conflict competent leader should embrace constructive conflict resolution measures, and they should have an uncompromising focus while managing conflict at the workplace (Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus 18).
It is noteworthy that effective conflict management measures in the workplace play a great role in strengthening the self-efficacy of employees. When employees have a high efficacy, they perceive a conflict as a challenge that they can resolve and manage. Project managers should always aim at having such employees instead of having cowardice employees, who would rather avoid a conflict instead of encountering it with confidence.
Theoretical framework Conflict theory is one of the commonest theoretical perspectives that explain conflict at the workplace. Since ancient times, managers have found it useful to study conflict theory, as it is essential in addressing business, social, psychological, and communication issues. The theory explains that conflict can be functional, situational, or interactive depending on the underlying reason.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effectiveness of Various Conflict Management Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Essentially, a conflict may arise because of a social function or a complex situation that raises disagreements between two parties. In either case, conflict will arise as a form of expression because of the underlying situation. Functional conflicts explain the reason behind a disagreement while situational conflicts explain the circumstances behind the disagreement.
On the other hand, interactive conflicts will analyze the mechanisms through which the affected people express their anger. The three forms of conflicts follow a retaliatory cycle, where, a trigger causes anger, and the affected person reacts towards the cause of anger. In resolving a conflict, one party may end up victorious over the other, or the two parties may reconcile. However, reconciliation is almost impossible in conflicts characterized by high level of emotions.
Conflict management systems are other theoretical perspective that sociologists use to explain conflict at the workplace. The theory seeks to explain the emerging systems and new paradigms that managers ought to use to manage conflict at the workplace. Conflict management systems interlink with the new social contract between employees to achieve the best method to establish the best conflict resolution approaches (Wilson 25).
In the contemporary world, employees resolve to display their grievances through strikes, as they demand for certain rights from their employers. Essentially, this power-based method of resolving conflicts applies when all employees work in unison. In other cases, employees may opt to settle their conflicts based on their employment rights.
In such a case, the employees may decide to seek justice from the law court, and if the case favors the employees, the employer bears severe consequences. On the converse, the interest-based method of resolving conflict at the workplace may work towards identifying and finding ways of employing initiatives to solve joint problems of the affected parties.
Unfortunately, if one of the parties is powerful than the other, the mediator may employ a biased conflict resolution approach. The saddest thing to note is that most managers use the interest-based method of resolving conflict because it is less costly more versatile than other conflict resolution methods.
As indicated in the literature review, different sociologists have different views about conflict management in the workplace. However, this research will seek to study the perceptions of the affected people on the ground. The researcher will seek to investigate the following research questions and test the subsequent hypotheses using the answers from various employees.
What are the key factors that trigger conflicts at the workplace?
How do managers approach conflicts at the workplace?
What are the most effective conflict management systems?
Should managers focus on the outcome of their decision or a fair decision?
What are the key tools to manage and resolve conflicts at the workplace?
What features needs improvement in managing conflict at the workplace?
Null hypothesis 1: There is no linear correlation between work performance and conflicts at the workplace.
Null hypothesis 2: There is no linear relationship between organizational justice and conflict levels at the work place.
Null hypothesis 3: The benefits of conflicts outweigh the drawbacks of conflicts at the workplace.
Methodology This section will give a precise description of the quantitative research that ought to examine a very pertinent issue in the contemporary world. The research aims at examining the effectiveness of various conflict management approaches employed at the workplace.
Despite valuable indications that the conflict management system employed determines the effectiveness of conflict management in the workplaces, studies indicate that the personality of the project managers plays a significant role in determining the level of success in managing conflict.
The researcher will analyze the conflict management systems used, the educational background, age, gender, and level of experience of the project managers of various organizations to make a critical analysis between the above named factors and the employees’ perception of the level of success in managing conflict.
Indeed, both numerical and statistical analysis will prove to be highly significant in analyzing the broad range of the study variables. The research methodology will give a clear insight of the study population, study sample, the data collection procedures, and the data analysis techniques to employ.
Population and Sample
The study population will comprise of employees of various organizations across the study region. It will seek to analyze their opinion on the level of success in managing conflict in their workplaces. Essentially, there are numerous organizations in the study region, but the researcher will make a random choice of the organizations to take part in the study.
Moreover, the employees to take part in the study will comprise of randomly selected respondents, who will have worked in their organizations for more than one year. Participation in the study will be independent of the employees’ current position or job description, as long as they are not serving in the management position.
To achieve randomization, the researcher will employ a probability sampling procedure, which will give every respondent an equal chance to take part in the study. Probability sampling is reliable, and applicable in studying a large population.
Essentially, the researcher will only have to study a sample of the population to make inferences about the entire population. Moreover, probability sampling has the capacity to accommodate statistical methods to measure the precision level of the data obtained.
The data collection procedure will follow a logical flow of events before and during the study period. A pilot study will be necessary to measure the effectiveness of the data collection instruments. The pilot study will investigate the validity of the questions, their appropriateness to the study topic, their logical sequence, and their verbal information. If need be, the researcher will amend the data collection instruments accordingly.
The researcher will take an initiative to inform the respondents about the research, and the purpose of the study. Thereafter, it will be courteous to collect data from willing participants only. Moreover, the researcher will assure the respondents of confidentiality of the raw data, where, the public can only access the information after the researcher has analyzed the raw data and presented it in form of a report.
During the study period, the researcher will have to employ the necessary submissiveness to collect the necessary data. The researcher will distribute the questionnaires to the respective respondents and provide the relevant information as soon as the study period commences.
The main data collection instrument is the questionnaire, but occasionally, the researcher may have to use semi-standardized interviews and personal observations to collect data. The semi-standardized interviews will be very helpful, as they will enable the researcher to obtain elaborate answers and explanations of the required information. During the interviews, the researcher will have the flexibility to change the order of the questions and wordings to be in line with the requirements of the respondent.
Occasionally, the researcher will have to make personal observations to ascertain the reliability of the collected data. To achieve the required standards of a research, the questionnaire will comprise of 25 questions, three of which will be open-ended questions that allow the respondents to express their views about the study topic. Moreover, the questionnaire will comprise of leaker-scale questions, whereby, the respondents can strongly agree, agree, not respond, object, or strongly object a pre-defined statement.
The various data collection instruments will be necessary to collect comprehensive data. It will be necessary to give contact details, as phone follow-ups and email alerts will be helpful in giving clarification and explanation whenever need arise. The researcher may have to remind the respondents to complete the questionnaires, within the given timeline, and it would be courteous to thank those who have duly filled the questionnaires.
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21) will be necessary in the data analysis exercise. Developing a descriptive data for the independent variables will give a concise view of the participants. Later, a factor analysis of the leaker-scale data will be helpful in analyzing the strength of the opinions of the various responses.
The researcher will have to carry out a Pearson’s correlation analysis to investigate the existence of relationships between the dependent and the independent variables. The correlations will be very helpful in determining whether the researcher will accept or reject the null hypotheses.
The correlations would seek to determine if there is a linear relationship between work performance and conflicts at the workplace, organizational justice and conflict levels at the work place, and if the benefits of conflicts at the workplace outweigh the drawbacks of conflicts at the workplace. Whenever applicable, the researcher will carry out Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests to determine the effect of different treatments to the study variables.
Works Cited Aquino, Karl. “Structural and Individual Determinants of Workplace Victimization: The Effects of Hierarchical Status and Conflict Management Style.” Journal of Management 26.1 (2000): 171-193. Print.
Boddy, David. Managing Projects, Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education, 2002. Print.
Deutsch, Morton, Peter Coleman and Eric Marcus. The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006. Print.
Wilson, Jennifer. “Make Conflict Management Successful—If Not Cheerful.” Accounting Today 18.19 (2004): 22-27. Print.
Entrepreneurship and Its Peculiarities Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Definition of Entrepreneurship The investigations around such critical element of entrepreneurial theory like entrepreneurship have been taking place for a long period of time due to inability to give one agreed definition and introduce it to a wide range of people. Basically, entrepreneurship may be defined as a powerful catalyst of economic development and growth.
Its ability to promote success in different spheres of life by means of competitions, innovations, and commercialisation makes the concept of entrepreneurship an important issue for consideration. Therefore, some experts admit that entrepreneurship may be discovered as a combination of innovation, growth, and strategic focus.
Hisrich (2013) writes that entrepreneurship is “developing something new with value by dedicating the required time, commitment, and perseverance, undertaking the associated risks and rewards with the objective of achieving prosperity and wealth” (p. 7). Carland (2010) introduces entrepreneurship as “the backbone of the economy and the economic engine which is necessary to restore economic success to a nation suffering from spiralling costs and job losses” (p. 40).
Considering such interpretations, entrepreneurship may be emerged as a potential growth of activities supported by innovation, strategic endeavours, and focus on what should be invented and commercialised at the same time.
Myths about Entrepreneurs and Their Roles
Talking about entrepreneurship, the role of the main participants of the process, entrepreneurs, cannot be omitted. An entrepreneur is a manager, who has to undertake many activities like considering innovation, making decisions, focusing an object, using different resources, promoting economic change, etc. to prove the importance of the chosen business.
A good entrepreneur should have a number of qualities in order to become a true professional in the chosen sphere of business. The research tells us that people get used to think about entrepreneurs not as correct as it should really be. It is time to focus on the myths, which take place around the concept of entrepreneurship.
One of the most common myths is the level of entrepreneur’s education. People say that entrepreneurs are usually the smartest and most high achieving among the rest. However, it is not actually true. As a rule, the majority of entrepreneurs have their Bachelor degrees (Malerba 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They do not find it necessary to spend much time on education but try to focus on the development of the chosen affair and rely on personal experience instead of theoretical basis. Another myth is about the way of how entrepreneurs work. It is said that entrepreneurs are born not made. Again, it is not true. It is hard to find families of entrepreneurs.
As a rule, a good entrepreneur makes him/herself independently using personal interests and ideas. However, it is necessary not to confuse an individual approach for work and individualism at work. The point is that all entrepreneurs like to work in teams to achieve better results. They do not rely on their charisma. Entrepreneurship has also nothing in common with risks.
Though some entrepreneurs admit that they like to put everything on risk, still, they can hardly do this because they prefer to weight all pros and cons of the chosen affair and then take a step that minimise the level of risk to zero (Burns 2011). Finally, good entrepreneurs should never be treated as undisciplined gamblers. Some people like to think that mess and rules’ breaking are the main theme in entrepreneurship. Still, there are not many entrepreneurs, who neglect discipline. In fact, discipline is one of the key factors of successful entrepreneurship.
Psychological Traits and Behaviours of Entrepreneurs
As it has been said before, entrepreneurs are not born. They are made. In fact, they are usually made of professionalism and a number of personal traits, which help to understand what should be done and how something should be analysed.
Those, who believe that famous entrepreneurs like Bill Gates or Steve Jobs start working in order to become rich, will never become good entrepreneurs. The research shows that all their actions and ideas are based on their passion. It is passion that motivates ordinary managers to create something bigger; it is passion that helps to realise the most important entrepreneurial goals; it is passion that creates a fundamental basis for a future work (Hisrich 2013).
Still, it is never enough to be passionate about something. The already succeeded entrepreneurs admit that self-belief plays also an important role in becoming a successful entrepreneur. Self-belief is the trait that helps entrepreneurs to understand that their ideas are right. They do not believe, they just know. Is it selfish? Yes, it is. However, it is necessary. Of course, a bit of luck is an additional factor that should go alongside with self-confidence and passion.
Risk-taking attitude should be considered (Wickham 2006). It is all about the trait that is called tolerance of ambiguity. People know that a certain portion of risk exists. People understand that some challenges have to be overcome.
We will write a custom Essay on Entrepreneurship and Its Peculiarities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, entrepreneurs realise that their attitude to risk should be adequate – no panic, despair, nor doubts. Only belief in self, passion, and tolerance should guide to the successful final of the chosen affair. At the same time, future entrepreneurs believe in opportunities, which are available for them. If it is impossible to spot an opportunity, a good entrepreneur should realise how it is possible to create an opportunity.
Money should not be regarded as a final stop in the development of an affair. Money should be also regarded as a measure, an opportunity to achieve something bigger. It is never necessary to stop using resources around – people, occasions, telephone calls, and even the mistakes of other people.
Properly identified opportunities become good motivating factors for entrepreneurs. “Successful entrepreneurs, whatever their individual motivation – to it money, power, curiosity, or the desire for fame and recognition – try to create value and to make a contribution” (Drucker 2007, p. 31).
They define a chance to get involved into entrepreneurship as an opportunity to gain control over own destiny, enjoy this life, make a difference, etc. Entrepreneurs aim at introducing innovations to people, therefore, the role of innovation in entrepreneurship has to be evaluated as well.
Entrepreneurship and Innovation Innovation performs one of the key roles in entrepreneurship. Drucker (2007) introduces innovation as “the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit change as an opportunity for a different business or a different service” (p.17). Still, it is a big mistake to believe that innovation is equal to invention. Innovation does have connection to invention; but it is not enough to be an invention in order to become an innovation.
Something more is needed in order to make an invention more important, more available to ordinary people, and more interesting to possible shareholders. In other words, invention should make a value for a world, and this process is called commercialisation. Therefore, innovation is a combination of invention and commercialisation. Entrepreneurship requires an idea, an invention.
Still, an idea independently is cheap, this is why it needs some value, and the process of commercialisation can make an idea a profitable innovation that provides entrepreneurship with success. It is impossible to promote an idea neglecting a commercial opportunity, this is why the role of creativity in entrepreneurship turns out to be a doubtful issue. The connection between an innovation and creativity is specific indeed. Innovation as well as creativity is defined as something new for an organisation.
Still, innovation may be borrowed, stole, taken, or developed. Ziegler (2011) admits that innovation is something new but not original. Creativity, in its turn, is an idea that is generated under the circumstances required for an organisation. It is a completely new idea of doing something rather than searching for an incremental change (Burns 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Entrepreneurship and Its Peculiarities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Creativity seems to be harder than innovation and more important within one particular organisation. Entrepreneurship taken more global positions and requires more confident steps even if they are small, they have to be innovating and supported by a commercial opportunity.
Governmental Support of Entrepreneurial Start-Ups and High Growth Venture
Governments play an important role in assisting entrepreneurs, facilitating and encouraging start-up development. At the start-up stage, government may help to set up networks, choose the most appropriate contacts, and facilitate the process of funding itself. At the high growth stage, governments have all chances to assist companies with funding their own expansions.
At this stage, companies are able to demonstrate their potential, opportunities, and innovations, it is high time for the government to provide a chance to earn revenues and promote further development. Governments should understand that potentially successful entrepreneurs do not find it necessary to replace or change something.
As a rule, such entrepreneurs prefer to build from scratch and turn innovation into something valuable for society. Governments find it necessary to support social entrepreneurship the most as they find this type of activity crucial in discussing social problems.
Social Entrepreneurship Ziegler (2011) introduces social entrepreneurship as a source of hope (p. 1) that provides people with a new chance to analyse social problems and press them within a short period of time. Promotion of social entrepreneurship requires the presence of a number of behavioural traits like confidence, the desire to make a difference, the necessity to improve something, and even the desire to gain control over something that is important for society. All these traits have been discussed in the paper.
Reference List Burns, P 2011, Entrepreneurship and small business: Start-up, growth and maturity, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
Carland, JW 2010, ‘Entrepreneurship education: Building for the future’, Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 40-59.
Drucker, P 2007, Innovation and entrepreneurship, Harper Collins, New York.
Hisrich, RD 2013, Managing innovation and entrepreneurship, SAGE Publications, London.
Malerba, F 2010, Knowledge intensive entrepreneurship and innovation systems: Evidence from Europe, Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.
Wickham, PA 2006, Strategic entrepreneurship, Prentice Hall, London.
Ziegler, R 2011, An introduction to social entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, Glos.
Research Methods for Business Students Explicatory Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Indicative approach Indicative approach of research methodology is whereby research data are used to formulate or generalize a theory based on the observed pattern. Indicative researchers use research questions to narrow the scope of their research without the use of hypotheses.
Indicative research is particularly useful when a new phenomenon needs to be explored or when a previously researched phenomenon needs to be viewed from a different perspective (Saunders
The Role of Culture in International Marketing Coursework scholarship essay help
Introduction Culture of a given market represents the way different people in such a market behave and carry out their daily endeavours. In a black box perspective, culture is a representation of a population’s way of life. Markedly, cultures vary from state to state and community to community.
The Whites, Blacks, Arabs, Hispanics, and other divisive groups exhibit different cultures. Values, norms, traditions, customs, and beliefs represent some of the elements exhibiting cultural differences. Businesses require utmost care in developing adequate understanding of the impacts of culture on consumer behaviours.
Developing an intricate understanding of the different types of cultures that exist across the globe enables business franchises to create ample marketing systems that improve the rate of sales. In understanding the cultural setup in a market, businesses require analysis of key elements that inform cultural practices within a given market.
Developing products and services becomes irrelevant without proper marketing strategies. Therefore, implementing these strategies in the global market require putting into consideration consumer differences in terms of values, beliefs, thought processes, and traditions (Cateora and Graham 2007, p. 35).
Equally, different cultures appreciate different languages, religions, and symbols. Understanding all these facets within the confines of a marketing strategy enables business entities to win the hearts of many consumers, thereby improving the chances of higher profit margins.
This paper seeks to explore the different elements in culture that inform marketing strategy in local and international business franchise. Similarly, the paper seeks to understand the role of consumer culture in marketing and effects of culture on advertisement.
Dimensions of Culture As Czinkota and Ronkainen (2007, p. 128) demote, many scholars argue that individuals develop cultures from interaction with different characters within a society. Characters, behaviours, traits, and customs within which an individual duels create a systematic and predicable way of life congruent to the interactive elements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the development and conformity into a given culture, different individuals begin to develop tastes and preferences for different products and services (Byrd and Megginson 2013, p. 44). Most cultural groups stick to their behaviours and customs since developing a contrary way of life creates animosity within the society.
For this reason, several cultures remain reluctant in embracing foreign ways of life, hence creating serious hurdles for international business franchises seeking penetration in a new market. According to Hofsede (2001, p. 73), for business franchise to develop an adequate understanding of the cultural structures for successful market penetration, understanding the different cultural dimensions within such markets becomes compulsory.
Individualism versus collectivism Individualism draws inspiration from the school of thought that believes that individuals hold absolute rights over their lives. Due to this, each person in a given society holds lives his/her life based on personal choices that he/she considers best (Allik and Anu 2004, p. 46).
Such choices and preferences translate into the market trends exhibited among the different groups of products and services. Individualism in the investment perspective represents the capitalist nature such as the US economy. Collectivism, on the other hand, relies on the concepts of communal and/or societal ownership of life.
In a society practicing collectivism, individuals’ lifestyles draw directions and instructions from a set of pre-set societal and communal customs as Jeannet and Hennessey (2004, p. 82) observe in their work on marketing strategies.
Communist economies such as the former USSR represent some of the countries whose economic policies appreciated collectivism. For international marketing to penetrate into a new setting, understanding the different personal and communal structures and tendencies remains paramount (Reynolds and Siminitiras 2000, p. 840).
Power distance Kotler (2000, p. 187) describes power distance as the quantity of authority spread out in business management through cultural practices and customs of a society. Power distance describes the culture of power sharing between the business management units and the subordinates.
We will write a custom Coursework on The Role of Culture in International Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such power distributions define the type of relationship that exists throughout the business entity’s organisational structures and culture. In business settings with lower power distance, there exists more interaction between management units and subordinate employees. Such entities engaged in highly devolved systems of duty allocation (De Mooij 2009, p. 42).
Business entities with high power distance on the hand, boasts of minimal interaction between management personnel and the subordinate staff. They exhibit highly centralised system of responsibility allocation. In lower power distance set up, lower cadre employees get opportunities to dictate the kind of product and service offered as well as decisions implemented in the running of the entity.
The high power set is relatively dictatorial with management holding the absolute power over the business management decisions. In the US, for example, most companies practice low power distance cultures while in Saudi Arabia and China, the business management systems are relatively dictatorial (Onkvisit and Shaw 2009, p. 97).
In order to explore a new marketing strategy, business development officers need to understand the different power distance structures existing within the market in question. Understanding these culture forms a prerequisite for successful evaluation and implementation of a business marketing strategy.
Masculinity versus femininity Different societies hold different opinions on gender balances and equality. In the Asian societies, for example, male domination in various development sectors continues even as the Western World appreciates affirmative actions and integrates women empowerment in job distributions and management positions.
International marketing, therefore, requires an in depth understanding of the role of different gender in a given society before venturing into market penetration plans. Similarly, in the advertisement segment of marketing, understanding the conservative opinions of a given market structure on gender issues entices the target audience, thus improving the rate of sales. Notably, an increase in sales volume holds the likelihood of high profit margins (Mullins and Christy 2011, p. 69).
Uncertainty avoidance In many cultures, people avoid engaging in activities with little assurance on the probable benefits of such engagements. Directing energy to low risk activities with great prospects on benefits remains the basic driver of investors.
Equally, in the consumer world, several individual enjoy the use and association with product and services that presents the value for prices (DeWulf, Gaby, and Dawn 2001, p. 38). This culture remains rampant in the Western World and the capitalist nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Culture in International Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, and Japan on the hand, uncertainty avoidance becomes irrelevant in the investment arena. This implies that such economic offer markets with high degree of tolerance to risks and low emphasis on the rates on return on investments.
For this reason, several multinational agencies from the Western World find it easy to access, invest, and penetrate markets in Asia under minimal risks while the Asian investors find it difficult to enjoy business in the Western World. Understanding the level of uncertainty avoidance in the market helps business franchises understand the culture of market and economic systems thus improving the rate of adaptability resulting into high speed of market penetration (Brad 2006, p. 32).
Period of orientation In some cultures, individuals focus on long-term goals at the expense of short-term objectives. Such individuals find it easy to sacrifice short-term achievements in order to pursue longer objectives in the market. In such as setting the culture becomes highly dependent on the values of persistence and perseverance.
In the short-term cultures, individuals stress the need for present goals at the expense of the future objectives. High rates of obsessions with short terms goal confine business investment success (Malhotra 2008, p. 218). For example, in case a multinational entity seeks to explore a market composed of consumers with short-term orientation, difficulties arise if the probable impacts of the business franchises are exhibited in the end.
Likewise, in long-term orientation market structures, business franchises with short-term goals on the impacts on consumers face difficulties in market penetrations (Keegan and Green 2013, p. 53).
Elements of culture In order for business entities to develop strategic marketing structures, there exists a need for adequate understanding of the elements that underscore the cultural and societal setting. With globalisation and advancement in technologies, emerging trends in business marketing strategies employ the use of advanced communication systems to reach a large number of people simultaneously (Onkvisit and Shaw 2009, p. 74; Hofsede 2001, p. 69).
In case business entities fail to recognise and appreciate the cultures of the target audience, the likelihood of the market strategy receiving a backlash from the market remains high. Understanding the different elements that inform human and consumer culture helps rectify this situation thus providing a base for successful market penetration.
Language Language plays a vital role in communication. As a component of culture, language defines the interactive relationship between service and product providers and the consumers. Due to this, marketing managers need to understand every language and communication culture within the target market before initiating a market penetration strategy.
Both verbal and non-verbal component of communication encompass the close relationship between consumer cultures and market structures. Adequate understanding of the different language facets enables marketing managers to improve interaction levels with consumers thus developing a sense of mutual benefit between the two parties.
If a marketing manager seeks to explore market within an English speaking country, it is upon the manager to develop an advert in English language lest he/she creates a communication barrier. Communication barrier impedes consumers’ understanding of the product thus reducing chances of buying (Solberg 2006, p. 7).
Religion As an element of culture, religion informs consumers’ lifestyles, beliefs, values, attitudes, and ways of life. Since different market structures appreciate different religious doctrines, evidence shows that these differences appear in the consumer likes and preferences.
For international marketers in the business world, understanding a country’s religious beliefs helps develop and in depth understanding of the consumer taste and preferences thus creating an ample avenue for market penetrations (Aiyeku and Nwankwo 2002, p. 29). Some religions forbid the sales and distributions of certain goods and services. This means that in case an entrepreneur launches such as product in areas, which religion prohibits its distribution and sale, there exists high chances of product failure.
In the Islamic culture, for example, sale and consumption of pork and its related products is an abomination. For entrepreneurs in the pork industry therefore, penetration in the Islamic states like Saudi Arabia remains impossible. Engaging in such a venture leads to business failure.
This implies that any investor who seeks entry into such market must develop an adequate understanding of the religious orientation of the target market to reduce chances of business failure. As Aiyeku and Nwanko (2002, p. 66) argue on their analysis of international marketing strategies, marketing therefore requires a pre-entry study into the religious beliefs and doctrine within the target market to avoid backlash for the target consumers.
In developing an exclusive study into the role of religion in marketing, Usunier and Lee (2005) considered religion as a cultural system with predetermined symbols and meaning. In Africa, for example, they claim that traditional religions, Christianity and Islam, form the major religions in Africa.
This implies that in developing a market penetration within the African setting, understanding the confines and doctrines of these religions offers an advantage for the success of a business (Hsu 2003, p. 204). In essence, religions influence consumption behaviours and purchase patterns of individuals.
For example, in the Nigerian Christian south region, sale and distribution of alcohol remains legal while in the Muslim North, alcohol consumption remains an offence with gross charges upon conviction. On the same note, religion defines the gender roles and activities within certain communities and markets.
For example, in the Muslim North region of Nigeria, movements and women activities remained confined to houses as opposed to the Christian dominated region in which women enjoy freedom of movement and purchase (Babor 2010, p. 103). All these differences influence the rate of purchase of good and service. Therefore, an international marketing manager needs an in depth understanding of the religious disparities before implementing a market penetration plan in any market (Essoo and Dibb 2004, p. 709).
Values and attitudes Values represent judgments that individuals make in terms of what activities, products, and services they consider vital to their lives. Despite the operating benchmark lying within the level of human basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing, these judgments over things valuable to an individual’s vary from one culture to another.
Taking into account Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, people with high security value several things in comparison to individuals operating within the survival level. This implies that marketing managers need to understand the different values and status of consumers in the target market before introducing their products or services (Keegan and Green 2008, p. 29).
Attitudes refer to the psychological states that command people to act or behave in particular ways. Attitudes draw inspiration from individual characters in the society. Likewise, issues such as work, wealth, security, and other human needs affect individual attitudes. Western countries value individualism and personal achievements, while in most Asian and African countries, people value communal and collective stuffs (Beller and Patler 2005, p. 47).
Education Educational and literacy level in a country defines the level concept grasp among the populations in that particular country. Areas and regions with low literacy levels require communication strategies with relatively less complicated concepts. In the areas with high literacy levels, concepts with complex structures present less problems to the populations (McNall 2011, p. 38).
To avoid communication barriers, international marketing managers need to understand the education levels of the target markets in order to come up with the most viable forms of communication. Areas with low literacy levels appreciate visual advertisement structures with minimal written documents, while areas with high literacy level, document advertisements and other sophisticated imitation styles of advertisement present the most viable method of advertisement (Keegan and Green 2013, p. 182).
Legal and administrative structures Different countries have different economic and business policies. Some countries boast of liberal market structures while in other nations businesses remain restricted and under the control of government officials (Friesner 2014). Understanding these differences form the starting point for investment and market penetration.
In the Western World, market liberalisation and capitalism encourages individual investment while in the Arab world, investments in the business sector remains relatively under the control of governments (Terpstra and Sarathy 2006, p. 224). Understanding local policies and regulatory frameworks governing the business sector in a country helps the marketing managers to carry out business activities smoothly without interference from the government and other stakeholders.
Conclusion Culture exists in varied dimensions. Understanding the facts that underscore the culture of a given market structure enables business entities easy access and penetration. Initiating goods, products, and services in an area under which culture denounces or prohibits such goods and services is a clear market failure for a business.
Despite the fact that only a bunch of business franchises carry out adequate cultural assessment of their proposed market, culture continue to define the levels of business success. Analysing and understanding cultural setups of prospective markets enable investors to evaluate the prospects expected from the investments, thus improving the chances of business success.
References Aiyeku, J. K., and Nwankwo, S 2002, Dynamics of Marketing in African Nations, Greenwood Publishing Group, Portsmouth.
Allik, J., and Anu R 2004, ‘Individualism–Collectivism and Social Capital’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 29–49.
Babor, T. 2010, Alcohol No Ordinary Commodity, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Beller, K., and Patler, L 2005, The consistent consumer: Predicting future behavior through lasting values, Dearborn Trade Pub., Chicago, IL.
Brad, K 2006, International Marketing, Cengage Learning, London.
Byrd, M., and Megginson, L 2013, Small business management: An entrepreneur’s guidebook, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Cateora, P. R., and Graham, J. L 2007, International marketing, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, MA.
Czinkota, M., and Ronkainen, I 2007, International marketing, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, Ohio.
De Mooij, M 2009, Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
DeWulf, K, Gaby O.S., and Dawn, I 2001, ‘Investments in Consumer Relationships: A Cross-Country and Cross-Industry Exploration’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 33–50.
Essoo, N., and Dibb, S 2004, ‘Religious influences on shopping behaviour: an exploratory study’, Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 20, no.8, pp. 683-712.
Friesner, T 2014, International marketing and culture. Web.
Hofsede, G 2001, Culture’s Consequences, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Hsu, H 2003, National culture and clothing values: A cross-national study of Taiwan and United States consumers, Prentice House, New York.
Jeannet, J. P., and Hennessey, H. D 2004, Cases in global marketing strategies, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Keegan, W. J., and Green, M. C 2008, Global marketing, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Keegan, W. J. and Green, M. C 2013, Global Marketing (7th ed.), Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Kotler, P 2000, Marketing management, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Malhotra, N 2008, Review of marketing research, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.
McNall, S 2011, The business of sustainability: Trends, policies, practices, and stories of success, Praeger Publisher, Santa Barbara, California.
Mullins, L. J. and Christy, G 2011, Essentials of Organisational Behaviour, FT Prentice Hall, Harlow, England.
Onkvisit, S., and Shaw, J 2009, International Marketing: Strategy and Theory, Routledge Publishers, London.
Reynolds, N., and Siminitiras, A 2000, ‘Towards an Understanding of the Role of Cross-Cultural Equivalence in International Personal Selling’, Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 829-851.
Solberg, C 2006, Relationship between exporters and their foreign sales and marketing intermediaries, Elsevier JAI, Amsterdam.
Terpstra, V., and Sarathy, R 2006, International Marketing, Northcoast Publishers, Garfield Heights, OH.
Usunier, J. C., and Lee, J 2005, Marketing across cultures, Financial Times/Prentice Hall, Harlow, England.
3D Printers in “Third Industrial Revolution” Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Typology of Innovation
Impacts on Manufacturing
Typology of Innovation I agree with the statement that 3D printing represents the “Third Industrial Revolution”. This technology is radical in nature in that its usage threatens to upset the established manufacturing process. 3D printing is a radical innovation in that it creates a new way of manufacturing (D’Aveni, 2015). Unlike the traditional manufacturing process, which is subtractive in nature, 3D printing is additive. The wide scale adoption of 3D will upset the traditional manufacturing process and force manufactures to rethink entire design and production processes.
Advantages The 3D printing will present numerous advantages to users. To begin with, it is possible to make very complex objects with ease using 3D printers. D’Aveni (2015) asserts that this technology also increases the product development cycle, as individuals are able to easily refine designs and repeat the cycle until the desired product is attained. Another significant advantage of 3D printing is that it leads to increased efficiency as nearly all raw material can be utilized in the manufacturing process.
Impacts on Manufacturing 3D printing technology will alter the manufacturing scene in some significant ways. It will result in dramatic changes in the supply chains by rendering the services provided by some market intermediaries unnecessary (Kyle and Flowers, 2015). 3D printers will lead to increased competition as more manufacturers emerge since the high capital requirements that have traditionally prevented new entrants from joining will be removed by the technology. Manufacturers will be forced to engage in innovation and provide customized products in order to maintain their competitive advantages.
References D’Aveni, R., 2015. The 3D Printing Revolution. Harvard Business Review, 93(5), pp.40-48.
Kyle, S., and Flowers, J., 2015. 3D Printing: Exploring capabilities. Technology
Workforce Planning: Kroger Research Paper college essay help near me
Abstract The purpose of this paper was to analyse Kroger’s workforce planning model. The analysis revealed that the company uses the strategic workforce planning model to meet its labour force needs. The model has enabled the company to recruit and retain the right number of employees.
In addition, the model allows the company to hire only individuals with the right skill set. As a result, the company has avoided the costs associated with having excess employees. Kroger’s competitiveness has also improved because its employees have adequate skills and knowledge.
Nonetheless, the model fails to address the unique labour force needs of its numerous business units. This weakness is attributed to the fact that workforce planning is done at the corporate rather than unit level. Therefore, the company should conduct workforce planning at the unit level to ensure that its labour force needs are addressed effectively.
Introduction Workforce planning refers to the “systematic process of identifying and addressing the gaps between the labour force of today and the human capital needs of tomorrow”. Effective workforce planning is central to the success of a business because it helps managers to forecast and address company-wide staffing needs.
This involves identifying and addressing the internal and external challenges that might limit access to the desired skill set. Workforce planning also helps managers to deploy employees and organise work effectively to achieve the strategic objectives of their companies.
Generally, staff expenses account for nearly 40% of operating costs in most organisations. In addition, nearly half of the employees are often assigned knowledge-intensive roles that directly influence the profitability of their companies. Therefore, failure to use an effective workforce-planning model can adversely affect the performance of a business.
It is against this background that this paper will analyse the workforce planning process/ model used by Kroger. The first part of the analysis will provide a detailed description of the workforce planning processes that are currently being used by the company. This will be followed by an assessment of the strengths and the weakness of the model. The second part of the paper will provide recommendations to improve the company’s workforce planning processes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current Workforce Planning Processes Kroger uses the strategic approach to workforce planning. The company has chosen the strategic approach in order to ensure value improvement and reduction in labour costs. The company’s workforce planning cycle consists of five major steps, which include the following.
Setting Strategic Direction The first step in workforce planning at Kroger involves aligning labour force needs to the company’s strategic intent. The aim of this step is to help the company’s managers to gain a clear understanding of why workforce planning is needed.
In this respect, the company’s vision and mission statements provide a broad framework for identifying the number of employees and skills that are required by the company. In addition, the company’s business plan is often reviewed to determine the expected changes in the company that will necessitate reorganisation or expansion of the workforce (Kroger, 2014).
The management explains the business plan to the workforce planners to ensure that its objectives are taken into account during the labour force planning process. Thus, reviewing the business plan allows the workforce planners to align Kroger’s human capital to the expected level of performance in the company.
Workforce Analysis After defining the strategic intent of the company, the managers conduct a detailed workforce analysis to determine the existing human capital and how it will change in future. This means that the company’s human resource managers and the workforce planners identify the number of employees in various departments and positions.
They also determine the expected effect of labour turnover and retirement on the workforce. In particular, they forecast the future workforce needs in the company (Kroger, 2014). Thus, the main purpose of the workforce analysis is to enable the managers to identify the weaknesses or the gaps in the existing labour force.
Generally, the outcome of the analysis often indicates whether Kroger has a shortage or surplus human capital. The analysis also helps the company to determine the skills and competencies that it must acquire and retain to achieve its strategic objectives.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Workforce Planning: Kroger specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Developing Action Plans The third step involves developing action plans to close the gaps identified during the workforce analysis. Kroger’s action plans cover several areas, which include recruiting/ succession planning, training/ staff development, downsizing, and technological enhancements.
Recruitment action plans are used by the company to address labour shortages. For instance, Kroger often recruits new associates whenever it opens a new store to avoid staff shortages. Moreover, it uses succession planning to fill key positions that are likely to fall vacant due to foreseeable situations such as retirement (Kroger, 2014).
Kroger usually resort to downsizing because of two main reasons. First, the company normally reduces its workforce to avoid losses during economic downturn or recessions. Second, mergers and acquisitions always lead to downsizing in the company.
In this case, the number of employees is reduced to eliminate unnecessary positions in the company. “Staff training and development initiatives are used by the company to close the skill and knowledge gaps in its workforce” (Kroger, 2014).
This strategy enables Kroger to access the expertise that would be difficult to acquire through recruitment because of the high competition in the labour market. Oftentimes, Kroger resorts to technological enhancements to deliver services that can be provided at a low cost through automation.
For instance, the company is increasingly replacing its customer care representatives with computer-based online customer relationship management systems (CRM). This helps the company to reduce labour costs while enhancing the quality of customer service.
Implementing the Action Plans At this stage, Kroger’s managers focus on implementing the strategies that have been selected to address the identified workforce needs. This involves allocating adequate human and financial resources to implement the action plans.
For instance, during downsizing, the company hires a trained psychiatrist to provide counseling services that help the affected employees to cope with the effects of losing their jobs. In addition, the company provides funds to compensate the employees for losing their jobs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Workforce Planning: Kroger by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Coordination is an integral part of implementing workforce action plans at Kroger. Specifically, the managers have to create cross-functional teams that work together to avoid the bottlenecks that are likely to prevent the implementation of the identified action plans (Kroger, 2014).
For instance, the recruitment team often includes a HR specialist and an expert from the department where the vacancy to be filled exists. In this case, effective coordination between the HR team and the departments that require new staff ensures that only the right individuals are employed.
Monitoring and Evaluation The last stage in Kroger’s workforce planning cycle involves reviewing the progress of the implementation of the action plans. At this stage, the company evaluates the achievements in the process of implementing its workforce plan.
