Marketing Management Marketing management is a procedure whereby people/groups produce and exchange good with others to fulfil their needs. Kotler (2002) defines marketing management as the “art of selling products” (p. 4). The aim of marketing management is to collect information relating to the tastes and preferences of consumers and creating goods that satisfy their needs.
Market segmentation entails classifying consumers according to their behavioural and economic characteristics. The firm then creates a market offering for the selected segment. For instance, the Volvo Company markets its automobiles to shoppers who value automobile safety (Kotler, 2002, p. 4).
Market Orientation Market orientation is defined in terms of the behavioural and cultural approaches. Market orientation is a process of generating information relating to the present and future needs of shoppers and then distributing it across relevant departments (behavioural approach).
In other words, market orientation emphasizes organizational actions pertaining to the production, distribution and receptiveness of market information (Inoguchi, 2011, p. 201).
It also refers to an organizational culture which promotes activities that result in the production of high-quality products (cultural approach). Thus, it focuses on the values and norms of an organization that promote the production, distribution and receptiveness of market information.
Market Orientation and Management of an organisation Market segmentation entails classifying consumers according to their economic and demographic characteristics. For instance, when Estee Lauder discovered that the income per capita of the minority groups had improved, it introduced an “all Skins” line consisting of 115 shades of various skin tones in the market. As a result, the company achieved a 45% increase in the sales volume (Kotler, 2002, p. 12).
Medium-sized companies have also adopted marketing orientation. For instance, 241 CO is a Japanese firm that manufactures apparel products. The company communicates with shoppers on a regular basis to generate market information regarding their tastes and preferences (Inoguchi, 2011, p. 206).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategy and Strategic Planning A strategy refers to a plan of action. Therefore, strategic planning is a general plan that augments the proper management of a process. In business terms, strategic planning is defined as the process of creating a business plan with the aim of making profit. A strategic plan enables a company to gain knowledge about the environment it operates in.
It also analyses the shortcomings of previous business practices and suggests alternative ways of doing business. For example, a strategic plan explicates the steps that a firm must take to enhance consumer satisfaction and improve profitability (Ward, 1988, p. 192).
Strategic Decisions in a Marketing Context According to Papadakis et al. (1998), strategic decisions refer to a series of routes or steps adopted by the management to realize a particular goal (p. 116). Strategic decision-making evaluates the procedure adopted by the management to achieve a specific goal. It is usually determined by several factors such as hierarchical decentralization and lateral communication.
These approaches are also associated with the contextual characteristics (i.e. Market characteristics), attributes of senior managers, and decision-specific characteristics. However, a decision – specific aspect is the most influential factor in strategic decision-making (Papadakis et al., 1998, p. 115).
Strategy, Planning, Strategic Marketing Decisions at Coca-Cola Company Strategic decision-making is an important process that enables a firm to realize specific goals. Thus, moribund marketing decisions may result in poor performance. For example, the Coca-Cola Company experienced a decline in the sales volume in 1980s when it introduced New Coke in the market to replace the original Coke.
The loss was caused by poor market research which failed to capture the emotional attachment and symbolic value of the original Coke to consumers. In addition, the market research did not incorporate key variables relating to the spending behaviour of consumers (Smith
Characteristics of Marcus Camillus and Augustus Octavian Compare and Contrast Essay college admission essay help
Marcus Furius Camillus is the Roman leader and military hero who managed to triumph for times. The Roman statesman is also considered the second founder of Rome. Augustus is the first founder of the Roman Empire. Therefore, leaders could be regarded as the founders of the Roman Empire.
Hence, during the reign of Augustus, the Romans experienced the peaceful existence for over two centuries despite the continuous expansion of the emperor. The wisdom of the Roman Emperor consisted in his ability to favor expansion policy with no harm to the Roman population.
In his book, Augustus mentioned, “I made the sea peaceful and freed it of pirates” (section 25 n. p.). Hence, the Roman ruler managed to establish allegiance with Spanish, Gallic, and African governments.
Unlike Augustus, Camillus was known as a tyrant who captured the Rome through violence and war. Acknowledged as a military leader, the Roman Senators appointed Marcus as the dictator to confront the Gauls. Despite his image of a violent and aggressive leader, Camillus managed to negotiate with Brennus, the Gallic leader, and made him leave Rome.
The day after, the Gauls returned with refreshed army, but were defeated by Camillus. As a result, the Roman soldier was later appointed as Roman Emperor and was known as the dictator who reigned for the longest period.
In the book, Livy refers to these events to emphasize the courage of the Roman leader: “…a general, selected by the fates, both for destruction of that city, and the preservation of his native country, Marcus Furius Camillus, was nominated dictator” (pg 475). The Roman Senate recognized the powerful tactics of fearless soldier although his violent attitude to the people was not welcomed.
Both leaders brightly expressed their commitment to the welfare of Roman people and Italy. In this respect, Augustus is also known as the one who donated land, grain, and money to the Romans to improve their welfare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While enumerating his achievements, Augustus specifically refers to success in war and foreign policies and states, “the whole of Italy of its own free will swore allegiance to me and demanded me as the leader in the war” (sec. 25 n. p.).
The first Roman Emperor reconciled conflicts on his territory and restored the stability in the country. He also received various awards and honors, which were represented in historic documents. The official title was among the highest honors assigned to a Roman.
Unlike Augustus, Camillus’s achievements were less recognized among the Roman people. This is of particular concern to his return to the Capitolium. The Romans were not entirely satisfied with the policy and heroism of the dictator and, therefore, he was regarded as a nothing but an evil tyrant whose authority should be respected to avoid conflicts.
However, his talent in military strategy forced the Roman Senators to accept his power and appoint him the governmental leader.
In order to emphasize Camillus’s gift in conducting war, Livy notes, “they had used the most effectual means which human wisdom could suggest, for insuring success in giving the command to Marcus Furius, the greatest general of the age” (pg 482). Therefore, Camillus is considered a more aggressive leader who methods of gaining power and control were confined to war and violence.
Both Roman founders were recognized as outstanding military leaders, but their military tactics differed significantly from each other. In particular, Augustus managed to strike the balance between constant war expansion and peaceful existence in the Empire. Although the Emperor was constantly involved into war actions, the civil population did not experience any military intrusion in their daily lives.
Therefore, he could be considered as a wise and experienced ruler. What is more important is that the Roman Emperor managed to restore the state from war actions by constantly constructing temples, churches, and buildings. His donations of lands and money are also highlighted in the reading:
We will write a custom Essay on Characteristics of Marcus Camillus and Augustus Octavian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Four times I assisted the treasury with my own money, so that I transferred to the administrators of the treasury 150.000.000 sesterces” (sec. 17, n. p.). In this respect he could be considered not only a wise and experienced ruler, but also a generous mentor.
In contrast to Augustus, Marcus Camillus was less concerned with the peaceful welfare of the Roman population. His main purpose lied in expanding the territories and conquering new lands. Livy underlines Marcus’s ambitions and focuses on his struggles against the rivals: “he had reduced the spoils of Veii to nothing; daringly abusing the nobles, in their absence” (pg 486).
Therefore, the general made everything possible to take control of other territories and prove his superiority. With regard to the above-presented debates, it should be stated that both military leaders made significant contribution to the economic and political development of the Roman Empire.
Their methods and military tactics were extremely different. Nevertheless, both historic figures remained in the Roman history as outstanding dictators and talented rulers that managed to empower the Roman people and provide new ways for the prosperity.
Works Cited Augustus. Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Trans. Peter Brunt, and James Moore UK: Oxford University Press. 1969. Web.
Livy. The History of Rome. US: T. Cadell and W. Davies. 1797. Print.
“How to Fight a Price War” by Rao et al Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary The article “How to Fight a Price War” by Rao et al (2000), provides business leaders with well-thought out and explicitly discussed strategies on how to deal with the price war without necessarily reducing the prices of products and/or services.
The authors illuminate the fact that the price war is increasingly becoming widespread in organizational settings because leaders tend to view a price shift as an effortless, swift, and reversible endeavor.
However, leaders need to know that they are endowed with an arsenal of options other than price cuts that they may want to consider so as to remain productive and relevant in today’s competitive business environment. The bulk of the article details these options and strategies.
Main Points In their critical discussion, Rao et al (2000) outline the strategies that managers may want to use to fight the price war as follows:
taking inventory by understanding the causes and characteristics of the price war through undertaking a critical diagnosis of the market scene,
stopping the war before it starts by making sure that competitors not only understand the justification behind your pricing policies, but also the potential consequences of lowering prices,
responding with non-price actions such as customer price sensitivities, quality interventions, highlighting of negative consequences related to price reductions, and help-seeking behaviors,
using selective pricing actions such as multiple-part pricing, quantity discounts, loyalty programs, time-of-use pricing and bundling,
fighting it out with competitors through direct, retaliatory price cuts,
retreating by ceding some market share to competitors.
Critique The article is a must read for price leaders and other organizational managers engaged in ensuring that their respective organizations remain competitive in the face of extensive and sometimes back-biting price wars.
The authors not only undertake a critical analysis of the various strategies that could be used to quell price disruptions from competitors, but they also provide industry specific, practical case examples of organizations that have used these interventions with a fair share of success.
From the reading, however, it appears that some interventions are more successful in selected industry-specific organizations than in others. The strategy of retreating by ceding some market share, for instance, seems to work well with technology-oriented firms (e.g., computer manufacturing companies), but fails in service-oriented firms (e.g., fast food firms and hotels).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Equally, organizations within the carrier industry seem to benefit from some interventions, but certainly not from all the interventions highlighted (Rao et al, 2000). It would have been more plausible if the authors had explicitly stated which interventions are relevant to particular industries.
There are two strategies that catch they eyes of the reader due to their intense practicability – responding with non-price actions and using selective price actions (Rao et al., 2000). In the former strategy, it can be argued that most global organizations doing business today are emphasizing quality aspects rather than price, with results demonstrated in positive image and reputation.
However, the authors could have taken more time to explicate the dynamics of complex market scenarios, where neither non-price actions nor selective price actions seems to work. A case in point is the Chinese market, where players seem not to care much about quality issues and government mandarins heavily subsidize local industries to protect them from stiff competition.
Conclusion The article introduces some fundamental concepts than could be used by organizations to fight the price war without necessarily triggering retaliatory price slashing, which could be costly to their competitive as well as operational efficiencies.
Reference Rao, A.R., Bergen, M.E.,
The Role of Motivation in Online Collaboration from an Active Learning Perspective Research Paper essay help online
Introduction The rapid global advancement into technological transition has led to enhanced IT applications from industrial to educational field. Concerning the educational perspective, IT development has widened up educational opportunities to students who may be could not afford to acquire education due to geographical factors or financial and time constraints, among others.
Xie et al. (2011) affirm that developed computer software and related applications have enabled Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning activities to extend internationally, which people commonly refer to as “distance-learning” within universities and tertiary colleges. Active learning is one of the distance-learning components that have received substantial attention among students over the past decades.
According to Prince (2004), active learning generally refers to instructional methods used by lectures to engage students in lively participative learning. Active online learning calls for maximum cooperation and is normally challenging without proper motivation. Therefore, this essay examines the role of motivation in online collaboration from an active learning perspective based on prior empirical studies conducted.
Motivation Motivation conventionally refers to an inducement or force that drives individuals to convert their feelings into action. Motivation probably remains the most fundamental thing that learners or workers need to improve their performance. Xie et al. (2011) assert that motivation “is a dynamic internal construct that reflects students’ emotional and psychological state during a certain time period” (p.18).
As encompassed in other studies examining the impact of motivation in improving students learning in distance learning, unsuccessfulness in students has been resulting from lack of proper participation, with motivation being the most important factors. This assertion means that motivation is the most contributing factor to students’ success in all forms of learning systems.
In the context of distance learning, motivation has been a driving force in improving the social interaction, which is the most imperative in active learning aspect that influences collaborative problem-solving. Despite this element, distance learning has been remained a challenge among learners due to underutilisation of motivation.
Active learning As described earlier, active learning is a learning method used by teachers, tutors, instructors, and lectures to increase students’ engagement by conducting meaningful activities that result to integration of new ideas into the learning. Prince (2004) postulates, “The core elements of active learning are student activity and engagement in the learning process” (p.223).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Active learning has been in existence since time immemorial with students engaging in homework and laboratory practical activities as traditional lecturing techniques. Therefore, with the continuity of such practices within educational departments in several countries, traditional practices might soon be doomed considering the enhanced technology in all spheres of life.
This aspect has led to an active online discussion, popularly known as online learning or distance learning. According to Chiong and Jovanovic (2012), active learning in distance learning perspective may include individual online participation, online collaborative group work, online problem-based learning, or online cooperative learning, which all involve active participation in the online discussions.
Within the active learning perspective, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning forms the core discussion of this paper. Collaborative learning is progressively becoming one of the instructional online learning approaches that are empirically proven through several studies.
Collaborative online learning groups have increased joint intellectual effort by students in their participation, with students working in groups of more than two individuals mutually searching for better understanding elucidations towards a common goal (Prince, 2004).
Collaborative learning normally becomes challenging under limited motivation, but if well practiced, students are capable of reaching their high academic expectations. Encompassed in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, famous theories including Self-Determination Theory have been useful in determining students’ participation in online discussions, with prior evidence by other studies revealing that motivation is a key learning factor that enhances students’ participation in distance learning (Xie, et al. 2011).
In fact, the main purpose of establishing online discussions in distance learning was primarily to extend collaborative learning approaches to overcome the monotonous traditional class attending approaches, which have become less enthusing.
Computer-Supported Collaborative learning mainly includes learning online using computer applications. It represents a significant shift from traditional monotony of lecture-cantered locale in universities and tertiary colleges.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Role of Motivation in Online Collaboration from an Active Learning Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Online collaborative learning has changed the students’ perception from dismal attitudes towards active learning as students find learning as a constructive process, an inherently social process, and a diverse practice where they can achieve their educational goals through enhanced involvement, civic responsibility, cooperation, and teamwork (Chiong
Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis Expository Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Systemic physical training and TB prevention
Vitamin D in prevention and treatment of TB
Introduction TB, a contagious chronic disease that primarily affects the lungs is caused by the inhalation of Mycobacterium bacilli (Hanif
Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? Argumentative Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction The family has traditionally occupied a central place in society with communities hailing it as the basic unit of society. Families provide the social core in all societies and the nuclear family is present in all societies in the world. The unifying function of the family has been credited with the development and advancement of societies since time immemorial.
For this reason, the family unit is unanimously considered as the basic building block of a successful and functional society. This is the ideal institution within which children are created and brought up in a protected environment until they are able to take care of themselves.
The family also serves as a tool for socialization since the shared moral and social values of the community are inculcated in the children withing the family setting.
For these reasons, the family is assumed to be an innate experience with some authors suggesting that the family is a natural institution. However, this notion has been questioned by anthropologists whose studies have led them to question the “naturalness” of the family unit.
The findings of these scholars have led them to conclude that the family is not a natural thing but rather a construction of the society. This paper will set out to discuss the ideas of some of the most outstanding anthropologists of the 20th century, Adam Kuper, David Schneider, and Claude Levi-Strauss, in order to show that the family is a fabricated thing.
The Idea of the Family The family is regarded as the basic unit of society and at its most base level; it is made up of a man, woman, and their children. Kuper (1982) states that the family preceded the formation of the society and in these early stages, it comprised of a male figure who exercised jurisdiction over his wives and children. Each family paid no regard to the other and acted in its own self-interest.
The aggregation of families was the next step in social evolution and the ties of kinship became the basis of societies. The family provided the basis on which societies were ordered with expanded extended families serving as the social core.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reproduction is universally considered to be the basis of family relations since each person must have a biological father and mother. This simple parent-child relationship makes it possible to perform genealogical tracing since it is a biological fact that a man and a woman must be involved in procreation.
Therefore, the concept of kinship was formulated based on this blood relation and relationships though marriage unions between previously unrelated parties. The naturalness of the family has been presupposed for many centuries due to the prevalence of this social grouping. However, the arguments made by anthropologists suggest that the family is a cultural construct.
Family: A Fabricated Concept Adam Kuper’s Ideas
Adam Kuper suggests that the family was formulated as an organization through which people could live in harmony and accomplish greater exploits. Before the concept of family, each individual acted at his own discretion and there was no order or system of laws in place.
Kuper (1982) records that the original state of human society was characterized by promiscuity rather than family life and this status quo was detrimental to the raising of children. This primitive existence was unsustainable since violence and anarchy reigned. The family unit emerged as a more ordered system of procreation within which the child could exist in a more secure environment.
As the family concept became more sophisticated, legal paternity became recognized and the child could grow in an environment where he/she had a mother and a father. The extended patriarchal family group provided the basis for jural order and continuity (Kuper 1982, p.73).
The earliest form of government was therefore based on the family concept. The political ideas were grounded in the assumption that “kinship in blood is the sole possible ground of community in political functions” (Kuper 2008, p.723). The family was formulated as the best structure to foster social stability and encourage good governance.
The prohibition of some relationships in some cultures while the same relationships are allowed in others is further proof that kinship is a culturally constructed concept. Human beings formulate the laws governing who should marry whom and therefore forms a family and they vary from society to society.
We will write a custom Essay on Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kuper (2008) documents that in the nineteenth century, there was no crime in incest, and there were no rules articulating which marriages were allowed or forbidden. Before the 1880s, incest was an acceptable practice in England and there were no laws against the practice.
The social perception of incest only underwent a radical change when the danger of sexual relations between fathers and daughters, or brothers and sisters began to be publicized by the National Vigilance Association. Following this, incest came to be conceived of as an offence with a victim.
Because of this change in public perception, the British Parliament passed a Law in 1907 that made incest a crime and criminalized sexual relationships between members of the immediate family. As such, the family is a fabricated institute that is prone to changes based on the public needs.
Kuper (2003) argues that the family was necessary to ensure survival in the primitive societies where division of labour was necessary. In these pre-modern societies, the nuclear family comprised of male and female enabled the parties to specialize in various activities for sustenance. The males typically acted as the hunters while the females were gatherers within a nuclear family setting.
This economic function increased the value of the family and kinship was integral for survival Kuper (2003). It is conceivable that without the economic need of family, this institution would never have been created.
Further reinforcing this supposition is the observation by anthropologists that with the rise of the individualist modern society, the economic functions of family have shrunk and each sex can manage to exist without the need of the other.
Another indication that family is a fabricated concept is the difference in preference placed on a particular side of the family by different cultures. While some cultures emphasize on matrilineal descent (kin from the mother’s lineage), others emphasize on patrilineal descent (kin through the father’s lineage).
In addition to this, the location of residence differs with some cultures promoting marriage residence at the mother’s family house while most promote residence at the father’s family house (Kuper 2003).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If the family was a natural construct, there would be universal preferences and all cultures would follow the same conventions. The fact that different ideals are practiced by different cultures proves that family is a human construction.
The rapid changes in society that were experienced in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that the family was not an integral component of the society. During this period, consensual unions became widespread and the traditional family unit was dismantled in some circles.
Some people began to view the family as a major source of discontentment within the society and this greatly discredited the nuclear family as an unshakeable institution. The sentiments of the time are best articulated by Leach who asserts, “far from being the basis for the good society, the family with its narrow privacy and tawdry secrets, is the source of all our discontents” (Kuper 2003, p.332).
The nature of partner relationships has also experienced significant changes over the decades with a marked decline in the importance of the social origin of a partner being exhibited in all modern societies. In the past, great weight was placed on marriage with major kinship involvement in the process (Dykstra 2006).
Today, marriage unions are primarily a matter of personal choice and preference with the families on both sides of the partners being involved only marginally. In addition to this, the frequency with which family unions are dissolved has risen tremendously.
The increased rate of marriage dissolutions is blamed on the heightened emphasis on the emotional side of relationships, which leads to higher expectations and demands by both partners on each other (Dykstra 2006). In traditional marriage unions, emphasis was placed on the social and material benefits of the union.
Claude Levi-Strauss’s Ideas
Claude Levi-Strauss is credited with advancing the Structuralism theory in which he argued that the phenomena of the external world are apprehended as having distinct characteristics because of the way our senses communicate these perceptions (Voss 1977).
Human beings are predisposed to categorize things into separate units or segments and assign these things named classes. Any material object of culture or belief system is in imitation of human apprehension of nature (Levi-Strauss 1970). Man’s perception of nature as segmented is therefore responsible for his view of society as ordered.
Advocates of the family as a natural unit might argue for the “natural” nature of the family structure since it exists universally. Both primitive and civilized societies have some concept of family, which is typically made up of females and at least one male figure either related to the female(s) by blood or by marriage.
Levi-Strauss refutes this assertion by highlighting that cultures are bound to have some similarities since they are all products of human minds (Voss 1977). For this reason, universal features such as the family unit can occur.
Levi-Strauss suggests that the basis of marriage rules was to create bonds between otherwise unrelated people. He argues that the since pre-historic times, communities had the option of intermarrying among themselves or giving away their women to other communities (Johnson 2003). The communities that gave away their women cemented political alliances and thus reduced the risk of being annihilated by superior enemies.
The incest taboo was formed out of the need to enforce exogamy and therefore increase the society’s chances of survival. Voss (1977) best articulates this idea by stating that “if survival of a society is dependent upon alliance, strong sanctions against incest must be interdicted” (p.28).
The family concept was formulated as an important unifying force through which the social cohesion was fostered and propagated. Levi-Strauss formulated the alliance theory in which he argued that sibling groups were linked through the exchange of sisters in marriage thus extending sibling solidarity to larger groupings (Kuper 1982).
Levi-Strauss argued that “all the pre-modern societies of the world were organized on the basis of cross-cousin marriage” (Kuper 2008, p.726). He further stated that the family as a function of marriage was an institution that was formulated to create and maintain alliances.
These alliances took place through the exchange between groups as people married for strategic reasons such as to strengthen political alliances (Levi-Strauss 1969). Kinship served the practical purpose of preventing war by setting up a diplomatic alliance between groups.
The class structure that is based on family status is a cultural construction. Levi-Strauss considers the practice of totemism an expression of the differences among members of the society. Totemism, which is the naming of individuals or clans after particular plant or animal species, was a widespread practice since historical times (VonSturmer 1970).
This practice emerged from the need of man to develop a system of social ordering by giving different class structures. Human beings are able to distinguish each other according to their mutual social status, which is normally articulated in the form of social classification.
David Schneider’s Ideas
Throughout the 19th century, Americans held the view that the family relationship was biologically given and of huge importance to the society. Many Europeans also shared this assumption and they presumed that kinship was a biological outcome. However, Schneider argues that if this were the case then the same set of ideas would have been developed by other peoples across the world.
This is not the case and the family structure varied from continent to continent, and tribe to tribe. For this reason, David Schneider suggested that kinship was a function of civilization and not a feature of primitive society. According to this anthropologist, there is nothing natural about kinship and it is the production of the society.
Social conventions alone may lead to a family relationship even if there is no biological relationship between or among parties. This view is corroborated by Johnson (2003) who reveals that a person is regarded as family based on some socially prescribed duties and privileges that the person fulfils in his/her relation to others.
The manner in which people act towards each other is based on the concept of kinship, which is a construction of man. Schneider (1984) argues that there is no such thing as kinship and that “kinship” is in fact a creation of anthropologists and it has no concrete existence. Schneider (1984) suggests that family is a social construction that is useful for the allocation of rights and their transmission from one generation to the next.
The family was formulated as an entity through which continuity could be guaranteed. Patrilineage in many societies served as a landholding corporations with parents leaving property to their children. Dykstra (2006) notes that resources are “passed down from one generation to the next, in the form of gifts or inheritances for example, or in the form of financial support” (p.1).
Schneider (1984) theorizes that biological kinship is culturally constructed and it was formulated to help establish paternity with a fair degree of likelihood. He elaborates that primitive man lived at a time when promiscuity prevailed and there was no way of establishing who the child’s father was.
The concept of “marriage of pairs” was formulated to help establish paternity and this was the earliest and greatest act of human intelligence. The bonds and ties that are attributed to the sexual reproduction that occurs in the family setting are not natural but a function of the society. Schneider (1984) observes that sexual relations can occur and have significance even outside kinship.
However, the social and cultural attributes that are created when sexual reproduction occurs in a nuclear family setting are formulated by the society. Biological relations are for this reason afforded special qualities by the society. This has led to the ties being regarded as natural and inherent in the human condition.
The ties between biologically close members are not natural since they would not be special without the social and cultural connotations ascribed to them.
The socialization process is responsible for inculcating the concept of kinship in children. As a child grows up in the family, he/she is taught the logic by which his/her specific culture classifies kin and these concepts become ingrained in him/her. The child is often ignorant as to what kinship terms such as “uncle”, and “aunty” mean but he/she is brought up to attach special meaning to the relationships.
Schneider (1984) points out that the classifications of “relatives” may extend beyond the simple biological and genetic relationships with stipulated descent being included in the categories. Without the socializing process, the concept of the family would die out as individuals would not be confined to this socially prescribed structure.
Schneider strongly rejects the understanding that family has to do with reproduction and he assertively declares that kinship is essentially undefined and vacuous which since it has little that can justify it (Read 2003).
The inadequacy of blood relationships for a definition of family is accentuated by the inability for this consanguinity to account for practices such as adoption that still make fatherhood and motherhood possible. Read (2003) argues that it would be more convincing to state that family is a social convention rather than a function of procreation and parturition.
Schneider argues that the family is a fabrication since some cultures do not have words that can reasonably translate to “father” or even “child”. In his ethnographic work among the Yapese, Schneider noted that the relationship between the biological father and offspring could not be translated as “father” and “child” in the English sense of the word (Schneider 1984).
The Yapese people were able to exist without this genealogically based kinship relationship and even the passing down of property from generation to generation was not done on the basis of biological relationships.
In addition to the thoughts of the renowned anthropologists referenced herein, current developments in the family structure provide more evidence that the family is a cultural construct. The traditional gender-specific division of labour has had to change with the increased participation of women in the labour market.
Dykstra (2006) notes that the interaction between the partners who make up the family has become “more of a matter of negotiation” with the traditional gender-specific notions being all but discarded in most developed nations.
The recent legitimization of gay and lesbian family formation in many Western countries further reinforces the assertion that family is a fabricated concept. For centuries, homosexual relationships were frowned upon by societies with severe penalties being imposed on individuals who engaged in these unions.
Schneider (1997) reveals that the notion of sodomy was so abhorred in Western culture that if “justified killing and enslaving so many in the 15th and 16th centuries” (p.271). This has changed and homosexual unions are today tolerated on a greater scale.
Schneider (1997) notes that gay and lesbian rights are today asserted with antidiscrimination laws and fringe benefits being accorded to this previously marginalized sub-group. The traditional notion of family has had to be reinvented as non-heterosexual couples form relationships and become “families”.
Discussion The idea that family is a fabricated concept has led to the fall of kinship studies as modern anthropologists have abandoned the subject due to the many internal problems and theoretical weaknesses contained in it (Kuper 2003). In spite of the different approach taken in their arguments, the three thinkers analysed in this paper, Levi-Strauss, Kuper, and Schneider all contend that family is a cultural construct.
The paper has demonstrated that the prevalence of families in all communities is not an indication of their naturalness. Renowned anthropologists such as Levi-Strauss have demonstrated that the seemingly universal concept is not an indication of the naturalness of the family unit.
Rather, it is a statement of the scientific operations of classification of objects and phenomena which occurs in both Western and primitive societies. The universal family structure as we know it is a product of identical mental manipulations, which explains the seemingly self-consistent systems exhibited all over the world.
The fact that the family unity is “not what it used to be” is proof enough that the family is a fabricated unit that keeps evolving with the culture of the society.
In the recent past, alternative household organizations such as single-parent families and singles have become prevalent hence necessitating a review of the importance of the nuclear and extended family. These realities suggest that the assumption of genealogy or biology as the basis of the family is faulty since if this were the case, the family structure would remain static through time.
