Market Analysis: Preshafruit Juice Essay Custom Essay Help

Introduction A report by Mintel, a market analysis and research company asserts that Britain has a large Market for fresh fruit juices (Derbyshire 2005). This translates to about 2.2 billion liters per year, about 36 liters for every Briton.

Apple and orange juice make up 70 % of sales in an industry here consumers spend up to 2.3 billion every year. Innocent, a fresh juice company that has a business alliance with Coca Cola dominates the market. It controls a mammoth 72% of the fruit juice market. The company registered a £10.1m turnover in 2007 and the profits have been growing in the subsequent years (CNBC 2010).

Primary Market Analysis

The primary market for Preshafruit Juice in the UK is 18-38 year olds, who are also conscious about healthy dietary habits. They are fairy good spenders and as such spend a considerable amount of money on food as well as entertainment. This age group is also self reliant financially. As such it has the ability to purchase Preshafruit juice products without affecting their budget too much. People within this age group are most likely to live in urban areas as such the company will focus its sales and marketing effort in these areas.

Due to the quality of Preshafruit Juice, the company will zero in marketing the product in middle class as well as upper middles class areas (Baker and Wu 1998). This age group is also highly mobile and would prefer to have an already prepared fresh fruit juice that assured of 100% fresh fruit taste, thus providing a god market fro our product (Smith 2010).

Secondary market

There have been efforts to control binge drinking in the UK and as such the sales of fresh fruit juices has gone up in bars, pubs and night clubs (Huxley 2003). Furthermore, bars and pubs are selling more food to increase their profits in the face of hard economic times. As such people who frequent bar also make the secondary market for Presahfruit Juice. People who frequent nigh clubs are above 18 year olds.

These people who also love outdoor recreation as well as having fun. They are the socialites in the societies and thus outgoing. Due to their predisposition to for outdoor recreation this people are much more likely to be found in urban areas, especially the middle class districts.

They re also fairly good spender on entertainment and food and thus provide a fairly good secondary market for Preshafruit Juice. Another secondary market is middles class families. These families are interested in having healthy fresh juices especially for breakfast. The families also have a good spending power and are also consistent spenders. They also have fairly rigid spending patterns. They live in middle class urban areas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The Uk market for fresh fruit juice is one of the vibrant in the world according to statistics given earlier in this report. Preshafruit has identified both primary and secondary markets in upwardly mobile and the socialist respectively. The company products can gain high ratings in the primary market due what the quality are offering. As such the company will stand to gain considerably. Therefore the company should venture into thus market.

Reference List Baker, S.,


Organisational Analysis: Max Brenner Company Essay essay help

Company Overview Max Brenner Company was established in 1996 in Israel in a town outside Tel Aviv. Its name is derived from its founders who were Max Fichtman and Oded Brenner. However, Fichman is not part of the company any more since Brenner bought out his shares in the company. He also later sold it to Strauss-Elite and become a consultant and a shareholder of the company.

Since its inception, the company has spread to other countries including the US, Australia, Philippines and Singapore. The vision of the company is to spread its chocolate culture throughout the world. The company operates as a restaurant which mainly deals with chocolate products. Its menu contains hot chocolate drinks, desserts, chocolate waffles and wine among many others. It also offers cocktails, breakfast and many more. It sells its products online and through stores.

Max Brenner was incorporated into Strauss Group Ltd 2001 and today, it operates as a subsidiary of the company. Strauss Group Ltd. is also an Israel company which focuses on food products. Max Brenner International Inc. has continued to open up new branches and boutiques with the latest one being the 143-seat restaurant that was recently opened in Boston in the US and to increase the exports of its products.

The 143-seat restaurant alone employs 112 workers. Its rapid expansion reflects Max Brenner’s confidence in chocolatier. It is the first chocolate company ever in New York. The company’s international expansion was intended to pave the way for spreading the brands in America and its products across the globe.

The company’s 2010 third quarter sales increased by 4.4% having sold ILS 29 million from its previous quarter which was ILS 28 million (Max Brenner International Inc. 2011). In 2006 and earlier years, about 40% of Strauss Group Ltd. Per annum turnover which is approximated to be around $1 dollars is from other countries (Halili 2006). In 2009, its total sales revenue stood at about $32 million (Max Brenner International Inc. 2011).

Products and services

Max Brenner International Inc. mainly focuses on chocolates; however, its menu has a variety of food products which include chocolate drinks and waffles, sweets, tea and coffee, ice creams, appetizers, wine, desserts and many more. In addition, the company offers cocktails, breakfast as well as well as brunch cocktails.

Its menu also contains entrée salads, chocolate martinis, crepes as well as sandwiches. Its hot chocolate comprise of vanilla cream made in Italy as well as red chili from Mexico. The dark chocolate contains about 70% cacao which is used to improve its taste. Max Brenner also offers salad products. According to Halili (2006) the company owns Sabra which has been a very prosperous salad making company in the US. Its hummus has been the second most sold in the US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the most recommended chocolate products customers is chocolate fondue. Its Chocolate Bars allow customers to experience its chocolate that has not been mixed with anything. Customers have a chance to experience chocolate in its melted form. The chocolate bars offer customers a relaxed modern environment where they can indulge.

Max Brenner makes a variety of cold as well as hot chocolate beverages which are served in its cafes. According to The Nibble (2008) the kind of preparation given to the beverages can not be matched by any done anywhere meaning that anybody buying chocolate powder to prepare the same at home can not achieve similar results. Max Brenner is well known for its specialty in Chocolate beverages as well as some selected deserts.

Max Brenner is aware that chocolate is secondary and therefore it ensures that its packaging and design is excellent. It packages its products in beautiful reusable tins as well as sassy boxes.

The company places much emphasis on service and in its restaurants and cafes, every menu entrée comes with a detailed explanation. It also provides for online services which include online reservations to any of its restaurants. One can also make online shopping from its stores. The company offers delivery services to online shoppers. Its websites provide customers with information about all the products that it offers.

It also provides opportunity for customers to have a live chart with its customer care. This enables customers make informed choices and also make reservations. The company also offers corporate gifts as well as wedding favors. Corporate gifts are mainly offered when one makes a large volume order or in corporate orders. They also offer services during weddings.

Aspects of international business

Max Brenner International Inc. applies several aspects of international business. It applies the legal aspects of international business which includes business structure and contacts. In its legal business structural aspect, it operates as an exporter while in its legal business contacts aspects, it operates as a freight Forwarder and also employs commercial bank to help it in its international trade. It uses letters of credit to make its transactions.

The company uses documents to secure its underlying transactions especially when it is making shipment to its customers. Commercial Letters of Credit guarantees the seller that the delivered goods will be paid for. The use of commercial letters of credit has helped Max Brenner to open new markets in other countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Organisational Analysis: Max Brenner Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company uses trade regulations to protect its intellectual property and trade secrets as well as wrongful trade. It applies trade secrets to protect its chocolate culture from being stolen by competitors. In addition, it uses trademark and corporate name to protect its products. This means that it is also protected by the international agreements which offer international protection given that it is an international company.

Max Brenner has also adapted the cultural aspects of international business. It extends its chocolate culture through its restaurants across the countries it operates in. It has also adopted the European style of making coffee and brought it to its US restaurants and cafes not only to attract the Europeans in the US but to bring a unique experience to all its customers.

It understands the cultural differences that exist across the globe and therefore employs people from the particular regions of operation. Besides, it has franchises to enable its customers to be served by those who understand their habits better. The company owns franchise in its countries of operations which it rents out to other companies.

In Philippines for example, MAC-CO Holdings Inc, operates all its exclusive franchise in Philippines. Therefore, its success lies in the special character of these companies that operates the franchises. Max Brenner assures its customers of the expertise of each of its employee on chocolate. It also ensures that these companies operate the franchises according to the chocolate culture of aesthetics, experience, knowledge as well as artisanship and that the quality remains the same everywhere.

Strengths of Max Brenner

Max Brenner has adopted modern technology especially in its marketing and sales thereby providing solutions to its millions of customers across countries and continents. Its website provides the customers with the details they need and also provides an opportunity for live chart through the internet.

Customers are therefore able to shop or make corporate purchases online and even make reservations to its restaurants and cafes. The online shop has been extended to offer corporate gifts, spa collections as well as wedding favours among many others. The company has contracted an ecommerce agency to provide them with technical expertise and creativity in marketing of their products and services and to provide support and maintenance to its website.

Its waiters are also specially trained to serve the customers with passion and to understand the needs of very customers. All the waiters are made to understand the professionalism of the job so as to maintain and attract customers. Other employers in charge of manufacturing of products as well as the chefs are also trained to always maintain the quality and increase creativity.

Weaknesses of Max Brenner

The company only manufactures most of its chocolate products in Israel and not in all its countries of operation. This means that it has to incur the costs of shipments and customs which could have been reduced if it were to open other manufacturing companies in these countries. It would also reduce the risks that are associated with shipments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organisational Analysis: Max Brenner Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Halili, Y., 2006, Israel chocolate hits big apple. Web.

Max Brenner International Inc., 2011, Company overview. Web.

The Nibble, 2008, Max Brenner, chocolate by the bald man. Web.


MDG Poverty Goals May be Achieved, but Child Mortality is not Improving Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Article Summary The news article under analysis, titled MDG poverty goals may be achieved, but child mortality is not improving, appears in the Guardian newspaper. The article was authored by Claire Provost and details the progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), especially by developing countries. Provost begins by stating that two-thirds of developing countries are on course to meeting the MDG targets in fighting poverty, according to reports from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Provost then cites reports from the Global Monitoring Report that mentioned that the number of persons living below the poverty line would decrease to 883 million by 2015. This would be a large significant drop since the number of people living in acute poverty had been 1.4 billion in 2005 and 1.8 billion in 1990.

The progress in achieving the first goal- to cut the number of people living in poverty by half- is evidenced by the high growth rates in China and India. The report further shows that China is on course to reducing poverty by 4.8%, however, some African countries may fail to achieve the MDG goals by 2015.

Progress in combating poverty may be hampered further by the high and unstable food prices, and could increase the number of people living in extreme poverty. World Bank president, Thomas Zoellick, gives strategies for reducing poverty levels and prevents future food crises. These include a ban on food exports, improve access to information on food quality, quantity, and increase food reserves.

Despite the progress of developing progress in achieving MDGs, maternal and child mortality rates remain the most challenging issues as 40% of developing nations are not likely to meet this target despite a lot of resources being directed at this effort. Sanitation targets are a challenge too as 45% of developing nations have deviated from the path to achieving MDGs on sanitation.

Topics Related to the Article Two topics can be derived from this news article: socio-cultural issues and human development. Socio-cultural issues arise from the reference to social issues such as maternal and child mortality rates. Besides, the article reports that a number of developing nations are on course to meeting MDGs on primary education and access to clean water.

Provost writes that no low-income country has achieved significant progress in lowering mortality for children under the age of five, and most of them are likely to fail on this target. The countries are on course to achieving targets on primary education access and eradicate gender disparity in the education sector. All of these subjects: maternal and child mortality, education, reflect on the socio-cultural aspect of life in developing countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human development is reflected on Provost’s discussion of the progress of developing countries in achieving the MDGs on education. Education is a very important aspect of human development, and failure to achieve this target will likely affect human development in these nations. Fortunately, the report mentions that most developing countries are on target to achieving MDG targets on education.

I chose this article since it touched on a very important element of human development. It informs us of the progress in achieving the MDGs by developing countries, and the steps that have been taken in achieving the same. Besides, the article gives solutions for combating extreme poverty in developing nations, these strategies may prove useful for developing nations.


Entrepreneurship essay help site:edu

Abstract This paper is about footwear industry of USA. It discussed the major market segments and respective target customer of the USA shoe market. The internal and external analysis of the industry will help to understand where US footwear industry is standing today and what its scope is.

PEST Analysis Political: Political instability effect people thinking, if they are upset due to environment they will not make purchase so two years back when Americans banks were becoming defaulter people purchases less shoes.

Economical: American Economy is in recession so footwear industry is also down.

Social: Social People life style are now shifting toward their health and diet ,o many people are joining any kind of fitness activity ,so that they need sports shoes so there is a need for athletes shoes.

Technological: technology has change footwear industry positively and by improving manufacturing to reaching customer so US footwear industry has taken full benefit of technology.


Increasing production facilities and new ways of marketing (weconnectfashion , 2010) .

Due to globalization easy excess to labor is possible now Nike can establish its manufacturing plant in India or China where labor cost is low.

Due to globalization, quick courier and shipments and efficient communication helps firm to tap new markets.

Today is age of specialization so new techniques are emerging to run the businesses (Just Style, 2011).

Due to latest technology leather and other raw material are convert in more new forms and shapes increasing their utilization (WeConnectFashion , 2010) .

Thanks to quick travelling and communication the access to raw material as compare to a decade before.

Now fashion designing is also a subject at institution so new blood is coming in this sector which is improving design, marketing and efficient manufacturing methods (WeConnectFashion , 2010).

Now government focus more on consumer goods export and foot ware is one of those.

Tax incentives are also enjoyed by the firms by setting units in Trade Free zones.

Due to Internet consumer can directly contact with customer so firm don’t have to indulge in long survey to get customer feedback.


Although new technologies related to shoe manufacturing are invented but only big shoe firms can use as they can fulfill the cost by economies of scale (Just Style, 2011).

Big footwear firms have established units in many low labor cost areas but for medium and small firms it is difficult for them to operate outside of USA.

Firms with small capital consider it a expense to train its employees on new technological skills and market their product abroad.

Firms who are failing to attract international customer is due to lack of awareness of international standards and taste of different customer across the globe (WeConnectFashion , 2010) .

Firms who have establish themselves as Quality brand such as Nike , Nine West brown shoe, foot star don’t compromise on quality but struggling firm often overlook this factors (Just Style, 2011).

Economies of scale are also difficult to achieve by medium and small firms so there business is restricted in USA only.

Lack of awareness regarding latest marketing techniques also hinder in progress of manufacturer who are producing really good products (WeConnectFashion, 2010).

Firms who are struggling find it difficult to make on time deliveries to international customers.


Shoes’ being as in a common use so this industry never goes in decline always progressing.

Huge scope of finished leather in countries like India Bangladesh for the firms establishing units there.

Now more and more people are becoming fashion conscious especially in developing countries, everyone wants value for their money (Seiji, 1992).

Latest technology helps in reduce time of manufacturing and shipment and customer service (WeConnectFashion , 2010).

Product diversification will help companies to increase market as sports shoe firms can start comfort wear, comfort wear can go for niche market. According to Morton Research Company (1998), once customer build trust on one brand he will buy all type of product form that brand.

In luxurious and sports shoe customer can be retained through timely deliveries and high quality.


For big multinational shoe brands the presence of local brands in new country will make it difficult to attract customer.

Entry of foreign brands in local market (Just Style, 2011)

Though competition in availability of raw material.

Foreign Government restriction regarding the entry in their countries.

Improve and maintain good quality to meet international standards (WeConnectFashion , 2010).

Dynamic world of fashion as, trends change continuously.

Limited scope for the small family owned business to move to other location.

Porter Five Forces Analysis

This model provides five important forces which laid the foundation of an industry. In order to be competitive, firms have to use this model to check its market standing. Following is the Porter analysis to test where American shoe industry is at present:

Degree of Rivalry If firms faces less number of rivals, it can make profit of its choice but in consumer industry such as shoe it is rare. There are numerous inter industry rivalry e.g. Fashionable vs. Comfort shoes. This industry is highly attractive to investors as people are becoming more and more fashion conscious and many new businesses are entering in this industry. The largest share is occupied by large firms such as; Nike, Nine West, Clair, Brown Shoes, Wall mart etc (Just Style, 2011) .

But presence of small and medium shoe houses is also there with existence of foreign brands like Adidad etc. So revelry among the firms is high, that’s why some are targeting niche market some have selected price conscious customer and some are offering casual shoes etc. Switching cost of customer is low, exit barriers in this industry are low for small business as they buy from other manufacturer and sell to customer.

But firms who have their own unit to manufacturer shoe and team to market and sell it their fixed cost is high and so exit barriers are high(Just Style, 2011). They will try there last to survive. There are specialized products such as niche, athlete’s shoes, casual, comfort shoes so differentiation is high in this industry.

Threats of Substitutes

Substitution refers to products in other industries. Shoe industry don’t have competitor so threat to substitute is low.

Buyer Bargaining Power

Number of Buyer of this industry are countless , so their bargaining power is also high , producer sets prices according to its target customers , if producer increases prices for price conscious customer it will result in loss of customer. The sports and niche market don’t compromise on quality, so producer have to maintain quality to retain its customer line (WeConnectFashion, 2010)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supplier’s Bargaining Power

Switching Cost will be high for supplier as different raw material is needed for different type of shoes and so are manufacturing unit facilities. So it is difficult for medium and small produce to diversify. Suppliers of raw materials are many like China offer cheap raw material as compare to India: on other hand India offer more incentives to foreign manufacturers. In this way big chains can establish where they will be most competitive (Just Style, 2011)

Threat of new entrants High entry barriers for those who want to target niche and sports market because these are specialized segments, presents firms have established themselves so well it may become difficult for new to take their customers. Also those who want to establish their own manufacturing units as this required huge investment and any failure in early period of business will affect them badly (Just Style, 2011).

Who want to target price conscious customer have to see how strongly wall-mart and Payless are holding their customer and how cheap the new entrant can offer (WeConnectFashion ,2010). Threat of new entrant is high as many fashion houses are also coming toward footwear industry. In casual shoes entry barriers are slightly low so one with small capital can work here.

References Just Style.(2011). Footwear Manufacturing” U.S.Industry Report Feb 2011.

Morton Research Company.(1998). The U.S. shoe industry: a business research manual of the American footwear market. New York: Morton Research Company

Seiji, E. (1992). U.S footwear Industry. New York: Cornell University.

WeConnectFashion.(2010).USA Footwear Market Research Report. Retrieved from

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Soccer World Cup Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Soccer World Cup in South Africa

What Was To Be Done

Elements of Destination Marketing

Promotional Strategy

Challenges in Destination Marketing

Benefits of Destination Marketing



Introduction Soccer is a game that is played by two teams that are comprised of eleven players each. The sport has a large following in the whole world compared to the other sporting activities. The soccer world cup is held after every four consecutive years since 1930. The event takes one month to be completed because there are normally 32 teams competing for the same trophy.

The most recent world cup was played in South Africa in 2010, and it involved several theoretical terms in marketing, including repackage, re-imagine, and restructure. Repackaging is the process of changing a product into a more attractive form. Re-imagine involves re-thinking on the marketing strategies previously followed and coming up with new strategies for product improvement, which can be achieved through restructuring. Therefore, this paper discusses how South Africa was marketed for soccer world cup.

Soccer World Cup in South Africa According to Deutsche Welle (2006), soccer world cup was an important occasion because for the first time in history the event was held in an African state. The government of South Africa took advantage of this occasion to market itself as a tourist destination. The host had to create an African impression in every aspect from architectural designs of the stadiums to the opening ceremony because the event was to be held in Africa.

From the day South Africa was assigned the role of hosting the world cup, the government had to adequately prepare for the event. The preparations entailed conducting a research on the environment to identify its weaknesses and strengths.

This meant that South Africa had to evaluate their facilities and identify whether their current facilities would satisfy the needs of the visitors so that they would want to come back after the event was over. Ignoring the issue of facilities would work against the objectives of marketing South Africa as the preferred tourist destination.

For instance, the country’s infrastructure had to be restructured to meet international standards because by then the transport system could not have accommodated the visitors without creating a traffic crisis. New stadiums had to be constructed before the commencement of the event, but then in as much as South Africa was more concerned about the event, it was also concerned about how it would benefit from the event. This is because for a period of one month their currency would be very active and stable due to its high demand.

In addition, the country would earn a lot of revenue and the common people will benefit from employment opportunities that will arise during the construction of roads and stadiums. The security of the state had to be enhanced so that the visitors do not go through bad experiences while in the streets because if they are mugged or something like that they would certainly not come back. All these and many more upgrading had to be done so that visitors would feel like they are in their mother country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What Was To Be Done The government of South Africa could not have achieved the goal of holding soccer world cup alone and thus, it had to partner with key industry players in the tourism sector and other ministries. This was found to be the most relevant option because the tourism board is the most experienced in such matters.

South Africa had to carry out a survey to find out the attitude that those who have been there before had about the destination in general; thus, the officials re-imagined the approaches of holding the event. The findings were to be compared to the success that the destination had achieved in history.

Attitude is considered crucial in destination marketing because if it is positive, it has to be maintained and vice versa. Morgan, Pritchard, and Pride (2004) argue that South Africa looked at other destinations where the same event was held and identified what was available for the visitors.

For South Africa to succeed in its mission of luring more tourists it had to go an extra mile beyond what the other previous hosts. The efforts made here are worth because it takes a lot of time to attract customers and very little time to loose them, and because South Africa is considered to be the most developed state among African nations, it had to re-imagine the advancement in this event.

In addition, being the first African country to host the event, it had to set a good legacy that is to be followed by other African states. This was one of the most appropriate opportunities for Africa to demonstrate its skills and abilities. In this regard, the marketing of a destination is directed to a particular group because it’s not everybody who can afford to travel oversees.

It is also important to note that the marketing of a destination is not only meant for attracting tourists, but investors and other interests. Pike (2008) reckons that this is because this soccer event is attended by people from all walks of life and when they are in the host country they will most probably look for opportunities that can be explored.

However, their decision rests on the impression they will get as they walk around. Tourists are moved by the attractions they find in a country and if they cannot access the said sites such as the national parks, they would not want to come back. Furthermore, potential investors can be discouraged if there is high level of insecurity.

We will write a custom Essay on Soccer World Cup specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Elements of Destination Marketing All of the above activities require a lot of money and there is no guarantee that the money will be recovered in the near future, hence when the government was making the adjustments, there are a few things that were be considered. Pike (2008) suggest that the government must analyze the probability of gaining from the event by computing the number of people present and also the number of people who may show up. The government had to calculate the rough amount each person would spend.

When marketing a destination, it is important to consider the products that are in that destination. In the case of South Africa, the main products are transport, investments such as real estate, and other food products. The marketer of a destination must choose an appropriate approach of displaying the products of the destination to the tourists to be.

When the products are being showcased, the cost of the products should be subsidized, just for the sake of attracting customers. Having high price tags may send customers away because most of them may not afford to pay for such products; but the good thing about the commodities that are sold in tourism industry is that they have unlimited shelf life.

Therefore, it is advisable to establish pricing policies to regulate the tourism market. This may sound illogical because in the tourism, businesses operate as independent entities, but then the customers do not categorize them in that manner – they analyze them collectively. Lubbe (2003) states that the prices should be set in such a way that even when there are changes in future, the industry will remain stable without having to hastily hike prices.

The other approach is based on the place where the products are exhibited. In this approach the government together with stakeholders in tourism identifies an entity that is probably an organization that interacts regularly with the potential customers. This is because while a tourist is having his/her meal in a food joint he/she would be excited if there was adequate of products to choose from.

Promotional Strategy Appropriate approaches should be employed in the marketing of South Africa as a tourist destination. This is necessary because it is the only way of reaching the desired customers.

South Africa used almost all the elements of promotional approaches. For instance, the soccer world cup was used as the basis for advertising the other tourism products in this destination, including entertainment, hotels and beaches among many others. The adverts were done through the media and the Internet. The Internet was the most effective tool because it is accessed by millions of people from all over the world.