The outcome of the monitoring and evaluation process helps the company’s managers to modify the workforce plan by changing its objectives or adopting new strategies to implement it (Kroger, 2014). As a result, the company is able to develop timely solutions to the challenges that are likely to compromise the effectives of its workforce plan.
Analysis of the Current Workforce Planning Strengths
The strengths of Kroger’s workforce planning process/ model include the following. First, the workforce planning process enables the company to maintain the right labour force size. Specifically, matching the existing human capital with the projected workforce needs has enabled Kroger to hire the right number of individuals in the right roles. Having the right workforce size helps the company to avoid the costs associated with hiring excess employees.
In addition, it has helped the company to avoid staff shortages that often arise due to the failure to identify and address medium-term and long-term workforce needs. Second, strategic workforce planning has helped the company to maintain the right shape of its workforce.
In this case, the right shape refers to the desired ratio of administrators to professionals, experienced staff to new hires, and managers to employees. The right shape has been maintained through identification and elimination of duplicated roles. The resulting improvement in efficiency in decision-making processes allows the company to respond to market needs in time.
Third, the company’s workforce planning process has helped it to hire employees with the right skills. This has been achieved through linking business strategies and objectives to action plans that address issues such as training and recruiting staff.
Access to adequate talent is a source of competitive advantage because it facilitates innovation and delivery of high quality customer services. Kroger’s customer loyalty and brand image have improved tremendously because of the expertise of its employees.
Finally, the strategic approach to workforce planning has led to improved productivity at Kroger. In this case, high productivity is attributed to the advanced skills of the employees, which enable them to achieve or surpass their performance targets.
The weaknesses of Kroger’s workforce planning processes include the following. First, the company’s approach to workforce planning ignores the importance of labour force segmentation. The workforce plan is often developed and implemented at the corporate level.
This means that Kroger has a one-size-fit-all workforce plan that is implemented in all its subsidiaries and business units. In this respect, the workforce plans are often very big, which makes their implementation to be very cumbersome.
Furthermore, the effectiveness of the workforce plans is limited because the managers standardise the strategies that are used to address the company’s labour force needs. As a result, the workforce planners fail to take into account the unique and dynamic workforce needs of the various operating units and subsidiaries of the company.
Second, the company’s workforce planning model mainly focuses on head counts rather than the quality of the human capital. In particular, the action plans that the company uses to satisfy its labour force needs focus only on recruitment and deployment of employees.
Thus, the model ignores the potential impacts of organisational culture and organisation design on its workforce planning efforts and needs. This has led to a situation where the company’s managers in different countries have varied understanding of what the right workforce size means and how it should be achieved.
This often leads to conflicts that prevent the implementation of the workforce plan in a seamless manner. Finally, the company’s workforce planning processes tend to be organisation-centric rather than employee-centric. Although the planning model ensures that the company has the right workforce size, it fails to address employees’ needs such as adequate pay.
The resulting increase in labour turnover makes it very difficult to predict short-term and medium-term changes in the workforce. Consequently, workforce planning becomes very difficult and ineffective.
Recommendations Kroger should focus on workforce segmentation in order to effectively plan for its labour force needs. This means that workforce planning should be done at the business unit level by supervisors to allow the company to develop tailor-made solutions that address the unique labour force needs of its divisions or subsidiaries. In this respect, the various steps of workforce planning should be improved in the following ways.
Identifying the Issue Drivers
Workforce planning should “begin with a clear definition of the nature and scope of the personnel issues that have to be addressed at the unit level”. A comprehensive internal and external environmental scan should be conducted to identify the factors that are likely to influence workforce planning at the unit level.
The internal environmental scan should involve examining the potential effects of changes in budgetary allocations and the financial performance of the company on the workforce. In addition, the effects of expected changes in the company’s mission or business model on its labour force should be identified.
In the external environment, the issues that should be considered include political factors such as an affirmative action that promotes employment of particular groups in a given country. Moreover, regulations in the labour market and the demographic characteristics of the population should be reviewed.
The environmental scan will enhance the planning process by enabling the company to identify the factors that are likely to influence the evolution of its labour force in the short-term and long-term.
Currently, workforce analysis at Kroger focuses only on determining the number of employees in the company and the skills that they possess. The workforce analysis can provide valuable insights if its scope is expanded by examining employee demographics and expected changes in workload.
Assessing personnel demographics will shed light on the level of diversity in the company. For instance, the planners will be able to know the gender, age, and ethnic composition of the workforce. As a result, it will be possible to incorporate policies or measures that facilitate compliance with diversity requirements in the workforce plan.
Kroger’s workforce planners use the company’s business expansion plan as the main source of information concerning the expected changes in workload (Kroger, 2014). As a result, they ignore the changes in workload that often arise due to modification of tasks or introduction of new ways of executing various business processes.
In this respect, the workforce planners should review various roles/ positions to determine how their evolution will affect workload. This will improve the accuracy of the information concerning the number of employees and the skills that are required to achieve the company’s strategic objectives.
The scope of the action plans that Kroger uses to achieve its workforce objectives should be expanded to improve their effectiveness. Apart from facilitating talent acquisition, the action plans should provide a framework for staff development and implementation of retention programmes. This can be achieved by developing action plans that cover five key areas namely, staffing, infrastructure, organisation design, organisational culture, and risk management.
Staffing action plans should have unit-wide strategies to facilitate recruitment and retention of the desired talent. Moreover, they should have redeployment strategies that allow the company to use the knowledge, skills, and competencies of its employees fully. Succession plans should be developed to help the company to create an internal pool of employees who can easily fill key management positions.
In addition, the staffing action plans should facilitate employee performance management. Specifically, they should define the unit-level standards and expectations for assessing employee performance. This will enhance workforce planning by ensuring that the company retains only the employees who are able to achieve the desired performance level.
Infrastructure refers to the action plans that are developed to enhance employee retention. The workforce planners should “develop position-specific job classifications to ensure that employees are assigned duties and responsibilities that match their skills”.
Moreover, the action plans should have a performance-based reward system that enhances staff retention by providing adequate remuneration. Since the company’s employees belong to labour unions, action plans that address disputes concerning collective bargaining agreements should be developed and implemented.
The company’s workforce planning efforts can only be effective if action plans that facilitate organisation design are developed. The organisation design strategies should facilitate reorganisation of work at the unit level. This will help supervisors to distribute professional and subordinate staff effectively to eliminate obstacles that may reduce employee performance at the unit level.
The workforce planners should develop action plans that align the company’s human capital to its organisational culture. The rationale of this strategy is that a workforce that does not have a clear understanding of the company’s organisational culture will hardly be able to demonstrate the expected behaviour patterns.
In this case, the workforce planners should identify the values that guide employees’ performance in the company. As a result, it will be possible to establish the core behavioural standards that have to be met in various business units. The behavioural standards will help the company to develop action plans that facilitate recruitment of people who can easily adapt to its organisational culture.
According to Deagle (2009), an effective workforce plan should have a change management action plan to align employees’ behaviours to organisational culture. This means that Kroger’s workforce plan should have strategies that will enable managers and supervisors to influence employees’ attitudes towards change in the company.
An effective workforce plan must also have strategies for managing the risks that are likely to have negative effects on the wellbeing and performance of employees. In this respect, the risk management action plans should define the procedures that employees are expected to use to respond to accidents such as fire outbreaks. In addition, they should provide training opportunities to equip employees with adequate skills to address workplace violence and safety hazards.
The process of implementing the company’s action plans should be improved in the following ways. First, the workforce planners should focus on winning the support of key managers in the company before implementing the action plans. The managers are likely to allocate adequate financial resources to facilitate the implementation process if they support the workforce plan.
Moreover, winning the support of managers will avert the resistance that the workforce planners are likely to experience during the implementation process. The roles and responsibilities of the employees or managers who are involved in the implementation process should be defined clearly. Each member of the implementation team should understand the expected deliverables and how they should be achieved.
For instance, the succession planners should know the procedures that have to be used to identify and mentor a candidate for an executive position. The implementation process should also have a clear timeline. Furthermore, the performance measures that are to be used by the workforce planners must be defined clearly.
This will enhance the evaluation process by providing objective criteria for assessing the achievements of the workforce plan. Generally, the workforce plan should be implemented alongside the company’s strategic plan. The rationale of this strategy is that it will enable the company to adjust the workforce plan consistently to reflect the changes in its strategic plan.
Evaluating the Workforce Plan
The workforce plan should be monitored continuously and evaluated on a regular basis to ensure achievement of the desired outcomes. The company should conduct quarterly evaluations to identify and address the weaknesses of the plan in time.
Apart from determining the strategies that work and those that do not, the evaluation process should identify emerging workforce issues in the company. This will enable the planners to incorporate the solutions to the emerging issues in the existing action plans, thereby saving the costs associated with developing a new workforce plan in future.
Conclusion Kroger uses the strategic workforce-planning model to ensure that it has enough employees. The company’s workforce planning process is characterized by five stages. These include setting the strategic direction, workforce analysis, developing action plans, implementing the action plans, and monitoring/ evaluation.
The main strength of the company’s workforce planning model is that it facilitates recruitment and retention of the right number of employees. This helps the company to minimize labour costs while increasing productivity. The model also improves the company’s competitiveness by ensuring that it has employees with the skills that are required to achieve business objectives.
The main weakness of the model is that workforce planning is done at the corporate rather than unit level. Thus, it hardly resolves the unique personnel needs of the various operating units in the company. In this respect, workforce segmentation should be incorporated in the planning process to allow the planners to develop action plans that address the unique needs of each business unit.
In addition, the scope of the action plans should be expanded by including strategies that address the effects of organisation design and organisational culture on workforce.
References Cardwell, P. (2009). Competency-based service reviews and workforce planning at Deakin University library. Library Management, 30(8), 539-548.
Curson, J., Bosworth, D.,
Sport in Society Essay college essay help
Nowadays sport managers have to solve a variety of questions concerning cultural diversity as athletes join different teams where people of different cultural backgrounds have to cooperate. Unfortunately, nowadays there are many opposing nations, i.e. people of different cultural backgrounds detest each other for some reasons. This can be a very serious problem for any team where each team player should trust other players and should be trusted. This problem can be considered in terms of conflict theory, which perfectly fits the situation.
According to the conflict theory, people pertaining to different ethnic groups will compete to gain more resources (better image, larger wages, etc.). On one hand, this can be favourable for the team’s performance as the players will try their best. However, this can also have negative effects as each player will try to reveal his potential rather than focus on the team play. Therefore, the manager should take into account this inevitability of competition and focus on making players focus on the team’s results.
Thus, each team player should have specific role and should have specific tasks. It is important to work out a certain performance assessment system so that it is easy to assess each player’s performance. After each game and each training session, the manager should evaluate each player’s performance and stress that no player could have performed well if the game is lost. The manager should stress that there are no ethnical groups in a team, as there are players loyal to the team.
Elements and Characteristics of a Clinical Micro System Reflective Essay essay help: essay help
I was once a support services team member in Lebanon at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Spine Centre. This centre collects information from healthcare recipients using touch pads. Hence, clinicians make decisions based on the data collected from patients. The medical symptoms of patients who visit this clinical micro system are determined using a computer through a sensitive touch screen. Hence, results on previous treatments, anticipations for care, functional status and body symptoms are obtained from a computer.
A clinical staff may also apply other methodologies in order to offer directions on the management and assessment of patient’s needs. Moreover, pre-planning of needs of a healthcare recipient is largely preferred in order to improve efficiency. Follow-ups on the progress of patients are also encouraged especially through phone calls in order to ensure that all the management information has been adequately comprehended.
After sharing the reading, my experience with the above clinical micro system has been greatly enlightened. For instance, I have realized that teamwork is integral when handling patients with myriads of medical problems that need urgent attention (Charlesa, Gafnia and Whelana 650). Additionally, the adaptive challenge that may assist my team in the final project is the ability to apply medical technology when evaluating patients and also being consistent throughout the project.
In order to be a well informed team member, the above experience has indeed added value in my ability to choose the right person to interview. The person should be knowledgeable on specific area of specialization and also a team player (Charlesa, Gafnia and Whelana 655).
Works Cited Charlesa Cathy, Amiram Gafnia and Tim Whelana. “Decision-making in the physician– patient encounter: revisiting the shared treatment decision-making model.” Social Science
“Tipping Point Leadership” by Kim and Mauborgne Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
Article Summary The article “Tipping Point Leadership” by Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne offers powerful concepts that can support every organizational change (OD). According to the article, every organization encounters numerous obstacles and hurdles. Managers and leaders should overcome such hurdles before implementing every change.
Some of the major challenges affecting different organizations include “lack of resources, opposition, status quo, and lack of motivation” (Kim and Mauborgne 1). The case of Bill Bratton also supports the concept of Tipping Point Leadership. Bill Bratton used the best ideas to support the targeted change.
He identified the best resources in order to transform New York City. He also encouraged different players to support the targeted change. He also “silenced every naysayer in order to make the change successful” (Kim and Mauborgne 6).
The “political and motivational hurdles in a firm can make it impossible for managers to achieve the best outcomes” (Kim and Mauborgne 5). Manager should “tackle these hurdles before implementing a new change” (Kim and Mauborgne 8). The practice will make every organization successful.
How the Article Relates to Our Class Content
Tipping Point Leadership is a theoretical approach that can transform many business organizations. The theory presents a unique design characterized by four hurdles. These “four hurdles include cognitive, political, motivational, and resource” (Kim and Mauborgne 5).
Organizational leaders should deal with these hurdles in order to support every targeted change. These ideas support the theories and concepts studied in our class. Managers should use this leadership strategy to support every proposed change. Managers should also “silence naysayers and motivate their workers” (Kim and Mauborgne 6).
The practice will eventually support the proposed organizational change. Managers should address the challenges and issues presented by different stakeholders (Kim and Mauborgne 1). The article presents a powerful theory can transform many firms and business organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Practical Application The ideas presented in the above article can make many organizations successful. The case study of Bill Bratton encourages managers to address the hurdles affecting their firms. Our company markets a wide range of electronics to different customers. Our company has been using a powerful leadership strategy in order to achieve its goals.
The company motivates its employees using the best incentives. Our managers also support the idea of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This approach encourages the firm to address various social problems. Our managers also collaborate with every employee. The practice has made it easier for the company to address the needs of its customers. These ideas are therefore applicable in different organizations (Kim and Mauborgne 11).
Effectiveness to Organizational Change The Tipping Point Leadership approach has the potential to support every organizational change. This concept makes it easier for managers to tackle every hurdle affecting their firms (Kim and Mauborgne 1). The model makes it easier for many managers to identify every obstacle affecting their organizations.
Managers can use this model to motivate their employees. The practice will “encourage more managers to address the needs of their employees” (Kim and Mauborgne 4). A “proper motivational strategy will ensure every employee focuses on the targeted organizational goals” (Kim and Mauborgne 8).
This theoretical approach will support every organizational change. The practice will also introduce new innovations in order to produce the best outcomes. The above theory can therefore produce the best goals in many organizations.
Works Cited Kim, Chan and Renee Mauborgne. “Tipping Point Leadership.” Harvard Business Review 1.1 (2003): 1-13. Print.
City Branding of Dubai Dissertation essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Different scholars seek to determine why governments and private investors engage in a complete overhaul of a city. Breitenoder (2009, p. 104) argues that like a product, a city requires branding, rebranding, and marketing. It requires a strategic plan, and an effective communications plan to achieve the city objectives.
Prior to the development of a branding strategy, it is important to come up with a consumer oriented research proposal. A research-oriented proposal understands that the recipient of the product is very important throughout the phases of product development.
Different theories of making including sales, production, marketing company, and other models apply differently. According to Kanna (2011, p. 75), the marketing analyst, branding is an all-encompassing aspect of product launch, which influences long-term consumer perception in relation to the product or service.
He further reinforces that the most important elements for a marketer include consumers and the capital requisite for launching a successful Ad campaign. The intention of any marketer is to transform the unique selling proposition into tangible consumer benefits.
In order to achieve this, it is significant to understand and change consumer attitudes and behaviour through excellent branding techniques. People brand products to increase their aesthetic value to the customers. During city branding, important features to incorporate are elements of city planning that deter investors from associating with the metropolis.
City branding Attwood (2014), a marketing professional and a columnist with Arabian business suggests that sometimes countries have to take major risks in order to create a city brand that will have long-term impacts on the population. Before branding a city, the government, the investors, and the citizens play different roles.
As suggested by the name, branding refers to an appraisal and upgrading process of an existing product. Attwood (2014) establishes that upgrading a product, service, or city increases consumer appeal on the commodity. There are different reasons that make branding important for different commodities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Giesen (2014) complements the study by mentioning that one of the most hectic tasks is the successful branding of a city. Unlike a product, the face value of a city lies in the eyes of the investors and the citizens. The government only responds to the calls of improvement because it can provide oversight of procurement and expenditure for the exchequer.
(Attwood 2014) mentions that Saudi took an equally bold step in investing in its King Abdullah Economic City in order to increase access to the U.A.E and the rest of Europe. Business interests influence the decisions made towards upgrading cities. Besides commercial interests, there is an ardent need for countries to ensure that their cities are sustainable, tourist-friendly, and accessible to different regions across the world.
Targeting and segmentation of consumers during city branding
One of the most difficult branding ventures to achieve is the inability to describe a product. How then is it possible to dispense the right approach to city launch and marketing if the brand does not affiliate to a particular product? Dubai’s H1 2013 visitor stats top the charts (2014) strives to answer the question using the most intellectual approach to marketing.
According to the author, the product is the cutting edge that determines the initial attitude of the target consumer. The brand’s packaging and positioning make it possible for a consumer to make a first purchase and to make a repeat purchase. Brands build loyalty or consumer defection depending on the effect they have on the target consumer.
Dubai’s H1 2013 visitor stats top the charts (2014) takes a particular interest in Dubai as the product requisite of branding. The scholar explores its infrastructure, tourism, economic system, law, technology, and education and the list is endless. In at least each element identified in the research, the author found out an element that required improvement or emulation. Dubaization: Brand-Dubai (2011) singles out Dubai from other U.A.E countries.
The article complements the country’s transport infrastructure and the real estate business. However, Dubai’s H1 2013 visitor stats top the charts (2014) shows concerns for the increasing costs of the skyscrapers and the near real estate bubble that might influence the way people see and acquire the product. The same author identifies that the education system requires an overhaul in order for the children to understand English before they are 15 years old.
This way, they can get temporary employment before joining college. They can contribute towards economic development while promoting economic growth. Dubai Branding Process (2014) shows optimism for Dubai’s economy since in the past 2 decades, the U.A.E countries display solidarity and tremendous economic growth. Oil and gas should not be the only element that the countries entirely depend on in order to progress economically.
We will write a custom Dissertation on City Branding of Dubai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consumer behaviour When carrying out research, each marketer aims at developing a positive hypothesis in which the results will match the questions raised. Parkerson and Saunders (2005, p. 242) provide different types of consumer behaviour and the factors that influence such actions.
Customers choose to remain loyal to a product, they defect, or they make a repeat action. The behaviour depends on their expectations and the achievement of the same through the unique selling proposition. In the U.A.E, it is difficult to notice a country unless it explores diverse markets in a unique way.
The customers in this case are foreign countries especially in East Asia, and Europe. The close business ties developed between the continents during the fight for the Persian Gulf remain relevant to date. Each country in the U.A.E seeks to establish a long-term business network in order to invest in other countries, contribute effectively to economic growth, and to provide jobs to the citizens.
To determine consumer behaviour, product developers focus on four marketing elements including place, product, promotion, price, and people. Consumers are the people that the product targets, and proximity or farness of a place determines whether a consumer will make a repeat sale or not.
Attwood (2014) mentions that Dubai has a port along the Red Sea’s shore, which links it to other western countries and the U.A.E. In 2005, it showed prospects of rechanneling the seaport to link Saudi Arabia through the short King Abdullah Economic City port. The new seaport offers better business prospects as opposed to other seaports within the region.
The intention is to reduce time spent in shipping, and to woo customers who give much value to place and price. Naturally, when the distance travelled with commodities is limited, the cost of production and distribution reduce, and this influences the price of the product. An assessment of the consumer behaviour has a direct link to the way foreign countries respond to the branding of a city.
Dubai’s H1 2013 visitor stats top the charts (2014) argues that once a city decides to improve its transport network, the foreign governments that relate to it perceive good economic relations. On the other hand, countries, which focus on improving the tourism sector, aim at wooing foreign direct investment through entertainment. In essence, city branding is largely more productive as opposed to consumables.
As such, customers visit cities that offer tangible product benefits evidenced by political, social, technological, and social development. The U.A.E countries including Qatar and Saudi Arabia enjoy good relations with Dubai because Dubai delivers the consumer expectations through a stable political environment of investment and good economic policies. As a brand, the city has it foreign policies that influence relationships within and outside the U.A.E.
Not sure if you can write a paper on City Branding of Dubai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dubai’s significance in the UAE framework
The U.A.E countries came together in the 1980s after acquiring the Persian Gulf from colonialist powers. Known as the Trucial States, the U.A.E countries had to fight for the rich oil and gas belt along the Red Sea shore. By 1853, Dubai had to sign the Perpetual Maritime Truce, which earned the Great Britain the responsibility of securing the Trucial States.
The Great Britain was difficult to trust with such magnitudes of political responsibility. Hourani (2002, p. 20), notes that an anthropologist keenly studies Bur Dubai as an oil rich resident of most Arabs stricken by smallpox. He also shares the stories of Deira, a place of refuge in which the Dubai citizens sought in order calm from the pandemic.
The same place caught fire leading to the death of many Dubai citizens, but it was business as usual. It was in 1841 that Dubai realised its potential among the Trucial States. The country made it possible to embark on commercial activities irrespective of the two major bouts that affected its economy. The U.A.E requires countries that show an obvious interest for economic development and resilience even in the most difficult socioeconomic difficulties.
According to Breitenoder (2009, p. 103), Dubai still upholds the pace of economic growth by always incorporating new elements that can increase access to the country from the West. Currently, the country invests in internet technology to support its commercial ventures. Technology is fast and ubiquitous, and unlike physical transport, people can carry out business transactions over long distances in a limited period.
Unlike the conservative Middle East economies, Dubai strives to incorporate capitalist principles of marketing and business management in order to increase access to new business frontiers across the world. Buhalis and Darcy (2011, p. 38) show concerns for religious and civic culture, which are likely to influence brand positioning of Dubai to the rest of the world.
Excellent branding of its tourism and the real estate sectors are very important in erasing the ideology from the minds of the target consumers. It also make Dubai different from other U.A.E countries including Bahrain since it is the sole state that attracts foreigners from the west to the U.A.E. Breitenoder (2009, p. 103) analyses the significance of oil and gas to the U.A.E.
But he mentions that non-English speaking countries have difficulties in relating with foreigners. Dubai supports English as a second language for its expatriates, which remains very significant for the development of the U.A.E at large.
The history of Dubai and its need for branding
Each city is a brand like any other product. Its face value reduces through history and it is very important to focus on strategies that would make the product appealing to the target audiences. Cozmiuc (2011) argues that the history of product development determines the response it will have in the market and its significance to the target consumers.
When the Trucial States existed, there were different caliphates that strived for recognition. Islamic periods characterised by the introduction and the fall of the Umayyad Empire gave a completely new view of the religion and the principles it supported.
Cozmiuc (2011) mentions that countries associated with the Islamic period had to fight for recognition, and it explains the increase in Muslim extremist cases. Breitenoder (2009, p. 113) traces Dubai’s inception to 1905, and the first activity associated with the country is fishing, which generates income. Cozmiuc (2011) establishes that the first function of a product becomes its signature strength and it becomes very difficult to dissociate the product from its functionality.
Historical artefacts determine that the people of Dubai majorly depended on trading activities for survival. After forming the United Arab Emirates in 1971, Dubai made the best decision for joining the act of union with other member states including Abu Dhabi and Fujairah among others.
The transition is also part of a branding strategy that sought to make Dubai independent from the British rule (Smith and Abu 2013). In marketing, a product that operates independently wins consumer goodwill because various authorities can take responsibility for any losses or gain. A series of activities make Dubai one of the best tourist destinations in the 21st century.
The country channelled most income from the oil and gas business into tourism and economy building. Commerce is the backbone of Dubai, and many people would actually go to the country on a shopping spree or holiday. Cozmiuc (2011) agrees with Peng (2014, p. 10) that product history defines its future, but during product development, the strategic plan should also address risks.
Dubai has many skyscrapers including the worlds’ tallest the Burj Khalifa. However, building the economy and the stable monarchy was not easy. The country faced criticism for boundary disputes during its establishment. The U.A.E countries each want to develop and disputes are likely to occur in relation to border encroachment.
For instance, the disputed Jebel Ali port created conflicts between the U.A.E states and Dubai over encroachment of import and export activities of Dubai into other nations. Consequently, the Gulf War and Invasion into Iraq form some historical transitions that made Dubai the rich country it is today. Dubai uses communication and religious policies to solve its conflicts. Effective and efficient communication remains very significant during product development, packaging, and branding.
Peng (2014, p. 12) talks about communication, but Morgan, Lugosi, and Ritchie (2010, p. 63) reinforces on the significance of developing a comprehensive communication plan when branding. Dubai is still in the process of transformation even when it seems perfect to the rest of the world.
The way the country interacts with people through the various foreign policies and commercial ventures determine the reception it receives from the rest of the society. Arguably, Dubai cannot survive without effective communication. People depend on in-house communication to know the new productions they should expect in the market.
Irrespective of the insignificance of a stakeholder, communication is critical for project progress. Morgan et al. (2010, p. 60) mention that the project coordinators often accomplish effective communication through relevant procedures and tools. The author accredits computer-mediated communication since it serves the purpose of effectiveness in the current day and age.
He also compliments face-to-face communication, which seems to lose relevance in the 21st century. According to morgan et al. (2010, p. 63), a comprehensive communication plan covers many areas including a Communication Plan Matrix, a Stakeholder Analysis, a conflict resolution plan, and communicational methods.
The tools and methods of communication have to align to the project and company objectives, vision, and mission. The stakeholders have different capabilities, expectations, and interests in the project. To fulfil the unique interest, it is important to face each phase of the project with the right communication tool.
Initially, Dubai had an overwhelming interest in improving its real estate sector. Today, much focus is on tourism, which complements the oil and gas industry. Critics do not fail to recognise the deterrents to progress including labour disputes as recorded by various expatriates who seek job opportunities from third world states to the U.A.E (Dinnie 2011).
In essence, a comprehensive communication plan serves different functions for products because it markets, creates, and brand positions the product in the target market. Dubai has a worldwide reach meaning that the effective communication should be capable of branding its tourism sector beyond the East Asian region, the Persian Gulf, and the Middle East to the rest of the world.
Case studies Different countries across the U.A.E and other continents undergo different phases of improvement in order to generate a unique appeal to the target populations. Saudi Arabia and Indi are in the process of improving their transport infrastructure while developing contemporary economic cities to accommodate the growing citizen populations.
Besides reducing the physical space of occupation, the projects aim at brand positioning the countries of the rest of the world. Dubai has many things to learn from different countries including Singapore, Saudi, and China.
Branding Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia is in the process of branding both the economy and the geographic surrounding through a megaproject. Each U.A.E city rivals the other in order to have access to the greatest number of foreigners transiting through the Red Sea ports. While Dubai responded to the call for the 2020 exposition of countries across the world in November 2013, Saudi began a rebranding project in 2005.
King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) is a contemporary project that might end in 2020 and it will cost between USD $86 billion and USD 100 billion. KAEC will open up Saudi to Jeddah, Mecca, and the UK. To the North, KAEC borders Jeddah and it takes about 1 hour to move from one end to the other. According to (Bouee 2011, p. 49), the project will occupy about 173 km2.
Currently, the team is in the process of finishing the first stage of the project that King Abdulaziz flagged off 9 years ago. The King Abdullah Port (KAP) has links from other U.A.E countries including Dubai, Bahrain, and Kuwait among others.
Political, civic, and economic factors influence each stage of product development, but the Saudi government displays optimism in the successful completion of the KAEC by the end of 2020. Matters of religion and culture are under discourse because the project aims at creating a communal meeting place for the people of the U.A.E and the rest of the world.
In the residential, retail businesses, and industrial ventures, the Saudi community seeks to influence the attitudes of investors towards the country. In each strategic management plan, consumer oriented products always succeed because the marketers seek the opinions of the consumers prior to product launch (Smith and Abu 2013).
Dubai is in the course of linking Jebel Port to KAP because Dubai only has economic interests in the country. Dubai has to learn marketing tactics from the Saudi government, which employs expatriates for purposes of enhancing foreign relations.
The country should consider developing economy cities for the growing youthful population. JKAP is like any other project in Dubai’s expo 2020 and Dubai has an opportunity to explore such markets and understand the principles they use to attract huge number of tourists even when they do not have excellent technological or transport infrastructure.
Waltz Disney in Singapore and China The austere commercial environment of Singapore seeks to open up to new ventures in the future. Currently, plans are underway for the country to embrace one of the largest production houses in the world. First, the country deals with challenges of reinforcing the English culture while ensuring that people do not lose their religious and social values.
Dubai also has similar concerns even though the country is less likely to accommodate foreign investments. All it tries to do is to place itself as the best destination for the rest of the world through imports, exports, and virtual businesses instead of hosting foreign businesses. Ahead of Singapore, Kula Lumpur, and Bangkok, China decided to embrace the Disney Walt culture in the late 1990s.
In 2002, the same company sought to venture into the Singaporean government, which was a very difficult step. However, after establishing a niche market in China, Disney would not have a hard time succeeding in China. China remains a very conservative market completely dependent on the doctrines of Eastern religions. The Orthodox Church had a difficult time operating in China for a similar reason.
China decided to create an environment in which both locals and foreigners could share the popular culture. Breitenoder (2009, p. 83) argues that Waltz Disney introduced the Hollywood culture to the people of China and Singapore while the communities shared their Eastern religions.
Singapore was a good target market because Singaporeans speak English as a second language. In addition, the country participates in renowned socio-cultural expositions to market the country, its people, and commodities. The movie and song production industry is an excellent form of medium of marketing because the industry has a global outreach.
The marketing technique assumes a relationship-based model in which Singapore takes its culture to the rest of the world through multimedia (LEWIS 2003, p. 24). Dubai can take a similar opportunity by embracing movie production and the animation culture supported by technological advancements in the U.A.E.
Dubai has an established economic and political structure, and it only needs an excellent marketing avenue to place its Burj AL-Arab brand to the right market. Through a good communication plan and an excellent marketing plan, Dubai can achieve its brand prospects without duress.
Creating value in Dubai Marketing tools are vital for brand positing products across the world. Alavi, Kayworth, and Leidner (2006, p. 192) argue that marketers have the responsibility of conducting a situational analysis in order to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of product launch. Its strength in the construction industry faced a bout during the 2008 and 2011 global crises that affected other areas of the country’s economies.
Dubai had to embrace the opportunity to showcase it tourist destinations to the world in attempt to find an activity that would complement its oil and gas industry. In summary, Dubai is a rich country, but it also needs to brand position itself in the competitive global markets in order to get returns for its investments.
Tepeci (2009, p. 131) analyses the tourism sector in Dubai. According to the scholar, the country invests in excellent transport infrastructure, recreational sector, and wildlife including the hospitality industry. On the other hand, it does not approach the target markets by launching some of the best hotels it has in other countries.
Instead, it has the best constructions and airport services, but the country waits for consumers. Alavi et al. (2006, p. 196) take a professional approach to the issue. He establishes that Dubai creates brand that aims at attracting people. The brand seeks recognition by staying within the confines of the country.
Countries like Singapore and Malaysia constantly carry out tourism expos in order to expose their curios, tourist destination sites, and hotels. Dubai is in the process of packaging a brand while waiting for its 2020 expo, which will determine how strong the Dubai brand remains within and outside the U.A.E.
Dubai’s Burj AL-Arab brand Brand designers always support the development of a unique brand in order to ensure survival in a rivalled market. Dynamism and diversity are inevitable when dealing in a competitive environment. Burj AL-Arab uniquely identifies Dubai in the U.A.E because normally a five star hotel attracts people to other countries.
Dubai’s Burj AL-Arab is a 7 star hotel whose strategic plan is to extend boundaries beyond the U.E. A. Morrison (2013, p. 29) acknowledges that tourism in the 21st century largely depends on the highest level of luxury a facility can offer at the most affordable price in the market. Consumer needs keep changing, and it is important to respond to such concerns.
In the recent past, one of the favourite socialite family members visited Dubai on vacation, and this created a very different view of the country. From the U.S. Miami to Dubai for shopping and tourism was sufficient reason for the renowned Kim Kardashian. Morrison (2013, p. 31) mentions that uniqueness and consistency in delivery are the secrets of dealing with suppliers, rivals, and customers.
In essence, it is important to reduce the costs of procurement and increase the amount the customers spend when purchasing a product. Dubai’s Burj AL-Arab mostly targets the affluent tourists who visit Dubai. Morrison (2013, p. 34) also theorises the situation in Dubai through the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Audience identification and segmentation in Dubai mostly focuses on the consumers that have prospects of achieving self-actualisation.
Dubai perceives a transformation of its tourism sector into a major income generator, and game-changer of the 21st century. Almost everyone wants to have access to the Burj Khalifa and Burj AL-Arab, but the facilities have expensive hotel suites and accommodation costs.
Peh and Low (2013, p. 62) discuss the development of a functional strategic plan to address the different problems faced by tourism sectors across the world. The author mentions that a marketer should be capable of distinguishing between the needs and wants of the consumers.
Consumer oriented hospitality sectors across the world are capable of providing unique and diverse services to customers. Factors that drive the changes in service delivery include quality, price, place, people, product, and sales promotion. When the sales promotion consumers a lot of resource, then the additional costs have to complement the product packaged for consumption.
According to Peh and Low (2013, 67), the country has different products and services to offer in its tourism package. The seven star group of hotels invested in parts of the U.A.E mostly target the affluent families within and outside the Middle East. The hotels target consumers who prefer 5 to 7 start hotels in the region, but most clients come from foreign countries. Dubai has a long way to go in terms of brand positioning especially on matters of diversification and improvement of the hospitality industry.
Dubai City Branding Dubai remains the most renowned city of the U.A.E. Its capital Abu Dhabi is home to many facilities including the Etihad Airways, Boeing, Burj Khalifa, and Strata Manufacturing among other conglomerates and sceneries. Dubai chose to brand itself using Burj AL-Arab because it needs to extend its business ventures beyond the U.A.E.
Strata’s aerospace hub (2014) affirms that Dubai enjoys a stardom status within the U.A.E., and it needs to explore foreign ventures in order to gauge its performance at the global level. Burj AL-Arab is a good brand, but it is very expensive because most Dubai manufactured products are naturally costly.
As a product, Dubai has all the qualities of marketing such as people, place, and promotion, but it lacks the element of price. In sales and marketing, it is important to create a marketing mix in order to achieve the best results during branding. Strata’s aerospace hub (2014) recognises Burj AL-Arab as the only product that brand positions Dubai in the rivalled tourism environment.
The product is unique and of high quality, and it would probably attract the quality driven consumers. However, price sensitive customers would opt for Kuwait and Bahrain that offer relatively affordable tourist destination sites and facilities.
Bhaskaran and Sukumaran (2007, p. 55) envision Dubai, which offers exquisite and affordable tourism services. Besides offshore and hotel services, Dubai seeks to explore wildlife as an income generating tourism venture. The intention is to influence consumer perception towards product delivery through its 2020 expo.
This notwithstanding the possibility of changing country logo to suit consumer needs. Dubai has strict anti- pork eating and non-alcoholism policies. It means that visitors have to adhere to such policies irrespective of their socio-economic lifestyles and the freedoms they tourists enjoy in their countries of origin (Martinez 2011, p. 369).
Additionally, Dubai’s conservative religious culture discourages some non-Muslims from visiting the country for fear of extremist Muslims who would harass them while on vacation. Stringent religious doctrines known to affect tourism require proper legal and religious attention from relevant authorities. In Dubai, the Sharia law and the Khadhi courts protect the sanctity of each citizen.
It means that the foreigners also need protection from strict principles governing the land. Foreigners need protection because they earn Dubai income through tourism. Bhaskaran and Sukumaran (2007, p. 67) further investigate the impact of Dubai’s association on the tourism sector. According to the scholar, the U.A.E has a lot of growth potential. Two years ago (2012) the cities recorded commercial profit of about USD $ 130 million.
Normally countries suffer from debts from the IMF and the World Bank including other credit facilities. Dubai is the richest, but the most debt bound among the U.A.E countries and it needs to connect interpersonally with other cities in order to manage its debt effectively.
Three years ago in November, entered the 2020 U.A.E trade expo, which seeks to exposition different countries globally for the efforts they make towards sustainable business practices. The activities under scrutiny include transport, education, tourism, technology, and governance among some elements of culture. Dubai’s involvement in the 2020 exposition will be of great significance to the country.
According to the Bureau International des Expositions Dubai has a good infrastructure that would make its economy flourish through tourism. Janssens, Wijnen, Pelsmacker, and Kenhove (2008, p. 18) argue that branding occurs after market identification and complete product development. Dubai is a product that is ready for consumer use, but one significant factor stands out.
Dubai is an expensive place to promote FDI and to visit on a tourist mission. Dubai has a master’s plan for the 2020 expo, which will place the product to the right market. Inability to link a product to the right market affects the product performance. If Dubai takes advantage of the expo rolled out in 2013, it will be capable of understanding its target market perfectly in order to avoid any losses (Govers and Go 2009, p. 90).