In spite of the understanding that the family is a fabrication, this unit will continue to play an important role in society. The nuclear family is still the engine-room of socialization and it continues to bestow economic benefits for its members. Even Schneider (1984) acknowledges that kinship is a privileged institution since it is the major building block out of which all social systems are constructed.
Conclusion This paper set out to examine the ideas of prominent anthropologists in order to demonstrate that the family is a fabricated thing. A review of these ideas has revealed that family is an ideological illusion constructed by man over the centuries. The paper has demonstrated that the concept of family started from the individual actor playing for economic and political advantage and using the family as a tool for social cohesion.
The paper has convincingly shown that most aspects of kinship are not natural but rather the social construction of various societies over the centuries.
The family relationship is not primarily one of genealogical and reproductively, instead, it is culturally specified and the manner in which it is expressed and perceived is a fabrication. It can therefore be authoritatively stated that family is not inherently human or universal; rather, it is a cultural construction that is arbitrary and variable in nature.
References Dykstra, A 2006, Family relationships: the ties that bind, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Amsterdam.
Johnson, C 2003, Claud Levi-Strauss: The formative years, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kuper, A 1982, ‘Lineage Theory: A Critical Retrospective’, Ann. Rev. Anthropol, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.71-95.
Kuper, A 2003, ‘What Really Happened to Kinship and Kinship Studies’, Journal of Cognition and Culture, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 329-335.
Kuper, A 2008, ‘Changing the subject – about cousin marriage, among other things’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 14, no.1, pp. 717-735.
Levi-Strauss, C 1969, The Elementary Structures of Kinship, Beacon Press, Boston.
Levi-Strauss, C 1970, The raw and the cooked, John and Harper, New York.
Read, D 2001, What is Kinship? In The Cultural Analysis of Kinship: The Legacy of David Schneider and Its Implications for Anthropological Relativism, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Schneider, D 1984, A critique of the study of kinship, University of Michigan Press, Michigan.
Schneider, D 1997, ‘The power of culture: notes on some aspects of gay and lesbian kinship in America today’, Cultural Anthropology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 270-274.
VonSturmer, J 1970, Claude Levi-Strauss: the anthropologist as everyman, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Voss, S 1977, ‘Claude Levi-Strauss: The Man and His Works’, Nebraska Anthropologist, vol. 145, no.1, pp. 21-38.
US Exceptionalism in Constructing and Conceptualizing a Terrorist Proposal essay help
Introduction Since its foundation in the 1700s, the united states of amerce has thought itself as exceptional. In addition, other nations have perceived the US as largely different from them. According to Deudney and Meiser,1 America is different from other nations in the world in a number of ways. However, the most obvious is the fact that the US is by far the most successful superpower in modern times.
The US success is evident in its current exceptional position as the only superpower in the modern world.2.3 Despite its political, economic and social prowess, a number of factors such as terrorism and the go-go China currently threaten the United States of America.
Terrorism is by far the most significant threat to the stability position of the US as the world’s economic and military superpower. In fact, the nation spends massive resources in protecting itself from terrorism every year, which includes its foreign policy, international intelligence and domestic security.
According to Buzan,4 the US’s behavior in the modern world seems to be largely inclined towards protecting herself from acts of terrorism that would otherwise undermine her position as the world’s sole superpower in the modern times.
Purpose of the study The purpose of this discussion is to find out some reasons behind the personality of terrorism and terrorist as perceived by Americans.
The paper will seek to answer the question on the actual identity of a terrorist, the implications of terrorist on American society. In addition, the discussion will attempt to determine why the global security is solely against the Al-Qaeda and Islamic organizations despite having dozens of other terrorist groups.
Study questions What are the reasons behind the personality of the terrorist in the American perception?
Who is the terrorist and who is not, and what kind of implications that have on the American society?
Why is the global securitization solely against Al-Qaeda and Islamic organizations while there are dozens of other terrorist groups that are not linked to Islam globally
Why are we concentrating on securitizing terrorism in understanding of United States interests?
Hypothesis of the study From a critical view of US’s behavior, it is worth noting that the United States has some exceptionalsim in constructing and conceptualizing terrorism and a terrorist, and applies its own perceptions on a terrorist in its efforts to maintain the position as the world’s sole superpower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion America’s perception on the personality of a terrorist and terrorism
The question on who a terrorist is and who a terrorist is not remains an important topic of debate in the modern world. The personality of a terrorist largely lies within the society’s perception of terrorism and the past trend of terrorism in that society.
Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the nations perception of terrorism has largely grown to demonstrate certain characteristics that are not only exceptional, but also indicates the exceptional behavior of the US in the last one decade.5.6
It is worth noting that although there are tens of other terrorist groups in various parts of the world, American definition of a terrorist brings seems to refer to extremist Islamic groups with the whole purpose of undermining America’s efforts to control the world economic, social and political system. America’s exceptional paradigm of a terrorist has grown from the 9/11 attacks on Washington and New York.
The new paradigm has developed from the Bush administration policies of total war against terrorism whose aim was to eliminate Islamic groups that were considered terrorist organizations.7
The policies created in the first bush administration were by far nearly anti-Semitic or anti-Islam; although the claim was that the policies were actually not based on religion. It is worth noting that the Bush administration put almost its entire focus on Islamic groups, yet other terrorist groups existed in other parts of the world.
America’s policies against terrorism and the need to create an international security system that would put the nation in the control of world security system seem to be largely based on the need to eliminate her threats. Of course, the most significant threat to America’s position in the world points towards terrorism and anti-Christian movements and groups in the Middle East and the Islamic world in general.
America’s foreign policies and perceptions on terrorism: Is securitization applicable on terrorism applicable for the whole world?
America’s perception of a terrorist does not necessarily explain who is and who is not a terrorist because the definition of a terrorist within the context of America is actually inclined towards the threat posed by Islamic terrorist groups such as the Al-Qaeda. Since the 9/11 attacks on Washington and New York, America’s perception towards terrorism took a turn, with all efforts being directed towards the elimination of Al-Qaeda.
We will write a custom Proposal on US Exceptionalism in Constructing and Conceptualizing a Terrorist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, consider the March 2003 attacks on Iraq. Although the United States claim was based on the need to eliminate Sadaam Hussein’s funding and support to terrorist groups, and particularly the Al-Qaeda, the disapproval of a possible military intervention in Iraq was supported by a number of world nations within the wide context of the United Nations Security Council.
However, the US displayed her exceptionalism by ignoring the warning by the UN and proceeding with the attacks, even though there was little evidence of Iraq’s support to world terrorism.
From a critical analysis of America’s perception of a terrorist, it is worth noting that the terrorist according to America’s definition is a ‘person acting as an agent of or on behalf of extremist Islamic groups whose aim is to threaten the position of the US as the sole political, social and economic superpower’. Within the perception of the United States, any person acting in this manner must be considered a terrorist.
However, the definition created by the United States does not necessarily explain who is not a terrorist. In fact, it is not appropriate to consider America’s definition of terrorist as leaving out other non-Islamic groups, but the America’s perception seems to be largely based on its position as an exceptional society.8
For instance, America was founded on a basis that was largely Christian, specifically Protestant and with strong Calvinist and Puritan beliefs. Such beliefs position America and a Christian society and with Christian principles, which perhaps explains where the country’s anti-Islamic acts are based on when it comes to fight against world terrorism.
Impact of America’s exceptional position on terrorism on world securitization and global understanding of security system
So, why is the global securitization against Al-Qaeda and Islamic organizations while tens of other terrorist groups exist? In addition, why is the world concentrating on securitization terrorism within the understanding of the United States? The answers to these questions lie within the wide context of America’s exceptionalism and its position as the sole superpower in the modern world.
Globalization of intelligence took a new beginning after the 9/11 attacks on the US. American became more and more interested in taking a central role in the process of globalization of securitization. In particular, America’s intelligence and international relation have largely been based on the nation’s need to control fight terrorism, especially the Al-Qaeda.
Most efforts by the United States to create international relations and understanding have largely been focused towards the Middle East. According to Svendsen9, America’s 21st century foreign policies have developed close relationships with a number of nations in the world, but the main aim seem to be the need to control terrorism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on US Exceptionalism in Constructing and Conceptualizing a Terrorist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the relationship between the United States and some Muslim nations such as UAE, Qatar, Egypt, Turkey and Saudi Arabia have are based on the understanding that Islamic extremist groups such as Al-Qaeda are a great threat to the presence of the United States in these nations.
Secondly, America’s efforts to develop close relationships with other western nations, particularly Britain and other nations in the European Union, are largely based on the need to develop an American understanding and perceptions of terrorism within these nations and from it, gain the required support in dealing with the threat associated with terrorism.
Conclusion These facts that tend to explain why every nation with a close relationship with the United States takes serious America’s stand on security and terrorist issues. It appears that these nations have taken the perception that Al-Qaeda is a real threat to their economies, societies and the security system.
It is evident that almost the entire world has adopted the American way of thinking, which America applies in its efforts to play the most crucial rule of controlling the process of globalization of securitization.
Bibliography Buzan , Barry. American Exceptionalism and September 11: Understanding the Behavior of the Sole Superpower. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Deudney, Daniel and Jeffery Meiser. American exceptionalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Patman, Robert. “Globalization, the New US Exceptionalism and the War on Terror.” Third World Quarterly 27 (2008): 963-986
Svendsen, Adam. “The Globalization of Intelligence since 9/11: Frameworks and Operational Parameters.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21 (2008): 129-144
Footnotes 1 Daniel Deudney and Jeffery Meiser, American exceptionalism, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 2-4
2 Robert Patman “Globalization, the New US Exceptionalism and the War on Terror,” Third World Quarterly 27 (2008): 964
3 Barry Buzan, American Exceptionalism and September 11: Understanding the Behavior of the Sole Superpower, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 12-19
4 Buzan, 13
5 Patman 965
6 Deudney and Meiser 3
7 Buzan 14
8 Patman 967
9 Adam Svendsen, The Globalization of Intelligence since 9/11: Frameworks and Operational Parameters,” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21 (2008): 129
Theories of Rent and Urban Economics Explicatory Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Theories of rent and urban economics
UK Map and Central London Data Table
Patterns in office rents
Introduction Modern urban areas can be defined and critically discussed from various perspectives. Diverse theories that define urban development do exist. The purpose of this study is to examine the various theories employed in urban economics and how the theories affect urban development in the United Kingdom. The approach used evaluates how policies that characterize modern urban business environment are employed.
The study interprets how land rates are used in ensuring that office rent charges are clearly understood and the market’s office rent fair charges are effectively defined.
In the study, global points of view are used to explain how land rates help to determine the level of efficiency and cost effectiveness in the manner in which urban areas are developed and how the rental fees for offices in metropolitan areas are determined (McCann 2001: 6-15).
Housing in urban areas defines the relevance and economic standards of how best land rates, leases and rents are defined and implemented. Most housing policies help to shape the dynamics and relevance of various aspects of land use and the degree to which urban land rates shape the rent rates and operational standards of housing units.
Imperfect competition in real estate businesses greatly contributes to the ever increasing dynamics of various business processes in the allocation, selling and leasing of offices (Capello
Judicial Views about Polygamy Thesis college essay help online
Introduction The discussion of Polygamy in America has caused a great judicial debate regarding its legal status. Now, with the changing societal perceptions regarding same-sex marriages, many people question the illegality of polygamy (Irwi, 2004).1 This chapter investigates the judicial background informing the illegality of polygamy and the circumstances that led to its prohibition, throughout all 50 states of America.
To achieve this objective, this chapter proposes the contribution of the Utah wars, Morill anti-bigamy laws, Edmund Act, Edmund-tucker act, and Reynold vs. United States case as the main factors characterizing the judicial background of polygamy in America.
Furthermore, this paper shows the legal position of American laws towards polygamy, and the contradiction that these laws have with religious freedoms and individual liberties (Gallagher, 2006, p. 30).2
Judicial Background of Polygamy in America Utah War of 1857 – 1858
The Utah war was an armed conflict between the Mormon Church and the U.S government. This war lasted one year, and included civilian casualties from both side of the divide. Even though the war was protracted, it ended through a negotiated agreement between the government and the Mormon Church (Hafen, 1958).3
The then president, James Buchanan, started this conflict by sending America troops to Mormon territories to control a rebellion in the state of Utah (against the government’s position to ban polygamy) (Hafen, 1958).4
However, the war turned out to be a mistake by the Federal government, because it gave the Mormons a renewed drive to practice polygamy, at least without any judicial interference, or any interference from the Federal government.
This happened because the government was widely criticized for its attack on Utah, especially because they had not properly ascertained accusations that the state was rebelling against the government (Danver, 2011, p. 383).5
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observers also criticized Buchanan for failing to notify Utah’s governor about the intention of the Federal government to attack the citizens of Utah. These criticisms prompted the government to leave Mormons alone. Indeed, as will be seen from the Morill Anti-bigamy law, the Utah wars of 1857 and 1858 gave Utah a renewed judicial will to practice polygamy.
Morill Anti-Bigamy Act
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morill Anti-bigamy Act after the Utah wars of 1857 and 1858 (Gallagher, 2006).6 Here, it is critical to note that the Mormon debate, and the willingness of prospective presidents to criminalize polygamy, characterized the American presidential elections of the mid and late 1800s.
Lincoln rose to power on this promise. Indeed, the failure of President Buchanan to introduce a lasting solution to polygamy gave the new president, Abraham Lincoln, the opportunity to find a lasting solution (legally) to polygamy in America. His remedy was the Morill Anti-bigamy Act.
However, since the failure of the Utah wars gave Mormons a fresh will to fight any attempts (legally) at constraining their religious right to practice polygamy, President Lincoln willingly failed to enforce anti-polygamy laws in Utah (Gallagher, 2006).7
The lack of law enforcement was a tactical move by Abraham Lincoln to exempt Utah from abiding by anti-polygamy laws, in exchange for Utah’s loyalty to the Federal government during the American civil war.
Consequently, the American commanding officer for the Federal government received instructions to refrain from confronting Mormons regarding their practice of polygamy (even though the Morill law was in force) (Gregory, 2011).8 From the government’s unwillingness to enforce (fully) anti-polygamy laws, it is easy to see how the Utah war affected subsequent applications of anti-polygamy laws in America.
Nonetheless, Lincoln signed the Morill act into law in 1862 to provide a judicial background for the enforcement of anti-polygamy laws in America. Through the Morill law, the government intended to control the spread of polygamy in the state of Utah. However, the Morrill anti-bigamy law experienced subsequent modifications when the Edmund Act came into force in 1882.
We will write a custom Thesis on Judicial Views about Polygamy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Edmund Act
Edmund act (also known as the Edmund’s anti-polygamy Act) sought to make any acts of polygamy in America a felony against the Federal government (Norgren, 2006).9 This law also criminalized bigamy and unlawful cohabitation between men and women as a misdemeanor against the laws of America.
This second provision intended to overcome the legal hurdle against the implementation of the Morill act, which experienced challenges from the burden of proving that a polygamous marriage had actually occurred.
Indeed, most polygamous marriages occurred secretively and without any legal document to show its existence. The execution of this law occurred hurriedly as a reaction to the perceived immorality that polygamy introduced to the American society (Norgren, 2006).10
The Edmund act not only reinforced the Morill Act, but also introduced firm penalties to anybody found practicing polygamy (when convicted, offenders would lose their right to vote and their right to run for political office).
The main challenge affecting the applicability of this law stemmed from its contradiction with the ex post facto law, which sought to protect the right of polygamists who practiced polygamy before the act came into force (Arrington, 1992).11
However, in a Supreme Court ruling in the Murphy vs. Ramsey case of 1885, the court ruled that the law punished polygamists for practicing polygamy after the enforcement of the anti-polygamy law, and not for their practice of polygamy before the applicability of the law. Therefore, the state penalized the continued wrongful cohabitation of polygamous couples after the law came into force (Arrington, 1992).12
The government enforced the Edmund Act indiscriminately because it prosecuted people not only for practicing polygamy, but also for subscribing to polygamous beliefs of the Mormon Church. In fact, the enforcement of the Edmund Act was so firm that all elected officers in the state (Utah) left office, so people could check them for their stand on polygamy, before they resumed office.
Several prosecutions occurred under the Edmund Act. In fact, the government estimates that it prosecuted more than 1,300 men under this act (Arrington, 1992).13 Most victims were polygamous men, because the society perceived women as victims of this practice. However, the government arrested and detained polygamous women who refused to testify against their husbands.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Judicial Views about Polygamy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Edmund–Tucker Act
The government introduced the Edmund-Tucker Act in 1887 to respond to a judicial dispute between the Mormon Church and the US federal government (concerning the practice of polygamy within the Mormon Church) (Norgren, 2006).14
Congressman Tucker and Senator Edmund introduced the act. Both sponsors proposed that the government should impose a penalty of $500 to $800 on anybody found to be practicing polygamy (Norgren, 2006).15 Both sponsors also criticized the Mormon Church for fostering polygamy in America as a religious practice.
From this statement, the Edmund-Tucker Act gave the federal government a reason to seize the assets of the LDS church (worth over $50,000) (Arrington, 1992).16 The government later assigned these assets for use in public schools around Utah. U.S marshals and their deputies implemented this law.
According to the provisions of the Edmund act, prospective voters and public officials had to denounce polygamy. Moreover, the act required prospective voters, jurors, and public officials to take an oath against polygamy before they continued their public service duties (Arrington, 1992).17 The Edmund-Tucker act also cancelled any laws allowing children born from polygamous unions to inherit property (Arrington, 1992).18
Finally, the act also required all civil unions to have a certificate, so that the prosecution of polygamous unions eased. This law changed the spousal privilege act to eliminate the protection of polygamous wives from testifying against their husbands.
To improve the enforcement of anti-polygamy laws, the Edmund-Tucker act paved the way for the appointment of federal judges to hear polygamy cases, instead of local judges (who were sympathetic to polygamists).
This law led to the abolishment of the office of territorial superintendant (in the education system) to pave way for a federally funded office that controlled school activities within Mormon strongholds. This move aimed at having an accurate assessment of the number of Mormon school going children (Norgren, 2006).19 The government repealed the Edmund-Tucker act in late 1978.
Reynold vs. United States
A fundamentalist Mormon (George Reynolds) filed The Reynold vs. United States case in 1878 (Johnson, 1948).20 Reynold claimed that the state should not prosecute him for practicing bigamy because it was his religious right to marry multiple partners.
He also claimed that the testimony of one of his wife could not be admissible in court because it was under another indictment. The state had earlier arrested him for marrying a second wife, Amelia Jane Scofield, while he was already married to another woman (Mary Ann) (Johnson, 1948).21
This case introduced a special argument in the American justice system, because it questioned the government’s commitment to protect the religious rights and freedoms of the American people. The US Supreme Court however, ruled that Reynold’s religious right was not a defence against the state’s law that criminalized polygamy.
A background of the acknowledgement that the federal government could not introduce a new law that contravened the first amendment informed this ruling. However, the court also said that anti-bigamy laws did not classify under laws that prohibited the first amendment to the American Constitution, or the freedom to exercise religious practices.
The court used a letter from Thomas Jefferson to justify its ruling regarding the existence of a clear distinction between religious beliefs and practices that stem from such beliefs (Johnson, 1948).22 The Court also ruled that religious beliefs were between man and God; therefore, the court could not intervene in such agreements.
However, actions arising from such beliefs (polygamy) were under the court’s jurisdiction, because it involved the relationship between two or more people. The court therefore believed that it had the jurisdiction over actions, and not the opinions held by religious people (Johnson, 1948).23
It should however, be understood that at the time of the ruling, fundamental Mormons believed that the growing trend by the federal government to pass laws prohibiting polygamy was a legal interference against the first amendment to the American Constitution, which gave them the right to practice their religious rights.
Because most Mormons believed so, they freely chose to ignore the Morill anti-bigamy act that criminalized their polygamous practices. Even as the Mormons felt victimized by the state, the government was still exploring ways of strengthening the already existing laws to criminalize bigamy in America.
Therefore, Reynold’s petition was untimely, because the government was strengthening its commitment to criminalize all forms of polygamy. From this background, the court indicted Reynold for bigamy and sentenced him to two years imprisonment, with a fine of $500, as stipulated by the law (Johnson, 1948).24
This ruling stood as a precedent for the criminalization of polygamy in America.
Legal Position towards Fundamental Mormon Polygamy
The legal position of the U.S federal government towards polygamy has been unfavorable to Mormons. Since the signing of the Morill Anti-bigamy law, the U.S federal government has been unforgivable in criminalizing polygamy, and all its forms. The subsequent signing of the Edmund Act, and the Edmund-Tucker Act, supported this commitment.
The presence of these laws has put the Mormon faith at crossroads with the government, and the American society, regarding their religious practices and the consequences of not following the law. The Mormons have had a choice to abandon polygamy, or continue with the practice and face the law.
To date, many Mormons have abandoned the practice and aligned their religious practices with mainstream American beliefs regarding marriage (monogamy). However, a cross-section of the Mormon faith still practices polygamy, although in small proportions.
America’s legal position towards polygamy has however not changed. Polygamy is still illegal in the United States and those practicing it, do so illegally. However, it is equally important to note that polygamy has gained a significant level of social acceptance among fundamental Mormons in America.
Many factors (including the changing societal perceptions regarding the practice, and the legalization of same sex marriages in some American states, such as, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, and Massachusetts) fuel its acceptance. Despite the existence of anti-polygamy laws, the states of Utah and Colorado have had a long history of condoning polygamy, so long as it is not public (Danver, 2011).25
The minimal convictions and commitment by the US government to arrest polygamous partners support the underground acceptance of polygamy within some states of the US. This minimal government commitment to arrest polygamists stem from the presence of tens of thousands polygamists in the U.S, who continue the practice without any strong legal consequences.
For example, within the two states mentioned above (Utah and Colorado), only two arrests have occurred within the last decade (although thousands of people practice polygamy within the two states) (Danver, 2011).26
In fact, the arrests of these two polygamous people only occurred because they openly advocated for polygamy. They therefore seemed a nuisance to the society, and an embarrassment to the state government. If the two polygamists never openly campaigned for polygamy, the government would not have arrested them.
In 2008, the Texas government also raided a fundamentalist Mormon church in the state (Danver, 2011).27 However, they only did so because they suspected that forceful marriages of underage girls (to older men) occurred within the church. If it was adults practicing polygamy (with no children involved), there would be very little state involvement (despite the illegality of polygamy in America).
The government therefore uses the law selectively (in extreme cases of polygamy, and only when polygamy gives way to social ills, such as, marrying underage girls). Anti-polygamy laws therefore exist because it is politically right to have them (because majority of Americans still do not fully accept polygamy). Moreover, if the government removes them, there would be a public outcry.
Unlike past decades when the government was very vocal about the practice of polygamy in the Mormon faith, the government has recently taken a backseat in the implementation of anti-polygamy laws. Instead, only polygamous acts considered highly immoral by the American society (such as the marriage of underage girls) are subject to prosecution.
The legal position of the American government towards polygamy in the Mormon Church has therefore stabilized in the recent years, because there have been fewer attacks on polygamists recently.
The government’s position regarding the dominance of polygamy in some Mormon sects has therefore been lukewarm because it only acts when polygamists become ‘too loud’ or engage in forceful marriages (considered unacceptable by the society). Otherwise, the government does not concern itself much with polygamists who foster the practice in secrecy.
In other words, when adults (with no history of child abuse or neglect) practice polygamy, the government rarely gets involved in such unions. This is the reason polygamy has found its way to American media. Now, polygamous shows are part of mainstream American television, such as, HBO’s Big Love and TLC’s Sister Wives.
Contradictions in the Application Polygamy Laws Contradiction with Religious Laws
The willingness of Americans to accept diverse views regarding different social issues inform America’s legal and social fabric. This diversity is widely enshrined in America’s basic freedoms and rights. One basic freedom is the freedom of religion because the law grants Americans the right to practice whatever religion they chose, so long as these freedoms do not infringe on the rights of other people.
Broadly, proponents of polygamy have advanced the practice as a religious freedom. According to the First Amendment of the American constitution, the law should protect such a right. The exception to this rule manifests when polygamy infringes on the rights of other people. However, polygamy seldom infringes on other peoples’ right.
Therefore, it is difficult to find the right legal justification why the American law does not protect polygamy as a religious right. So far, anti-polygamy laws in America have taken a social dynamic instead of a legal one. In other words, American laws banning polygamy seem to represent the societal view towards polygamy as opposed to the legal view towards the same.
Therefore, while polygamy remains a religious right, the law fails to protect it as so.
The contradictions in the application of polygamy laws in America stem from its clash with religious doctrines, and the foundations that form the American society (Hitchcock, 2008).28 Many Americans are Christians. Christianity does not criminalize polygamy the way the American law does.
In fact, many polygamous men in the bible were loyal servants of God. David and Solomon are just a few examples of polygamous men in the bible. Spector (2011)29 says that it is a common religious practice among Christians to pay attention to religious teachings (first) before they pay attention to the ‘laws of man’.
This is the main problem that has faced the government’s will to implement anti-polygamy laws in America (because they face religious opposition from the Mormon Church and the few Christians who believe in Polygamy as a fundamental religious teaching from the Bible’s Old Testament). In fact, this opposition informs the Mormon belief that they hold the religious right to practice polygamy.
Apart from the Christian opposition to the application of anti-polygamy laws, the contradictions between the government’s law and Islamic laws governing polygamy clash too (Hagerty, 2008, p. 1).30
The conflict between Islamic laws regarding polygamy (and the government’s law regarding the same) has been largely unexplored by many researchers (despite the continued practice of polygamy within the Muslim population living in America). In fact, there has been minimal government involvement in the practice of polygamy within the Muslim population.
Islamic laws allow men to have up to four wives. It is therefore within their religious right to be polygamous. However, the American law criminalizes any form of marriage after a man marries only one woman. This contradiction shows the clash between government laws and Islamic laws, worldwide.
In fact, after reviewing the religious practices surrounding the application of polygamy in America, no other religion restricts the number of women a man may marry (besides Islam). In fact, Judaism and Hinduism also do not restrict the number of wives a man may have. However, there is no agreement regarding the way Muslims practice polygamy.
Some cohabit with more than one wife (in the same house), while others cohabit with many wives in different households. Since many Islamic laws do not seek the legal recognition of their polygamous marriages, it is difficult for the government to prosecute such polygamists.
Nonetheless, from the religious freedoms given to Christian, Islamic, Hindu, and other religious groups, there is a sharp contradiction between American anti-polygamy laws and religious laws (Hagerty, 2008).31
Protection of Individual Liberties
Another contradiction that undermines the application of the anti-polygamy law is the Supreme Court decision of 2003, in Lawrence vs. Texas (Ihara, 2008, p. 6).32 Lawrence brought this case to the Supreme Court to question the legality of homosexual relations in Texas.
The court ruled that Texas had no authority to dictate the private relationships of its citizens, or the way Americans chose to live their lives. In this regard, the Supreme Court struck down all sodomy laws in Texas and gave unprecedented freedom to its people to practice whatever private unions they wanted.
This ruling also said that the 14th Amendment to the American Constitution protected consensual sexual conduct of American citizens. The government therefore had no right to dictate how its citizens should live their private lives.
Previous court rulings that sought to undermine the liberties and freedoms of Americans were undermined by this ruling because the Supreme Court ruled that they were formulated using a narrow understanding of the liberties and freedoms enjoyed by the American population (Ihara, 2008).33
The above ruling was a landmark ruling in America because it symbolized a great milestone in the advancement of individual liberties. Moreover, many gay right activists considered the ruling a great milestone in the advancement of gay rights (Gallagher, 2006, p. 27).34 Since the court made this ruling, Americans have enjoyed unprecedented freedoms in their lifestyle choices and private relationships.
Practically, the Lawrence vs. Texas ruling made it impossible for the state to continue using the criminal code to define the private relationships of American citizens. Indeed, in the past, the American government had extensively used the criminal code to dictate even the most private and intimate relationships of the American people.
From the above developments regarding the protection of American civil liberties and rights, there has been a growing trend for the court to protect private relationships. This development has given new ammunition for polygamists to demand equal protection by the government.