The main target was the people who had come to watch the tournament, but there were others who had come for business purposes. In addition to that there are others who had come to visit their friends and relatives. Furthermore, marketers repackaged their products to include the soccer world cup logo. This increased the attractiveness of the products because repackaging created an appealing experience to customers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Soccer World Cup by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Challenges in Destination Marketing The act of marketing a destination may sound easy to the parties that are not involved, but to the concerned parties it is a very challenging task. Olton (2006) explains that politics are known to affect markets and therefore the government of South Africa had to ensure that politics do not obstruct the soccer event because it would portray a negative image of the state.

In fact, one year prior to the soccer event there were violent riots that were directed towards foreigners of African origin. This was a major blow because those who would have wanted to invest in South Africa had to look for alternative locations. The government had to control the riots so that the event could be completed successfully.

Furthermore, many privately owned enterprises in the tourism sector were not willing to invest in destination promotion because they have a common attitude that their participation would be benefiting their competitors. They had to be informed on how they would benefit from the event as a way of motivate them to actively participate in the initiative. The communities in South Africa had high expectations on the event, such as business opportunities.

Many people were busy selling merchandise in the streets. It is certain that the resources that are found in South Africa are linked to a community and therefore these communities had to be integrated into destination marketing. Some of them had to be trained to work as tour guides and entertainers because they are experienced in their respective terrains. This was meant to make them help in the conservation of natural resources because their livelihoods was and still depends on tourism.

Benefits of Destination Marketing Baker (2011) argues that there are so many benefits that come along with destination marketing. One is that the destination has higher chances of being awarded the contract to host global events in future. For instance, South Africa is currently looking forward towards hosting the forthcoming Olympics. This is because the soccer world cup provided a window of opportunity for South Africa to gauge its abilities in managing such events.

Additionally, industry players enjoy a larger market share because there are many customers who need their products and hence, they do not have to reduce their prices to attract customers from their competitors. In the final end, the industry players earn more profits due to increase in product sales. Besides, if South Africa encountered any crisis in future, it would be easier to recover because it is a recognized brand in the tourism market.

Conclusion All parties involved in destination marketing should think positively to avoid being discouraged by possible setbacks. Now that South Africa was able to host the soccer world cup successfully, the focus should now shift to attracting foreign investors and hosting other events without focusing only on sporting events.

South Africa is the most recognized tourist destination in Africa, possibly due to its advanced infrastructure and a stable economy. In essence, South Africa was restructured and soccer products repackaged to meet the expectations of soccer fans. Therefore, once the desired position in the market has been achieved, it has to be maintained because there is stiff competition in the market. This means that the government and industry must continue to upgrade the infrastructure and the other facilities to meet international standards.

References Baker, B., 2011. Challenges and Rewards of Destination Marketing. Web.

Deutsche Welle, 2006. South Africans Promise to be Prepared for 2010 Cup. Web.

Lubbe, B., 2003.Tourism Management in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Pearson Education.

Morgan,N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R., 2004. Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Olton, L. V., 2006. How to Develop an Effective Destination Marketing Plan. Web.

Pike, S. (2008). Destination Marketing: An Integrated Marketing Communication Approach, Burlington: MA, Butterworth-Heinemann.


The Immense Artistic Talent of Kao Ninga Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Kao Ninga (Monk Sewing)

RajaRaja (Raja Raja with his teacher Karuvur Theva)


Works Cited

Introduction Several artists have emanated from Japan and Kao Ninga joins the list of ancient painters. Kao was one of the key artists who contributed to art throughout the Kamakura era. People believe that he lived in early 14th century. Scholars regard him as high status priest with immense artistic talent.

Monk Sewing was one of the many paintings that he made. He made the painting using basic tools, a brush and paint (cherry). His work formed the foundation of painting in Japanese artistic. on the other hand, Raja Raja was an Indian artist who specialized in painting, despite his earlier interests in politics and event organization.

Kao Ninga (Monk Sewing) Kao was a Zen monk. Monks underwent training in monasteries where they worked afterwards. In the temples, they receive teachings about the ways of the monks. In this religion, meditation normally takes extra time. Meditation is usually a condition of self-induced awareness. Monks are taught to live a life of service to others (Buddhist studies). Zen monks are part of the larger Buddhist religion that had spread into Japan from china in the 12th century.

This religious setup believes that reflection is away of enlightenment. Monks deem that enlightenment results when the student becomes fearless and mentally calm. Monks’ training aims at creating a receptive mind in the student through hard labour and years of guidance. Monks spent time in their firm cultivating crops rather than on the streets begging or preaching. To achieve all this, monk students had to leave their homes.

Kao received his education in a monastery and it is from here that he started painting (Kleiner 736). Kao’s work is categorised under the Muromachi painting. The spread of Buddhist religion sparked interest of painting in Japanese. Zen priest painters made such paintings and they served as reflection of the daily lives and values of the monk community. As painting gained acceptance in the Japan, painting schools were established to nature the talents of upcoming artists (Deal 291).

After the defeat of the Taira family in a court battle, Minamoto clan assumed the leadership of Japan. Minamoto’s government was based in Kamakura and this manifested the commencement of the Kamakura era. This was the first military rule in Japan and controlled the country through steward appointed by the leader in power.

The Minamoto rule witnessed a lot of resistance from the Taira clan but this was finally defeated in the later years of the 11th century. This system of governance lasted until late 18th century and people regarded it as the medieval era (middlebury).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this era, the Taira and Minamoto tussle over leadership shaped the political landscape in Japan. During this time most of the Japanese populace was in abject poverty, which culminated into riots in the late 13th century. The protest by peasant farmers was due to feudalism and absentee proprietors (Keirstead).The Japanese population at this time was more concerned about land policy and how to improve the productivity of their land.

During this period agriculture and the Kobe port drove the economy. Trade with China was primarily responsible for expansion in the Japanese economy. New disease resistant rice variety protected the population from devastating drought. Provision of fertilisers that facilitated double cropping and better irrigation resulted into higher output from fields.

This led to booming trade that relevant infrastructure supported. The emergence of Metallic money further made trading more efficient and dynamic (Segal). The government introduced taxation during this time, which people settled through hard cash or rural folks. The economy was free since there lacked a records to monitor the situations. The Japanese had a well-organised economic structure that even facilitated collection of taxes.

Monk sewing is among the oldest paintings in Japan art world and it; therefore, sets Kao Ninga as one of the pioneers. This painting did not only reveal the artistic prowess of Kao Ninga but also revealed how dynamic the art world is. This painting has been inspiring many artists due it simplicity, which contrasts to the deep religious massage attached to it.

At this time, painting had not taken root in Japan. The influence of Buddhism could not be underrated given that Kao was a monk. It is imperative to assert that Buddhist values inspired hi paintings. Overall, religion largely influenced the Japanese painting work rather than their distinct culture. The impact of monk sewing and other art works from Japan only came to be felt after it opened trade with the western world (Jirousek).

Artefacts from this island country sold rapidly thus generating extra interest from the rest of the world about Japanese art. Artwork from Japan inclined numerous American and European artiste. This painting has enriched the Japanese culture not just by its age but its quality. Existence of this kind of artefacts has set out the Japanese culture as the best preserved. This piece of art rests at the Cleveland Museum.

Kao Ninga was used simple tools, ink, and paper to make his paintings. The paper used was a scroll with dimensions: 83.5 by 35.4 cm. This piece of art is a painting of a monk sewing his cloak. Most scholars are of the view that Kao Ninga was trying to entrench Buddhist values of individualism and independence.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Immense Artistic Talent of Kao Ninga specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Being a monk, Kao Ninga was absorbed from the physical world as he made the painting in the mountainous regions of Japan. The paint fades at the lower part of the monk’s cloak depicting depth and breadth of the garment. This piece of art further confirms the notion that Japanese art is largely about what surrounds them.

RajaRaja (Raja Raja with his teacher Karuvur Theva) Raja Raja, on the other hand, was born at circa India in 947ACE and was the third sibling in his family. He was among the greatest kings of “Southern India”, who reigned amid “985 and 1014”. He was famous in organizing for events and politics. Apart from possessing excellent headship merits, he also portrayed interest in arts and religion. His venture in painting work was highly appreciated because of the excellent arty skills.

He is a famous figure behind the commencement of “Second Golden Age of Tamil Nadu” which was sustained for the subsequent two centuries. He is also renowned for having built one of the outstanding empires of Asia. Although there is much information about his political achievements, there is data about his personal life.

At some stage in his upbringing, he lived with Kundavai, his sister. Raja Raja also spent much of his youth with his aunt who influenced him especially in his faith. Afterwards, he married a few wives who also delivered a few children. Despite having numerous children, he sired only one son, Rajendra, who succeeded him as the king. Raja Raja stood firm in his faith that was Hindu but did not underrate other religions (Frontline).

It is apparent that he was extremely religious and believed in the god Siva. During his sovereignty, he allowed Silendra Emperor “Srimara Varman” to construct a Buddhist shrine in his territory in Tamil. In addition, he contributed immensely to its raising up by allocating money and other necessary materials (Social Scientist). Raja Raj acquired his painting skills from the teachings he attained from the Hindu classes.

In addition, his uncle was good in painting and since they spend time together, he developed great interest in the artwork thus becoming a great painter of the time. Concerning his religion, the great temple, Rajarajeshwara, was constructed near the king’s palace during his supremacy under his influence. The temple served a very noteworthy role because it was from there that he could exercise power over Chola kingdom. Most of the Hindu temples played vital roles in uniting people from different cultures.

Chola administration was practiced at three different levels, which were the “central, provincial and local government”. The overall head of administration was the king who led the central government. In his continued administration of the central government, the “council of ministers” and other prominent officials assisted him to administer.

Chola Empire encompassed nine provinces called Mandalams. The head of the provinces used to be referred as viceroys. Raja Raja 1 used to attack most of the surrounding dynasties to the “north and south” of the empire. This in response did not meddle with the country’s peace and did not adversely ruin their economy. One of the dynasties that were always at loggerheads with Chola was Chalukya that was led by Satyaraya.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Immense Artistic Talent of Kao Ninga by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Chola’s army was so influential and as a result, conquered most of the empires around and won over them. He also fought “Ganga’s Gangavadi and Nolambavadi” in the 991 AD, the two defeated dynasties remained under Chola’s ruling for almost a century. He also conquered the Sri Lanka Island and within no time occupied it thus becoming one of Chola’s territories (Frontline).

The economy of this dynasty was very prosperous attributed by agriculture. The villages were so independent because of the ability to produce food and other products. This type of an economy practiced at the village level was so unique for the dynasty. However, with time changes were noticed as the villages produced more food thus resulting to surplus.

With the increase in food production, local trade flourished. Because agriculture was the economic backbone for the country, rules were imposed on land use and ownership. In Chola kingdom the only two forms of land ownership practiced included the peasant owner and service tenure.

The peasant owners were liable to tax payment while for “peasant service owner’s “tax was rewarded through the services they offered. After the onset of money in the 11th century, the traditional form of trade slowly ended. Eventually, many changes were seen which included the development of bigger towns. Chola developed to a leading exporter of textiles, pottery, spices and other products to the surrounding neighbours (Frontline).

Its strategic location on the extreme south side of India favoured it and with time, its sea trade had developed. Some of the partners that traded with Chola were mostly from Europe and Asia. However, China’s Tang Dynasty was among Chola’s prominent trading partners following its strategic position and high demand products.

Furthermore, there also existed a group called merchant guilds that significantly contributed to Chola’s economic prosperity; they helped in distribution of goods to the correct destinations. The guilds were essential because of the noticeable growth of the total number of “imports and exports”. These merchant guilds worked solely but the government would assist them to negotiate in case they encountered difficulties. Generally, guilds played a prime function in the country’s economy.

Chola had a free market since the guilds carried out marketing without the state’s influence. The government did not oblige restraints in marketing the products. Reports indicate that the country’s central location favoured its trading with the landlocked countries because most of their goods went through Chola before reaching their designated destinations (Sen 310).

Furthermore, Raja Raja had much significance to other artists who came after him and his artistic work portrayed many of the cultural activities practiced at Chola. The upcoming fine artists of the era admired his work so much; as a result, they developed interest in painting and other architectural work.

A part from painting, he also participated in construction of the temples. Many of his undertakings were in construction of the major temples in the kingdom where he could exercise his powers. He based his work on cultural activities practiced on Chola dynasty.

His drawings depicted their religion and other cultural practices such as dancing engraved on temple’s walls. However, it is important to note that most of the materials used in his artistic work were local and included the local “granite, copper and oil paints”. The kind of dimension employed in the Raja raja1 and his teacher’s work was two-dimensional while the other architectural work was three-dimensional (Sen 314).

Conclusion In conclusion, the above details try to elaborate the contribution of Kao Ninga to the world of art. The subject of discussion was a religious man. Kao was a high-ranking priest of the Zen Buddhist, a faith that had spread from China. In the convenience of his monastery, he made a painting of a monk sewing his cloak. This painting has been viewed as one the pioneer painting made in Japan. The discussion also highlights the existing economic and political circumstances.

The Japanese at this time faced turbulent political times due to the bickering by the two clans for power while at the same time experienced stable economy.

Raja Raja undertook two responsibilities during his time. He tirelessly contributed to artwork and in ruling the Chola kingdom. With the help of the council of elders, his administration over the kingdom became easier thus improving the economic status of the country. His paintings are present in the temple’s walls and portray most of the cultural activities of Chola kingdom.

Figure 1: Monk sewing

Figure 2: Raja Raja 1 and His Teacher

Works Cited Buddhist studies. Lay guide to the monks rules.2008.Web.

Cherry, Micheal. Monk sewing. All poetry. 2006. Web.May 1, 2011.

Deal, William. Handbook to life in medieval and early modern Japan. New York, NY: InfoBase Publishing. 2006. Print.

Frontline. Ajanta of the south. Publishers of the Hindu. 2007. Web.

Jirousek, Charlotte. Japan: Historic Background.1995. Web.

Kierstead, Thomas. The theatre of protest. Petition, oath’and rebellion in the shoen. 2011. Web. May 1,2011.

Kleiner, Fred. Gardner’s art through the ages. Massachusetts, MA: Cengage Learning. 2010. Print.

Middlebury. Traditional Japanese literature in translation. (ND). Web.

Segal, Ethan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. 2010. Web.

Sen, Tansen. Buddhism, diplomacy and Trade. Hawaii, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2003. Print.


Critique of the U.S argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

To what extent has the US upheld Human Rights?



Introduction It has been argued that the United States is one of the leading violators of Human Rights in the world; to what extent this is true is a question of discussion. Many a times it has also been argued that the United States has failed to observe the spirit of the United Nation Convention on Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

It is notable to mention that one of the major functions of the United Nations is to see to it that Human Rights of each person in the world are respected (, 2011). The United State has not shown any serious concern when it comes to the implementation of the UN Declaration of Human Rights especially with regards to citizens from countries such as US and other developed countries.

The question then becomes to what extent has the US upheld the Human Rights as outlined in the UN Universal Declaration on Human Rights? In the universal Declaration of the Human Rights the United Nation has clearly outlined the individual rights of every person in the world (Morsink, 1999). These rights should be enjoyed by citizens of all States and any government that violates them is held responsible.

To what extent has the US upheld Human Rights? Universally the leaders of the United States of America tend to present themselves as being the most concerned people about human rights, ironically they have often advocated for their own interest when it comes to Human right issues. The US for instance has not ratified a number of treaties that address human rights and where they have ratified they had done so selectively (Shah, 2002).

Despite the US having participated in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it is sad to note that USA has always been unwilling to enforce this convention (Shah, 2002).

It is clear that the US has continuously violated Article 3 of the Universal Declaration on Human Life; according to this specific article every person has a right to life but the US has on the contrary continuously imposed death sentence on its citizens which is a punishment that is not meted by many countries currently (Shah, 2002).

It is for this reason that Amnesty International has continuously agitated US to show respect for human rights and advocated for removal of death sentence in many other countries besides US (Shah, 2002). Hence this death penalty is an inhuman treatment which is directed to human beings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another pertinent law in our discussion is; Article 5 which protects every person against tortures of all kinds. Not surprisingly, the US intelligence arms are renowned for their torture escapades especially of foreign suspects involved in terrorist activities and in recent times such cases of blatant disregard to this laws have increasingly been coming into the limelight.

A recent report released by Human Rights Watch dogs has accused the US government for torture crimes and for failing to tackle this problem (Shah, 2002) In addition, Article 13 guarantees every person freedom of movement and Association (, 2011); on the contrary the US has constantly detained people illegally and brutally treated them. In such cases the freedom of such people has been infringed by the US especially where innocent people are wrongfully detained and imprisoned.

A recent event that exemplifies this fact is the US support of Guatemala where they have held many prisoners there who had been detained illegally without being taken through due process of law and not to mention while being tortured. As a result of this the US president apologized to the US citizens on the issue concerning the US unorthodox methods used in Guatemala bay (Shah, 2002).

Another article that the US has infringed on is Article 25 which accords and guarantees every person the right to healthcare; at the moment there are still many people who cannot access decent healthcare despite a recent amendment that guarantees healthcare to all citizens.

According to Article 6, the UN declaration states that no one should be discriminated on the basis of genders, nationality or race (, 2011). But what can be observed in the case of US is outright discrimination especially in giving relief which they do based on their own interests. Another example is where the US supports those countries that support its interests even where they violate human rights; in such cases the US has always taken steps to defend their allies.

Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights guarantees each person freedom of opinion and expression (, 2011); many a times the US has suppressed the opinion of other countries and always wants to have the say.

But on more than one occasion the US which is one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council has categorically used its veto powers to frustrate and suppress other countries freedom of opinion. In addition several laws of the US constitution have deliberately curtailed the freedom of speech and expression especially the recently enacted Patriotic Act.

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The benefits and the potential problems associated with prescription drugs being advertised Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Problems of prescription drugs being advertised

Benefits of prescription drugs being advertised

Reference List

Introduction The high level of competition and diversity in the modern world has resulted to almost all commodities being highly publicized. In the past, knowledge about prescription drugs was only possible in medical literatures like in medical books, journals or in hospital.

Advertisement of prescription drugs was rare with the only form of advertisement being placards placed inside the various health centers. However, the world has become more capitalistic in nature, competition has affected all areas of the society and the medical field has not been spared either. The advertisement of prescription drugs has had both essential benefits and potential risks (Sheehan, 2011).

First, the media industry has revolutionized with the masses mainly relying on the mass media for whatever sort of news. The media has been highly regarded and trusted to provide authentic, well-researched, and detailed news. The manufacturers of prescription drugs have taken this advantage to advertise their merchandise.

The high level of advertisement has popularized these drugs and the public have become to regard them as any other drugs. The purchase of the prescription drugs has increased with people buying them like the normal over-the-counter drugs (Thompson, 2009).

Problems of prescription drugs being advertised The purchase of prescription drugs has thus been abused. These drugs are restricted by legislation and requires the authorization of a qualified personnel especially a medical practitioner. Their advertisement has made people to overlook this requirement and the usage of these drugs has gone up of which this type of usage is usually not authorized (Schneider, 2011).

People are thus exposed to dangers posed by these drugs; some diseases have been reported to be persistent since the dosage taken is not in the right manner. As a result the treatment of certain ailments have been jeopardized since people are no longer seeking the advice of medical practitioners rather they are buying what they think is the right treatment drugs over the counter (Wexler, 2007).

Unlawful business enterprises have taken advantage of this situation to produce counterfeit drugs, which are then finding their ways into the market. This has put the public health at risk. In several instances, buying prescription drugs without the approval of the relevant authority has resulted to overdose or drug misuse. As a result, several individuals have been overwhelmed by the overdose poisoning some even losing their lives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of prescription drugs being advertised On the other hand, the advertisement of prescription drugs has made the public to be aware of the various cures for various diverse ailments. People are able to visit a doctor for further information and directives (Goldberg


Convergence Theory Essay college admission essay help

Convergence theory holds that the current world economic systems, capitalism and communism are converging to form a hybrid economic system. During the Cold War period, the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic had different economic systems of capitalism and communism respectively, but with time, the two economic systems have been merging.

Characteristics associated with capitalism economic system are democracy, privatization of industries, amassing of wealth, free market share, and limited government interference with economic activities. In contrast, government’s control of economic activities, limited democracy space, state owned industries, communal wealth and restrained market share are characteristics associated with communist economic system.

The two contrasting economic systems worked during the Cold War era but currently, they are not keeping abreast with dynamics of economy relative to demographic changes.

Henslin observes that “despite their incompatible ideologies, both capitalist and socialist systems have adopted features from the other” (2010, p. 303). The convergence theory elucidates the nature of the hybrid economic system resulting from capitalism and communism. This essay explores convergence theory in the modern society together with major social benefits and drawbacks associated with capitalism.

The convergence theory explicitly describes the modern economic systems employed by most countries across the world. The world’s economy is very fragile and susceptible to globalization factors of economy, which spare none of the countries in the world.

Therefore, in a bid to keep abreast with world’s economies and globalization, virtually all countries are merging the ideologies of capitalism and communism in order to boost their economic development. Henslin argues that, “the convergence is so great that when western governments began stimulus plan to counter economic crisis, China joined in with a huge stimulus plan of its own” (2010, p.303).

Economic breakdown that threaten the stability of national and internal economies compelled developed countries to look into their economic systems and rethink on ways of stimulating economic growth amidst challenges of economic crisis. Thus, the economic stimulus plans aim at converging capitalism and communism ideologies so that hybrid economic systems can stimulate stalled economic growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States of America despite having economic system of capitalism has adopted various ideologies and practices of communism. For instance, the United States government has embarked on assisting the poor in the society by subsidizing housing, compensating unemployed people, setting minimum wages of all workers, creating welfare funds and advocating for social security for the retired. Furthermore, the United States is revoking ownership of many firms and buying industries thus embracing the ideologies of communism.

Henslin admits that, convergence is happening in the modern world as “…capitalists have assumed, reluctantly, that their system should provide workers with at least minimal support during unemployment, extended illness, and old age, while socialists have admitted reluctantly that profit and private ownership do motivate people to work harder” (2010, p.305). Hence, convergence theory depicts the kind of economic system employed in the modern society.

The economic system of capitalism has great social benefits as it encourages individual hard work and maximization of human resources. Since capitalism allows free market share and accumulation of private property without any interference from the government, it generates competitive society where people devote their time in enhancing their economic status and thus growth of the economy of a nation.

Despite the benefits, capitalism has drawbacks such as increased inequality in the society and marginalization of the poor. Islam argues that, “private property for Marx was the original sin that caused humanity’s expulsion from the Garden of Eden as it provided a legal basis for concentrating community wealth in a few powerful hands, the emergence of market exploitation and the class struggle” (2003, p.322). Hence, capitalism promotes inequality, which is a recipe that increases criminal activities in the society.

References Henslin, J. (2010). Essentials of Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach (9th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall

Islam, N. (2003) What Have We Learned from the Convergence Debate? Journal of Economic Surveys, 17 (3), 309–362.


Interpersonal Communication Strategies Regarding Depression Research Paper best college essay help

Effective communication requires great effort as well as a lot of practice. When communication lacks especially in marriage, it becomes very hard to resolve conflicts or to grow the partnership. For those who are in troubled marriages they can seek help on how to do proper communication in order to bring back peace in the family.

Communication issues in a marriage result when the two parties do not agree on a solution to a certain problem. Any kind of discussion that addresses a certain problem should result to a solution rather than endless arguments that lead to both parties becoming unsuccessful. To solve problems through communication, there has to be a very important tool known as compromise, which should be considered before bringing up a certain problem (Carsenten et al, 1995).