Opportunities for growth and brand sustainability
Moore (2004, p. 196) investigates the processes that either propel or deter the growth of Dubai as a product requisite of brand positioning. Besides investment in quality housing and transport infrastructure, Dubai offers transit between the Persian Gulf and the UK. Hong Kong and the UK depend on the Jebel seaport in order to access other regions of the U.A.E for business ventures.
Moore (2004) mentions that Dubai should take advantage of the opportunity to promote its tourism sector to the rest of Europe. The terminals along the Red Sea across the shores link over 60 million Europeans and East Asian residents every year. With this in mind, Dubai can transform its tourism into a lucrative business venture.
Across the world, Dubai is the sixth most populated country by cargo ships meaning that many people visit the Jebel port for commercial purposes. Janssens et al. (2008, p. 19) complement Moore (2004) and she insists that Dubai had the best link between Africa and the West until China took advantage of the opportunity to market its technology and tourism to Africa. Africa has a great growth potential with target markets. Inexhaustible opportunities exist in Africa and only China had the boldness to explore the open economic system.
Bazerman and Don (2009, p. 16) take an interest in brand positioning Dubai through software development, the movie industry, and biotechnology. The U.A.E has the potential of investing in movie production in order to expose its skyscrapers and other tourist destinations through the media.
Like Singapore, the country can take advantage of ABC Ltd, Walt Disney, or Paramount. Hollywood became a renowned destination for movie production and Disney World enjoys the status it has because of extensive media coverage. According to Sirkeci (2013, p. 27), a marketer understands his or her product perfectly. In order to attract mass attention, the marketer incorporates multimedia.
The U.A.E already invests in excellent technology and movie production industry, which Dubai should embrace. People rarely relate with Arabic songs and movies because there are limited efforts made towards translation and increment of awareness to the rest of the world. Ordinarily, no consumer would buy a strange product or service.
Tourism destination branding
Cross selling is the objective of any marketer who places a product in a competitive environment. Marketing experts incorporate different strategies in brand positioning a product in the target market. According to Isaac, marketers in the tourism and hospitality industry have no other option, but to engage in relationship marketing.
Known for its transactional marketing technique, there is little that Dubai can do to achieve its objective because the style of marketing only recognises a short-term encounter between a product and the customer. Branding Dubai as a tourist destination is a collective function of the government, the ministry of tourism, and the residents of Dubai.
Sirkeci (2013, p. 28) mentions that each strategic plan has marketing approaches that are in line with the expectations of the target market in relation to the product benefits. According to the author, Dubai should maximize on its tourism potential in order to win the goodwill of people beyond the U.A.E. For instance, Burj al-Arab is a unique product developed by costly resources.
It took an equally long period to construct the costly Jebel port, but it does not guarantee expensive service delivery. In marketing, companies assume different approaches that suit the needs of the target population. Peng (2014, p. 9) supports Sirkeci (2013, p. 31) who promotes the development of high-end hotels that remain affordable to the middle-income earners across the U.A.E. region.
At the end of the day, Dubai needs to focus on the price and place strategy. In essence, it should take the tourism benefits to the target population instead of waiting for customers to visit the country. It includes provision of the Burj al-Arab brand in different parts of the world while ensuring that the cost of enjoying the services of the hospitality industry correlate with the income levels of the target population.
For instance, Burj al-Arab in Bahrain should capture the income levels of the community before setting the prices. The same should happen to the brand in China and South Africa. The authors agree that at different stages of human development, each person seeks to acquire self-actualisation, which is difficult to attain.
Price sensitive customers also seek to enjoy the excellence in service delivery from the brand, whose prices should range from one region to another. Destination branding concerns relationship marketing in which the product has to reach the target consumer irrespective of the obstacles involved in the marketing process.
Management of tourist destinations and meeting customer expectations
Each brand sells within the region of establishment, and its success within the small region gives optimism for the product success in other countries. Burj al-Arab brand is successful in the U.A.E., and Dubai should change from the transactional to relationship marketing strategy in order to capture the greatest audience attention. In a rivalled environment, quality delivery remains inevitable.
Timely delivery and observance of consumer aesthetics also form part of the branding process. Clearly, each brand needs a level of recognition in order for it to perform independently in a competitive environment. The author suggests that separation of a brand from the rival products or services is important because it offers an opportunity for the target consumers to relate with the product or service at an interpersonal level.
Customers require effective communication through social media, news releases, and foreign direct investment, which Dubai rarely considers important for growth. Dubai’s tourism sector needs to learn from other game changers in the market because confining projects such as Burj al-Arab brand within the U.A.E only poses harm than good to the country.
Customers are always right and they deserve the requisite attention from marketers and product manufacturers. Dubai’s ministry of tourism should understand that when people use the UAE ports for transit during business, they expect to stay in the cities for a particular period before going back home. Without affordability or respect to other socio-cultural values of the visitors, it becomes almost impossible to woo tourists and the large investor community. Dubaization: Brand-Dubai (2011) approaches the topic from a different angle.
The article has an interest in the way different customers respond to products that meet their expectations. According to Dubaization: Brand-Dubai (2011), there are visitors that are naturally difficult to impress. It means that the Dubai government and ministry of tourism have to work extra hard and finance different even organisers who will take an interest in the activities of foreigners within the U.A.E.
Dubai is home to sports personalities, business personnel, and tourists among other people. They need accommodation; gym facilities, entertainment, and cuisine that make them feel the difference of being in a new country. In addition, the visitors do not expect many cultural changes in terms of religious bias or interference with their social lives.
Transforming into world’s most sought tourist destination
Lee (2009, p. 235) does not dispute Dubai’s ability to change its logo, but she reinforces on the significance of strategy change as opposed to image transformation. First, Dubai cannot operate well if indebted to banks and the public through investment in treasury. An element of the strategy change that can help Dubai overcome its challenges is the incorporation of public relations during branding.
Public relations, which is still at its infancy in the country assists many countries in establishing good political and social relations. The marketing element is equally helpful in creating links between individuals and corporate organisations. The service oriented hospitality industry requires Dubai to assess the 4Ps of marketing while employing all the elements of the marketing mix.
Kennedy (2004, p. 182) supports the development of a support system for the existing infrastructure in Dubai, which includes an international airport offering transit between the U.A.E. and London. In summary, Dubai needs a behaviour and attitude change in order to transform the tourism sector into a masterpiece for subsequent generations.
Attitude change mostly has a lot to do with changing consumer perception about the austere religious environment in Dubai. Consequently, it is important to conduct civic education so that the locals will learn to be friendly to visitors since it would lengthen their stay in Dubai.
The authors find a lot of potential for Dubai to deal with the national debt by maximising on the tourism industry. It does not have to borrow to pay debts; rather, it has a good tourism network, an oil pipeline, and an excellent real estate infrastructure that will propel the economy of the country.
References Alavi, M., Kayworth, T. R., and Leidner, D. E. 2006, ‘An empirical examination of the influence of organizational culture on knowledge management practices’, Journal of management information systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp.191-224.
Attwood, E. 2014, Game changer: King Abdullah Economic City. Web.
Bazerman, M. H., and Don, A. M. 2009, Motivational and emotional influences in decision making: Judgment in managerial decision making (7th ed.), Wiley
BMW Entry Plan into International Market Problem Solution Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction The purpose of this report is to suggest a market entry plan for BMW Group; however, it will propose this company to choose Somalia as a new market to start business operation. This report will discuss the background of the company, strengths, and weaknesses of BMW, market position, global business environment, and economic position in Somalia, income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement and so on.
Company Profile Ranker (2014) stated that BMW Group was established in 1917; now, it is one of the ten biggest car makers in the world and it owns three finest brands and occupies robust position in motorbike division and runs flourishing financial-service business; moreover, it targets to engender lucrative augmentation and incomes through the first-class fragments of the global vehicle markets.
According to the report of BMW (2014), it has resolutely placed on the finest zone of the global vehicle industry because of the three major brands, namely, BMW, MINI, and Rolls Royce; moreover, the company is dedicated to provide the best quality products and services through excellent research, development, sales, and marketing; these issues reflected through its performance.
Products Ranker (2014) provided the characteristics of the products of the company in the car sector; apart from making countless models of vehicles, BMW also offers financial services; however, the next table provides brief description of its product line:
Figure 1: Products of BMW
Source: Self generated from Ranker (2014)
Strengths and Weaknesses of BMW The strengths and weaknesses of the company have considered briefly in the table below:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More SWOT Analysis of BMW Strengths It has super brand reputation as it is the third most expensive automobile company valued at twenty nine billion dollars; in 2012, Forbes noted it to be the most highly regarded company in the planet; It is building environment friendly carriages by making them additionally proficient; in fact, it has twenty models that release carbon-dioxide as low as 140g/km; it is also making environment friendly fuels like hydrogen; It has excellent engineering abilities, financial capabilities, comprehensive product-range, extensive modernization and quality management system; moreover, BMW recruits the expert employees to manufacture the cars Weaknesses Making excellent cars and recruiting experienced labor force influence the company to rise costs; so its costs are greater than that of the major rivals, like Toyota, Volkswagen, and GM BMW makes luxury-cars that necessitate top graded equipment, experienced labor force, and huge brand image; in this context, the company is bound to ask higher prices; however, customers believe that it asks excessive price for its products It makes excessively few acquisitions and alliances, and without acquisitions, the company finds it difficult to develop even with elite manufacturing-abilities Table 1: Strengths and weaknesses of BMW
Source: Self generated
Market Positioning of BMW The market positioning of BMW is very strong indeed throughout the world; it remains to the most prestigious and favorable brands amongst the customers; as a result, it positions itself amid the best selling brands throughout the globe.
Cain (2012) noted that BMW remained to position itself as the top selling luxury brand in the USA by holding more than eighteen percent of the luxury car market; it is notable that Mercedes-Benz’s positioned itself as the second car marketer whilst Lexus was in the third position according to the survey; this has been illustrated in chart below:
Figure 2: Market Positioning of BMW in 2012
Source: Cain (2012)
Integrated marketing communication (IMC) Strategy
The IMC tactic of the company would be based on coherent integration of online and offline promotional tools to put together and uphold brand awareness, and obtain, foresee, please and aware the clients; it is important to note that the online and offline tools would comprise of event sponsorships, contests, websites, interactive demonstrations, displays, hoardings, and printed advertisements.
We will write a custom Essay on BMW Entry Plan into International Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All the marketing operations would be synchronized with each other; otherwise, clients will just observe isolated interactions; however, it is significant to state that films have played a major role in advertising the cars of the corporation; for example, the corporation got vast publicity when Mini Cooper was featured in a film; so, it is a necessary IMC choice.
Sustainable Competitive Advantages enjoyed by BMW
It is notable that super brand awareness, excellent technologies, great research and development, unique car designs, customized designing for clients, perfect promotional and advertising tools and mediums, highly talented labor force, proficiently prepared corporate and global strategies, and nice corporate cultures are the key competitive advantages of this firm; the following chart outlines the sustainable competitive advantages of BMW:
Figure 3: Sustainable competitive advantages enjoyed by BMW
Source: Self generated
Population characteristics and socio-cultural factors of Somalia
With population of about 10428043, Somalia belongs to clan and sub-clans; these hierarchical-descent factions are innermost part of Somali society; conventionally, clans unite for getting safeguard, water, land, and political power; moreover, rural societies are essentially democratic and councils of men make decisions.
Current Global Operating Environment
The purchasing power of the global customers had slowed significantly in the recessionary period; therefore, this luxury car manufacturer had experienced severe challenges in India, Brazil, and Russia, but BMW made profits from international market even during the time of global financial and economic crisis; however, the global economy stabilized in 2013 and it manufactured a record volume of cars.
The current global business environment would be difficult for the global companies because of high public debt levels in Europe, the uncertain conflicts in the Middle East, and domestic political divergence in different countries; however, it would gain competitive advantages over the competitors in the US, Chinese and Indian market though it has recalled near 140,000 vehicles in China. However, the next table provides more information:
GDP Growth According to the report of BTI (2014), GDP annual growth rate along with GDP per capita (PPP) illustrated poor economic performance since GDP annual growth rate was only 2.6% in 2012 and GDP per capita (PPP) was $547 in 2010; however, income from exports contributed 50% of the national GDP; however, the next table shows more information:
Not sure if you can write a paper on BMW Entry Plan into International Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 GDP Annual Growth Rate 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 GDP purchasing power parity (PPP) $5.26 Billion $5.39 Billion $5.52 Billion $5.67 Billion $5.90 Billion GDP 1.98 2.32 2.39 2.48 2.6 Table 2: GDP per capita (PPP) growth rate
Source: (Indexmundi, 2014, para.1)
Labor force in Somalia According to the report of World Bank, more than 70% of the total labor force is engaged in the agriculture sector as the national economy fully based on this segment; on the other hand, rest 29% labor force is working in the industry and services market; however, the following table gives more information about Labor force in Somalia:
Figure 4: Labor force in Somalia from 2004 to 2014
Source: (Trading Economics, 2008, para. 1)
At the same time, Young (2014) reported that 70% of the total young people are unemployed and they endeavor to cross Mediterranean Sea with intent to leave this country to get jobs; some individuals are working for terrorist organizations and piracy groups; therefore, multinational companies are unwilling to operate business in this country.
Exports from Somalia (2006 to 2012)
Simoes (2014) stated that livestock and other agriculture items are the key export products and main export items include bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal; in addition, major exports partners are Oman and Yemen; however, the next table provides more information: Table 3: Total exports from 2006 to 2012
Source: self-generated from Simoes (2014)
Imports (2006 to 2012)
The report of Simoes (2014) illustrated that machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials are the main import items; however, subsequent table provides more information about imports:
Year Total Imports ($ billion) Import Sectors Value Percentage (%) 2006 0.8 Other Vegetables $191,294,398 18 2007 0.58 Raw Sugar $188,695,556 18 2008 0.8 Rice $56,583,059 5.4 2009 Wheat Flours $45,137,945 4.3 2010 1.26 Bovine $44,454,546 4.2 2011 Concentrated Milk $41,841,731 4 2012 Woven Fabric of Synthetic Staple Fibers $36,000,634 2.5 2013 Cement $25,857,637 2.3 Table 4: Total imports and the main import partners from 2006 to 2012
Source: self-generated from Simoes (2014)
Major trading partners’ countries
The main Export partners Percentage (%) The main import partners Percentage (%) Oman 51 Ethiopia 25 Yemen 28 India 19 India 4.6 Oman 17 Pakistan 2.9 China 9.6 Lebanon 2.8 Pakistan 6.2 Hong Kong 2 Yemen 5.4 Brazil 1.9 Turkey 3.9 China 1.8 Egypt 1.5 Table 5: The main import partners of Somalia
Source: self-generated from Simoes (2014)
Political Factors of Somalia
BTI (2014) addressed that Somalia is going through severe violence and serious humanitarian crises due to long-term civil war although the population consists with homogeneous ethic group of the Muslim, but they engaged themselves into irrevocable conflicts in order to exercise power and to collapse the state mechanism.
In 2011, the local armed force along with the peacekeeping troops had defeated the Islamist armed groups and the overseas powers who have economic interest in the countries along with NATO expressed their optimism that the federal government would be capable to enhance reconciliation practice and reconstruction progression.
Al-Shabaab had taken control over the majority parts of the country from 2007 and increased its power to take control over the few parts of Mogadishu by 2011, but intervention AMISOM with a force of 10,000 troops, and sudden aggression of Kenya following the footstep of Ethiopia Al-Shabaab was forced to escape from Mogadishu in 2011.
At the same time, Al-Shabaab was likely defeating due to combine pressure and continued political negotiation; as a result, the municipal election were held in November 2012 where the opposition wined in the local governmental bodies that provided further hope to the international communities for a sustainable peace building.
Legal Factors of Somalia
USAID (2014) reported that it has been keeping continuous cooperation and support to Somalia with the aim to unification, rebuilt and quick recovery of the economy by attracting foreign investors and improving job opportunities, but its legislation related to the business and commercial climate made it difficult to put the country in an international standard.
The commercial law of Somalia is very weak and conflicting in nature and does not provide safeguard to the business transactions; though, there are some provisions, but in practice, it is difficult to execute any business contract of agreement with the Somalia companies.
Moreover, protection of property, weakness in export or import, indemnity to the elites, corruption, lack of protection to the investors made it difficult for a safe business with the old business communities, but the newly managed business organizations are comparatively less corrupted and have honor to the international trade practice; therefore, they kept hopes of doing business in this region.
Pro-Forma Income Statement
The marketers assume that BMW would be able to make profit from this new market and it would gain $704,152 in 2015; however, the next table gives more details:
Specification 2015 2016 2017 Sales $4,976,400 $5,500,400 $6,054,000 Total Cost of Sales $3,582,200 $3,731,000 $3,854,000 Gross Margin $1,394,200 $1,769,400 $2,200,000 Operating Expenses Sales and Marketing Payroll $30,500 $35,000 $40,000 Advertising/Promotion $28,000 $10,000 $12,000 Web Page Maintenance $7200 $5000 $5200 Cleaning/Maintenance $13,200 $12,000 $12,000 Travel/Auctions $6200 $4000 $6000 Total Sales and Marketing Expenses $115,800 $101,000 $115,200 Expenses Payroll $81,700 $88,000 $95,000 Depreciation
An Analysis of the United States’ Labour Market Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction From the time when the Great Recession ended, the US economy has steadily grown accumulating up to 8.1 million opportunities; subsequently, collapsing the unemployment rate from 10% to 6.2%.
Despite not reaching its original condition, economic specialists posit that the US labour market is now healthy and likely to achieve its former glory in future. This is attributed to the tactical strategies placed by the federal reserves. One of the prioritised measures in the US Federal Reserve is the minimum wage strategy.
Minimum wage Using sufficient literatures that analyse minimum wage, various authors differ on the extent to which a minimum wage impacts on employment (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 509). This makes the study on the impact of minimum wage on employment common as well as most controversial in the labour economics field. However, basing the reasoning on both theoretical and econometric principles, it is arguable that the outcome of wage floor should be noticeable in new employment growth than it is in employment level.
According to Raise the Wage (2014), President Barack Obama requested the Congress to consider raising the countrywide minimum wage to $10.10 from the usual $7.25 an hour, as well as signed into law the Executive Order to increase the least earning to $10.10 for the persons employed in fresh federal deals.
Markedly, increasing the national minimum wage is meant to raise the earnings of many workers, as well as to enhance the level of business operations in the US (Raise the Wage 2014). Most states have the minimum wage at $7.25 on average, with slight positive deviations in a few states.
Substantiating by data analysis of US aggregate employment metrics for the employers’ population in the US, the American job growth radically declined in response to the rise in minimum wage (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 515). Nonetheless, the data does not show an equivalent cutback in level of employment. Therefore, this illogical effect on employment level is neither a surprise nor a perfect reflection of the effect of minimum wage.
In addition, analysing the negative impact on net job growth establishes that minimum wage is majorly determined by downsize in job creation rather than by rise in job destruction (Raise the Wage 2014). Therefore, for the US data analysis of the minimum wage, the alterations in the minimum wage have tremendously affected the change in the number of jobs in the economy rather than the turnover for the individuals within existing jobs (Autor 2011, p. 11).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wage inequality The pronounced inequality of wage as the US data statistics for the last three decades point out can be attributed to the long shift in labour demand in U S. This is ascribed to divergence of employment opportunities across occupations, where employment growth is centred on skilfulness (Raise the Wage 2014).
Just like in other countries, empirical research shows that high skilled personnel receive lofty wages, while the low skilled receive meagre wages in the US labour market. According to the 2008 census survey, there is a twist in distribution of employment that transverses occupation over the last three decades as opposed to a uniform rise in the previous decades.
Krueger et al. (2014, p. 234) ascertain that in the last decade, there was a high increase in the growth of low-skill jobs because of lower education level in the previous decade. Outstandingly, this employment pattern had great impact on the wage growth. Ultimately, as low skill jobs were characterised with low wages, the polarisation of employment at the lower quadrant reflected on low wages for majority of the US population.
In contrast, the inadequacy of skilled labourers increased their demand, thereby reflecting a higher wage for the skilled jobs. Subsequently, the wage gain increased for the few skilful individuals at the upper quadrant. At the same time, the abundance of unskilled workers led to a drastic drop of wage at the lower quadrant.
Given that the US labour market is driven by the skilfulness factor due to the technological advancements, the wage inequality grew wider with the skilled persons gaining more wealth against their unskilled counterparts who earned too little (Autor 2011, p. 12).
At the same time, the middle class blue-collar jobs drastically disappeared. Considering the available data, the Great Recession has reinforced this US labour market tendency of polarisation in the skilfulness, where high skilled pocket high wage as the unskilled receive low wage rather than redirecting them or reversing these trends (Borjas 2013, p. 36).
Short and Long Term Unemployment Determining the unemployment rate could be determined by different criteria, namely U-3 or U-6. According to economists, U-3 is restrictive; it is inclusive of the individuals actively searching for employment, but cannot find (Autor 2011, p. 13). The other measure, U-6 method, is possibly the most complete criterion in determining the unemployment rate (Autor 2011, p. 13).
We will write a custom Essay on An Analysis of the United States’ Labour Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This measure take in consideration the marginally attached workers, individuals who looked for work in the recent past even if not actively re-engaged in job search at present, as well as individuals employed on part time basis, but would prefer full time employments (Borjas 2013, p. 83).
Presently several literatures assert that a number of economic observers prophesy the current conventional Phillips curve and Beveridge curve models as putting emphasis on massive price deflations, limited vacancies, and great wage decline, which are all a result of high rate of unemployment witnessed during the Great Recession.
Notably, some of the economists explain the missed Phillips curve based on changes in price increase as well as interactions (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 235). On the other hand, other economists insist that Phillips’ curve price wage is stable only if the short-term unemployment is used, instead of using the total unemployment rate. However, neither of the explanations suggests that long-term unemployment is on the edge of labour work.
Instead, the demand and supply side effect of the long-term unemployment is possibly an approval that supports each other instead of completing the explanation (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 235). This is because the statistical discrimination towards long-term unemployment could possibly discourage the individuals (Autor 2011, p. 16).
Nonetheless, from this analysis, it is obvious that the long-term unemployed are to a lesser percentage connected to the economy as compared to the short-term unemployed. Likewise, the data, posit that the long-term unemployed are likely to pull out from the labour force than the short-term unemployed (Autor 2011, p. 16).
Krueger, Cramer, and Cho (2014, p. 229) affirm that in its frontward direction, the federal reserves have switched the attention from a quantitative unemployment threshold to advanced and wide-ranging measures of the labour market. In relevance to the econometric theory that calls for an alteration in response to a consequence, the US policymakers have improved the deteriorating situations that resulted from the Great Recession (Autor 2011, p. 17).
Profiling both long-term and short-term unemployment
The statistical data on unemployment in the US suggest that for majority of the decades before the Great Recession, the ratio of the unemployed individuals in US revolved between 10% and 20% (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 247). After the Great Recession, the long-term unemployed population escalated to an average of 40%.
This means that the long-term unemployed in the US economy has greater strain at the present economy than ever before (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 248). Summed together, the population of both the long-term unemployed and the short-term unemployed compared to the employed, it is notable that the majority of unemployed are younger, well educated, and unmarried.
Not sure if you can write a paper on An Analysis of the United States’ Labour Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In relation to occupation and education level, the mismatch between workers and the kind of duties they undertake are almost similar (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 248). In addition, both seems to have equivalent qualifications, thus any structural problem that leads to long-term unemployment could be due to lack of motivation, self-esteem, or negative attitude of employers who considers long-term unemployment to have knowledge erosion.
Duration of unemployment
Analysing the US unemployment data for the past three decades, it is arguable that there are three possibilities for alteration of the unemployment statistics in relation to duration of the unemployment. In the first scenario, the short-term unemployed have greater chances to transition into long-term employed than the long-term unemployed (Borjas 2013, p. 116).
In the second category, over the entire three decades data, the long-term unemployed are at almost the same range; they are prone to quit the labour force as compared to the short-term unemployed. Lastly, in this scenario, the three decades data imply a drastic crash in labour force depart around recessions for the long-term unemployed than short-term unemployment. Similarly, the data indicate a major fall in job finding measures around recession in the short-term unemployment than in the long-term unemployment (Borjas 2013, p. 127).
Work trends survey for unemployed
Another important aspect in analysing unemployment is the relationship of work trends to the transition rate of unemployed. Against the expectation of many, comparing the short-term unemployment and the long-term unemployment, the gap between the two categories is quite bigger (Autor 2011, p. 18).
The work trend survey results indicate that the possibility for long-term employed to get jobs is lower than the possibility for the short-term unemployed to get both full time and part time jobs (Autor 2011, p. 18).
Regional differences of unemployed within the United States of America
The recent data indicates that while some of the states in the US have fully or partially recovered from the Great Recession, some states are far long behind in the recovery process. This is an indication of the possibility of irregular unemployment due to the economic differences. From the analysis of these data, it is debatable that long-term unemployment is unpredictable even for states that have low level of unemployment (Autor 2011, p. 18).
However, economic factors such as the boom in the energy production in some state like Alaska, Iowa, West Virginia amongst others States have great effect on the general unemployment population (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 520). The situation is complicated by a twist of scenario. First, in the areas with stronger economy, especially in the energy producing regions, the firms are likely to absorb higher number of workers, hence lowering the unemployment rate.
Alternatively, due to the strong economy, there is the likelihood for majority of the employees to get sustainable income, and, as a result, the long-term unemployed would most probably withdraw from the labour market (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 259). This could subsequently lower the general unemployment level.
The second scenario is that the presence of stronger economies could be indications of a likelihood of getting unemployment. Therefore, even the long-term unemployed might not give up, but instead keep the job hunt (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 521). This could defiantly reflect into a massive number of unemployed in such regions.
Calibration model Statistical evidence designates that after the Great Recession, the vacancies and unemployment link known as Berveridge curve curled outwards, as most of the vacancies than predicted were reserved for the high unemployment rate (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 258). Notably, this connection is firm when short-term unemployment rate is used.
This could be possible when the Beveridges curve shifts outwards after the rigorous shock because of slow job growth, an increase in long-term unemployment, a decrease in the entire match effectiveness, as well as a reduction in the number of individuals quitting the labour force (Borjas 2013, p. 169). This is more particular to the long-term unemployed. The unemployment and vacancies path can possibly relax back to the initial Beveridge curve position because of withdrawal of the long-term unemployed from workforce.
Gender discrimination in the US labour market
An analysis of the recent gender employment pattern signifies the occupational distinction based on gender witnessed in the US labour market. Initially, the blue-collar jobs that include crafts and operations were reserved for the male gender, while the female were distinguished with clerical occupations (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 258).
The situation is totally different from the current record. Even though, the contrast in traditional gender domination of occupations is visible, little is known about the cause. However, some labour market scholars believe that this employment disparity is a result of gender differences in job choice. Alternatively, the disparity in the occupancy based on gender could be because of differences in characteristics of the US labour force, such as occupational segregation.
Occupation segregation is the exclusion of workers from certain professions while dominating other occupations. Autor (2011, p. 12) states that over the years, researchers have dwelt on the measures and consequences of occupational segregation in the labour market. The changes witnessed in the characteristics of occupation in the US labour market are due to several factors; however, long-term transformation in occupation is core in these changes (Autor 2011, p. 16).
In this aspect, the growth in women’s labour force is linked to the rise in the ratio of white-collar jobs in the US labour market. Therefore, as more women join the labour market with some having higher educational level than the men counterparts, they get absorbed in the swiftly rising white-collar jobs in the clerical, professional, as well as technical fields (Autor 2011, p. 17).
The ageing population of the US labour market
Statically analysis projects the US’s population to increase by 91 million over the next 4 decades from the 309 million of 2010 to 400 million mark by 2050 (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 508). Even though this growth is anticipated to take place in larger brackets, the entire growth will be resolute in the ageing bracket.
In essence, this perception implies that the number of people in the ageing group – at the age of 65 and above – will be more than double. This in fact means that the aged population could increase from 13%, according to the 2010 population, to 21% of the total population in the prospected 2050 population (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 510).
Even though the age bracket of between 20 and 64 that actively engage in workforce labour will also continue to grow, the growth rate in this bracket is much slower as compared to the era when the baby boomer bulge propelled it (Abraham and Katz 1986, p. 511).
Therefore, this population of the working force is likely to reduce in size from 60% of 2010 to 55% in 2050. Notably, the labour force participatory rate in the United States of America is recorded to have dropped tremendously since the occurrence of the Great Recession period of 2007 to 2009. The fall is attributed to three main factors.
According to Abraham and Katz (1986, p. 510), the effect of cyclical from the Great Recession, the ageing population, and a combination of several other minor factors can explain these transitions. However, of the two identified factors, ageing population to date cater for the better part of the effect.
Government policies to increase labour market flexibility
Labour market flexibility has different definitions with varied meanings to different people. Whereas in some parts of the world, labour market flexibility means a room for employers to fire employees to reduce wages (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 255). In the US, it is a virtue aimed at empowering employees.
In the olden days, low unemployment coupled with edgy labour markets forced several authorities and the policymakers to formulate numerous programmes to ensure that the labour markets are more flexible and effective. Some of these policies aimed at intensifying labour work force. In the US, policies to increase labour market flexibility aimed at extending the service to incorporate the identification of both the long-term and the immediate needs of the labour market (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 258).
This included working with the employers to screen and select trainees that would assist in the immediate demand of the US labour market. To achieve this target, the US Federal Government established a professional training centre for the white-collar job opportunity. In addition, in the midst of transformation to technology-based operations, this move aimed at strengthening workers’ training programmes to produce capable graduates for the demanding labour workforce (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 259).
Most of these policies aimed at employing the citizens in the job superfluous sectors. While, the original policies at training and including new employees in the industry, the recession later changed the idea to policies that meant to retain the employed for longer duration as possible (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 261).
In this effort, the US Federal Government initiated programmes advocating for short-term work, in which workers enjoyed partial unemployment benefits even after reducing their working hours to avoid lay-offs. Equally, the Federal Government provided employers with subsidiaries in order to retain workers who would otherwise had been laid off. In response, the US model of labour market flexibility proved to be the most probably response to the growing unemployment dilemma (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 263).
Inward and outward Migration The United States’ labour market is illustrious for outward migration of skilled workers for permanent or temporary work. Similarly, the US’s labour market assimilates a number of outward immigrants who are majorly unskilled workers. According to Borjas (2013, p. 67), immigration has both its merits and demerits; it can drain the country of the skilled labour workforce, thereby impacting on the workforce negatively, and, at the same time, adding to their incomes.
Alternatively, importation of unskilled workers in the country increases competition, thus raising the level of unemployment in the country. Although exportation of skilled workers that is dominant in the America’s labour market might lead to brain drain, it is arguable that temporarily employed workers could as well bring with them new ideas to their country upon their return (Borjas 2013, p. 87).
These efforts by the Federal Government intended to create policies that could increase labour market flexibility aiming at strengthening the US internal labour market (Krueger et al. 2014, p. 295). Even though some of these policies allow employers to lay off workers, their ultimate goal is to generate additional job opportunities at the expense of high living standards. From this research, it is fair to argue that both the outward and inward migration of the US population has benefit to the US labour market.
For the outward migration, this trend eases competition in the local market, thus maintaining the high level of demand for the expertise skills. The trend can maintain the wage gap in the country. Besides, this helps in reducing the unemployment rate in the robust US labour market.
For the inward migration, the high number of the unskilled employees increases competition for the unskilled job opportunities (Borjas 2013, p. 90). This helps the Federal Government in maintaining low wage for the unskilled workers, hence impacting on the general labour market benefits.
References Abraham, K. and Katz, L.F 1986, ‘Cyclical Unemployment: Sectorial Shifts or Aggregate Disturbances?’, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 507-522.
Autor, D 2011, ‘The polarization of Job opportunities in the US labour market: Implications for employment and earnings’, Journal of community investment, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 11-18.
Borjas, G. J 2013, Labor economics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Krueger, B., Cramer, J., and Cho, D 2014, ‘Are the long-term unemployed on the margins of labour market?’, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 229- 302.
Raise the Wage 2014. Web.
New Ideas for Improving the Company Problem Solution Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Inadequate analytical dimensions of supply chain such as business responsibility, customer service quality and cost may compromise the functionality of a supply chain in the company. From a theoretical perspective, the value creation model cannot align cost effectiveness when the logistics of operation are inadequate.
For instance, lack of strong control systems and poor benchmarking approach at present has compromised the organizational strategy of cost reduction, customer satisfaction, and reduction of risks. Basically, a supply chain management strategy identifies the need for commodities, appropriate suppliers, quantity and quality of the commodities.
It also evaluates effectiveness of supply practices already in place. The expansion of capacity and mechanization of production demands that the supply system matches production efficiency while assuring quality of the supplied goods. The supply chain determines the success of a company’s management strategy and ease of business sustainability.
A well outsourced supply chain is a prerequisite for confidence and trusts without and without a company’s market catchment. Accessibility and transition in the supply chain plan will ensure efficiency and proactive response analysis to further improve on the demands of prospective clients. Therefore, the company should introduce a hybrid supply chain management system to improve on efficiency, reliability, and scope of the business operations. The suggestions are discussed below.
Strategic outsourcing of the supply chain management system
There are several alternative suggestions which the company may adopt to improve on its supply chain management, in terms of efficiency and cost management. Among the alternatives may include the following strategies.
Logistics outsourcing relieves a company of fixed costs irrespective of seasonal trends and market demand. Through a competitive process, the outsourced unit will develop a balanced control system for a sustainable level of efficiency, costing, dependability, speed, quality, and flexibility through value delivery, value addition, and creativity.
In relation to this company, the outsource logistics team will have the responsibility to rationalize the scientific aspects of the supply chain such as the use of statistical tools, their application, and evaluation criteria in monitoring and managing the logistics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the outsourced logistics regulator is properly balanced, efficiency in the supply chain management is achievable within the first four months of implementation.
Benchmarking of the mapping, executing and managing processes
Benchmarking of the channels for planning and execution of production and distribution goals has the effect of reducing costs of supply chain management since the company will be in a position to monitor all the control systems and their logistics.
Thus, the major part of the success puzzle for supply chain control system should be operated on the periphery of soft skills involving the timeless vision of organizational principles, defining value of the business and determining requirements. Besides, building teams and mitigating tasks in the production-distribution channels for the products will restore efficiency in the supply chain management strategy of the company.
Customer retention is achievable through the creation of reliable and affordable marketing channel that is essential in monitoring a matrix that maps out potential competitors and identifies weaknesses and strengths of the clients. Input from the production section is processed to chart a supplier’s trend in adherence to quality, quantity, and timeliness of deliveries.
Communication of the quality guidelines minimizes the risks of product rejection/return. In the absence of a guide, variance is more probable. In such a case, the delay before replacement may slow or halt production. Consequently, potential revenue from processed products is missed. Therefore, a clear benchmarking strategy in the company would increase its efficiency in the supply chain management.
Improving the Decision Support System
The company should endeavor to create a decentralized decision support system. Despite having this efficient operations management system, the company has not fully established a mechanism for monitoring progress at micro level and majorly depends on macro auditing in decision making and has to deal with the risk of internal fraud and redundancy.
The decentralized system may incorporate planning, development, implementation, and discovery. Reflectively, the process captures organization chart, status reports, process map, compliance requirements, review structure, activities, dates, and resources employed within a specified period of time.
We will write a custom Essay on New Ideas for Improving the Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sharing supply sub-system facilitates direct transactions and generation of reports that rate a supplier’s performance. Due to its dynamic reporting, anomalies in supply quality are communicated instantaneously to the supplier to initiate corrective action.
With a supplier audit, non-conformance to specifications in supplied commodities and modes of supply are identified. A report of the audit is then discussed with the supplier to implement a corrective remedy. As a balanced assessment of a supplier’s performance, the scorecard is thus an objective tool to guide quality in supply.
Managing the proposed supply chain outsourcing
Automation of the outsourced supply chain management strategy
An improved approach to supply management through automation will establish a broader partnership with customers. The buyer will make an effort to learn the supplier’s values, vision, challenges, and operating environment.
A spirit of collaboration established will offer a positive contribution to the partnering businesses. Such cooperation will turn supply into a competitive advantage instead of sole cost. This should be backed by a legal contract.
It further provides for explicit conditions in executing the contractual partnership. Due to their explicit nature and legal enforcement, a contract assures quality of supply to the agreed specification.
Cost management in the outsourced supply chain
The element of increased competition as part of the future development is well assured when the objective of outsourcing is aligned to cost reduction in doing business. However, what makes this strategy effective is the constant formulation and implementation of strategic policies based on its knowledge of the customer needs in the supply chain management.
Sustainable development is vital to business environment when outsourcing is incorporated in the business development goal. Therefore, a business organization must put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring expansionary modules in the outsourcing of supply chain agents within feasible levels.
Generally, outsourcing and supply chain management strategies are interdependent to ensure that the business is sustainable. For implementation of the strategy, the management is to balance both the short term and long term consideration towards decision making.
Not sure if you can write a paper on New Ideas for Improving the Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Integration of entry strategy, comparative advantage, and market segmentation in the supply chain outsourcing
In order to achieve desired margins in sales and total revenues generated, a proper supply chain outsourcing plan should integrate entry strategy, comparative advantage, and market segmentation since in most cases, there is always a strong competitor or competitors that passing might prove challenging due to existence of consumer perceptions and household names.
To increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the outsourced supply chain plan should encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate healthy and lifetime relationships between the business and its clients.