The reluctance to grant polygamous unions the same consideration that same sex marriages have (to legalize, or not?), creates a contradiction in the application of anti-polygamy laws, and the protection of individual liberties. The biggest question that arises in this regard is why the American justice system seems to safeguard selective individual liberties, while criminalizing others.
Naturally, if the courts protect same-sex marriages as legal marital unions (in some states), polygamy should also receive the same treatment because it is also a marital union that consenting adults choose to engage in (Gallagher, 2006, p. 27).35
Conclusion The inconsistencies in the application of anti-polygamy laws in America are obvious. Most of these inconsistencies were nonexistent during the initial criminalization of polygamy by the American federal government. However, advancements in the protection of American individual liberties (and the changing societal perceptions regarding private relationships) created these inconsistencies (Gallagher, 2006, p. 30).36
Comprehensively, there is a trend within the American judicial system to safeguard most American individual liberties. Unfortunately, this trend protects these liberties selectively because polygamy does not receive this judicial protection.
Irwi (2004)37 says that the initial reference and attachment of polygamy with same sex marriage is responsible for this neglect because critics of same sex marriages used polygamy as an argument against the legalization of same sex marriages.
Therefore, American civil organizations refrain from justifying the initial fear of its critics that the possible legalization of same sex marriages would lead to the legalization of polygamous unions. In this regard, the law continues to neglect polygamy. All 50 states of America therefore still criminalize the union.
References Arrington, L. (1992). The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-Day Saints. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Danver, S. (2011). Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. New York: ABC-CLIO.
Gallagher, E. (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Gregory, J. (2011). SkinHead Girl: Based on a True Story. New York: Author House.
Hafen, L. (1958). Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858. New York: U of Nebraska Press.
Hagerty, B. (2008). Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy. Web.
Hitchcock, J. (2008). The Supreme Court and Religion in American Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ihara, T. (2008). Living Together: A Legal Guide for Unmarried Couples. New York: Nolo.
Irwin, M. (2004). Women and Gender in the American West: Jensen-Miller Prize Essays from the Coalition for Western Women’s History. New York: UNM Press.
Johnson, A. (1948). Separation of Church and State in the United States. Minnesota: U of Minnesota Press.
Norgren, J. (2006). American Cultural Pluralism and Law. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Spector, J. (2011). Seeming Contradictions: Polygamy (Plural Marriage). Web.
Footnotes 1 Michael, Irwin. (2004). Women and Gender in the American West: Jensen-Miller Prize Essays from the Coalition for Western Women’s History. New York: UNM Press.
2 Eugine, Gallagher. (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
3 Leroy, Hafen. (1958). Mormon Resistance: A Documentary Account of the Utah Expedition, 1857-1858. New York: U of Nebraska Press.
4 Hafen, 1958.
5 Steven, Danver. (2011). Revolts, Protests, Demonstrations, and Rebellions in American History: An Encyclopedia. New York: ABC-CLIO.
6 Gallagher, 2006.
8 John, Gregory. (2011). SkinHead Girl: Based on a True Story. New York: Author House.
9 Jill, Norgren. (2006). American Cultural Pluralism and Law. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
10 Norgren, 2006.
11 Leornard, Arrington. (1992). The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-Day Saints. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
12 Arrington, 1992.
14 Norgren, 2006.
16 Arrington, 1992.
19 Norgren, 2006.
20 Alvin, Johnson. (1948). Separation of Church and State in the United States. Minnesota: U of Minnesota Press.
21 Johnson, 1948.
25 Danver, 2011.
28 James, Hitchcock. (2008). The Supreme Court and Religion in American Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
29 Jeff, Spector. (2011). Seeming Contradictions: Polygamy (Plural Marriage).
30 Barbara, Hagerty. (2008). Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy.
31 Hagerty, 2008.
32 Toni, Ihara. (2008). Living Together: A Legal Guide for Unmarried Couples. New York: Nolo.
33 Ihara, 2008.
34 Gallagher, 2006.
35 Gallagher, 2006.
36 Gallagher, 2006.
37 Irwi, 2004.
European Colonization Impacts on the Native American Population Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction An examination of various historical accounts from the 15th to 19th century show that the Native American population was adversely affected by the arrival of European settlers due to various conflicts that arose and the new diseases that the Europeans brought which, in combination, devastated the local population.
Yet, it should be noted that not all interactions between the two civilizations resulted in adverse outcomes for the local population. For example, during the 15th century, Spaniards had introduced horses to the Americas resulting in a profound effect on the local community.
Due to several of these animals escaping and breeding in the wild the end result was a considerable increase in the local horse population, especially in areas such as the Great Plains region in North America.
The end result of this accidental albeit fortunate introduction of a new species enabled Native American tribes to greatly expand their territories, exchange news and various goods with neighboring tribes and even enabled them to hunt local animals a lot easier.
The arrival of Europeans to the Americas can be considered the underpinnings of a significant social, cultural and educational shift that occurred to Native American populations which brought about both positive and negative effects which will be detailed within this paper.
It is based on this that it can be stated that the invasion of Europeans to the New World had a significant impact on the political, social, and economic development of the Native American society.
Origins of European Colonization
The origin of European colonization was actually based on the inherent competitions of the various European countries at the time to expand their individual spheres of power into the “New World” (Pagden, 1-25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, it was actually the case that expansion was also fueled by their desire to find shorter routes to the India and China in order to gain access to the various spices and silks that were valuable commodities within Europe at the time (Pagden, 1-25).
This is particularly important to take note of since as it can be seen from their intentions, the desire of the Europeans was not so much coexistence as it was the desire to expand and gain more resources.
Encounters Between Europeans and Indians
In the case of the initial European encounters with the Native American population, it can be seen that Europeans considered Indians immortal and uncivilized and, therefore, they strived to impose their culture (Currie 17).
This cultural imposition took on a variety of forms such as the religious conversions attempted by the local parishioners to even direct eradication of “savage” cultural traditions in favor of the “cultured” mannerisms adopt by the Europeans.
Such actions were, of course, met with considerable resistance by the local population and, in fact, can be considered the basis behind the initial enmity between the two cultures since the actions of the European colonists can in effect be considered a form of subversion which the local settlers did not view as a positive turn of events (Trigger, 1195-1215).
It should be noted though that this desire to impose a more “civilized” culture on the native population can actually be considered an early variation of the “white man’s burden” which is a cultural thought process that states that Caucasians have a moral and ethical responsibility to educate the lesser races in order to set them down the correct path of thinking and acting”.
Such is the case when it came to the Native American population wherein the colonizers actually thought that they were doing the natives a favor. It is based on this that it is not so surprising that the relationship between the two cultures was distinctly adversarial given the way in which Europeans viewed the Native Americans.
We will write a custom Research Paper on European Colonization Impacts on the Native American Population specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Native American Culture
Salisbury points out that, “American before Columbus possessed its own particular rich history stretching back centuries into the remote reaches of the past” (3).
This was evidenced by the cultural traditions of the Native American people that placed a particular emphasis on nature spirit worship, the existence of animal spirits as well as a distinct focus on living in harmony with nature rather than oppressing it.
Such attributes have been noted as existing within the Native American culture hundreds of years before the arrival of the colonialists.
Combined with their rich agricultural tradition as well as the numerous rituals and ceremonies they had in place at the time, it can be considered that the Native Americans were not the savages depicted by the European settlers, instead they should have been considered a deeply spiritual people that focused on living off the land.
It is rather unfortunate that the response of the settlers was to impose their culture on such people instead of accepting them for what they were (Guy, 1 – 30).
Mutual Influence Between Native Americans and European Settlers
It is quite interesting to note that there was a substantial degree of cross-cultural influence between the Native Americans and European settlers in the form of a substantial share in practices and products.
What you have to understand is that the Native Americans at the time actually had a reasonably advanced agriculturally-based civilization wherein they utilized techniques such as irrigation, rock funnels and had developed substantial local crops such as corn, beans, squash which they traded for goods among tribes or with the European settlers.
Based on the work of Trigger (1991) it can even be seen that the Native Americans had in fact taught European settlers their agricultural practices and provided the necessary seeds in order to help them raise their own crops (Calloway, 1- 20).
Not sure if you can write a paper on European Colonization Impacts on the Native American Population by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is based on this that many of the agricultural practices utilized by the early European settlers at the time can, in fact, be connected to the influences of local Native American tribes (Trigger, 1195-1215).
Another factor that should be taken into consideration yet is often overlooked is the fact intermarriage between European settlers and Native Americans often occurred. An examination of population estimates at the time revealed that the male to female ratio for settlers often reached 10 to 1 in favor of the males.
This was especially true for the Spanish colonies and, as a direct result, intermarriages between cultures were often necessary in order to ensure the continued survival of a settlement.
In fact, it can even be stated that it was due to these first intermarriages that resulted in customs and traditions being exchanged between the two cultures in the first place.
Political and Economic Influence of European Colonists on Native Americans
Further research on the political impact of the European colonists on Native American tribes can clearly be seen in the case of tribal reorganizations into new cultural groups.
What must be understood is that the arrival of European colonists brought considerable harm to local populations in the form of diseases that the native tribes had no immunity to (Guy, 1 – 30).
Combined with the various conflicts and skirmishes that occurred between the two cultural groups, this resulted in a considerable decline in the local population.
As such, in order to survive many tribes in the first half of the 18th century actually combined into one tribe as seen in the case of the Seminoles in Florida and the Mission Indians of California.
Not only that, the sheer devastation of the European occupation actually removed the political stratification that used to divide various tribes which created a whole new set of alliances (Calloway, 1- 20). According to Salisbury, North Americans exhibited a variety of languages, beliefs, and political systems (Currie 17).
However, this variety “was less the result of their isolation from one another than of the widely varying natural and social environments with which Indians had interacted over millennia” (5).
It should be noted though that this variety in languages, belief systems and culture created a certain degree of divisiveness among the early Native American tribes.
From a particular perspective, it can be stated that the various Native American tribes within the Americas at the time can be considered a microcosm of the different European powers that existed during the 15th to 19th century wherein there were a variety of rivalries and alliances (Grigg and Mancall, 1 – 15).
With the arrival of the European colonists and the subsequent destruction of various tribes due to disease and conflict, this resulted in several tribes that used to be bitter rivals becoming new allies in order to combat what they perceived as a common threat (Glatthaar, Joseph and Martin, 1-23).
This represents a major political and social shift for the population the equivalent of which would be if the U.S. and Russia had become allies during the height of the Cold War.
Differences in Political Views and Subsequent Conflict
Looking forward towards the birth of the United States, it can be seen that another of the main differences that affected the relationship between Native Americans and the European settlers was the overall difference in political views towards not only the settlement of their territories but the manner in which they were treated by the government (Prucha, 1 – 45).
When examining the case of the early expansion of the U.S. into new territories, it can clearly be seen that this expansion was often done at the expense of local Native American populations (Prucha, 1 – 45).
What the government at the time failed to realize was that despite its efforts in attempting to educate the Native American people as well as provide them with the means to be civilized, in reality, they viewed the continued encroachment on their territories as a direct violation of their traditional culture (Prucha, 1 – 45).
It should also be noted that the supposed purchase of lands or resettlement into new territories was not viewed by the Native Americans in the same conventional sense as the Europeans since in the view of the Native Americans the land itself was owned by them through ancestral right and could not be “bought” in the traditional sense since it was the land that their forefathers had given to them.
One prime example though of the successes the European colonizers had when it came to acculturation came in the form of Samson Occum who is widely recognized as the first Native American who published various papers and books on the issue Ottery, 360-361).
It should be noted though that Occum was also under the opinion that what the settlers were doing was inherently wrong and repressive and is indicative of a problem with the methods utilized in settling within the Americas.
Influence of European Colonies on Native Americans
It is quite interesting to note that when examining the various countries where European colonization occurred, it can be seen that religious fervor and the proliferation of devout followers is a common theme among such countries at the present.
Various studies explain that this current predilection by stating that in order to overtake the cultures and original religions that used to play essential roles in such cultures, European colonizers utilized religious conversion as a means by which the local populace could be influenced and as a result subvert the practices that were in existence at the time with something more akin to what the European colonizers wanted (Grigg and Mancall, 1 – 15).
Such a case was extensively utilized in the case of Native American populations within the Americas, wherein locals were often forcibly converted towards Christianity by the Europeans.
The economic impact of European colonization can be considered a far more positive outcome as compared to the political and social outcomes that occurred. As a direct result of crossing from the Atlantic, European civilization introduced a variety of domesticated animals to the local population.
Animals such as pigs, sheep, and cows which were not native to the region eventually became a great source of sustenance for the natives.
Combined with an increased amount of trade in manufactured goods (i.e. guns, knives, and various clothing) for animal skins and different types of agricultural products such as local grains and the growing of tobacco, the Europeans had in effect introduced the population to a whole new form of economic mercantilism that did not exist to such a degree in the past (Salisbury, 3-26).
While horses were mentioned earlier in this paper, it should be noted that they acted as almost the primary method by which trade and hunting were done by the Native American population in the Great Plains region where they were introduced.
Overall, it can be seen that through the intentional and inadvertent actions of the European settlers, they had in effect influenced the political, social and economic landscape of the local population to a considerable degree.
Destruction and Replacement of Cultural Practices
Researchers such as Salisbury (2000) have shown that oral tradition played an important role in helping various societies sustain their cultural practices despite the cultural domination instituted by European traders and colonizers. (Salisbury, 3-26)
This due to the fact that while various types of cultural texts and religious iconography can be burned or destroyed, oral traditions can quickly be passed from one generation to the next resulting in the survival of various types of cultural practices.
This was seen in the case of the Philippines wherein various aspects of its ancient cultural traditions involving elemental and idol worship were subtlety incorporated into social convention despite the best efforts of the Catholic priests at the time to stamp out all previous forms of “alternative” cultural or religious practices.
Unfortunately, when it came to the cultural practices of the Native American population many were based on oral traditions and, as such, when the local tribes were decimated as a direct result of European based diseases, many of the oral traditions had died along with the populations.
As such, many of the local inhabitants adopted a variety of Western cultural dispositions in order to survive in their new environment despite the fact that it did not coincide with what their cultural tradition used to be like.
Understanding the Process of European Colonization in the Case of the Native Americans
In the case of empires what occurs is a state of cultural imposition wherein cultural predilection, values, behaviors even methods of speaking are imposed on a local populace resulting in a deterioration of the local culture (Glatthaar, Joseph and Martin, 1-23).
Of particular interest is this particular viewpoint is the focus on the concept of “the White Man” and how the white culture had in effect superimposed itself on various cultures resulting in a strange blending of the two.
Various examples of such a trend can be seen throughout history with the most notable being the Spanish subjugation of the Philippines for 333 years resulting in the assimilation of the Filipino people into the Spanish culture and religion effectively wiping out many traces of their past religion and cultural practices.
Taking this into consideration it can be seen that subjugation can be likened to the near-death experience of a particular culture wherein through imposition and subsequent assimilation old cultural behaviors, values, and various aspects unique to that specific culture are in effect repressed or removed in favor of the ideas, notions and cultural styling of the empire.
Based on this, it is at times questioned whether empires truly benefit the areas and subjects that they in effect conquer. One way of looking at this issue is to take another look at the case of the Native Americans and see the apparently “beneficial” effects of subjugation.
From a particular perspective, it can be seen that through cultural subjugation, empires in effect help cultures become more “inline” with the global perspective of how the world chooses to view them. Not only that, there is also the issue of advances in architecture and technology transfer that also occur as a result of subjugation.
On the other hand, the sheer cultural decay that at times occur does not seem to be entirely as worth it as history has made it out to be.
It is based on this that it can be seen that there are benefits accrued as a result of subjugation by an empire, but such benefits are often clouded by the adverse cultural effects that empires have on local areas and people.
Conclusion Based on the various findings and arguments presented within this paper, it can clearly be seen that European colonization of the Americas clearly had a significant impact on the Native American population as seen from the subsequent changes that occurred socially, politically and culturally within their respective communities.
It is interesting to note though that the reactions of the early Native Americans to the incursion of European settlers are an essential point of reference to take into consideration since it helps to highlight problems that are occurring within the present-day global environment.
As it can be seen from various news reports at the present, there has been a considerable level of conflict not only in the Middle East but in other parts of the world involving cultural clashes that have been the cause of numerous conflicts.
By understanding the various transitions and changes that occurred to colonial America, an understanding will eventually develop regarding what methods of cultural adaptation and coexistence were implemented which would enable modern-day society to understand better what adaptive policies could possibly be put into action in order to reduce problems related to culture clashes and to allow the development of a more peaceful society.
Works Cited Calloway, Colin. The American Revolution in Indian County: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities. US: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.
Currie, Stephen. “First Contact with Europeans.” Cobblestone 24.7 (2003): 17. Print.
Glatthaar, Joseph, T., and James Kirby Martin. Forgotten Allies: The Oneida Indians and the American Revolution. US: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Print.
Grigg, John A., and Peter Mancall. British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. US: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.
Guy, Chet. Conquering the American Wilderness: The Triumph of European Warfare in Colonial New England. US: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003. Print.
Ottery, Jim. “Rhetorical Sovereignty”. Wisconsin Indian Literature: Anthropology of Native Voices. Eds. Kathleen Tigerman and Jim Ottery. 360-361. US: University of Wisconsin Press. 2006. Print.
Pagden, Anthony Robin. European Encounters with the New World: From Renaissance to Romanticism. US: Yale University Press. 1993. Print.
Prucha, Francis Paul. Quantum Books: Revolutionary War to Present. US: University of California Press. 1988. Print.
Salisbury, Neal. “The Indians’ Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans”. American Encounters: Native and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1580. Eds. Peter Mancall and James Hart Merrell. 3-26. New York: Routledge, 2000 Print.
Trigger, Bruce G. “Early Native North American Responses To European Contact: Romantic Versus Rationalistic Interpretations.” Journal Of American History 77.4 (1991): 1195-1215. Print.
The Extent to Which FDI Inflows have Influenced GDPGrowth in India Quantitative Research Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Previous studies on the impact of FDI on GDP concluded that there was no long run relationship between the two. The Granger Casual analysis provided this inference. Sirari
The Most Challenging Aspects of Graphics Design Thesis college essay help
Abstract Evidence of improved learning outcomes when incorporating creative problem solving in the learning process can actually be seen in graphical design students who incorporate proper message delivery, research, conceptualization and understanding the audience.
It is based on this that this section explores the personal and professional impact of the study and helps to reveal what processes need to be changed in order to create a better practices in teaching graphics design students.
Introduction This chapter discusses the findings of the research regarding the most challenging aspects of graphics design at the present.
It delves into the findings of the literature review wherein it was revealed that message delivery, research, conceptualization and an understanding of a particular target audience are the main challenge that students of graphical design encounter on a daily basis.
As such, this section will delve into the personal impact of the study results, its impact on the practice of graphical design in general as well as makes recommendations related to what processes could possibly be implemented in order to resolve the identified issues.
Discussion The reason behind the creation of this study was to develop a means of understand what problems students of graphical design encounter on a daily basis when it comes to creativity.
Through a comprehensive examination of the various facts presented within the literature review, this has subsequently changed the views of the researcher regarding graphics design.
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Based on the study, I have come to realize the following factors regarding creativity:
When it comes to the application of creativity, it is important to note that there are three essential elements that are present which result in the creative process. These elements are composed of the following concepts:
Copy – the element of copying within creativity is actually a manifestation of the learning process wherein people “copy” the relevant information they need and internalize it for later use.This internalization is an essential aspect of the process of creativity since it in effect acts as the initial blueprint from where all future ideas stem from.
Transform – the element of transformation occurs when information that was initially copied and internalized is examined and thought of in new ways.While it has yet to be applied into anything specific, the information is no longer the same as it once was since it has been modified based on other perspectives and internalized concepts (Staresinic, 2009).
Combine – the process of combination involves utilizing the transformed knowledge within a real life situation which in effect creates a new solution as compared to merely utilizing the knowledge in the same way in order to create the same solution.
It is based on this that I have come to realize that when it comes to message delivery, research, conceptualization and understanding the audience, it is important to not only copy ideas that are given during class but to transform and combine them with new ideas in order to create something unique.
It is not adequate enough that ideas and techniques taught in class are to be utilized, rather, it is necessary to develop a more personal approach to graphical design wherein you utilize your own methods that suit your style in order to create truly original artwork (Steven, 2007).
Impact on Practice
Based on the work of Kirby Ferguson, it can be stated that the concept of creativity arises not out of nothingness; rather, it is the result of applying ordinary mental tools within the mind onto existing materials in order to produce new results (Vogel et al., 2011).
In order to better understand such a concept and how it impacts graphical design, it is important to first know what the various elements of creativity are and how they impact the creative process.
The Elements of Creativity Are Composed of the Following
Cognitive elements within the creative process refer to an individual’s basic knowledge regarding particular processes (whether generalized or specializing in a specific field), their attraction towards complexity (e.g. their innate ability to analyze and combine ideas into new areas or dimensions), their general open-mindedness towards new discoveries and finally their awareness of the creative process itself.
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It is through such an insight that it has been revealed that graphics design schools should not focus merely on developing the artistic talents of their students, rather, they should also help them in developing the necessary research skills in order to better understand that populations they are targeting with particular designs.
Affective elements on the other hand refer to an individual’s intrinsic level of curiosity, willingness to explore, their ability to take risks and their general independence towards following generally accepted processes and procedures in order to attempt something new (Small space, big ideas, 2006).
Combined with the cognitive elements of creativity this in effect enables an individual to examine current processes from multiple angles and actually desire to implement new methods which could potentially improve such processes.
Based on the study of De Miranda, Aranha
History of Mortimer’s Castle in UK Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help
Background of the Mortimer’s Castle Mortimer’s Castle is one of the most important tourist attractions in the United Kingdom. William Fitz Osbern founded the Castle in 1067. The castle served as an administrative base for the Lords of the Mortimer who ruled the West Midlands and East Wales.
The castle was a center of power for over 500 years (English Heritage 2012). Thus, several kings and queens used it as a palace or a residential area. The Mortimer’s family owned the castle from 1075 to 1425. However, the ownership of the castle was later transferred to the Crown.
Sir Thomas Harley bought the castle in 1601(English Heritage 2012). Currently, there are no houses or any form of accommodation of the site. However, the ruin of the castle still exists. Concisely, the ruined Mortimer’s Castle is located at Wigmore in Herefordshire.
The ruin dates back to 921AD, thereby making it one of the oldest and culturally significant historic treasures in the United Kingdom. Currently, the ruin is owned by private entities. Nonetheless, the government is responsible for its preservation. The castle, as well as, the adjacent land is currently available for sale.
PEST Analysis The PEST model is a marketing tool that facilitates analysis of the macro-environment of a firm. Concisely, it enables marketers to measure the impact of political, economic, social, and legal factors in their industries (Winer 2006, p. 114).
The Ancient Monuments Act of 1913 prohibits alteration of historic buildings (Historic Houses Association 2012).
Similarly, the planning Act of 1990 protects buildings and areas of special architectural or historic interest from the destruction that might occur due to commercial or residential development (Parliament UK 2012). In this regard, developing Mortimer’s Castle by changing its architectural attributes will not be possible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the Hereford Tourist Board has to use the castle without making significant alterations to it. The national Heritage Act 2002 permits private entities to produce and sell souvenirs, which are associated with ancient monuments that are located in England.
In this regard, the board can generate an income by selling souvenirs that are associated with the castle (National Heritage Act 2002).
Tourism is one of the key drivers of economic growth in the UK since it contributes 8.2% of the country’s GDP and supports over 2.6 million jobs (British Tourism Authority 2012). The demand for rural heritage and cultural attractions such as the Mortimer’s Castle is likely to increase in 2012.
The factors that underpin this growth include the country’s economic crisis and the weakening of the British pound. Concisely, the citizens are opting for local and short trips due to financial constraints. Hence, the number of visitors to the Mortimer’s Castle is likely to increase.
One factor that is likely to reduce the growth of the industry is the VAT, which was increased to 20% in 2011 (British Tourism Authority 2012). Ticket prices have risen in response to the increase in VAT. Hence, the demand for visits to tourist attractions is likely to reduce.
Nearly 83% of tourists are day visitors. Herefordshire receives over four million visitors. However, the average expenditure per visitor is only 27.64 pounds (British Tourism Authority 2012). Empirical studies indicate that tourists prefer destinations that reflect the significance of history, architecture, public spaces, and arts.
Additionally, they prefer destinations in which local foods and drinks are available. These preferences increase the number of visits to local and regional attractions such as the Mortimer’s castle. Rapid population growth is a threat to rural heritage and cultural attractions (Facts and Figures about Herefordshire 2012).
We will write a custom Case Study on History of Mortimer’s Castle in UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In particular, it can lead to the destruction of tourist attractions through commercial and residential developments.
Technology is important in the tourism industry since it facilitates marketing activities and provision of services. A heritage railway connects Wigmore to Cardiff and Manchester, thereby improving the accessibility of the Mortimer’s Castle.
Furthermore, the train is an attraction due to its historical background. Advancements in information and communication technology also facilitate the execution of activities such as marketing of tourist destinations (Collison
Emotional Intelligence in HR Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
There have been changes in IQ scores as years advance. The high scores recorded in the rise of IQ are because of the changing trend in evaluation taking a turn from strictly intellectual testing to testing of competence in the light of psychological statuses gauging empathy, initiative and the self-discipline of people (Riley, 2013).
It is agreeable that IQ has limits because there are limitations to IQ as it relies mainly in intellectual intelligence without. It is more factual without express assurance of competence because it lacks any emotional connections. IQ limitations emerge from the incapability of encompassing other human qualities, which promote the success of an individual (Lopez-Zafra, Garcia-Retamero
Leadership and Influence Report essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Initial Reflection on Unit
Leader as a Social Architect
Introduction According to Northouse (2009, p. 3), “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influence a group of individuals to achieve a common goal”.
Considering leadership a process implies that it cannot be defined as a characteristic or trait that is typical of a leader, but a transactional phenomenon that arises from the communication between a leader and followers.
Defining leadership from this perspective provides greater understanding of the influences and interactions between leaders and their subordinates. Hence, leadership cannot exist without influence because it constantly occurs in groups, the context in which leaders operate and influence individuals to achieve a common purpose.
In the course of development, leadership practices have evolved into multiple models and theories. This is of particular concern to transformational leadership and situational leadership models. There are also frameworks that are premised on such aspects as personality traits, skills, and behavior.
All these approaches provide a wider picture of how leadership can be characterized, as well as what dimensions are the most efficient ones in managing an organization.
Initial Reflection on Unit General analysis of leadership is closely associated with the contexts in which leaders operate, trends in organizational dynamics, and discussion of traits, skills, and competencies that a leader should possess.
Engaging in formative activities, specific attention has been given to the analysis of personal skills, experiences, and activities that relate to leadership analysis. Multiple tests and procedures have provided awareness of pitfalls and benefits that can further be considered in self-evaluation tests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular, self-assessment is designed to assist leaders with determining what skills are needed to develop new leadership competencies.
Context Because leadership can refer to process and influence, the contextual dimension of understanding this phenomenon is vital. Introducing new models, techniques and approaches to leadership educations has strong connection with social environment, political aspects, as well as the dynamics of human nature.
More importantly, due to the fact that leadership as a process that refers to various cultural contexts and personal dimensions, specific attention should also be given to self-reliance and personal growth initiatives, being the main drive forces of developing leadership skills.
Leadership evaluation is closely associated with evolution of social and organizational change. In this respect, Rost and Barker (2000) emphasize that, at the threshold of the twenty first century, leadership perspectives are more oriented on individualistic training of leaders as a superior class.
Focus on leaders’ and ignorance of followers, however, does not contribute to the development of efficient management environment because the influence and interaction stand at the core of the relationship.
In this respect, Rost and Barker (2000, p. 4) assume, “leadership education…is goal oriented, where the goal is defined by some level of organizational performance; …it is centered on self-interest; it is founded in materialism”.