Marital problems are very sensitive; therefore they require a positive attitude before going direct to the discussion. Before the discussion, the couple can talk of the things that are making the relationship survive as well as those areas that may require improvement. Communication becomes very effective when the positives things are talked about first then the problems later.

Communication becomes very hard when one individual in a couple is depressed because he or she may exaggerate anything negative. Any person who wants to control his or her partner must emphasize on the behaviors intended to be curbed (Byrne


The Different Roles Played By the Central Bank, Depository Institutions, and Depositors in the Determination of Money Supply Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Until 2007 when a serious financial crisis engulfed the financial services sector, the mechanisms through which money circulated in the economy were considered as fully mastered by bankers, particularly central bankers. As such, central banks could effectively control these mechanisms by playing around with monetary control tools.

On their part, depository institutions and depositors were also considered to play a largely defined role in the money supply. The shattering impact that the financial crisis had on monetary supply led to the need to relook into the traditional roles of these institutions which, together with the changes that have occurred in the way central banks control money supply, are explored in this paper.

The role of central banks in determination of money supply A Central Bank (referred to as the Federal Reserve Bank in the United States) is the financial institution mandated with the responsibility of controlling a country’s (or an economically unified region’s, like the European Union’s) monetary policy, value of currency, and credit supply. It also serves as banker to the government as well as of financial institutions, issues currency and ensures stability in the financial system of an economy, among other roles.

The central bank in the United Kingdom is the Bank of England. Established in 1684, it served as banker to the government of England until late in the 18th century when its control was expanded to cover the whole of the UK. In regard to its role in determining the amount of money circulating in the economy as well as how the money moves around, the central bank is the sole issuer of national currency (the sterling pound) in England and Wales.

The central bank determines the optimal amount of money that should be circulating in the economy (monetary stability) through several monetary tools. One of the main tools is open market operation where the central bank, on behalf of the government, sets or manipulates the official interest rates on government securities such as Treasury Bills which, in turn, influences financial markets ‘prevailing lending rates.

By setting, for example, the yield of Treasury Bills to be higher than the market rate of lending, the central bank is able to control the amount of money circulating in the economy (in this case the amount of money in circulation is reduced as people are induced to buy and hold short-term government securities which would earn them a decent return in the short-term, unlike cash which does not earn interest) (Adrian and Shin 2009, p.13).

Manipulation of interest rates also helps the central bank to control the rate of inflation in an economy as well as improve the strength of the currency of the country or an integrated monetary region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Manipulation of overnight lending rates, otherwise referred to as short-term interest rate setting, is yet another important tool through which a central bank is able to effectively control the amount of money circulating in an economy.

As this is the rate of lending in the inter-bank markets, a move to raise it has the consequence of raising the cost of borrowing not only between banks but also for consumers as banks tend to pass down the increase in cost to the final borrowers. Therefore, the borrowing from banks reduces along with the amount of money circulating in an economy.

The discount window is yet another tool which not permits a central bank to set monitory policies but also allows depository institutions – in case they find themselves in shortage of reserve balances – to borrow these from central banks under certain conditions set by the bank and at a specified (usually higher) rate (Brunnermeier, Crockett, Goodhart, Persaud and Shin 2009, p.16).

The discount window has the effect of reducing money supply in the economy; a higher rate of borrowing only increases the cost of borrowing to the banks and subsequently to the final borrowers, which discourages borrowing.

Central banks also require depository institutions to maintain a certain proportion of deposits taken as reserves in the form of cash. This cash is to be kept in their vault or be deposited at the central banks.

Depository institutions and money supply Deposit institutions such as credit unions, savings banks, savings and loans associations, and more importantly commercial banks, hold a significantly large proportion of a the money stock of a country and, therefore, play a critically important role in the supply of money to the economy, as well as the transmission of monetary policies to the real economy through the financial services markets, depositors/savers, and borrowers (The Federal Reserve Bank of New York n.d, p.1).

Depository institutions hold money in the form of various types of deposits transfer of which they allow to enable payments. Also, one of their core businesses is lending of the funds they hold directly to businesses and direct consumers. These functions, in addition to the banks investing directly in securities, make depository institutions the focal point of money distribution in an economy (Bodie, Kane and Marcus 2008, p.523). As such, they play a critical role in acting as the link between savers and borrowers.

We will write a custom Essay on The Different Roles Played By the Central Bank, Depository Institutions, and Depositors in the Determination of Money Supply specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Commercial banks, in spited of a considerably decline in their share of business, still enjoy the lion’s share of business as well as influence so far as taking of deposits and lending activities are concerned.

Money creation by commercial banks:

The requirement by central banks that depository institutions maintain a minimum reserve for deposits taken brings about the concept of money creation by depository institutions.

Consider a bank with a total of £100,000 in deposits: If, for instance, the central bank requires that 10% of all deposits taken be set aside as minimum reserve, then the commercial bank taking the deposit – ideally speaking – would be left with £90,000 to lend out to borrowers (90% of the deposits).

If the borrower deposits the full amount in the same or another bank, the ten percent minimum reserve rule will apply to the deposit just as in the first deposit, and the bank will have £81,000 to lend out after setting aside £9,000 as minimum reserve.

If, hypothetically, the process continues until the there is no possibility of re-lending the money (the excess amount available for lending out is zero), the accumulated amount from the above chain of multiple deposit expansion would be £1,000,000; £ 900,000 more than the original deposit. Thus, through this process, “money” is said to have been “created” by the depository institution (Baumol and Blinder 2009, p.636). This “excess” amount can similarly be determined using the money multiplayer equation which states;

Money Multiplier = 1/Reserve Requirement

In reality, leakage of money in the banking system occurs because not tall money borrowed in a bank or any other depository institution is re-deposited into a depository institution; leave alone the money being deposited into the bank from which the funds were originally borrowed (Baumol and Blinder 2009, p.637).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Different Roles Played By the Central Bank, Depository Institutions, and Depositors in the Determination of Money Supply by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A fraction of it, for instance, is likely to be held as currency. This leakage diminishes the money multiplier to an amount less than the inverse of the required minimum reserve, thus reducing the amount of money created through the multiple deposit expansion process.

Depositors in the determination of the money supply The role of depositors in money supply can best be explained by the concept of money creation as discussed in the preceding topic. Through their decision on what proportion of their money to hold in the form of cash and what proportion to deposit as savings in depository institution, depositors tremendously influence the flow of money in an economy.

How the conduct of monetary policy by central banks changed during the recent credit crunch The financial crisis that began in 2007 highlighted the changing role of financial institutions. Unlike in the past where central banks were in virtually total control of inflation as well as business cycles, deflation – rather than inflation – became a huge source of worry for central banks and economists alike as interest rates tumbled towards zero rate (The Economist 2009, p.1).

In addition, it became extremely hard to do pricing of risks leave alone doing efficient allocation of credit (Adrian and Shin 2009a, p.603). As a result of the financial crisis, central banks have been forced to re-examine the traditional approaches to monetary and fiscal control and have had to reach for other untested monetary as well as fiscal tools.

One of the most important changes in the way of doing business adopted by central banks has been central banks taking on the responsibility of making some of the fundamental judgments about the financial markets previously left to the “rational and efficient” private sector. This was essentially triggered by the significantly huge blow that the traditionally balanced relationship between players in the financial markets suffered at the height of the financial crisis (Drehmann, Sorensen and Stringa 2006, p.4).

Therefore, central banks – through combining more kinds of collateral and credit, as well as credit periods – expanded their lending activities. For instance, the ECB (European Central Bank) began guaranteeing loans taken by commercial banks for a period of up to six months; up from the traditional one week.

In the US, the ‘fed’ decided to begin providing loans to investment banks in dire need of cash, the Bank of Japan took more drastic measures by buying equities in stressed banks. On its part, the central bank in Switzerland, Swiss National Bank, went as far as trying to artificially manipulate the price of its currency.

In regard to the changes that occurred in the way central banks conduct their business, the banks found themselves with no choice but to turn from being lenders of last resort to lenders of both first and last resort after commercial banks could no longer trust each others’ ability to repay loans acquired through inter-bank borrowing (Adrian and Shin 2009b).

Consequent to the above developments, central banks have been given more authority by their home governments to conduct in-depth supervision of financial institutions. This move, although widely seen as largely necessary to tame rouge bankers, comes with some negative implications.

For example, it has the potential of dragging politics into the running of central banks across the world, which challenges a vital element of the pre-2007 consensus about central banking: that central should be separated from politics completely (Levine 2010, p.11). This isolation had effectively managed to repel strong desires by politicians “to play fast and loose” with inflation (The Economist 2009, p.4).

Conclusion Central banks and depository institutions play a tremendous role in managing the circulation of money in an economy. However, the 2007 financial crisis had a huge impact on the traditional perspectives on how money moves around in an economy.

Serious doubts emerged about the effectiveness of the monetary control approaches and tools traditionally adopted by central bankers in handling tumulus economic times. Thus, central banks have been forced to re-look into the tools they have traditionally adopted in managing the financial services industry. Also, it is recommended that central banks improvise some of the monetary control tools.

Reference List Adrian T, and Shin HS (2010) [internet] The Changing Nature of Financial Intermediation and the Financial Crisis of 2007-09, Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Report No. 439. Web.

Adrian, T


Airports Electronic gate (e-gate) Research Paper custom essay help

Abstract Developments of computer software and hardware have resulted in e-gate; these gates have been adopted in some airports. E-gates are program-regulated gates used to clear passengers getting in or out of an airport. The system has numerous securities, efficiency, and revenue benefits to airports using them; however, the innovation is still young and requires more upgrading and development (GHAFOUR, 2010).

Introduction The invention and innovation of computer applications has resulted in the development of electronic gate used in airports; the innovative electronic passport control system is used to boost security and facilitate the flow of people and commodities from and to airport.

The most successful e-gate has been installed at Dubai International Airport and King Khaled International Airport; the system has facilitated the flow of traffic in the airports; the innovation has attracted praises from frequent travelers and the staff operating the e-Gate system (Ghafour, 2010). This paper discusses how e-gates operate as well as the benefits they have brought to airports.

Methodology and structure The report will approach the topic from a case referral point of view; it will do a literature review on the issue and will keep referring to the Dubai International Airport for review of their e-gate system that happens to be one of the most efficient systems in the world.

The first part of the report will cover introduction and methodology of the paper, then the body will consist of literature review and discussion section detailing what has been learnt from the literature review.

Literature review Technology has been used in different section; the invention of e-gates has offered a breakthrough in security and quality service provision in airports. The system is integrate with

Business information system involved in e-gates

Airports need to have high security all the time, they are terrorists target points thus they need to be secured. On the other hand, they need there is need to have fast and efficient services as they are points of entry and exit of goods and services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Electronic gates are computer-regulated gates, which interpolate input information offered by a person or luggage seeking opening or closing of the gate. The system operates like normal computer were information given are interpolated to trigger some action. In the airports, the gates use e-cards, barcodes and finger prints to function.

The program operating the entire system is set to interpolate information, contained in a chip, fingerprint, bar code or any other accepted access means. When the input at is passed through the system, the operating system functions as per the information that trigger a certain function; the system adopted is called dataviellance technology.

In Dubai International airport for example, passengers and staffs are given an electronic chip, which has information stored in the data base of the system; when someone want the gate to open, he swaps the card on the peripheral devise at the gate; in matters of micro-seconds sends the information to the operating system.

In the operating system, the information from the card is interpolated and compared with the fed action in the database; then it functions as it has been programmed. The technology adopted at Dubai International Airport e-gate allowed the system to have a pre-registered users where after giving their chip or finger print, the system can learn their information and make a decision to open the gate or not (Brain, 2011).

Advantages of e-gates

The main components of an e-gate is the operating system that is fed with some information and command codes to trigger a response after receiving information fed by the e-card, barcode or finger print. Every card is integrated with the system so as the system can recognize the command given by the card. The process of integrating the e-card, bar code and finger print is called “creating an account,” the duration of the card, the barcode and the finger prints is defined by the system such that after an expertly, a person cannot get access.

The system is made in a way that it can sense any effort to tamper with its operation and raises an alarm; as technology develops, the system is expected to be improved further to facial recognition technology where someone only need to come across the system and the fed data can tell the action that the person want.

When using e-gates, visitors in an airport will be cleared fast; the e-card that comes with the system has some information that the system can verify then allow accesses or deny; previously visitors had to wait for fiscal verification of their legality in a country; this called for long hours of queuing.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Airports Electronic gate (e-gate) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Airports are entry points of people with different intentions in a country; when a foreigner is getting to another country, there is need to have valid documents like passport, visa and other legal documents, these documents needs to be verifying and the receiving country be certain that the intention of the visitor has been known.

When swapping the cards, the time taken is minimal and saves space on passports; traditionally when a passenger was being cleared, the immigration officer had to stamp the passport to clear the passenger, with the invention, this move never will happen.

The system has the ability of reading carious intergraded databases and verifies all the documents that need to be verified within some minimal time; this benefits the receiving country in making sure they clear people within minimal time. Immigration department is the one that stands to benefit from the goodies stated above.

The customs and revenue collection department has a share of benefits from the system; before one is cleared by the system, the system checks with the revenue department if there are any dues that the visitor has not settled; this facilitates collection of taxes and revenue.

Security is another area that the company has looked into, the fed data that the system is verifying determines the response that the system will have, the system offers an advanced, reliable and fail-safe screening system; if the information cannot be verified, then the system denies the person at hand access.

With the current satellite integration for world surveillance, the international data collection centers have the chance of getting information of terrors attacking different countries; they will be able to offer the system with some information that when they come across the information, it raises alarm for easy capture of the person at hand.

Access and departure at airports of great importance to a country, the country needs the data for decision making, when using the system, it can be integrated with the national data collection for security reasons. International security forces want some people, they are likely to use some airport to access different places with well-integrated system, and such people can be arrested easily.

According to Worldroom Travel Digest, passengers who have used Dubai international airport had said that the system was efficient, secure and reliable; the passengers and staffs felt that the system was efficient in facilitating quick access to the airport to those people rushing to board a plane as well as those returning to Dubai.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Airports Electronic gate (e-gate) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Addressing the milestone that the company had gone because of the system, Colonel Saeed bin Belailah, Director of DNRD said, “e-Gate has come as a blessing to regular travelers through Dubai International Airport, going by the extremely positive feedback we have received from registered users,” (Worldroom Travel Digest, 2003).

The above statement was an indication of the breakthrough that the airport has gotten from the invention; the manager went further to clarify that the invention has reduced queues at passport control a move that has facilitated transport of goods and people.

When using the system, passengers whether getting back to a country or coming to the country for a visit, makes them feel privileged and welcome; the efficiency and the friendliness of the system make people feel comfortable with the country and probably a promise for better things in the country. Having efficient and quality services right from the entry of a country offers a welcoming, peaceful environment.

Management methods, measures, and techniques

Security and business information departments in an airport manage the gates, with the assistance of information and technology department. The management ensures that the gates are safe and they are operating in the most appropriate manner. In case there is a problem, the issue is handled with urgency since their failure can result to massive loss in the airport in the form of revenue and reputation (Dubai International Airport Official Website, 2011).

Discussion and observation E-gates have offered a breakthrough in security and clearance issues in airports that have adopted them; they are efficient and reliable systems that assist a country to control the accumulation of queues waiting for clearance at the airport.

When using the system the main areas that are facilitated are security, customs and revenue collection departments, the immigration and customer service departments. The efficiency of the system has made them reliable and has continued being used to facilitate the flow of people and goods into and out of airports.

When someone is arriving to a country for the first time, the reception that he gets from the airports goes a long way in shaping the attitude, and perception that the person holds for the country: with an e-gate, visitors feel welcome and immediately creates a positive attitude and perception towards the country (Dubai international, 2011).

Conclusion and recommendations Scientific innovation and invention of computer hardware and software have resulted in e-gate system in airports. The gates use pre-fed data to accept command input via e-cards, fingerprints or bar codes.

E-gates are effective, fast, and accurate; they are able to clear passengers getting into or departing from the airport in a matter of seconds. Although the system is young, more research and development need to be done to incorporate other data capture methods like eyes, face, and scent recognition; when such developments are done, the system will be more efficient and reliable.

References Brain, M. (2011). How Electronic Gates Work. Web.

Dubai International Airport Official Website. (2011). Dubai International Airport. Web.

Dubai international. (2011). Departing. Web.

Ghafour, A. (2010). E-gate system introduced at two airports. Web.

Worldroom Travel Digest. (2003). E-Gate earns praise for simplifying passport control. Web.


Walmart Market Structure Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

A market is said to function depending on the number, size and the power which is held by producers/firms which are operating in that particular market.

Products are bought and sold differently in the market and they are bought and sold under different conditions. These prevailing conditions that products are bought and sold determine the market structure in which a particular firm is to operate. There are four market structures namely; perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly each with its distinct characteristics.

Founded in 1962, Walmart is a major grocery retailer in the United States of America with its headquarters in Arkansas (Fishman, 2006). The company’s sales account to billions of shillings, for instance, in 2009, the compared recorded sales of $258 US Dollars. The company’s stores are in 55 different countries with the leading ones being in the US. The company also operates Mexico, UK, Brazil and Canada among others under different names. The company had to exit markets like Germany because it did not do well.

When Walmart is judged from a bird’s eye view, it has the characteristics of an oligopoly. One of the reasons as to why Walmart may be referred to having an oligopoly market structure is because it is operating in an industry where there are other few competing firms which are offering the same products that Walmart is offering. These major competitors are Kmart and Target (Zhu, Singh,


Racism in Native Son Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Racism in Native Son


Works Cited

Introduction Native Son, set in the 1930s, tells of a twenty-year-old black male, Bigger, living in a period and place where there was rampant racism. When he starts working for a White man, things go downhill for him. He accidentally kills the daughter of his employer due to fear of being found in her bedroom by her mother. Later, he rapes and kills her girlfriend. He is eventually caught and sentenced to death.

Racism in Native Son The popular media works to reinforce racism even more. Bigger watches a movie at the theatre showing the great life of wealthy White people. He is drawn to the whiteness and buys into the notion that their life is the best. In the popular media, especially film, Whites are often shown in an opulent world, while Blacks are often portrayed as savages, criminals, inferior, humble, and dangerous.

These media images work to reinforce stereotypes in the minds of the people, who end up believing that this is the reality, yet these images are stereotypes.

Bigger stays with his family in the South Side of Chicago. It is a congested and dirty neighborhood. The owner of the building, Mr. Dalton, does not rent houses to Black people in other locations. This causes the rent to go up due to the presence of many Black people in the area while the housing facilities are limited.

He is portrayed as a hypocritical philanthropist who likes to give extorted money to charitable causes that involve Blacks. He is only doing it to assuage his guilt over oppressing the Black community. The racist environment and culture has affected Bigger so much that, when he is in the presence of the Daltons looking for work, he is intimidated by their lavish surroundings.

Mrs. Dalton is blind, which is symbolic of society’s blindness to the devastating effects that racism and segregation are having on the black community. This is something that Marx keeps repeating in his address to the court in defense of Bigger. He argues that society and the oppressive environment led to Bigger’s actions. If society does not respond by changing the status quo, things can only continue to deteriorate.

To deal with the situation, Blacks have turned to alcohol, sex, and religion to numb the pain. However, this does not help, and the rate of crimes will just keep increasing because of the oppressive conditions. Bigger and the Daltons are blind; they cannot see each other as individuals. The Daltons see Bigger as the Black community, poor people who can be exploited but are also most likely to be the recipients of charity. For Bigger, the Daltons are just part of the oppressive “whiteness.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Racism is further seen in the way the Blacks are limited in their opportunities to empower themselves. There are professions that the Blacks cannot enter into. There are companies they cannot work for. After college, the Black youth are frustrated by their lack of opportunities. They end up forming gangs in their free time, stealing from people and being up to no good.

Due to the lack of employment and business opportunities, the Blacks keep getting poorer and poorer and instead of the Whites’ addressing the problem, they are hypocritical philanthropists. The book highlights poverty among the Blacks.

One out of every four African Americans is living below the poverty line; this is double the number of Whites living below the poverty line (Bennet, pg 3).

Biggie is in a gang with two other young men. They tell Bigger of a plan to rob Mr. Blum’s shop however he is highly reluctant. Bigger and his gang understand that stealing from Black people is not right. However, stealing from Whites is considered to be a whole different matter as it reinforces the widely held perception that Blacks are savages and criminals. Biggie, afraid of the huge repercussions, intentionally stabs Guy, one of the gang members, so that they cannot commit the robbery.

Later in the story, when Bigger kills Bessie and Mary, he knows he has reinforced the society’s mentality and the portrayal in popular culture that Blacks are savages. He feels ashamed of what he has done. He actually feels that he has failed his Black community. The Blacks, due to the racist mentality in society, feel that they must prove to the world that they are not savages or dangerous. This obligation weighs heavily on them.

Peggy, the housekeeper in the Dalton’s household, is a racist. Even though, with Bigger working as a chauffeur, they are both workers in the house, she feels superior because she is White. She actually tells Bigger that Mr. Dalton is always helping Bigger’s “people.” Secondly, every time she speaks of the Dalton’s household, she speaks of “us,” excluding Bigger

Racism is also seen in Jan and Mary. They meet Bigger and are obsessively friendly to him in a bid to show him that they are not racist. They tell Bigger that they want to eat at a restaurant on the South Side.

We will write a custom Essay on Racism in Native Son specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He is reluctant to take them to the restaurant because of the shocked reactions he will obviously get from the Blacks there. The scene shows the extent of segregation at that time. There are places that the Blacks should go and places that Whites should go. With these segregation rules in mind, which Bigger knows both Jan and Mary know, he is totally stunned by their desire to go to a restaurant in his neighborhood (Black, pg 393).

At the end of the evening in the restaurant, while taking Mary to sleep in her bedroom since she is drunk, Bigger becomes aroused and starts kissing and touching her.

He is overwhelmed by the proximity of the White woman. He has never been that close to one before. This shows the extreme limited social interaction between the Whites and Blacks that existed at that time. Bigger’s knowledge of what goes on in the White man’s world comes from the popular media, through the movies and television. Blacks and Whites stick to their own social circles.

Romantic relationships and intermarriage would be frowned on. In fact, they are such a foreign concept that Buckler, during the trial, says that Bigger was Jan’s accomplice in murdering Mary since Jan had promised to give him White women to sleep with.

It is in these desperate environmental conditions that, when Mary’s mother comes looking for Mary, Bigger is scared to death. Even though the woman is blind, Bigger knows that if she finds out he is in Mary’s room, all hell will break loose. Filled with extreme fear, he covers Mary with a pillow to prevent her from crying out.

In the process, she is smothered to death. The fear in Bigger that causes him to commit an accidental murder shows us that, at that time, Blacks had no power. Because of the negative perception of Blacks in the White community, Mrs. Dalton will believe the worst of him and his explanations will matter.

Racism is further shown in the police interrogation of the members of the household. For the first time, Bigger is able to use the negative stereotype of Blacks to his advantage. When being questioned about Mary’s murder, he behaves in the way that Blacks are expected to behave.

He acts really clumsily, shy, ignorant, and stupid. The act actually pays off until he is caught. The only person who is ever suspicious of Bigger is Buckley, and that is because he is a highly racist individual who believes the Blacks are always up to no good and that they are murderous savages.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Racism in Native Son by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jan, Mary’s boyfriend, is moved by Bigger’s situation with the law and the public outcry for the death penalty. Even though Bigger had wanted to frame him for the murder, Jan is willing to help and tells Marx, a defense attorney, to act on Bigger’s behalf. It is only then that Bigger starts to see White people as individuals.