Among the new development elements that can be incorporated to build trust, include establishment of a strong distribution and fair retribution process when interacting with the appointed agent who will be managing the outsourced supply chain system.
Delivery and customer satisfaction
Besides quality in service, delivery and customer satisfaction depend on the marketing segmentation as part of the outsourced supply chain program. Therefore, customer retention is achievable through the creation of reliable and affordable marketing channel that is essential in monitoring matrix that maps out potential competitors and identifies weaknesses and strength of the clients.
Moreover, the reporting criteria adopted by the outsourced supply chain agents should reflect the success of marketing calendar and set targets generated from time to time. Essentially, success of brand and product management in a new market depends on a proper alignment of a functional idea into the creation of flexible, involuntary, and quantifiable measurement of perception among the target audience in the supply chain.
Reflectively, this idea should have essential elements that can easily sway the mind, either positively or negatively. Therefore, such an organization should brand its business as the most competitive in terms of charges for service delivery and reliability in its outsourced supply chain.
Conclusion Supply management system plays a critical role in business process. A modern approach to its management proposes building stronger relationship with a customer to minimize variation in quality. Important tools in safeguarding quality are the supply management system, supplier manual, supplier scorecard, and supply contract.
Thus, when outsourcing the supply chain function, it is necessary for an organization to balance the goals and competence of the outsourced agency. This will improve the efficiency in the company’s supply chain, since its scope of operation is global.
“Humilitas” by John Dickson Critical Essay essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary The book “Humilitas” by John Dickson offers powerful ideas that can empower many believers and non-believers. This fascinating book begins by exploring the issue of humility. The author uses evidence-based arguments in order to present the best ideas.
Humility is a powerful human virtue that can make many individuals successful (Dickson 12). Many cultural groups “have used the virtue of humility to address most of their problems” (Dickson 29). This value explains why human beings should use their ideas and resources wisely. The practice has encouraged a large number of people to support their neighbors and friends.
The author has also described the concept of service in his book. According to the text, “a person’s virtue will result in dignity” (Dickson 33). Human beings should embrace the power of humility in their lives. However, the practice should become a personal choice.
The agreeable fact is that the practice can produce the best outcomes. The role of humility in leadership is also undeniable. For instance, a humble person or leader will acquire new traits thus becoming successful. Some of these traits include “persuasion, authority, ability, and example” (Dickson 32).
Leaders who embrace these aspects will eventually become successful. Some individuals such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jesus Christ used the above values and concepts thus becoming great leaders. Humility can also produce a new virtue called persuasion. Such an individual “will always become an example to others” (Dickson 41).
Another powerful value presented in the book is “honor”. Many people have embraced this value in their lives. Honor makes it easier for many people to achieve their goals. The life of Jesus Christ encourages many people for focus on the best goals.
Humility will encourage “more people to learn from their friends” (Dickson 37). This approach makes it possible for many people to succeed in their lives. This “virtue can also produce many good people in the society” (Dickson 58). The religious diversity of the world explains why humility should always be a priority.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The practice will produce a better lifestyle. The approach will also encourage more people to deal with the issues and challenges affecting their lives. The author of the book has identified various attributes that can make more people successful. For instance, the book explores the importance of common sense and persuasion.
The story of Joe Louis goes further to explain why human beings should embrace the power of humility. This “virtue is powerful because it can transform the experiences of many leaders” (Dickson 49). The practice will ensure more Christians achieve their potentials.
Critique Dickson’s masterpiece offers accurate and evidence-based ideas that can transform the lives of many people. To begin with, the author examines the issue of humility from different perspectives. The book describes how the Romans and the Greeks used the above concepts in order to achieve their goals.
They also focused on the best virtues such as helplessness and greatness. Such virtues encouraged the Romans to focus on their goals. The author also explores the practices and ideas presented by Jesus Christ. He became “the best example of humility by supporting the needs of many people in the society” (Dickson 37).
The author also examines the issue of leadership. According to Dickson, “leadership is a form of art” (Dickson 34). This knowledge explains why leaders should perform well and focus on the needs of their people. The book is worth reading because it presents the best arguments.
Many people have ignored the power of common sense. Human beings should use common sense in order to achieve the best goals. According to the book, church leaders and politicians should “use common sense in order to achieve their potentials” (Dickson 75).
Parents and relatives should be humble throughout their lives. The approach will make it easier for them to support the needs of their friends. The text also encourages leaders and preachers to acknowledge their limitations. They should also “refuse to show their superiorities and powers” (Dickson 56).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Humilitas” by John Dickson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This practice will make them more effective and eventually support their goals. The acknowledgeable fact is that “humility is not a sign of weakness” (Dickson 56). That being the case, leaders “should be real in order to achieve their potentials” (Dickson 83). They should also empower their people in order to emerge successful.
Many cultures and societies have failed to use the virtue of humility. This malpractice has made such societies less successful. Humility makes it easier for many preachers to respect the worldviews of their friends and followers. This “practice will encourage more people to respect and love one another” (Dickson 175).
The author encourages his readers to focus on the best ideas in order to emerge successful. Human beings should embrace the best practices in order to support one another. Every person should embrace this virtue in order to be happy. A sense of trust will eventually make more people successful. The author uses the best ideas and approaches in order to empower more people in the society.
Evaluation This book uses evidence-based ideas and researches in order to present the best arguments to the reader. The book examines how human beings can develop powerful values and virtues in their lives. Such virtues and values will make it easier for them to achieve most of their goals.
The text also encourages more individuals to form the best relationships. The topics and themes presented in the book are applicable in different situations. Leaders can embrace such ideas in order to achieve their goals. The text also examines how “human beings can embrace the power of common sense” (Dickson 83). The teachings presented by Jesus Christ also encourage more people to embrace the concept of humility.
Many organizations, families, institutions, and churches can also benefit from this book. The book encourages more people to respect one another. This practice will produce “happiness and support the needs of the less fortunate” (Dickson 122).
Preachers and pastors should therefore become humble leaders. They should use the power of humility to understand, guide, and support their followers. The ideas presented in Dickson’s book will make many preachers successful. The book offers powerful insights that can empower more believers.
The arguments presented in this book encourage more leaders to embrace the best values. Humility can “be a simple practice in a person’s life” (Dickson 157). However, the virtue encourages more people to make the best changes in their lives. This fact explains why every person should read Dickson’s book. According to the author, humility can encourage more people to focus on their religious, emotional, spiritual, and physical needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Humilitas” by John Dickson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Dickson, John. Humilitas. Grand Radids: Zondervan, 2011. Print.
International Politics Discussed by Wendt and Waltz Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In his book chapter, The anarchic structure of the world politics, Waltz argues that the domestic power structure is defined by the principles that govern it as well as the specialisation of its various functions (Waltz, 2010). He posits that while certain rulers may make laws, governments have the final word.
In his opinion, the international political structure is highly de-centralised and anarchical since various powers have individual autonomy, making the world fundamentally chaotic because it has no organised political power structure.
This would, therefore, imply that the world is an un-orderly place by virtue of being anarchical, but apparently this in not the case. Waltz attributes this to the fact that the world exits in independent units that tend to unite with each other to eliminate some of the anarchies and secure themselves, which account for the many global organisations, such as the UN, the EU, the AU and others.
However, from a globalised context, he contends that there is no de facto government and, as such, the world essentially has no rulers. This paper focuses on discussing important aspects about international politics as highlighted by Wendt and Waltz.
Body From a non-critical viewpoint, Wendt’s work appears to be a stark contrast to Waltz’s ideas. His key argument is that international political issues are not actually granted, but they are products of a variety of social interactions of agents, who are the people and the overall structure in a mutually constructive manner.
He contends that the mutually interactive process takes place at both a macro and micro levels, with the latter being engendered in individual states. This lends credence to the supposition of contrast with the neorealism interests and preferences proposed by Waltz.
A second instance of contrast between the two thinkers’ ideas is the fact that Wendt applies a chronological approach to studying issues, which is the assumption in which a theory is deemed valid based on a temporal model (Wendt, 2010). While Waltz’s model is structured to make predictions and foresee possible outcomes, Wendt’s analysis is based on contingencies as well as outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I think Waltz belongs to structural realism school of IR, which he is credited for having created in understanding international affairs he has explained. Some of the recurring patterns in IR that he has tackled are the resemblance between the USSR and US relations, and retrospective Athens and Sparta one.
Wendt on the other hand can be considered to belong to the neoclassicism school of IR. He states that power is socially constructed and not given or controlled by nature. Therefore, humans can actively transform their societies. For Waltz, it emerges as the product of rational assumptions he applies to the IR theory.
On the other hand, Wendt assumes that given the natural attributes of humans who make up human societies and states, they personify the presuppositions of psychoanalytic social theorists (Wendt, 2010).
Conclusions From the texts, I have learned some key lessons that would go a long way in impacting my understanding of international relations and politics. First, I have known that international affairs could be applied to impact economic growth trends of nations, which could be long-term or short-tem.
Second, I have learned that the field of IR is highly dynamic, and there exists numerous ways through which its underpinning factors can be understood. Finally, I have learned that the two authors are renowned scholars in the field of IR.
References Waltz, K. (2010). The anarchic structure of the world politics. In K. Waltz (Eds.), international politics (pp. 35-56). Illinois, IL: Waveland Press.
Wendt, A. (2010). Anarchy is what states make of it. In K. Waltz (Eds.), international politics (pp. 65-72). Illinois, IL: Waveland Press.
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Power of Agency in a Multicultural Classroom Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Power describes the capacity of an individual or teacher to compel or persuade actions or inactions. The features of power in a multicultural classroom include compulsion, penalty, and coercion. However, the power to compel specific actions in a classroom is called agency. As a result, the agency is stimulated by power.
Thus, teacher’s assertive behavior in a multicultural classroom stimulate agency among students (Ahlquist, 1999). Students withdraw from class activity if they perceive teacher’s dominance in class discussions. The act of withdrawal is called the agency in the classroom.
Race Race is a variable that affects the teacher-student relationship. Surveys revealed that race affects student’s performance. The findings revealed that black students perform well in a black environment. As a result, white students develop with white teachers while Afro-American students associate with black teachers.
Thus, racial interactions facilitate learning. Students will likely choose role models from teachers that share similarities in behavior, race, and ethnic background. As a result, black teachers interact better with black students than white students.
Racial gap can be closed with teacher’s attitude and control. Thus, teacher’s behavior and classroom techniques quality can improve communication in a multicultural environment.
White privilege Diversity gap is a challenge in a multicultural environment. As a result, institutions with few minority populations suffer from white privileges. Consequently, white privileges affect student’s participation in a multicultural environment.
Cultural diversity and white privileges complement each other. However, multicultural education was introduced to reduce the diversity gap. As a result, multicultural education creates a balance between what is right and what is enforced.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The term white privilege denotes the advantage conferred on a dominant race. Student-teacher relationship in a white dominated institution is influenced by white privileges. As a result, Afro-American teachers suffer white dominance in a multicultural classroom. Consequently, black students are bullied my white teachers in a multicultural environment.
For example, white students have the privileges to change teachers that affect their learning environment. The privilege is a disadvantage in the black community.
Injustice The above example reveals the injustice in a multicultural environment. As a result, black students are oppressed in a white dominated environment. Thus, injustice prevents the student from participating in the class activity.
Institutional discrimination and marginalization
Institutional discrimination and marginalization affect the student-teacher relationship. Discrimination against a minority population in a predominantly white college has been reported in various literatures. However, African-American teachers are not excluded from marginalization and discrimination.
Black teachers also experience instructional marginalization in a white dominated environment. As a result, black teachers may enforce space and safety. Thus, the teacher-student relationship may be affected by institutional discrimination. Cultural diversity facilitates institutional discrimination.
As a result, white teachers believe that racial discrimination is a way of life. Thus, teacher-students relationship will encounter challenges in a multicultural classroom. Multicultural education was created to bridge the gap associated with cultural diversity. However, most institutions refused to eliminate marginalization and discrimination.
Space and safety Marginalization goes beyond racial abuse and discrimination. Marginalization has been entrenched as a belief system. As a result, white teachers believe that grop dominance separated them from the black community. However, space and safety improve student’s performance and relationship.
We will write a custom Essay on Power of Agency in a Multicultural Classroom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, students engage in class activities when they feel safe in a multicultural environment. Problem will arise when the teacher fails to recognize class dynamics. As a result, ineffective class rules may limit the participation of the minority population. Safety and space facilitate understanding between the teacher and the student (Ahlquist, 1999). Thus, teachers must restrict hate speech and disturbing remarks to improve student’s space and safety.
Having and giving voice
Having and giving voice to a minority population improved the communication gap between the student and teacher. Multicultural education can be used to bridge the gap in a diversified environment. As a result, teachers must allow students to express themselves in class discussions.
Consequently, teachers must understand student’s silence to facilitate learning. Cultural barriers and shock can be eliminated using effective classroom techniques. Thus, teachers must support the arguments and contributions of every member of the class.
What does diversity mean to you?
Diversity describes the individual acceptance of other cultures, social system, physical abilities, and race and belief system. Words that associate with diversity include bystander, bias, discrimination, ally, and stereotype. These words describe an individual’s reservation towards diversity in a multicultural classroom.
I connected these words to explain the meaning of diversity and its implications in a multicultural environment. Cultural diversity in a multicultural environment combines race, and ethnic background.
Belief. Belief describes the assumed hypothesis that facilitates learning. I used the belief system to express the concept of cultural diversity. In a multicultural environment, the student’s belief system facilitates class discussions and academic performance.
For example, white students believe to be superior to Afro-American students. As a result, they may exhibit class dominance in group task or discussions.
Attitude. Attitude describes an individual’s preference towards another. As a result, attitude influence learning in a multicultural environment. Thus, the teacher’s attitude facilitates learning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Power of Agency in a Multicultural Classroom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Values. An ethical way of living is called a value. Values mean an aggregate expression of human behavior, culture, and norms. As a result, value tailors an individual’s habits, and communication skills.
What does this mean to you as a student and/or future teacher/educator?
As a student, belief, attitude, and value informs, guide, and facilitate learning in a multicultural classroom. Consequently, teachers and educators must observe cultural diversity using these words to ensure fairness, space, and safety.
Thus, power relation in a multicultural environment influences student’s beliefs, attitude, and values. Teacher’s behaviors and assertive dominance influence class resistance, silence, and inactivity (Ahlquist, 1999).
Is multicultural education a source of freedom or oppression? Why?
Teacher’s belief in a multicultural classroom affects student’s attitude and perception. Afro-American teachers stimulate resistance among the students using power and agency. As a result, some students become uncomfortable with the teacher’s assertive dominance.
Class dynamics in influenced by power and resistance. For example, if white students dominate the class population in a multicultural classroom, black students will enforce resistance towards with privileges. However, African-American teachers stimulate class resistance among white students.
The form of resistance includes silence, inactivity, and withdrawal. Multicultural education can be used to express freedom and oppression. African American teachers engage students in a multicultural classroom to reveal their experiences.
However, it stimulates individual difference towards historical facts. White teacher can oppress black students by explaining slavery and black migration. Consequently, African American teachers may be liberated with multicultural education.
Power relation in a multicultural environment facilitates direction, educational change, and individual character. To evaluate student’s concepts in an ideal environment, teacher’s dominance must reflect his or her belief system. Consequently, students and teachers are victims of socialization, which require consideration.
Teachers must accommodate student’s resistance to ensure coherent communication in a multicultural classroom (Ahlquist, 1999). African-American teachers must balance ignorance or agreement with resistance and silence. Teacher’s experience facilitates the multicultural development and transformation of students. Teachers are agents of change and are responsible for the student’s development and understanding in a multicultural environment.
Reference Ahlquist, R. (1999). Position and imposition: Power relations in a multicultural foundations class. The Journal of Negro Education, 60(2), 158-169.
The Future of Homeland Security Research Paper essay help site:edu
Introduction The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked with keeping the United States safe from domestic and international security threats. It accomplishes this mission by “coordinating across 22 preexisting agencies, reporting to a multitude of congressional committees, and interacting with the U.S. public in a manner that constantly tests the balance between security and privacy” (Nelson
Critical Infrastructure Protection Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Critical infrastructure is defined as an asset, network, or system, either real or virtual, which is of crucial importance to the United States. The destruction of critical infrastructure may cause a devastating effect on the economic security, public safety, and health well-being of the citizens (Lewis, 2006).
The power that is used across the nation, water used in households, transportation used for mobility, and the system of communication used for connectivity all belongs to the existence of such critical infrastructures (Morton, 2012).
Technological advancement has facilitated interconnections of infrastructures in most countries, thus making them vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Since they are of very sensitive nature, their security is paramount, and thus precaution measures are needed to secure them.
Define Critical Infrastructure Protection and explain why it is important Critical infrastructure protection (CIP) refers to a concept adopted by the US in 1998 in the fight against terrorism (Lopez, Setola
Cheating: Making It a Teachable Moment Report essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Code of ethics is a worldwide known phenomenon that prevails in every industry. Every organization expects its employees to practice the code of ethics in every field of service. Failure to adhere to the code of ethics is regarded as violation of rules. Business ethics are rules that are set in place to ensure that delivery of service is proficient.
It ensures that employees and other stakeholders adhere to certain constitutional rules that are set by the organization. The article ‘Cheating: Making It a Teachable Moment’, describes the manner in which the author handles an exam cheating situation within her own class The author explains a unique approach that was used to deal with the vice by punishing those students who were involved in the scenario.
Therefore, there should be strict measures of govern the codes of school ethics to ensure that there is discouragement of falsehood acts in examination situations. There is a need for instructors to understand how to react to cheating cases both psychologically and logically. They should also know how to set up consequential actions should be followed in the procedural justice process.
Effective measures should be taken to avoid the repetition of exam cheating vices in the future. This report provides a review of the article ‘Cheating: Making It a Teachable Moment’ with a view of relating its significance to the field of education and other industries.
The Stakeholders in the Article The stakeholders in the article comprise the students, the teaching staff, and subordinate staff among other faculty members who are related either directly or indirectly to the education process. Each stakeholder group plays a significant role since they assume different positions in the school organization. They follow a code of ethics to ensure effective delivery of services throughout the different units of the school.
Continuous involvement and interaction of the students with teachers has a direct effect on the general performance of the students. Therefore, the reputation of the lecturer is highly regarded. Rosile (2007) advances that students, lectures, and the non-teaching staff are the primary stakeholders who have a great impact on the education system since they are part of the whole process of learning.
If any school activity violates the school code of ethics, one of the stakeholder parties is held responsible for influencing the education system negatively. Therefore, the stakeholders are bound to stick to ethics that are set by the education system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The School’s Corporate Reputation Varieties of courses that are offered in the curriculum determine the standards of college education such as the quality level of educational facilities that are used for practical or technical projects. Most importantly, the means of providing quality education determines the delivery of efficient content to the learners. Delivery of content also determines the alleviation of vices such as exam cheating.
These practices have enabled colleges to uphold quality education. In the context of the article, the authority and administration of the college allows the lecturers to advance strict punishments on students who cheat in exams. This situation implies that learning institutions should maintain ethical standards of education. In addition, the author uses a professional and humane approach to alleviate the cheating situation.
This approach assures the malicious students the assistance of their teacher, even after punishing them by issuing an academic disciplinary probation. However, Rosile (2007) reveals that previous experiences in the Business faculty indicate that the former administration had ignored cases of cheating in exams.
Although the syllabus had set clear set of rules against cheating, in the quote, ‘I have gathered reports from business faculty whose clear-cut cases against cheaters were swept under the rug by department heads and deans.’ (Rosile, 2007, p. 20).
This statement implies that the initiative of the authority to curb the vice of exam cheating should take into account the efforts of the both the teachers and students in a bid to obtain relevant information for establishment of the reasons behind the root course of exam cheating.
The main objective of the research initiative and discouragement of cheating was to uphold the reputation of the learning institution to sustain competitiveness. According to Day, Hudson, Dobies,
Multiculturalism in America Descriptive Essay best essay help
Immigrants from all around the world have been coming to America ever since the continent was discovered. The reasons that made people travel across the ocean were different, but all of them pursued the same desire for better life and happiness. Someone escaped the oppression in their motherland, someone ran from poverty and starvation, someone arrived as a refugee of war.
Between the middle of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century the country has received over twenty five million immigrants. Flows of people from Britain, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Poland, Italy and Greece moved to the United States.
Besides, the natives from Middle Eastern, African and Asian countries also came to live there. Finally, great numbers of immigrants from South America moved to the U. S. Today, the United States of America is one of the most multinational countries of the world.
After millions of people of various backgrounds, religions and ethnicities have arrived and stayed in the U. S. multiple cultural clashes became inevitable. Some of the cultures and nations assimilated and adjusted, some mixed together with others.
As a result, the appearance of a typical citizen of the United States is impossible to describe. Walking the streets of an American metropolis such as New York or Boston one will meet people of all kinds and backgrounds that were born and raised in the States.
This country is often compared to a mixed salad or a stew, where the most diverse ingredients are cooked in one pot, creating a unique and original composition of flavors, making a dish that is unlike others. I certainly agree that the population of the United States has always been very multicultural, this country’s history and prosperity is based on the constant flows of immigration.
For example, industrialization in the U. S. was mainly pushed forward by millions of foreign arrivers that came to the American urban areas to work. Moving away from the food similes, I think that this country and its national diversity could be compared to a puzzle with a great number of pieces. All of the parts of this puzzle are different; sometimes it is hard to put them together because they do not seem to fit each other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their colors and shapes vary, yet all of them belong together. Spending some effort, one will find a way to locate a couple of matching pieces and then attach more parts to the initial bit. More and more pieces put together allow the viewer see the bigger picture of the puzzle.
It turns out that all of the parts that seemed so different are able to create quite a homogenous composition, and this is the strength of the final picture, its special feature. Even though the pieces seem so different, they are all interconnected, and each of them is a part of one enormous masterpiece.
Of course, racial stereotypes and inequalities have created a lot of discomfort for the people of the U. S., but a lot of measures are taken by the country’s leaders to overcome discrimination based on ethnic background, and reduce the cultural clashes to the minimum.
Most of the countries on our planet are shared by more than one nation; this is why the news programs are always filled with reports of cultural clashes between two neighboring ethnicities, just like the one happening at the moment between people of Russian and Ukrainian backgrounds on the territory of Ukraine.
The special trait of the United States is that it managed to accumulate dozens of ethnicities, made them neighbors and empowered them to live in peace and work together for the prosperity of the whole nation.
The Warning Effects of Catastrophe Narratives Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Many people wonder whether or not catastrophe narratives are useful in alerting the public to the possibility of environmental destructions. An effective presentation has a number of characteristics.
Such narratives are usually wrought with grim visualizations in relation to the future of humanity. They depict the consequences of natural calamity on human beings. They are perpetual given the fact that perceptions of various natural hazards as catastrophes are part of humanity.
Reports regarding natural disasters are rife in modern society. Such narratives take different forms. For instance, such issues as economic collapse and depression, as well as global warming, are common features in these depictions. Other issues, such as nuclear war, massive tsunamis, and a myriad of natural disasters paint present day and future catastrophes.
Textual sources going back as early as the nineteenth century seek to present catastrophic events through extensive utilization of stylistic and other language elements. For instance, religious writings are very effective in the illustration of wars and other disastrous events.
Consequently, it appears that catastrophic narratives inform the public about the likelihood of environmental destructions in the future. For instance, some of these presentations highlight environmental destruction through locust invasions. In other instances, floods are used to depict the wrath of God. They are also used to illustrate critical and extensive climatic changes.
In this paper, the author analyzes the usefulness of catastrophe narratives as far as alerting the public about the possibilities of environmental destructions is concerned. The various features of a particularly effective narrative are highlighted. Two texts and two movies are used in this analysis.
The Warning Effects of Disaster Narratives in the Context of Selected Texts Overview
Artificial and artistic hyperbolism is common in various disaster texts, especially those found in humanistic literature. One can only approximate the actual level of imagination and composition in these narratives. The situation is especially true if the events described in the presentations are comparable to actual happenings in the contemporary world (Rich 21).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, most of these accounts communicate some form of warning to the target audience. In most cases, a high percentage of these catastrophe narratives paint grim images of possible and impending environmental disasters. The events depicted in the texts take into account the sensitive nature of the environment.
Basically, disaster illustrations are either fictional or factual. To this end, they are similar to other forms of narratives in the literary world. However, unlike in conventional accounts, events in catastrophe narratives leave major mental imprints on readers or film watchers (Rich 21).
There are similarities between factual and fictional narratives. One of these parallels entails the function of the text. The peculiar relationship between time and history is usually put under the limelight. The development leaves the target audience wondering about the actual occurrence of these events.
“Odds against Tomorrow” as a Catastrophe Narrative
The book is an example of a disaster text. It encourages the reader to imagine about the near future (Rich 45). The story revolves around Mitchell Zuckor. The major character is a Wall Street quantitative analyst (Rich 21).
Zuckor is gifted with the unique ability of determining the likelihoods of worst-case-scenarios and catastrophic events befalling the New York City. He achieves this through the use of mathematical calculations. Some of the catastrophic events predicted include nuclear wars, earthquakes, human pandemics, tsunamis, financial meltdowns, and terrorist attacks (Rich 21).
An outstanding characteristic that makes catastrophe narratives particularly effective in predicting future occurrences is timeliness. The feature is common in this novel. Although the narrative is a fiction, recent events in the world make the story a chilling account of the future. For example, one of the predictions made by Mitchell Zuckor is fulfilled when the city is brought down by a hurricane (Rich 78).
The fictional typhoon has some similarities to the disastrous Hurricane Sandy. As such, in spite of the fact that Zuckor’s calculations are grounded on paranoia, it is obvious that they are enhanced by reality. Consequently, the narrative is effective in relation to the communication of environmental destructions. “Odds against Tomorrow” emphasizes the narrow line between order and chaos in the contemporary society.
We will write a custom Essay on The Warning Effects of Catastrophe Narratives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A Catastrophic “The Day after Tomorrow”
Just like “Odds against Tomorrow”, this movie revolves around the premise of an imminent environmental disaster. The theme, together with the sensitivity and timeliness of the situation, makes the narrative an effective means of alerting members of the public (The Day after Tomorrow).
In essence, “The Day After Tomorrow” is a disaster movie. It depicts a situation where global warming triggers an ice age by altering ocean currents. A maverick Paleoclimatologist professor, Jack Hall, has developed a computer model that can predict the events. The simulation is used to warn the public about the impending catastrophe (The Day after Tomorrow).
The film takes the artistic liberty of addressing relevant and significant present day events that may result in environmental destruction (The Day after Tomorrow). The effectiveness of the catastrophe narrative stems from the fact that the film is based on both factual and fictitious accounts.
Some of the illustrations appearing in the background to the film are both accurate and convincing. However, the depictions are likely to mislead viewers who lack a deep understanding of climate changes.
According to the film, human beings are increasingly facilitating changes in the global climate. A number of human activities are posing grave danger to the environment. Consequently, the risks of unforeseen and abrupt environmental changes increase.
There are disagreements between experts with regards to the prevailing climatic system. Ultimately, the film is an effective reminder of environmental destructions. It elicits interesting discussions on the future of humanity.
Viewing Natural Disasters “Through the Arc of the Rainforest”
The novel is a mixture of genres. However, messages about future catastrophes in relation to environmental degradation are discernible in the narrative. The events in the story unfold in Brazil. They revolve around the primary character, Kazumasa Ishimaru (Yamashita 17).
Yamashita adopts a very unique style in writing the novel (19). The approach enhances the ability of the text to warn the public about future catastrophes. Such features include ‘emplotment’ and characterization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Warning Effects of Catastrophe Narratives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the major themes addressed in “Through the Arc of the Rainforest” include migration, globalization, and economic imperialism. Other subjects entail environmental exploitation, techno-determinism, trans-nationalism, and socio-economic inequity.
The characters in the novel are drawn from different communities. They originate from Brazil, Japan, and the United States (Yamashita 40). Discovery of the black substance, Matacao, leads to the convergence of people from various parts of the world. The fortune seekers meet at a place in the Brazilian rainforest (Yamashita 41).
Subsequent activities in the forest lead to its destruction. The fate of the characters in the novel is tied to the rainforest. The story highlights the issue of environmental degradation by developing characters that are common in every day contemporary society.
The personalities reflect the existence of individuals in modern communities. Over-exploitation of the natural environment is depicted as having devastating outcomes for humanity. If the surrounding suffers, people are bound to be affected negatively in the long run. The readers can see themselves in the characters used in the story.
Disaster in “Trouble the Water”
“Trouble the Water” is a documentary film reflecting the struggles of a couple trying to survive a troubled past. In addition, the movie highlights, among others, occurrences in an abandoned community and a ‘failed’ levee (Trouble the Water). In the film, viewers are taken through the destructions caused by Hurricane Katrina. The story is told from the perspective of an aspiring rap artiste, Rivers Kimberly Roberts.
Like the other catastrophe narratives reviewed in this paper, “Trouble the Water” warns the public about the issue of environmental destruction brought about by hurricanes. The point of view adopted by the characters is especially effective in communicating this message.
For instance, Rivers turns to her faith when the waters appear to be destroying the community (Trouble the Water). Eventually, everybody seems to cling on ‘survival’ and hope. Ultimately, viewers are convinced that prevention of such situations is better than trying to deal with them when they occur.
Conclusion Catastrophe narratives are efficient means of creating public awareness in relation to environmental destruction. The styles adopted by the various authors in delivering these messages, especially timeliness, enhance their effectiveness. The themes covered also inform the impacts these narratives have on the audience.
Works Cited Rich, Nathaniel. Odds against Tomorrow, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2013. Print.
The Day after Tomorrow. Ex. Prod. Roland Emmerich. Toronto and Montreal, Canada: Centropolis Entertainment. 2004. DVD.
Trouble the Water. Ex. Prods. Tia Lessin and Carl Deal. Alexandria, Louisiana, USA: Elsewhere Films. 2008. DVD.
Yamashita, Karen. Through the Arc of the Rain Forest. 3rd ed. 1990. Los Angeles, California: Coffee House Press. Print.
Pernicious Anaemia: Causes and Curing Procedures Report online essay help
Introduction Pernicious anaemia refers to a form of anaemia, which results from failure of the body to absorb adequately absorb vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12, being an important nutrient in the body is absorbed in the small intestine from foods rich in vitamin B-12. Lahner and Annibale (2009) explain that vitamin B-12 binds itself to intrinsic factor, a parietal-cells-secreted protein, forming a complex, which is readily absorbed by the small intestine.
Irvine (1965) submits that when the aforementioned intrinsic factor is absent from the body, perhaps because of autoimmunity of genetic issues, vitamin B-12 is reduced in the victim’s body, leading to pernicious anaemia.
Further, victims of autoimmune disorders are more exposed to pernicious anaemia because their antibodies attack parietal cells, leading to abnormal secretion of the intrinsic factor, which in turn leads to poor vitamin B-12 absorption and consequently, pernicious anaemia (Toh, Van Driel
Groupthink Concept and High-Quality Decision Making Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Groupthink Concept
High-Quality Decision Making
Differences between Groupthink and High-Quality Decision Making
Groupthink Concept Groupthink refers to a psychological phenomenon happening within a cluster of persons under which the aspiration for conventionality within this cluster results in a biased outcome in the decisions made.
The main underlying assumption towards belonging to this cluster is the need to minimize conflict through blind conformity. Thus, an individual caught up in a groupthink phenomenon is blindly loyal to a set of thoughts or actions for fear of being controversial as a result of exercising independent thinking.
The often dysfunctional dynamics within such a group generates what is commonly referred to as an “illusion of invulnerability”1.
Actually, the groupthink psychology makes persons belonging to this group to belief in universality of their decisions as right without accommodating the opponents’ abilities, which are often underrated. In the worst case, groupthink orientation in the decision making process may generate actions that are dehumanizing those perceived as belonging to the opponent quarter.
High-Quality Decision Making The process of high-quality decision making is dependent on heuristic since it provides assumptions, integration of options, and rational control. Decision environment often experience dynamics and swings which create short and long term effect on chances of survival for two alternatives to solve a problem.
When faced with a decision problem that requires critical assessments, high-quality decision making process resorts to analytical tools that ensure competitive positioning advantage and rationality. Each option is assigned to a quadrant with predetermined response strategies and ‘follow-ups’ upon each decision made2.
Differences between Groupthink and High-Quality Decision Making High-quality decision making functions on the presence of rationality and verifiable facts, irrespective of the position or situation that the decision making agents are in. Unlike groupthink decision making process, high-quality decision making incorporates a series of perspectives through which the final decision is identified via a qualitative analysis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, high-quality decision making relies heavily on the pillar of alternatives through research and knowledge of the situation or problem.
On the other hand, groupthink (‘ingroup’) decision making process only accommodate the views of a cluster of individuals who belong to similar orientation and cannot exercise independent thinking. Decision making through groupthink is very biased since the underlying determinants of the decision matrix is loyalty and “illusion of vulnerability”3.
Since high-quality decision making process operates on the periphery of rationality parameter, the final verdict can be described as reliable and accommodate variant views. Given that different aspects of decision making such as assumptions, integration of options, and rational control are integrated, most of visible or invisible biases are dampened as the effects of social presence elevate the decision science.
Unfortunately, the groupthink phenomenon has structural faults which prevent the benefits of reliability and social effects since it is characterized by a context of provocative situation.
Besides, groupthink decision process is characterized by internal or external pressures for a consensus which may generate accord-seeking propensities. Unlike high-quality decision, groupthink creates a false illusion which is inherently dysfunctional4. An example of groupthink is the decision biases that led to an attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in the year 1941.
Persons entrusted with the responsibility of rational decision making allowed shared rationalizations and illusions to shadow their judgment on the need for precautions. However, the attack could have been avoided had the decision makers embraced the components of high-quality decision making.
Bibliography Fiske, Susan, and Shelley Taylor. Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture. California, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2013.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Groupthink Concept and High-Quality Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schafer, Mark, and Scott Crichlow. Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Footnotes 1 Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow, Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), 51.
2 Susan, Fiske, and Shelley Taylor, Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture (California, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2013), 23-29.
3 Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow, Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), 51.
4 Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow, Groupthink vs. High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), 51.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
This paper is a review of the UDHR and its relevance to human service professionals who deal with domestic disputes. The UDHR is a strong indicator of the international community’s efforts to standardize human rights applications. The paper explores a brief history of the UDHR and mentions other UN-based conventions that address human rights.
The UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) is the document that defines collective and acceptable human-rights law. The impact of UDHR on global politics has been compared to that of Magna Carta. The UDHR document was drafted by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights under the leadership of Eleanor Roosevelt.
The UDHR was subsequently adopted by several countries across the world in 1948. The institution of the UDHR was prompted by the sudden increase in human rights abuses as exemplified by the Second World War, the Nazi genocide, and struggle for independence in several countries across Africa. The UDHR bears with it two fundamental principles; dedication to nondiscrimination and the dignity of all human beings.
The UDHR has served as the core framework of how several countries and institutions around the world handle human rights. Consequently, most of the clauses that were part of the original UDHR document are echoed in today’s human rights practices. This paper is a review of UDHR’s institution and how it relates to domestic dispute professionals.
UDHR is quite relevant to human service professionals in the field of domestic disputes. Human service professionals operate under domestic laws. Therefore, domestic dispute professionals will often encounter the elements of UDHR that are contained in both local and international laws on family disputes. The main area of concern for domestic dispute professionals is domestic-violence (Thomas
Emiratisation Strategy in UAE Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction The British left the UAE with an immature educational system that has failed to produce a productive human resource sector to date. Since independence, the UAE economy has lacked a stable inbred national human resource, and has often relied on the imported human labour and foreign expatriates (Al-Waqfi and Forstenlechner 168).
The blossoming sectors of Tourism, Manufacturing, Hospitality, and Information Technology, which are vital to the UAE, are lacking an aboriginal expertise. The dependence on the foreign expatriates is gradually causing economical, social, and political dilemmas.
The UAE has recently enhanced its commitment to reduce the foreign expatriates through the Emiratisation approach, which seems to attract legal, ethical, and political discourses (Jasim 365). Fundamental to such dilemmas, this essay presents twelve disadvantages of Emiratisation, with some strong evidentiary support.
Emiratisation Will Demean International Trade Bilateral trade links have saturated the world, with the UAE economy being among the economies that rely on the international trade. According to Jasim, international trade entails exchanging exports and imports of human resources, raw materials, manufactured goods, and technologies between two trade partners (367).
Imposing capitalist approaches through the workforce nationalization strategy would result to international wrangles concerning equity in the international trade. On average, over 31% of the UAE economy relies on the export of the precious crude oil to several nations across the world.
Trade is a commercial strategy that often depends on stringent trade agreements and arrangements (Randeree 73). Displacing foreign workforce without a plan might affect the UAE oil trade.
The Emerging Non-Oil Sector The Emirati economy has recently noticed that excess reliance on the oil sector to generate national revenue may be detrimental, due to the gradual decrease in the oil production (Randeree 72). The EAU counties have harmoniously agreed to emphasize on stabilizing the non-oil sectors to secure the future of their economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The non-oil sectors such as Manufacturing, Information Technology, Banking, Real Estate, Airline, and Trade, majorly rely on the foreign expatriates, due to the lack of skilled native workforce. The rapidly growing non-oil sector contributes to 71% of the GDP of Emirati, with a trade value of AED1.2 trillion per annum. Forcible elimination of the reliable foreign expatriates in the non-oil sector will devastate the UAE economy. See table 1.