Such a perspective has dramatically changed nowadays since more models are oriented on individuals rather than on goals. Leaders should develop a set of values and goals that can suit the employees’ culture and generate profitability, commitment, motivation, and high performance in an organization.
We will write a custom Report on Leadership and Influence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ability to adopt new approaches is closely associated with change management. It is also inherent condition for promoting leadership perspectives.
In this respect, Dawson (2008, p. 1) stresses, “evaluating the extent and depth of company change allows us to classify change from small development activities and routing modifications through a large-scale transformational initiatives”.
Apart from the evident connection between external aspects of change and its influence of organizational development, change management should be consistently applied to individuals working with an organization.
In this respect, Dawson (2008, p.) insists, “…the importance of communication, employee involvement and ensuring that behavioral change is rooted within the culture of an organization has a relationship has longstanding history in the field of Organizational Development”.
Therefore, both organizational environment and human potential are important factors triggering new trends in leadership styles.
With regard to the above, leadership contributes greatly to formation of workplace setting, which influences the level of individuals’ achievement, purpose, and security.
Therefore, leaders should realize that the turnover level and recruitment culture depend largely on personal characteristics and approaches that they to improve organizational culture.
In this respect, Hull (2003, p. 3) understands workplace leadership in terms of “how the immediate supervisor, team leader, manager or coordinator presented himself or herself”. The focus is made on leadership and individual potential, but not on administration and management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership and Influence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the employed environment should be effectively organized to enhance employees’ motivation and increase their competence (McDonald n. d.). In addition, leaders should be able to organize their followers in teams to operate effectively and achieve the established goals.
Within a cultural context, it should be acknowledged that most leadership styles are oriented on western models that are characterized by a narrow-focused orientation. In this respect, Mellahi (2000) advises to think beyond western stereotypes and promote new, unconventional approaches to business management.
Diverse leadership practices, therefore, are vital for creating a universal scheme. Similar to Mellahi (2000), Avramopoulos and Thomas (2007) also discuss leadership in the context of Greek traditions. In simplistic terms, understanding Greek context does not imply focusing on historic analysis of specific leaders.
Rather, the tradition is associated with “the interference of cultural factors and key principles relating to leadership development as evidenced within broader literary source of ancient Greek figures” (Avramopoulos and Thomas 2007, p. 52).
Within this perspective, the leadership style illustrates social ideology and qualities that ancient leaders tried to achieve. At an individual level, the myth aims to outlinine an important process of searching for the self through struggle and effort.
During the struggle, potential leaders should be guided by an appropriate mentor who can provide viable advice. Therefore, the Greek mythology closely relates to gods and goddess who accompany mortal heroes in their pursuit of goals.
Finally, at the threshold of the technological era, leadership should be connected with the development of online communication, which requires leaders and supervisors to inquire new skills and experiences, including instant messaging, technological competence, and constant interaction with several subordinates (Martinsons et al. 2009).
In this respect, the virtual context also influences the modes of negotiation and supervision.
Organizational Dynamics Organizational dynamics and development is closely associated with individuals’ performance, group working, and organizational culture. All these components should be harmonized through efficient leadership and supervision.
The research on organizational dynamics, therefore, aims to define the extent to which individuals should be involved in teamwork, as well as how group cooperation, should concern how close leaders should follow the firmly established goals.
Team culture is an important element of successful interaction and cooperation, but focus on individual achievement is not less important. Finally, lack of support and inability to adjust to quickly changing environments does not contribute to innovation and improvement.
Team building is an indispensible factor affecting corporate cultures. It defines duties and responsibilities that each team member should take. In this respect, the role of a leader is confined to taking control of the processes held within the team and providing team members with enough space for creativity and critical thinking.
The individual potential should be appraised by leaders. In this respect, Thomas and Walker (2010, p. 189) insist, “the sharp end, where policy rhetoric meets organizational reality, is an ideal opportunity to examine leadership and its handmaiden failure”.
The failure to conform to a specific end should not be regarded as a disability of a team leader to achieve the desired goals. The problem is that leaders are not flexible enough to recognize alternative solutions to the problem that have been offered beyond the established framework.
As a result, the organization fails to response to the rapidly changing external environment, which can also lead to low competence.
The value of team working should not be underestimated because it provides a number of benefits for employees’ performance and productivity. In particular, team building is primarily premised on constant support, assistance, and interaction, leading to generation of new ideas and thoughts.
As an example, Smith (2012) on the Olympic games held in Australia when Australian swimmers failed to achieve the results just because no one expected they could win the game.
Reluctance to make the effort refers, first of all, to the prejudices and biases shaped within the coach’s team. According to Smith (2012, p. 2), “this relatively dismal showing has come to be seen as the inescapable product of poor administered sport in sharp decline…weak leadership and double standards”.
Strong dependence on authority, however, prevents individuals from developing their professional skills, as well as cognizing personal abilities and skills.
Such a perspective explains the dark side of supervision and leadership that is concerned with cult of a leader, rather than adherence to specific goals (Dark Side of Leadership n. d.). More importantly, self-destructive behaviors of leaders can cause the decline of corporate culture.
Leader as a Social Architect It has been defined that leadership is connected with the social and cultural environment in which leaders can be regarded as social architects. Hence, managers and supervisors should be able to scan the external and internal setting for delivering new mechanism to face challenges of constantly changing market.
Product innovation, knowledge management, human resources are among the priorities that leaders should consider before engaging into organizational development. Cultural diversity is another phenomenon that has penetrated the management landscape and has shaped new perspectives on leadership.
Cross-cultural communication is indispensible for leaders to reach consensus with their employees and find the motivating factors increasing employees’ engagement into the organizational process.
According to Abbasi and Hollman (1989, p. 19), “managing involves dealing with people who have unique emotions, interests, attitudes, perceptions, cultural experiences, and socio-economic backgrounds”.
In other words, leading an organization successfully, managers should control organizational processes as they believe they should be controlled. Regardless of personality traits, executives should consider a number of rules and principles of managing people.
To begin with, leaders should demonstrate high integrity, which possible through trust, honesty, and respect. Second, fear should be removed from the employed setting because employees will be more productive in case they are not under the pressure.
Third, open communication and open channels of interaction and information exchange is another successful solution to the problem. Finally, providing objective recognition of employees’ achievements can also generate higher rates of job performance.
There are number of opportunities for leaders to adjust to constantly changing working setting. Leading change effectively, executives should be more concerned with developing a new outlook on performance that emphasizes team-based models to cope with the transition to a new model (Kaplan and Norton 2001).
The task of a leader lies in developing a new set of values and structures that can contribute to the development of a new management system that introduce measurement to articulate change (Lussier and Archua 2009).
In additional, the evaluation of behavioral patterns within an organization is also important because it influences strategic thinking, trustful relationships, progressive stability, and considerations for others.
While deliberating on similarities and differences of leadership across cultures, Taormina and Selvarajah (2005, p. 314) pay attention to Asian leadership by stating “the East-West cultural different on t his factor may be noticed in practice”.
For example, western leaders expect their organizations to undertake risk and, therefore, they accept risk as an important condition for conducting daily operations. In contrast, Eastern leadership focuses more on a well-planned activity that ensures the security of subordinates who are involved in specific ventures.
Individualistic biases, universality, and readiness to adjust to new challenges should create the basis of change management and organizational progress.
According to Sturdy and Grey (2003), leaders should be able to quickly react to the emerging problems, as well as pay attention to employees’ needs, values, and beliefs to define what styles should be employed to improve the situation.
More importantly, the interaction between transformational leadership style and organizational change will allow the leaders to establish successful modes of performance (Boga and Ensari, 2009). In such a manner, executives will be able to stand the competition successfully.
Conclusion A multi-dimensional analysis of leadership education and development has provided a wider picture on cultural, political, social, and economic aspects of its influence on organizational culture and employees’ performance.
More importantly, the analysis has provided new theoretical and empirical perspectives of leading change within an organization through introducing innovation. All the above-presented themes are interdependent because one dimension influences the outcomes of another.
Communication and individual-centered approach are also important for sustaining a competitive advantage.
Reference List Abbasi, SM, and Hollman 1989, ‘KW Incompetence Bosses: Are You One of Them?’, IM, pp. 17-19.
Avramopoulos, S, and Thomas, KV 2007,‘Leadership Odyssey’, The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture, and Change Management, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 51-60.
Boga, I, and Ensari, N 2009,‘The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success’, The Psychologist-Manager Journal, vol. 12, pp. 235-251.
‘Dark Side of Leadership Revisted’ n. d., pp. 3-26.
Dawson, PM 2008, ‘People and Process: Making Sense of Change Management’, ICOMS Asset Management Conference, 1-11.
Hull, D 2003, Simply the Best Workplaces in Australia, University of Sydney, pp. 2-41.
Kaplan, RS, and Norton DP, 2001, ‘Leading Change with The Balanced Scorecard’. Financial Executive, pp. 64-66.
Lussier, RN, and Archua, CF 2009, Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. Cengage Learnng, New York.
Martinsons, MG, Davidson, RM, and Martinsons, V 2009, ‘How Culture Influences IT-Enabled Organizational Change and Information Systems’, Communications of the ACM, vol. 52, no. 4., pp. 118-123.
McDonald, R n. d., ‘Core Skills for Work – A Framework’, Ithaca Group, pp. 1-13.
Mellahi, K 2000, ‘The Teaching of Leadership on UK MBA Programs: A Critical Analysis from an International Perspective’, Journal of Management Development, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 297-308.
Northouse, P 2009, Leadership: Theory and Practice, SAGE, New York.
Rost, JC, and Barker, RA 2000, ‘Leadership Education in Colleges: Toward a 21st Century Paradigm’, Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-12.
Smith, W 2012, That Sinking Feeling, The Australian, pp. 1-7.
Sturdy, A and Grey C 2003, ‘Beneath and Beyond Organizational Change Management: Exploring Alternatives’, Organization, vol. 10 no. 4, pp. 651-662.
Taormina, RJ, and Selvarajah, C 2005, ‘Perceptions of Leadership Excellence in ASEAN Nations’, Leadership, vol.1, no. 3, pp. 299-322.
Thomas, KT, and Walker AD, 2010, ‘The Sharp End: Real Life Challenges in a Complex Activity Space’, Journal of Public Affairs, vol. 10, pp. 186-199.
Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? Case Study best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Based in old Trafford, Manchester United is one of the leading and well renowned football clubs not only in the UK but also in the world. The club was initiated in 1878. It then had the name Newton Health before changing to its current brand name – Manchester United in 1902.
It was one of the founding members of the premier league back in 1992. Since 1938, Manchester United has always played the top division in English soccer apart from seasons of 1974 and 1975. The club has also recorded outstanding average attendance compared to all other English football clubs.
Compared to any other organisation, soccer clubs are unique since they are subjected to various market forces and dynamics that act as threats to their performance and hence success. Success may be measured from different paradigms depending on the industry in which an organisation is established.
For football clubs, success may be measured from the number of wins of the club in the tournaments. Apparently, such success is also correlated to financial success. The success of Manchester United is owed to the exemplary management of Alex Ferguson.
Given the competitive nature of the football club business, Manchester United stands out as an ample example of analysing the success of organisations.
Manchester United has successfully managed to place its brand. The club is the reining champion in the European and English champions. It won 2007-2008 UEFA champions league and 2007 -2008 premier league coupled with 2008 FIFA world cup.
Indeed, Manchester has won enormous numbers of world football honours since when Alex Ferguson was appointed the manager in 1986. For instance, the club won the European cup making it the first football club to take home the cup when it beat Benfica 4-1 in 1968.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It later won the same cup in 1999 for the second time and in 2008 for the third time. Furthermore, the club has also kept the world record having won the most FA cup titles.
From financial contexts, the club is also immensely successful. As from 1990s, Manchester United has gone down the history as the richest club of the English premier league. However, Liverpool may dispute this argument.
The club also generates the largest amount of the revenues among all the clubs taking part in the European cup and English premier leagues. Such an enormous success of an organisation does not come easily: there is always an accompanying cost.
Considering Manchester United as the case study, the paper analyses the roles of CSR in the success of an organisation. However, before this is done background information is provided by discussing the success of Manchester United from both the contexts of tournament wins and financial performance.
The Case Study Description Within the whole of Europe, Manchester United stands the third club just behind Barcelona and Real Madrid from the contexts of turnover.
Apart from the recent past (2008) wining in the European champions’ league, Manchester United has also managed to get to European champions final in 2008. On the other hand, with regard to Pyle (2010), “…the financial position of the club remains precarious despite its success on the football field” (p.601).
This argument is significant by appreciating the fact that, in 2009, Manchester United football club made revenues amounting to 278.5 million pounds. The club also reported, “Increased profits (before interests and taxation) to the tune of 90.3 m million pounds (up 13.6 percent)” (Pyle 2010, p.601).
We will write a custom Case Study on Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Much of this profit was acquired through the sale of players (80.7 million pounds). The financial success of the Manchester United is outstanding upon comparing this profit to that of the red football limited.
In this end, Pyle (2010) argues, “red football limited (the parent company of MUFC owned by the Glazer family) reported a profit of by 6.4 million pounds due to interest payments of 68.5 million pounds paid on the erroneous debt incurred to purchase the club” (p.601).
The support of Manchester United across the globe is also incredible and a contributing factor to the success of the club. However, this does not imply that the English premier league clubs are not open to criticism over how they handle their financial matters.
For instance, Pyle (2010) reckons, “many fans are unhappy about the way English premier league football clubs are developing into multinational businesses with global brands, aggressive marketing, and foreign owners (some of dubious reputations)” (p.601).
Indeed, some clubs have gone on record to have spent a lot of money often leading the clubs to experience large debts often exceeding levels that are justifiable by the turnovers that are made by the clubs.
The hefty spending is normally justified by the people who fund the clubs. This case makes commentators on the future performance of the football clubs worried that some of the billionaires who fund the clubs may get bored at some point to the extent of considering withdrawing their support.
The repercussion for this attempt would plunge the clubs to large financial debts that would often make business impossible. The main question that remains is whether Manchester United would be able to ensure that its entire stakeholders would be satisfied should such a situation occur.
Amid being faced by the above interrogative, the brand of the Manchester United remains one of the most well built among the football clubs playing the English premier league. In fact, “the basis of Manchester United’s business success and global brand is rooted in the club’s history and traditions” (Pyle 2010, p.601).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Manchester United FC: Continuing Success but at What Cost? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the first win of the European cup, in the time of Sir Matt, the company grew from small to a public limited company. At this time the chairman of the company, Martin Edwards, principally focused on handling the challenge of hiking funds for helping the company to improve and maintain its success in the pitch.
An effort was made to raise funds for attracting new top players. In 1991, “the club was floated on the London Stock Exchange with a valuation of 40 million pounds” (Pyle 2010, p.602).
This move was strategic for the success of Manchester United since, in 1994 through 1997, the company was able to have an accumulate share sales amounting to 71 million pounds.
In the effort to ensure that Manchester United remained a respected club, in 2002, Martin Edwards stepped down to pave way for Sir Roy to take over the leadership of the plc.
In 1991, when Manchester United was placed on flotation, there was minimal number of companies that had acquired a structure similar to that of plc. Therefore, the move was incredibly disputable though it attracted enormous controversies.
For instance, Pyle (2010) quote sir Ferguson reckoning, “when the plc started, there were grave doubts about it – I had them myself – but I think the supporters came round” (p.601). Indeed, the success of the club was looming. Manchester United had even overtaken Liverpool.
Therefore, this move had little impacts on the growth and success of the company. Hence, worries accompanied by controversies were well resolved.
Operating as a plc, an organisation seeks to expand its clientele. Manchester United embarked on a mission to seek out for global presence. This strategic goal resorted to the recruitment of Peter Keyon in 1997 “due to his marketing and branding experience” (Pyle 2010, p.602).
His experience was vital in helping the company to build a business interest that had a global feel. Through the effort of Peter Keyon, “sales of replica kits and all manner of club-related gifts continued to expand quickly with its merchandising success becoming the bench mark for the industry” (Pyle 2010, p.602).
Consequently, Manchester United ended up being a brand that is known by almost everybody across the globe. However, the contribution of Peter Keyon in enhancing the success of Manchester United attracted the attention of rivals (Chelsea) who offered him a competitive package besides subsequently getting him out of Manchester United.
Nevertheless, this did not deter the continued success of the plc since his deputy Roman Abramovich took over. He has been incredibly instrumental in the continued growth of the company.
Plcs have numerous obligations to achieve on behalf of the owners. On one hand, for the case of Manchester United, “shareholders demanded profits although some shares were held by supporters where the vast majority were owned by financial institutions, which were looking for returns on their investments” (Pyle 2010, pp.602-3).
On the other hand, apart from the owners of a plc, it is vital that a company seeks to achieve its success through operating and behaving in a socially corporate manner.
To achieve these goals, and to help in building further on the brand image of football clubs, the clubs have always welcomed the interest of media people to get into deals with them.
For instance, according to Pyle (2010), Manchester United signed a deal with America Online Corporation biding the two organisations between 2010/11 to 2014/15 worth 80 million pounds (p.603).
Manchester United has done a great deal of investments in sporting facilities and other social amenities. All these have gone into increasing the size of the club in terms of increasing the revenues generated through fees levied on sporting facilities.
However, amid the increased revenues, Manchester United’s financial structures attract an immense alarm. It has been experiencing rising debts. Due to this reason, “Glazers converted 500 million pounds of debt into bonds, which do not mature until 2017” (Pyle 2010, p.604).
Although it was an incredible financial relief to the club, these bonds will attract an interest of 45 million pounds, which will have to be paid in 2017. Now, it sounds plausible to question the sustainability of the Manchester United model for doing business.
Would it enable the club to have continued growth in the future? Should the club develop new a mechanism of developing further its brand? If so, can social corporate responsibility aid in enhancing better and sustained growth of the club in the future?
SWOT and PESTEL Analysis of Manchester United SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis seeks to reveal the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and the threats faced by an organisation in its normal business operations.
The idea for doing this is based on the argument that when these elements are clear, it becomes possible for the management of the organisation in question to concentrate on the strengths and opportunities.
This strategy enhances its performance while ensuring that its takes appropriate strategies to ensure that the weaknesses and threats are mitigated in the effort to attain optimality of the performance of the organisation.
Essentially, SWOT analysis entangles strategic planning approach for evaluating the strengths, limitations, and opportunities coupled with threats that business establishment encounters (Hill
Intelligence Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Intelligence defined as a general measure of mental ability. David Wechsler developed intelligence tests which are widely used.He also defined intelligent as the capability to persistently think reasonably and come up with ways of solving problems that exist in their surroundings.
The term intelligence quotient is derived from German intelligenz- quotient. Alfred Binet a French psychologist founded the first experimental laboratory research in 19th century and developed experimental technique s of measuring intelligent and reasoning ability (Ceci
When an Individual Approach Must Be Undertaken Research Paper a level english language essay help
Teaching is one of those spheres where it is comparatively hard to come up with innovative approaches – with the existing variety of learning theories and strategies, inventing a brand new concept is quite complicated. However, with the rapid pace of technical progress and the appearance of computers and Internet, the existing teaching theories have evolved into another approach known as online teaching.
Offering new opportunities for the students to learn certain subjects distantly and to train their skills with the help of specific programs, online teaching, indeed, provides a number of issues for teachers to consider and has a lot of advantages compared to the old-fashioned manner of teaching.
However, it must be taken into account that online teaching also presupposes facing a lot of new challenges, one of which concerns the relationships between the teacher and the students as well as the relationships among the students.
Because of the lack of live communication between the students and the teacher and among the students, online learning can fall flat as a means to teach the students the basic group interaction skills and to help the students solve the conflicts which can arise in the course of communication.
Hence, while offering more opportunities for the students, the online teaching approach misses out the aspect of live communication, which makes it look rather as an addition to the real-life classes than an independent teaching approach.
In the course of online teaching, I have had the experience concerning the communication aspect, and to say that this experience left much to be desired would be to color the truth.
Actually, the students in the group which I was to provide with tasks and whose progress I was to control displayed consistently increasing improvements in such aspects of language learning as reading and writing, yet started experiencing great problems when it came to listening and speaking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When rethinking the given experience and analyzing the factors which could have possibly led to such deplorable results, I had to consider the learning theory. As it turned out, the idea of teaching students solely with the help of online teaching, which made the bulk of the chosen method, did not work as well as one might have expected it to.
Before going straight to emphasizing the downsides of the online learning concept, one must give credit to some of the luckiest improvements which the given theory has introduced into the field of English language learning. To start with, the given approach allows not only foreign students, but also adults to partake in the learning program.
Helping people from all walks of life obtain the skills and information which they will need in their further career, online learning has literally embraced the entire world. The online learning theory will help adults to learn what they consider necessary for their jobs without actually quitting their current positions.
However, the above-mentioned issue also presupposes facing certain challenges in developing the current theory. In contrast to the theory of adult learning, which has been developed long before and is nowadays firmly established among the rest of the theories as a truly solid set of concepts, online learning still requires further development.
Another minor drawback of the theory of online learning is the lack of live communication between the learner and the teacher, which has been mentioned above. The issue of communication can possibly become a major stepping stone for the students who will resort to the online learning theory to acquire new knowledge.
According to the ideas offered by Tough, interaction between the students and the teacher is extremely important for the learning process, since among the four planners described by Tough, none features learning process without communicating with the teacher (Tough).
Indeed, while evaluating the conclusions made in the course of the lesson and learning the “enduring value beyond the classroom” (Understanding by design by Wiggins and McTighe: A summary, n. d.) is important, the process of communication with the teacher and the peers is also of great significance.
We will write a custom Research Paper on When an Individual Approach Must Be Undertaken specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When deprived of the given element of learning, students are likely to start feeling uncertain; hence, the possibility of a failure is highly likely.
Nevertheless, the above-mentioned does not mean that the theory of online teaching has no intrinsic value in it. There are a number of positive aspects about the theory, and they are worth bringing up.
To start with, as it has been mentioned above, the online teaching approach does allow foreign students and the students who have to work to study distanced and yet manage to get all the necessary information without having to attend every lecture.
Another important issue that makes online learning theory worth consideration is the fact that online learning provides ample opportunities for both self-study and learning in virtual classrooms (Clark
George Orwell’s “Why I Write” Critical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
In his essay “Why I Write” (1946), George Orwell presents the discussion of his development as a writer. The essay is autobiographical. It can be divided into three parts.
The author’s childhood is described in the first part of the essay. The author pays attention to his first experiences as a writer and notes that he always knew about his future as a writer. Orwell discusses his early writing experiences in detail and accentuates the progress which led him to the profession of writer.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that Orwell always had the creative imagination, and he was sure that the other persons also could imagine their lives in vivid pictures and stories. The second part is the discussion of the writer’s attributes or motives.
Orwell states that there are four great motives for writing which are typical for any writer. Orwell discusses sheer egoism, the writer’s aesthetic enthusiasm, pays attention to the historical impulse, and focuses on the political purpose.
In spite of the fact these motives can be presented in different proportions, all of them can be used to characterize a writer. The third part of the essay reflects Orwell’s personal motives in writing and the development of his style which is rather “public-spirited” because Orwell wanted to reflect the social issues in writing (Orwell par. 15).
Following Orwell’s motives, it is possible to state that all writing is political to some extent because the political purpose is always present in writing. According to Orwell, “no book is genuinely free from political bias” (Orwell par. 9).
That is why, writing can be discussed as political in general sense because accentuating definite social aspects, the author always refer to the political background in detail or generally, with references to the purpose of writing. Orwell states that writers intend to “alter other peoples’ idea of the kind of society” (Orwell par. 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, it is possible to conclude with references to Orwell’s ideas that writers also have the intentions which can be discussed as political ones.
In his essay, Orwell uses rhetorical appeals to persuade the audience and realize the purpose of writing to present the story of becoming a writer with pointing the reasons. Ethos is realized with references to the fact that George Orwell is the famous writer that is why his discussion about the writer’s motives can be considered as credible.
Moreover, Orwell distinguishes between “serious writers” and their motives and journalists in order to support the reliability of his statement (Orwell par. 6). Pathos is presented in vivid descriptions of the author’s first writing experiences, and the emotional appeal is obvious from the first lines of the essay when Orwell stresses, “from a very early age …
I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer” (Orwell par. 1). Furthermore, the author accentuates that writing is a kind of challenge and draws the audience’s attention to the fact that writing is a “horrible” and “exhausting” struggle which resembles the “painful illness” (Orwell par. 15).
Moreover, Orwell uses logos in order to provide his considerations with necessary reasoning and states that the background information is helpful for presenting the complex picture of the writer’s development (Orwell par. 5). The next method is the depiction of autobiographical situations which contributed to Orwell’s writing on democratic socialism (Orwell par. 11).
Works Cited Orwell, George. Why I Write. 27 Nov. 2012. Web..
Television in Emirati Culture Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Among the GCC countries, the UAE is the pioneer to safeguard the national interest with forward looking strategy to preserving natural resources for the future generation; their ancestors dealt with great wisdom and invested their early efforts and resources for reorganizing the nation in order to make benefited the Emirati citizens to sharing the fruits of the joint progress.
The ambitious and responsible ancestors of the Emiratis possibly would effectively shape the future vigorously appealing towards the growing socioeconomic changes, representing their well-built families and communities lean towards moderate Islamic values along with deep-rooted heritage of Islamic radicalism where Emiratis are confident citizens who aimed to establish dignity of their nation by implementing moral values for the better achievement.
The challenge of establishing a contemporary and progressive nation in the Middle East region with the aim to sharing the fruits of the common development of Emirati people from their cultural perspectives to their professional, business and social life that prolonged from the long heritage of Arab nations in this zone.
George (2012) stated that television network of Egypt, KSA, and the UAE are strongly interlinked with each other in such way that any dish or cable business would be failed in this region if they do not integrate the three cultural combinations in their network; however, market for TV advertisement in these countries are around US$1.9 billion per year.
Different pay channels mentioned that in the UAE 10 % of their families are connected with pay channels where 58 channels like Viacom, Fox, and Sony along with Sky News are available with four hundred channels, which generate huge revenue from this sector; however, the television has influential impact on the local culture and behavioural change of the citizens.
The UAE is the gateway of the Far East and western hemisphere throw a dynamic maritime linkage in ambition to welcome people all over the world to enjoy the cultural heritage of this region along with materialization, socioeconomic progress and prosperity of the country with an amalgamation of local and expatriate culture (ECC, 2012, p.5).
The most important question is what exactly belongs to the local culture; whether the local people uphold their old Arab culture with religion radicalism and blindness or they are able to handshake with modern western culture, do the government persistence with democratic culture, do the society provide equal treatment to the women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ancient Arab culture was much uncivilized, rude towards female, apart from human values, now, almost 90 % population of the country is expatiate from the emerging Asian countries where they are most moderate free from religious radicalism concerned with their job performance rather than cultural issues.
To identifying the local culture, it should look to the anthropological heritage of the UAE that has already recognized and honoured by all nations of the world for its glorious cultural heritage along with the way of restructuring concurrent culture with amalgamation with the foreign culture where television plays a dominating role in this cultural struggles.
Study Problem It is important to state that the culture of the UAE society is quite different from the rest of the world because of its excessive conservativeness; as a result, the impact of TV in its culture is quite severe than other nations.
Consequently, in order to find out the effect of TV over the Emirati viewers, it is essential to focus on the culture and diversity of the UAE in this part of the paper.
Bard (2005, p.2) pointed out that the misrepresentation has prolonged in the Arab world that they have gained enough progress in terms of awarding and well protecting basic human rights and women’s rights, but the reality is totally different, as women are treated as ‘instruments for enjoyment’; however, the mentality of the UAE viewers are changing because of various TV-networks.
Gender discrimination, unequal property rights, freedom of speech or freedom of choice are prohibited for Arab women; they are treated as exclusive property of their husbands (which is mostly deep-rooted patriarchy that their ancestors inherited from old cultures); however, such views are changing slowly due to cable networks.