Previously, they were just a mass of oppressive “whiteness.” Bigger is shocked that Jan wants to help him. The racism in society had increased the hostility between the Blacks and Whites so that they rarely help each other. In fact, Bigger expects Jan to take the side of the White people against him to push for Bigger to get the death sentence.

During Bigger’s court hearings and trial, his lawyer comments on the racism that has to stop and the segregation that comes with it. He points out that, even in the courthouse; the Blacks are seated on one side of the room while the Whites are seated on the other side.

Mary’s death is a pivotal point in the story. It is the point where the story starts unraveling at a fast pace. For Bigger, it signifies the beginning of a metamorphosis in his perception of himself. Even though he is scared and feels guilty for killing Mary, he is feels powerful with respect to the White man. He no longer feels that they are controlling him. He later rapes his girlfriend, Betsy, and kills her while she is sleeping.

At the prison, Bigger starts thinking that the deaths of these two women are so important to him. “He had done this. He had brought all this about. In all of his life these two murders were the most meaningful things that had ever happened to him” (Wright, pg 293). In jail, Bigger feels that, if he were instructed to fully explain why he had killed the two women, he could not do so. It would be like explaining his whole life.

Their murders symbolize many things in his life. Bessie’s death is the end of Bigger’s escaping the police. Mary is the character that the author uses to show the repercussions of a crime between Black and White people. Bigger knew that, even if it was Mary who had reached out to him, should things go wrong, he would be the one to take the blame; society would not take it kindly.

Mary’s death also makes Bigger delusional, as he believes that killing Mary is a good thing since it shows that the Blacks are tired of the White man’s oppression. When he rapes Betty, he starts thinking of the fact that White people were always raping Blacks anyway. He feels that the Whites have killed enough Blacks already. The Whites’ oppressive culture causes Bigger to become violent. His violent actions confirm the Whites’ fears. Blacks eventually become the stereotype that Whites perceive them to be.

At the end of the novel, Bigger realizes that the fiercest battles are in his mind. He has to deal with his self-perception and identity as a person to be whole. By the end of the trial, even after being sentenced to death, he is a better person, as he has come to view people as individuals and is filled with a desire to help people who have experienced pain like he has. Seeing people as individuals makes him understand that he is an equal to the people around him.

Conclusion The novel Native Son is a deep story that speaks of the racism in America that existed in the 1930’s. The book explores the negative influences of the popular culture that glorified the White race. Bigger is a young man who is confused with inferiority complex due to the prevailing negative societal mentality of the Whites towards Blacks.

His interaction with the Daltons’ family unravels the dangers of racism. A daughter is murdered and a young black man is hanged for the crime. As his lawyer argues, two people lose their lives unnecessarily. The society is challenged by the lawyer to change the status quo that exists and embrace equality.

Works Cited Bennet, Cappers. “The Trial of Bigger Thomas: Race, Gender, and Trespass” N.Y.U. Review of Law and Social Change 31.1(2006): 1-49. Web.

Black, Marc. “Fanon and Duboisian Double Consciousness.” Human Architecture, Summer (2007): 393-404. Web.

Wright, Richard. Native Son. New York: Harper Publishers, 1998. Print.


Knowledge Management in Modern Day Organization Essay best essay help

Abstract The essay will focus on summarizing two articles that focus on the topic knowledge management. The essay introduces the topic by explaining the need fro organizations to have knowledge management mechanism.

The introduction also explains why knowledge management is important in modern day professional management of organizations. Furthermore it also introduces the two type of knowledge: tacit knowledge, the type of knowledge acquired through experiences and explicit knowledge, the type of knowledge explained in books.

It also explains why and how the organization leadership should be at the forefront in establishing knowledge management mechanism. Furthermore the role of employees, who should be actively involved in seeking as well as sharing it amongst themselves as well as with fellow employees, is clearly explained. The two articles clearly state the reasons why knowledge sharing is important for organizational success.

Furthermore the role of leaders in the entire process clearly explained. However the articles fail to explain the process of gathering and classifying knowledge for easier utilization by organizations. Furthermore they only identify only one type of knowledge: tacit knowledge, thus ignoring other types of knowledge.

Introduction Knowledge management is a growing discipline among organizational management experts (Davidson 1996). Reports indicate that organizational success does not only depend on the type on knowledge that organization have but also on how the organization manages and utilizes that knowledge. As such management professionals have to ensure that they create a knowledge data base for their organization.

This knowledge library becomes a very valuable resource for all employees. If the knowledge management process is simple the organization is assured success (Bontis 2002). Furthermore there are two main types of knowledge sources: professional gurus as well as knowledge in books. While it is easy to manage knowledge in books, professional gurus must be treated with respect so as to feel compelled to share the knowledge they have. Thus knowledge management becomes the key for organization success.

Main Theme Knowledge management is the key to a successful organization in modern management. The way an organization manages its knowledge determines the level of success achievable. Efforts’ to manage knowledge in organizations are the functions of the organization leadership. Organizational managers need to deliberately devise efficient methods to gather as well as share relevant knowledge with all employees. Thus mean that there is need to create a user friendly information library fro organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore employees have to take initiative to acquire knowledge from professionals’ experts especially retiring employees in a respectful way. This would ensure that the gurus feel respected enough and thus compelled to share the knowledge they have. Such forms of knowledge transfer ensure that both tacit and explicit knowledge is transferred for profitable utilization (Collins 2010).


Knowledge management involves sharing available information with all the employees of the organization. This means that leaders must make a concerted efforts to ensure that all the knowledge that is require is available for use at the time and place where it is needed. Whereas knowledge sharing primarily the function of organization management.

Employee must also be actively involved in the process. Employees have the responsibly to proactively tap in the tacit knowledge base existing in professional gurus. The need to respectfully search is exemplified in the case of the two Indian brothers, Ram and Lakshman. While Ram was very respectful to the cruel king in requesting for knowledge Lakshman was rude. The result is that the cruel king was compelled to share his wisdom to Ram and ignored Lakashman.

The act of managing knowledge involves the development of a clear process of sharing available information. The process involves having the necessary mechanism to ensure that knowledge spreads easily across the organization (Handzic 2007). This means that organization leadership has to organize for strategic meetings to download knowledge. The meetings will also involve employee sharing whatever knowledge they have to other employees.


Existing knowledge must be sought. This literature does not highlight the effective ways to seek this knowledge. It also only identifies only one source of knowledge: retiring professionals. Furthermore, knowledge is not just useful to any situation in the organization. Effective knowledge management also requires the classification of that knowledge into related genres (Seipel, 2005). In addition knowledge gathering is also an important part of the knowledge management process.

Conclusion Any successful organization goes beyond the acquisition and use of the latest technological application to acquire the best human resource. The organization would not be successful if it does not provide its human resource with the right information to aid their professional undertakings.

As such organizations must not only acquire relevant knowledge but also ensure that that knowledge is effectively distributed amongst employees. Furthermore employee must also be encouraged to share the knowledge they have with other employees. Organizations must also be able to tap in the knowledge that exist in retiring professionals’. These professional are among many other sources of knowledge’s that an organization can utilize.

We will write a custom Essay on Knowledge Management in Modern Day Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More List of References Bontis, N. (2002) world congress on intellectual capital readings. Massachusetts: Butterworth-Heinemann

Collins, H. M. (2002). Tacit and explicit knowledge . Chicago: University Of Chicago Press

Davidson, Mike. (1996).The Transformation of Management, Massachusetts: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Handzic, M. (2007). Socio-technical knowledge management: studies and initiatives. London: IGF Publishing

Seipel, D. (2005). Applications of declarative programming and knowledge Management. Berlin: Springer


Bechel Company’s Decisions Modelling Problem Solution Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Modelling decisions help companies to judge correctly regarding issues that involve both quick decisions and long term decisions. Bechtel is an electrical company that has several business units including civil infrastructure, communication and transmission, mining, metal, oil, gas, chemical, power, and US Government services.

Each of these units has their own responsibilities and production that generates income to the company. Some of the problems the company is presumed to have included issues to do with optimization of their sales of goods and services and reducing their cost of production.

Computer models can easily be used to help make decision towards achieving a low cost of production and maximizing on income. The option of pricing can also be solved by coming up with a comprehensive model. With these models in place, Bechtel will definitely increase their overall revenue. Besides the pricing and timing optimization models, the worker scheduling model will increases the company’s overall output in terms of labour force which reflects in the overall revenue achieved by the company.

Building this models only require a computer that has spreadsheets. The spreadsheets have mathematical functions that can help to work out and solve the problem mathematically. By doing so, the company is able to identify alternatives for basing decisions. Modelling makes it less costly for the company to analyse some of the decisions made and deliver any necessary information needed quicker as it is easier to trace the source of information from the models.

Making these decisions in the company is essential because it saves on the limited resources especially the metals that the company mines to make equipments for sale. Mathematical programming that helps in optimization is critical for ensuring production of maximum product mix, optimization of the manufacturing of the product

Every function in the mathematical programming model is linear and therefore uses linear programming concepts. The model identifies the maximum or best value for the production of the units that the company sells. There are steps that formulate a good model for optimization of the output.

It begins with understanding the problem. For instance there could be a problem in the civil infrastructure unit of the company. Drafting a linear programming model can help identify where the problem arises from. It can help notice a short fall in either the time or cost used to produce a unit of these tools. The second thing to do is to identify the variable that needs to be decided on. It could be the telecommunication infrastructure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly there is need for coming up with the objective function and express it as a linear combination of the decision variables. The objective function could to find the maximum value produced by single units of the company’s products. The next step is to write down each constraint that is possible and expressing them as linear combination of the variables.

These constraints might include the time spent on labour for each unit of the decision variable and the total number of units per day that is produced. The final step is to identify upper bounds and lower bounds of each unit. The constraint helps in defining the feasible region in which the variables are viable. Once the graphs are drawn, of all these constraints, the highest point in the feasible region will give the best position.

By making the best decisions, a business no matter how small will grow. This also helps to increase the revenue of the business unlike bad decision that adds up to the problem. Solving problems in business is possible by using models for problem solving.


Economics of Bond and Derivatives Markets Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

An overview of the main bond and bond-type contracts

An overview of the main derivative

An overview of Credit Default Swaps

Criteria for effective regulation

The objectives of regulation

Various potential regulatory measures


Works Cited

Introduction The following essay examines the role of bond markets and relative derivative contracts in the financial crisis beginning in 2007.The essay specifically gives an overview of the main bond and bond-type contracts, the main derivative and Credit Default Swaps.

Also, the essay examines the criteria for effective regulation, the objectives of regulation and the various potential measures. The financial crisis that nearly brought down the financial sector has exposed various cracks in the entire system. The global financial crisis was mainly generated by the collapse of the housing market in the first months of 2006.

The collapse of the housing market saw an increase in the rate of sub prime defaulters. Scholars have identified that both the housing bubble and the credit boom were the main cause of the financial crisis. The events that followed contributed to collapse of many firms among them Lehman brothers among others and this has in turn called for an effective regulation so as to ensure that the financial crisis does not happen again in the near future.

An overview of the main bond and bond-type contracts Bonds form the key ingredients of debt-capital markets of the world. The prices of bond are directly affected by the political and economic events and the bond yield level. The bond yield level is the key economic indicator for a given nation. Bonds refer to financial instruments that characterize the amount of cash payable during a given period of time. Bonds are debt instruments and the cash flows that they represent forms the loan redemption and the interest on loan.

Unlike bank loans, bonds can be traded in a derivative market i.e. a secondary market. Bonds are usually identified by such aspects as the type of the issuer and the term to maturity. The issuer is the main characteristic of a bond. The issuers of a bond are mainly comprised of the self-governing governments together with their agencies, the local government, the corporations and the supernatural bodies e.g. the IMF and the World Bank.

A corporate bond market is characterized with various issuers and each issuer has differing abilities so as to meet their contractual requirements to investors. The term to maturity refers to the time period in years that the issuer is required to repay the contractual obligation. The issuer is also required to pay the periodic interest amount during this period.

The bonds’ maturity refers to the actual date that the debt will expire and it is during this date when the issuer redeems the bond. The maturity of a bond plays an important role of indicating the period of time that the bondholder is expected to receive his or her coupon payments. Bonds are usually valued using the present value techniques. Bonds which are source of long-term funding for businesses can be valued by summing up the present value of all the expected cash flows to a given bond.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cash flows include the following; coupon payments, interests, face value and sometimes reinvested coupons. The most stable cash flows include the coupon payments and the face value. For this reason, the value of bond Vo=Present Value of coupons Present Value of face value. When a bond is purchased and held to maturity, it earns a unique return called Yield to Maturity (Archarya and Richardson 1-56).

An overview of the main derivative Starting the period between 1970’s and 1990’s,the world turned to be riskier as far as financial investment was concerned .This caused swings in financial instruments interest rates to widen and also there were increased volatility with regards to bond markets. The organizational leaders thus sought for solutions of minimizing the risks that surrounded the financial institutions .Financial innovation was considered as an ideal way of reducing the financial risks and as a result, financial derivatives came into being.

Derivatives are financial instruments that are used so as to hedge risks associated with buying, selling and holding assets that have fluctuating prices. Derivatives usually entitle a buyer or a seller to acquire or trade an underlying asset at a future period of time at a given price. Derivatives are traded either directly between the financial institutions or over the future exchanges. Instruments that are exchanged directly have a firm standardization, higher liquidity and posses a fixed price (Butle 129).

Derivative market makes use of such financial instruments as options, futures and forward contracts. Options entail the financial instruments that provide the investors with the right of buying or selling an asset at a fixed price on or at an earlier specified date. Options are of two types i.e. call option and put option. A call option refers to financial instruments that provide the owner with the right to buy an underlying asset at a given price for a particular time.

A call option is thus a financial contract between the buyer on one hand and the seller on the other hand. The seller is usually free to sell the underlying goods if the buyer demands so and as a result, the buyer gains premium. The profitability of a call option is based on the ability of the underlying good to move up. Put option entails a financial instrument that provides the investors with the right of selling the underlying asset at a given price for a particular time.

For both the call and put option, the payment by the buyer ceases to exist once the option trades. Both the put and call options are commonly used in hedging against possible movements of stock prices. The mutual funds, pension funds and insurance companies are some of the financial institutions that uses call and put options for hedging (Hull 78-145).

Forward contracts entail the financial derivative instrument in which there is an agreement between the buyer and the seller to transact at a future period. However, there is no money that changes during the time of signing the deal. Forward contracts are mostly traded by telephone or on Over the Counter market.

We will write a custom Essay on Economics of Bond and Derivatives Markets specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the contract is being written, a given price known as the delivery price is fixed which explains the price at which an asset is sold or purchased. Companies that can estimate the receivables or payables of foreign currency over the next few years use two hedging techniques i.e. parallel loan and long-term forward contract. A parallel loan also referred to as a back to back loan refers to a currency exchange between the seller and the buyer with a guarantee to re-exchange the currencies at a given exchange rate at a particular date.

The accountants usually interprets parallel loan as a loan implying that it is recorded on the financial statements. Long-term forward contract came into use a few years ago. Today; they are popularly used by international banks. Long forwards are usually attractive to those companies that aim at protecting their cash flows from the fluctuations of exchange rates.

An overview of Credit Default Swaps Credit Default Swaps commonly referred to as CDS have been in existence since 1998.CDS refers a contractual agreement between the buyer and the seller of financial instrument whereby, the buyer is protected incase of credit default by paying a protection fee. The investor is not required to pay any fee unless there is a credit default. The agreement is usually termed as a credit default option if the protection fee is paid up in advance.

The agreement is termed as a swap if the protection fee is paid in due course. CDS can be delivered either physically or in cash. If a credit event does not occur, the protection buyer is required to pay a quarterly swap premium for the entire period of trade. In case there is a credit event, the protection buyer is required to pay the accrued premium and also, a termination value is settled on for the exchange. The process of determining the termination value is based on the terms for exchange.

Criteria for effective regulation Regulation refers to the legal system, the institutions that enforce it and also the dynamism of the legal system to respond to changing demands of participants in the financial market. In the context of financial sector, the legal environment, the efficiency of financial sector, the legal environment, the efficiency with which the judicial system makes and forces laws are quite critical to the functional efficiency of financial markets.

The adequacy of commercial law is also important in not only guaranteeing protection of investors but also to make it possible for intermediaries to perform their functions which includes mobilizing savings, allocating resources, hedging of risks e.t.c.

For financial market to function effectively there must be a set of rules that are enforceable. The stage of financial sector development in addition to market structure and regulatory framework can also determine how players in financial sector functions.

By financial sector development, the focus is on four things i.e. (i) the evolution of the entire financial system which means seeing how financial markets, financial institutions and financial instruments have evolved over time.(ii)The mode of operations that characterize the financial system e.g. computerized as opposed to manual e.t.c.(iii) The structural form of the financial sector and (iv) The types of financial claim that characterize the financial markets i.e. either direct or indirect. Countries whose financial sector is well developed is said to be financially deep.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economics of Bond and Derivatives Markets by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indicators of financial depth includes the following i.e. volume of bank credit by the private sector as a proportion of the country’s GDP, degree of access to banking services i.e. banking density as measured by the number of depositors or the number of people served by any given financial intermediary for defined period of time usually one year, the degree of information collection and dissemination by financial institutions as measured by presence of facilities such as credit bureaus, the extent of risk hedging i.e. the availability of financial products that can be used by participants in the financial markets to hedge against exposure of financial loss(Herendeen 229).

The objectives of regulation The following are the main objectives of financial regulation; Regulation is aimed at protecting investors. Given the recent financial crisis, the regulators should have adequate information in order to supervise the activities of the financial market participants that play an important role in financial system. The investors whether private or professionally requires to have an appropriate, air and efficient bond market which is not associated with any form of abuse or misconduct.

Emerging derivatives markets are aiming at developing a regulatory model that is founded on principles of self regulation, disclosure and arms-length transactions. This approach is crucial as it will ensure that there is timely and full disclosure of all the material facts that the investors require in order to make key decisions.

This approach will also help in protecting against anticompetitive capital market behavior by the market participants and also protect the investors from dishonest practices and operators. A good regulation represents a win-win scenario for both the investors and bond issuers (Vea 3).

Regulation also ensures that the market functions effectively and fairly. Regulation plays an important role of guaranteeing a speedy management of transactions and a fairly scale. Within the capital market, there are clearing houses that not only serve to provide advisory services but also to reduce the instances of default. Settlement systems significantly determine the efficiency of financial market institutions because they directly determine the speed with which these institutions handle the pressure placed on them by both the demanders and the issuers.

The other objective of financial market regulation is to reduce systematic risks. Regulation ensures that there is a variety of financial assets that not only permit exchange but also facilitate provision of liquidity facilities to the financial market participants. This offers them a chance to take positions that reduce their exposure to risk i.e. a variety of financial instruments guarantee the effectiveness of financial markets institutions with regards to hedging, diversifying and managing investment risks (Siddaiah 399).

Regulations are also aimed at supporting the macroeconomic objectives i.e. regulators are concerned with improving the efficiency financial system. A financial system is deemed to be efficient if it is capable of allocating savings to the most efficient uses. there than allocating the financial resources, an efficient financial system ensures that there is information arbitrage efficiency i.e. it determines as to whether or not the market prices reveals all the information that is available.

An efficient financial system has the role of ensuring that there is efficiency in fundamental valuation i.e. it determines whether the valuations of a firm are shown in stock prices. Also, an efficient financial system ensures that there is efficiency with regards to full insurance i.e. it determines as to whether the economic agents are capable of insuring against future contingencies (Helleiner and Commonwealth Secretariat 21).

Various potential regulatory measures There are two main forms of regulations of financial markets i.e. economic regulation and prudential regulation. There main reason for economic regulations is to control the operations of the market forces. Economic regulations prohibit some of the business activities.

Some of the examples of economic regulation include restriction with regards to new entrants in the market, price controls among others. With regards to bond markets, there are various forms of economic regulations which include the following; foreign access, issuance restrictions, interest rate and price controls, hedging instruments, taxation, custody, clearing and settlement.

Foreign access relates to the rules that limit foreigners from participating in the bond market of a given country. Foreign investors generally include the corporate, banks, speculative money accounts among others. Foreign participation by investors is usually limited in most of the emerging derivatives markets as opposed to local entities.

China is one of the emerging derivatives market where the market is closed for foreign investors. Most counties demand foreign investors to apply for a foreign participation license before they can allow them to enter their local bond markets. This is however a lengthy process and a large number of foreign investors are thus locked out from participating in the local derivatives market (Mathieson and International Monetary Fund 86).

The other form of economic regulation of derivatives market is the bond issuance restrictions. Bond issuance restrictions refer to the procedural controls that add a considerable amount of cost and time when preparing a debt issue. Russia, Ukraine and China are some of the countries that have further restrictions with regards to the issuance of local bond.

These additional restrictions play an important role of encouraging local credit market development. Some of the measures that are applied with regards to bond issuance restrictions includes ;requirement for credit rating requirement for registration with the national authorities ,procedural certification requirements among others(Mathieson 88).

Price and interest rates controls are the other tools of economic regulation with regards to bond markets. The central bank facilitates this by controlling the borrowing cost. The main aim of this form of economic regulation is to control the costs associated with borrowing and also to allow the financial institutions to have adequate margins between their borrowing and lending rate.

Another aspect that is widely used by many countries as far as interest rates control is concerned is moral suasion. Moral suasion refers to the use of persuasions in order to affect a certain behavior. Moral suasion plays an important role of keeping the interest rates relatively low (Liedekerke 61)

Another form of economic regulation that is used to regulate the bond market is hedging. The main objective of hedging is to protect an instrument against changes in cash flows or changes in economic value that are as a result of the changes in market prices. Some of the derivatives that are used for hedging against interests rates include Swap, options, and futures e.t.c.

Taxation is the other form of economic regulation of the bond markets. Bond markets are very sensitive as far as tax incentives are concerned. The tax policy of a country has a major impact on financial decisions that are made by firms and investors. Usually, taxation of the financial instruments affects the financial market development.

There are various reasons as to why the government imposes taxation on capital gains. Many countries around the world have developed a policy of not taxing the foreign investors. Therefore, the investors tend to avoid those countries that tax them. Taxation acts as a regulation measure in that, there is much paperwork that is associated with taxation and also the refunds don’t take immediately and this in turn locks out investors from the bond market (Choudhry 429).

The other form of economic regulation of bond market is custody, clearing and settlement. In many countries, bond issuers are required to follow custody, clearing and settlement procedures which are lengthy. Such procedures usually discourage foreign investors from participating in bond markets Shinozaki, Shighehiro and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development(Shinozaki and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 24).

Apart form economic regulation, bond markets can be regulated using prudential regulation. After the 200 financial crises, many governments around the world have considered the use of prudential regulation in an effort to reduce risks in the financial sector. Prudential regulation plays a crucial role of maintaining soundness of bond markets.

Prudential regulation and enforcement are basically aimed at protecting investors by ensuring that activities are carried out in a fair and transparent manner. Prudence regulatory measures are thus the indirect measures that enhance well functioning of the bond markets. They also ensure that the bond markets are stable, efficient and flexible.

Prudential regulations that are well designed help to reduce financial risks. The regulations also increase investor confidence. The main prudential regulatory measures includes the following; minimum capital requirements ,reserve requirements, public disclosure of information, operating guidelines with regards to consolidation and merges, early warning systems, sanctions enforcement in case of violation of rules among others (World Bank 102).