(Forstenlechner et al. 408)
Emiratisation Would Discourage Foreign Investment The UAE economy profoundly relies on oil extraction, and its expertise in the non-oil investment is still immature. Internal tariffs on the foreign investment would affect the foreign investors. Globally, the labour standards pertaining to the international trade and investment require nations to respect the collective bargaining principles (Al-Waqfi and Forstenlechner 169).
Apart from breaching the international investment policies, imposing discriminatory policies on the privately owned firms would discourage foreign investors.
By 2006, 91 percent of the 2.4 million workers were foreign expatriates, with the majority 53% of them were working in privately owned firms (Randeree 75). Furthermore, the UAE private sector requires a skilled workforce that can initiate mega projects, a demand that the UAE nationals can barely satisfy.
The Complicated UAE National Workforce Although the Emiratisation strategy is an ideal idea that would stabilize the future of the UAE economy, the demands of the UAE nationals are complex. Forstenlechner, Madi, Selim, and Rutledge state that expatriates are competent in almost all technical and manual jobs, while the UAE nationals are choosy and professionally disoriented (410).
Notwithstanding their incompetence, the UAE nationals demand for higher compensation, favourable working conditions, proper job security, greater working benefits, and minimal working duration.
We will write a custom Essay on Emiratisation Strategy in UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The UAE nationals often yearn for the public sector jobs that offer better working conditions, and forcing them into the private sector may be illegitimate (Randeree 78). Governmentally forced occupations into the private sectors is a practice against the international labour laws that discourage forced labour.
Lack of a Stable Succession Plan Emiratisation is increasingly approaching its targets, but the lack of a suitable succession plan, would hamper its progress and affect the future of the UAE economy. The most disturbing issue that would hamper the economic progress when the foreign expatriates depart is the lack of a strategic succession plan (Wilkins 155). There are currently no policies or strategies governing the smooth succession of the expatriates.
Over 3,278,000 expatriates currently dominate the private and public sectors of the UAE (Randeree 76). To discourage an influx of expatriates, the Emiratisation model is unethically recruiting foreigners on fixed and non-renewable contracts with limited working durations. Such approaches are against equality of treatment and opportunity policy of the ILO. See table 1.
Little Control over the UAE Private Firms The UAE economy has a very little sovereignty on the private organizations operating within its borders. The implications of Emiratisation is that forced resignations, dismissals and denial of rights for renewal of contracts in the private sector organizations would deem illegal and against the international business standards (Wilkins 159).
Out of the 91% of the 2.4 million national workers of the UAE economy, 99% of the expatriates work in the private sector, and adhere to private sector regulations that the national government can barely interfere with (Wilkins 158). The UAE economy will attract legal controversies when they impose regulations to streamline the recruitment and retention practices of the private firms.
The Plight of the UAE women in the Strategy The UAE female nationals are contemptuous about the mixed-gender workplaces, and often prefer working in the female-dominated sectors or opt to remain jobless due to their cultural beliefs (Randeree 82). The Emiratisation strategy is likely to affect the culturally controlled women who lack the required corporate competence or who adhere to the Islamic doctrines.
Currently, the UAE women have remained underrepresented in the national workforce. Inclusion of the UAE women in the national workforce is relatively low. According to Randeree, out of the 13.8% of the unemployed natives, 12.0% are women, while only 2.0% are men (81). Dismissal of the foreign expatriates will pave way to the establishment of strong Islamic cultural norms that will undermine the female workforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Emiratisation Strategy in UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Breach of the International Labour Laws The international labour laws govern labour relationship between native workers, transnational companies, and foreign expatriates. The international labour laws form part of the national labour laws of the UAE economy. These laws control the foreign workforce appointments, workforce contracts, working conditions, employment regulations, equity in workplaces, and training and development issues (Wilkins 157).
Forceful displacement of expatriates and foreign workforce would undermine the international labour regulations. The UAE has currently breached the international labour standards that advocate for equitable access to opportunities and fair treatment for all the employees regardless of their nationality.
Wilkins (159) states that currently, 60% of the foreign expatriates working in the UAE remain subjected to unfair Emiratisation quotas and bans.
Human Rights and Ethics of Business The UAE economy has enacted regulations that favour the UAE nationals and frustrate the immigrant workers. The concepts of equal opportunity and equal treatment of the international labour laws and standards are undergoing gradual demolition, as the majority of the immigrant workers in the private sector are suffering from over taxation (Forstenlechner et al. 406).
The UAE has given international private firms an optional ultimatum to pay an annual sum of 60,000 AED to the Labour Ministry for the training of the unemployed and the unskilled Emiratis, or quit the Arabian markets (Wilkins 158). Such attempts have an indirect impact on the private workforce, because workers have to contribute through taxes to meet such corporate demands levied against their companies.
Poor Policy Formulation and Implementation The Emiratisation approach has been ethically insensitive, since what matters most to the UAE economy is to experience an increase of the indigenous workforce in the national labour market (Forstenlechner et al. 409).
Some of the UAE policies aimed towards workforce nationalization and reduction of the foreign expatriates include forcible deportation, strict policies towards visa issuance, denial of health insurance to foreigners and restrictions on the visa trade.
Due to the enforcement of the unfavourable quotas and bans that seem to be in the form of discriminatory affirmatives, an estimated number of 10,000 secretarial staffs in the private sector will probably lose their jobs (Randeree 76). Emiratisation strategy uses non-renewable contracts that displace millions of the expatriates unfairly.
The Unstable Educational Systems The most devastating impact of the forcible elimination of the foreign expatriates is the future of the UAE economy that would plunge due to the unstable and incompetent indigenous workforce that would replace the skilled expatriates (Forstenlechner et al. 415). The UAE educational system and the levels of professional expertise are considerably low, and the educational standards are pitiable.
The UAE educational system is unstable, with the higher education institutions still relying on the same foreign expatriates to train and develop youngsters. Randeree states that the 60% productive youths with 20 years and above are gradually undergoing Islamic radicalization, and a mere percentage has undergone formal training (80). Of the 27% who have undergone college training, a few can communicate in fluent English.
Low Innovation and Expertise among the Local Workers Emiratisation is putting the UAE economy on the verge of collapsing, since expatriates from the Western nations may not have adequate time to transfer the necessary commercial and entrepreneurial skills to the UAE nationals (Wilkins 161).
Displacing and deporting foreign expatriates, who possess competent skills required to handle the international market competition between private firms, will plummet the private sector and hamper the UAE economy in general.
A mere workforce population of 70,000 (1%) of the UAE nationals, works in the private sector, while a vast majority of about 192,000 (80%) explores their careers in the government and offer workforce services to the public entities (159). Such circumstances suggest that even the experienced public workers can barely fit into the private sector.
Conclusion The blossoming oil extractions and oil ventures generated enough national revenue for the UAE economy, and encouraged laxity on the UAE nationals who failed to see the need of professionalism or career development. Emiratisation as a strategy that seeks to displace the foreign expatriates and immigrant workforce may have some devastating impacts on the UAE economy and its nationals.
Low professional competence in the private sector jobs, unprofessional education, high salary expectation of the UAE nationals, culture, demand for favourable working conditions and generous vacations, are the disadvantages of Emiratisation that would make the UAE economy plummet.
Furthermore, forcible displacement, retrenchment, dismissal, and revocation of working contracts are actions that are internationally unlawful, unethical, and unprofessional.
Works Cited Al-Waqfi, Mohammed and Ingo Forstenlechner. “Barriers to Emiratisation: the role of policy design and institutional environment in determining the effectiveness of Emiratisation. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 25.2 (2014): 167-189. Print.
Forstenlechner, Ingo, Mohamed Madi, Hassan Selim, and Emilie Rutledge. “Emiratisation: determining the factors that influence the recruitment decisions of employers in the UAE.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 23.2 (2012): 406-421. Print.
Jasim, Al‐Ali. “Emiratisation: drawing UAE nationals into their surging economy.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 28.9 (2008):365-379. Print.
Randeree, Kassim. “Strategy, Policy, and Practice in the Nationalization of Human Capital: ‘Project Emiratisation.”Research, and Practice in Human Resource Management 17.1 (2009): 71-91. Print.
Wilkins, Stephen. “International briefing 9: Training and development in the United Arab Emirates.” International Journal of Training and Development 5.2 (2001): 153-165. Print.
How Career Exploration Enhances People’s Ability to Further Themselves Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Abstract In an effort to answer the question of how career exploration enhances people’s ability to further themselves, this paper will discuss the subject of professional discovery from an analytical perspective. This discussion will be done through an examination of what constitutes career discovery with reference to applicable theories of career development.
The paper then discusses the point-by-point importance of career exploration in enhancing individual’s ability to further their studies. The paper concludes through a summary of the key points in appreciating the role of career examination in an individual’s further studies.
Introduction Career exploration can be referred to as the process of learning, investigating, and analyzing a profession that an individual wishes to make a permanent vocation. The subject of career exploration continues to gain prominence in occupational development.
Various factors have prompted the increased need for unemployed and employed persons to explore their careers. These factors include, but not limited to, the need to invest money in a career and the life-long nature of a profession that one chooses.
Using career development theories such as the social cognitive hypothesis by Albert Bandura, the theory of career choice by John Holland, Parsons’ theory by Frank Parsons, and Super’s theory of Donald Super, this paper will analyze the importance of career exploration in personal development.
The paper seeks to investigate the subject of career discovery using an analytical point of view with the aim of appreciating its contribution in the development of individuals’ ability to further their studies.
Enhances One’s the Ability to Venture into the Desired Career
According to Anderson and Mounts (2012), carrying out an analysis of a particular career enhances individual’s ability to go for the right job. Every individual who ventures into a particular career expects the career to be the basis for the jobs he or she will do in the future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Careers instill knowledge and skills in individuals in preparation for the job market. According to Super’s theory, career development is a life-long activity that enhances the growth of self-concept. As individuals advance in careers, they gain experience that is necessary for their personal maturity.
Career exploration enables individuals to appreciate the need for understanding themselves in a particular career. Through analysis and investigation into one’s career, individuals can understand themselves better in relation to their careers (Anderson
Understanding the Creator of all Things Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction Does God exist? If He does, is He the God of the Bible, Islam, or Mormonism? Discussions of whether God exists and/or whether the world was created or made from some scientifically explainable processes have continued over the years.
Religious leaders, naturalists, scientists, philosophers, politicians, and atheists have given their views about the existence of God. However, there is enough evidence in science, spirituality, and material elements that prove God’s existence. Both science and philosophy have proven the existence of a supreme being that ordered the creation beyond human understanding.
Moreover, despite the many ‘gods’ that exist in the religious arena, philosophical and scientific evidence indicates that the biblical God is the true God. This paper seeks to explore the topic of understanding the creator of all things. The aim is to confirm that the biblical God is the true deity.
Evidence of God’s Existence Complexity of the Universe and its Continued Existence
According to Bialecki, various philosophical, scientific, and religious facts indicate that God exists1. Every monotheistic religion believes in a certain supernatural being. Although the names that are accorded to such a being vary by religion, God’s powers in most religions are almost similar.
God guides morality and order in virtually all religions. According to Bialecki, analysis of the universe indicates that its perfectness and complexity must have a force that triggered its existence2. The size of the earth appears to have been well calculated to function over the years.
The fact that the earth has a self-regulating gravitational pull that extends only 50 miles above the surface is another indicator of a work of a perfect designer. The earth forms a satisfactory self-regulating habitat for living things. It has oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen gas for their use.
The perfectness of how the earth is designed brings people to the fact that if the earth were disorderly, the atmosphere would be smaller or bigger, a situation that would trigger the balance that has been witnessed since time immemorial. Bialecki reveals how the composition of gases on earth is well calculated to sustain life3. The other evidence that shows that there is a designer behind the earth’s perfectness is the distance between the earth and the sun. This distance enables temperatures around the earth to be life sustaining.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such temperature differences range approximately from negative 30 and positive 120 degrees. What is amazing is that if the earth were further from the sun, temperatures would be lower. The moon’s position ensures that ocean tides are continuous with no stagnation.
Since there is no valid scientific process that has been confirmed to trigger the formation of the complex universe, scholars have concurred on the existence of a supernatural being who must be responsible for this mystery.
The Universal Nature of Water
The nature and reliability of water by all living things in the world is another indicator a mysterious force that triggered the creation of the universe and everything that is found in it. Water is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless substance that is universal in many processes.
According to Clanton, the fact that all living things have water as a major component of their bodies is a sufficient proof that God was at the center of this designing4. This solvent enables living things to exist in a range of weather conditions. Minerals, chemicals, and nutrients that are required by human beings, animals, and plants are transported through water.
According to Warfield, the surface tension of water also signifies the existence of God5. For example, water is able to move upstream in a plant from the roots to the leaves. Water is also created in a way that it freezes from the top in cold places such as the Arctic.
Freezing from the top surface ensures that aquatic creatures can continue to survive even when temperatures are very low. The water that evaporates moves up to the atmosphere and cools to form rains that drop on the surface of the earth to ensure continuity of life. This observation means that water moves around the world in a cyclic way.
The Structure of the Human Brain is beyond Science and Philosophical Explanations
The human brain is designed in a way that science and philosophy have failed to explain fully. The brain is able to do multiple activities at the same time. For example, it can detect and distinguish temperatures, colors, pressure, smell, and even texture.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Understanding the Creator of all Things specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The brain orders the rest of the body to respond in a particular way in different situations. The human brain is designed as self-regulating factory that is in charge of its internal and external environment. The brain regulates the number of times that a person needs to take in air, the movement of body structures, the voice produced, the sitting posture, and all activities that bodies do with people’s little concern.
Mion asserts that the fact that an individual’s intelligence can interpret millions of facts every minute is beyond understanding6. It can select important things from what is unimportant to an individual. The intelligence factor in a brain shows the work of a creator. This unique intelligence cannot have resulted from some energy or light banging, but from God (Mion, 2012).
Evolution Explains Changes in Living Things, but Fails to Explain their Origin
The evolution theory by Charles Darwin that has been relied upon by scientists to explain the origin and evolution of life has completely failed to explain origin of life. Darwinism explains the changes that occur in animals, plants, and human beings because of mutation, natural selection, use and disuse, and other factors.
However, evolution has no answer to the origin of the life forms that it claims to be evolving. For example, if human beings originated from apes, evolution cannot reveal who created the apes. If the claim by evolution that birds originated from reptiles is true, it cannot justify who created them in the initial stage.
Living and non-living things cannot exist from nowhere and start responding to changes in their immediate environment. In addition, Mion asserts that scientific theories fail to explain how non-living things such as stones, seabed, and bedrocks were created7.
They do not reveal the origin of their raw materials. This observation leaves an important gap to be filled. The adaptation of living things for survival and mutual coexistence shows a force or being that is behind their design.
For example, the fact that a bee has structures that are adapted to suck nectar from flowers and other structures that carry pollen grains that fertilize the next flower they attend is amazing. This ensures continuity of the plants that the bee and its offspring will depend on for food in coming days. The adaptation of various animals and plants to survival in harsh weather conditions without dying shows the work of an intelligent creator.
For example, a fish can live in water all its days but dies immediately it is pulled out of water. Besides, certain plants such as the cactus are able to survive in the scorching sun of the deserts. It is undoubtedly that God is behind these mysterious observations
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding the Creator of all Things by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Geographical Distribution of Flora and Fauna
Evidence of existence of creatures that have similar bodies and DNA composition in far and different continents is an indicator of the work of a creator. For example, there are plants and animals in Asia that are found only in South America.
The distance between the two continents and the absence of such creatures in the in-between land and water goes beyond scientific and geographical explanations. For example, there are cabbage and tree varieties that are found in India and South America only.
This observation cannot be attributed to the effect of continental drifts. If this effect were the cause, similar plants would have been found in the continents and islands that lie in between. Similarity in color and structure of many living creatures in Africa relative to those of South America also indicates the work of a creator. Moreover, all human beings, white or black, have similar body structures and functions.
For example, a white man in Carolina can donate blood to a black man in India if their blood groups are similar. If evolution theory were true, people in different continents would be different due to changes in their environment. However, human beings from different continents can communicate and reason together. These pointers indicate the existence of a creator who ordered and organized all these activities to happen.
The Origin of the Earth
Science continues to depend on the ‘big bang’ theory that explains how the universe was started by one bang of energy and light from an unknown origin. According to this theory, this bang and explosion that resulted formed different life forms, space, air, sky, non-living things, and everything that is in the world.
Bombarding of energy can result in some chemical reactions. However, this bombarding fails to explain how such an explosion resulted in the formation of different lives. If it were true, every bomb that explodes in Palestine, as Palestinians fight with Israel, would be resulting in some form of life. On the contrary, explosion of such bombs results in the destruction of life.
It is also beyond scientific explanations to justify the origin of materials that formed the light that contributed in the bang, the origin of the forces that led to the explosion, and the origin of the materials that made different life forms after the big bang explosion.
How can an explosion generate a human being, a plant, consumable gases, the sky, the soil, or an animal? If explosions were to be responsible, scientists would then be using such forces to develop new life forms. Who then distributed these life forms in such a well-calculated effort of placing every life form in its best adapted environment?
Vanhoozer’s work offers a clear answer to this question8 Can the big bang forces be intelligent enough to know the qualities, structures, and adaptations of creatures that originated from it for these creatures would be positioned only in their best-suited environments?
Would the big bang divide gases and the force of gravity in a way to ensure that the gases that are important for survival of living things remain within their reach. According to Bray, the origin of creation indicates that a creator was present9. The preciseness of the order of creation shows beyond reason the masterwork of a creator.
The Laws of Nature Control the World
According to Clanton, the laws of nature are also beyond scientific and philosophical explanations10. For example, the earth will revolve round the sun in specific number of days. The gravitational pull of the earth remains consistent. Besides, time remains consistent in a typical day.
The whole universe is a sphere that obeys rules on the number of revolutions and rotations that it makes. In addition, the earth follows a certain path that is designated for that specific purpose. Unfortunately, if it were to get out of the path, everything in it would collapse. Who orders these rules?
Who ensures that the rules are followed since the earth came into being? Scientific logic cannot account for the precise nature of these activities of the world. Logic holds that the world is not a thinking being that will use its brain to regulate the activities that take place in it.
The power to control gravity, the distance between the earth and the sun, and/or to ensure that nothing falls, despite its rotation, is astonishing. The order in the universe is beyond a coincidence of things that just happen and/or continue to happen ever since its creation.
Scientists have acknowledged that nature is mysterious and that it is organized in a mathematical way. The only thing that scientists do is to prove the mystery using numbers. For example, they prove that the speed of light is the same in every part of the world.
They calculate the number of evolutions that the world makes in a year and/or the distance between the earth and the moon. However, they do not prove their origin. The laws of human and animal reproduction to ensure continuity of generation are also beyond science. In fact, the mystery of how the first creature emerged indicates that there was a creator.
The DNA Coding and Instruction System
The presence of DNA that instructs billions of cells in living things to undertake various activities and/or behave in a certain way indicates presence of God. The DNA is the instruction manual that has to be adhered to by the body cells. For example, the DNA has certain codes that are designed for specific factors.
The codes are abbreviated as A, T, G, and C by human scientists. These specific codes are very precise in their operations. This manual defines a creature and its adaptability, behavior, and temperaments. Every cell of a human being contains billions of these codes. These DNA codes give instructions to the cell at well calculated times. They instruct on how the body will grow at all times.
Science is lacking on explanation of how such DNA chemicals, which have the ability to give instructions, are grouped together in a single cell. The intelligence of the cell to give the correct information to the rest of the body is also beyond the scientific logic as Van Til asserts11.
The DNA is programmed like a computer. Besides being self-regulating, it gives information according to the codes. The question of who programs these strands in such a coordinated way brings in the aspect of a creator.
The Origin of Life and Death
According to Gebauer, Berlin, and Maio, the fact that science cannot explain the origin of life or the indispensable component of life (cell) also calls for the attention of a super creator12. Scientists and doctors can carry out maintenance functions of life, but they cannot create it.
The puzzle of death has been referred to as a mystery by all scientists. Logic cannot explain the way of death, its value, and the consequence of death to a dying creature. Scientists have tried to develop sophisticated machines that can support life, but they have never found the means to create life. Life humbles the doctors to accept the existence of a force that is far beyond their knowledge and ability13. If science were able, people would never die.
In fact, the inability to sustain life stems from people’s inability to create it. The factor that erodes or the mechanism that puts a halt to the human life remains a puzzle to scientists of the world. The presence and emergence of diseases that have no cure is another puzzle to the scientific world.
Scientists have spent days and nights in efforts to discover and develop medicine for diseases such as Ebola, HIV/AIDS, and cancer. However, despite the billions of money that have been invested by the world in fighting diseases, new diseases will still emerge to threaten people’s existence.
The fact that senior scientists are dying out of Ebola in the western part of Africa and in America indicates a force that is beyond the very science they adore. The composition of the killer material and its origin again goes beyond science. God proves his ability by taking lives that scientists are determined to defend. This observation is evidence that there is some power that is beyond the human understanding.
The fact that human cells grow and become dysfunctional at old age is also a mystery. Why do people die at old age? Why has science not been able to prevent old age and/or death that results from it? All human beings look forward to growing old and eventually dying.
If science and philosophy had the power to stop growth towards old age, great scientists such as Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, and Christian Bernard would not have died. The fact that scientists who discover so much in the field of medicine end up dying is mysterious.
How does someone end up dying, despite his or her ability to invent heart transplant surgery? This puzzle brings the aspect of a powerful creator who controls what is to exist, what is to die, and the general order of things in the world.
Atheists have Failed to Disapprove God’s Existence
Although atheists from across the world believe that there is no God, the above discussion lays bare evidences of a God of creation. Kraay and Dragos affirm that atheists believe that there is no god or God14. They have devised arguments that different gods, which are worshiped by world religions such as Islam, Buddhist, Hindu, and other religions, are fallacious.
Efforts to prove that there is no god in the world has made them defend their claims over the years. The arguments behind their believe is that the God who is depicted in the old testament of the Bible and the Quran accept rape, genocides, murder, incest, adultery, and other social evils.
Atheists will quote a section of the Old Testament that is adored by both Christians and Muslims in discrediting their God. Since atheists have no god or God to defend, their efforts are geared towards discrediting the gods who are worshipped by believers in supernatural beings. For example, they will ask why god is so violent and/or why he would be so brutal to kill more people than Satan has killed in the recorded history of the Bible.
This position is developed from biblical records in the Old Testament. In addition, they also prevail on believers to explain why their God who they depict as being so good, generous, and humble punishes his own people with everlasting fire for their sins.
To them, if God were as good as Christians depict, he would have forgiven all or controlled how they behave so that they do not sin. However, the fact is that even a father who loves his children so much goes on to punish them when they go against his orders. Therefore, God is justified to punish people who go against his authority.
Arguments by those who believe in the existence of a creator of all things are also untrue to atheists who question why the creator cannot control morality. According to atheists, there is no need of a religion or God to control morality. Atheists believe that morality is natural and that people are moral or immoral due to their fear of punishment or lack of that fear.
To counter the arguments of believers, atheists claim that most of the immoral activities such as sodomy, lesbianism, murder, and corruption are done by astute openly publicized believers such as pastors, priests, and even bishops. However, the fact that God gives people the authority to regulate their behavior does not discredit his existence. Atheists also fail to prove their creator, saying that the creation issue is beyond their understanding.
Atheists also use scientific facts that have been discredited in this discussion to prove that things just happened naturally. For example, they will rely on the big bang theory in explaining the origin of the earth and the evolution theory in explaining changes in living things.
However, these theories start at a certain point, thus leaving learners afloat. Who would have created these forces? Can something originate from nothing? According to Helseth, Craig, Highfield, and Boyd, this puzzle discredits any argument that does not uphold the existence of a creator15. Therefore, it is imperative that a creator of all creation exists. This discussion has proven so using science, philosophy, and religion.
Why the Biblical God is the True God
If God of all creation exists as discussed above, one would ask, ‘who is he?’ Which religion in the world believes in this God? Debate concerning the true and untrue God persists in the religious world. Although atheists try to prove that there is no God, most of the people in the world believe in a supernatural being as Feinberg observes16.
Kraay and Dragos affirm that various believers in supernatural being have collided and even fought in an effort to prove that their God is true as they discredit that of others17. For example, there have been bloody battles between Christians and Muslims over beliefs and places of worship.
Scholars have questioned the status of later days if there is a God since regions crop up every day. For example, if there will be heaven and that Christianity is the true religion where will the Muslims, Hindu, and Buddhist go? However, a true God who created the world exists. This section confirms that the God of Christianity is the true God of all creation.
Revelation of Jesus Christ God has revealed Himself in Christianity in a more explicit way through Jesus Christ than in any other religion. Other religions identify the key personalities who ever existed as forecasters such as seer Buddha or Mohammad. However, in Christianity, the key personality in worship (Jesus Christ) identified Himself as God.
The earlier revealed seers did not liken themselves to God. However, in several instances, Jesus Christ claimed to be God. This uniqueness separates him from these other prophets. Jesus claimed to be God in trinity where He is joined together with His father in Heaven.
Jesus even went ahead to prove that He was God by exemplifying the attributes of God. For example, he raised several people from death, He healed the sick (New International Version Mark 1:34; Matt 8:13), He authorized nature like wind, He walked on water, and claimed to be the only connection between man and God.
None of the other prophets in any other religion raised people from death, commanded nature, or even rise from death as McCormack confirms18. This observation is an indication that the God that Christians pray is the true God. He is a God who can give life that science has failed to understand.
Foundations of Christianity Christianity is founded on Judeo-Christian beliefs. In explaining the origin of the universe in Judeo-Christian, Froese and Bader confirm that only God can create it19. Compared to Hinduism and other religions that base their foundation on science, the big bang explosion did it.
However, there has been lack of evidence in the oscillatory theory of how explosions happen. This gap declares the Judeo-Christian way believable. The gap between science and Christianity is narrower compared to the gap between science and Quran.
For example, the Quran teaches that God created seven heavens and then separated them. As Charnock reveals, Christians believe that God created the universe, one thing at a time20. Muslims believe that God created the universe and then placed mountains to make it stable.
On the other hand, Christians believe that God created the world and then caused Mountains to rise from it. This position is closer to the scientific proof of volcanoes and eruptions. Depiction of wind, currents, and sea creatures by the Bible long before science discovered them is a further proof that the Christian God is true.
Conclusion There is enough evidence to show that God of all creation exists. Christians have been able to prove that the God of creation is their God through Jesus Christ.
Such evidence ranges from the complexity of the universe and its continued existence, the universal nature of water, the structure of the human brain, failure of evolution to explain earth’s origin, the geographical distribution of flora and fauna, natural laws, DNA, death and life, and failure of atheists to disapprove God.
Bibliography Bialecki, Jon. “Does God Exist in Methodological Atheism? On Tanya Lurhmann’s When God Talks Back and Bruno Latour.” Anthropology of Consciousness 25, no.1 (Mar 2014): 32-52.
Bray, Gerald. The Doctrine of God. Downers Grove. Nottingham: InterVarsity Press, 1993.
Charnock, Stephen. The Existence and Attributes of God. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1979.
Clanton, Caleb. “The Structure of C. S. Peirce’s Neglected Argument for the Reality of God: A Critical Assessment.” Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 50, no.2 (June 2014): 175-200.
Feinberg, John. No One Like Him. Wheaton: Crossway Books, 2001.
Froese, Paul, and Christopher Bader. America’s Four Gods. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Helseth, Paul, William Craig, Ron Highfield, and Gregory Boyd. Four Views on Divine Providence. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011.
Gebauer, Jochem, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, and Gregory Maio. “The Need to Belong Can Motivate Belief in God.” Journal of Personality 80, no.2 (May 2012): 465-501.
Kraay, Klaas, and Chris Dragos. “On preferring God’s non-existence.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43, no. 2(Aug 2013): 157-178.
McCormack, Bruce. Engaging the Doctrine of God: Contemporary Protestant Perspectives. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008.
Mion, Giovanni. “God, ignorance and existence.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72, no. 2(Jan 2012): 85-88.
Van Til, Cornelius. In Defense of the Faith. Phillipsburg, NJ: P
International Business Environment: Toyota Report (Assessment) custom essay help
There are a number of techniques that can be employed to understand the business environment. This paper applies the Porter’s Five Forces and the PESTLE analysis to Toyota Company. The Porter’s Five Forces analysis is a technique that helps the organisation to understand the market because it focuses on five forces that affect the performance of an organisation (Porter 2008).
On the other hand, the PESTLE analysis is a technique that focuses on the environmental factors around the business’ operation (Murray-Webster
FedEx Company Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
External environment and capabilities One of the factors affecting the external environment at FedEx is the current socio-cultural environment in its target markets. The socio-cultural environment consists of cultural elements like the values shared by the clients and the laws governing ethics for the company. The elements also include technology, and the aesthetics held paramount by the society in relation to the conduct of business with the company.
Social elements include client organizations, business groups and their partnerships with the company, and the social status of its clients. Over the past several years, the most influential socio-cultural issue in the company has been technology development. While the use of technology has increased over the past several years, only the younger generation has taken up the use of technological devices actively.
The older generation is yet to come to terms with the use of technology (Mc Namara, 2011). This element has affected the business processes at FedEx because the company has to develop strategies that satisfy the needs of the different generations of people it serves. Each generation has its specific needs, and this has affected the company in the marketing segment.
Technology provides an opportunity for the company to enhance its market share by luring higher clientele from the younger generation. It also poses a threat to the company because a shift to the use of technology exclusively would result in a huge loss of clients from the older generation.
The recommended strategy to solve this issue is for the company to stick to its traditional marketing strategies while targeting the clients from the older generation, and to use technology to lure more clients from the younger generation. The company should focus on maintaining its current market share while using technology to target new clients to increase its profitability (Grant, 2010).
Internal environment Substitutes are part of the aspects that comprise the internal environment at FedEx. The company has been in the market for quite a long time, and it has established a very strong brand in the industry. The threat of new entrants in the business has always been low because of the operational costs of the business.
It is apparent that as more companies engage in diversified business strategies, there is a possibility that some companies may venture into the business. Current rivals to the company also pose high threats in luring its customers to use their services through competitive prices (Berger, 2011). The advancement in technology, especially the fast growth in the use of the internet is a very great force affecting FedEx.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ability for clients to use their technological gadgets for faster communication has seen a decline in the demand for some services offered by the company. The internet has provided its clients with a faster and more convenient way to send messages and to access information, leaving FedEx in a disadvantaged position.
While this threat is all too real for the company, FedEx has developed a new platform that allows its clients to send their electronic documents through its website (Chen et al., 2004). This strategy has helped the company to maintain its younger clients, and to help the clients from the older generation to transition into the use of technology.
FedEx should continue to embrace technology in its service delivery to maintain the competitive nature of its brand because the world is shifting to the use of technology in service delivery (The Internal Environment, 2014). The company should also look into developing more channels for its clients to send and retrieve messages while maintaining loyalty to the company.
References Berger, A. (2011). Case Study A FedEx Corporation. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
Chen, C., Duong, L., Yang, H., Susanty, M., Vellandi, M.,
Social Comparison Theory Research Paper best essay help
With regards to questions about identity, the average person responds by comparing himself to others. However, it is important to point out that the person compares himself to people that are in his immediate vicinity. Comparisons are made based on unique attributes, such as, age, gender, eye color, and height.
Thus, the average person relies on distinguishing features in self-description (Kassin, Fein,
Communication Strategies: Image Restoration Theory Research Paper a level english language essay help
Handout The image restoration theory refers to a set of strategies designed to help organizations and/or individuals to restore positive public image. This theory underscores the different strategies that individuals, organization, and countries among others use when faced with the possibility of image destruction.
When image is threated, the reputation of the victim is at risk, and thus the image restoration theory offers a solution to this problem. At times, organizations and individuals face threats to their reputation, and in such cases, they have to invoke the image restoration theory’s provisions to restore their reputation.
Generally, organizations tend to enhance their cooperation with the media in times of crisis, thus creating a single information center to avoid rumors spreading to the public. Other strategies incorporated in dealing with conflicts that are likely to damage the reputation of an organization include denial, blame shifting, and mortification.
This paper seeks to analyze the key elements of the image restoration theory and explain practical examples of organizations and states that have used the theory successfully to restore positive public image. The paper shall specifically analyze the Middle East case, the Firestone’s image restoration campaign, and The ValuJet’s crisis.
A cross section of researchers has devoted considerable time and resources attempting to identify efficient strategies to improve the theory. Therefore, theory may be highly effective in the future following the implementation of research findings.
Some of the key resources for this paper include works by William Benoit who is credited for being one of the founders of the theory. Others include Timothy Coombs, Joseph Blaney, and LeAnn Brazeal among others as listed in the reference list at the end of this paper.
Introduction Currently, the society cannot overstate the significance of image. In most cases involving threats to reputation, individuals and organizations respond by applying various strategies in defense of their image. This paper explores the theory of image restoration as a tool of solving strategic conflict in corporations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paper also seeks to advance the current concept of the theory of image repair through the evaluation of whether strategies of image repair, sources of information, communicative agents, and the phase of a crisis influence the nature of reporting news.
In a bid to achieve this objective, the paper will incorporate content analysis of tourism in the Middle East, Firestone, and the case of ValuJet Flight 592 in the evaluation of the case of the BP’s oil spill in 2006.The paper begins with a research of the theory of image restoration. In the last part of the paper, the paper will discuss the future research in relation to the theory of image restoration.
Literature review According to Benoit and Hanczor (1994), image entails perceptions of individuals or organizations as revealed by the audience. Benoit (1995) contends that perceptions shared by audience arise from the actions and words of the messenger. With reference to the BP’s oil spill, it is evident that apart from the public entities, private organizations are subjected to accountability.
From the aftermath of the scandal, the significance of image repair emerged as an integral part of managing organizational conflicts. According to Blaney, Benoit, and Brazeal (2002), undesired activities of an organization can contribute to the damaging of the company’s reputation and image.
Benoit (1997) further contends that the perception of the audience contributes to the damaging of an organization’s reputation. Research shows “the prevalence of the proportional relationship between the extent of damage to the reputation and the responsibility held by the person or organization responsible for the damage” (Benoit, 1995, p. 79).
With reference to the response to crises and image repair, most researchers rarely recommend casual research. In the 1990s, Benoit (1995) formulated the concept of image repair theory, thus encouraging most researchers to formulate strategies of image repair in relation to his context.
According to Englehardt, Sallot, and Springston (2004), approaches to image repair entail descriptive analysis of rhetorical cases. In such cases, authors are inclined to the benefits or failures of a particular strategy, thus providing insufficient and biased information for decision-making.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Communication Strategies: Image Restoration Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The trend prevails because casual studies highlight “a variety of issues that affect the ability of an organization to rescue it image and reputation following a crisis (Coombs, 1998, p. 187). The two factors are crucial, especially when considering the strategy to use in repairing image of the affected company (Coombs, 1998).
Coombs and Holladay (2002) support this argument by adding that the reputation of an organizationis another significant factor that influences the strategy of image repair. In a study of tourism in the Middle Eastern countries, Avraham (2013) holds that perceptions of the people contribute to the deterioration of the image of tourism in the region.
However, the media in the Middle East focuses on adverse subjects such as war, conflicts, and terrorism, thus confirming and compounding the people’s negative perceptions towards the region. The researcher attributes crisis in the region’s tourism to negative image, stereotypes, and conflicts (Avraham, 2013).
Further, Avraham (2013) highlights the significance of media in correcting the reputation and image of the tourism sector in the Middle East. With the aim of expanding empirical research on crisis and image of an organization, Avraham (2013) advocates the consideration of factors such as culture in relation to stereotypes and media coverage to impact strategies of image repair.
Blaney et al. (2002) use the case of Firestone to highlight the concept of image restoration in an organization. The researchers note that Firestone attributed its crisis to the actions of Ford, which affected its reputation and image.
However, shifting blame to Ford contributed to the application of inappropriate measures of image recovery, thus failing to address the prevailing problems at Firestone. Although Firestone resorted to using the approach of bolstering as a mitigation measure, inadequate finances contributed to the failure of the approach (Blaney et al., 2002).
These studies highlight the significance of the contingency theory in the management of conflicts that affect reputation of an organization. Coombs (1999) defines the contingency theory as the dynamics that operate both inside and outside an organization and influence an accommodative stance.
The BP oil spill crisis The BP’s oil spill crisis started in 2006, but climaxed with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred toward the end of April 2010. Following the explosion and sinking of an oilrigoperated by BP in the Gulf of Mexico, approximately 11 people perished in the accident that also contributed to polluting the sea.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Communication Strategies: Image Restoration Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As one of the largest spill accidents in the petroleum industry, it attracted the attention of different sections of society, with the media playing an active role of reporting on the crisis. The federal government of the United States approximated that the explosion discharged five million barrels of crude oil into the sea (Ifill, 2014). However, it took approximately 90 days for experts to contain leakages.
However, sources from media indicate that the well continues to leak even to date despite prior reports from the government that the experts had contained the situation (Ifill, 2014). BP responded by implementing various measures to protect wetlands, estuaries through floating booms, dispersants, and controlled burns among other methods.
However, by the time the situation was under control, extensive damage had happened to the wildlife and marine habits, which contributed to adverse effects on tourism. Investigations conducted in 2011 revealed faultyoilrigs covered with defective cement as the cause of the accident.
Furthermore, the accident was attributed to insignificant industrial practices and policies of the government that failed to ensure the implementation of adequate measures of safety. Apart from adhering to criminal charges toward the end of 2012, BP cooperated with the federal government in monitoring the company’s safety practices.