It’s a long myth that democracy and human rights situation in UAE has progressed enough in relation to other Arab countries, but reality is quite different and real scenario of democracy is very devastating, as people have no power to make any change in the state power – the source of real power is conserved to the sultans rather than parliament.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Television in Emirati Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, in some cases, free cable networks on TVs and other media like internet can pose problems to the government.
Even the present UAE rulers in November 2012 proclaimed a new degree on the title “Cyber Crime Protection Act”, which reflected the intolerance and of the government by criminalizing the way of non-violent democratic movement organized by using the internet, where the government urged to identify the political actors of the democratic movement as miscreant or “unlicensed demonstrations”.
This is a new culture of the UAE rulers to victimize the political actors as well as mass people; however, such political cultures are possibly found under the undemocratic and autocratic dictatorship, where human rights and democracy are under threat.
On the other hand, the prevailing idea about the UAE labour law was that it is ensuring the ‘model of best practice’ through compliance with the EPP terms, but in reality, it is violating this, as the contractors are getting financial incentives rather than any sanction for the law violation; this culture has indicated the inefficacy of UAE legal system.
Sabban (2005) presented the most devastating data regarding the workforce of the country that demonstrated that the workforce of the realm is providing a stable economic growth that consist of 80.43 % expatriate men, 10.48 % expatriate women, 7.90 % national men and 1.18% national women; where the contribution of expatriate workers are 90.90% and 9.1% by the local workers.
The largest economic actors of 90.90% in the UAE are seriously suppressed from different socioeconomic and cultural operation that immediately requires socialization to balance the demography from the dangerous impact of the socio-political violence, where the television could play a pioneering role to socializing the expatriates; so, this study has aimed to identifying the role of television in this concern.
The Goals of the Study The society of this country consists with an imbalanced population in ratio of local and overseas population where about 91.0% workers are expatriates and almost 9% employees are local; however, the large part is under suppression due to their foreign identity, although it is quite impossible for the employers to move the wheel of economy without the contribution of expatriates.
The 90% of the population is from different ethic group and cannot interact in local language, the employers and employees both have not any fluency level in the English; however, it is difficult for them to understand the local culture due to lack of interaction though local television channels have a potential role to remove language problem of the expatriates.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Television in Emirati Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The local TV as a mass media has a wider scope to amalgamate the large number of expatriates into the mainstream of demography; in addition, by doing so, the television channels could improve the relationship between the two cooperating class into a single platform of common interest where they do not think one another as enemy.
Consequently, Sabban (2005) and Stork (2012, p.1) stated that the local and foreign employees could exchange their feelings and emotions to each other that would develop a friendly atmosphere for socializing the expatriates that would ultimately reduce the brutal behaviour to the foreign workers in UAE, remove discrimination and improve economic contribution by the expatriates.
At the same time, Sabban (2005) and Stork (2012, p.1) further addressed that the positive impact of television in the Emirati culture could explore the national economy and a stable population growth by socializing into the mainstream demography.
The Study Inquiries The socialization process in the UAE society is very difficult due to its immigration law like citizenship of this country may not automatically provide to any foreigner with less efforts; during the time of the federalization, it was decided that the citizenship would be awarded to a person who is able to demonstrate affiliation with any of the local tribes.
Mutual relationship may not have any influence on the citizenship or connection with local native families and even Sheikhs, could assist to granting citizenship that has categorised into three types such as full citizen, legal citizen, and citizen by family relationship or naturalization, the holder of any of the first two types of citizens could apply for full citizenship.
However, El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) further addressed that the citizenship is not a vital problem to live in the UAE, any person could live and spend a long-time without having citizenship otherwise any ruling of Sheikh while the UAE citizenship are automatically awarded to the child whose father possesses full citizenship.
On the other hand, El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) explored that women expatriates would not get citizenship for children for their children though they become part of the UAE culture; at the same time, media also have both positive and negative impact on them.
The most horrible law that they would not allow to have any dual citizenship; candidates have to surrender his/her previous citizenship before applying for the UAE, the nationalization law of UAE has formed further dilemmas and controversies in the society that previously stabilized with fair share of dichotomy as well as conflict that ultimately generate new area of conflict.
Continuous rising of female domestic workers imported from overseas countries for the amusement and luxury of the ruling families have generated further complexity with the culture as no employment law could prevent the citizenship of such domestic workers; moreover, male industrial worker faces a lots of problem to gaining citizenship; this also creates cultural problem in the UAE. Due to lack of fair immigration policy and well-designed socialization process, the society of UAE has been automatically balancing abnormal and complex composition of population, for a balanced and future looking nest generation, it is obvious for the UAE policy makers to introduce a quick and easy socialisation process by which the expatriates would get citizenship easily.
The Importance of the Study The impact of television in the Emirati Culture is a very significant study with the background to the Arab spring and its consequential impact that would prolong to the society for a long time.
Television as a source of mass media communication in the UAE, it has a long impact on continuous and growing integration of major political and democratic institutions where culture influences the people’s live with the charismatic dominance on media and this is the response to the classical inquiry how media have an effect on society and culture of the UAE.
Standing on the reality of Arab Spring that has contributed a completely new social and political condition that would aggressively restructure the culture and society, the UAE has just evidenced without any previous experience or theoretical analysis; conventionally, the mass media has considered a separate entry isolated from the society and culture that prolonged in the concurrent UAE society.
The contemporary society of the UAE has verified the media with not just an array of purely technologies that establish linkage between the active parties who are considered as fit for further force on the social factors, but it can reengineered for the greater change of the culture in the extent by reshaping mass media like television and even internet.
The message and appeal presented by mass media has threaten the ruling class of the UAE that was ringing the bell of falling autocracy, and religion radicalism; in the name of Islamic law, there is no chance to deprive the people from democracy or impose extreme burden of Islamic cultural in order to save ruling families from the democratic movement.
On the other hand, for the continuous development of the television media would largely increase conscious people; consequently, the inherited family based dictators in this region were able to hearing the death sentence of Islamic monarchy who does not dare to put into practice of democracy, human and equal rights for women.
At the same time, general people are seriously influenced by the news and other related programs though present ruling system is forcing to destroy the people’s unity who eager for democracy by misleading the cultural, political, and social institutions with the ill intention to rescue the Arab monarchies from the influence of mass media.
Assumptions El-Baltaji (2009, p.1) explored the real scenario of the UAE mass media with assumption that government of the UAE were planning to introduce draft media law 2009 to replace the old Press and Publications Law 1980, which designed to establish control over the mass media and communication by integrating sixteen punishable offence for criticizing the royal family and the religion.
During the proclamation of new media law 2009, the government created panic among the media workers by conducting fear campaign for journalists by imposing different punishment and harassment through the law enforcement agencies; at the same time, the government propagated that the mass media of the UAE has been enjoying substantial freedom in the country.
This research has aimed to investigate the impact of mass media on the culture of UAE, with a homogeneous assumption that the government is cooperating with the mass media communication in order to assess the impact of television on the development of Emirati Culture.
The Theoretical Framework Understanding and Assessing Mass Communication Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.30) stated that some traditional, formal, and systematic social scientific theories have used to maintain the relationship between media and the citizens, which are known as theories of mass communication; in addition, these theories are imperative in order to discuss human behaviour and other related issues.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.31) argued that these theories are developing over time constructing even more practical and influential hypothetical perspectives by including diverse and occasionally contradictory thoughts related with history, philosophy, humanities, social sciences, psychology and so on.
However, Baran and Davis (2010, p.31) and Bryant and Miron (2004) stated that there are appropriate theoretical framework has been developed yet to materialize the issues; therefore, many scholars analyzed the factors such as aggregate media systems with their function in society considering unscientific methods.
At the same time, the researchers have concentrated on the subjective viewpoints to analyze the theories of mass communication in context of UAE television that exemplify enduring or inventive conceptualizations; in addition, they further stated that these theories will give the opportunity to predict what will happen.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.35) argued that four contemporary theories, such as, post positivist theory, hermeneutic theory, critical theory and normative theory are playing vital role to shape the society and change human behaviour’ however, Obe, Ayedun and Ofulue (2008, p.54) pointed out other theories including mass society theories, social scientific approach, media violence, common sense theories, and so on.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) stated that this theory based on physical sciences and empirical observation considering the fact that positivist only believe on the scientific method; on the other hand, the researchers are also dedicated to focus on such observational system under this theory. However, key features of this theory are –
No Characteristics Post-positivist Theory 1 Objectives The main objective of this theory are justification, prediction, and control (to link between social science and the physical sciences), for instance, from operation of political advertising, the researchers predict commercial factors and control the voting behaviour of the UAE television viewers 2 Ontology Human behaviour is satisfactorily predictable to be studied scientifically though social world may have more variation 3 Epistemology of this theory Knowledge can enhance by systematic, and logical method 4 Post positivism’s axiology the implementation of the scientific technique remains theorists’ values out of the search for understanding Table 1: Characteristics of Post-positivist Theory
Source: Self generated from Baran and Davis (2010, p.38)
According to the Baran and Davis (2010, p.39), this theory is based on the study of understanding particularly from side to side methodical interpretation of actions along with manuscript; in addition, the objective of this theory is to provide the answers to the questions like how and why that behaviour occurs in the society.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) stated that this theory has developed from the era when people started to interpret Bible and analyze how it reshapes early Christian culture; however, different forms of hermeneutic theory exists to understand interpret social situation to create value for the people.
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) argued that the name of hermeneutic theory can replace as interpretive theory because it interprets any product of social interaction while people react in accordance with their own preferences and prejudices.
Moreover, Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) and Obe et al. (2008, p.37) stated that theory’s epistemology based on the subjective communication between the observers and their communities; in addition, the axiology of this theory encompasses personal and professional values of UAE television viewers.
Meyrowitz (2008, p. 641) and Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) stated that this theory is completely different from former theories because it based only on the political phenomenon because politics could change social and human behaviour.
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010, p.38) further addressed that this theory challenges existing behaviour of organizing the social world because they can provide priority to the most significant individual values; thus, this theory based on inequality and oppression. However, key features of this theory are –
No Characteristics Critical Theory 1 Objectives Inherently political 2 Ontology It is a bit more complex 3 Epistemology of this theory Knowledge is sophisticated merely when it serves to free individuals and communities from the control of those more influential than themselves 4 Axiology Due to openly political system, its axiology is aggressively value-laden 5 Role of media Media is a crucial tool employed by corporate elites in order to restrain how individuals view their communal world and to border their organization in it 6 Strengths Used to plan change in the real world 7 Weaknesses It is too political and based on subjective observation, which also uses controversial research methods Table 2: Characteristics of critical theory
Source: Self generated from Baran and Davis (2010, p.40)
Normative Theories of Mass Communication
Baran and Davis (2010, p.100), Ostini and Fung (2002), and Obe et al. (2008, p.55) stated that normative theories included many theories such as authoritarian media theory, libertarian media theory, soviet-communist media theory; however, these theories does not provide any scientific explanations, but describe some ideal values, which assist to explicate the ways in which mass media should be rebuilt.
Authoritarian Media Theory
Obe et al. (2008, p.54) stated that it is on one the oldest of the press theories that positioned all kinds of communication under the power of a governing elites where institutions rationalised their control as a means to defend and guard a divinely preordained social order; furthermore, it began in 16th century and derived from State’s philosophy of absolutism.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.40) and Obe et al, (2008, p.54) stated that it supports the total domination of media to sever the purpose of the administrations instead of criticising the governments; at the same time, the media were not allowed to print and broadcast anything which might undermine the credibility of the administrations; otherwise, they were subjected to punishment.
However, Baran and Davis (2010, p.102) and Obe et al. (2008, p.54) stated that the basic supposition of this theory is that the administration is reliable for which media professionals were inadmissible to enjoy any independence; in addition, foreign medias had also controlled by the government; unfortunately, this theory is still practiced by the government of some countries.
On the other hand, Obe et al. (2008, p.55) and Baran and Davis (2010, p.102) argued that under the practice of this theory, the administration also imposed high taxes, passed oppressive laws, suppressed the media professionals and controlled over content of the news.
However, McQuail (1994) stated that media professionals have punished for violating royal charters; however, immunity is possible in some extent for the case of publicize minority perspective and culture, which not create any hindrance to control society as their wish; therefore, this theory does not emphasis on the development of a homogeneous national culture among the UAE television viewers.
Libertarian Media Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.103) stated that this hypothesis can be traced back to 16th century, which developed in opposition to authoritarian theory; at the same time, Obe et al. (2008, p.55) argued that some social movements such as Protestant Reformation enhanced the concept of freedom of express and thoughts, which would allow them to hold and express opinions independently.
At the same time, Baran and Davis (2010, p.103), Ostini and Fung (2002), Obe et al. (2008, p.55) stated that libertarian theory is considered the perfect model while the main goal of it is to advance the interests of the people; therefore, it gives the opportunity to the people to publish whatever they like in some extent.
Baran and Davis (2010, p.104) stated that this theory has removed the arbitrary and erratic practice of the authoritarian model and Obe et al. (2008, p.55) further expressed that this model had not supported complete independence to express themselves regarding rule of law, but it has full protection to media professionals to draw a broader line between good and bad.
On the other hand, Ostini and Fung (2002) and McQuail (1994) addressed that most of the developed countries have followed this theory in order to shape the society more dramatic ways; in contrast, Baran and Davis (2010) stated that journalists and media professionals are not getting such immunities and facilities where the control rested in the hands of a king.
Figure 1: Strengths and weaknesses of Libertarian Media Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.120)
Soviet-Communist Media Theory
Obe et al. (2008) stated that this theory has introduced during the time of Russian Revolution in 1997 when Marx and Engels had struggled to serve the interests of the working class; however, it supported complete domination of media to promote the socialist system; the prime factors of this theory are –
No Characteristics Soviet-communist Theory 1 Objectives The main objective of this theory was to maintain the sovereignty of the proletariat 2 Ontology Used the media to carry on progress and transform towards the accomplishment of the communist period 3 Good intention The media was subject to direct state control to help communist party; here, it is important to mention that the Soviet press had removed the profit motive under this model 4 Social Responsibility Used media as an arm of government to protect political conflicts strictly Table 3: Characteristics of Soviet-communist Theory
Source: Self generated Obe et al. (2008)
Social Responsibility Media Theory
Baran and Davis (2010, p.121) stated that this model used to serve the political system as well as protect the rights of the individuals, serve financial interest of the community and preserve financial independence; however, the following figure shows the strengths and weaknesses of this theory –
Figure 2: Strengths and weaknesses of Social Responsibility Media Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.120)
Some Other Theories
Table 4: Characteristics of the theories
Source: Self generated Obe et al. (2008)
The Focus on Media Effects
Baran and Davis (2010, p.121) argued that the researcher have concentrated on the effects of media on the society and culture from the 1950s to the 1990s; they also focused on how media like television influence the buyer to purchase their products; however, the next figure demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of Attitude-Change theory –
Figure 3: Strengths and weaknesses of Attitude-Change Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.156)
Figure 4: Strengths and weaknesses of Entertainment Theory
Source: Baran and Davis (2010, p.270)
Conceptual Framework on the Effect of Television
Baran and Davis (2010) noted that several academicians have engaged cultivation-analysis to scrutinize the influence of TV related concerns away from sadism and offence; this could examine of public awareness of wealth, separation, employed female, approval of gender typecasts, avarice, principles, psychological well-being, and political involvement among the UAE television viewers.
The scale of persuasion that is left in each of the sectors is debatable; however, there are certain other segments included in this concern, which, for example include belief of estrangement, ecological unease, employment, insights of wellbeing, and nuptial viewpoints; nevertheless, suppositions of cultivation are encouraged throughout, while the potency of results and the feature of the study diverge significantly.
Baran and Davis (2010) has clearly pointed out a number of factors, which could be regarded as the effects that television has on societies; these factors include the idea that TV smudges conventional features of public outlook of their planet, it merges their authenticity to TV’s cultural-mainstream, and curves that mainstream to the organizational interests of telly or its promoters.
The appraisal of the approach in which telly controls the societal world is evocative of the opinion regarding accepted cultures; in addition, what has been an opulently varied handcrafted procedure has become a composite industrialized and mass allotment endeavour; however, this has eliminated much of the provincialism and parochialism, over and above some of the exclusiveness of the pre-television epoch.
It is important to note that Obe et al. (2008) pointed out that this factor has enhanced close-minded cultural perspectives; on the other hand; this also gave more and more substantial industrialized corporations and the spot to bring to mind a large amount of what people feel on the subject of being familiar with terms and execution in general.
According to Bryant and Miron (2004), certain authors do not think this as a predominantly reasonable trade-off, and so, they placed cultivation-analysis in the territory of critical presumption; but others regarded cultivation as every now and then taken as a return of a strapping upshot outlook of mass media, though, interestingly, such outlook is not from top to bottom incorrect,
Nevertheless, it fails to notice the line of reasoning that such theory was in the beginning envisaged as a critical theory – that, in fact, concentrated over mass-media concerns in particular – merely as the mass-media (principally TV) give out the narrative convenience; moreover, TVs are leading means for dealing out communication from ethnic, communal, or financially viable influential classes,
On the other hand, Baran and Davis (2010) also noted that the foremost contentious fundamentals regarding this presumption is the centre of attention on serious viewers of TV, who do not have regard to any precise shows on telly; moreover, Obe et al. (2008) noted that cultivation is more than merely an investigation of effects from an explicit medium.
According to the authors, cultivation is rather an examination of the foundation of TV along with the societal role it plays; however, cultivation, reviewers asserted, has mistreated the requirement to recognize grave customers of precise kinds of programs; on the other hand, Obe et al. (2008) has stated that cultivation’s theoretical portion of disclosure to TV is excessively comprehensive.
Television Media of UAE
Television media of the country is a highly prospective sector in terms of profitability and sustainable growth; according to Media Abu Dhabi, local TV-Network has proclaimed an extraordinary increase of 122 percent in subscription sales in 2010 to 2011 period; moreover, it is notable that in 2012, hundreds of thousands families across the area enjoyed Abu Dhabi-Sport’s wide coverage.
Media as Culture Industries: The Commodification of Culture
The commodification of culture is an inspection of what happens when culture is mass-produced and distributed in direct competition with locally-based cultures; it suggests that media are industries focusing in the manufacture and allocation of cultural commodities; these grew at the cost of small-local-producers and the price of this was the continuous disruption of public lives (Baran and Davis 2010).
The condition of a highly conservative, Muslim, and radical society of the United Arab Emirates is no different from this – as a result, Emirati viewer behaviours after exposure to television programs can be explained by continuous disruption of public lives and distraction of conservative cultures of UAE.
Previous Studies There are very few studies with the contribution of mass media United Arab Emirates where most of that researches are centered to scrutinize the theories of media, overriding effects of media along with the significant cultural theories those are applied to observe the influential factors of media and society linking with the concurrent socioeconomic and cultural scenario of UAE.
Al-Jenaibi (2011, p.1) mentioned that the mass media along with the surrounding Arab societies and the exploring news media studies indicated the character of mass media within the Arab society integrating with the modern technologies that have been shifting dynamics of the Arab public domain aimed to improving freedom of press, freedom of speech aimed to encourage a democratic society apart from the prevailed culture of Arab monarchy.
For the last few decades, large numbers of mass communication theories have been put into practice in the social perspectives of UAE, but there is no effectual studies in the UAE regarding effectiveness and power of mass media to restructuring the society and public domain, the previous studies have engaged to demonstrate effectiveness of mass media on few social factors.
However, before the Arab Spring, there were no brave research that could predict the power and influence of mass media and dare to demonstrate the impact of mass media to promoting democracy, human rights and to develop democratic culture for social institutions.
Reference List Al-Jenaibi, B. (2011). News Media in Arab Societies. Web.
Baran, S. J.
Langston Hughes Biography Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Resilience
Calmness and Tactfulness
Langston Hughes was a human rights activist and a playwright who constantly led the revolution change against the segregation of the Negro in America. He is considered one of the most influential agitators for change in the social order in the history of activism in America. The poem highlights the plight of the Negro in the USA.
Resilience From the poem, Hughes outlines the virtue of resilience. Resilience refers to the quality of resuming to your original form irrespective of how much you are pressed with issues.
The racial segregation in America is a social phenomenon that no one would like to experience, it should elicit bad memories in any individual, but the persona simply says,” ….he laughs.”
He seems to be unaffected by the racial discrimination that he is being subjected to, he simply dismisses it, even though we all know that such occurrences would make an individual bulge and assume a combatant attitude.(Rhynes 62)
Patriotism Conventionally, anyone who gets treated wrongfully in an environment will be conditioned to deeply loathe such environment.
A student battered in any high school will hate anything to do with high schools, despite the sub human treatment he gets from the fellow countrymen; he is still patriotic enough to proclaim his love for the same nation. In the last line, he claims authoritatively that “…I too am America.”
He loves his country despite the ill treatment he is invariantly subjected to.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hopefulness Perhaps, this is the most outstanding value that Hughes wanted to portray in his poem. In my opinion, it forms the primary trait of the persona.
The author wanted to illuminate a ray of hope to the victims of racial segregation. He outlines this throughout the poem. When he says that he eats and grows strong, the value of hope is portrayed, he is not easily broken disheartened, he looks forward for change, and so he says, “…Tomorrow, i will be at the table.”
A hopeful person quotes the future, while a hopeless person drowns in disillusionment. (Rhynes 102) The persona however, looks forward for the brighter tomorrow. From the tone of the poem, it is very obvious that the future that he is waiting for will be much better than the present time. (Rhynes 11)
He argues that his tormentors “will see how beautiful I am.” Use of “will” infers to a future tense meaning the persona is still keeping hope alive of better tomorrow. (Rhynes 64)
The calmness he portrays in the poem is due to his hope for a free America. (Rhynes 66)
Patience The persona is a very tolerant person. He is not belligerent at all, even though it is obvious that he is subjected to surly conditions that undermine human dignity, he remains friendly to them, no wonder he says that “I laugh.” He also waits patiently for the outcomes of the future when he will be stronger and even “more beautiful.”
Calmness and Tactfulness One would expect opposition from the persona to counter the oppressors, but he avoided the confrontation and instead remained calm. (Rhynes 33) He says that when sent to the kitchen, “he ate well”, he didn’t confront anybody but planned by eating well and “growing strong.” Eventually, he says that he’ll no longer be told to “eat in the kitchen,”
We will write a custom Essay on Langston Hughes Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Rhynes, Martha E.I, too, sing America: the story of Langston Hughes. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds, 2002. Print.
Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
In this day and age, this world is referred to as globalized due to the fact that humans are now able to get in touch with each other from anywhere around the world.
From all sides of the world be it the Eastern side or the Western side, or from the Northern to the Southern, it is pertinent to note that people all of the information that they require from the principal resource of knowledge. This is the internet.
It enhances profitable activities among individuals who have never known each other previous to their transactions, and some of them even join up together to form or carry out diverse activities regardless of the differences in their nationalities or beliefs.
In this aspect, the matter of multinational companies can be used as the perfect example. This does not indicate that it is easy for them to work together. This is because there are quite a number of challenges that they encounter, which encompass harmonization as well as organizational culture within their operations.
They have to face up to these challenges in order for them to remain competitive and so that they can be able to survive in this world of shrewd business and the environment in which they are to thrive. Companies that do not attempt to adapt to these strategies will find it difficult to operate if the intend to expand their business.
Adoption of the strategic aspects of international business is the key to success in the world of international business and trade.
A multinational company can be defined as a corporate body or rather a venture, which in most instances, has its head offices in one country, which is normally referred to as the home nation, while operating industrial units in various other nations that are normally referred to as the host nations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The home nation hosts the management team, which ensures that all administrative decisions are made. All decisions may affect their operations in all of the host nations and their operations either directly or indirectly.
There are other names that are normally used to refer to multinational companies in the corporate world. These include international companies, and transnational companies. However, they are more or less the same thing.
This idea of multinational firms is not one that was formulated recently. The idea has been around for very many years and it has a very long history. The notion is believed to date back to the 17th century, when the Dutch East India Company gained fame.
It is thought to be the first multinational company in the world. This business concept or blueprint continues to thrive in the present century. More companies realized the need to diversify their operations in a bid to ensure that they remain competitive and can survive under most strenuous or stringent conditions that affect businesses.
The dawn of the 19th and the 20th centuries saw the rapid increase in embracing the idea by most companies, since the business model was most suitable to the nature of their businesses (Margison 151-180). They realized the advantages of venturing into other regions, and set out to adapt to the model.
There are some differences in the blueprints for multinational companies operations. This means that the bona fide blueprint may be somewhat different from what is actually being implemented by the multinationals today.
It is mostly common to find the operations of a multinational company being headed from one nation, while the other operations are being carried out in other countries. It makes business sense to operate like this since the company can choose to run their operations from nations that may offer them lower production costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rules that govern countries differ and thus, what they encounter in the name of laws or decrees, which they may find rather stringent to their operations, may not be applicable in other nations. It will always make good business sense to head a company from one region.
In this same respect, there are also firms that headquarter their operation from their country of origin due to reasons that favor them, and then seek to run other operations such as production and processing in various nations situated all over the world.
The operations of the auxiliary or arms of the mother company may operate in an independent sort of manner. These two models of multinational company operations are quite different and most of them are successful in their endeavors due to implementation of either of the models stated above.
Another blueprint that is most common among multinational companies and their operations is the setting up of their headquarters in one nation that will control the collaboration that works out to the rest of the nations as well as the industries that are set up in other regions.
In this type of operation, virtually everything is reported back to the main offices and operations are controlled directly from the parent nation. All sorts of decisions that touch ion the operations of the company within the regions must be made from the parent nation.
The system works well and most of the multinationals have adopted it since it offers them a sense of control over their operations and it is easier for them to run their production lines.
They can implement changes that may be construed in the host nation as either being effective or non-effective. The important thing is that it offers them a sense of accountability. Every decision can be traced to the decision maker very easily.
There are quite a number of reasons that may make a multinational firm thrive. The first instance may be that the efficient coordination among the multinational nations is considered better and more improved in comparison to the model, which encompasses independent operations in diverse nations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Multinational Company and Its Strategic Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cooperation that is found among multinational firms influences the operations in a positive manner by creating effectual social networks. This influences the operations as well as most other aspects of the firms operations in an optimistic manner.
It improves the outlook of the firm in question. There are several other reasons that make multinational firms to thrive and another is that the subsistence of the multinational firms occurs by deficiencies in the constitutional market for the products that the companies display (Van den Born 111).
There are several examples such as that state that “two firms are considered monopolists in a market and isolated from competition by transportation costs and other tariff and non-tariff barriers. If these costs decrease, the competition will reduce profits.
The firms maximize income and diminish competition by cooperation” (Lavelle 407). This case mostly calls for control of pricing in various nations. The company can very easily enforce price controls in the countries that they deem necessary to do so in this case.
The management can easily determine whether the decisions that they are making will be worthwhile or not. In several other instances such as the one above there are indications that asserted, “Market imperfections are inherent conditions in markets and multinational companies are institutions which try to bypass these imperfections.
The imperfections in markets are natural as the neoclassical assumptions like full knowledge and enforcement don’t exist in real markets” (Green 356). Furthermore, it can be stated that the firms can decrease the amount of money that they spend on raw materials as well as the amount of money that they spend on cheap labor.
This accords the company management the chance to take advantage of the fact that the raw materials are easily available and costs such as the ones that may incurred in terms of logistics are minimal.
Apart from the raw materials, which are also easily available being an encouragement to the firm to operate in the model, the cheap labor also encourages the environment for the firm to operate.
The use of local workers ensures that the amount of money that is spent on the workforce is minimal since they will be paid at local rates.
It may also be important to note that most of the operations of the companies such as their operational expenses are not taxed, and if they are, then the tax that is imposed on them is not as hefty as it is in their parent nation.
This means that they can run their operations efficiently and at low costs in a bid to maximize their profits. Another advantage is that the goods or finished products can easily be availed to the locals for consumption at reduced costs.
In different countries, the amount of taxes may be considered since the firms are protected by the fact that they are creating employment within the regions. This means that they can pull out if conditions that are applied to them become too stringent leaving the populace out of work.