Conclusion In developing and enforcing regulations in the financial market institutions, responsibility should not be left to a government agent or a private sector exclusively. Instead; there should be a joint partnership between the government and the market institutions.

It has been shown widely in the literature that where regulation has been pursued single handedly by the government, there have been serious consequences which include, but not limited to the following two; inefficient institutions that are characterized by a strong desire to chase collateral other than monitoring and appraising investors and emergence of cartels within financial markets to counter the regulation (Broadman 76).

Works Cited Archarya, Viral and Richardson, Matthew. Restoring financial stability: how to Repair a failed system. Hoboken: Wiley, 2009.

Broadman, Harry. Building market institutions in South Eastern Europe: comparative Prospects for investment and private sector development. US: World Bank Publications, 2004.

Butle, Cormac. Accounting for financial instruments. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2009.

Choudhry, Moored .The bond and money markets: strategy, trading, analysis. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.

Helleiner, Gerald and Secretariat. Private capital flows and development: the role of National and international polices. UK: Commonwealth Secretariat, Issue 34, 1997.

Herendeen, James. Issues in Economics: An Introduction. America: University Press of America, 2008.

Hull, John. Options, futures and other derivatives, 7 Th edition. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.

Liedekerke, Luc Explorations in financial ethics. US: Peeters Publishers, 2000.

Mathieson, Donald and International Monetary Fund . Emerging local securities and Derivatives market. Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2004.

Mathieson, Donald et al. International capital markets: developments, prospects, and Key Policy issues. Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2000.

Shinozaki, Shighehiro and Development. Securities markets in Eurasia. US: OECD Publishing, 2005.

Siddaiah, Thummuluri. International Financial Management. India: Pearson Education India, 2009.

Vea, Punga. Interest. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

World Bank. Managing capital flows in East Asia. London: World Bank Publications, 1996.


The World’s Perspective of Americans Essay college application essay help

Charging from the experience of Americans in the outside world, there is evidence to suggest that many people in the outside world hold both positive and negative inferences and assumptions about America and its citizens. The human mind has a systematic way of analyzing and assessing the attitudes and actions of other people.

This phenomenon is referred to as critical thinking, which entails inferring and making assumptions among other elements of reasoning (Mayfield, 2010, p. 3). Here, inferences refer to the intellectual steps that one employs in concluding that one thing is true relative to another thing being or seeming true. On the other hand, assumptions refer to presuppositions made as a result of one’s past experience.

Therefore, perceivers can judge other people’s attitudes and actions on the basis of social projections, false consensus, and stereotypes (Ames, 2004, p. 573). In this essay, we will take an extensive look at the inferences and assumptions made by the rest of the world about America and its citizens.

Human nature dictates that a person expects others to see his or her character from his or her perspective. However, differences do occur in the way some people look at the attitudes and actions of others (Ames, 2004). For instance, most Americans believe that they are more accepting and tolerant to certain modern views than the rest of the world. However, charging from the most recent developments, the rest of the world perceives Americans to be intolerant to issues to do with homosexuality and gay marriages.

Moreover, on the issue of globalization, the rest of the world perceives Americans to be more pessimistic than others. Here, people argue that sentiments regarding anti-immigration campaigns are much stronger in America than the rest of the world (Schmidt, 2010, p. 35). For example, comparisons between France, Germany, and the United States show that anti-immigration campaigns are more profound in the United States than the other two countries.

On the other hand, the outside world claims that many Americans have a negative view of free trade as opposed to the rest of the world. Here, non-Americans believe that American citizens will agree with the terms of free trade if only the movement of goods and people occurs within the continent but not outside.

Furthermore, the rest of the world believes that most Americans hold negative impressions of the activities of foreign companies in America (Schmidt, 2010, p. 36). In fact, the rest of the world claims that Americans are infamous with traveling outside of their continent, and thus, some people assume that a large number of American citizens lack passports.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This assumption is based on the attitude of many Americans who believe that one can take a life-time to travel around America and never get to see the same place twice. As a result, many Americans do not see the essence of travelling outside their continent. Consequently, there is the possibility that the rest of the world sees Americans as being segregated and close-minded (Schmidt, 2010).

Further, the rest of the world perceives Americans to hold negative views about environmental conservation. This assumption is based on the fact that most Americans can be seen riding in big cars, which consume a lot of gas. As a result, many wonder how a country like the U.S. with 4% of the global population can consume 25% of the world’s oil resources (Schmidt, 2010). Furthermore, the price of gas in America is almost half the price of the commodity in other developed countries like Germany.

However, most Americans will always complain about the rising cost of living, and thus, the rest of the world claims that American citizens are selfish and self-centered. Furthermore, most people claim that the selfish nature of America can be traced back to the times of Hitler’s rule in Europe whereby despite that the Allied forces pleaded with Americans to help; they did nothing until they were attacked.

Away from the self-centered nature of Americans, the rest of the world believes that most Americans are religious believers. But according to other people, one may be mistaken to think that America’s religious nature has got anything to do with the Bible. The outside world’s perception is that it is only in America where leaders are supposed to be believers irrespective of their genuine belief.

As a result, the rest of the world sees Americans as Christian fundamentalists (Schmidt, 2010). Besides, Americans are well reputed for their efforts and involvement in foreign policies. But the world at large believes that Americans will only get involved in some parts of the world where they believe that they are bound to get something in return.

Overall, charging from the sentiments of the rest of the world in regard to the nature of most Americans, it is certain that these assumptions and inferences are based on criticisms and cases lacking evidence.

However, despite that most of the claims made by the rest of the world may be untrue, there is the paramount need for the American people to re-examine their attitudes and actions, and ask themselves why the world holds certain views against specific attitudes or actions. In this way, both the leaders and the American citizens can do well by changing certain aspects of their lives and display the real nature of America and its citizens.

We will write a custom Essay on The World’s Perspective of Americans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Ames, D.R. (2004). Strategies for social inference: A similarity contingency model of projection and stereotyping in attribute prevalence estimates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(5), 573-585.

Mayfield, M. (2010). Thinking for yourself: Developing critical thinking skills through reading and writing (8th ed.). USA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Schmidt, B.S. (2010). American government and politics today: The essentials. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.


Is the Media Really Causing a Bad Influence on Society? Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction Manohar (par 1) asserts that media is an inseparable constitute of the life of many teenagers. The forms of mass media that are an inherent part of teenagers’ routine life are many; including music player, mobile phone, computer, and television.

The author further argues that owing to the current effects of media, the society needs to appreciate the contribution of media in forging teenagers’ opinions. Media has both adverse and beneficial effects on the general public. However, this issue poses many questions in respect to the adolescent group of the society. This paper seeks to explore on the influence of the media on the teenage boy or girl.

Harmful effects of media Concerns have been raised by parents, social scientist and politicians about the unprecedented amount of violence, vulgar language and sex portrayed routinely in TV shows, movies and recordings obtainable to teenagers (Clark, par. 1).

For instance, consider the woman on Bless this House who proclaims that she “was out in the hall taking a leak” (par. 2) and so forth. In fact, the co-director of the Center for Media and Public Affairs, Robert Litcher, (qtd in Clark, par. 6) upholds that TV presently portrays “a lot more foreplay than gunplay.” He said this referring to the amount of sex issues shown on TV.

Violence has continuously gained a niche in the media. This conviction is supported by the enduring splatter of firearms, wound, and car-chase scenes, especially in cartoons, cable movies as well as movie previews. Clark (1993, par. 1) claim that because of the expansive time the American children watch TV (average of 27 hours per week), the American Psychology Association (APA) stipulates that a typical American child is in a position to watch 8,000 murders and 100,000 work violence prior to completion of the elementary school.

In deed this is the major reason why the Congress is arriving at enacting a policy requiring new television sets to be fitted with a mechanism to enable parents to block out inappropriate programs (Clark, 1995, par. 8).

Benefits of media On the other hand, media cannot be entirely viewed as a curse on the society. Media like many other social industries have some benefits. The media can be credited for the ease with which the youngsters have learned to accept technology, such as computer, internet and ipods (Manohar, par 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, media can be attributed for the increase of the teenagers’ awareness of their environment. Moreover, it has lead to improved general knowledge and appreciation of curriculum subjects due to the broad information resources provided by the media. Thus if supervised appropriately, it can be useful in generation awareness in teenagers about concerns such as sex, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) pregnancy, smoking , alcohol and drugs.

How media adversely affect teenagers Teen sex

Teenagers are increasingly turning to “hook-ups” which refers casual sexual intercourse at clubs and parties between teenagers who are not emotionally involved with each other. Friedman (764) attributes this rising trend to new technology, such as the internet and cell phones, which abolish the “first date” that involves a boy picking up a date at home and meet the parents of his date, which social scientist upholds it promote responsibilities.

It is widely accepted that sex-obsessed media provide uncouth messages to teenagers, including soap operas such as the “OC” and one “One Tree hill,” which argues Friedman (764), are spattered with demonstration of early and promiscuous teen sex. The May 2002 Kaiser Family Foundation survey revealed that two thirds of American television shows contain certain sexual aspect.

Teen Pregnancy

Sex on TV has developed through the previous few years. This is can be supported by people who have had the opportunity who watched the preliminary episodes of 90210, which involves a couple of students indulging in oral sex (Park, par. 1). This belief is supported by a research by the Rand Corp. who found that teens that have the most access to sexual content on television are twice at risk of getting pregnant compared to their counterparts who have less access to such material before the age 20.

According to Chandra (qtd Park, par. 2), despite the contribution of other factors associated with teenage pregnancy, the relationship between access to such kinds of TV shows and the risk of forthcoming pregnancy still averagely stands. This consistency has partially accounted for the reason for the doubled teen pregnancy in the United States compared to other industrialized countries.

According to Friedman (764) prevalence of teen pregnancy were highest in the south and southwest states, with New Mexico, Nevada, and Arizona topping the list. Conversely, the lowest prevalence were reported in the Northwest and upper Midwest, where N. Dakota, New Hampshire and Vermont reported the least prevalence.

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs)

This concept is directly related with teen sex that has been attributed to the increased number of sex oriented TV shows. Thus, increased teen sex gives rise to increased prevalence of STDs among the teenagers. According to Friedman (763), 4 million youngsters contract a STD every year.

We will write a custom Essay on Is the Media Really Causing a Bad Influence on Society? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Because the aforementioned problems link to unrestricted access to untailored TV shows, which expose teenage to absurd scenes, the solution to these problems lay in the restrictions of media producers. The federal government should pass laws which limit the content of the information showed on TV, and the internet. Also other strategies such as abstinence education would help a great deal. Parents can help greatly by dedicating their time more on their children.

Works Cited Clark Charles, S. TV violence: Will Hollywood tone down – or face regulations? CQ Researcher Volume 3, Issue 12, 1993. Web.

Clark Charles, S. Sex, violence and the media: is it time to crack down on TV and Movies? CQ Researcher Volume 5, Issue 43, 17, 1995. Web.

Friedman Jane. Teen sex. CQ Research , Volume 15, Number 32, pp 761-784, 16 September, 2005. Print.

Manohar uttara. Media effects on Teenagers., 2011. Web.

Park Alice. Sex on TV increases teen pregnancy, says report. U.S. Times, 2008. Web.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Teens, sex and TV. [Author]. 2002. Print.


The Short Story “Found Objects” by Jennifer Egan Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Found Objects is a short story that addresses the dangers of growing up in a broken family. The short story by Jennifer Egan addresses the struggles that a young girl named Sasha undergoes while trying to come to terms with the abandonment of her father. In order to fill the emptiness in her heart, Sasha results to stealing items that she does not intend to use at any time in her life.

Afraid that the situation is getting out of control, she consults a therapist whom she hopes will help her deal with the root cause of her behavior. In Jennifer Egan’s story, the protagonist has a void in her heart, which she tries to fill by stealing anything that falls on her path. (Egan 2)

There is a clear pointer to the protagonists’ kleptomaniac behavior at the opening of the story. In the opening statement, the author tells us “it began the usual way” meaning there was a certain pattern that Sasha followed in all the things she stole. The first incidence takes place at the Lassimo Hotel where Sasha notices a bag lying on the floor of an occupied toilet cubicle.

Just like in every other instance, Sasha is provoked by the blind trust that the owner of this bag has on the inhabitants of New York. According to Sasha, this was tantamount to tempting someone to steal the wallet. Indeed, stealing for Sasha is a way of proving to the world that she is tough and this explains she does not steal in stores. By stealing from people, she is unconsciously sending a message to her father that she is tough and she can survive without him.

The genesis of Sasha’s behavior is traceable to the moment her father left when she was six years old. With the progression of the story, it emerges that Sasha stores everything that she steals separate from her private life. Through the ensuing discussion with Coz, it is clear that Sasha has lost all trust in people and she does not expect them to trust her.

The mistrust is engraved deep in her heart such that she does not even trust Coz who is the only person capable of helping her. On the other hand, Sasha seemed to have loved her father so much such that she is still hoping for a reunion many years after he has left.

The fact that Sasha is looking for his father’s approval and love is seen when she steals a note containing an inspirational message from Alex. The note with the words “I Believe in You” appears to Sasha as a personal message from her father who had abandoned her. Unlike all the other things that she has stolen, Sasha knows she has to keep this note since the words are a replica of what she has been craving to hear. This clearly shows that the genesis of Sasha’s behavior is linked to her missing father.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Found Objects is a short story addressing the struggles of a young woman named Sasha. In the story, the leaving of Sasha’s father has made her to mistrust all the people she is dealing with.

Because of this mistrust, Sasha is moved to steal everything that is not well guarded. Concerned with the trouble that this behavior might cause her in the future, she seeks the services of a therapist to help her realign her mind to leave the things she finds misplaced instead of stealing them. Although the reasons for Sasha’s kleptomaniac behavior are not made palpable, there is no doubt that all her problems are linked to the leaving of her father.

Works Cited Egan, Jennifer. Found Objects, 2007. New Yorker Fiction, 1-9. Print.


A Reader-Response to Crane’s ‘The Open Boat’ Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The Open Boat begins with four men battling for their life in a lifeboat at a sea. ”These waves were of the hues of slate, save for the tops, which were foaming white and all of the men knew the colors of the sea” (Crane, p. 1). It is dark because they cannot recognize the color of the sky.

The four occupants of the boat are survivors of a shipwreck. Each occupant has unique features. There is a cook boiling out water from the bottom of the boat. The oiler, who is the strongest of them all, is rowing with one oar. He is obviously an experienced seaman from his mastery of the sea. Also, on board is an unnamed correspondent who is not a seaman as he keeps questioning himself trying to understand predicament (p. 1).

The fourth occupant is their captain, injured and lying at the bow of the boat. They are optimistic that the other occupants of their wrecked ship have probably gone to seek help for them (p. 1). They row hoping to come across a lighthouse or a house of refuge. After a while, they spot a lighthouse and their spirits are lifted, but not for long as they see no signs of human life, “the light heartedness of a former time had completely faded” (p. 4).

Their hopelessness is reflected in their exchange of addresses, just in case they do not make it to shore (p. 4). Not long, their hopes are raised again when they spot a man waving; what they thought was a flag, but turns out to be a man waving his coat at them because he thought they were fishermen (p. 4-5). This greatly annoys them adding to their helplessness.

After a while, they spot a tiny house on shore amid the dunes, but they find it odd that no one sees them. There is neither light nor hope. The only company they have is of a shark circling their boat. They do not share their thoughts but wonder why nature would let them die after they have tried so hard to stay alive. In the morning, the correspondent spots a watch fire, some houses and a windmill on the beach, but no sight of people.

The captain decides that they should make a break for it and turn the boat towards the shore, but nature is working against them. Therefore, they decide to abandon the boat and swim. The captain, the cook, and the correspondent use the boat as support, but the oiler swims ahead of them. When the three get ashore, the natives warmly welcome them, but sadly, the oiler was not so lucky.

This story is a recount of the author’s personal experience of surviving a shipwreck. The author was travelling to Cuba to work as a newspaper correspondent when his ship hit a sandbar and sank off the coast of Florida forcing him together with other three men to find their way ashore in a small boat.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was a difficult journey that took them thirty hours, but eventually they got on shore even though one of them, an oiler, drowned. Soon after, Crane narrated their survival story in a report form that was first published as “Stephen Crane’s Own Story”, which later became the short story, “The Open Boat.”

This story is about survival, solidarity and conflict between man and nature. These elements come up in my life most often. The waves that kept rocking the men’s small boat are not just waves, but represent the obstacles that I face every day in life as I try to accomplish something. The captain’s character and mine are very similar.

I relate to the captain because he was the leader of his small crew just as I am the eldest in my family, hence a leader by birth. Despite the captain’s injuries, he was still able to give directions and provide moral support to his crew. In the same way, being the eldest, my siblings always look up to me for guidance and support.

Therefore, I have to be able to provide guidance and support to my siblings no matter what. Sometimes, it is hard as I am not that old, but I do not show my weaknesses since I have to remain strong always. Just as the captain could not let his injuries bar him from making his crew get ashore, I do not let my age bar me from providing leadership to my siblings.

As usual, life throws many curve balls our way, but challenges are there to make us strong and more courageous. It has proved to me that in times of trouble, there will always be solidarity. The waves that kept rocking the boat are the hardships we endure in our day-to-day life.

Financial “waves” are the ones that have hit us the hardest especially in these hard economic times. Prioritizing our needs is difficult, as this would mean that we have to deny ourselves luxuries like going to movies. Nevertheless, solidarity amongst ourselves is what helps us get through the rough waves. Solidarity is what kept these men alive, even though they lost one of them in the end.

As a young adult, I have learned that parents will go to any length to support their children. I have developed into a very responsible adult because of having to provide guidance to my siblings. I feel that many people can relate to The Open Boat as each one of us is always attacked by different kinds of “waves” each day. The biggest challenge is overcoming these “waves” without losing anything, be it your dignity or loved ones.

We will write a custom Essay on A Reader-Response to Crane’s ‘The Open Boat’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Crane, Stephen. The Open Boat. New York: Doubleday and McClure, 1898. Print.


McDonald’s and It’s Critics: 1973- 2009 Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Marketing entails offering quality products at reasonable prices. The research focuses on the marketing strategy of McDonald’s Company and its critics. The research includes the history of McDonald’s Company from its humble birth in California to its current worldwide acceptance as the best seller in the food and beverage market segment.

Specifically, the research includes a SWOT analysis. The research ends with a recommendation as to what McDonald’s should venture into in the years to come. McDonald’s implements textbook-based marketing strategies to catapult it to its present stature in the restaurant, food, and beverage world.

History Gilbert Sara (4) emphasized McDonald’s was founded by Ray Kroc. Dick and Mac McDonald’s had opened its McDonald’s Restaurant on 14th and E streets in San Bernardino state, California in 1940. The original store included a drive-in environment with a corresponding large menu and car hop services. In 1949, Dick and Mac had reduced their menu. The new menu item list included hamburger, cheeseburger, soft drinks, coffee, milk, potato chips, and pie. The most popular menu during this time period is the 15c hamburger.

In 1954, Ray Kroc accidentally enters the McDonald’s scene by selling a multimixer product to both Dick and Mac McDonald’s. Ray Kroc learns that both owners of McDonald’s were interested to set up franchises of their McDonald’s restaurant in many cities across the United States. Ray Kroc decides to enter the McDonald’s franchising business. Consequently, Ray Kroc opens his first McDonald’s store in Des Moines Plaines, Illinois on April 15, 1955.

Stanley Meston created the Golden Arches logo of McDonald’s. The company’s first day sale catapulted to $366. This was a large sum of money when comparing the value of $366 during that time period and today’s $366 value. The cost of food, clothing, shelter, and other necessities were cheaper back then compared to the prices of food, clothing, shelter, and other necessities of today, April 20, 2011. In 1965, the company was able to franchise 700 McDonald’s restaurants across the United States.

The new recipes included the “Big Mac” which was introduced to the public in 1968 and the replacement of potato chips with French fries. McDonald’s celebrates its 25 years of business operations. In addition, the company reached its 50th anniversary in 2005. In 2008, McDonald’s came up with a global design of the company’s products.

SWOT Analysis Strengths

Anja Bohm (12) opined McDonald’s company has its strengths. First, the company has distinctive competencies. The competencies include its strategic advantages. Competencies include low prices, high quality goods, excellent service and.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, the company gains a competitive advantage, people will enthusiastically flock to a new McDonald’s branch because the McDonalds name is a name that can be trusted and admired. Third, the company has a strong marketing strategy. The company spends lots of money for advertising the different McDonalds products in the television, radio, and newspapers.

Fourth, the company has strength in research and development. The company continues to experiment with new ingredients and menu to pamper the current and future McDonalds clients. Fifth, the company has strengths in human resource management. The crew are well trained to serve each client the same high quality way; serving the same high quality products at low prices.

Sixth, the company has strengths in information system. Clients and log on to the online McDonald’s website and make an order for hamburgers, French fries and the like. Seventh, the company has strengths in infrastructure. The company sets up the standard McDonald’s restaurant format. The people from different countries have grown to love the same store fast food style infrastructure, especially the busy working person.

Anja Bohm (12) reiterated the McDonald’s Company has its strengths. The strengths represent the McDonald’s development and growth of the company over time which is identified as the company’s “competitive advantage” and “distinctive competency” that is responsible for the company’s growth to be one of the top restaurants, food, and beverage companies of the world.

The company has the most critical components of a company’s financial resources. The company’s high revenues allow the company to have ready cash on hand to pay for its maturing obligations as well as daily operating expenses.

There are other strengths not discussed above. First, the McDonald’s Company has distinctive competencies that include a strong worldwide presence. The company is recognized the leader in the fast food chain market segment around the world, especially within the United States.

Everyone within the United States and major cities around the world has come across the name McDonald’s. People from all walks of life have visited a McDonald’s store. Everyone will comfortable that they can easily munch the same McDonald’s quality and taste whether one is in Los Angeles, California, Upstate New York, Virginia, London, China, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, India, and other countries.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on McDonald’s and It’s Critics: 1973- 2009 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Second, the McDonald’s Company has under its worldwide fast food market segment more than 30,995 restaurants. The restaurants are strategically located in many places around the world. More importantly, more than 13,998 of the McDonald’s Company’s own stores are strategically located in many major cities within the local United States territory.

The establishment of the McDonald’s Company restaurants in different parts of the world indicates that there is strong demand for the McDonald’s Company’s products and services. The increase in the number of McDonald’s Company restaurants around the world proves that there is a strong demand for McDonald’s Company products and services.

Third, the McDonald’s Company introduces the important economies of scale principles in assigning costs and prices on its McDonald’s products. With the implementation of the economies of scale principle, the company continues to lessen its restaurant operating costs to more realizable levels.

Specifically, the implementation of the scale greatly lessens the expenses of its overall charting of new paths into uncharted fast food market segments around the world. The economies of scale theory states that some countries are composed of a majority of poor people.

The economies of scale theory states that some countries are composed of a majority of poor people. The economies of scale theory states that some countries are composed of a majority of very rich people. The economies of scale theory states that some countries are composed of a majority of average income people. McDonald’s offers it products at low prices. The company targets the general masses of the community.

Since there are poorer and average income people in the community compared to the community of rich and very rich persons, McDonald’s targets the average income and low income groups of people. The company is satisfied to generate a small income because there will be more clients visiting the McDonald’s stores compared to restaurants and food and beverages stores that offer its food and service products at very high prices.