Following the sanctions, relatively high level of interests from the media and environmental agencies continued at the company. Even to date, the media scrutinizes and reports various events related to this crisis (Ifill, 2014).
Theoretical Framework In a bid to counter the image destruction that was posed by the spill, BP employed the image repair theory in its communication strategies. In most cases, companies use both image repair and the contingency theory for the communication of crises and management of conflicts.
According to Burns and Bruner (2000), in public relations, the theory of image repair is embedded in the context of politics and social science. In the course of developing the theory, researchers identified five strategies in relation to the repair of image and restoration of a company’s reputation (Burns
Waste Disposal of Victoria City Problem Solution Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Consultation on disposing waste oil and cleaning chemicals
The city of Victoria has strict rules on hazardous waste disposal and environmental sustainability through the zero waste policy. A company interested in disposing a quantity of waste oil and cleaning chemicals in Victoria should follow the safety measures through the Environment Protection Regulation of the year 2009.
The regulations include licensing, waste tracking, immobilization approvals, liquid waste levy, and chemical control orders. Since the quality of wastes is above the amount which is allowed for disposal through the council, the company should begin by getting waste disposal certificate and observe the rules of disposing the hazardous wastes.
The certificate is an accreditation criterion for waste management sustainability. The certification will guarantee efficient and sustainable disposal since the accreditation process is very comprehensive (Wang
Kroger Company Essay essay help online free
Introduction This paper will provide an overview of the Kroger Company. The first part of the paper will provide the basic information about the company such as its mission, vision, and values.
The second part will highlight the company’s business strategies that enable it to achieve its objectives. The last part will shed light on the workforce planning approach used by the Kroger Company.
Company Profile Mission, vision, values
Kroger is one of the largest grocery retailers in the US. The company sells a variety of food products in 2,640 stores worldwide (Kroger, 2014). Kroger’s vision is to be the preferred provider of high quality grocery and personal care products in the world.
In order to achieve this vision, the company has focused on expanding its operations by joining new markets and aligning its products to customers’ needs. The company’s mission is “to be a leader in the distribution and merchandising of food, pharmacy, health/ personal care items, seasonal merchandise, and related products” (Kroger, 2014).
This mission enables the company to establish long-term relationships with its suppliers and customers in order to achieve its vision. The company’s core values include honesty, integrity, respect, diversity, safety, and inclusion (Kroger, 2014).
Kroger’s employees believe in being truthful to customers and suppliers to ensure high standards of integrity. In addition, they demonstrate respect by appreciating other people’s values, cultures, and beliefs.
Kroger’s workforce consists of nearly 375,000 full-time and part-time employees (Kroger, 2014). Majority of the employees are members of international labor unions. Diversity is an important characteristic of the company’s labor force. Specifically, the workforce consists of old and young employees who are from different cultures, ethnic, and racial backgrounds.
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Kroger operates supermarkets, convenience stores, and jewelry stores. The supermarkets have different formats, which include combination stores, price impact stores, and multi-department stores (Kroger, 2014). The use of different store formats helps the company to retain its customers by enhancing their shopping experience.
Kroger uses a decentralized organizational structure that consists of its headquarters and 20 operating divisions. This structure enhances decision-making processes by giving authority to the heads of the operating divisions to make merchandising decisions.
Kroger’s business strategy is to maintain cost leadership while generating good financial returns. However, Kroger’s prices are often not as low as those of major retailers such as Wal-Mart. Kroger focuses on reducing its operating costs in order to sell its merchandise at a low price. This helps in increasing sales, which in turn improves the company’s profits.
Kroger prioritizes customers’ needs in order to achieve its profit and market share objectives. This strategy involves listening to customers and using their feedback to enhance the company’s operations. The feedback enables the company to provide excellent services to customers, stock the right products, set affordable prices, and create a memorable shopping experience (Kroger, 2014).
The rationale of prioritizing customer needs is twofold. First, it enables the company to improve its brand loyalty by retaining its customers. Second, Kroger achieves economies of scale as its customers increase due to excellent service quality. As a result, Kroger is able to sell its merchandise at low prices without compromising its financial results.
Investing in advanced technologies and innovation is central to the company’s strategy of creating competitive advantages by prioritizing customer needs. The core roles required by the company to achieve the desired innovation include technology innovators and customer service experts.
For instance, in 2013 the company’s technology innovators developed a real-time temperature monitoring system that enables the company to provide the freshest food products in its stores. Generally, innovation enables Kroger to improve the quality of its products and services beyond customers’ expectations.
We will write a custom Essay on Kroger Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current Workforce Planning Approach
Currently, Kroger uses a strategic approach to workforce planning. The company aligns its workforce planning initiatives to its overall business strategy to improve its performance. Additionally, Kroger links workforce planning objectives to employee development needs, recruiting/ staffing processes, and contingent labor requirements.
Kroger’s workforce planers focus on determining the talent gaps in the company by performing job requirement analysis in collaboration with line managers to identify the existing skill shortages and redundancies. The planers also forecast talent gaps to enable the company to understand its future labor requirements.
Reducing labor costs and hiring the best talent are key elements of Kroger’s workforce planning policy (Kroger, 2014). The company believes in reducing labor costs by hiring only the right number of employees. Having the right workforce size also ensures that various business processes in the company are executed effectively.
Kroger hires only the individuals with the right skill set to enable it achieve the highest level of performance. Overall, strategic workforce planning helps Kroger to access adequate talent to provide customer-centric services.
Conclusion Kroger aspires to be the leading grocery retailer in the world. In this respect, the company focuses on providing high quality merchandise and customer services. The company also sells its products at low prices to increase sales and profits.
Generally, Kroger improves its competitiveness by aligning its operations to market needs. Currently, the company uses a strategic approach to workforce planning to access the right quantity and quality of talent.
References Carre, F.,
BOS Solutions: HR Solution Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Return on Investment (ROI) BOS Solutions requires a more robust HR solution to support its human resource activities. The company must be more careful in its IT investment to derive maximum value from it. That is, vendors must deliver HR solution that will offer expected outcomes on the business.
The aim of the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System is to streamline the HR processes so that executives can focus on employees’ development and productivity rather manually tracking, filing and shuffling their documents. BOS Solutions must realise tangible results from the IT investments from the start.
That is, it should not take over a year before the company realises any returns on the investment. Given that employees are critical part of the company’s assets for creating competitive advantage, the HR solution will be evaluated for its effectiveness on several areas.
The Applicant Tracking System will have to demonstrate returns more than financial benefits. In the past, companies would purchase and install ERP systems to enhance employee satisfaction. The ERP system would improve competitiveness by enabling the company to be able to gather, consolidate and generate accurate data about employees in a timely fashion.
The new Applicant Tracking System would be able to shorten process cycles, enhance the accuracy of collected data, facilitate application processes, reduce costs of operations and eliminate further costs incurred through the current redundant Ceridian Recruiting system.
The new Applicant Tracking System will facilitate employee self-service. The HR solution will offer several options to demonstrate ROI. It will eliminate manual search for missing data of employment history, certifications, or attached documents. As a result, it would save on administrative time.
In addition, employee records shall be easier to handle. In most cases, HR executives face challenges related to handling sheer volumes of employees’ records. Still, manual processes require greater attention to details when collecting information, typing them into a single system and ensuring that employee information reaches the intended audience e.g., HR/Payroll team.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new Applicant Tracking System will ensure that HR executives focus on their primary tasks and guide recruitment processes, develop key talents, review workforce and applicants paradigms.
The benefits of a new Applicant Tracking System for BOS Solutions would be far reaching. Having job, education and certification history on the employees would allow for a broader picture in promotions, training and development. The program upgrade would also allow for more detailed reporting of applicants by job, department and division.
BOS Solutions should be able to capture specific data because of implementing the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System to demonstrate impacts and return on investment. Data on HR productivity, user satisfaction, cycle time to locate employee information and applicants’ engagement with the system will demonstrate outcomes.
RIO must reflect monetary values against the cost of the project. For instance, in the cases of HR solution for recruitment, the ROI would be determined based on the some assumptions. This situation may lead to manual recruitment processes.
The HR recruitment team wastes time and resources because the current Ceridian Recruiting tool is not integrated, not customizable and does not allow the employer to upload documents such as employment history, certifications, or attached documents.
Initiate new hiring or change of employment terms
HR team would enter data once and save 120 working hours in a year due to enhanced efficiency
The average hourly rate for senior HR team is $100
We will write a custom Research Paper on BOS Solutions: HR Solution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Savings realised: 120*100 = $12,000
Therefore, BOS Solutions would save $12,000 per annum by implementing the new HR solution.
Assumptions There are basic assumptions adopted to ensure that the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System deliver the intended outcomes. Employees would be able to adopt the new systems, demonstrate satisfaction, and capture the intended data.
In addition, the HR executives will show changes in knowledge, attitudes and skills after adopting the new HR solutions. Still, it is expected that implementation processes would not face challenges, behaviour changes will facilitate adoption and performance of the HR team.
Moreover, senior executives will support the implementation of the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System while the CFO will approve the budget. To facilitate adoption of the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System, they should be compatible with the existing Ceridian Recruiting and seamlessly integrate.
The new Applicant Tracking System is expected to optimise HR processes. This would ensure that BOS Solutions meets its business objective of developing an integrated employee database with all HR/Payroll Latitude programs such as name, date of hire, division or department and rate of pay.
The database will also contain employment history, certifications, or attached documents, as well as all applicant data, applicant flow logs, EEO and Vets 100 information and basic recruiting statistics. With abundant data, the HR team will have reliable information to facilitate recruitment processes and succession planning.
The data would allow the HR planner to understand applicants’ characteristics and employee turnover trends to facilitate forecasting of employee turnover and salary increment if required. The HR department would be able to develop a forward-looking approach to all HR challenges, employee compensation structure and areas of weaknesses among others.
Not sure if you can write a paper on BOS Solutions: HR Solution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More BOS Solutions aims to develop an efficient, cost-effective, customisable and scalable recruiting process through the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System. Hence, HR recruiting experts will use the HR tools to develop a reliable recruitment plan. The department will develop specific metrics for new recruits.
The HR executives will rely on applicants’ data to evaluate in order to identify the best candidates for specific positions, determine costs of hiring and sources of qualified or best applicants. These data would support hiring, payment and even promotion decisions. It would balance recruitment and align roles, pay rates and qualifications.
By having all employment history, certifications, or attached documents, applicants’ data, applicant flow logs, EEO and Vets 100 information and basic recruiting statistics and rate of pay, the recruiting team would be able to successful applicants’ profiles, match applicants with appropriate positions and then perform competitive analyses to determine suitable pay rates.
It is assumed that the HR department would use employee data to develop employee capabilities and enhance engagement. In this process, HR executives would assess skills, experience levels, strengths and weaknesses of employees.
By relying on the company’s skill map, the HR executives would be able to evaluate the effectiveness of training and development programmes and develop appropriate plans while taking into account recruits’ potentials to comprehend expected roles and career growth prospects.
Further, the HR department may identify the best developmental activities as observed among top performs and use such information to develop the best training and development materials for the entire organisation. In addition, such information may also be utilised to select the best recruits and develop training and development programmes for them.
To derive maximum ROI from the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System, BOS Solutions HR executives would develop a competitive compensation plans or pay rates that aim to facilitate employees’ performance and drive results. The HR executives will review of all pay rates and other benefits to determine a group that drive performance based on their compensation structures.
This would determine the relationship between employee pay rates and performances, retention, attraction of new applicants and new recruits. The results may be used to determine the best pay rates and predict possible compensation for future performances. BOS Solutions executives will be able to compare its pay rates against the market benchmarks and then review these rates to determine their impacts on the budget and savings on costs of employee compensation.
As a result, HR executives may review the pay structure and adjust rates to competitive, sustainable levels based on performances. It is expected that BOS Solutions will rely on the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System to gather all relevant applicants’ data.
The HR executives will observe key demographic trends, applicants’ pools, current employees and then develop hiring strategies based on these observations. It would be effective for BOS Solutions to develop appropriate tools that would facilitate employee selection and recruitment.
The new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System should ensure customisation such as importing job, education and certification history. The program should also have detailed reporting of applicants in job, department, division, and geographic location and support the standard EEO and Vets 100 reporting and custom report building.
These may be generated automatically so that HR managers can respond to areas that require additional workforce, training or any other appropriate actions.
Risks Like any other new solutions in organisations, the new ERP and the new Applicant Tracking System are likely to encounter risks at various levels. These risks are categorised as high risks, moderate risks and low risks, but there are also critical success factors for the company to consider (Umble, Haft,
Reporting Inflated Numbers: Ethical Dilemma Case Study essay help: essay help
Executive Summary This paper reviews the case, Reporting Inflated Numbers, from the tenet of the Hartman and DesJardins model. The analysis is based on the four elements of this model, which are fact gathering, moral obligation, alternatives, making a decision, and monitoring the outcomes.
From the outcome, it is apparent that the actions by Barbara King attracted ethical dilemmas such as questionable integrity and professionalism.
Fact gathering In the case of Barbara King reporting inflated numbers as the communications specialist, there are several ethical dilemmas identified. To begin with, she conspired to support the fraudulent dealings despite her ethical responsibility of maintaining integrity in the company.
She conspired with the management to deviate from the main goal of the business and failed to take into consideration the shareholders’ interests when supporting the decision to report inflated numbers. Barbara allowed the top management of the company to use her to release manipulated records with an intention of enriching themselves (Silliman, 2010).
From an ethical perspective, Barbara and the management team of the company conspired to inflate the asset values, overstate the reported income, and eliminate the liabilities from the financial reporting (Hartman
Apple Inc. and Circuit City Failure Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The fall of Circuit City
Apple Inc.’s Success
Introduction Leadership, organizational structure, and culture play a central role in the success of any organization. Huge companies have crumbled while others have maintained a consistent and steady growth. Considering the case of Circuit City and Apple Inc., Circuit City dictated the big-box electronics sector for over six decades.
Its shareholders enjoyed impressive returns from their innovative business strategy. Nonetheless, Circuit City became a victim of its own accomplishments that forced it to substitute its long-term goals with interim goals in response to the capriciously adjusting and competitive market. Its efforts failed.
Conversely, Apple Inc. has been a success story. Formed by two college dropouts, it has grown to become one of the world wealthiest and most innovative technology companies in the current generation. The analysis in this paper focuses on the two companies, Apple Inc. and Circuit City. It addresses the success of one and the failure of the other comparatively.
The fall of Circuit City Established in 1949 by Samuel Wurtzel, Circuit City became the first electronic retail in the US. It dominated the industry for many years up to 2004. Before its liquidation, the company stated that the mission of the employees was to work in unity in accordance with its values to achieve the goals of the firm.
Contritely, one of the main reasons that caused its liquidation was poor management. In the first decade after the company was established, the store recorded annual sales of $ 1 million. It witnessed a quick expansion rate. The profit gained from its lucrative sales helped to open other chain stores across the US and hence the witnessed increased profits (Campbell, 2014).
Furthermore, the high gains enabled it to offer lower price for quality products as a plan to outwit its competitors. Customers were the epicenter of all its goals and strategies. This situation attracted more and more clients. The company had made over $ 120 million sales by the end of 1979. It quickly rose to the extent of surpassing the $1 billion point by the end of 1987 (Perry, 2009).
According to Campbell (2014), the growth was impressive until the company began feeling the heat of other competitors such as Best Buy Inc. Circuit City was compelled to introduce new business strategies in the effort to hold its market share.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Circuit City sold products that were similar to other superstores such as Best Buy, its mode of operation was different. Circuit City had a high environment that was supervised by salespeople who would be paid on commission (Romero, 2013).
On the hand, Best Buy Inc. had informed staff members who would only assist their clients where necessary because it operated like a self-service store. Despite the then ongoing competition, the company was stuck to its goal. It intended to obtain a principal market share in every area that it operated. This determination would help in increasing sales and gains.
In essence, this move meant that Circuit City would establish a chain of stores in other regions. Similarly, Best Buy Inc. expanded its stores but with a contemporary technology and appearance that attracted customers. Wal-Mart stores were creating a new level of competition in the form of extended warranties.
Imitating Circuit City business model meant that competitors were having a damaging effect on the gains that superstores were making (Perry, 2009). With the hefty competition, Circuit City was forced to invest in new technology and ideas, it intended to keep in pace with its rivals.
It began retailing Divx as a new product in the market. Nonetheless, it suffered the burden of producing and advertising the product to potential consumers. The company strained its budget in an attempt to maintain this product in the market. The impact was exacerbated when a core investor, Rick Sharp, terminated his funding (Campbell, 2014).
Circuit City was struggling in the market but the strategies that its leaders adopted even had more exacerbating results. For instance, after being appointed as the new CEO, Allan McCullough decided to terminate the supply of appliances to focus on electronics.
This plan reduced the number of its clients and eventually the profit margin. The management made hasty decisions such as closing other several distribution stores and retrenchment of workers. Furthermore, the commissioning sales team was terminated with the intention of minimizing the cost operation and making clients the core of the business.
We will write a custom Essay on Apple Inc. and Circuit City Failure Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apple Inc.’s Success Considered as the world’s richest company, Apple Inc. began as a simple idea by two college dropouts, namely Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. These simple ideas quickly transformed the company to the world’s most innovative firm in the telecommunication sector.
The company lacks a clear vision statement. However, its philosophy has helped it to gain a multitude of loyal customers. It seeks to encourage its employers to think differently. It strives to ensure that employees use their skills to develop unique application software, hardware, and operating systems (Mallin
“Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” by Gettier Essay essay help: essay help
The thesis of Gettier’s article “Is Justified, True Belief Knowledge?” is centralized around methods of substantiating knowledge. According to the author, knowing that something is true takes several dimensions.
A person’s claim to knowledge depends on several factors including what the individual knows is true, his/her belief, and his/her right to be convinced. According to Ayer, these three factors form the basis of knowledge and its underlying definition.
On the other hand, Gettier argues that justified belief knowledge is false because it does not incorporate the element of ‘sufficient’ truth. Consequently, justified belief knowledge cannot be used to ascertain that a particular person knows that a certain proposition is true.
In addition, the article reveals that the concepts of ‘the right to be sure that’ and ‘has adequate evidence for’ only work if the element of ‘justified true belief’ is not introduced in an analysis. Gettier’s argument in the article “Is Justified, True Belief Knowledge?” focuses on the premises of truth, justified knowledge, adequate knowledge, and the right to be sure about something.
According to Gettier, in order for someone to know certain information several conditions have to be met. The first important condition for knowing certain information is the truthfulness of the particular suggestion. For instance, for someone to know a proposition, believe in it, accept it, and be sure it is the truth, the ‘information’ itself has to be true.
Gettier refutes the premise of justifiable true belief using the arguments of two other scholars; Chisholm and Ayer. According to Chisholm, a person has to accept a proposal and have adequate evidence to prove it in order for the aforementioned proposal to be true.
On the other hand, Ayer argues that any proposal is initially true. Consequently, a person becomes sure that the proposal is true, and he/she has the right to believe that it is so. According to Gettier, Ayer and Chisholm’s arguments are only true if the concept of ‘justified true belief’ is not introduced into their assertions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gettier’s main protest against ‘justified true belief’ is the fact that a person can use it to believe falsehoods. This argument is valid because believing in a proposition chiefly depends on the truthfulness of a conviction. Consequently, ‘believing’ a falsehood cannot be equated to ‘knowing’ it.
For example, someone can belief that person X is honest because he/she is justified to believe this to be true. The person’s conviction does not qualify to be termed as knowledge, because the person’s justified belief does not amount to ‘true knowledge’. When the same person finds out that X is dishonest, the premise of ‘justified true knowledge’ will subsequently be nullified.
Gettier uses parallel situations to access the premise of justified true belief. This method is quite effective because it enables Gettier to explore every possible outcome of a scenario that involves justified true belief. The author also offers a step-by-step analysis of what constitutes knowledge.
For example, the article contains two case-examples that pose hypothetical knowledge scenarios. In both scenarios, the author is able to prove that justifiable true belief does not provide substantial grounds for knowledge. Another argument that the author dwells upon although it is not given prominence involves changes in knowledge.
The article clearly proposes that propositions that are subject to future changes cannot be considered to be true. In retrospect, the author’s argument against justified true belief is another way of proving that true knowledge does not change.
Teaching Preventative Measures in Chronic Diseases Essay college essay help online
Teaching preventative measures and healthy lifestyle changes will be a key area in the management of global chronic diseases. Generally, disease prevention starts with the likelihood of a risk to health that emanates from a disease or an ecological peril with the aim of protecting people from potential health threats that may degenerate into chronic diseases.
Therefore, teaching preventative measures begins with the individuals who are not necessarily under the threat of chronic illness (Australian Health Minister’s Conference: National chronic disease strategy, 2013). The teaching itself must strive to create awareness on the public by imparting specific processes that are vital in developing and nurturing the lifestyles that can sustain and improve their health status.
To curb the emergent global trends of chronic diseases, the health care system may have to focus its attention on four key areas – promoting healthy lifestyle, reducing the cost of health care, enhancing patient satisfaction, and improving health outcomes.
Given that attention to preventive measures and changes in lifestyle can significantly cause all these functions, the future health care may have to increase on skills aimed at assisting the patients to capitalize on their health conditions to break the cycle of the chronic diseases (Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, n.d.).
In emergent systems, the chronic disease treatments may remain an important objective. However, healthy lifestyle changes may depend on investing in the communities by teaching preventative measures to help destroy the life cycle of chronic diseases (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC’s vision for public health surveillance in the 21st century, 2012).
In obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease, a proper nutrition can control blood glucose levels; the diet plan must balance the intake of oral diabetic medications and insulin. Similarly, regular exercise to control blood sugar levels is inevitable in such programs.
Therefore, disease control approaches will have to undergo a certain degree of entitlement to improve the quality of life by advocating for preventive measures and encouraging healthy lifestyle changes to lower morbidity while cutting down significantly on the overall cost of health care (Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, n.d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Future strategies that attempt to address the increasing incidence of chronic disease globally must include continued surveillance and identification of the determinants of illness. Immunization, for instance, could be a robust strategy that may amicably address the incidence of infectious diseases while early detection will help in decreasing morbidity and mortality.
According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC’s vision for public health surveillance in the 21st century (2012), surveillance and identification of the determinants of disease may make the good use of immunization and the application of prophylactic drugs at the right time before the chronic illnesses develop to unmanageable levels.
Continued surveillance may entail helping the patients to change their personal health lifestyles since certain lifestyles such as smoking, alcoholism and illicit drug use have the likelihood of leading patients to health risk factors such as cancer, heart attack, chronic obtrusive pulmonary diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, as well as sexually transmitted diseases (Australian Health Minister’s Conference: National chronic disease strategy, 2013).
Chronic diseases continue to be the leading causes of mortality in many communities; therefore, they require greater global support services. Curbing chronic ailments require a broad spectrum of services that have to be available in a range of settings such as hospitals, care homes, community and through public and non-governmental sectors.
Continued surveillance and identification of the determinants of disease may require evidence for chronic disease intervention policy, as well as a variety of responses capable of mitigating the growing trend of chronic diseases. Accordingly, many major chronic ailments are preventable under certain specified conditions, while delay to their onset can reduce their impacts.
While it remains a fact that some chronic diseases are not treatable on the context of current knowledge, proper surveillance may be useful in delaying their progression and mitigating various associated complications.
References Australian Health Minister’s Conference: National chronic disease strategy. (2013). Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Teaching Preventative Measures in Chronic Diseases specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Centre for Disease Control and Prevention: CDC’s vision for public health surveillance in the 21st century. (2012). Web.
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Web.
Organization Design: Optimizing Trade Offs Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online
Organizational design in the 21st century remains a delicate issue, not as it was in the pre-industrial revolution times. The dynamic nature of the market requires a design that balances an organization’s strategy and structure, the goals of the firm and that of employees, accountability and adaptability, as well as information coordination between the top management and the subordinates.
These factors have created tension in the management of organizations, resulting in under performance or even closure of entities. Failure by new enterprises to account for the future changes within the management system and the target market in their organizational designs has been a major setback for the organizations.
For instance, the chapter acknowledges the need by senior leaders in all organizations to understand the essence of incorporating all stakeholders in the decision-making process. This approach is vital as it instills in employees the spirit of collective responsibility of meeting the goals they participated in formulating (Jones 11).
As organizations expand their operations within and outside the system, issues of specialization arise. Robert Simons in his article, The Tensions of Organization Design, reiterates the need for an inclusive organizational design, which encompasses future changes in business operations. The entire process is a balancing act that managers must follow strictly, or else they risk being isolated in the current dynamic market.
Even though the process of designing organizations is not an easy undertaking, senior management must carry out the process given that it is more risky in doing nothing than trying to keep with the varying needs of the business. Simons’ article indicates that organizations that fail to adopt the new changes are merely planning to the growth crisis (Simons 3).
In my opinion, I concur with the findings of the research that businesses that fail to design their organizations in line with the existing strategy, competitive environment, and the firm’s life cycle are likely to face leadership crisis, autonomy crisis, crisis of control, and red tape crisis in their growth progress. In addition, I concur with the author’s prediction that such firms are always forced out of business, and replaced by their competitors that observe the changing needs of the business.
Evolutions at the workplaces, as well as in the market require flexible managers, that is, those who can easily inculcate the new changes in the management system. Currently, organizations are looking for customers, and designing products in line with their needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was not the case in the past. Decision making as well has to be decentralized. However, there should be appropriate stages that help in this, as well as reduce delays in making and implementing decisions. A case example of the collapse of Enron helps elaborate the accountability and adaptability level of organizational design.
The continued evaluation of employees based on their wok output, rather than using the stipulated operating procedures was a major factor for the company’s involvement in unethical practices. Employees were using all means to achieve the management’s objectives; they did not comply with the preset standards.
Successful organizations have to follow a design that recognizes the inputs of subordinates in decision-making, balances their success and employees’ self-interests, incorporates changes in the market, balances their structure and strategy, as well as incorporates the aspects of accountability and adaptability.
A rigid, inflexible organizational design is not sustainable in this century. Moreover, there is a need to strike a balance between the changing market and employee desires with the scope of an organization. In recognizing employees as strong partners in a business, organizations tend to increase commitment to achievement of the strategic goals and objectives (Simons 12).
Currently, apart from adopting a horizontal communication framework, successful organizations like IBM, Apple, and General Motors engage their employees in off-work training on achievement of the companies’ goals, as well as those of employees. This approach has enabled these corporations gain competitive advantage over their competitors.
Works Cited Jones, Gareth. Organizational Theory: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. Print.
Simons, Robert. “The Tensions of Organization Design.” Levers of Organization Design: How Managers Use Accountability Systems for Greater Performance and Commitment. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2005. Print.
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OCP Plan: Measure Report college essay help: college essay help
In order to achieve the success while sustaining the change in the organisation, it is necessary to develop the effective measurement strategy which addresses basic approaches and measures that need improvement.
While focusing on the measurement plan, leaders become able to analyse the current progress regarding the change promotion and address any issues and barriers in a timely manner with the help of the proposed reaction plan.
From this point, the main focus is on measuring effectiveness of the change integration, customer satisfaction levels, employee satisfaction levels, training effectiveness, and profitability. Key indicators and reaction triggers are determined to conclude what aspects of the plan need to be changed.
The key objectives in measuring effectiveness of the change integration are the focus on analysing how change integration meets the industry’s needs and stakeholders’ needs and how change integration can respond to the corporate purpose.
Customer satisfaction is one more important factor which should be measured in order to understand the customers, suppliers, and regulators’ readiness for change according to the developed plan and with the focus on the milestone completion.
The other important aspect is the factor of employee satisfaction which should be monitored in order to create the positive environment for cooperation and sustaining the organisational change.
The main purpose to measure the training effectiveness is the necessity to understand how training can contribute to promoting the change and what approaches should be used to improve the current strategy. The final important category to be examined with the help of the plan is the return on capital investment and profitability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to conclude about the role of change while focusing on shifts in sales rates, customer satisfaction levels, and warranty rates.
Key Indicator Description Owner Measurement Method
Business Partners, LLC Term Paper custom essay help
Introduction Strategic management comprises a critical component in an organization’s quest to achieve business excellence. Thus, it is imperative for organizational managers to consider the environment in their strategic management context.
According to Faulkner and Campbell, the strategic environment comprises diverse environments, viz. the firm, the competitive environment, business unit environment, and the industry environment (232). To exploit the business environment successfully, it is imperative for organizational managers to undertake a comprehensive environmental analysis.
Faulkner and Campbell further affirm that it is paramount for organizational managers to develop an economic perspective of the business strategy by adopting different mediums (237). One of the models that an organization can adopt is the Structure, Conduct Performance [SCP] model. Using the SCP model enables organizational managers to evaluate the technical and economic conditions, which constitute the industry structure.
Faulkner and Campbell further corroborate, “the industry structure is characterized by factors such as the numbers of buyers and sellers, the concentration of the industry, level of product differentiation, cost structures, and the degree of vertical integration and barriers to entry” (237).
The industry structure has a significant impact on a firm’s behavior such as its determination of the pricing, product, distribution and promotion strategies, research, and innovation amongst other factors that contribute to the overall industry performance. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) asserts, “Industry level analysis sheds further light onto issues that might have been ignored by other macro-level analysis models” (11).
The industry structure influences an organization’s performance. Furthermore, it provides organization’s managers with an insight into the process of formulating strategies. To attain long-term competitiveness, it is essential for organizations to focus on increasing entry barriers, overcoming competition, and attaining a high competitive advantage (Porter 79).
Business Partners, LLC is a credit union servicing organization that was established in 1995 under the name ‘Strategic Partner’. The firm operates in the US financial services industry under the tenure of 16 credit unions. However, the main principle owners include Public Service Credit Union [PSCU], Great Lakes Credit Union [GLCU], and Farmers Insurance Group Federal Credit Union [FIGFCU].
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The CUSO’s main offices are located at Chatsworth, California (Herter par.2). The firm’s operations mainly entail the provision of underwriting services, loan participation, loan origination, quality control, and servicing (Business Partners par. 1). The firm is focused on attaining long-term success in the US CUSO industry.
However, to achieve this goal, the firm must continuously evaluate the industry structure to formulate effective business strategies and policies. This paper presents an application of industry –level analysis to Business Partners CUSO using the Porter’s five forces.
Company Profile Since its inception, the firm has succeeded in enhancing its operational efficiency and profitability. The firm has gained remarkable market success over the years because of increased recognition on the contribution of credit unions to the country’s economic growth.
The firm’s partnership with credit unions has remarkably improved its ability to offer affordable and high quality business services. Through its operation, Business Partners has been able promote the establishment of an effective financial infrastructure for brokers and lenders, hence fostering the growth of a comprehensive loan portfolio (Business Partners par. 2).
Therefore, the firm has fostered the provision of credit financial services to its members who might not have the capacity to receive financial services from conventional financial institutions. Business Partners, LLC offers loan services to clients, who are mainly comprised of institutional customers.
Customers have to secure the loan using income property such as retail, industrial, and special purpose property. The firm mainly offers loans within the range of $750,000 and $15,000,000. It ranks amongst the largest CUSO members in the United States. Currently, BP serves over 150 credit unions in the US. The firm focuses on providing confidence to their clients with reference to lending needs (CU Insight par.3).
Over the years, the Business Partners CUSO has developed optimal competitive advantage in its service delivery process. Thus, the firm has improved its capacity in assisting its clients to enhance their income, diversify their loan portfolio, and to expand their asset base.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Business Partners, LLC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, the firm assists its consumers in gaining a high competitive advantage by providing them with optimal market expertise and intelligence in addition to offering client diverse lending support services (Business Partners par. 2).
In an effort to cope with the changing business environment, Business Partners CUSO is continuously implementing changes in its strategic management practices. The firm has adopted a customer-focused approach by collaborating with credit unions in order to gather market intelligence (Samaad par. 3).
This strategy has considerably improved the firm’s capacity to offer products that are aligned with the credit union’s portfolio needs. Furthermore, the firm recently appointed a new Chief Executive Officer, Pam Easley, who will be charged with the responsibility of optimizing the firm’s underwriting and lending capacity (Samaad par. 3).
Financial Services Industry The financial services industry in the US constitutes a fundamental component in the US because it fosters the establishment of health demand and supply sides within the industry. Furthermore, it also provides consumers and investors an opportunity to access diverse financial services such as credit finance.
Corporate credit unions are incessantly experiencing a challenging businesses environment that can adversely affect their overall financial position (1). For example, the industry was adversely affected by the recent global financial crisis.
However, the economic recovery that is being experienced in the US has remarkably influenced the growth of the financial services industry as evidenced by the growth in the level of year-on-year borrowing amongst the US households from 1.3% in 2013 to 1.6% in 2014 (Callahan
Cross Cultural Management and International Business Qualitative Research Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction The technological advances and achievements have brought people from different parts of the world and diverse cultural backgrounds very close. People having different cultural identities are communicating are working together (Lauring, 2011).
It is good to be close to one another and know about different cultures, however having cultural diversity at workplaces may also create havoc. There are certain things that are permissible in one culture and some are considered as cultural taboos.
Organizational management requires execution of various tasks such as establishing procedures and developing strategies. Besides this, the organizations need to motivate their workforce to accomplish selected tasks. A sound understanding of the cultural diversities is necessary for carrying out these tasks (Kawar, 2012).
Cross cultural management is a stream of management that emphasizes on the processes and policies involving the management of workers coming from diverse cultural backgrounds. It also facilitates the implementation of management tasks by regulating the impact of cultural differences (Søderberg
How Hospitals Integrate Career Programs Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Abstract Hospitalised patients depend on nurses for the provision of health care services. Hospitals, on the other hand, must recruit qualified nurses and ensure that the nurses continue to offer their services for prolonged periods.
The discovery of new diseases and advancements in health care provision means that nurses need to develop their careers by undergoing continuous training. The recruitment process, therefore, needs to incorporate career programs to ensure that newly recruited nurses can advance their careers to offer quality services to patients.
Introduction A hospital requires a dedicated team that works diligently. The ability of hospital staff to work harmoniously is mainly influenced by the personal characteristics of the members of staff. However, training also plays a significant role in the behaviour of hospital staff.
The hiring of nurses in hospitals is becoming more complex since the assessment of core competencies requires more time and close monitoring of an individual’s ability to work. Though academic qualifications are crucial in gauging one’s ability to work, they are not the absolute standards for defining an individual’s competency.
An organisation’s success is highly determined by the competency and dedication of its staff. Staff performance is a result of career development and core competencies of its members. The role of the human resource department in career development is crucial due to the importance of career development in the nursing field.
The human resource department needs to have opportunities to develop its staff. In addition, the department should receive support to enable it motivate the staff members to develop their careers. Novel diseases are regularly discovered as new disease management programs continue to be developed.
Therefore, new knowledge regarding the management of various medical conditions is continuously generated. The ability of a nurse to remain updated in the nursing field through training and research is thus mandatory. This paper discusses the various models and methods that a hospital can use in the hiring of nurses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The paper illustrates the integration of career programs into the hiring of nurses since the importance of intensive recruiting underscores the basis of developing careers. The paper also outlines the various models and approaches used in developing the careers of nurses in a medical organisation.
Career Development Models Career development entails the continued enrichment of one’s professional knowledge on a given job. There are various career development models proposed by different authors. These models assist in the evaluation and mapping of the career developments over time.
Career development is not a short-term activity, but a lifelong process that requires continuous action of an individual in deliberately creating time to learn and conduct research in the area of one’s specialization. Career development is essential and takes a different aspect during and after the hiring process.
The individuals under recruitment get chances to state their career plans during the hiring process, which forms the foundation of the individuals’ assessment on their career plans. Curson and Dell (2010) define career planning as a continuous process of developing the self, which is influenced by an individual and his working environment (2010).
The two approaches to career planning as stated by Curson and Dell (2010) emphasize the organisation’s needs and individual objectives. The authors explain that organisation-centred planning systems aim at developing human resources to suit an organisation’s needs and increase productivity.
Organisation-centred planning systems are organisation-based models of career development, which are applied to further the objectives of the organisation. According to Curson and Dell’s model of individual’s drive for career development, individuals develop their careers to increase their professional aptitudes (2010). Prior to joining any organisation, individuals have their aspirations and career plans that may also be important to their employers in the future.
The various individual plans as stated by Curson and Dell (2010) are mainly on individual career prospects and goals, which can be useful to the organisation. Various career development models are suggested. However, career development is mainly individual centred and organisation determined.
We will write a custom Term Paper on How Hospitals Integrate Career Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organisations that make it compulsory for individuals to advance their career have employees with great skills and knowledge as opposed to those organisations that do not make career development compulsory. Career planning on a personal level should start early enough to identify the key aspects of special training that an individual requires (Grumbach, 2012).
Individual career advancement and development is important as it helps in increasing the odds of securing an appealing job in one’s area of specialization. The process of hiring nurses needs to integrate a career advancement program because it is an industry requirement that needs to keep professionals with suitable capabilities.
The Hiring Process Hiring involves the process of identifying suitable candidates and assessing their capabilities to fill vacant positions in an organisation. Hiring has various importance to the organisation. For instance, it helps in the replacement of employees who quit their jobs for various reasons.
It also aids in meeting demands or filling up of new vacancies that come up due to expansion of the organisation. The hiring process is thus important in ensuring that an organisation is not understaffed. When hiring nurses, a number of factors need to be put into consideration.
These factors include government regulations concerning the training and certification of professionals from accredited institutions. Therefore, the hiring process is time-consuming and costly and can only be done successfully with meticulous planning.