It certainly makes business sense to ensure that the companies are protected, although they ought to ensure that the workers are not exploited or taken advantage of in a negative manner. The rights of humans ought to be put into consideration.
It may also be pertinent to note that the economic strength, as well as enhancement of a nation is dependent on the expansion of multinational firms. The economic growth of a nation, as well as that of multinational firms is directly related. They both move in the same manner and are correlated.
One example is where the growth of a multinational firm can be stunted or stalled by the slowing down of the economic growth of a nation that it is operating within.
Although the firms may operate in different countries, they may have to abide by the rules and regulations of the countries that they have plants in. this is against the backdrop that there may be new strategies that may be engineered in the parent country where the headquarters of the firms may be located.
They may have to tailor their rules to suit that host nations so that their operations may remain stable. It can be stated that multinational firms are unable to operate at their own free will, and they have to adapt to the regions that their plants are located.
They may have to incorporate their own decrees according to the host nations.
This is not necessarily a disadvantage to the firms since the host nations would also not like to lose the revenue and the income as well as the business opportunities and the employment that the firms offer to their country and the people who live there.
In any case, firms that have fully adopted this strategy have seen an increase in their earnings due to the economic upsurge that the favorable business conditions offer them. Good cooperation with the administration of any nation as well as good personal relationships with administrators offers sufficient conditions for any firm to thrive.
The countries that host the international firms can take full advantage of the existence of the firms within their confines.
The fact that the numbers of unemployed individuals is kept at controllable levels in most instances by the employment of the workers in the factories, means that not only is it advantageous to have the firms in their countries.
It also it means that it is one more burden off their backs for the firms to absorb the people who work for them. This augurs well especially for developing nations who endure the most instances of economic turbulence.
It is evident that most nations that host international firms portray a picture that reflects economic growth in terms of their fiscal development. There are several ways that this can be seen such as the development of the infrastructure in the regions that the factories or plants are situated.
Other countries, especially neighboring nations, view these nations as economic hubs in their respective regions, and this works to ensure that they bring along investments into the host nations.
The completion that emanates from these situations is mostly beneficial to the people in the region, seeing as it brings about a wider variety from which they can choose their products from, ensuring that quality prevails.
The attraction of foreign investment brings with it foreign exchange in the region, as well as better cooperation among nations. Trade ties are improved and all countries benefit widely.
This does not imply that there are no negative effects on the host nation. Some situations may be ironical, in that, some people may find gainful employment when international firms bring their operations to a new country.
There are also some situations where at the same time that some people are being employed by the multinationals, others are losing their jobs. The bittersweet reactions that are observed in the reactions and counteractions are assumed to be all in the stride of the multinational companies operational aspects.
Some jobs that have been in existence in the countries that are hosting the international firms may be seen as obsolete once a new firm introduces modern methods of operating. The cultures that were construed into the system of the people may be corrupted by the modern structures implemented by the firms.
They may be wiped away altogether. It is also common knowledge that setting up factories may have detrimental effects on the environment, as well as the natural resources of the hosting country. The use of chemicals and the harvesting of natural resources ensure that the host nation will be affected in various ways.
There are several examples of multinational companies that can be used to elucidate these matters. One such example is Apple Incorporation, which is an American multinational firm involved in the design of various artifacts such as personal computers, electronics, as well as software for computers.
Some of the most renowned products of the firm include Macintosh computers as well as the i-pods and i-pads, as well as the i-phone. The number of people Apple Incorporated has employed has soared to well over 75,000 around the world (Perlmutter 15).
The firm has operations situated in various countries and cities around the world. They include Paris and Tokyo. The headquarters is in Silicon Valley, California.
BMW or Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is another classic example of a multinational firm. The company manufactures vehicles engines as well as motorcycles. There are other brands like the mini, as well as Rolls Royce vehicles that the firm produces.
The firm has its headquarters in Munich, Germany. It has several units situated all over the world including countries like China as well as India and Egypt. The firm also has plants in South Africa Canada as well as the United States and Austria. The units produce different products.
International firms face the challenge of blending diverse cultures, as well as nationalities of their employees the companies ought to take into consideration that they aim to achieve one goal and this means that they have to get their employees to cooperate regardless of their cultural, physical, or religious backgrounds.
Employees from different background and different nationalities can easily raise conflicts among themselves. These conflicts may vary from ideas or ethics to religious aspects. Teaching employees to embrace their colleagues and their cultures as well as ideas, makes them focus on attaining the goals of the firm.
Encouraging the employees to work in harmony and not to overlook or take for granted their colleagues despite their beliefs and cultures will go a long way in alleviating the hurdle associated with attaining the targets of the international firms.
People who act with ambiguity in terms of employee cooperation ought to be kept an eye on by administrators. All forms of racism and discrimination ought to be treated with the utmost of severity. They should not be condoned at all. Eradication of these vices will only see the companies attain profitability.
The comparison of the ultimate target of attaining commercial success, attributed to international firms, is relatively affirmable at present. Many aspects of an international firm are affected when it comes to cooperation among the employees.
In order for the units in diverse regions to realize investment from the parent nations, they must practice valuable cooperation among each other. They will be showcased to clients and the world at large. Profits are realized from efficiency and most businesses realize this aspect.
Nevertheless, leading a powerful international firm encompasses charted work schemes as well as appreciation of diverse nationalities by each employee. Most multinational firms have realized the importance of diversifying their operations and have successfully implemented these strategies in order to maximize their profits.
Works Cited Green, Duncan. From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States, London, England: Oxfam, 2008. Print.
Lavelle, Jonathan. “Patterning Employee Voice in Multinational Companies”. Human Relations 63.1 (2010): 395-418. Print.
Marginson, Paul. “Employee Representation and Consultative Voice in Multinational Companies Operating in Britain”. British Journal of Industrial Relations 48.1 (2010): 151-180. Print.
Perlmutter, Howard. The Tortuous Evolution of the Multinational Corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, 30.7 (1969): 9-18. Print.
Van den Born, Floor. Business Communication. Language Policies and Communication in Multinational Companies, 47.2 (2010): 97-118. Print.
Sub-Saharan Africa Essay best essay help
Table of Contents The Civil War
The Civil War In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high rate of in-fighting within the different countries. The existence of different ethnic groups causes conflicts. The groups usually fight for control and power since the leaders tend to favor their ethnic tribes over the others.
This happened in Ivory Coast, when people who were supporting the incumbent president Gbagbo fought against those supporting the opposition leader Ouattara, who won the elections.
The same also happened in Kenya where the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki, refused to give up power in an election marred with numerous electoral irregularities acknowledged by the electoral commission.
This led to post election violence that led to the death of more than one thousand people. Sierra Leon has been in the Civil War since 1991 while the Congo has been in the Civil War since 1994 during the Rwanda genocide.
Political Turmoil Electoral irregularities are rampant in sub-Saharan Africa, which lead to political turmoil. This is because the incumbent leaders do not accept defeat. Hence, they refuse to give up power and force coalitions with their opponents as in the case of Kenya and Zimbabwe.
In Kenya, cases of rigging, voter bribery and election violence marred the electoral process. The electoral commission of Kenya favored the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki and declared him the winner amidst protests.
The commission also acknowledged the irregularities; this led post-election violence due to discontentment among voters. After negotiations, the opposition leader Raila Odinga agreed to form a coalition government with Kibaki.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A similar case occurred in Zimbabwe that forced Morgan Tsvangirai to form a coalition with the President Robert Mugabe after the closely contested election. In Ivory Coast, during the 2010 elections, the incumbent president Gbagbo refused to give up power leading to violence between supporters of the two groups.
Corruption The oil exploitation in Nigeria happens to benefit only the drilling companies and the political leaders. It does not benefit the local communities due to unequal distribution of wealth, promoted by the high levels of corruption among the oil companies and politicians.
In Kenya, the sitting president tends to favor his or her community when it comes to government appointments and project development.
In Sierra Leone, the Revolutionary united front as accused the government on numerous occasions for mismanagement of funds that have since plunged the country into poverty despite the presence of diamond deposits.
The President of Zimbabwe, Mugabe, took land forcefully from the minority white settlers and distributed them among his African cronies. Those given lands could not match the previous agricultural production capacities by the whites thus making the country unable to sustain itself.
Food crisis Most of the countries faced with the food crisis in sub-Saharan Africa are on the horn of Africa that is Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia. This is due to severe drought experience in the region that does not favor agriculture. The countries are totally dependent on agriculture thus worsening the food crisis when there is a drought.
There is a lack of appropriate measure to curb the food crisis; this is due to the lack of enough funds at the regional level to come up with projects to improve the level of food production.
We will write a custom Essay on Sub-Saharan Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instability in the region caused by the presence of the militia group in Somalia known as Alshabab also promotes food shortage by preventing aid from reaching the people. The governments of the countries in the region also fail to act on predictions of such a calamity.
The International Organization for Standardization Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Background
Discussion of the Clause
Best Organizational and Company Practices
Background The International Organization for Standardization, otherwise known as ISO, is a global organization, which accredits companies based on performance and service delivery.
The ISO certification for companies recognizes those companies, which have successfully gone through the laid down procedures in quality assurance.
Its principles include customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach, the systems approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision making, and mutually beneficial supplier relationships amongst others (Branson n.d., p. 1).
The scheme is about guaranteeing quality to the recipients of goods and services in business and entrepreneurship, as well as other fields. In determining this quality, customer needs are assessed followed by an evaluation of the degree to which an organization meets them. According to the ISO certification, quality cannot be achieved at once.
The process therefore is continuous. As such, it requires active improvement. It is also managed by instituting measures aimed at preventing rather than detecting flaws that may hinder companies’ performance. Some authors have described the quality as “getting it right the first time” (Branson n.d., p. 1).
This result is therefore the target of ISO certification in its course to achieve high standards in organizations’ performance. This research looks at the ISO 9000 clause 2.3. It describes it in details in a bid evaluated how companies and organizations deal with it and or how best they can reap from it.
Discussion of the Clause There are a number of clauses in the ISO 9000. Companies target to achieve the demands of specific clauses for their accreditation to hold. The clause that the essay looks at is clause 2.3. This clause is on quality management systems approach. It entails a number of prestigious business functions (Branson n.d., p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are also a number of steps involved for companies to fulfill the clause. The first step involves the initial determination of the expectations of clients to an organization or customers in a business enterprise.
In this step, a company considers the requirements of the population it serves so that it targets to fulfill the needs in a bid to benefit at the same time from the efforts. This stands out as the foundation of any successful company.
In the ISO requirement, an organization should be able to tell the needs of the people it serves before proceeding to meet them in a defined manner. Most of the organizations, which do not meet this first part of the clause, end up not satisfying the ISO standards. Therefore, they are not accredited.
The second part of the clause states that an organization should be able to come up with policies on quality and objectives pertaining to management (Branson n.d., p. 1).
These are laid down in the framework of the organization to be discussed with the interested parties and those involved in the management within a company. In most organizations, the quality statement is drafted and placed in the areas of work.
This strategy is meant to be adhered to by all workers and organizational affiliates. It sets the ground for those interested in the success of the organization, and for those who want the organization to proceed.
This part of the clause is pertinent to consider in excellence awarding exercise by ISO. It is also related to the first part of the clause. Therefore, it should be aligned with it.
We will write a custom Report on The International Organization for Standardization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the organization or company sets up the objectives, the next step according to the clause is to determine the process that is required to achieve these goals (Branson n.d., p. 1).
Not only is the process established but also the responsibilities that are required to meet the objectives are also determined (Branson n.d., p. 1). These are in line with the second step of setting up the objectives.
They should be made by an exceptional quality control part of the organization where possible. The processes are then written down for implementation. However, they should be cost-effective, orderly, and logical.
An organization should use processes that are easy to lead in the achievement of the set goals, which should not be out of reach for the particular organization. The responsibilities determined thereof should also be equally distributed within the organization with each of the employees being made aware of his or her part in the process.
These responsibilities include the approach to clients, meeting their needs in an informed and friendly manner, and client feedback. The process should also have room for getting suggestions in an attempt to ensure their implementation in the company.
The fourth part of the clause is on determining and providing resources necessary to attain quality objectives (Branson n.d., p. 1). In this part of the clause, the organization spells out the requirements in meeting the set objectives some of which are physical while others are non-tangible resources.
The requirements include increased funding in the quality assurance process of the organization, increased staffing, increased machinery, reduced number of processes, and reduction in the time of getting services within the organization.
The company should then proceed to provide these resources through a process that is efficient and beneficial to it and its clients. The basis of taking this step is to ensure client satisfaction, which is the ultimate goal of any organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The International Organization for Standardization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fifth process in the clause is the establishing of “methods to measure the effectiveness and efficacy of each process” (Branson n.d., p. 1) that have been mapped down according to the above procedure. The setting up of these methods is linked to the determination of resources needed as indicated in the preceding part.
Once a company has set the objectives in quality assurance, it should then embark on determining the efficiency of the processes that it has laid down. This step should be done in an internal manner where the company evaluates the methods.
The company then needs to consult widely on the processes used elsewhere before proceeding to develop its own from the existing ones. Some of these methods include surveys where client satisfaction is established via feedback.
Any process that is chosen should be able to determine the effectiveness and the efficiency of each of the processes listed above. A company can also enlist the services of other external companies to guarantee the effectiveness and efficiency of the processes that it has set as its quality assurance.
The next step after the determination of effectiveness and efficiency of the processes is the elimination of non-conformities. This part tries to answer the question of what will be done to eliminate non-conformities (Branson n.d., p. 1).
A company spells out the measures it will take to prevent non-conformities to eliminate their causes (Branson n.d., p. 1). This part aims to reduce any risks that organizations face in the achievement of quality in their services.
For organizations to maintain and establish quality services, they need to seal all the loopholes in their quality assurance process. This step involves the elimination of all hindrances to quality services. The most common process that companies use is the development of rules and laws governing their performance.
The personnel, processes, and other affiliates that do not meet the set rules and organizational laws are then dealt with according to the laid procedures, which include termination of contracts, warnings, and other disciplinary measures.
The last part of the clause entails the “establishment and application of a process for continual improvement of the quality management” (Branson n.d., p. 1: Rothery 1993, p.15). In the real sense, this means improving the business as a whole.
A business cannot achieve quality performance if any part of it is not performing according to clients’ requirements. The organization therefore targets to improve the overall rating of the organization by taking a holistic approach to quality service delivery. Any process that is initiated by the organization should be focused on improving it.
When a particular part of the organization is not performing optimally, the organization is perceived not to be performing as a whole. The target is therefore to eliminate this drawback by ensuring that all departments and services offered are within the organization’s target.
In most instances, various authors define the above clause as the most important in the ISO 9000 certification (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is however not a constituent of ISO 9001 (Branson n.d., p. 1) despite its importance in quality assurance.
The clause can be used to improve the quality management systems that exist within a particular organization, or even maintain it at a desired level (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is therefore indispensable to apply it in any organization.
Any organization that adopts it “…creates confidence in the capability of its processes and the quality of its products besides providing a basis for continual improvement” (Hoyle 1998, p.23). It is therefore a necessity in meeting clients’ needs by ensuring their satisfaction and hence the overall organizational success.
Critique The clause is a paramount requirement in attaining the ISO 9000 certification for companies and organizations. The resources needed to meet these requirements are not readily available to medium and small companies. This gap may hinder their certification.
They are also subjective to an organization. Besides, standardization is difficult across various fields in the business world. These are the main disadvantages and hindrance to achieving the ISO in the companies. The clause however provides organizations with a chance to improve their services and operations.
This will not only improve their rating but also their market share, profitability, and efficiency. An organization therefore needs to pursue the principles in the clause irrespective of whether it is seeking ISO certification.
In the establishment of successful organizations, the clause also contributes in the development of quality management systems within the organization. This stands out as the target of the ISO 9000. All companies fulfilling this basic clause should be certified.
The clause is also not demanding to organizations, as the resources required are within the reach of most of them. An organization should determine resources it needs to guarantee client satisfaction.
Another positive creation of the clause is competition for companies. Organizations within a particular field and those offering related services continually compete to ensure the set standards are achieved. Other companies do not do it before them.
This competition has ensured that clients get the best services and products in a particular field (Klassen 2007, p.18). Companies that achieve ISO certification after meeting this clause therefore use it as a marketing strategy to improve their performance and rating (Johnson 1993, p.6).
There are a number of positive developments from this clause relative to quality assurance in organizations. This realization has contributed towards making service delivery efficient and affective.
Best Organizational and Company Practices The clause has ensured that some practices are adopted within organizations. In most of the organizations with ISO 9000 certification, the clause enables organizations to set up client feedback systems.
Most companies have existent client feedback systems in place as a way for clients to express their satisfaction with the services offered by the companies.
For client satisfaction, there are feedback centers within organizations, quality assurance departments, client reward schemes, organizational feedback websites, and programs (Klassen 2007, p.18). These centers have culminated from the adherence that companies have put to the clause hence making it one of the resultant practices.
Another company practice that has resulted from the clause is the development of the company and organizational charters (Peach 1997, p. 73). Organizations and government institutions falling under ISO offer these charters to ensure that services provided, and goods manufactured are within their standards.
Most of the organizations have therefore developed distinctive units within them, which are concerned with the achievement of the laid down quality assurance goals.
A schedule for monthly and annual meetings exists in companies to discuss the success in quality assurance for the organization and the steps required to guarantee continued customer satisfaction (Johnson 1993, p.6).
Other positive practices that businesses have adopted because of this clause include the award schemes. Most organizations have set up a means of rewarding their best performing personnel in various departments. This gesture serves as a motivation for them since it improves service delivery in companies.
It improves their market rating. It also serves as a means of marketing for their products and services. In the business world, profitability for companies is linked to the adherence to the clause.
The clause has also increased consumer awareness thus contributing towards the improvement in service delivery across all sectors of trade and business. The clause therefore makes a positive contribution in service deliver. Thus, its adoption of importance for the success of any organization
Conclusion In conclusion, the ISO certification has contributed towards establishing a reward scheme aimed at improving service delivery in organizations. The ISO 9000 and the constituent clause 2.3 have enabled this outcome to be effected, as it spells out the procedure to be followed in attaining quality service delivery.
The description made above establishes that the clause entails seven processes to be followed in attaining the fulfillment of this clause. They have been described in details. The critique establishes that the clause is beneficial to organizations and companies.
It therefore qualifies as an ingenious way of ensuring their positive market performance. Some of the best practices that organizations have adopted include awards scheme, quality assurance departments, and client feedback programs. These have contributed towards efficiency and effectiveness in organizational performance.
References Branson, P n.d., Most important clause, Business improvement through effective process management, viewed on .
Hoyle, D 1998, ISO 9000 Quality Systems Handbook, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Johnson, P 1993, ISO 9000: Meeting the New International Standards, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Klassen, L 2007, Certification Study Guide, International Technical Support Organization, IBM, United States.
Peach, R 1997, The ISO 9000 Handbook, Irwin Professional Publishers, Chicago.
Rothery, B 1993, ISO 9000, Brookfield, VT, Gower.
Paul Farmer about the Human Rights Explicatory Essay best essay help
Ideally, we can comprehend human rights as unassailable elemental rights that an individual is intrinsically entitled because he/she is a human-being. Also, we can perceive them as being egalitarian and universal. As a matter of fact, these rights can be deemed to be either legal rights or natural rights.
Human rights are the basis of tranquility, self-determination and evenhandedness because they recognize equality, and inherent dignity all over the globe (Trostle, 2005). This paper will depict the call by Paul Farmer for the human rights to have a newer definition that will not disregard the most fundamental rights, such as health, all-foods, and shelter.
To begin with, the disdain or disregarding of the fundamental human rights have led to acts that are barbarous, and which are capable of outraging the individuals’ conscience as well as the globe’s advent that can permit an individual to enjoy the freedom of trepidation, freedom of talking; and freedom of basic needs like shelter, all-foods, and health.
These human rights can be affirmed as the individual’s foremost priority. These essential rights ought to be included in newer definition of human rights.
For instance, if an individual does not have a right to shelter, or health, or all-foods, then he/she is likely to become rebellious against being oppressed and autocracy. It can be vital if the rule-of-law protects this (Trostle, 2005).
Actually, by profession, Farmer Paul was a Medical Anthropology Professor at Harvard-Medical school. He initiated Partners-In-Health. In his Pathologies-of-power book, he greatly employed consecrating stories about life-and-death in circumstances that were tremendous with the aim of interrogating how we can comprehend human rights.
Also, as a physician and an anthropologist, Paul was an experienced worker with over 20 years as he had worked in a number of nations, such as Russia, Haiti, and Peru.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, Farmer argued that the current struggle for the essential and most vital human rights was to promote the social, as well as the economic rights of the poor individuals around the globe.
The eyewitness accounts by Paul were passionate. These accounts came from the prisons of Russia and the two villages that were beleaguered, such as: the Chiapas villages; and the Haiti villages. In actual fact, these accounts were employed by Farmer in linking the affected victims to a wider scrutiny with regards to structural violence.
Nevertheless, unadventurous thinking that was within the circles of human rights was challenged by Farmer as he tried to expose the correlations amid economical prejudice and politics, as well as the relationship between the powerless and their ill-health and/or suffering (Farmer, 2003).
Farmer was not only angry but also hopeful. This is because he was fervent as well as being authoritative at the same time. Vitally, the arguments by Farmer were elucidated as a request that was convincing in substantiating the human rights delineation not to disregard the most rudimentary rights, such as healthiness, all-foods, and shelter.
This plea had a potency that was deemed to be special as it came from a great individual that had already portrayed the notion that, it is probable to have a universal dream as well as a human-rights definition that is comprehensive. Also, Farmer brought health, shelter, food, and hopefulness to a number of poorest individuals in the world (Farmer, 2003).
While fighting for the newer definition of human rights, we can say that Farmer was not only charismatic but also luminous. He challenged individuals to face the 21st Century dogmatic and conjectural challenges that were regarded as being urgent.
This was to be done by linking personified social agony with structural violence but in so doing, the human rights was to be defined afresh. While referring to Farmer’s book that was entitled Pathologies-of-Power, As Trostle puts it, “Once this book is out, we will no longer be able to remain complacently or rather complicity on the sidelines” (Trostle, 2005, p. 117).
We will write a custom Essay on Paul Farmer about the Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Idyllically, in his arguments, Farmer gave a critique of the fanatical moral principles regarding a conformist. On the ground, he critiqued the relentless marching of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the drug-resistant tuberculosis amid those individuals that were very sick, the poor, and the imprisoned individuals.
This notion illuminated that the worldwide economy had made a number of pathologies to lose their soul. Paul clearly illustrated that the societal forces that were alike were capable of giving rise to endemic disorders, such as tuberculosis and HIV, which were also capable of sculpting risk for persons to violate human rights.
Nonetheless, Farmer was also able to portray the manner in which gender inequality and racism, particularly in America, were embodied as being a disorder or demise or both. Farmer’s book is regarded as being milestone away from an inventory-of-abuse that is hopeless.
The examples that Farmer used in his book correlated with a guarded sanguinity and thus, individuals needed new medical or/and social techniques so as to be able to implement/develop them with a more informed level-headedness as regards to social justice.
If not, Farmer asserted that the individuals will not tackle structural violence but only deal with social inequality (Farmer, 2003).
The urgent plea by Farmer was to perceive human rights in the milieu of the public health and then consider eminence concerns that are critical and finally, guarantee that the poor individuals around the globe are able to access them.
This concern should be fundamental as presently, the globe has been characterized not only by bizarre propinquity that is in excess, but also suffering. This present central dilemma was captured by Farmer Paul. This dilemma encompassed the societal well being and the escalating health discrepancies (Payer, 1996).
In view of the fact that all United Nations member countries had already deprecated the gross-violations of human rights that had been perpetrated by a number of individuals who were capable of torturing, murdering/killing or imprisoning another individual, we usually ignore the human-rights violations that are insidious, and which are as a result of structural violence, such as: the fiscal opportunity refutation, housing that is decent; accessibility to healthcare facilities; and accessibility to educational facilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paul Farmer about the Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As thus, Farmer affirmed that, “Pathologies of Power makes a powerful case that our very humanity is threatened by our collective failure to end these abuses” (Farmer, 2003, p. 87).
In conclusion, we can say that arguments by Farmer have assisted us in opening up our hearts and intellects.
This is due to the fact that it has displayed itself as an engaged-scholarship model, as well as a call that is urgent, and which can motivate social scientists to be capable of forsaking their undemanding disregard for human-rights both at home and away from home. In reality, Farmer’s book has gathered both an activist’s potency and the strength of a thinker.
References Farmer, P. (2003). Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Payer, L. (1996). Medicine and Culture. New York: Holt Paperbacks.
Trostle, J. (2005). Epidemiology and Culture (Cambridge Studies in Medical Anthropology). Berwick: Cambridge University Press.
Cognitive Dissonance Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Cognitive Dissonance
Arguments on the Impact of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive dissonance refers to the discomposure that is triggered when one is unable to choose from contradictory views. It occurs in many real life situations where an individual’s behavior conflicts with integral beliefs to his or her self-identity.
When a conflict arises between belief and behavior, something should change in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance (McConnell
Ethical and Legal Implications of Insider Trading Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Ethics
Ethical and Legal Implication
Ethics Ethics can be applied in any profession. Basically, ethics denote set of laws or moral systems that provide a basis for discerning whether an action is correct or erroneous. Therefore, members of a profession can come up with ethical principles that guide them when carrying out their duties.
The five common ethical principles are “independence, integrity, responsibilities and practices, competence and technical standards, responsibilities to clients, responsibilities to colleagues, and other responsibilities and practices” (Anthony 10). This paper reviews the applicability of ethical and legal principles in the case of insider trading involving Stephen Cohen.
Case The founder of SAC Capital Advisor, Stephen Cohen and the portfolio manager, Mathew Martoma were involved in what is considered as the most profitable insider trading in the history of the United States of America.
Initially, “the court had charged Mr. Martoma with conspiracy to commit securities fraud and two counts of securities fraud” (The Wall Street Journal 2).
He obtained secret data for trading the company from a university. “The two bought shares for their funds in two drug companies involved in the clinical trial, and then bet on the companies’ shares to fall when Mr. Martoma learned of negative news in 2008” (The Wall Street Journal 1).
“Mr. Martoma, a portfolio manager at SAC’s CR Intrinsic Investors division, received secret data over an 18-month period from the professor about a trial for a drug being developed by Elan and Wyeth” (The Wall Street Journal 1).
The results of the trail of the drop were negative and the price of shares of the two companies flopped drastically. The two companies suffered serious losses. It is also reported that the profits generated by Mr. Martoma were paid to Mr. Cohen.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The Hedge fund gathered $276 million in profits and losses avoided based on the information obtained by Mr. Martoma “(The Wall Street Journal 1). From the case, it is evident that the two parties used information that was not known by the entire public to obtain undue benefits.
In their actions, there is an outright breach of the professional ethical code of conduct such as integrity, confidentiality, professional due care, and professional behavior. The act of the two individuals is regarded as white collar crime.
Ethical and Legal Implication The case displays a scenario of classical insider trading where the insider passes on the material information to another party who in turn trades with it. This type of insider trading is less common and often very difficult to identify. A legal trade is not necessarily ethical.
The transactions carried out by the two managers were legal but not ethical. This is as a result of the fact that the actions above were not conventional to “the principle tenet of trading at the security market, that is, no trader should have unjust gain when trading in the stock market” (Anthony 11).
This implies that when a trader has material information that is not known to the rest of the public and he carries out trade with it as was in the case, then the gains from the trade are unfair prima facie. However, there is no blanket court rule that declares trading with material insider information as illegal.
The court handles cases arising from unfair trade in isolation. In some cases, businesses advocate for insider trading since it promotes competition but with outlined policies to give directions. Therefore, it emerges that trading with material nonpublic information is unethical but may not be essentially against the law (Anthony 1).
Works Cited Anthony, Phillip 2010, Insider Trading in Financial Markets: Legality, Ethics, Efficiency. PDF file. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical and Legal Implications of Insider Trading specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Wall Street Journal 2012. Trading Charges Reach SAC. 17 Dec. 2012.
Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM Case Study online essay help
Introduction The success of a firm’s productivity depends on the organization of the human resource management. Reflectively, labour as a factor of production, determines the gross output, performance, and goal achievement at optimal resource use.
The Becton Dickson Company has been struggling with human resource management problems that range from competition, labour structure, and financial constraints. The current SHRM of the company shows limitation of available factors of production, especially on optimal labour use and employee motivation.
Thus, analytical paper attempts to explicitly review the current issues facing the SHRM of Becton Dickson Company and its relevance. In addition, the treatise explores the restructuring model of SHRM that would address these challenges.
Current Issues Facing Becton Dickson Company Current budget of the Becton Dickson firm may not allow it to utilize all factors of production in the economy. Becton Dickson Company faces several limitations in its operations after the sudden restructuring. First, the uncertain working conditions greatly impacted on employees’ confidence and performance patterns.
As employees’ incomes remain unstable, and relatively low, it was natural to witness an underperformance and low morale at work. The trading conditions continued to remain a challenge especially for this company.
These adversely influenced the ability of Becton Dickson to achieve the forecasted sales and consequently, the overall budget was affected. Increase in prices of factors of production directly affects budgeted cost of production, and thus low income earned by employees.
In addition, inability of the company to leverage its systems and processes hindered the growth of its business as it reduced ability of the company to attract the right labour skills and attitude. Finally, the company faces operational risks in areas such as supply chain management, communication systems, and human resource management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that the company has to operate within a predetermined budget, changes in the individual component of the budget affect the operations of the entire business.
Becton Dickson is exposed to numerous threats. For instance, following the acquisition logistics and restructuring, the company has to remain afloat despite competition. Secondly, the human resource department is fairly responsive to sudden swings and also very sensitive to changes in income.
Since the restructuring, the company has suffered heavily, as communication system for implementing these changes seemed to have broken down. Due to redundancy, lack of performance evaluation processes, employee testing, and healthy work culture, the company is currently facing uncertainty.
These systems are critical in improving leadership skills, evaluation skills, promoting creativity, and rewarding outstanding achievement. The company is surrounded by several opportunities for growth of business. However, the human resource department is seriously underdeveloped despite the fact that labour determines total output, thus profitability.
Significance of SHRM Profiling as a Policy and Practice at Becton Dickson SHRM profiling in Becton Dickson consist of training and development programs that are both on-the-job and off-the job. These should be built around the core business values and is firmly aligned with the business strategy – developing skills that will support future growth of the business.
The results of the programme are meant for statistical t-testing of relevance of evaluation strategies adopted in reviewing employment terms and performance. Despite the fact that this company has a fresh initiative for correcting the previous mistakes, it has not fully adopted an inclusive career development plan.
Management ought to realize that there is no better way to achieve this rather than through the use of training and development. Further, Becton Dickson Company should evaluate effectiveness of training and development in realizing the goals and objectives of their set targets.
We will write a custom Case Study on Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management of the company should use outcomes of trainings and development in decision making relating promotions and transfers within the organization. Besides, the company should undertake several career development programmes, such would be necessary for attracting and retaining human resource base.
The company should consider providing a job compensation structure that supports the organizations as well as individuals’ growth and development perspectives that evaluate employees and produce succession pipe-lines for vital job positions in the organization.
Since these aspects are incorporated in the SHRM profiling, it remains very relevant and should be fully adopted as a policy and practice by the company.
SHRM profiling as a policy facilitates appraisals on performance of the human resource function of a company. Reflectively, such appraisals are important as they help employees to establish their performance in relation to the expectations from the business and expected outcomes as agreed during performance planning.
Further, the appraisals reveal gaps that may be inherent when executing duties. At the end of appraisal procedure the line manager and the staff member formulate a plan for further development for the next period.
In the personal development plan, the employees set objectives based on the feedback from their performance appraisal and it is mandatory for all staff members to have such a plan. The whole interactive appraisal process is beneficial as it aids employees in developing a focused vocation trail.
Further, the process is realistic. The gaps noted during the review process are bridged by training and development. These trainings that are part of the SHRM for Becton Dickson will help in preparing the staff members for future managerial duties.
The performance review process will help management of the company to have a well-organized, effectual and motivated human resource base.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Becton Dickson Company’s SHRM by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reconstructing the SHRM Profiling for Becton Dickson Company SHRM for Becton Dickson should be remodelled to be more inclusive in system evaluation and reporting of progress for each HR policy recommendation. The implementation should be done in three phases with the first phase actively involving an outsourced expert in the field of decision making.
After a fortnight, the management should then design in-house programs as a continuation of the first stage within the second stage.
In the last stage, the entire workforce is encouraged to internalize the concept initially introduced and deactivate fear and inferiority complex when addressing issues of interest to the organization and at personal level.
Though this process should be continuous, the active part should not run for more than four months from commencement at a budget less than four percent of the company’s net revenue.
Since magnitude of change is quantum as large changes involving culture, structure and strategy of the company is required. This form of change is necessary and very relevant in the case of Becton Dickson Company as the company attempts to restructure its human resource component.
Besides, when adopted, leadership responsibility, performance efficiency, and continuous motivational policies will facilitate responsive management. This modification of the SHRM would directly impact on the feedback channel as employees will have motivational power to proactively participate in decision making process.
As a result, the learning oriented process will facilitate optimal performance which is specific to the goals and desires of the company as the workforce would have the feeling of being appreciated and recognized for outstanding performance.
Training and development forms part of organizational strategy mostly because human resource department is characterized by constant dynamics in management since labour market is constantly affected by market swings.
Consequently, there is a need to merge organizational skills, knowledge and culture with the new challenges and demands. Therefore, there is constant need to use training and development largely because the department operates in a highly stratified environment.
The outcomes of performance appraisal are not only influenced by job performance of the employee, there are other several other factors that may influence performance appraisal rating of the employees.
For instance, performance initiative programmes, motivation programmes, and team building should be transformed into policies and integrated in the SHRM profiling practice for the company.
Another challenge to HRM department is properly undertaking several career development programs concurrently. If it were properly integrated, such would be necessary for attracting and retaining human resource base.
Therefore, the company’s SHRM should undergo modification to factor in the aspects of motivation, performance, and results review. Reflectively, through employee evaluation, the process will reorganise the company towards efficiency.
Fortunately, a comprehensive SHRM has room for modification to factor in this aspect and improve on reporting system as a policy profile for the Becton Dickson Company.
Conclusively, irrespective of the consequences of change element in the SHRM profiling for Becton Dickson Company, the dynamic essence of change proponent would not facilitate any state of quagmire or conflict as the unnecessary pressure associated with change would be integrated in a more consultative, proactive, and structure system for managing the human resource department of the expansive Becton Dickson Company.
Mafraq Hospital Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Mafraq hospital was open in 1983 and is located in united Arab. Mafraq hospital provides services like medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics, as well as surgical and critical services. In addition, Mafraq hospital also provides training of physicians and nurses.
Mafraq hospital has been awarded for its quality services provided to its customers thus is the best company to use in these research paper to determine the quality process used by the companies in order to be awarded (Oosten 2008).
History of the Organisation
Mafraq hospital is located 35km southeast of the UAEs capital. It is located in a unique area in the intersection of the road. Mafraq is Arabic name which mean where the road crosses.
According to Oosten (2008) the meeting of the road symbolises the conjunction of many nationalities working together to treat patients of all sex, ages and walks of life from across the world.
Mafraq hospital was established with the aim of providing the customer with services like medicine, critical services as well as surgical . In addition, Mafraq hospital operate Abu health centre that operate burn unit which is also perform best in thoracic surgery.
Mafraq hospital is known for proving world class services. It also provides training to the physicians and nurses.
Literature Review This research is based upon the review of a literature and information search that was carried out in the past. It mainly explores the company assessment that includes the achievements of the company, some certifications received and memberships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Detailed analysis of the strengths of the company, detailed analysis of the areas for improvement of the company, detailed analysis of the site visit matters. In this research paper the case study will be Mafraq Hospital.
Achievements of the Mafraq hospital Mafraq hospital management and staffs are always committed to provide quality healthcare and as resulted it is one of the credited UEA hospital. Mafraq hospital has been honoured with several awards.
In 2011 Mafraq hospital was awarded with Diamond Sheikh Khalifa Excellent Award (SKEA) due to quality services it provided it was also being recognised by SEHA for its dedication in implementing the EFQH model which aims to provide institution culture.
Mafraq hospital has been able to open and corporate many clinic in the area. This has enabled it to compete with its competitors successful and thus increasing its market share.
Mafraq hospital has been able to introduce customer care unit which has enable it to provide quality services to its customer. Through the customer care unit Mafraq is able to know what the customer want and what they need to improve.
In the year 2011, Dr.Mondy Hammad of Mafraq hospital won prestigious Arab Health Award. He and his team we appointed from over 190 submissions from 16 countries. All this is justification of the achievement of the Mafraq hospital.
Establishment Mafraq hospital operates an Abu health services which is concerned with curative activities of the clinics and public hospital of the Emirate. It is identified that Mafraq will open another advanced hospital in 2014 which aimed to provide services to its customers.
We will write a custom Report on Mafraq Hospital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These is meant to reach all the people as the new hospital will have more facilities and of new technology. The new hospital will serve as community hospital to provide quality services to the Abu Dhabi which is one of the fastest growing areas.
Services of the Mafraq Hospital Mafraq hospital has trained staffs that provide consultant’s services to its customers. From the research done shows that many patients have been coming to access consultant services in Mafraq hospital
Mafraq hospital also provides services like medicine, obstetrics, paediatrics, as well as surgical and critical services. In addition, Mafraq hospital also provides training of physicians and nurses. This has helped the Mafraq hospital to improve the health of the community.
Mafraq hospital also operates the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).
Identification of Stakeholders Need The Mafraq hospital has established the channel through which the policies of the organisation are communicated to the stakeholder. These channels help the management to provide the quality services to the customers.
It also established the means of collecting the information to the customers. These help the management of the Mafraq hospital to focus on the overall goal of the organisation.
Mafraq hospital has established customer care unit and Mafraq ambassador. This has helped the management to determine the customer needs which help them to improve their services.
Customer care unit has also helped to predict the future demand of the services of the Mafraq hospital. These help them to determine when to open a new branch to bring services closer to the customers. The customer care unit has also helped the Mafraq hospital to increase the market share of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Mafraq Hospital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mafraq hospital has also complied with all the state policy. This has enabled the customers and the employees to enjoy full protection by the state policy.
Capability of Mafraq dependent upon balancing and satisfying the needs of all relevant stakeholders, like employees, customers, suppliers, investors and society in general. Business excellence models have provided framework that enabled the Mafraq hospital to alter its process and operations in the most effective way.
Strength of Identification Stakeholders
# Strength RADAR Approach Deployment Assessment
Ashtead Quantitative Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Background Information
Ashtead group provides rental solutions in various situations such as facilities management, nonresidential construction markets, disaster relief, traffic management and major event management. It provides equipment such as lifts, powers, generates, moves, digs, pumps, and directs for rental purposes.
It was founded in 1947 as Ashtead Plant Hire Equipment Limited. The Group trades in the London Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol AHT (Ashtead Group PLC. 2012a; Ashtead Group Plc. 2012c)
The company operates in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. In the US, it operates under the brand name Sunbelt Rentals and A-plant in the UK.
Sunbelt has over 372 outlets across various cities in the US while A-plant has over 110 outlets in the major cities of the UK. In the US, the Group has engaged about 6,822 employees while in the UK, it has employed about 1,916 employees.
The operating revenue for Sunbelt as at 31st October 2012 amounted to 1,041 million while for A-plant amounted 199 million. Based on the comparisons above, it is evident that the operations of Ashtead Group in the US are greater than the operations in the United Kingdom.
Market share of Ashtead Group is greater in the US than the UK. In the US, it is the second largest in the equipment rental business while in the UK it is the third largest (Ashtead Group Plc. 2012b; Ashtead Group Plc. 2012d, Ashtead Group Plc. 2012f).
Issues Facing the Management
The key issue facing management is how to manage the leverage level of the group so as to attract new investors (Smith
The Issue of Advance Medical Directives Essay essay help online
The use of advance medical directives in the Western countries is discussed as the possibility to resolve many ethical and legal questions in relation to incurable patients, and the practice is explained from the point of respect for the patients’ autonomy and their dignity.
However, this issue is impossible to be discussed only from one perspective. If the idea of advance medical directives is rather typical for the Western countries, the readiness of the Muslim countries to use the practice is rather questionable.
Hamdan Al-Jahdali and the group of researchers state that the concept of advance medical directives can be translated to the Muslim society, but it is impossible to agree with the statement completely because this perspective is controversial, and there are many cultural and religious barriers which are associated with the ethical aspects of the question.
It is necessary to respond to many traditional visions of the Muslim understanding of the death concept to use the Western concept of advance medical directives in these countries.
On the one hand, having the possibility to provide the advance directives, the incapacitated patients manipulate the right to have the definite autonomy and control their life. On the other hand, Muslims can act against the will of God in this situation. It is the traditional vision of the case which is the main barrier to admit the Westerners’ practice.
The situation is complicated with the fact that according to the religious beliefs, it is impossible to reject the necessary treatment and it is impossible to make the decisions about euthanasia or suicide. As a result, there are many controversies which are associated with the ethical aspect of using advance medical directives.
The issue of advance directives depends on many religious questions which can be discussed from different perspectives separately, but their combination in relation to the problem of advance directives provides the next barrier because of the challenges to find the single appropriate decision.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hamdan Al-Jahdali and the other researchers present their interpretation of different statements connected with the issue which are provided in the Quran. The problem is in the fact that many Muslims do not see the whole picture and cannot make the ethically and religiously right decision.
That is why, to overcome the first barrier, it is necessary to provide the explanation that the usage of advance directives is not connected with supporting possible suicides and medically approved murders.
As a result, the second barrier can be overcome accentuating the clear statements supported by the quotations from the Quran that the choice of treatment and the abstinence from seeking therapy adopted in the Muslim society have many common features in their nature with the concept of advance directives.
Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
An Overview of the Report This report is about an industrial site that has been used for discarding wastes by two companies. The companies have been operating for a period close to sixty years. The site is situated on the upper side of a residential area and separated by an approximate distance of one mile.
Running through the site is a stream that serves the community in some ways. First, the stream is an income-generating source as it is a prominent fishing ground.
There is an underground water withdrawal point at the site that is used to bring in water to the residents. The villagers pump water from the stream to their nearby farms for irrigation.
There are however, few environmental negative aspects noted at the waste site. Approaching the site, a strong pungent smell from chemicals released by the two companies hits the air. A critical evaluation of the site reveals that there one hundred drums that unfortunately are not marked.
The drums are rusting and most of them have cracked. Further evaluation leads to the finding of various hazardous wastes that include PCBs, Chromium wastes, Acrylamide and Toluene Diisocynate (DTI).
Thesis Statement This report was written after a visit to the site and it seeks to analyze the environmental conditions at the site, find the toxicants, their routes of exposure along with the mechanisms of toxicity.
The report makes recommendations on the actions that should be taken to avert an epidemic and other toxicological effects that could be caused by toxicants. This is after an analysis of the exposure limits of the toxicants and the assessment of the risks at the site.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the Wastes
The hazardous wastes found at site are industrial products discarded by the companies and by-products of the manufacturing processes. The wastes are a mixture of solids, gases, sludge, and liquids. The wastes are dangerous and harmful to the environment and human health.
These are the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) wastes. They are compounds of hydrocarbons and are mainly synthetic (Deng, 1990). Their level of toxicity varies and widely ranges depending on their color i.e. whether they are yellow, black, waxy solids or if they are light-colored liquids.
They are common in industries because they are the main components of insulators. Industrial products that contain PCBs include most electrical equipment such as capacitors, electromagnets, voltage regulators, transformers, and reclosers.
Cable insulators and other materials that make thermal insulators such as foam, fiberglass, and felt also have PCB.
The PCBs at the site are exposed to the environment during the manufacturing processes. This is in addition to the poor mechanisms of dumping wastes used by the companies. The maintenance of the site is poor. This increases the exposure levels making the wastes more hazardous.
Keen observation of the site also revealed that there were leaches streaming into the site. This could only mean that the companies have some of their waste storage tanks poorly maintained.
PCBs do not rot. They create a cycle around the soil, air, and water for many years. They are carried as loads and moved to far of distances if found in water Just like other toxicants, PCBs have bioaccumulative effects. This is mainly in animals and crops used for human consumption.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the site fish from the stream and the irrigated crops have huge amounts of the toxicant. The toxicological effects of PCBs are many and varied (Flora, 1987). A part from causing cancer, they impair the nervous system, endocrine system, and the reproductive system.
Research by health practitioners confirms that PCBs have both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. The most common PCB mixture associated with cancer is bioaccumulative in fish. Residents therefore, feed on fish that is exposed to PCB. They are at a greater risk than the workers in the two companies are.
Exposure to PCB cuts the power of the body to respond to environmental stimulants. It also decreases the power of the body to resist Epstein-Barr virus. PCB is likely to cut the size of thymus gland.
From the reproductive front, they cut the weight of the offspring at birth, men can also experience low sperm count and a shorter gestation age in women. The manufacture of PCBs was however, banned in 1979 and the government does not allow any exposure limits.
The second hazardous waste discovered at the site was chromium waste. Chromium is a steel metal that is hard and gray in color.
The industries using the site as a waste site have for more than sixty years used Chromium in the manufacture of Stainless steel and as a component of other alloys of metals because it does not rust even at high temperatures. The companies also use it in getting average paint pigments be it yellow, green, or even red (Gosselin, 1984).
It is also used in the treatment of wood along with making chrome plates. In small amounts, the companies use it in catalysts, water treatment, making magnetic tapes and photographic chemicals. Chromium is useful to the human body as it strengthens insulin and eases the metabolism of glucose and other sugars.
The companies release Hexavalent Chromium and other Chromium wastes to the site. The wastes have carcinogenic effects. The exposure of Chromium wastes to the environment usually contaminates the air. Combustion activities within the two companies led squarely to this.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toxicological Issues at a Hazardous Waste Site by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elements of Chromium wastes react with dust particles from the environment to form very toxic substances with the potential to damage the health of residents. The leaches from waste storage tanks that are poorly maintained by the company directly mixes with water in the stream.
The solids wastes are discarded improperly at the site and they contaminate stream water used for fishing and irrigation. The leaching waste contaminates drinking water in the area.
Further exposure of Chromium waste to people near the site comes from the waste slag. This is inhaled as it comes by wind erosion. They also consume fish that is exposed and through skin contact with soils as they use the steam water during irrigation.
The environment in this area and its vicinity provides the largest exposure source to Chromium wastes. This includes chemical effluents, airborne emissions, and asbestos linings.
In general, it could be said that Chromium gets into the human body through consumption of fish, inhalation of emissions from the companies and skin absorption during irrigation. The regulations guiding Chromium by the government are meant to protect the public from its unpleasant effects.
The government through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) restricts to a maximum of eight hours exposure limits to five micrograms of Chromium per cubic meter of air. This cuts down the industrial risk to health impairment.
The risks include developing asthma and damaging both the skin and nasal epithelia. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has regulated the amount of Chromium emissions into the air from 1990 to date.
Acrylamide has carcinogenic effects and is a reproductive toxin. Its components are found in liquid form at the site and in the stream. It is highly toxic in this form as it can be inhaled; absorbed through the skin as residents work on their farms using contaminated water and consumed when the residents feed on fish.
The companies use Acrylamide in the manufacture of plastic polymers in addition to synthesizing dyes and construction of tunnels that serve to dispose their by-products to the dumping site.
The exposure of Acrylamide is largely through wastes as the companies’ use it in sieving industrial wastes to remove solids (Manahan, 1990). In the end, they discard it with water. Acrylamide has a vapour density of 2.5 and very soluble in water.
It contaminates the stream interfering with the living environment for fish. This complements it’s almost colorless nature. Following the unprotected way it is disposed, its effects tend to be very adverse.
From the analysis of the site, it is clear that the two companies emit TDI. Its toxicological effect is high, as it does not dissolve in water. The main route of exposure of Toluene is through inhalation.
Small amounts of TDI cause irritation to the lungs and the respiratory tract. OSHA allows its exposure levels to a maximum of 0.02 ppm yet people close to factories can inhale as much as 2.1 ppm. This is one hundred times more than the exposure limits.
Workers in the two companies are at the risk of contacting asphyxiation if their rooms are poorly ventilated. Children in the residential areas are at the receiving end of TDI too. The risks increase because of the economic activities in the area i.e. fishing and irrigation.
Contact with the skin causes irritation and may result in inflammation of the mucous membrane. NIOSH IDLH puts the exposure limits of TDI to a scale of 2.5 ppm as an immediate danger to health and life (Toxic, 2000).
Overall Risk Assessment
An analysis of the above conditions clearly explains that the environment and the residents near the site are at risk. The toxicological effects of the available toxicants are bioaccumulative.
The outbreak of other diseases is eminent and therefore the government ought to take the initiative to avert a looming health crisis. Men, women, and children may contact diseases some of which are contagious.
Recommendation Based on the research conducted at the site, it is highly recommended that the government health departments put protective measures in place because the residents are exposed to various risks that can cause diseases now and in future.
Other effects could mean that children exposed to the toxicants could develop complications in their late twenties. This report could as well form part of the preliminary research process by the department.
It should move fast and work in collaboration with the two companies and the residents in addressing the hazardous effects of the wastes at the site. This should include taking proper care of the site by first undertaking a thorough cleaning exercise.
This will make sure that fish from the stream is safe for human consumption. Water used for irrigation will also be safe for use, as the mixed chemicals will be removed.
Examining the numerical relationship between the exposure levels and effects of the toxicants it is possible that villagers are exposed to too much toxins.
The government should stop this, as the consequences could be unmanageable. A study should be conducted to show the extent to which the toxicants explained above have affected the environment with corrective measures put in place.
References Deng, J (1990). Veterinary and Human Toxicology. New York: Oxford Press.
Flora, D (1987). Circadian reduction of Chromium. New York: Oxford Press.
Gosselin, R (1984). Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. New York: Williams
Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts Essay essay help online free
Marijuana is one of the most used illegal drugs in the United States of America. It is now a major concern since there is a leeway to use the drug inform of medicinal claims. Through the state law right of patients have been addressed unlike in the federal laws (Eric et al par.10).
Sixteen states including Columbia have a legal provision that permits the cultivation and use of marijuana for medication. A senate bill for the case of Los angeles is on the process of considering the use of marijuana for medical purpose.
Owing to this, businesses have started promoting legal marijuana medication on patients affordable and within the safety framework. They have gone as far as prepared themselves by opting to forming co-operates that cultivate and distribute as well as consulting and assisting patient to avoid contamination with other illuminants.
The federal substance control Act (“CSA”) prohibits the use of marijuana for whatever reasons therefore contravening the legal rights of individuals to purposes or use marijuana. The legality of marijuana raises a controversy between federal and state laws.
Under the state laws, the commerce clause is supreme since it conspicuously gives the federal government jurisdiction to punish anyone involved with either cultivation or use of marijuana or both.
Through the raich court, subsequent developments are taking place to challenge the jurisdiction of federal laws not to target marijuana users. Bipartisan coalition sponsors alongside Sam Far of California Democrat have reintroduced a legislation to protect the cannabis patients from facing prosecution as provided by the federal law jurisdiction.
The sailing through of bill 3939 would see the state law take over in federal trials. According to state law, seriously sick patients can only qualify to use Marijuana for medicinal purpose. It further permits chronic patients under the provision for people with disability as provided in American people with disability Act of 1990.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For one to qualify as a marijuana patient one has to recommended by a licensed physician to confirm. It should be in writing and kept in its original form always when in possession of marijuana.
Selling of Marijuana for commercial purposes is prohibited by federal law. The major problem arising is the prevention of diverging the use of medicinal use to non-medical.
To prevent the practice of profit making business the overhead costs should be catered for to reduce its price thus discouraging people with minds of making it a profit-generating affair.
Transportation measures are in place to avoid illegal access to the drug. The amount of marijuana and distance are restricted within the jurisdiction of federal laws.
Transpotation beyond personal needs for a patient is only allowed with condition that one has to carry a written document to proof that the drug transported is done on behalf of patients and should comply with the state laws.
Law enforcement officers have undergone enough training to quantify the yield of marijuana to ensure that the patient only produces what is needed for medication without having excess yields that could lead to commercial use.
Dispensaries have to comply with the law in terms of safety and accountability not to land the drugs in wrong hands. Dispensaries must run as non profit making corporate. Record keeping and documentation should be done confidentially and accurately nevertheless records must be well kept (Worthington par.2).
We will write a custom Essay on Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marijuana medical identifications are necessary for confidentiality.Safey on handling marijuana is a major concern both to the state and to the individuals. Those with families are endangered since the mishandling of marijuana can contaminate other foods thus incriminating the family for illegally accessing the drug.
However the main obstacle here also is the denial of testing and possession of marijuana to non qualified patients. In Los Angeles zoning is cumbersome since the law definition differs on the Interpretation of “collective”.
On one hand it implies where the crop is cultivated under one management while on the other it implies individuals in a given zone cultivating the crop. However the law is reluctant since it allows cultivation in a given zone and distributed in the city (Molina par.1).
Medicinal use of marijuana at the work place is a big challenge. Some companies are firing employees who test positive on using marijuana. It challenges the law whether to protect the employers just in case a marijuana patient causes damage property or injure someone at the workplace.
On my personal opinion, I agree that there is a policy that governs the medicinal use of marijuana in Los Angeles. The only issue is that the policy is not robust enough to filter illegal use of the drug. Part of the law should be amended in particular for the definition of “Collective “to give a clear guideline on what it is supposed to be.
The controversial clauses of the federal law should be realigned with the state law so as to avoid contradictions. The policy should elaborate and restrict on the handling of marijuana although there are several challenges.
As much as there are efforts being put in place to curb the menace it is very clear that this problem of illegal drug used cannot be completely solved. The U.S President Mr. Barrack Obama is for an official policy from Los Angeles advocates (Elias par.1).
Works Cited Elias, Paul. n.d. Huffingtonpost.n.d. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Federal Drug Laws VS. State Medical Marijuana Acts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Eric D. Shevin
Panera Bread Company Case Study argumentative essay help
Panera Bread’s Strategy Panera Bread Company has expanded its business rapidly considering the demand of the US market; in addition, it focused on distinctive menu, prompt services, and signature café design to achieve long-term objectives and to become the dominant restaurant operator (Thompson 615).
However, this company has already launched a catering service in order to expand its market, for instance, people need such service to arrange parties or other gatherings; as a result, this company should carry out this type of effective services while it had earned more than $80 million in the fiscal year 2004/05 from this service.
Most closely fit strategy from the five generic competitive strategies:
Figure 1: The best strategy of Panera Bread
Broad differentiation strategy would fit with this company because Thompson (615) stated that the prime objective of Panera Bread is to attract local customers with quality food menu at reasonable price (typical meal costs $7 – $12) and achieve loyal customer base; however, type of competitive advantages are – it offers quality food items, atmosphere and rapid services to attract target consumers.
SWOT Analysis of Panera Bread Company Figure 2: SWOT Analysis of Panera Bread Company
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths
Main strongest points are –
High customer satisfaction rate in accordance with the survey report of Power and Associates’ and Sandleman
The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the Event Happened
The Impact of the Event
Relations with Toxicology and How to Prevent the Event
Introduction Dan Olmsted and Mark Blaxill wrote the article about the new evidence on Tics and Toxins. It was written in July 2012. In the month of September 2011, schoolchildren at Leroy Junior-Senior high school were affected by tic disorder.
Eighteen students were affected and after tests, the State Health Department reported that they had symptoms of dust called Tundra. Although its effect is mild and is considered safer by the US than the original DDT, its use is not allowed in Europe because of its environmental effect.
How the Event Happened The pesticide that was sprayed in a cornfield caused the outbreak of the tic disorder. This was in Western New York, Genesee County. Harris Farms managed the Cornfield whose owner was Donald Pangrazio.