Fourth, the McDonald’s Company maintains a string of children’s charities around many of its branches around the world. The name of the charity is The Ronald McDonald House. The McDonald’s Company spends lots of cash to feed the children entering its charity outlets. By engaging in children’s charities the image of the McDonald’s Company will improve in the eyes of the current and future customers. The amount allocated for the care of the children

Fifth, the McDonald’s Company focuses on the clients’ health and overall well-being. The company only uses ingredients that have passed its strict high standards. The McDonald’s Company complies with all the policies of the United States Department of Agriculture in terms of healthiness of the food ingredients and the food itself.

Not sure if you can write a paper on McDonald’s and It’s Critics: 1973- 2009 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company ensures that ingredients used in the production of goods and services are not spoiled or expired. The use of expired or spoiled food ingredients may cause the customers to suffer from food poisoning. Consequently, the customers can file a case in court for the food poisoning incidents. Such cases will cause a huge dent the image of the McDonald’s Company.

The company goes out of its way to protect its image. A damaged image will translate to a decline in the demand for the company’s products and services. A decline in the demand for the company’s products and services will cause a drop in the company’s revenues. A reduction in the company’s revenues will translate to a reduction in the company’s net profits.

Sixth, Anja Bohm (12) reiterated the McDonald’s Company invests in properties around the world and offers franchises. The establishment of McDonald’s Company restaurants around the world shows that many investors believe that the infusion of their hard-earned cash into the McDonald’s Company will be a profitable decision. The spread of McDonald’s Company restaurants indicate the investors are comfortable with their capital investment decision to have one or more franchises of the McDonald’s Company restaurant.

Seventh, the McDonald’s Company has a long list of real estate portfolios. The company is willing and able to purchase properties in different countries around the world. The purchase of such properties would be useful in terms of improving the company’s balance sheet presentation. The investors would be happy to see that the McDonald’s Company’s properties have increased through the years. An increase in the McDonald’s Company’s properties shows there is also an increase in the company’s stockholders’ equity accounts.

Eight, the McDonald’s Company has patents over very popular food items. The food items include Big Mc, Chicken McNuggets. Patents are defined as the government’s right given to an inventor or new product developer to craft the McDonald’s Company products. The copyright prevents the competitors and new entrants to the restaurant, food, and beverage competitors to produce the same products or even use the same product name such as “Big Mac”.

Ninth, the McDonald’s Company has one of the world’s most recognized logos. The Company’s logo is a huge “M” sign. Any person seeing the “M” logo can easily state that it means a McDonald’s restaurant is located nearby where the “M” sign can be easily seen from afar.

Tenth, the McDonald’s Company focuses its unwavering attention on its corporate social responsibility. The company implements community-caring programs. The programs are aimed at giving back to the community what the community has given to each McDonald’s restaurant located in major cities around the world in terms of food and beverage revenues.

Eleventh, the McDonald’s Company incorporates the local culture in all its branches in the United States, Europe, Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world. The McDonald’s Company hires the local residents to manage each McDonald’s restaurant. With the locally-hired McDonald’s employees, the company can be classified as a diversity-based company.

The Chinese employees bring a touch of the local Chinese culture to the McDonald’s China branches. Likewise, the Korean employees bring a touch of the local Korean culture to McDonald’s Korean branches. The United Kingdom employees bring a touch of the local United Kingdom culture to the McDonald’s United Kingdom branches.

Twelfth, the McDonald’s Company is strategically located in major airports, cities, highways, tourist attractions, and parks. Consequently, the large number of people passing through each McDonald’s branch easily accepts the sumptuous menu items displayed in each McDonald’s establishment.


Mike Meldrum (27) reiterated the McDonald’s Company has its weaknesses. First, the McDonald’s Company uses advertising strategies focused on inviting the children to visit the nearest McDonald’s restaurant.

Second, the McDonald’s Company implements a low pricing strategy to capture the competitors’ current clients. Clients would easily transfer their preference to McDonald’s products because the prices of their food items are low. Consequently, the competitors are forced to reduce their prices to levels matching or even nearing the McDonald’s food pricing levels.

Third, the McDonald’s Company lacks the penchant to innovate its products. The company continues to sell the same old McDonald’s products. The products include hamburgers, French fries, coffee, chocolate, beverage, Big Mac, and others. The people will generally prefer a change in the food menu to avoid boredom.


Mike Meldrum (27) theorized the company’s superior performance is the result of a successful fit between strategy and the environment. The community needs low priced food to fill their hunger fangs. In response, McDonalds creates high quality products to fill the community’s needs, wants, and caprices.

In addition, the company’s main technique is to analyze the competitors. The McDonalds Company does not fear the entry of new competitors because it is difficult to outmatch the McDonalds Company’s established high quality products sold at low prices. The suppliers are willing to supply McDonalds with highest quality ingredients and other company needs at reasonable prices.

The McDonalds Company does not fear product substitution because the substitutes are sold at higher prices; the clients will prefer lower priced goods and services. Realistically other traditional restaurant competitors offer their products higher prices than McDonalds.

Nadine Pahl (73) proposed The McDonald’s Company has its set of opportunities. First, the McDonald’s Company can effortlessly adapt to the food needs of the community where the company has established its strategically located branches. The company can introduce products that are very popular in the competitors’ restaurants. For example, the China branch of McDonald’s can introduce the popular food menus being sold to the competing Chinese restaurants or food outlets.

Second, Mike Meldrum (27) theorized the McDonald’s Company can introduce new marketing strategies to increase its revenues. The company can set up websites in each city, community, or state. With the McDonald’s website, the clients can easily order a hamburger or coffee with just the click of the mouse.

In addition, the company can distribute leaflets or promotional brochures to communities indicating the cell phone text numbers. The clients can easily order a McDonald’s Big Mac just by sending a cell phone text message to the local community’s McDonald’s branch.


In terms of threats, Mike Meldrum (27) insists the company can easily hurdle the encroaching new competitors because the new entrants cannot easily win the away the established client base of the McDonalds brand.

Further, the supplier threats can easily be resolved by contacting other suppliers to offer reasonably priced ingredients and other products. Likewise, the threat of substitute products can be easily answered by offering different product choices within the McDonald’s restaurant. For example, the Starbucks coffee is price three times higher than a cup of McDonald’s coffee.

Economics tells us the as prices go up, the demand for the products decreases. Thus, McDonald’s will always better alternative compared to Starbucks coffee because there are more middle income and low income people than rich people. The restaurant and food industry is composed of strategic groups. McDonald’s countless branches around the world are one strategic group that constantly wins most of the current and prospective client’s food preference.

The members of McDonald’s Company’s strategic group can easily resolve its immediate competitor situation. The company has been successful in implementing one universal marketing strategy to capture the new clients and communities food preferences. Currently, the company is at its maturity stage in the product life cycle environment.

The people from around the world have accepted McDonald’s as a mature company that serves their quality food needs at low prices for more than 50 years. Likewise, the macroeconomic environment, political environment, global environment, legal environment and social environment continues to be very favorable to the setting up of a new McDonald’s branch as well as the continued profitability of each currently established McDonald’s brand.

The McDonald’s Company has to contend with its threats. First, the McDonald’s Company has to overcome the current economic depression or recession. The recession covers much of the United States and Europe. The recession has reduced the current clients’ penchant to spend quality time gobbling a McDonald’s hamburger or sipping coffee while reading the newspaper’s headline stories.

Second, the McDonald’s Company has to resolve the currency exchange rate fluctuations. The McDonald’s Company will be happy if the currency exchange rate between the United States dollar and the Chinese currency, Yuan, will remain on the same level. A change in the currency exchange rate between the two currencies may spell an increase in revenues and profits or a decrease in revenues and profits.

Third, many of the competitors are coming up with new food items that can rival the taste, price, and quality of the McDonald’s products. Many local restaurants can easily implement new marketing strategies to please the ever-changing needs, wants, and caprices of its current and future food customers. On the other hand, the McDonald’s Company continues to steadfastly hold on to its popular brands throughout the years.

Fourth, the McDonald’s Company has to finally settle the health issues relating to the company’s food products. Everyone knows that eating too much hamburger is hazardous to a person’s health. Too much indulgence in the McDonald’s products may trigger hypertension, diabetes, and other ailments, especially for the “older” generation of restaurant clients.

Fourth, the McDonald’s Company focuses a major part of its capital investment on advertising. People often see McDonald’s advertisements in television shows. Likewise, McDonald’s advertisements are found in newspapers. In addition, McDonald’s advertisements are found in radio stories.

Fifth, many of the parents detest the McDonald’s Company’s marketing strategy. The strategy focuses on enticing the children to visit the nearest McDonald’s restaurant. The children are easy prey to the continuous advertising of the McDonald’s products and services. Consequently, the growing child will bring the McDonald’s food craze into their adulthood and elderly stages of life.

Sixth, the McDonald’s Company has been sued in courts for the effects of the unhealthy McDonald’s products on the health of its current and future restaurant customers. The lawsuits include charges that the food items are injected with addictive additives. The additives will create a craving among the current and future McDonald’s Company clients to return back to the nearest McDonald’s fast food restaurant to buy another set of McDonald’s addictive products to satisfying their addiction to the McDonald’s food items.

Seventh, major competitors are slowly, but surely, creeping into McDonald’s market segment and literally grabbing major markets. The popular Starbucks coffee is gaining a continuing increase in coffee lovers.

Likewise, Burger King has been able increase its food and beverage market share by chopping away and pirating many of the clients of McDonald’s. In addition, Wendy’s has successfully increased the number of its worldwide branches. The increase in Wendy’s branches translates a decline in the McDonald’s clients.

Eight, the McDonald’s Company’s setting up of new branches in other countries has been unfavorable in many instances. Some countries have slow economies which translate to slow sales. Slow sales statistical figures translate to slow profits. On the other hand, a fast economy translates to fast revenue generating activity. It is common knowledge that some countries have slow economies while other countries have fast economies.

Consequently, a fast economy will generate more revenues and profits compared to companies with slow economic inputs. Normally, communities or countries with few people having purchasing money will translate to lesser revenues and profits when compared to communities or countries having more people with higher purchasing power or having more money to spend for McDonald’s products.

The company’s control systems Karl Moore (83) emphasized the company’s control systems focus is very realistic. The store officers and staff ensure that all the company’s ingredients are fresh and healthy. The store officers have implemented one strict production process in all the McDonald’s Company branches around the world. The company’s food preparation manual indicates the step by step process of preparing, cooking, and serving each McDonald’s around the world.

The food preparation process in the California McDonald’s Company branch is similar to the food preparation of the McDonald’s Company branch in Florida. Likewise, the food preparation process in the United Kingdom McDonald’s Company branch is similar to the food preparation of the McDonald’s Company branch in France. The food preparation process in the Saudi McDonald’s Company branch is similar to the food preparation of the McDonald’s Company branch in India.

The implementation of only one standard tried and tested ingredient choosing, and food cooking, and food preparation in all the McDonald’s Company branches around the world ensures that the outcome of each McDonald’s Company food and beverage activity complies with the company’s preset quality standards.

The company implements preset standards as a measure of quality performance. All branches must adhere to the standards for the sake of maintaining the company’s top spot in the world’s fast food market segment. The McDonald’s Company officers compare the employees’ actual job performance with established standards with the aim of improving any lackluster service performed by the company’s crew.

The McDonald’s Company officers do not waste any time in correcting or alleviation any customer complaints. The McDonald’s Company food crew is a human being, sometimes one commits unintentional errors. The new greenhorn employees are apt to commit mistakes fulfilling the needs, wants, and caprices of the clients.

The McDonald’s Company must be quick to remedy such errors to ensure the company will continue to patronize the company’s products and services. It is also customary to post the picture of the best employee of the month in each McDonald’s Company branch as a reward for enthusiastic and hardworking employees.

Recommendations Based on the above discussion, it is highly recommended that the company continue its present course in terms of ingredient choosing, food cooking, food preparation, and pricing of the regularly sold McDonald’s Company products that include the “Big Mac”, Chicken McNuggets, the Frappes, and the standard hamburger, coffee, egg McMuffins, chicken, and other McDonald’s mainstay products being sold in its more than 50 years of existence.

The company should continue to expand its horizons by setting up more branches in other communities and countries to ensure that the world’s craving for the favorite McDonald’s Company products will be filled to overflowing status.

The Company does not have to retrench its employees because the company’s food and beverage market segment continues to generate huge revenues and profits. The company can use a combination of online (internet website) ordering, cell phone texting, and phone calls as a means for current and future clients to fill their need for the mouth-watering McDonald’s Company products.

In terms of the future, the horizon is crystal clear. Crystal clear means the company sees an increase in the number of McDonald’s Company branches sprouting like mushrooms in other cities that do not have a McDonald’s Company branch within the reach of the hamburger-loving, French fry-loving, and chicken McNuggets-craving residents.

Using trend analysis, since the current trend of setting up new McDonald’s Company branches in the past has spelled financial success, the company should continue in its unwavering stand to set up new branches in other parts of the world.

In terms of rationalizing, the company has been able to generate profits from each branch set up in major places where a huge volume of people congregate, the company should continue its present course to set up new McDonald’s Company branches, in malls, groceries, busy street corners, airports, train stations, and other busy intersections around the world.

Conclusion Marketing includes offering quality products at reasonable prices. The history of McDonald’s Company from its humble birth in California to its current worldwide acceptance as the best seller in the food and beverage market segment shows the company deserves the accolades for striving to be the best in terms of product quality and quality service.

Specifically, the SWOT analysis scrutinizes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of McDonald’s. The recommendations show that McDonald’s continue its present course because the company will continue to generate more revenues and profits. Indeed, McDonald’s Company continues to successfully implement textbook-based marketing strategies to retain its catapulted stature as one of the best in the restaurant, food, and beverage world.

Works Cited Bohm, Anja M. The SWOT Analysis. New York: Grin Press, 2009.

Gilbert, Sara P. The Story of McDonalds. New York: Creative Press, 2008.

Moore, Karl A. Marketing: The Basics. New York: Taylor


Harvey Industries Essay argumentative essay help

Harvey Industries is an organization which has appeared in a complicated position. The work of the inventory control system can be easily improved if to check the marketing principles and apply those to the manufacturing system. Analyzing the work organization at Harvey Industries, many aspects are going to be considered and the pieces of advice are going to be offered to improve the work and make the company profitable and flourishing.

Company structure and it appropriateness is one of the main principles of management. The distribution of the roles in the company is not clearly stated. Having a hierarchical system of relationships in the Harvey Industries, everybody strictly knows who he/she is subordinate to. Still, the responsibilities of each employee are not really defined.

According to the situation in the organization, “the current inventory control ‘system’ consists of orders for stock replenishment being made by the stockroom foreman, the purchasing manager, or the manufacturing manager whenever one of them notices that the inventory is low” (Stevenson, 2009, p. 602).

Each of the mentioned employees can notice the problem and report about it, but there is no a person who is responsible for this task. Strict distinguishing of the responsibilities is an opportunity to make all people do their business and increase the productivity of each department and the whole company in general.

Planning is important, but Harvey Industries fails to implement strong planning system in the working process. Planning is an inevitable part of logistics. Perfectly organized logistics and planning can reduce the problem of lack of the required items. According to the information we have, “if the assembly department needs items that are not stocked on the assembly floor, someone from that department will enter the stockroom and withdraw the necessary material” (Stevenson, 2009, p. 602).

As a result, the manufacturing process is paused. To eliminate this problem, some logistics and supply chain management principles should be applied. There is no need to increase the amount of paper work. All the orders and needs in the items can be delivered via IT systems which should connect all the departments to increase the time for placing orders.

It has been reported about the problems with low-value items, like bolts, screws, etc. The very idea to call them low-valued says about the relation to them. But, the absence of those items can lead to the pausing of the whole manufacturing process. Absence of appropriate logistics and planning is the main reason for the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Coordination and decision making should be provided not only by the President or managers separately. Being responsible to the President, Sales manager, Manufacturing manager, controller and purchasing managers should report to each other to improve the information exchange among departments and influence the communication among them.

According to the existing hierarchy, Assembly foreman, Stockroom foreman and Quality engineer are accountable to manufacturing, but the Controller should also be aware of the done work. So, it is important to change the subordination to improve the information exchange and the work in the organization.

Thus, it is possible to conclude that the change of the management principles, like planning, company structure, logistics and supply chain management, coordination and decision making can improve the working process at Harvey Industries, its productivity and help it recover from present financial crisis.

Reference List Stevenson, W.J. (2009). Operations management. New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin.


California Historical Murder Case Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents The Crime of Murder

Discussion of the Actual Crime

Important Factors in the Case

Personal Analysis of the Case

Criminal Justice in Nineteenth-Century California


“On the night of July 3, 1889, Charles Wilson, City Marshal of Oceanside, was foully murdered while performing his duty as an officer[1].”

City Marshal Charles C. Wilson and his brother deputy Marshal J. Koener “Keno” Wilson who was the deputy marshal were walking towards a hotel from where they heard gunshots. The two officers were going to investigate the gunshots and were passing through the railroad tracks located north of Santa Fe Depot.

A few minutes after midnight, the two officers heard a sound of breaking glass that appeared to come from near distance of their current location. Marshal Wilson and his brother decided to digress from their path and check out what was the cause of the breaking glass sound. As the two officers got to the scene, they saw two persons on horses riding towards them. One of the riders was a twenty four year old who had previously been arrested for charges of disturbing the peace.

Koener Wilson had done the arrest (under the orders of C. Wilson)[2] and therefore recognized the twenty four year-old as John Murray. However, Marshal Wilson was the first to point out his identity as John Murray. According to the account of J.K “Keno”, Murray was holding the reins of his horse with his left hand together with the globe glass of a street light. On his right hand, Murray held a pistol that swung freely on his hands. John Murray shot City Marshal Charles C. Wilson using the pistol and he died[3].

The Crime of Murder Murder is a criminal act of killing another person with the intention of causing harm. The thought of malice that precedes murder is the dining attribute that differentiates murder from other crimes such as manslaughter. In the society, murder is highly frowned upon because of the massive loss it brings to the victim’s family and the fact that the loss of human life is also injurious to a society’s well-being.

Therefore, in all societies, murder crimes receive a punishment considered the harshest in the respective societies. Courts consider malice to be the intent to kill, the intent to cause deadly harm that slightly falls short of death, a careless handling of human life that is unjustified and the intention of obligating a treacherous offence.

Alcohol impedes a rational thinking of a person and is used as an excuse by defendants of murder cases to conceal the evidence of malice. A prevalence of pistols in nineteenth century California and alcohol places the Murray case as a common occurrence other than the fact that the victim was a city Marshal. Alcohol intoxication has not been used as defense for crimes since the 1800s.The defense must therefore provide more evidence to substantiate their claim of thinking impairment caused by alcohol intoxication.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion of the Actual Crime The killing of City Marshal Charles C. Wilson occurred on 4 July 1889, a few minutes after midnight. This account of the time of murder was defended by the coroner’s inquest of Dr. Henry Hubbard who conducted the examination of Charles Wilson’s body on the morning of 4 July 1989.

In addition, newspaper reports indicated that Marshal Wilson died immediately after being shot as he fell into his brother’s arms. The murder occurred in the Oceanside area of San Diego precisely at railroad tracks close to the Santa Fe Depot. The railroads scene is located west of the St. Cloud Hotel.

According to the coroner’s inquest of J.K Wilson, Murray and his companion Chavis were breaking lamps over the railroad track and this prompted marshal Wilson and his brother to head over to them to make an arrest. When they got to the suspects, Chavis ran away while Murray remained and defied an order from Marshal Wilson to stop. Instead, Murray threw the lamp he was holding at his face and then fired one shot at the moment and another as he ran away.

On escaping, Murray went and hid in one of the nearby pasture owned by O’Neill and then into Griffen’s vineyard. This is the place where he was discovered by William Griffen and he surrendered willingly to Griffen, albeit having been informed that he was not likely to escape and that he would be offered a fair trial rather than falling into the hands of an angry mob. He was later taken to San Diego secretly by four individuals namely Saylor, John Griffen, Charles M. Martin as well as Alfred Peyton[4].

The San Diego Union Tribunal of 6 July 1889 reported that “scarcely had the day been ushered in when on the morning air rang out the report of a pistol shot followed by others and a cry for help[5].”

According to Dr. Hubbard’s witness account (during preliminary examination), a bullet fired from a gun held above the victim who was stationary and standing upright created the bullet wound on C. Wilson’s body. He clarified that the shot entered the victim through the front part of the body and according to the bullet wound, firing occurred a few inches from the victim.

The bullet hit several organs among them the lungs and the heart; however, the left lung received the most damage with a rapture of its artery. In his final account, at the coroner’s inquest, Dr. Hubbard confirmed that the bullet wound in question was the cause of the death of the Marshal[6].

We will write a custom Research Paper on California Historical Murder Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Newspaper reports indicated that Murray fled the scene of crime immediately after shooting Marshal Wilson. As he fled, J.K. Wilson fired at him and managed to get a single bullet into the back of Murray’s horse that impaired its mobility. The report further indicated that Murray hid the shot horse and continued to flee on foot. Visibility of the murder scene and the surrounding area was poor because of the night darkness and the tall grass growing on the nearby farms.

These conditions allowed Murray to get off his horse and he hid in the tall grass of a farmhouse pasture near the crime scene without being seen. Murray was later presented to San Diego authorities on July 8 1889 after he agreed to surrender[7]. After the preliminary examination, “Judge Hayes reread the charges and held Murray to answer to the Superior Court without bond[8].”

The San Diego Union Tribune[9], in a revisit of the 1889 story, reported that upon arrest, the accused claimed that he thought he was going to be robbed and therefore decided to act earlier than his supposedly robber by shooting him.

The accused in his defense claimed that he was not aware of the identity of the person he had shot. The accused claimed that it was only by hearsay that he understood the gravity of the criminal case against him. Murray also claimed that he was acting under the influence of alcohol and therefore was not in total control of his actions.

He claimed that the alcohol he had consumed moments before the time of crime had impaired his rational thinking capacity. Murray also added that Marshal Wilson’s failure to identify himself concurred with his vindication that he was dealing with robbers. In clarifying his surrender to authorities after fleeing, Griffen the owner of the farm in which Murray surrendered said that the thought of life loss to an angry mob and the fatigue of the fugitive were the driving factors that made Murray surrender[10].

Important Factors in the Case The fact that a senior police officer was the victim certainly compelled the case to be a high profile one and received in-depth newspaper coverage. Murray was considered a black sheep of a high profiled family from Texas that enjoyed relatively good social status. According to newspaper reports[11] of the murder incident, the defendant was an alcoholic and generally a delinquent. The coroner’s inquest that indicated Murray had previously been charged with a crime of disturbing peace substantiated the delinquent fact[12].

Other than the newspapers account of Murray’s family origin from Texas, its relatively well to do social status, nothing else confirmed his social class. One newspaper, the San Diego Tribune of 6 July 1889, casted a motif for Murray’s crime by reporting that:

This man Murray threatened the life of Wilson last year at the same time and, has openly declared that he would kill him, He is reported to kill two if not three men in Texas. He is a single man[13].

Not sure if you can write a paper on California Historical Murder Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was expected that a strong defense would be set up for Murray since he hailed from a rich background. Nevertheless, this did not prevent Murray from being found guilty of murder of Marshal Wilson. It is in fact reported that Murray had pleaded guilty of the charge before Judge Hayes, even before the trial began[14].

The newspapers reported the trial correctly as it proceeded however; they were accused of giving the jury a false interpretation of the case before the trial. Newspapers concentrated on pointing out the importance of the victim in the society and contributed to depict the defendant as unmerciful.