Hiring Considerations of Hospitals
Hiring of nurses results from hospital requirements and considerations as determined by the management of the hospital. Those individuals who wish to join particular hospitals need to go through orientation programs prior to being appointed as nurses.
Graduate nurses require a transition period from college to practical work. The services offered by nurses form an integral part when rating the quality of services offered by the hospital. Therefore, improving the quality of services starts with recruiting nurses with quality training.
In addition, nurses are in direct contact with patients, who are the hospital’s clients. Consequently, it is crucial for the nurses to be highly motivated to perform their duties with the highest level of competency and professionalism (Girot
Human Behavior during Evacuations Research Paper scholarship essay help
Introduction Human beings will react differently whenever exposed to various disasters or fire outbreaks. Engineers and firefighters have conducted numerous studies in order to understand the issues associated with human behavior during evacuation.
Different evacuation models “are critical because they determine the time take to safeguard the lives of many civilians after a disaster” (Kuligowski, 2009, p. 3). Many scholars and theorists have analyzed the major issues associated with different human behaviors.
This situation explains why many engineers have not incorporated different human behaviors into their evacuation models. According to Simonovic (2011, p. 16), “every action performed by individuals in a dangerous situation results from a unique decision-making process”.
This decision-making process has encouraged many scholars to predict different human behaviors during evacuations. This essay analyzes the current literature on human behaviors during evacuations.
Theory of Human Behavior during Disasters
Occupants in different buildings or structures will react in a specific manner after encountering a disaster. Human beings perceive specific cues before performing certain actions. The next stage is interpreting the nature of the targeted risk or situation.
This interpretation usually depends on the cues perceived by every individual in the first stage. The individuals will “eventually make specific decisions in order to deal with the disaster” (Kuligowski, 2009, p. 3). This discussion explains why human beings follow a unique process whenever making their decisions.
However, some external and internal factors determine what individuals perceive or interpret whenever there is a disaster. According to Fahy and Proulx (2011, p. 718), “the phases of disaster response will vary significantly depending on the targeted individuals, the nature of structure, and the aspects of the situation”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the occupants in a building can perceive different cues depending on the targeted disaster. Individuals can see smoke, debris, or receive phone calls from their friends. The individuals in the targeted structure or building will gather different thoughts within the shortest time possible.
The second phase of the Disaster Response Model (DRM) occurs when the individuals interpret the perceived information (Kuligowski, 2009). The individuals might also decide to ignore the above signs. They “might also decide to ignore the threat if it is not serious” (Fahy
“Glass Ceiling” Concept Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Abstract Recognizing the implication of failure to manage organizational diversity, many organizations endeavor to provide equal job opportunities and career development through upward mobility practices that do not segregate employees based on their demographic and psychographic differences.
However, cases of glass ceiling are still common in corporations across the globe. The current research discusses the concept of glass ceiling. It identifies its potential relationship with the overall quality and productivity in the workplace.
Although the research findings are backed by qualitative data, they indicate that low overall quality and productivity in organizations that employ high number of minorities and women may be attributed to the glass ceiling effect.
Introduction Despite their well-designed policies for managing diversity, organizations continue to experience the glass ceiling effect. Buckalew, Konstantinopoulos, Russell, and El-Sherbini (2012) define glass ceiling as “the unseen, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper ranks of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements” (p.145).
Management literature contends that embracing the concept of effective management of organizational diversity, including ensuring equality and equity, may help to curtail the glass ceiling effect. However, it is not yet known why women and some minorities continue to have a low upward mobility in corporate ladder across the globe, despite the effective deployment of principles of equity and equality in organizations that employ people from diverse backgrounds (Wilson, 2014).
This paper focuses on this gap in literature on the glass ceiling effect. The rest of the paper is divided into three main sections. The first section presents the foundational framework, including a statement of research objectives and research framework or methodology.
The second section presents a literature review on glass ceiling effect in organizations by referring to the latest peer reviewed journal articles. Section three offers the implication of the research for managers. It also incorporates recommendations for organizations that are experiencing the glass ceiling effect.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research objectives Research objectives specify the purpose of conducting a research. The objective of the current research is to discuss how the glass ceiling may exist in a workplace. It also objects to discuss the significance of glass ceiling on the overall quality of an organization.
Research framework Research can be designed to deploy primary or secondary resources. The current research relies on secondary data to discuss the concept of glass ceiling in modern organizations. The search is conducted through online credible libraries.
Various scholars prescribe certain characteristics that a qualitative research must meet for its results and recommendations to arrive at effective resolution of the stated problem. For this reason, the methodology that is deployed in the current research needs to have some specific characteristics, which include credibility, reliability, use of rigorous methods and verification, validity and clarity, and coherence in reporting.
The current research needs to portray a high degree of internal and external validity for the recommendations and implications to hold substance in organizations. Internal validity implies the degree of truth of various claims that are raised in the research and the existing variables. On the other hand, external validity implies the degree to which the findings can be generalized.
The method that is utilized in a qualitative research needs to aid researchers to attain optimal levels of validity of their study for their work to add a significant knowledge to the body of knowledge they seek to amplify, which in this case is the status of the glass ceiling in organizations.
Since this research is designed to be a secondary research, validity encompasses a significant issue given that secondary materials are adopted from researches that were done in the past whose findings may be outdated. However, this challenge is dealt with by careful selection of the secondary materials for analysis.
The research only draws from researches that have been done in the past three years. To enhance reliability of the secondary materials in making recommendations and research implications, only peer reviewed articles are used in the research.
We will write a custom Report on “Glass Ceiling” Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature review Multinational organizations employ people from diverse backgrounds. This observation implies that organizational diversity is a key characteristic of such organizations. One of critical aspects to consider in addressing the challenges of diversity management entails resolution of the issues of glass ceiling (Wilson, 2014).
Organizational diversity refers to the myriads of differences that exist among people who work in an organization with regard to parameters such as sexual characteristics, race, societal principles, maturity, income levels, work experience, parental status, spiritual viewpoints, civilization, religion, and physical abilities among others (Wilson, 2014).
Given that failure to manage organizational workforce diversity may lead to a negative impairment of its performance in the short and long run, the challenge of workforce diversity management is a critical problem that every organization that seeks to go global needs to address proactively.
Cook and Glass (2014) define various elements that fuel the existence of glass ceiling inequality within a corporation. An organization needs to uphold racial and/or gender differences (Cook
Aramark Global Analysis Term Paper college essay help online
Aramark Global Analysis Aramark Corporation (hereunder Aramark) is an American-owned business, which has so far established its operations in 22 countries all over the world. In its website, Aramark indicates that it offers services in different sectors, which include business and industry, healthcare, sports, entertainment, higher education, and apparel (Aramark, 2014a).
Aramark is an international business because it produces and distributes goods and services, not only in its home country, but in other 21 countries spread across Europe, Asia and the American continents. Azevedo and Bertland (2000) describe an international organization as “a decentralized federation with distributed resources and delegated responsibilities that allows the foreign operations to answer to the local differences” (p. 3).
True to the foregoing definition, Aramark is a decentralized organization, which has assigned responsibilities to different offices across the 22 countries. Additionally, the company has provided the overseas offices the mandate and resources necessary to cater for local differences.
Aramark Ireland has, for example, set cultural theme days as one of the ways of marketing itself in the country. Additionally, Aramark Ireland translates its staff training manuals into languages that the staff members can comprehend. Moreover, the company changes its restaurant menus to reflect diets that serve the medical, therapeutic and religious diets of the consumer market in Ireland (Aramark, 2009).
Theories and Concepts of Globalization, Multinational Strategy and International Business
Bartelson (2000) has conceptualized globalization as transference, transformation and transcendence. In reference to transference, Bartelson (2000) indicates that globalization has led to a situation where, national, regional, cultural and other forms of boundaries do not prevent the transfer of goods and services from a unit to diverse countries, regions or cultures.
The foregoing is true in Aramark’s case because the company operates in diverse nations, regions and cultures. The transformation concept according to Bartelson (2000) indicates that globalization transforms the systems and units of doing business as they were traditionally understood. Consequently, traditional systems and units that were limited by geography and space can now be replaced by market-oriented structures where competition is crucial.
When applied to Aramark, the foregoing concept could be interpreted to mean that rather than worry about competitors in its home country, Aramark should be concerned about competitors in the global front, because, such competitors symbolize a competitive risk. In relation to transcendence, Bartelson (2000) argues that globalization defies the limitations of “pre-constituted units or agents” (p. 189).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transcendence is arguably a hard concept to grasp, but as Bartelson (2000) explains, it means that the boundaries and limitations that existed in the past have now been wiped away. Instead, the globalised world has networks that are not temporal or spatial. Used in context, the foregoing may be reflected in the real time communication that occurs in between Aramark’s headquarters in the US and its other offices across the world.
Firms that have a multinational strategy have other markets in addition to their domestic market (Lynch, 2011). In Aramark’s case, the other markets are the 21 countries, which it offers its products and services to, in addition to its home country, the US.
A multinational strategy has a distinct strategy for all the different markets targeted by the company (Lynch, 2011). The foregoing situation is informed by the fact that customer needs, preferences and demands differ between countries. In Aramark, the multinational strategy is reflected in how services are customized to each country’s consumer market and the prevailing market conditions.
International Business Theory
Porter’s diamond theory seems more applicable in Aramark’s case compared to other theories. The theory posits that the competitiveness of a nation (or in this case an international company), is affected by four things namely:
factor conditions (i.e. the factors that a company can exploit – e.g. labor – in order to gain competitive advantage of its rivals), demand condition (i.e. the demands by the consumer market, e.g. for excellence);
supporting industries (i.e. the cost effectiveness of suppliers);
and the structure, strategy and rivalry of a firm (Mahmud, n.d.).
Arguably, and although this is a hard thing to determine from the publicly available information regarding Aramark, the company is favored by all the four demand factors in Porter’s diamond model.
The foregoing assertion may not be true in all the 21 countries, but in countries like china, the company’s competitive advantages is attained from a combination of factors which include: its ability to utilize the cheap labor, the high demand for its services, the support industries in the country, and its structure, strategy and an almost absent market rivalry (United States Securities and Exchange Commission, 2012).
When, How and Why Aramark Entered Into Foreign Countries
Aramark first took the international path in 1968, when it served in the Olympic Games held in Mexico (Aramark, 2014b). By then, the company was known as Automatic Retailers of America (ARA) (Aramark, 2014b). Aramark’s partnership with the Olympic Games organizers propelled it to international operations (Aramark, 2014b).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Aramark Global Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ‘why’ of entering into foreign countries is best explained by the fact that the company saw an expanded market in those countries, and the fact that it had developed internal capacities to move into the foreign market. In 2001, for example, the company entered Ireland and Chile after expanding its service offers to include food services, healthcare, uniform services and conference center services.
Arguably, the reasons why Aramark ventured into foreign markets came true; its wide market base is a confirmation that the opportunity that the company had seen in the foreign market, did indeed exist.
The Potential, But Unrealized, Advantages of Internationalization to Aramark
The world today has 196 countries. Aramark has only established its operations in 22 countries. The foregoing statistics means that there are still more countries that Aramark can find a ready market.
Africa is, for example, one continent that Aramark needs to consider. With 55 countries in total and a population of approximately 1.033 billion people, the continent is no doubt a ready market for different consumer items and services.
Global Integration and Local Embedding
Aramark integrates its activities by ensuring that the same standards of quality are used everywhere (Aramark, 2009). Additionally, the company has benchmarks on issues such as diversity, which all its overseas operations have to abide with.
To embed such activities locally, Aramark has given its foreign operations the mandate to change whatever needs to be changed in order to meet customer requirements and expectations. However, and as has been revealed by Aramark (2009) any market-appropriate change that is made in the company has to keep within identified performance and quality standards.
Competitive Factors Driving Aramark’s Global Business Development
Aramark targets institutional buyers, who incidentally have weak bargaining powers. The foregoing position can be explained by the reality that Aramark does not have many competitors who can provide similar services, at the same quality, and the same efficiency (Aramark, 2009).
Additionally, institutional buyers buy frequently, in large quantities and would, therefore, face high switching costs. However, Aramark’s suppliers have stronger bargaining power because they deliver the supplies to Aramark in large quantities, and the company would not be in a position to find other suppliers at a short notice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Aramark Global Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aramark is arguably faced with the threat of new market entrants. However, since the company has a diverse business portfolio, the threat of new market entrants is more pronounced in some business lines (e.g. in janitorial services) than it is in others (e.g. in energy management services).
Another competitive factor which Aramark has to contend with is rivalry in the industry. Luckily for Aramark, its brand works to market its services hence ensuring that although competition is stiff in some of its business lines, its reliability usually attracts a significant market share over less-know service providers (Aramark, 2009).
Brand Strategies to Enhance Internationalization
Aramark went into foreign markets by exporting its own brand name. The company has performed impressively so far and as such, one would argue that its branding strategy was successful.
In future, however, the company might consider strategic partnerships with established non-competing firms in new investment destinations. Such partnership would assure the company of a ‘soft landing’ in countries where business cultures are completely different from the US.
New Areas for Global/International Expansion
As indicated elsewhere in this paper, Africa’s population and its growth rate provides Aramark with a viable potential market. The company may also look into other developed countries in Asia (e.g. Singapore).
References Aramark. (2009). Global diversity and inclusion: Our journey. Web.
Aramark. (2014). Services and industries. Web.
Aramark. (2014). History. Web.
Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories Case Study college admission essay help
Introduction Marketing is a broad area that passes out both as an art and science of communicating the value of goods and the efficacy of services to customers for the exclusive purpose of selling such products and rendering the services (Durkovic 2009, p. 59). Seen from an organisational level, Durkovic (2009, p. 61) opines that marketing offers a set of processes that are instrumental in creating opportunities for delivering and communicating product and services.
The aim however, is to create value to prospective customers while augmenting customer relationship management that benefit an organisation in turn. The topics under the study explore collaborative learning with group interactive marketing environment.
The paper makes it clear that marketing is not just the acquisition of new customer base, and that it is a process takes into consideration the responsibility of underscoring the efficacy of specific change aspects that are typical of business growth. Intensive marketing validates a rich way of using the available resources to meet the needs of businesses, and these are in the form of concepts and processes of marketing, marketing segmentation, targeting, and positioning.
Moreover, the paper deals with the efficacies of learning outcomes such as elements of extended marketing mix as well as the social dimensions achieved through the learning process. Precisely, in essence this article aims at inspiring human resource capacity to utilise the resource available like knowledge to convert further abilities and services into tangible marketing skills.
The basis of this article aims at designing the systems that shape human learning such as arranging the facilities, coming up with procedures that align the marketing processes with an inventory acquisition framework, and scheduling the learning outcomes and tasks, while providing a safe passage that ensures changes occur within a business organisation in a smooth effective, and rapid way.
Findings and discussions The concept and process of marketing
Business is an arena of adjustments, the value of which is to keep with the market trends within which organisations operate. The world over, marketing professionals constantly adjust their business strategy and tact to wage their competitive advantage and reach out to the ever changing customer demands (Lamarre, Galarneau and Boeck 2012, p. 36).
Therefore, Tip-Top Accessories marketing professionals must adjust their business strategy and tact to reach out to the ever-changing customer demands. With the contemporary competitive markets Lamarre et al. (2012, p. 45) opines that mobility in the concept of marketing is rapidly becoming an option in business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At their behest, contemporary markets continue to evolve as apparatus for allocating resources and a hub investing in communities. Well-organised competitive markets have the capacity to maximise consumer welfare to raise economic growth and cumulatively increase the total welfare of the regions under which they operate (Lamarre et al. 2012, p. 56).
With development in marketing trends, firms have the capacity to thrive and provide what the consumers want and in the process, they aim at delivering the best to outdo their competitors. The new marketing trends offer great opportunities for effective competition, which in turn inspires effective competition with the likelihood of bringing significant benefits to consumers.
With effective competition, Hill (2012, p. 56) is optimistic that there is an increase in consumer satisfaction by ensuring that that businesses offers variety, greater choices, affordable prices as well as better quality of goods and services.
Effective competition guarantees strong incentives for businesses to be more efficient and innovative in their operations thus helping them to raise economic growth across the board (Hill 2012, 69). Within this business ambience, markets have always sought to deliver the utmost outcomes to their respective customers, to companies and even the governments under which they operate.
Various elements of marketing process
Innovative business mind-sets that the exiting business opportunities seek enable businesses to reach out to their customers successfully through a new concept of communication channel (Boone 2012, 65).
Today, social media marketing trends shape the scope of business and define their limits by delivering great opportunities for business growth (Lamarre et al. 2012, 67). The modern day marketing is highly interactive, and whereas businesses goes digital in the marketing concept, they have the capacity to reach out to an expansive consumer niche (Boone 2012, p. 58).
Social media marketing, for example, consists of web browser advantages with mobile device interfacing that makes it possible to offer continuous access to business products and services to the prospective customers regardless of place and time (Lamarre et al. 2012, p. 71). These developments in the concept of contemporary marketing brings forth effective competitiveness to that makes businesses to suffice as robust and dynamic with the capacity to shape and grow the economy in stature.
We will write a custom Case Study on Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Generally, the developmental paradigms of marketing are expansive with abilities to develop consumer by making value, service, and quality of products and services to be a priority in the making. Coupled with several endowments that technology brings into the business, the modern day marketing continues to be highly interactive with the capacity to reach out to an expansive consumer niche.
Benefits of costs of marketing orientation
Costs and marketing strategies are elements geared towards a competitive advantage, which in essence helps businesses gain over their competitors by guaranteeing customers’ enhanced value either by lowering prices or by extending additional benefits that cumulatively brings back the cash price.
For businesses involved in a niche type marketing scenario, building and sustaining a robust competitive advantage reflects an increased profit margin that leads to business growth and sustainability. Businesses, according to Fraser (2012, p. 44), have to devise ways to design competitive advantage nonetheless.
This is so because competitiveness is the route to survival in a crowded market. Competitive advantage does not grow out of a business’ natural endowments, its interest rates, its labour pool, or its public image as a classical economic unit, businesses device ways to create them.
A business’ competitiveness rests on the capacity of its management and the workforce to innovate and upgrade for business growth and economic sustainability (Srivastava, Franklin and Martinette 2013, p. 48). Tip-Top Accessories can only gain competitive advantage against some of the renowned economic heavyweights if it maximises on the challenges and pressures prevailing in the market.
Focused businesses benefit instead of waning from having robust domestic rivals, they strategize more from having demanding local customers, and aggressive local suppliers. In an economy of an increasingly global competiveness, Tip-Top Accessories have to become more prudent in laying the foundation of their market strategy to excel in the market and outdo competitors (Fraser 2012, p. 56).
Given the proclivity of the business environment to lean towards the conception of assimilation of knowledge, market strategists have to expand their scope to meet the growing demands in the market to keep the business at par with the economic trends (Pitts and Lei 2000, p. 75). For greater outcome, building and sustaining a robust competitive advantage is by endearing a business to some of the least valued localised processes that other businesses might overlook.
The differences in the values of the businesses, their cultures, economic strengths, and management structures all contribute to the competitiveness of a business (Business Essentials: Marketing Principles 2010, p. 72). Striking differences exist in the patterns of competitiveness in every business, as such no one particular business will be competitive over the other in all situations. Ultimately, businesses succeed in a particular way because their domestic environments are innovative, dynamic, and for that matter challenging, thus pushing them further to strategize accordingly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concepts of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
For Tip-Top Accessories to be effective and efficient in its operations, the company’s management must step up the target customer market scope across the UK and beyond. To achieve this stature, the business need to its market segmentation, target market, and positioning to explore the full score of its market operations.
This, according to Brown (2005, p. 56), grouping a business’ various customers and placing them under segmentation schemes with various schemes that show common needs that require similar marketing action. In this framework, demographics may be instrumental for a business to focuses on consumer characteristics and in deed, elements of demography such as age, gender, education, job, income, and cultural background can all assist a business in determining its strength in the market.
This applies to Tip Top in its bid to meet the needs of different customers. Moreover, elements of business such as psychographics are equally useful in determining the strength of a business in the market; this is so because the lifestyle of a customer base can produce the desired outcome if businesses chose to capitalise on it as a strength element.
For instance, buyer behaviour and consumerism could be strategic business strength especially when the management opts to consider the modern trends that drive consumerism such as online shopping, brand preferences, service delivery based on prior purchases (Brown 2005, p. 51).
Finally, geographical setting is equally a strong business attribute and Tip-Top Accessories may thrive on the scope of its operation based on the continent, region, country, state, or city, hence it is instrumental for the company to consolidate its strengths and exploit its opportunities.
Upon segmenting the market, a business has to go a scale higher and choose its targets. Business ethics holds that no one particular strategy usually suits all customer groups. Hence, being able to come up with specific strategies pertinent to the business is very crucial (Brown 2005, p. 56). Different approaches are available for Tip-Top Accessories to choose from in their targeting venture.
Some of the stratagems are discussed below:
Undifferentiated targeting: Here a business observes its market, as a single group with no distinguishable sections, hence using a particular market tactic becomes an option. This marketing plan normally suffice as a better option for enterprises with little or no competition, hence there may be limited need to cushion the stratagems to answer the varied favourites prevailing in the target markets.
Concentrated targeting: This strategy pays attention mainly on choosing a specific market place where promotion exertions have the utmost focus. A business has to focus on a single segment as part of its targeting approach so that it can concentrate on the groundwork to understand the needs of a particular market intensely. Tip Top Accessories may gain this type of strategy since laying great emphasis on a single segment may be useful in enabling it to compete successfully against its competitors.
Multi-segment targeting: This style normally proves very instrumental where a business has to concentrate on more than one well-known market fragments in order to develop different strategies for the segments. This approach, therefore, provides several benefits, though this can be expensive given that it includes and demands the greater participation from the management. Moreover, it demands an increased market research as well as greater promotional strategies to make it successful.
Overall, before settling on a given targeting plan, Tip Top has to conduct a cost benefit analysis that traverses all the available strategies necessary in determining the best approach that will best serve it.
Positioning consists of developing products and services as brand image in the memory of the consumers (Norus 2006, p. 687). This may as well involve refining the view of consumers about the knowledge available in a particular product.
In doing so, the business can be able to positively influence its customer base perceptions through strategic promotional drive and by categorically defining the marketing mix of the business (Brown 2005, p. 66). It is equally important to note that effective positioning entails a good grasp of the competing factors in a market and the benefits that that target market carries for a business.
Therefore, Tip-Top Accessories must be able to ascertain a differential advantage under which it can optimally deliver the benefits pertinent to the market and eventually outshine its competitors. Finally, the business must aim to define itself in the lenses of the consumers while considering what their competitors puts into the market while considering what their competitors puts into the bargain.
Extended Marketing Mix
In the corporate world, many tools are available for use in accomplishing specific business tasks to ensure businesses deliver on their commitments to the markets. This type of delivery necessitates the application of known marketing tools considered to have the ability to deliver businesses to efficacy and prosperity (Johnson 2014).
The marketing mix is therefore a combination of several factors with expansive range of choices that makes it possible for businesses to market their products and services otherwise known in the language of the extended marketing mix as 7ps.
As part of the business’ need to grow in stature, product development needs. Whether the business opt to trade in products or services, the business must take into account the fact that consumer needs are paramount and always seek to meet customer demands and expectations.
This entails the fact that products may have to under some developments such as changing the names or packaging in order to keep with the trends in the market. In this mix, Tip-Top Accessories can apply product differentiation strategy just like Apple, BMW, and Mercedes Benz Companies. This approach will enable consumers differentiate its products from those of the competitors.
Pricing is a very important business strategy that must be taken good care of when strategizing for markets. Profit margin together with the competing factors in a business may dictate the price of a given product or service but the rule has to be able to deliver the best that accommodate the consumers (Johnson 2014).
The prices of umbrellas and hats at Tip-Top Accessories should be lower than the competitors’ prices. Moreover, some elements under consideration within this mix are the associated issues that dictate the pricing formula such as leasing, financing, as well as other dictates of pricing in a business. Pricing as a strategy will further dictate other emergent factors such as the stores that keep the products for sale to various consumers.
Promoting a business on the merits of its product strengths could be instrumental in taking the business to greater heights. It is, therefore, necessary for Tip-Top Accessories to put in place a strong public relations department to help in the promotional activities in order to enable consumers know the hats, umbrellas, and scarves that it sells.
Promotional activities can bring greater an in-depth understanding of a business’ relative competitive positioning within a given market. As Norus (2006, p. 693) observes it adequately provide analysis of a business’ analysts with a clear framework with flawless framework to assess the impacts of the external condition on a business’ capacity to sustain the much sought after competitive advantage.
A business has to know its area of operation and acquaint itself with the emergent needs of the customer base under which it operates. As such, transactional, logistical, and functional issues have to be taken into consideration (Norus 2006, p. 694). Decisions made to this end may include the needs to supply the stores with various products that meet diverse customer demands.
People constitute the first P of the extended marketing mix and these include various individuals ranging from those working for the businesses as well as those that constitute the business’ customer base. Tip-Top Accessories has to ensure that it has the capacity to recruit and retain profitable individuals that would guarantee great customer experience in the UK market, as well as globally.
Product presentation is very important to the growth of a business. Tip-Top Accessories must ensure that their products have the physical presence in the areas they explore to develop a robust existence in the market to put itself strategically for a competitive advantage.
Process as the final P has a lot to do with customer service and the business’ ability to deliver services, offer products, handle complaints, and forestall any business actualities. The process aims to garner greater customer experience by building customer confidence in the business’ ability to handle and mitigate business concerns.
Supplier power, according to Adcock, Halborg, and Ross (2001, p. 35), relates to how the business suppliers may sometime find it easy to hike prices in the process of business. This normally occurs due the number of the suppliers in the business and their reliability to do so.
Moreover, the uniqueness of the suppliers’ commodity as well as the services they render may define the operation of the business. In addition, the control the suppliers may have over the business customers’ may also shape the scale of a business operation.
Buyer power, according to Adcock et al. (2001, p. 37), relates to the buyers may find it easy to pool down the business’s prices. The number of buyers in the market can easily make this necessary by constantly switching from one product or service rendered by one business to another.
This scenario may prove particularly challenging for the business and for a business to ensure it retains its rich customer base it may have to strategize on customer retention plan to maintain its competitiveness.
Conclusion/summary From the foregoing analysis, we can deduce that competitive advantage does not come into the business by itself to give a business an advantage over others. Just like in the operations of Tip-Top Accessories, a business’ competitiveness rests on the capacity of its management and the workforce to work within these modes to innovate and upgrade their strategies for business growth within the markets they operate.
Moreover, businesses gain competitive advantage against their rivals because of the ability to maximise on the challenges and pressures prevailing in the market. Focused businesses benefit from these modes of competitive advantage instead of waning from having robust domestic rivals.
Smart businesses strategize more from having demanding local customers, and aggressive local suppliers to know the trends in the market to help them stem their competitive advantage. In an economy within an increasingly global competiveness, businesses have to become more prudent in laying the foundation of their market strategy to excel in the market and outdo their competitors.
Recommendations Tip-Top Accessories have to devise ways and popular means of devising competitive advantage to ensure a business stands a better chance in the marketplace. The major theoretical approaches discussed are available businesses for organisations to build a sustaining of competitive strategy.
For the company to build and sustain a viable competitive advantage, it needs to focus constantly on identifying the diverse product and services to help in strategizing, reshaping the business core competencies, seeking out innovative technologies while consolidating greater intellectual property rights to make the business more distinct and appealing in the market.
Finally, identifying what is central to business competitiveness is the hallmark to building a sustainable competitive advantage for all businesses.
References Adcock, D., Halborg, A., and Ross, C 2001, Marketing: Principles and practice (4th ed.), Financial Times/Prentice Hall, Harlow.
Business Essentials: Marketing Principles 2010, BPP Learning Media, Manchester.
Boone, L 2012, Contemporary marketing, Cengage Learning Custom, London.
Brown, I 2005, Marketing your service business, Thorogood Publishing Ltd, London.
Durkovic, J 2009, “Development of human resources as strategic factors of the companies’ competitive advantage”, Economics and Organisation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–67.
Fraser, C 2012, Business statistics for competitive advantage with Excel 2010 basics, model building, and cases (2nd ed.), Springer, New York.
Hill, C. W 2012, International business: competing in the global marketplace (10th ed.), McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.
Johnson, M 2014, Extended Marketing Mix: The 7 Ps of Marketing, https://blog.udemy.com/extended-marketing-mix/
Lamarre, A., Galarneau, S., and Boeck, H 2012, “Mobile marketing and consumer behaviours current research trend”, Int. J. Latest Trends Computing, vol. 3, no. 201, pp. 1-9.
Norus, J 2006, “Building sustainable competitive advantage from knowledge in the region: The industrial enzymes industry”, European Planning Studies, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 681-696.
Pitts, R. A., and Lei, D 2000, Strategic management: building and sustaining competitive advantage (2nd ed.), South-Western College Pub. Cincinnati, Ohio.
Srivastava, M., Franklin, A., and Martinette, L 2013, “Building a sustainable competitive advantage”, Journal of Technology Management and Information, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 47-60.
‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction One of the most important, but often forgotten communities in the world histories is the Indian community, which has a remarkable history of evolution (Crinson 55). In the 1800s, the Indian community was still traversing the world and one of its destinations was Britain, even as the British people crossed to the Asian zones as well.
The British Raj is a historical moment between 1858 and 1947, when the British colonized part of the Indian subcontinent and established their British rule (Deb 32). During this moment, people had discovered the essence of writing stories about the life of the people.
One of the renowned journalists and poets of the era of the British Raj is Joseph Rudyard Kipling, who lived and travelled widely across India, South Africa, England, and the United States. The intent of this essay is to examine “The Jungle Book” of Joseph Rudyard Kipling and the prehistoric lifestyle or culture of the Indians during the ancient times.
The Indians during the Old era
Culture is a multifaceted concept in the history of the people because culture means the people’s way of life or the manner in which people live (Crinson 16). In the simplest perspective, culture generally describes the intellectual and the spiritual way of living, where the sense of living philosophies, religion, economic activities, literature, music, leadership, art, and legal systems are the major facets that guide the human life (Crinson 27).
The ancient Indians had their unique lifestyle or their standard of living that guided the manner in which they behaved, interacted with people, and interacted with the environment. Culture being a mainstay of history, was the major interest of Kipling in his Jungle Book.
Kipling used animal characters and described the lifestyle of the Indians as a form of life where lawlessness, social rejection, lack of appropriate leadership, poor agricultural practices, primitive customs and beliefs, and archaic cultures were common lifestyle issues (42).
Kipling showed interest in the lives of the Indian people and the way these people practiced their culture during the period of 1882 and 1889. In The Jungle Book, Kipling discusses numerous cultural aspects of the Indian people of the primitive days.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indians have continuously maintained most of their cultural values, and often practiced their religious dogma just as it was in their prehistoric days (Crinson 35). In his book, Kipling discusses the manner in which the Indians struggled to civilize into a modern society through the western civilization principles.
The Jungle Book presents animal stories that remarkably highlight the Indian culture and their major traditional beliefs. In this book, Kipling relates the animal’s life of individualism, collectivism, and lawlessness, with the real issues that affected the Indians while under the British rule (Kipling 3).
The book generally portrayed the naïve India, where lawlessness, racial discrimination, cultural civilization, and social concerns were major problems between the ancient Indians.
Lawlessness and the people
The Indian people during the 1880s were still naïve about lawmaking and they never realized the importance of having laws that could guide the actions of the people (Deb 30). Under the British governance, the Indians were unaware about their individual rights or any form of a regulation that would protect them from exploitation.
The book constantly mentions about the laws of the jungle, which are none existence laws just like in the animal kingdom, where wild creatures have no laws to guide them. “Thou hast been with the Monkey People—the gray apes—the people without a law—the eaters of everything” (Kipling 42).The Indians were living in lawless communities and much respect and attention went to their nuclear family structures, where no leadership existed.
The uncivilized and primitive India had people who never understood the importance of having laws to guide the human actions (Crinson 23). Lawlessness made the people aggressive, retrogressive, corrupt, careless, and inhumane.
Kipling uncovered the manner in which the lawless and the uncivilized Indian people behaved like the animals in the jungle. Through the literary art of personification, Kipling describes the prehistoric Indians as complicated people, who had different characters, but very submissive to their cultural norms (Kipling 12).
We will write a custom Term Paper on ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kipling uses the metaphor of monkeys and describes their behaviour, which deemed similar to that of the Indians who were lawless during the ancient period. The author focuses on identifying the funny and uncivilized behaviours of some animals such as the unmannered wolves and the mischievous monkeys, which often engaged in serious fights against each other without an appropriate reason (Kipling 45).
Jungle is a metaphoric word that represents the prehistoric Indian, who cared less about making of the formal laws or a constitution that would guide its citizens. According to Kennedy (86), the Englishmen seemed more organized and thus powerful in ruling the Indians during the British colonial rule.
The unfriendly nature of the prehistoric Indians
Indians were generally primitive people who never wanted to interact with foreigners. Kipling uses a personification approach and names Mowgli, as a young man-cub that visits the jungle where hatred, unfriendliness, and fear and social alienation are frequent problems (Kipling 20).
During the era of the prehistoric India, uninformed foreigners who visited India, found it difficult to acculturate and survive in the region. The young man-cub struggles to adjust living with the animals in the jungle and living with the human beings in the villages (Kipling 38).
Kipling wanted to demonstrate the problem of social rejection in the prehistoric India. Mowgli lives in the lawless jungle with the wolves that finally reject him because of his likeness with the humans, but later faces a similar rejection within the human villages, because of his resemblance with the wolves (Kipling 28). A clear picture that paints around this quandary is that India was full of racial divide that brought about disunity.
Foreigners and the socially underrepresented people in the primordial India never enjoyed any social freedom because the nation was lawless and without any formal arrangement (Evans 77). Mowgli represents the plight of the foreigners.
Kipling describes Mowgli as a young boy in the name of a man-cub, who acculturates to the jungle environment in a very harsh and unfriendly manner. The primordial Indian people were aware that India was a place that only favoured its natives despite the hostile political environment that their leaders instigated (Evans 61).
The Englishmen were foreigners in the Indian land, but seemed more organized and civilized in the manner in which they practiced their foreign culture and norms. For the foreigners who admired to visit the primordial India, getting food from the natives, a decent home for sheltering, or a welcoming society, was a difficult endeavour (Evans 23).
Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With lawlessness and dilapidated dwellings, the prehistoric Indians never realized the importance of social harmony or social acceptance. After arriving in the new city from the jungle, Mowgli meets with the monkeys, who occupied the roofless palace and the deserted houses that existed around the ancient India (Kipling 60).
In this monkey residence, the monkeys disagree on so many irrelevant things, and Mowgli being a foreigner, remains worried and confused about the state of life in Bandar-log. The Bandar-log is the deserted place with no proper shelter, no proper housing equipment, or any protection against natural hazards (Kipling 61).
The monkeys at the Bandar-log represent the primitive Indian people who survived without caring about others, about their shelter, the plight of the foreigners, and even about their own future. Mowgli notices that in the Bandar-log, the monkeys “have no law, no hunting call, and have no leaders” (Kipling 62).
Mowgli in this case acts as a foreigner in India and portrays a more civilized being that leads the monkeys in improving towards being a civilized society.
The unstable Indian leadership in the Old India
A key issue that characterized the prehistoric Indians, according to the perceptions of Kipling, was the absence of a formal leadership in the lifestyle of the Indians (Kipling 62). The ancient Indians lacked a formal leadership and their kingship systems were either non-functional or unstable.
Mowgli discovers the deserted old Indian city, where the human beings vacated the palace, and only the disorganized monkeys occupied the roofless palaces and the roofless houses (Kipling 60). Although the monkeys admired the human wisdom and often associated the human beings with a high level of intelligence, they wondered why the Indian people lacked a stable leadership that would help the people.
The people lacked the leadership wisdom that was necessary to bring the Indians together and such lapses resulted to lawlessness, disorganized empires, and powerless castles (Kennedy 95). The British colonizers would often use the leadership weaknesses to establish their values of westernization and oppress the weak Indians.
The people of India lived under heavily divided regimes and their concentration to their family issues made them uninterested in the national leadership (Evans 132). Kipling mentions the real monkey, and the monkey-people, because the Indians were truly like the monkey-people, who lacked the command to establish a proper leadership that would guide the Indian state.
Mowgli said that, “They are without leaders and they have no remembrance, they often boast around, chatter, and pretend that they are a great people about to do great affairs in the jungle, but often fail” (Kipling 43). Although Kipling was referring to the lawless monkeys in the jungle, this metaphoric expression associated the Indians with poor governance.
The people were inattentive to the leadership because they concentrated on matters that were insignificant to the Indian nation. According to Kipling (65), simple issues would often destabilize the harmony of the Indians and they would turn against each other for no proper reasons.
The best way to describe the ancient occupants of India is the term anthropomorphic dwellers (Kennedy 81). The Indians were like these traditional survivors who never minded about the essence of having a stable leadership that would help the communities to transform smoothly.
The people of India never cared about the leadership of the nation because the nation seemed divided into racial groups and socioeconomic classes (Crinson 53). Lack of leadership and regulations that would govern the people made the Indian live in a mixture of individualism and collectivism, with the behaviours of some animals in the jungle portraying these two factors.
With no leaders, the monkeys lived a life of communism, but tended to disagree more often due to their behaviours associated with individualism (Kipling 46). Mowgli notices that some animals such as wolves a full of resentment and greed that makes them fight for power without any proper arrangement. Most Indians wanted power for their own selfish desires.