The Cornfields in that region are sprayed twice a year and the effect of the pesticide was evident when the State Health Department confirmed the case in two students from two adjacent schools. In the process of spraying, the molecules of DDT and DDE spread cross to the softball fields.
The aim of spraying the cornfield was to kill earthworms. The pesticide kills the earthworms by destroying the nervous system. The investigation did not expose any environmental contamination yet a neurologist from a clinic within the vicinity diagonized the students with a conversion disorder.
This psychiatric condition causes emotional disturbance. Initially the political leadership of New York State backed this statement,
The Impact of the Event The effect of what happened caused an immediate reaction from the government as the New York State banned the use of pesticides on all fields near school playgrounds. Parents of the children who were diagonized with illness resisted the diagnosis claiming that their children were not emotionally affected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however, did not stop the political leadership in New York State from taking action. According to Olmsted and Blaxill, the investigating agencies of the government did not do a good job.
The evidence they collected from the responsible authorities did not show any prove of testing the bifenthrin that is the modern pesticide. The focus was instead on the types of DDT that were banned long ago.
Much of the information relied upon by both the testing agencies and Olmsted and Blaxill, was given by Don Dessert a resident of Leroy township. At first, both the school and the government department of Environmental Conservation dismissed pesticides as the likely cause of the tic outbreak.
The reasons given for this overlooked the idea that the spraying of the fields took place at a time the region was receiving the highest amount of rainfall.
The decision by the government was because no pesticides had been sprayed on the ground since the use of DDT was banned. That was just an example of how the impact of toxicology can be quite challenging.
The despite the fact that a pool of water next to the playground was ignored during investigation was a sign that the investigation was not comprehensive. Furthermore, the results did not include testing of the current pesticides that are used.
All this important elements were overlooked when the Leader of Professionals Services announced the lack of evidence that linked the soil, water, and air around the school to the contaminated molecules. Mark you, the report was said be extensive.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The parents, professional bodies, and the government agencies received enough media coverage to dispel the fact that toxicology was having an impact on earth. This was partly contributed by the nature of conversion disorder.
Some of the symptoms shown by the girls at LeRoy were similar to those shown by animals such as rats when exposed to bifenthrin at high doses.
Documented research from California on pyrethrins a chemical that is in the same class a bifenthrin could cause autism in pregnant mothers if they exposed to it.
Relations with Toxicology and How to Prevent the Event I have never been in such a situation. However, the best way to prevent such an occurrence is to have the laws regulating the use of pesticides very precise. Genesee County for instance does not have such laws in place. Another way of preventing this effect is to use the information availed by scientists very well.
In a separate article, the Leader of Professionals Services documented that elements of DDT were found in two soccer fields (Winas, 2011).
The body however, quickly issued a statement to add that DDT was already banned in the US. Such contradictions are a cause for confusion as Toxicology takes effect. This might be realized when it is too late and therefore little would be done.
An independent medical diagnosis of the girls from LeRoy was accompanied by the report from the doctor cautioning that co-factors should not be ignored in such a case. The regulations should be enforced to make sure that those with agricultural farms put in mind the lives of other people.
The topic is directly linked to toxicology. The effect of Toxicology is cumulative. It has not been established how bifenthrin that affected the girls will influence them in future. Chances are not zero that since the girls are teenagers another effect is suppressed and it will surface later in life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Pesticide Contamination in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Winas, B. (2011). Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system. New York: Repro Toxicol abstract.
The Electronics Industry Analytical Essay essay help
Introduction Communication remains one of the most important tools in the current market. The market has become increasingly competitive. As Chaston (2009, p. 78) states, the market is getting very competitive as the world embraces globalization.
The world has been turned into a global village. An American company can now make its productions in China and sell its products in India. The geographical barrier that existed before has completely been eliminated. Transport and communication has enhanced business processes.
Firms can now go beyond their borders. This is considered as one of the biggest achievements in commerce. The market has been expanded for large firms that can manage to operate globally.
However, this also comes at a cost. While an American firm will have an advantage in the fact that the scope of the market is expanded, there will be a price to pay for this. It will also be ready to receive competitors in the local market.
The electronics industry is currently considered one of the largest and the fastest developing industries in the world. This industry has had a huge impact in the world in various fronts. This industry has played the leading role in transforming the world into a global village.
Information can flow very freely from one part of the world to another, thanks to the electronics industry (Viardot 2004, p. 37). Various firms can operate in the world market with much ease because of the improved communication.
The social media has had a massive impact on the lives of people, both economically and socially. Firms are currently relying on Facebook, Tweeter and YouTube to communicate to the populace because of the improved communication strategies. Electronics have become basics in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the Industry by Porters Five Forces
According to Handlechner (2008, p. 25), the market for electronics, and specifically personal computers have been on a constant rise in the last two decades. Emerging technologies are changing the social structure of societies around the world.
Communication has become very important in the lives of different individuals in the world. In the office, a personal computer is needed to store data and easily retrieve them. It is also useful in preparing various documents within the office. A manager will need a personal computer to track various records relevant to the organization.
Back at home, computers are very useful for entertainment, especially as a form of social networking. To a student, personal computers will be useful in performing various tasks that are related to their studies, including research. Every organization in the current world cannot operate normally without a personal computer.
With this massive growth of the market for this product, various firms have come out with various brands of computers to tap on the growing opportunity for this product. Apple has been one of the leading firms that have been considered as the leading manufacturers of personal computers.
Dell is facing a serious market competition from Dell in the manufacture and sale of personal computers in the United States and other overseas countries. Apple has proven to be the main threat of Dell in this industry for a number of reasons. The United States still remains that most attractive market for personal computers.
The market is large enough, and the purchasing power is strong enough to support the industry (McLaughlin
Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral and psychiatric disorder that affects at least one in every 20 children in the western world (Pineda, Ardila, RosselliMet al, 1999).
It is characterized by hyperactivity or impulsiveness, and in most cases, difficulties in paying attention. Since 1970s, there has been a debate over the existence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
In fact, the existence of the condition, its treatment and diagnosis, have been considered controversial topics since the condition was first suggested in the medical, psychology and education.
The controversial aspect of ADHD has attracted researchers from a number of fields, with an aim of determining whether the condition is real or whether it is a myth (Brown, Freeman, Perrin, et al, 2001).
Yes, ADHAD exists and Is a Brain Condition That Affects Children and Adults The American psychiatric Association (2004) asserts that ADHD actually exists and in the United States alone, it affects at least one in every 20 children. Studies have shown that sufferers of ADHD have relatively similar symptoms.
These symptoms includes inattention (the patients are easily disrupted), impulsivity as well as hyperactivity. In addition, APA (2004) asserts that ADHD victims may have a number of their aspects of behavior and performance adversely affected both at home and school.
Studies reveal that the condition may persist throughout adolescent, and in some cases, it may progress towards adulthood.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the last three decades, biomedical studies have confirmed the existence of the condition. For instance, the study by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008) found that the condition has a strong genetic linkage, with a high rate of hereditary and running in certain family lines.
In fact, this study confirmed that about 75% of all the cases are hereditary (Swanson, Sergeant, Taylor, et al, 1998). Recently, studies by Arcos-Bugos and colleagues (2010) have identified a number of candidate genes that are closely associated with the condition, including DAT1, DRD5, DRD4, HTR1B, 5HTT and SNAP25.
In fact, most of these genes are associated with and may affect dopamine transporters, further provides a strong indication of the presence of ADHD as a hereditary factor.
In addition, studies by Geizer, Ficks and Waldama (2009) have shown that a gene variant LPHN3 accounts for more than 9% of all the ADHD cases. These studies provide a strong evidence of the existence of ADHD.
No, ADHD Does Not Exist According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (1999), opinions regarding the existence of ADHD include a belief that the condition does not exist at all. Other opinions attempt to make the people belief that the condition is a purely hereditary factor running in families.
In addition, according to NIHCE (2004), ADHD diagnosis lacks any biological basis, indicating that the condition could only be an exaggeration of one of the known psychiatric conditions rather than a disease by its own.
According to Ramsey (2007), ADHD is a controversy that only results from a misunderstanding and misconception of diagnosis criteria and how medical practitioners use these criteria.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personal Opinion on ADHD and Application in the Classroom ADHD is a psychiatric condition that should not be ignored in education. The fact that students with ADHD normally tend to be disrupted from concentrating in the class is a factor that requires adequate measures to ensure that student’s conditions are addressed (Biederman, Wilens, Mick et al, 1998).
Screening and testing is necessary to determine the children who require special attention.
Considering ADHD in the classroom, a teacher would observe the affected child getting frequent cases of inattention, which in turn disorients the child. Special education may be required in cases where the child’s condition is advanced.
References American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington: American Psychiatric Association
Arcos-Burgos, M., Jain, M., Acosta, M. T., Shively, S., et al. (2010). A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication. Mol Psychiatry 15(11), 1053-66
Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Mick, E., et al. (1998). Is ADHD a risk factor for psychoactive substance use disorders? Findings from a four-year prospective follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36, 21–29
Brown, R. T., Freeman, W. S., Perrin, J. M., et al. (2001). Prevalence and assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary care settings. Pediatrics, 2(4), 107-114
Gizer, I R., Ficks, C., Waldman, I. D. (2009). Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126(1), 51-90
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Real? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2008). CG72 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). London: NIHCE
Pineda, D., Ardila, A., Rosselli, M, et al. (1999). Prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms in 4- to 17-year-old children in the general population. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 27, 455–462.
Ramsay, J. R. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for adult ADHD. New York: Routledge
Swanson, J. M., Sergeant, J. A., Taylor, E., et al. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Lancet, 351, 429–433
US department of health and human services. (1999). Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Washington, DC: department of health and human services.
The Societal View of Medicine and Treatment Expository Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Inquiry into the interaction between culture and medical practice has gained more ground with the passing years. The advancement in certain studies, such as sociology and psychology, has provided impetus for better understanding of the relationships between these fields.
The western medicine has been based on scientific inquiry. It relies on research and advancement of scientific methods. Treatment is often based on prove of evidence and diagnosis is purely based on findings considered scientifically sound.
Even then, a flash back into the field of medicine shows a very intricate relationship between culture and treatment. Culture has several bearings on a number of issues, which are absolutely important for the choice of medication. In the first place, culture defines what would be considered a disease in some context.
Furthermore, it determines whether such a disease warrantees the ill person to seek health intervention or not (Setha, 1988).
Culture defines the kind of medication or intervention a person chooses. It also determines the kind of treatment and the interaction between the healer and the sick person.
Evidently, the medical community has come to the appreciation of this vital interaction. It is such understanding, which forms the basis for the development of studies, such as medical ethnography. This deliberate and focused inquiry into culture and treatment is bound to reveal the interconnectivity between these issues.
This liberates both the practitioners and the sick to realize what is at odds in a medical treatment intervention. This way, more holistic approach to the healing process is likely to be practiced. The final result will be achievement of more effective treatments (Ren, Amick,
Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process Expository Essay essay help online
Poetry plays an important role in a learning process, specifically when poems are applied to teaching various disciplines. Although children sometimes prefer narrative verses to the lyrics ones, they can contribute greatly to improving pronunciation and spelling, as well memorizing various terms.
It is very important for teachers to introduce poetry in an oral form for children to develop their reading and speaking skills. Rhythm and rhyme, therefore, are crucial for attracting children attention and engaging them into accomplishing various assignments.
Using rhythmic patterns allows children to develop a new understanding of various issues in reading, as well as invent new means of comprehension. Poetry, as an emotionally colored means of written text, comprises imagery and sound that contribute to advancement of children’s intellectual and response mechanisms.
Therefore, due to such important attributes of poetry, as rhythm, repetition patterns, and rhyme, children can significantly promote their understanding of complicated terms. More importantly, it also contributes to their memorizing skills.
The interaction between children and poetry is characterized by strong materials (Glazer and Williams 271). These comprise good plots, rich settings, well-developed characters, vital and educative themes, and artistic styles that employ bold and creative language (Glazer and Williams 279).
This element of novelty is developed by the author, who first understands and comprehends the nature of the audience, or the child age bracket (Glazer and Williams 282). The authors then proceed to prepare the content. It is a common argument among children poets that they create good pieces, irrespective of whether the children like them or not.
According to Glazer and Williams (284), authors argue that their compositions are built of strong materials, and the likes and silikes of children cannot be used as a basis for determingn the quality of the literatur. They further claim that poetry should be judged as literature on its own merit, and children should them be given the most appropriate literature (Glazer and Williams 298).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lukens defines poetry as a concise, intense, and flamboyant type of literary work that employs the elements of sound and language to develop emotion and targeted notions. Poetry is aimed at developing emotional intensity through the use of rhythmic or figurative language.
All forms of poetry, including children poetry use various styles to bring out the intended emotion. These styles include: “alliteration, metaphors, similes, symbolism, personification, assonance, consonance, allusion, onomatopoeia, internal rhyme, and rhyme scheme” (Likens 8).
There are various forms of poetry including narrative poems, free verse, ballads, diamante, and cinquam.
While considering poetry language and its value for developing children’s comprehension and memory, specific emphasis should be placed on literary and figurative devices.
In particular, literary images include tactile, auditory, visual, kinesthetic, olfactory, and gustatory ones where figurative tools are composed of such stylistic devices as metaphor, personification, and simile (Russell 50). These qualities can help children broaden imagination and acquire new experience in operation various notions.
Poetry language, therefore, is a powerful skill in exploring new dimensions of learning approaches. Visual tools represented in poem can help children to see the objects and describe them in the most effective way whereas tactile devices appeal to children’s sense of touch (Russell 50).
Auditory skills can also be developed by reading and listening to poems. For instance, the poetic texts can allow children to distinguish a variety of animal sounds. Finally, there are poems performing kinesthetic functions that refer mostly to motions and actions.
We will write a custom Essay on Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such poetic works are helpful in case they are combined with the actions mentioned in the poem. The introduction of rhythmic patterns is helpful because they promote children memorizing skills. In this respect, poetry language can be indispensible to learning new figures in mathematics, natural phenomena, or the names of animals.
Using metaphors, simile, and personification complements the meaning of the poetic works, as well as provide children with greater understanding of how various phenomena could be explained.
Children are not attracted to reading as easily as grownups; therefore, their reading materials should not include difficult terms or abstract concepts. According to Hillman (34), poems and other literary works that are targeted at children display five key features.
First, their characters are either children or portray childlike characteristics. Second, their context is based on typical childhood experiences that are expressed from a child’s perspective. Third, they use straightforward and direct plots that focus on the action or intended emotion.
Fourth, they send out an image of innocence and optimism, such that they leave the audience emotional and happy. Fifth, they are based on both real and fictional events in order to enhance the sense of imagination.
These characteristics are common among children authors since they portray the way that adults converse with children, using short and simple texts.
Over the past few decades, there has been increased interest in the features of children poetry, which has led to a lot of research in that field (Russell 34). One of the areas under study involves the typical methods used to express children’s poetry.
These include vivid illustrations, humorous narrative, and simple and memorable lines. According to Russell (50), most of children’s poetry uses simple words and lines that children can comprehend and use in their activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Integrating Poetry into a Learning Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Complex terms and nonfigurative notions in poetry tend to discourage children from advancing their interest and comprehension of the concepts of poetry. Since children have low education level and minimal life experience, any poetry directed at them should have straightforward wording and language that the children can grasp with ease.
Children still have a lot to learn, and their comprehension for poetry is still undeveloped. Children are more attracted to poetry that is written in their language compared to poetry that uses profound language that is beyond their age.
Hence, children can only be interested in literary work that uses simple language to explain the idea, image, and action in poetry.
Russell (58) also notes that children link poetry to fun, hence, children should find poetry amusing for them to be interested in it. Humor is a vital component that authors use to seize the attention of children and cause them to read.
Children’s poetry is most successful in getting through to the readers if its combines simple words to describe situations that are familiar to the children with humorous narrative. Russell (62) states “children love silly nonsense that tickles their funny bones” to emphasize the vital role of humor in children poetry.
For children authors to appeal to children with their poems, they need to consider the element of entertainment in the form of humor, since children are open and willing to try out fun things.
Another area that has attracted a lot of research is the literary devices employed in children’s poetry. Such elements include lively imagery, rhythm and rhyme, personification and word-play.
While rhythm and rhyme make the poems melodious, fun and easy to remember, lively imagery stimulates the various senses when children are reading poems (Lukens 76). Studies claim that imagery is one of the most valuable devices in children’s poetry (Lukens 76).
In addition, research shows that children pay a lot of attention to imagery in poetry. Lukens (75) states that imagery is the most recurrently employed literary device, and most essential in the development of the setting and mood of the poem.
Imagery also aids in enhancing the understanding of a concept and stretches the insight of the children when reading the poem (Lukens 86).
Russell suggests that personification is a vital element in children’s poetry, especially for the very young. Personification involves the issuing of human qualities to inanimate objects, which makes poetry lively and attractive to children readers.
Instances of personification such as a dancing cat or a talking car appeal to the animalistic view of children since it allows them to relate to poems that have both human and inanimate characters (Russell 91).
Word play is also a vital component of children’s poetry that allows children to make up words as part of their learning process. Word-play employs the manipulation of words that make up the poem in a playful manner in order to appeal to the children.
Children poems should aim at encouraging children to play with words, which add both humor and delight to the reading process. Word-play is most useful when reading the poems aloud, which enhances the pleasure of listening and uttering the words.
Such sound patterns as rhythm and rhyme are inherent components that allow children to work out strategies for memorizing notion, definitions, and word combinations.
Use of alliteration, consonance, assonance, and repetition provides more perspective for reading comprehension, as well as allows children to define which syllables are stressed and which ones are not.
Other literary elements that are used in children’s narratives include plot, characterization, style, setting, theme, and point of view. Poems do not employ all these elements, though the ones used like theme and plot help to develop a memorable reading experience.
Plots are vital in constructing the conflict, which builds the narrative to a happy ending in order for it to e appealing to the children. According to Lukens (99), plots involve a struggle that is overcome. These struggles can be in the form of person verses person, nature, society, or self (Likens 102).
Based on the entities involved in the struggle, authors can employ the element of personification to portray diverse views of the scenario. Themes are vital elements that determine whether the children find it easy to understand the flow of the poem.
Most of the themes considered in children’s poetry involve simple life experiences that they are familiar with. This allows them to relate to true experiences or familiar thoughts as the authors encourage them to use the element of imagery.
The content of a poem can be based upon an experience like playing with friends, playing a video game, or facing punishment from parents. Such themes that provide content which is familiar to the children are useful in making successful children poetry.
The development of children is based on the ideas of freedom and emotion that are expressed in their learning material (Glazer and Williams 301). As a result, authors should focus on delivering literature that is valuable in enhancing the productivity of the children.
The focus of researchers on children literature is due to the challenges faced by authors who prepare their reading material. The content for children literature does not employ intricate concepts and vocabulary like that used for adult reading material.
Hence, studies revolving around the appeal of children literature, and especially poetry, have revealed interesting concepts. The studies analyzed in this paper focus on the characteristics of children’s poetry based on the analysis of techniques used to obtain the appropriate content.
The deduction obtained emphasize on the use of familiar situations to develop themes and content for the poems, in order for the children to identify with them. In addition, there are specific expression techniques that appeal to children such as simple and memorable lines, humorous narrative, personification, and imagery.
Lastly, authors also consider the plot and theme of the poems, since this provides the environment where the various styles like rhyme and word-play can be employed appropriately.
Verses do not necessarily focus on explaining certain meanings and definitions. Rather, there are poems that seek to deliver comic themes that do not have sense, but which should be read by children to explain what rhyme, rhythm, and meter mean (Russell 52).
The children poetry, therefore, can be used in form of a play to amuse children and attract their attention. With regard to the above-presented characteristics, poems can represent various themes and topics, including the once originating from real life and the ones coming from history (Russell 52).
There are also narrative poems that cover story poems based on themes about various characters and plots and lyric poetry that is premised on ancient Greek poetry.
Due to the variety and great availability of poetry, teachers heavily employ it in a learning process. Reading poetry aloud is among the most efficient strategies because children’s oral language forms the basis for later development of literacy.
Reading activities should be based on understanding meaning, as well as all unknown words (Russell 52). Attention should also be given to punctuation, stress, and rhythmic patterns. It is also important to use poems for dramatic performance. Use of special effects, as well as decorations, can enhance children’s motivation to take part in the activity.
Choral poetry is another approach that can be applied by teacher to encourage children’s participation. Incorporating gestures, movements, and body language will help children understand how to work in teams. Choral pronunciation of poetry can also teach children to adjust to the rhythm.
In addition, there could be various options while reading poems in groups, including solo, unison, or three-to-five people groupings. During such activities, perfection of pronunciation and sense of rhythm should be the main purpose.
Once all the approaches and activities are properly managed, children may proceed with making up simple verses, which also contributes to the development of imagination.
In conclusion, such qualities of poetry as rhythm, rhyme, as well as use of imaginary and figurative devices, contribute to learning experience of children. Specifically, teachers can introduce various activities, including reading aloud, pronouncing words, and developing performances.
Integrating poetry into a learning process is indispensible to developing children’s memorizing skills and enhancing their understanding of various notions that relate to auditory and visual phenomena.
Applying poem to learning various disciplines, therefore, can contribute to broadening children’s imagination. Overall, poetic language is much simpler than prose narrative because it has repetitive patterns.
Works Cited Glazer, Joan I. and Gurney Williams. Introduction to Children’s Literature. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 1979. Print.
Hillman, Judith. Discovering Children’s Literature 3rd Edition. New Jersey; Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2003. Print.
Lukens, Rebecca J. A critical handbook of children’s literature. London: Good Year, 1986. Print.
Russell, David. L. Literature for children: A short introduction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2005. Print.
Strategic Planning in a Nursing Institution Compare and Contrast Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Strategic planning is a tool used by businesses and organizations, to guide their operations. It is a long term process of defining a company’s strategy, direction, and ways of distributing resources, so as to achieve objectives with maximum efficiency.
It presents a company’s mission, vision, core values, and to some extent, the strategy used by a company, to achieve its goals (Bryson, 2011). There are different models of strategic planning.
This paper looks at two models; issue-based and alignment models, in a bid to show their similarities and differences. Thereafter, it shows how the issue-based model can be used by a nursing institution.
People often say that failing to plan is planning to fail. This shows why strategic planning is vital for both public and non-profit organizations (Burkhart
The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” Analytical Essay best essay help
Rapid development of the World Wide Web and telecommunications has introduced tangible shifts in communication. Nowadays people all over the world have much greater opportunities for exchanging information and sharing their opinions on political, cultural, and social situation.
Specific attention should be given to the transition from personal, face-to-face communication to interpersonal and open communication via online channels and by mobile communication systems.
With regard to the above discussion, the writers Balouris, Shriver, and Sisario dedicate their articles to discussing the impact of social media development on shaping new forms of communication.
Their claims are specifically premised on the currently released song Call Me, Maybe? by Carley Ray Jepsen. The song content relates to the changing patterns in social interaction.
Balouris (2012), representing the Leadership Academic Blog, focuses on the importance of interpersonal communication, as well as how it is impacted by the emergence of mobile communication and social media. In particular, the author refers to such issues as appearance of a new generation whose communication will be dominated by social media.
Although Balouris (2012) does not criticize social media development, the author still notes, “some many things – tone of voice, facial expression, body language – are lost when conversation happen through a computer screen or phone screen” (n. p.).
Despite the loss of traditional distribution channels of information, the innovative techniques integrated by social media still have a positive impact on communication. This is of particular concern to development of online networks connecting people all over the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To prove the evident benefits of social media, Balouris (2012) provides persuasive statistics on constantly increasing percentage of users on Facebook ad Twitter. The new communication channels, therefore, have “…incredible power to make and shape the news and public opinion” (Balouris, 2012).
Apart from social dimension, the newly emerged online channels contribute to the development of political thoughts that provide various political campaigns all over the world.
Similar to Balouris (2012), Shriver (2010) does not confine to the discussion of Jepsen’s popular song and refers to other interesting contexts associated with it. In particular, the writer connects the issue of telecommunication with successful techniques that can be used while speaking with clients by phone.
The major recommendations are associated with note taking, anticipating, and pleasing the client. Telephone communication, therefore, is a new branch of science introducing efficient techniques for obtaining, sharing, and exchanging information.
In this respect, note taking of telephone calls differs much from similar process applied during personal meetings. Communication by means of mobile phones is much more complicated because it is very hard to predict the recipient reaction. At the same time, the speaker can also be more prepared to the conversation due to the absence of face-to-face confrontation.
Shriver’s (2010) advice on better phone communication relates to a business sphere rather than to daily communication, which points’ to the rapid integration of new social media to all spheres of life. Pleasing the client, therefore, is another recommendation that should be applied to attract consumers’ attention.
Similar to traditional communication, telephone conversation should start with attention grabbing phrases that will compensate scarcity of non-verbal approaches. In particular, Shriver (2010) stresses, “conference calls are great in working with other businesses around the country and even across the globe however it is limiting” (n. p.).
We will write a custom Essay on The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the shifts in interaction, nothing can replace such modes of nonverbal communication as a friendly smile or a handshake. Cultural aspects of conducting business are crucial for meeting the need of globalized community. Shriver (2010) steps far away from the topic introduced in Jepsen’s popular composition, but the writer’s advice is quite helpful.
Social media influence is also recognized by Sisario, the New York Times journalist who also discusses the new hit by Jepsen, Call Me, May Be? in context of new communication patterns. The author also deliberates on the overall influence of social media on the music industry, as well as on other spheres.
In particular, there are bright examples of how such famous online media as YouTube is employed to advertize songs and influence public opinion. Tweeter is also used by popular signers, such as Justin Bieber and Katy Perry, to advertise their songs.
More importantly, Sisario (2012) stresses that the emergence of YouTube has made radio a less important social media device because “nearly two-thirds of teenagers listen to music on YouTube, more than other medium” (Sisario, 2012).
Such a tendency, therefore, has a potent impact on cultural perception, as well as on the necessity of music producers to change their advertising and commercial techniques. Within this context, the writer also analyzes Jepsen’s attitude to the internet, particular to its incredible impact on the spread of music.
Serving as a driving force, the search engines are powerful tools for promoting musical compositions. This domain of advertising could be regarded as a step forward in promoting commercial projects.
Although the World Wide Web takes advantage over the other media platforms, the radio has not lost its positions. In this respect, the author explains “There’s not a million-seller out there that doesn’t have radio play…but its first million generally doesn’t come from radio” (n. p).
The song presents a bright example of how social media can be employed for marketing purposes. However, the success of the venture has little support in terms of theoretical approaches worked out to use online media as a new means of promoting products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s Song “Call Me, May Be?” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Internet does not allow the producers to predict consumer behaviors accurately. Nevertheless, conventional means of advertizing are not less efficient because the product success depends on many other aspects, such as economic, social, and cultural tendencies.
In fact, the use of YouTube videos has captured the attention of million users all over the worlds, which minimizes the use of such media platforms as radio and television.
Introduction of new communication devices, including social networks, mobile communication, and online media platforms, have contributed greatly to all spheres of life.
Nevertheless, all the articles discussed above do not exclude the value conventional personal communication in all aspects of life, should it music industry, business, or daily interaction. This is of particular concern to nonverbal devices of sharing, exchanging, and storing information.
Analyzing the grounds of popularity of Jepsen’s song Call Me, May Be?, the writers have managed to cover such important topics as the influence of media culture on communication, challenges of interacting by means of wireless devices, and the use of the Internet as a powerful marketing tool.
New generation of users, therefore, can adjust to a new social environment to achieve successful communication and develop new techniques compensating the scarcity of nonverbal devices that could be produced online.
References Balouris, M. C. (2012). Call Me, Maybe? Marielena’s Presidential Leadership Academy Blog. Web.
Shriver (2012). Call Me, Maybe? Intern. Web.
Sisario, B. (2012). The new rise of a summer hit: Tweet it maybe. The New York Times. Web.