Newspapers used the case to discourage rascality in the area; however their intention had a negative effect on the case that prevented the award of a fair trial to Murray. Although judges were informed by the jurors, on cross-examination, that they had indeed read the newspapers accounts of the murder, the court still ruled in the positive on the case of the People versus John Murray and Murray got a death sentence.

It is clear that the newspapers account of the case greatly influenced the jury’s verdict. The defense account points out the underhand that the newspapers might have played in denying the defendant a fair trial. The newspapers in this case may have influenced the jury to have a biased opinion against the defendant. All the same, Murray was confirmed guilty of murdering C. C. Wilson in cold blood.

Personal Analysis of the Case The facts ruminating from the case and its coverage by local newspapers in the San Diego area brings out a mistrial of John Murray. While it is clear that the accused committed the crime of killing Marshal Wilson, the manner in which the trial was conducted is suspect and leaves a neutral observer with doubts of the verdict by the judge and the jury.

The coverage of the trial does not indicate whether the accused received proper legal advice prior to the trial. However, the fact that he had a qualified attorney representing him in the trial shows that he was advised fairly of the case against him.

Facts presented in the case point out the defendant’s actual killing of Wilson on the account given by the victim’s brother who was a firsthand witness of the murder as well as Dr. Hubbard’s confirmation after medical examination of the body of the deceased.

The second witness, Jose Antonio Chavis[15], confirmed that the two Marshals approached them and also confirmed shooting and an order to stop from the marshal. Murray was guilty of murder based on the account of the presented witness. His defense statement of acting in self-defense did not hold, given that he knew the victim and had actually threatened to kill him a year earlier. The following report sums up the defenselessness of Murray.

Murray, looking through the bar seems to fully realize his position and it will not evidently take a very long incarceration to break him down. He pretends to think that he shot a man named McCray, and that he was so drunk at the time that he did not know what he was doing[16].

This comes out because of the victim’s failure to crush the defendant’s assumption that the victim and his brother were robbers. However, the defendant did not go free of guilt. Murray’s failure to confirm actually the victim’s identity and his claim of influence of alcohol did not cover him from the vindication of the murder crime. Even if the newspapers covered the murder in a lengthy manner, this did not seem to influence the jury since it was candidly identified that Murray murdered C. Wilson willfully and “without provocation[17].”

Criminal Justice in Nineteenth-Century California The whole account of the Murray trial case brings out key components that shaped up the criminal justice environment of the nineteenth century California. First, it is observable that jury neutrality was questionably influenced by newspaper coverage of murder cases. The case of the People vs. Murray is a display of prevalence of homicides in the nineteenth century California.

Guns were common among civilians and alcohol was also commonplace. This exacerbated the incidences of homicides. Civilians who felt offended by law keepers appear to have been taking revenge missions against their offenders as characterized by Murray’s premeditated killing of C. C. Wilson. The fact that residents of Oceanside were almost unanimously involved in searching for Murray is an indication that there was community participation.

It is not however clear whether they were acting in pursuit of the reward that had been promised for anyone who would assist in Murray’s arrest or it was a genuine act of community participation[18]. All in all, the element of mob justice existed as evidenced by plans (made by parties) to lynch Murray[19]. It is evident from the coverage of the trial that gun possession by citizens in the nineteenth century California was a common feature.

Footnotes The San Diego Union Tribune, C. C. Wilson, Marshal at Oceanside foully murdered, Murray the Assassin Escapes, July 6, 1889.


The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889. The Coroner’s inquest on the body of the marshal actually confirmed that the marshal died from a gun shot wound from John Murray. This was also reported in the San Diego Union Tribune of July 6, 1989.

The San Diego Union Tribune. Murray in Jail: Hunger and thirst cause him to surrender. July 10, 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune, C. C. Wilson, Marshal at Oceanside foully Murdered, Murray the Assassin Escapes, July 6, 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889. It is important to note that Dr. Hubbard was not cross-examined during the preliminary examination.

The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889. The San Diego Tribune substantiated that in actual sense; Murray surrendered willingly but of course after being informed by Griffen the farm owner that there were few chances of him escaping as everyone was after him. The arrest was made by Griffen’s son, John and Alfred Paden.

Ibid. Preliminary examination was conducted in the Police Judge’s Court before T. J. Haye’s in City of San Diego on July 11, 1889 involving the people vs. John Murray. The defendant’s counsel had two members while the prosecution had one member of counsel. From the Coroner’s Inquiry, Chavis was accompanying Murray when the murder occurred.

The San Diego Union Tribune, C. C. Wilson, Marshal at Oceanside foully murdered, Murray the assassin escapes, 4 July 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune, C. C. Wilson, Marshal at Oceanside foully Murdered, Murray the Assassin Escapes, July 6, 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune, C. C. Wilson, Marshal at Oceanside foully Murdered, Murray the Assassin Escapes, 4 July 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune. Murray in Jail: Hunger and thirst cause him to surrender. July 10, 1889. It is reported that when the charge of murder was read to Murray, he pleaded guilty but he was asked by the judge to reserve his plea for the trial.

The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889.

The San Diego Union Tribune. Murray in Jail: Hunger and thirst cause him to surrender. July 10, 1889.

Whitson, W. W. Inquisition by Coroner’s Jury. In the matter of the inquisition upon the body of C.C. Wilson on July 4, 1889. Coroner Eadon conducted the inquest on July 5th, 1889 at Oceanside. State of California, County of San Diego. The Coroner’s inquest was made of 6 jurors, namely: W.W. Rainey, A. Walker, R. Augustine, J. M. Patterson, H. M. Bush and E. Perry. The entire jury concluded that C.C. Wilson died as a result of “a pistol shot wound, the pistol being in the hands of John Murray, and we find that it was willful murder, and without provocation.”

The San Diego Union Tribune. The murder case: Preliminary examination of John Murray. July 11, 1889. There was a reward of $500 set by the Board of Supervisors f Diego County and this was later raised to $1,200. This could have acted as a motivation to the people to capture Murray. The San Diego Union Tribune of July 6, 1989 however points out that C. Wilson was a not only popular among the Oceanside citizens but also loved. This made the citizens also to offer a reward to anyone who would capture Murray.

The San Diego Union Tribune. Murray in Jail: Hunger and thirst cause him to surrender. July 10, 1889. As soon as news arrived at the Oceanside that Murray was held at Griffen’s home, Thomas Weller organized a party and travelled nine miles to Griffen’s resident ready to lynch Murray.


Concussions and Physical Activity Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History of Concussions

Causes of concussion

Diagnosis and treatment of concussion

Physical aspects of concussion

Psychological aspects of concussion



Works Cited

Introduction Concussion is a form of a traumatic brain injury that is considered to be of a mild form. Traumatic brain injuries are forms of sudden injuries on the head that penetrates and cause damage to the brain. This paper seeks to discuss concussions and physical activities. The paper will look into the origin of concussions, their symptoms and treatment, physical aspects as well as its psychological aspects.

History of Concussions Concussion is an element of traumatic brain injury and has been in existence for a long time. Reference to traumatic brain injury is made to periods of as early as the nineteenth century. Brain injuries have been identified and medical measures developed to help people who incur such injuries.

Knowledge about traumatic brain injury has been in development since the nineteenth century when there were increased cases of injuries that were associated with the brain. Measures such as pathophysiology have been developed and were being offered to those who suffered from such injuries. Developments of antiseptics that penetrated into the brain were the only available remedy for such injuries (David et al. 1).

Causes of concussion Injuries caused to the brain occur following a violent impact that “causes the brain to collide with the inside of the skull” (Traumatic 1) which results in disruptions in the operations of the brain (Traumatic 1). Major identified causes of concussion include accidents, falls and sports activities that involve violent physical impacts among players such as football, rugby among others (Traumatic 1).

Another cause of traumatic brain injury is the motor vehicle accidents. Motor vehicle accidents result in sudden motions and impacts that can cause brain injuries. During an accident, a person’s head can be “stricken, suddenly jerked, or penetrated by a foreign object” (Brain 1). If such effects pass to the brain, then a traumatic brain injury may occur. The injury may be mild or severe depending on the degree of fatality of the accident. Mild injuries may be temporary with inflicted short time unconsciousness while a severe traumatic brain injury causes prolonged and more extreme effects to the injured person.

Motor vehicle accidents cause a significantly large percent of total traumatic brain injuries recorded. A research conducted by Atlanta Nation Center for injury prevention and control conducted in the year 2006 indicated that at least twenty percent of the recorded traumatic brain injuries were due to motor vehicle accidents. In the research, over a million cases of traumatic injuries were realized to have been reported in America out of which almost three hundred thousand were caused by motor vehicle accidents.

Brain injuries encountered in these accidents constituted the most severe category of traumatic brain injuries. This can be attributed to the fact that most of these accidents lead to high level impacts that exert a lot of physical pressure on the skull and thus the brain (Brain 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effect of the motor vehicle accidents that leads to traumatic brain injuries results from biological properties of the brain that demands coordination among its cells. One of the essential elements of this coordination is the nerve system. In an event of an accident, this system may be strained due to pressure from sudden movement of the head or even collision of the head with objects in the vehicle or outside the vehicle in the process of the accident.

The brain then loses coordination resulting in the injury. Another significant cause of traumatic brain injuries is falls. Though its effects are occasionally less severe, falls cause more cases of traumatic brain injuries as compared to motor vehicle accidents. While motor vehicle accidents cause about twenty percent of brain injuries in America, falls cause close to thirty percent.

Falls can occur when a person slips or flips from a high level off the ground. It can also occur as a result of a violent encounter between people in a fight or in social activities such as games. Falls account for a higher percentage of the injuries because they can occur even in domestic environments in the form of minor accidents. The extent of a brain injury as a result of a fall also varies depending on the nature of the falls. Injuries due to falls are, however, considered to be milder than those due to motor vehicle accidents (Brain 1).

Diagnosis and treatment of concussion Diagnosis of concussion and traumatic brain injuries at large is accounted for if its symptoms are significantly realized in a patient. Some of the symptoms of brain injuries are similar to those of other complications and thus care should be taken before diagnosis to avoid confusing brain damage with other medical complications. One of the key characteristics of traumatic brain injury is “confusion and disorientation” of the victim (CDC 8). Unconsciousness that lasts for a long period of time is a feature that is associated with concussions.

The interference of the nerve systems in the brain causes lapses that send the victim into long durations of unconsciousness that can last to about half an hour. Higher susceptibility to coma is also an indicator that can lead to concussion being considered. Though all states of coma are not indicators of the brain damage, higher scales, normally rated at thirteen and above, have been associated with traumatic brain injury.

Experiences such as “amnesia and neurological problems” (CDC 8) also points to possibility of brain injury (CDC 8). Other symptoms such as “headaches, dizziness, insomnia, fatigue, nausea, blurred vision, seizures” (CDC 8) together with changes in a person’s behavior such as “irritability, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance” (CDC 8) among other characteristic symptoms are indicators of the presence of concussion (CDC 8).

Care should however be taken before conclusive diagnosis into traumatic brain injury is pronounced because most of these symptoms are, independently or in some cases jointly, experienced in other complications (CDC 8).

We will write a custom Essay on Concussions and Physical Activity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Developments have not yet been made into a specific treatment of concussions. Damages caused by head injury to people vary to a great extent and a range of care is therefore necessary for the victims subject to specific brain damages. With no availability of treatment, victims are left to the possibility of recovery if their injuries do not cause death. Mild injuries are recognized to respond to recovery care and this has led to a large percentage of victims regaining their complete health after suffering mild concussions.

It has been established that more than half of victims of mild to moderate concussions recover under counseling on how to deal with the injuries. Medical services are however available for controlling and treating other aspects of external injuries suffered in order to minimize brain injuries. Measures of preventing further damage to the brain such as treating the injured part of the head are normally undertaken to control the extent of brain injury (National Institute 1).

Medical care that is available to victims of concussions is therefore control measure to help in reducing the degree of damage as well as associated impacts of the injury (National Institute 1). Preventive measures are therefore the only sure alternative for controlling traumatic brain injury.

Taking precautions to avoid or reduce accidents as well as their impacts is an effective measure in controlling concussions (CDC 1). In an event of a mild case of concussion leading to “bad headache, a feeling of being confused (dazed), or unconsciousness” (New York Times 1), a patient is supposed to be examined by a medical practitioner who can then determine when the patient can return to sports or any other exposure to causes of concussion (New York Times 1).

Physical aspects of concussion Aspects of concussion can be discussed from two perspectives: its physical perspectives and its psychological perspectives. Physical aspects are those elements that are related to the body structure and not to the mental capacity. Concussion, in its occurrence exhibits a lot of features that are related to the physical properties of the body. The causes of concussion are, for example, entirely physical. It has been established that brain injuries are caused by a physical mechanism in which the brain encounters a bombardment with the skull.

That movement of the brain relative to the skull, which results into the collision, is a pure physical process. Contrary to biological locomotive processes like involuntary muscular movements such as that encountered in inhalation and exhalation, the brain and skull movement that leads to the injury is an externally instigated mechanism.

From the cause of the injury that could be collision between players in a game, falls or even involvement in an accident, the bombardment of the head with an object or a sudden movement of the head that leads to disturbance remains to be a physical process. The effect of these disturbances is equally transmitted into the brain in a physical manner. The cause of concussion is therefore an entirely physical process (Traumatic 1).

Concussion is also characterized by quiet a number of physical impacts on its victims. A person who suffers from concussion is, for example, identifiable with a problem of slow response during conversations as well as comprehension and response to directives given to the victim. This is a change that is realized after someone has suffered from a concussion. The change in response is normally significant and can be realized as the victim of concussion will take a longer time than previously or normally taken.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concussions and Physical Activity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same lapse in response to directives will be realized in these victims as they tend to take a longer time to coordinate messages being passed to them before they can respond. A footballer or any other player who plays after suffering from concussion, and prior to recovery, might for example delay in response, fail to take a timely play thereby giving opponents an attacking advantage (Medicine 1).

Poor concentration has also been an identifiable factor in victims of concussion. A person who suffers from the mild brain injury shows some tendencies of being diverted from subject objectives at particular times. Cases of a person failing to identify an occurrence like speech directed to him or her have been common with victims of concussion.

Characteristics of absent mindedness and application of a lot of strain as the victim tries to engage in interactions are reported. These effects caused by inefficient coordination of activities of the brain are as a result of the damage that the brain suffers during the impacts that leads to the concussion.

A victim of concussion may also experience a change in his or her speech which may be significantly different from how the person communicated before suffering from brain injury. A characteristically slower speech is normally associated with concussion: “emotional liability and personality changes” (Medicine 1) are also some of the physical aspects that are associated with concussion (Medicine 1). Headaches and nausea have similarly been reported among victims of minor traumatic brain injuries (IOL 1).

The injury to the brain which has been medically identified to be functional rather than being on the brain structure is reported to have impacts on the head in the form of headaches. Feelings of discomfort in the stomach have also been reflected by people who suffer from brain injuries (Larkin 1).

Physical aspects of concussion are as well realized in its prevention measures. Being a physical process in terms of how it is acquired, measures of controlling or eliminating concussion primarily depends on physical strategies. Steps such as educating sportsmen and women on how best to avoid concussions are an important component of controlling the types of injuries such as those caused in sports. Sufficient care being taken can prevent, to a great extent, violent collisions in some sports.

This can specifically be helpful in sports such as football and hokey in which uttermost care can highly prevent injuries obtained through rough tackles from opponent players or instruments used in the games. Taking care, for instance, by avoiding collisions of heads or hitting of opponents’ heads can also help in controlling concussions. Provisions of protective devices to players while inside the pitch can also help in reducing effects of impacts during games (Hagemann 1).

When intensity of impacts of collisions is reduced, the effect that is transmitted into the head is also controlled hence reducing the chances of a player being injured in the head. Such protective devices also reduce the extent to which injuries can be suffered by a player.

Development of techniques used in sports can also play a significant role in controlling the number and frequency of brain injuries encountered in sports. Initiatives by coaches and trainers to impact players with newly developed techniques which are safe are another solution to the danger that has been facing participants in sports.

An initiative to reduce these injuries together with its supervision and management has equally been identified as a step towards prevention and reduction of the number of reported cases of concussion. Physical measures, if effectively put into consideration and subsequently implemented can play a very crucial role in controlling concussion as well as other traumatic brain injuries (Powel 1).

The process of treating or dealing with concussion has also been given a physical approach. Measures that include a complete rest of the victim by avoiding any source of a significant distraction or strain are recognized to help patients in the process of healing after suffering from a head injury.

Refraining victims from exposing themselves to activities that can cause head injuries is also another measure used to ensure an uninterrupted healing process. Legislations have even been considered to restrict sportsmen and women who suffer from traumatic brain injuries to only return to participation in sports subject to approval by a certified health practitioner. In general, concussion has a significant physical aspect in its cause, symptoms, prevention as well as its treatment (Sports 1).

Psychological aspects of concussion Psychology has been developed and integrated in sports to help in the development of player’s participation in any given professional sport. In Canada for example, the acculturation of psychology in sports has been recognized and even made to be part of “Kinesiology and physical education programs” (McGill 1).

Involvement of psychology in sports has been adopted to help players “understand psychological and social factors on an individual’s behavioral outcomes” (McGill 1) as well as to “understand how participation in sports and exercise influence psychological and social developments, health and well being” (McGill 1).

There should be an integration of psychology in sports (McGill 1). It has been established and agreed upon among psychologists that knowledge and skills that individuals poses play a significant role in how they respond to issues as well as how they succeed in handling issues.

Impacting players with information on how they can solve, handle or even cope up with straining issues that face them in their sporting careers will therefore play a crucial role in how they can deal with setbacks that include injuries such as traumatic brain injuries (Traumatic 1).

There being no established or specific cure for concussion, a victim relies on his or her ability to have patience with the recovery process as well as being psychologically prepared to deal with any impact that concussion may cause. A psychologically informed and prepared person will, for example, be calm and wait for a full recovery process before any exposure to a possible threat of an injury.

Psychological preparedness can also help an individual in copping up with disabilities that can be caused by concussion. Cases of psychological immaturity can lead to players loosing hope in life if they are barred from playing when they have undergone concussions. Psychology therefore plays an important role in the lives of players especially in the cases where the players are victims of concussions (Barker 1).

Once an athlete is injured and diagnosed with concussion, the first step is the elimination of the player from sports. Even though the withdrawal of a player from participation in sports is on medical grounds to offer the player time for recovery, the victims normally suffer from isolation from their respective teams (Sports 1). A person who is, for example, hospitalized or put under rehabilitation facilities will most likely be isolated from team mates and friends who would at the same time be engaged in their daily lives’ activities.

This isolation has an impact of psychologically which will likely have a torturing effect on the patient. Some of the symptoms of concussions are also regarded to be psychological. Reactions by a victim of concussion such as “anger, denial, depression, distress, shock and guilt” (Bloom et al. 1) are psychological. Concussion therefore induces psychological reactions to its victims just as it does in inducing physical reactions (Bloom et al. 1).

The effects of players’ psychological attitudes again play an important element in the overall health of a player who has suffered from concussion. A player who is only focused on returning to the field would for example lie that symptoms of concussion have disappeared when the player is actually not yet recovered. This mostly occurs if a player is not psychologically mature enough to accept the injury and take enough rest to recovery (Kontos et al. 225).

Recommendations Following the psychological aspects of concussion, a practitioner faced with a challenge of an athlete who wants to engage in a physical activity prior to recovery should refer the athlete for psychological counseling to help the athlete understand the situation and dangers involved.

Conclusion Concussion is a form of a minor traumatic brain injury. Its cause is basically physical though its symptoms and impacts together with its control exhibit both physical and psychological factors. It is advisable that concussions are avoided at all costs but in case they are incurred then it is very significant that enough rest is observed before one return to active sports.

Works Cited Barker, J. Mental matters almost as much as physical in elite sports. National Post, 2009. Web.

Bloom et al. Sport psychology and concussion. New impacts to explore, 2004. Web.

Brain. Motor vehicle induced brain injury. Brain Spinal Cord, 2011. Web.

CDC. Facts for physician about traumatic brain injury. Center for Disease Control. Web.

David et al. The history and evolution of traumatic brain injury, rehabilitation in military service members and veterans. The History of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2010. Web.

Hagemann, G. Rugby, concussions and myths. Lifestyles, 2011. Web.

Kontos et al. An introduction to sports concussion for the sport psychology consultant. News Letter, 2004. Web.

Larkin, S. Crow Steve not quitting. Craig, 2011. Web.

McGill, J. What is sport and exercise psychology? Sports Psych. Web.

Medicine. Brain concussion. Medicine Net, 2010. Web.

National Institute. Traumatic brain injury. Disorders, 2011. Web.

New York Times. Concussion. New York Times, 2011. Web.

Powel, J. Cerebral concussion. NCBI, 2010. Web.

Sports. Connecticut teen suffers post-concussion syndrome for 2 years. Sports Concussions, 2010. Web.

Traumatic. Concussion. Injury Concussion. Web.


International Business Strategy Case Essay essay help online free

Introduction The Australian’s fair work act, 2009 began operating on July 2009. It provides a fair framework for any workplace relations that promote national economic prosperity and social Inclusion for all Australians. In addition, it provides fair workplace laws that are flexible and favorable for the country’s economic growth, productivity, and for business operations.

This act ensures that net pay and wages are up to the national employment standards for the sake of employees. It also enhances flexibility, thus assisting employees to balance their work and family responsibility. According to the Australia’s Employment Act (2009), an employer should never contradict the national employment standards.

The main issue that concerns the Fair Work Act, 2009 is that, it provides fair wages and conducive employment conditions, termination of employment, dispute resolution, enterprise bargaining, and industrial action. The act also requires an employer to abide by the terms and conditions of employment.

For instance, an employer cannot force a fulltime employee to work for more than 38 hours in a week unless there is a reasonable reason for the extra hours. Therefore, an employee is obliged to refuse to work for extra unreasonable hours by exercising his/ her rights (National employment standards 2009).

“With the introduction of the Fair Work Act (2009) the pendulum of workplace regulation in Australia has swung back towards the centre. Discuss with reference to the implications for bargaining over terms and conditions of employment.”

According to Holley et al (2008 pp 243), collective bargaining is an activity that involves the union representatives and the employer and management officials, in an attempt to solve conflicting issues that affect employees, thus sustaining and boosting the work relationship. When collective bargaining is successful, it boosts relationship between the employers and employees, thus both parties begin to trust each other through transparency and honesty; indeed, the possibility of damage is reduced.

According to Caisey (2007, pp 36), there are four types of collective agreements; a single –employer collective agreement, single union collective agreement, a multi-employer agreement and a multi- union and multi-employer collective agreement.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Collective bargaining includes discussing pressing issues such as Bargaining assistance to the low paid employees – it may involve issues such as employees designated to childcare, security, and community services;

Abolishment of tough rules of industrial action where it may harm the country’s economy or even interfering with the economy of an organization. Industrial action may also be disregarded if it risks the welfare of the citizens.

Right to entry, which union members are required to adhere to and members cannot disclose any information discussed.

Protection from unfair dismissal of employees, which is an important issue that fights for the employees rights, hence dismissals are only accepted if there is a genuine reason, such as redundancy.

Balances between work and family is encouraged in the Fair Act such that working hours should be flexible enough to allow employees to attain time to attend to family responsibilities.

The right to be presented in the work place, which involves a decision by an employee to be involved in a union or not; employees can also decide on whether to engage in bargaining agreement or choose not to.