The ancient culture of wild hunting in India
A common Indian traditional culture that presents itself in the story of the jungle book is the culture of wild hunting that has its roots from the ancient India. The Indian people had a primitive hunting culture that made the jungle animals despise them and hate their presence around the jungle (Crinson 31).
The animals either would hide to avoid contact with the jungle people, or ran far away from the human population to avoid capture (Kipling 51). Apart from the ruthless competition for survival in the jungle, the animals feared the human population that preyed and hunted them without compassion.
A salient communal feature in the prehistoric India is that each subgroup of the Indian communities had a hereditary right to claim ownership of the land, including the forests where each community had its own fair-share of the hunting (Evans 15). Mowgli and the other wild animals remained spiteful of the hunting behaviours of the Indian people.
Just as the Indian pastoralists considered the grassland to be a free grazing zone for all the legitimate communities, the people who lived near the forests considered the woods to be their own (Kipling 186). There were no rules to safeguard the animal sanctuaries, the forests, or the bare land, because the young Indian nation was lawless and anarchic.
The traditional Indian hunters would hunt to catch the monkeys, would find the edible roots, and would search the wild fruits and dig out the tubers for food (Crinson 19). The Indian men would scare the wild animals in the jungle because they were in a dire need of wild meat, which was traditionally a needed delicacy among the Indians.
Mowgli exclaims, “Then they would howl and shriek senseless songs, and invite the Jungle-People to climb up their trees and fight them” (Kipling 45). The statement of Mowgli despised the chattering behaviour of the monkeys that predisposed them to the hunters.
In the jungle, Mowgli would see the Indian men carrying their hunting knives that were useful for skinning the hunted animals to produce flesh (Kipling 219). The wolf pack that accommodated Mowgli would remain silent in their hideouts or run away from the humans because they could not afford to come near the daring hunters who wandered within the jungle (Kipling 63).
Men were the food gatherers and hunting activity gave them an opportunity to provide their families with wild food. Kipling brings out the notion that just as the animals hunt for food, the hairy Indian men with shiny sharp knives would visit the jungle frequently in search of the wild meat (219).
Apart from hunting, there was human-wildlife conflict within the jungle. The animals clearly stipulated the Law of the Jungle that forbade the killing or attacking of a man. Animals feared that any killing of a man would result in attacks from the human beings.
The Indian religious doctrine during the prehistoric era
One cultural aspect that emanates from the stories in the Jungle Book is the issue of religion that seems to appear and reappear in the conversations of the characters. The prehistoric Indians were religious people who believed in various indigenous faiths and foreign religions that had already permeated into their country (Kennedy 13).
The scene where Mowgli meets the clergy at the village gate makes the readers understand the origin of the Hindu religion and its basic principles. After missing the promised food that monkeys were to offer, Mowgli strolled down the village in search for food, where he came across the yellow pariah dogs and the Hindu clergymen (Kipling 81).
According to the physical description that Mowgli gave, “the priest was a big, fat man, dressed in white, with a red and yellow mark on his forehead” (Kipling 81). Such a description portrays the traditional Indian community as a faithful society that mostly embraced the Hindu doctrine of worship.
The practice of Hindu worship has been in the history of the Indians since their prehistoric period, before the British introduced Christianity in India. Kipling recognizes the essence of considering the contribution of the Indian priests in the prehistoric India.
In their Hindu worship, the conventional Indians connected their religious principles with certain believes about the natural forces (Deb 33). In the book, Kipling reveals the manner in which the Hindu priest links the Hindu religion with certain natural forces and beliefs (62). As a way of cleansing and condemning the behaviours of Mowgli who still had the jungle manners, the priest waved a twig of a sacred tulsi plant.
Tulsi plant has been Indian’s holy basil and a very important symbol in the religious principles of the Hindu faith (Kipling 103). This scenario of the Indian priest demonstrated the ancient Indian beliefs concerning the importance of the tulsi plant and its association with religious cleansing.
A salient religious feature of the Indians that Mowgli notices on the face of the Hindu priest is the yellow mark on the forehead of the priest. Majority of the ancient Indians practiced the Hindu religion and the yellow or red forehead marks were important religious symbols (Kennedy 45).
The religion of the ancient Indians connected well with their cultural beliefs, which were mainly from the caste system of worship and governance. The forehead symbol has its roots from the caste leadership and the four castes of India that held beliefs in Varna or colour.
The yellow forehead colour came predominantly from the third caste known as the Vaisya, and signified a business success or wealth (Kennedy 38). The white garment of the priest is a noteworthy feature of the ancient Indian priests as this form of dressing associates with holiness. The description of Mowgli about the traditional Hindu priest shows a typical practice of the ancient and modern Hinduism.
The prehistoric Indian foods, houses, and transport systems
Through the Jungle Book, Kipling reveals some unique cultural aspects of the ancient Indians that associate with traditional foods, traditional housing designs, and the traditional transportation systems (74). When Mowgli goes to the human villages, he notices that the Indians have a cultural behaviour that is very similar to the jungle animals.
Before they civilized into the modern life, Indians were peasant farmers who practiced various traditional methods of farming to produce food for home consumption (Evans 9). The ancient Indian women gathered roots, tubers, and wild fruits, to supplement the bush meat.
The Jungle Book reveals how the vacated King’s garden known as the Bandar-log, was full of fruit trees such as the orange trees. The jungle was full of edible roots, wild fruits, and tubers that the Indian hunters dug out when they were in exploration of the forest areas (Evans 12). Such occasions explain the traditional foods of the ancient Indians.
Housing is one of the significant historical features that describe the ancient culture of a population (Deb 30). The book of Kipling mentions the thatched huts in several occasions to explain the traditional form of housing techniques that the Indians used to construct their houses.
After leaving the jungle and securing refuge within the Indian villages, Mowgli noticed that the Indians lived in huts and slept on the red lacquered bedstead (Kipling 82). Before the British colonizers brought the western civilization, the Indians constructed thatched huts, which were common forms of shelter, apart from the slightly polished King palaces.
Little Toomai, the Indian Priest, and Messua are some of the human characters that Mowgli interacted with after escaping from the jungle and securing a refuge within the Indian villages (Kipling 83). Mowgli explains that the small settlements along the Indian villages were in form of thatched huts and each single family owned at least one hut.
The manner in which people transported goods or travelled across their villages is an important feature in understanding the ancient culture of the people (Deb 25). In The Jungle Book, Kipling reveals some transport cultures of the ancient Indians before the British colonizers came up with the motor roads and rails.
Animals and carts were the main forms of transport systems. Donkeys, bullocks, and mules were the major animals of transport that the ordinary people used. On their journey to Khanhiwara market, Mowgli, Messua, the potter, the priest, and the village headman used the donkeys to transport their goods (Kipling 86).
For the royal families and kings, the main modes of animal transport were the horses, the camels, and the tamed elephants, which were the most treasured animals by the Indian monarchs. Mowgli explains that during the visit of the Amir of Afghanistan, the elephants, the camels, and a big troop-horse, formed the royal transport system.
Indian royalty – kingship and caste
A foremost feature in the ancient Indian culture is the form of kingship leadership that the communities embraced before the western civilization. The Jungle Book describes the life of the primordial Indians as one that relied on the kingship governance and caste systems.
Within the Bandar-log, there was a vacated place where the remnants of the king’s palace existed (Kipling 60). The book mentions the king’s palace, the king’s garden, the king’s elephants, and the king’s council chamber as some of the salient features that portrayed the kingship system of leadership of the primordial Indians.
During the prehistoric era, the Indians depended on the kings and queens, who had officials and advisers that helped to settle disputes between the Indian ethnic groups. According to Kipling (60), the palaces were ultramodern, as Mowgli reveals that the monkeys would run up and down the old palace that had pieces of plaster and some old bricks, which are features of modern housing.
The kingship system was an important cultural aspect of leadership because it portrayed the socioeconomic differences between the ordinary civilians and the royal families (Crinson 18). The conventional Indians lived in a social stratification based on the four Indian castes that separated the worriers, the common civilians, the leaders, and the successful businesspersons.
Mowgli compares the majority poor with the few rich when the donkey of the potter stuck in the mud while they were travelling to the Khanhiwara market. Mowgli exclaimed, “That was very shocking, too, for the potter is a low-caste man, and his donkey is worse” (Kipling 86).
The people of the upper caste were the rich businesspersons, the leaders, army commanders, and some powerful Indian priests who often dined with the kings and queens in the palaces. According to Crinson (21), these caste systems were the main loopholes that the British often used to strengthen their command and oppress the unprotected Indians.
Caste was the source of unfair social stratification that portrayed segregation and individualism between the powerful Indians and the underprivileged majority (Deb 100). The caste had an important connection with the aspects of religion, something that made the Indians believe and respect this form of tyrannical social stratification.
When the priest and the other clergymen caught up with Mowgli at the village gate, the priest bowed down in respect of Messua, who was a wife of a king that Mowgli regarded as the richest villager within the palace (Kipling 81). Messua wore some precious, heavy, copper rings around her ankles and wrists, as symbols of royalty.
The Jungle Book presents the word jungle, which is a metaphoric term that describes the lawless India, where the rich manipulated the poor through the caste systems (Kipling 8). With great respect and honour, the people of the low caste often showed some adoration and gave tribute to the rich monarchs.
The Indian art during the prehistoric India
In the entire history of human civilization, art has been a significant feature because it explains the cultural norms of certain ethnic groups (Evans 27). Kipling was keen about the ancient art of the Indians and thought it was imperative to note the ancient Indian art in The Jungle Book.
The book portrays some ancient arts of the primordial Indians, which are still paramount features of the present Indian culture. The story of Bandar-log shows how the monkeys adored the art of weaving that the Indians practiced during the prehistoric era (Kipling 63).
Knowing that the man-cub or rather Mowgli was a half human with an Indian origin, the monkeys felt delighted that Mowgli would finally assist them to weave sticks together to build nests that would shield them from the strong wind. In the villages, Mowgli noticed that the Indians weaved small baskets of dry grass (Kipling 91). This scenario reveals the ancient Indian culture of weaving and basket making.
To supplement the income that their husbands would make from a few business trips, the conventional Indian women weaved mats, blankets, winnowing fans, and bamboo baskets. Another significant art that Kipling portrayed in The Jungle Book is the traditional art of pottery, which was very prominent among the ancient Indians (86).
Mowgli describes the hardship that the poor potter undergoes when he ferries his moulded pots to the Khanhiwara market using the donkey. Pot making was an ancient art of the Indians that still dominates a great part of the Indian ultramodern culture (Kennedy 65).
Mowgli came across several scenarios where the Indians used decorated and non-decorated pots for various issues. Sculpturing was another ancient art of the Indians that Kipling revealed in the Jungle Book. In the hut of Messua, Mowgli saw “a dozen copper cooking pots and an image of a Hindu god” (Kipling 83). Such scene portrays the Indian culture of sculpturing.
The culture of agriculture in the Ancient India
The ancient Indians had the culture of practicing small-scale farming, which people commonly refer to as peasantry or peasant farming. The farmers were peasants because they lacked powered machinery and modern farming skills to carry out commercial farming (Crinson 36).
Kipling uses some salient features of peasantry that lead the readers towards understanding the ancient peasantry of the Indians. The presence of the small-scale farming animals such as the bullocks, the donkeys, and the mules, signify the traditional practices of the Indian agriculture (Kipling 237).
Kipling also mentions the hoes, the gardens, and other peasantry tools to portray the small-scale farming of the conventional Indians. Rearing of livestock and taming of the wild animals were also some of the important farming activities among the conventional Indians (Evans 22).
In the Jungle Book, Kipling notes the presence of the cattle and the manner in which the Indian elders organized the youths to take the herds of livestock for grazing. While adjusting to the lifestyle of the Indian villagers, Mowgli noticed the rearing of the cattle and tamed buffaloes within the Indian villages.
Mowgli wondered that, “the custom of most Indian villages was for a few boys to take the cattle and buffaloes out to graze in the early morning, and bring them back at night” (Kipling 89). In the world history, one of the important features of the Asian civilization was cultivation and domestication of the world animals.
Rearing of the animals and domestication of some wild animals had a considerable contribution to the economic growth and stabilization of the ancient India (Evans 23). The ancient Indians hunted the elephants and domesticated them because they offered important service to the farmers and to the government of the ancient India (Kipling 177).
Taming of wild animals, digging of the farms with ploughs, and keeping of the herds of cattle, portrays the traditional form of agriculture of the Indians.
Conclusion Perhaps Rudyard Kipling is one of the outstanding novelists who managed to articulate the Indian history in the most desirable manner. Through The Jungle Book, Kipling reveals the real traditional India, which was full of individualism, naivety, weak communism, and unorganized leadership.
The word jungle is a metaphoric expression that Kipling uses to demonstrate a primitive India that was full of lawlessness, primitivism, unfair distribution of wealth and power, and oppression that resulted from the British colonists.
The traditional India survived through the kingship governance and caste leadership systems, and the people practiced hunting of the wild animals, gathering of the wild foods, peasantry, trading, pottery, weaving, and other nomadic and economic activities.
The conventional Indian families lived in nuclear families within their thatched huts and used the donkeys, camels, elephants, mules, and buffaloes for transport. The transport animals suited people of different groups of castes depending on their wealth and influence in the community.
Works Cited Crinson, Mark. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture, London, United Kingdom: Rutledge Publishers, 2013. Print.
Deb, Debal. Beyond Developmentality: Constructing Inclusive Freedom and Sustainability, London, United Kingdom: Rutledge, 2012. Print.
Evans, George. First Light: A History of Creation Myths from Gilgamesh to the God-particle, London, United Kingdom: I.B.Tauris, 2013. Print.
Kennedy, Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj, California, United States: University of California Press, 1996. Print.
Kipling, Rudyard. The Jungle Book, Scholastic India, Westland: Saddleback Publishing, 2001. Print.
Vertical Integration in Business Organisations Exploratory Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Vertical integration company case – Coca-Cola Company
Introduction Business organisations exist to make profits. Most business organisations sell their products using distributors or dealers who are well known to the organisations. The existence of these organisations is founded on offering consumer-oriented products to drive sales.
Products created by the organisations can be raw materials, intermediate items or finished goods. The product creation process often targets a particular group or groups of the population. The buying potential of these groups determines the extent to which a certain product is manufactured. Consequently, the production process is driven by the demand for that item.
The manufacture of various products requires varying inputs, which vary from one organisation to another. The complexity of the materials used in the production process is also dependent on the nature of the commodity produced because certain items require more inputs than others.
However, the quantities of inputs for the manufacturing process can be regulated by the manufacturers. In addition, the nature of a product determines how the final product is marketed. Consequently, a single product can be manufactured partially or wholly by a particular company.
Frequently, companies produce certain products after a thorough evaluation of their capacity to produce a product at ease. Additionally, the cost of production is also put into consideration. Therefore, the company only sets out to produce a certain item if its production is cost effective to the company. Risky ventures or processes that are costly to the company are often foregone.
However, it is possible for a company to engage in the creation of raw materials and marketing provided that the company has enough resources to invest. Such a move is what gives rise to company integration as a company becomes its own input producer, processor or manufacturer.
The company also markets its products in company integration. When a company realizes such achievements, it is said to be vertically integrated. The process of vertical integration is often gradual because a company begins with the units of production that are easy to put together using various methods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vertical integration company case – Coca-Cola Company Vertical integration entails a company’s involvement in activities that allow it to control the inputs and outputs. Companies achieve this through employing various production techniques aimed at eliminating input suppliers and output distributors.
Companies that are vertically integrated produce products from their basic forms to the consumption stage. These companies are capable of exploiting consumers because they control the output entirely. The process of vertical integration is long-term and is mainly achieved after some time if the company operates on a large scale (Joskow 2005).
Input production during the integration process involves the company venturing into the production of raw materials. Companies making soft drinks may, for instance, venture in bottling of drinks to reduce the cost of production.
The inputs for this process are customised to suit the special needs of the company during the bottling process. It is also possible to determine the required units for processing or manufacturing because the company’s operations scheduled and every activity is an in-house job.
A brief insight on the origin of the soft drink businesses can be achieved by centering on one of the most lucrative and groundbreaking companies in existence (Saltzman, Levy
The Role of International Companies Analytical Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction As asserted by Hodgetts (2003), the societies that we live in are dynamic in nature. As a result, the interaction between the structures that are present within a given societal setting always changes with time.
To be particular, the advancement in the field of information and technology has made the world to operate on a global level. This fact has made nations to highly depend on each in order to fulfil their overall goals and objectives. By critically analysing this fact, it is evident that the relationships that nations have towards each other has become a critical factor in determining their overall development and sustainability (Davidson, 2005).
Therefore, foreign policies of a given nation play a critical role in safeguarding the national interests of a given state as well as in the realization of its operational goals through the international relations that it has with other states (Caves, 2001).
Thus, the study of international relation is important, especially in understanding the operation of contemporary sovereign states, the role played by intergovernmental, inter-nongovernmental, and non-governmental organization and most importantly, the impact of multinational corporations in safeguarding the national interest of a given state as well as realizing its developmental goals and objectives.
The industrial and technological development that we are currently experiencing has played a critical role in the growth and development of the global economy. The progressive growth of the Chinese economy can be attributed to the policies and strategies that have been put by the Chinese government as well as the relationship that it has with other nations across the world.
With this in mind, this paper will critically analyse the growth and development of the Chinese economy as well as the foreign policies that the Chinese government has put in place to support and regulate this development. The arguments that will be presented in this paper will be supported by international relation theories, specifically realism, institutionalism, and constructivism.
Also, a PEST analysis will be conducted to have a clear understanding of the Chinese foreign policies on its economy as well as that of other states around the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review Realism, Institutionalism, and Constructivism theories have been widely used to critically analyse the economic growth of China as well as its rise in power over the years especially since the 1990s. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the effects of China’s regional strategy in East Asia.
As such, the strengths and weaknesses of these theories have been clearly outlined with regards to this issue. From the studies that have been conducted, it is evident that no single international relations theory can be used to clearly explain China’s regional strategy hence resulting in the increased debates about its true intentions.
As such, this paper will critically analyse the international relations of China from the perspectives of realists, institutionalists, and constructivists. As asserted by Cantwell (2001), the theory of realism is based on the following assumptions:
The international structure in anarchic in nature
Global politics are controlled by sovereign states
States have an offensive force (mainly through their military)
The main goal of states is to survive
States are rational actors
States often fail to cooperate
Based on these assumptions, it is evident that realism theories often focus on the shift of political power and relations among states within the international stage (Dees, 2008). It is due to this fact that Erramilli (2010) stated that as a given state increases in power, it will strive to change the international system.
This change will be through territorial expansion, economic dominance, and political control up to that point whether the marginal costs of the system change will exceed the marginal benefits accrued (Erramilli, 2010). The fact that states live in an anarchic system means that there is no higher authority that they can turn to in an event such as an attack or invasion by other states.
All through history, this fact has made states to become uncertain about the intentions of their neighbouring states as well as other states within the global arena. As such, states have been forced to enhance their power as a means of protecting themselves and their interest within the anarchic system that they live in (Broadhaust, 2008) in order to be sustainable.
As asserted before in this paper, the main principle of any given state is to be sustainable in the long run. This clearly explains the reason behind the continued need of gaining power by states through political, economic, and social development.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of International Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theory of institutionalism takes a different approach as compared to that of realism. According to this theory, intergovernmental as well as non-governmental institutions play a critical role in promoting international cooperation among states resulting in social progress (Jun, 2006).
Thus, unlike in realism where cooperation between states is seen as an impossible phenomenon, cooperation between individuals, institutions, and states is deemed as being possible under the theory of institutionalism (Gee, 2003). Like in realism, the theory of institutionalism assumes that states live within an anarchic system. However, as asserted by Jun (1996), an increase in economic interdependence and cooperation among states results in a decline in political conflicts and insecurity.
Economic interdependence is a term used to define the sensitivity of transaction that take place between two or more nations, hence resulting in socioeconomic development (Behrman, 2002). This interdependence is complex and is characterized by international economic transactions such as the movement of people, the flow of money, exchange of messages through the communication portal and exchange of goods and services across state boundaries that result in reciprocal effects among the involved states.
By critically analysing this theory, it is evident that the cooperation that is present between the involved states is sustained by the active participation of intergovernmental institutions as well as non-governmental institutions. As such, it is believed that these institutions play a critical role in sustaining the international relations of the involved states, hence enabling them to protect their interests and achieve their goals and objectives hence guaranteeing their sustainability in the short run and in the long run.
On the other hand, the theory of constructivism holds that the he core aspects that are present within the international area among all the states are not objectively determined by the material structures that are present, but by processes and interactions that manifest themselves within the social practice (Kogut and Singh, 2008).
Based on this fact, Klein (2011) asserted that the structure of human association that is present in any given societal setting is not determined by material forces but by the shared ideas. It is these shared ideas that construct the identities and interests that manifest themselves within individuals, institutions, and states.
Unlike in realism and institutionalism where the anarchic system forces states to resort to self-help due to the lack of an overlooking authority over the states, constructivism purports that causal power within a given system is determined by the structure that is constructed through social practice (Goddal, 2008). From a critical point of view, therefore, it is evident that the theory of constructivism mainly focuses on the role played by norms, identities, and shared understanding between individuals as well as among states.
As such, the values, beliefs, and identities that individual states develop play a critical role in influencing their behaviour as well as political ideologies. It is due to this fact that Grebe (2005) asserted that the identity of a given state plays a significant role in determining its interests as well as its actions within the international area.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of International Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through constructivism therefore, one can easily determine the origin of the preferences and interest of a given state, unlike in realism and institutionalism where the key focus only lies on how states pursue their interests and objectives without focusing on the origin of these interests.
The case study The case
From the second half of the 1960s, the Chinese economy has been growing progressively as compared to many other states in the world. This economic development has made China to become an important player the world stage.
After the Asian Financial Crisis, China has been advocating for regional cooperation with its neighbouring states (Balasubramanyan, 2006). Through regional cooperation, China believes that its social and economic status as well as that of the states that will be involved will be enhanced.
However, the rise of China as a regional power in East Asia, coupled with its fight for regional development has brought about a lot of debate about its long term intentions within the international community (Cantwell, 2001). There are scholars who believe that China’s activism in East Asia is a means through which the state wants to achieve regional hegemony (Irmer, 2007).
However, there are those who believe that China’s efforts aim at achieving economic interdependence and mutual benefits (Cantwell, 2001). This disparity brings about a lot of debate that question the international relations of China.
For instance, there is the question as to whether China will continue to be peaceful in nature or will it affect the peace and security of its neighbouring states and the world at large has brought about a lot of debate and speculation. There are scholars who have been keen on the growing Chinese military power and the question whether the nation will use it to realize economic interdependence or for raising a claim over territories beyond its boundaries.
Finally, the debate of whether China will embrace the internationally accepted regimes of the world or whether it will challenge the rules and regulations set by the international community has been increasing with the socioeconomic development of China as a state over time.
The foreign policy that China has developed to protect its interests as a state as well as to achieve regional cooperation with other states within East Asia and the world at large has an impact in the political, economic, social, and technological structures of the nation.
From a political perspective, it is evident that the rise of China as a regional power has enhanced the role it plays within East Asia. In accordance with the realism theory, the anarchic system forces states to compete for power and dominance as a means of surviving and pursuing their national interests (Latta, 1998).
This fact thus explains the rapid expansion of the Chinese military as well as the increased influence that this state has over its neighbours. As asserted by Head (2006), China might be planning to push out US forces out of China and East Asia so that it gains full control of the region the same way the USA pushed out European powers from America in the 19th century to gain full control of the region.
By holding such a position, China can easily control the structures and resources present within East Asia to achieve its interests and goals. From a constructivist perspective, however, China like any other state has its distinct characteristics that have shaped its unique identity. In accordance with the famous Chinese expression, Daguo jeuqi (the rise of the great power), it is evident that China view itself as a powerful state based from its history and current economic and political status.
As such, the nation is seeking cooperation with its neighbouring states to enhance economic interdependence hence resulting in socioeconomic growth. Such a system usually results in a decline in political conflict, an outcome that is in line with the Chinese expression, Daguo guanxi (great power relations).
Economically, the Chinese government has come up with a number of policies and strategies that aim at enhancing positive relations with other states as well as safeguarding its domestic markets and industries. In accordance to the theory institutionalization, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and multinational corporations play a critical role in enhancing international relations (KPMG, 2012).
As such, China, through its various government and non-governmental agencies have come up with desirable policies that aim at attracting foreign direct investments (FDI) within the nation. In China, (FDI) has been playing a critical role in increasing the productivity levels of a host nation by enabling it to meet its domestic demand. The Chinese government is thus advocating for regional cooperation to increase the benefits of FDI within East Asia, resulting in an increase in the rates of employment, development of infrastructure, reduction in the cost of goods and services and so on (Borensztein, 2008).
The enhanced cooperation between China, its neighbouring states as well as other states within the global area has enhanced social relations and interactions between the Chinese people and the rest of the world. This has resulted in sharing and embracing of new cultures within China and the East Asia region.
Finally, China has embraced information technology. The nation hosts several manufacturing plants for leading ICT companies in the world such as Toshiba, Microsoft, Nokia, Sony and so on. These MNCs operate in China due to the favourable foreign policies that the state has put in place. Furthermore, collaboration among East Asian states will further enhance the technological development of the region.
The economic growth of China and its regional strategy has had varied outcomes for individuals, states, as well as on international cooperation. The local Chinese population has benefited through increased employment opportunities that offer better pay and employment terms (KPMG, 2012).
There has also been an increased growth in businesses, especially small and medium sized enterprises. On a larger scale, the number of multinational corporations in China has also been increased due to its favourable foreign policies, availability of raw materials and the presence of cheap labour (Grebe, 2005).
As a nation, China’s economy has been growing at a tremendous rate since the 1970s due to its favourable international relations that support imports, exports, and FDI resulting in political, social, and economic stability within the nation. Finally, the international relations strategies of China have resulted in increased cooperation between China and other states all around the world. As such, the confidence that other states have with China has been rising over the years and explains the increased FDI.
However, the nation’s growth in power has had mixed reactions as to its intentions behind its regional strategy with other East Asian states especially by the states from the West.
Conclusion The international relations strategy that a given state has played a critical role in determining the relationship that it will have with other states. The growth of China as a regional power in the East has, however, brought about mixed reactions especially from nations in the West.
This is due to the uncertainty of its regional strategy that advocates for regional cooperation. Using realism, institutionalism, and constructivism theories, this paper has found that China’s main aim behind its regional cooperation ambition is to enhance its power and influence in the East as well as to develop great power relations with other states within the region and the world at large.
Thus, China’s regional strategy aims at enhancing interdependence through meaningful cooperation to achieve social, political, and economic stability within the East Asia region.
References Balasubramanyan, V 2006, ‘Foreign direct investment and growth in EP and IS countries’, Economic Journal, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 92-105.
Behrman, J 2002, The Role of International Companies in Latin America: Autos and Petrochemicals, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA
Borensztein, E 2008, ’How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?’, Journal of International Economics, vol. 45, no. 1, pp 115-135.
Broadhaust, L, 2012, ‘Business and the risk of crime in China’, The British Journal of Criminology, vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 15-22.
Cantwell, J 2001, ‘A survey of theories of international production’, In C. Pitelis and R. Sugden, The Nature of the transnational firm, pp. 16-63, Routledge, London.
Caves, R 2001, ‘International corporations: the industrial economics of foreign investments’, Economica, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 1-27.
Davidson, W 2005, ‘Key characteristics in the choice of international technology transfer mode’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 5-22
Dees, S 2008, ‘Foreign direct investment in China: determinants and effects’, Economics of Planning, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 75-194
Erramilli, M 2010, ‘Choice of foreign market entry modes by service firms: role of market knowledge’, Management International Review, vol. 30. no. 1, pp. 135-150
Gee, P 2003, ‘The compelling case for perpetual strategic planning’, Service Line: Eight Essential Rules, vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 62-64.
Goddal, S 2008, ‘Foreing dilemmas in China: The case of FDIs in Shangai’, Asia Pacific Business Review, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 1-21
Grebe, M 2005, ‘Strategic financial planning: What every trustee needs to know about facility replacement’,Trustee, vol. 12 no. 4, 24-28.
Head, K 2006, ‘Inter-city competition for foreign investment: static and dynamic effects of China’s incentive areas’, Journal of Urban Economics, vol. 40 no. 8, pp. 38-46.
Hodgetts, S 2003, ‘U. S. Multinationals’ expatriate compensation strategies’, Compensation and Benefits Review, vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 57-62.
Irmer, B 2007, Human resource capital, Sage, New York.
Jun, K 1996, ’The determinants of foreign direct investment in developing countries’, Transnational Corporations, vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 67-105.
Klein, R 2011, ‘Compensating your overseas executives: Part three. Exporting U.S. stock option plans to expatriates’, Compensation and benefits review, vol. 6 no. 1, pp. 27-38.
Kogut, B and Singh, H 2008, ‘The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode’, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19 no. 2, pp. 411-432.
KPMG 2012, The Future of MNCs in China, Silk Road Associates, Hong Kong
Latta, M 1998, ‘Expatriate incentives: Beyond tradition’, HR Focus, vol. 75 no. 2, pp. 53-67
Conflict Resolution in the Workplace Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Abstract Conflicts within the work environment are very common. They are caused by both internal and external factors. Well managed conflicts act as a medium for change and may have a positive effect on employees.
On the contrary, if conflicts are not managed well, they may have a negative impact on job performance and employee satisfaction. In the health sector, the performance and conduct of the employees are very important since they have an impact on the patient’s health and lives.
This paper will analyze ethical decision-making dilemma in conflict management in the Florida Department of Health. The paper will address the most significant ethical decisions that have been made to tackle conflicts in the Florida Health Department.
Introduction Disagreements within work environment are unavoidable. If managed prudently, such disagreements can act as a medium for change and may have a positive effect on workers. On the contrary, if conflicts are not managed well, they may have a negative impact on job performance and worker satisfaction.
When disagreements are ignored by the management, it gives an idea that unacceptable job performance and unfortunate conducts are tolerable. Unacceptable job performance and poor conduct on the part of the employees can have an impact on the overall morale of the employees, which consequently can lead to low productivity (Maldonado, 2012, p. 1).
Well managed conflicts are most common in organizations and institutions that encourage open communication, teamwork, regular response and prompt resolution of conflicts. Open communication and teamwork promotes the flow of new ideas and reinforces work relations, which in the long run boosts employee confidence.
On the other hand, regular response and prompt resolution of conflict enhance job performance and employee satisfaction (Classen
The Affordable Care Act and Benefits Management Research Paper college admissions essay help
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereafter referred to as the ACA), which was signed into law on March 23, 2010, by President Barrack Obama, presents a new paradigm shift in terms of how employers in the United States proceed in the management of employee benefits (Deloitte, 2013).
Indeed, as suggested in the accruing literature, the ACA generates novel requirements and options for employers’ future benefits decisions particularly in providing affordable insurance coverage to employees and intensifying their access to health insurance either through personal mandate or through already evolving Medicaid expansion programs (Deloitte, 2013; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013; Schuman et al., 2013).
This paper brings the real issues surrounding the ACA and benefits management into the fore by presenting the findings of an interview with the benefits manager of a service-oriented company employing more than 250 full-time workers in the United States.
From the onset, the interviewee agreed that the ACA has the capacity to substantially shift the American workplace and workforce, in large part due to the important obligations that employers are expected to assume to expand employees’ insurance coverage.
The manager acknowledged that health insurance coverage forms a critical component of employee benefits management and that his organization has invested heavily in the development of a comprehensive health insurance plan for all employees.
As acknowledged in the literature, the ACA “requires employers with more than 200 employees to automatically enroll employees into health insurance plans offered by the employer” (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013, p. 1).
As a matter of fact, the interviewee suggested that the company was investing heavily on a policy that will enable the organization to gain access to new avenues to purchase employee health benefits with the view to providing a wider choice of plans and enhanced affordability through more transparent and competitive means.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When asked if the company would be able to adequately cover its employees as demanded in the ACA, the interviewee acknowledged that the Act was shifting healthcare costs to employers rather than encouraging cost-sharing and plan design.
To deal with this scenario, the interviewee hinted that the organization was considering reducing other benefits accruable to employees and also shifting other expenses to employees so that it can have the capacity to provide employer-funded health insurance coverage.
This view is supported in the literature, with the report by Deloitte (2013) acknowledging that a similar employer-sponsored insurance coverage in Massachusetts caused employers to recalibrate “their coverage by scaling back benefits and increasing employee cost-sharing and financial responsibility” (p. 13).
According to the interviewee, reducing other employee benefits to fund the new Act is the only reasonable thing to do for middle-level organizations that neither benefit from the economies of scale open to large organizations nor utilize the various tax credits open to small companies.
Lastly, when asked to state the viability of the ACA in enhancing employee benefits, the interviewee acknowledged that the Act was not justified owing to its adverse effects on overall employee benefits as organizations use available financial resources to purchase health insurance for employees with the view to expanding coverage.
Indeed, the interviewee was of the opinion that some of the provisions of the ACA were making organizations to reduce the monetary allocations earmarked for other benefits to expand health insurance coverage for employees, though this did not translate to improvements in health care delivery or reductions in health care costs.
As indicated in the literature, the Act continues to receive widespread criticism for its incapacity to control health care costs or enhance health care delivery system (Deloitte, 2013; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013), and also for its predisposition to redirect substantial benefits into health insurance coverage at the expense of other equally important issues dealing with employee benefits such as paid leaves, pensions and bonuses (Rosenbaum, Teitelbaum,
Concept of Poverty Definition Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Poverty is a widely useful and common concept in many spheres of socioeconomic development. Albeit a universal concept, many people have different conceptions of the term. In fact, Misturelli and Heffernan (2010) say the concept has different clusters of meanings and definitions.
Other researchers believe the evolving nature of poverty contributes to its varied meanings. The discourse analysis of Misturelli and Heffernan (2010) was among the first research studies to document how the evolving nature of poverty gave it different meanings and definitions. Pantazis, Gordon and Levitas (2006) take a pragmatic construction of this argument by arguing that most people cannot define poverty in any way that they like.
The discourse, or subject areas, of these meanings provide the differences. This paper builds on these arguments by reviewing different conceptions of the term.
Poverty as a measure of low income Since the 1880s, researchers have come up with three main conceptions of the term – “subsistence, basic needs and relative deprivation” (Talbot, Madanipour
Company’s CSR Initiatives Relation to Employee Retention Proposal college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Statement of research question
Introduction This research seeks to find answers to questions on how a company’s CSR initiatives affect its employee retention. The research questions that this research will address include the extent to which companies involve their employees in CSR initiatives, how involvement of employees in CSR activities affect their decision to stay, and the extent of variation in terms of involvement of low-level employees and executive employees in CSR activities.
The question of how company’s involvement in CSR and how it affects turnover and retention is remarkable since every company is interested in retaining its pool of talents. A well-researched response to the query that this proposal puts across will be used to solve the problem of employee turnover, which has been a major issue that faces companies in the Kingdom of Sound Arabia (KSA).
Statement of research question Companies will also use CSR as a tool for internal marketing in a bid to pull the employees closer. When employees become good corporate citizens, their interest to turnover will be reduced.
This claim has been proven by companies such as General Motors and General Electric, which have deployed CSR in the KSA where it (CSR) is still seen as a programme for giving back some profits to the community, rather than upholding it for the sake of company employees.
The cost of carrying out CSR is low in relation to the cost that is incurred because of turnover. The proposal seeks to confirm whether communicating and integrating effective CSR within the workforce can have multiple benefits to the community, top employees, and the lower employees. To be inclusive in the survey, the target segment will comprise low-level and senior employees.
Concern of HR Manager with information-withholding by employees
Some employees may withhold information concerning their intention to quit or stay in an organisation. Withholding of information in fear of victimisation by the management will result in a distorted data and hence wrong results and analysis. Therefore, the HR will disclose the issue to the targeted employees that the gathered data will be used only for this research purposes and that employees should not write personal details in the questionnaires.
Findings of this research will help the organisation to boost its performance since it will elicit insight on the feelings of employees about involvement or failure to participate in CSR initiatives. Intentions of employees to quit or remain will help organisations to plan on retention strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical framework
According to Glavas and Kelley (2014), the issue of corporate social responsibility in businesses can be traced back to 1953. From another perspective, Powell, Davies, and Norton (2013) reveal that a company that has good corporate citizenship programmes experiences low turnover rates.
According to a research by Jones, Willness, and Madey (2014), company’s involvement in CSR has been used in attracting potential employees while at the same time retaining the current ones in America. This research confirms that employees want to remain in a company that not only values corporate citizenship but also one that has an environment that is conducive for employees to thrive.
In his research, Mellat-Parast (2013) observes that although there has been an increase in companies’ involvement in CSR activities, only few of them in the KSA are reaping the expected benefits. Sanchez-Hernandez and Grayson (2012) assert that big companies such as General Electric and Cisco have adapted the application of CSR as a facet of internal marketing. From another angle, Girard and Sobczak (2012) reveal how secondary researches declare corporate citizenship a remedy for employee turnover.
CSR has worked in internal marketing in such companies since employees understand and own companies’ values. Moreover, Mellat-Parast (2013) says that employees want to be associated with such values for their personal growth. A CSR strategic plan should incorporate the needs of every employee.
A review of secondary researchers shows a positive relationship between CSR and customer retention (Bhattacharya, Sen