Collective bargaining acts as a regulator in which employers and employees can freely express their views concerning the nature of work at hand and come to an agreement (Fair work Australia 2009).

Negotiations are involved in the good faith bargaining, whereby an employer agrees to bargain with the employees on pressing work issues; this is the notification time. However, according to the Act, the employer should notify the employees of the right of representation in 14 days after the notification time. Good Faith bargaining involves the bargaining representatives, who must meet a number of requirements.

First, they should always attend meetings at the right time; they should not disclose any confidential information at all; and they should be in a position to respond to the proposals that are made by other bargaining representatives. In addition, the representatives should refrain from any behavior that undermines the collective bargaining principles. Finally, they should all come to an agreement on issues concerned.

Therefore, the Fair Act (2009) has provided a fair ground for both employers and employees to negotiate in terms of the nature of work. This meets with the objectives of the Act, which focuses on fairness in the place of work. The freedom of unions that represent employees is encouraged in this Act; therefore, employees are able to air their grievances, making the place of work a conducive environment.

In Chapter 2 of the Fair Work Act ( Collective Bargaining, 2009), there are two types of terms and conditions of employment that include the national employment standards (NES) – a modern award national minimum wage order, and an equal remuneration order. Therefore, for a modern award to be applicable to an employer or an employee, the award must cover the employee or the employer. It has to be also operational and it cannot be applicable when one has a high source of income.

A court order can also lead to a modern award being applicable to an individual. A modern award must include the national employment standards in that it is not an exemption. Its terms must supplement the national employment standards and should operate according to the NES terms and conditions.

For instance, the modern award agreement on annual leave of employees is 6 weeks with full pay. Thus, applying the NES, which states that the minimum number of leave is 4 weeks, most organizations in Australia have put this strategy of leave with full pay in practice. An enterprise agreement applies to an employee in relation to a specific employment; however, an agreement may cease to apply to an employee if the period of agreement expires.

We will write a custom Essay on International Business Strategy Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More National employment standards are those standards that are as a requirement in the workplace and involve both the employer and the employee (An Act relating to workplace relations and for the related purposes, 2009, pp 78). The minimum working standards include maximum weekly hours, flexible working arrangements, parental, long service, careers, and annual leaves.

Notice of termination and redundancy pay are also inclusive. According to the act, the maximum working hours for any full time employee is 38 hours in a week; but the employee has the right to refuse to work for any unreasonable additional hours. However, there is a determination on how reasonable or unreasonable the additional hours could be.

First, they should not be a risk to employee’s health after working. According to Burke and Cooper (2008, pp 119), the intense of work that could lead to extra working hours and employee extra effort could result to health deterioration, thus interfering with the employee’s wellbeing.

In addition, they should not compromise employee’s family responsibilities like parental responsibilities. The additional hours should rhyme with the needs of the employee’s organization. Moreover, an employee should be entitled to an overtime payment for the additional hours worked.

A notice should however be given earlier by the employer to request for the additional hours, while the employee should also give an earlier notice, if he intends to refuse the work. The additional hours should rhyme with the employee work pattern, and they should be influenced by the nature of employee’s role in the organization. Finally, the addition hours should be in accordance with an agreement between the employer and the employee (An Act relating to workplace relations and for the related purposes, 2009, pp 79).

This Act gives the right to an employee to request for flexible working hours. This can be applicable to an employee who have a parental responsibility for a child in school or who is under the age of 18 years and for the case of a disabled child.

However, an employee can only ask for flexible working arrangement if he or she has worked for a minimum of 1 year in that organization; the request has to be in writing for formality purposes. The employer has to respond to the request in 21 days either granting the request or disregarding it. In case of the latter, the employer must give a reason for his decision, incase he denies the employee his request.

For parental leaves, an employee is not entitled to this type of leave if he has not worked for at least a year in the organization. There are two types of parental leaves – birth-related leave, which includes unpaid maternity leave and unpaid parental leave for casual workers. The second is the adoption related leave, which includes unpaid parental leave, which is preparation for the adoption of a child, and pre-paid adoption leave; the adopted child must however be under the age of 18 years old for permission to be granted.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Business Strategy Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, birth-related leaves start from 6 weeks before the due date of birth. However, a 10-week earlier notice should be given to the employer before the leave commences, as evidence on the actual date of birth is required by the employer. In addition, incase an employee wants to extend his leave, he should write to the employer 4 weeks before the end of his or her leave.

This gives time for the employer to respond to the request within 21 days. However, no extension of leave can be granted beyond 24 months in cases of birth and placement leaves (An Act relating to workplace relations and for the related purposes, 2009, pp 94)

The Fair Work Act guarantees an employee the right of transfer to safer job in cases of pregnancy, and if she has served the organization for at least a year, evidence that supports the transfer must be produced. This enables an employee to choose the type of work that does not cause any negative effects on his/her health.

The comfort of every worker at their place of work is a concern to the government. In this case, the annual leave is compulsory to every working organization, and is associated with full pay. However, public holidays are not inclusive to an employee’s annual leave pay.

Identify rights and obligations, understanding the development of various rights and obligations, understanding the interplay between various spheres of regulations.

According to Department of foreign affairs


Depression: Law Enforcement Officers and Stress Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Depression is a psychological disorder that results from traumatic experiences that people encounter in life. National Institute of Mental Health explains that, “when a person has a depressive disorder, it interferes with daily life, normal functioning, and causes pain for both the person with the disorder and those who care about him or her” (2010, p.1).

Depression interferes with the normal life of a person as it results into lose of interest in activities, pessimism, fatigue, insomnia, irritability, persistent aches and feelings of hopelessness amongst other symptoms. Although there are many attributes of depression, traumatic experiences are the major causes of the depression in most people.

For instance, law enforcement officers experience traumatic incidences in the course of their duties such as frequent shootings, deaths, intimidation from the media and public, risking their lives, dangerous working environment and humiliating domestic violence amongst many other stressors. Since traumatic experiences relate with depression, does the trauma that law enforcement officers endure over the years make them susceptible to depression?

The traumatic experiences that the police officers encounter and endure during the course of their duties make them susceptible to depression. Depression is a psychological disorder that occurs mainly due to the traumatic experiences of life. Law enforcement community frequently encounters traumatic experiences that have contributed to high incidences of depression among the police officers signifying that trauma is the cause of depression.

Prevalence study carried out in Taiwan showed that about 21% of the law enforcement officers experience trauma. The study further revealed that the prevalence rates of depression are higher in men as compared with women because men have more responsibilities in terms of marriage and policing duties. However, the trauma and stressors that are inherent in the police profession contribute significantly to the police officers’ depression.

Leeds argue that, “police officers experience frequent and ongoing stressors in their work that range from cumulative stress – constant risk on the job, conflicting regulations, and public perceptions that may be inaccurate – to critical incidents: violent crimes, shootings and mass disasters” (2009, p. 4). All these stressors and traumatic experiences are potential causes of depression that have made police officers become susceptible to depressive trauma.

The police profession is emotionally stressing and physically dangerous thus eliciting depressive feelings that expose police officers to depression. Anderson argues that, “police have been tuned to dissociate from their emotions or suppress their emotions in order to be able to endure the scene, but chronic, long-term and cumulative stress takes its toll on police officers resulting into trauma syndrome” (1998, p.12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The police officers endure traumatic experiences up to a point in life where they trigger overwhelming depressive feelings that cause depression. Although the police officers may tolerate many traumatic incidences such as witnessing the death of fellow police officer or ordeal of criminals, after a certain period such memories resurface to elicit depressive moods. This trend illustrates that traumatic experiences associated with policing cumulatively increase susceptibility of the police officers to depression.

Retirement studies of the police officers have shown that many of them suffer from depression caused by the traumatic memories related to the cumulative experiences, which occur throughout the police life.

Violanti argues that, “law enforcement officers experience varying forms of job-incurred trauma throughout their careers; residual effects can eventually create trauma during retirement as officers may develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder from carrying accumulated emotional baggage into their retirement years” (1997, p. 5).

Since traumatic experiences of policing have psychological residual effects that lead to depression, researchers recommend police officers to undergo psychological counseling and training before and after retiring in order to alleviate depressive trauma.

The objective of the research proposal is to establish whether the traumatic experiences that law enforcement officers encounter and endure over course of their profession make them susceptible to depression.

To establish the relationship between depression and traumatic experiences of the law enforcement officers, the study will focus on three groups of police officers; trainees, serving and retired as independent variables and examines psychological variables such as frustration, deprivation, and depression as dependent variables. The hypothesis of the study is; traumatic experiences that police officers encounter during the course of their profession are responsible for high prevalence rates of depression.

Proposed Methodology The design of the methodology provides three groups of participants; trainee, serving, and retired police officers as independent variables. The objective of using three groups of participants is to find out the relationship between professional experience and the level of depression in police officers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Depression: Law Enforcement Officers and Stress specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Kohli and Bajpai, the level of depression among police officers is proportional to their professional experiences (2006, p.8). Therefore, to prove the effect of professional experience on depression levels, it is imperative to measure psychological variables of depression, frustration and deprivation in trainee, serving and retired police officers.

The study requires random selection of 150 participants from a population of law enforcement officers in certain district or town. Since there are three groups, trainee, serving and retired police officers, each group should have 50 participants. The trainee police officers will serve as a control group in determining the nature and extent of depression among serving and retired police officers.

The selection of serving officers should be on the ones that have a minimum experience of 10 years in their profession while the retired police officers should be the ones who have not exceeded five years after retiring. In order to measure psychological variables, depression scale, frustration scale, and deprivation scale are essential in determining the levels of depression, frustration and deprivation respectively.

To collect relevant data in terms of questionnaires, researchers should ethically consider that participants need informed consent concerning the study and assurance that information obtained from them is confidential. Prior to the collection of data, the participants need to be in sober mood to enable them give the required information in the questionnaires.

References Anderson, B. (1998). Trauma Response Profile. American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, 8, 1-15.

Kohli, K.,


Book Review of Good to Great by James Collins Report essay help free

Business Concepts The book gives advice to companies that want to be great but are average. There are several concepts that James highlights that great companies should adhere to. He therefore advices companies that desire greatness to practice certain concepts (Collins, 2001, p4). The book discusses seven business concepts in the book and in detail. The first is “Good is the enemy of great” where the company examines itself. It should move beyond doing the right thing and stop focusing on that only.

The company should ask themselves if what they are doing is simply done because it is the industrial norms. Concentrating on the good only causes a company not to achieve the great things. The second highlighted concept is “Level 5 leadership” talking of company management. In the companies that moved from being good to great, the author noticed something interesting. They had a different kind of leader who was humble, seeking excellence and practising professionalism.

He was a leader who surprisingly took the blame when things went wrong. However when things went extremely well, he would ensure others got the full credit. The third business concept the author highlights is “First Who…then what” which is necessary. The companies that desire greatness should be concerned about the quality of their staff. This aspect is more critical than the management setting their goals and strategies.

He actually refutes the claim that the people are not the company’s great asset (Wilson, 2007). The right kinds of people, according to him are the company’s asset. The author uses the bus, to bring out this argument very clearly. The right people should board the bus and the wrong people should exit. Secondly the right people have to be seated at the right place.

The company should be concerned about who they are paying the salary to. It should not be burdened with how they are paying the salaries. Furthermore, the character of the employee is more important than their qualifications. The company should concentrate on such values as integrity, work ethic and commitment. It should not concentrate at all times on the credentials and qualifications alone.

The company should endeavour to “Confront the Brutal Facts” at all times. The company should have an environment where the truth is always heard. There should be dialogue and discussions in the company among the staff and employees. Secondly, the company should know its core competency and strengths and maximise on them. The company should work towards being the best in these specific areas.

The staff in the company should have a “Culture of Discipline” consistently. The author states that the company should manage the systems in the organisations. Most companies have the tendency or practice of managing the people instead. The people should exhibit strict discipline so that they are not micro-managed. With disciplined people, excessive controls or bureaucracy will be unnecessary in the organisation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another concept is on “Technology as an accelerator” where the company embraces technological innovations (Chinnoch, n,d). He put forward that technology was not an agent but an accelerator for change. Finally he highlighted the concept of “The flywheel” that concerns change in momentum. He advised people on the importance of building momentum and things will happen. It is by hard work and diligence daily, not a dramatic or revolutionary change.

Conclusion The concepts in the book are able to be applied in an individual’s life. A person should refuse to just perform well in his tasks or life goals. An individual in an organisation should strive to have the level 5 leadership skills. One should cultivate professionalism and humility and seek excellence in his work. A person should look at the quality of friends and colleagues he has.

Secondly does a person himself exhibit strength of character at the work place? A person should also seek to know the truth on their core strengths. Furthermore one should learn the importance of discipline in their personal and professional life. One has to strict with his actions in order to achieve his goals. An individual may not attain a goal quickly but with small steps he can.

References Chinnock, R. (n,d) Book Review: Good to Great by Jim Collins. Optimum Technologies. Web.

Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap…And Others don’t. England: Harper Business Publishers.

Wilson, R. (2007) Good to Great Summary by Jim Collins. Retrieved from:


Definition of Unemployment and Its Types Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The high level of employment in any nation promotes the sound of the economy. When youths and women are in full employment, the country social, political, and economic aspects are in a better position. Through a high level of employment, the government gets wide ways of obtaining taxes, as the product output is increased.

Through an increment of government revenue and increased output in productivity, there is growth in the economy and poverty reduction (Boyes and Melvin 312). In a country where the level of economy growth is high, there are more and more opportunities.

High levels of employment make the economy stable and help in recovering damaged parts. Even if the terms of employment are short or long they tend to boost the economy a great deal. Other benefits related to the employments are high levels of entrepreneurship due to the increased participation of young and energetic people in the labor market. Economists say that well paying jobs improves the overall incomes and social money spending of poor people, and assists a great deal in financing social activities.

Unemployment is an economic condition that occurs when an individual or a group of people seek jobs to no success. In every country, the level of unemployment depends on some factors such as the status of the economy, market and commerce forces.

There are five main types of unemployment (Baumol and Blinder 630). To begin with, there is frictional unemployment that is a temporary status of the job seekers. This condition occurs when a person takes a break from his or her current job and start looking for another opportunity somewhere.

This period when one shifts from one point of work to the other is the one that creates frictional unemployment. In most of the developed countries that have advancement in various ways, there is a high probability of one securing another job after leaving one. The major challenge is in the developing and in the underdeveloped countries where if one quits from one job, getting another one is a problem.

The issue of frictional unemployment can have a solution through employment insurance programs. This program offers support and temporary sources of income to the people who in several occasions become unemployed. In most cases, people do not quit from their jobs voluntarily but because of some circumstances like nursing a sickness, giving birth, or other critical issues in the family.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through this insurance program, the unemployed people are still made to earn some income to continue supporting their families, and meeting their needs (Tucker 380). During this period, the unemployed people face their challenges with more confidence. The government should concentrate on empowering these insurance programs such that they are in a position to meet even large group of the frictional unemployment cases.

The employees who mostly benefit from this program are those who quit their jobs due to good reason like shortage of work, or sudden break of the job management. The government should also come up with a policy of encouraging the idea of permanent jobs to avoid such breaks. If one is in a permanent job, and well paid, it would be hard for one to quit from such a job. Taxation should be favorable to some salaries, as the net salary is so small unable to sustain ones life.

With reasonable tax on salaries, employees will have a good amount of salary to manage their lives without any need of quitting. The major limitation of the insurance programs policy is that the employees have to make regular contributions of some amount to the program. However, there is no guarantee of receiving this compensation after quitting a job. Compensation depends on the reason of quitting.

The second type of unemployment is structural unemployment that happens due to major changes in the economy. The major reason behind this type of unemployment is when the job in question requires more skilled workers than the current ones.

In addition, this form of unemployment may occur because of the difficulties of moving to a new working location, or challenges of learning new skills to meet the needs of the available jobs. Sometimes, the economy may advance greatly making use of new machines and technologies replacing some employees.

Structural unemployment in most cases occurs due to creation of new job opportunities to meet the labor demands in the market. This type of unemployment is very common as far as the economy of the country is flexible whereby when there are some firms going down, there are others that are in need of other skills and expands at the same time (Gwartney, Stroup and Sobel 516).

The rate at which the technological advancement of the nation is developing and globalization, the need for a more advanced labor is required. The nation cannot avoid be prohibited from advancing in technology or in its economy but there can be a solution for this type of unemployment.

We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Unemployment and Its Types specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact is that every nation is subject to some ways of advancement, and because of this advancement, a continuous mismatch of labor and the skills required is inevitable. As far as the government acts fairly to all sectors in the economy, there is need for special attention to service based sectors, such that it will be possible for them to accommodate as many employees as possible. Policies to increase job opportunities in service sectors can help many people to secure jobs in these sectors.

The rest of people, who may not fit in service industries, will then find some places in the industrial sectors. Some policies of regular training of employees in industrial sectors are also very important (Tucker 89). These sectors should emphasis on conducting regular trainings to keep their employees updated and matching with the current changes.

Before an industry purchase a modern machine that may require new skills, there is need to equip the current employees with the necessary skills as long as they are ready to learn. Most of these employees will be ready to learn to secure their jobs. It can be much disappointing if an industry can lay off more than 85% of its employees because they lack the necessary skills.

The only group that may deserve dismissal is of those who may find it hard to learn those new skills due to their education levels. If such policies may put into action, a country can only be experiencing very few cases of structural unemployment. If government supports service sectors fully and other business departments there will be more job opportunities for the citizens to choose where they fit best (Campbell and Craig 203).

Advancement of the country’s economy and its technological levels should be an opportunity for job creation but not a way of dismissing workers. Advancement is worth celebration but not an issue causing such disappointments of joblessness. Government may be much willing to support service industries, but there is need to distribute resources uniformly hence putting a limitation to that policy. If it supports one industry more than the rest, it may seem like discrimination.

Another type of unemployment is classical also called real wage and occurs as result of trade unions and other labor organizations actions. Severally, trade unions fight for the rights of the employees especially if the salary they are getting is not worth their responsibilities at their working places. When they realize that a certain company is underpaying the employees or the working conditions are not favorable for them, it is their duties and responsibility to fight for the rights of those employees.

To some extent, they calls for a bigger salary increment that the company may not afford to pay, and in return, the company decides to reduce labor and pay the few that it can afford. Although there is right for the trade unions to fight for the rights of the employees, the type and the status of the company should also be a factor to consider before taking actions. It is better to receive little salary than to survive without any money to support personal and family needs.

The government may try as much as possible to curb this type of unemployment through some policies like a minimum amount of wages than any company should not go below, and the minimum salary for the employees. Those terms can only be ignored incase there is a special arrangement between the employer and the employee. Sometimes it can be challenging to the government to take hard measures on some companies, as they also have their own rights in operations (Baumol and Blinder 420).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Definition of Unemployment and Its Types by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The trade unions should be taking some time to talk with the employees first before they take any action of salary negotiations. The employee should be ready to take the risks of the negotiation outcome if it will be necessary for that salary complaint. As much as the government tries to put some limitations on the wages that the company should pay its employees, some companies object and decide to negotiate with its employees.

The other type of unemployment is seasonal that mostly occurs in industries that deals with seasonal customers or products. For instance, tourism industries work only during the periods when there are expecting tourists. When these jobs are out of season the employees stays unemployed (Tucker 113). The employer may engage these employees in other minor jobs, even if with relatively lower salaries during the off-season as they wait for the peak of the season.

On the other hand, the government may provide these employees with some reserve works in the public sectors to keep them going during the hard seasons. This can only be possible if the country’s economy is doing well and the government has enough money to take care of these situations. Although it may be hard to take care of every individual, but the majority should benefit and earn something during such seasons.

Those people, who suffer from seasonal unemployment, are at an advantage on the other hand. When their job is on season, they earn much money that may take them through the off peak seasons or invest in other fields to keep on earning.

During this period when they are not officially working, they can also look for other seasonal jobs before they resume to their normal fields. Even if the government can try to accommodate those people during the off-season periods into public sectors, it cannot afford to absorb all of them, hence putting a limitation to this policy.

Disguised unemployment is another type most common in the underdeveloped countries. The major problem in these countries that results to this type of unemployment is the slow growth of capital stock.

The rate of population growth is much higher than the capital stock growth, hence becoming very hard for the country to offer a reliable type of employment (Gwartney, Stroup and Sobel 121). A country with such a problem is realized through a high number of unemployed people in the urban areas especially cities. In such countries most of the young energetic people end up in agricultural activities where the name disguised unemployment comes from.

The people who finally end up in agriculture do not add any value as they do this work unwillingly, as they have little knowledge on how agricultural activities operate. The government can only solve this problem through establishing more sectors by adding spending to create job opportunities, although the overall Gross Domestic Product of the nation limits this policy sometimes.

The last type of unemployment is cyclical that occurs during recession. At times, the economy of a nation may be so down whereby the demand of the goods and services is also down hence pulling down the need for labor in industries and other sectors.

During such a period, most company’s have no other option other than firing any surplus labor. It is a hard moment of every company as they wonder on what criteria they will suck the excess employees. Most of them make use of the education levels and the acquired skills of the employees as the best factor of elimination.

When the country’s economy is in recession, the government can only be the savior. The government may decide to lower both the tax and interests rates, which will in return boost the consumer spending as well as the demands of various goods and services. This act by the government will create more job opportunities that creation of cyclical unemployment. Prolonged reduction of the government revenue may limit this policy, as the government also requires money for its operations.

In conclusion, the government does not set any target in its operations for the unemployment cases. Its main objective for its citizens is to have enough jobs in the market offering opportunities to everyone who is in need of work. The government aims at equalizing the demand and the supply policies between its citizens and the industrial needs to make both benefits from one another (Gwartney, Stroup and Sobel 701).

To some extent there are inevitable limits that the government cannot exceed as far as controlling unemployment cases is concerned. In several cases, the policies that are looked upon to improve the levels of employment in a nation may be very expensive and on the other hand, they have an opportunity cost for them to be successful.

Works Cited Baumol, William and Alan Blinder. Economics: principles and policy. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008.

Boyes, William and Michael Melvin. Economics. New York: Cengage Learning, 2006.

Campbell, David and Tom Craig. Organisations and the business environment. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005.

Gwartney, James, et al. Economics: private and public choice. New York : Cengage Learning, 2008.

Tucker, Irvin. Macroeconomics for Today. New York : Cengage Learning, 2008.


Company Study: Hewlett-Packard Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Hewlett-Packard Company is a US- based company formed to endow with hi-tech solutions, software’s and services. Along side the technological products are the printing and imaging devices, the IT interactions solutions in line with the maintenance and support services.

Due to the rising demand on the company’s clienteles, ranging from small individuals to large enterprises, to the industrial segment encompassing the public and educational sectors, the company has come up with new services including the outsourcing and consulting services just naming a few of them as noted by HP (1989).

According to Packard, 2006 the central focus of the paper is to critically examine whether or not HP is a learning organization. This is done by following the theory of Senge with regards top learning organization. On the same note the barriers that hinder organization to be a learning one id also of interest.

Additionally the advantages associated with a learning organization arte also brought forth and this is what guides the conclusion to make. Finally the paper seeks to recommend a number of things that the company needs to do to in guiding it towards being a learning organization.

History of the organization Hewlett Packard Company was formed in 1939 by two electrical engineering graduates from Sanford University. Hewlett Packard is the second names of Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard the founders of the company. The Company was established at a garage belonging to Packard as the name was arrived at after a coin tossing between the two co founders of the corporation of which Packard won but they decided to name their electronics company Hewlett Packard Company.

The company was an idea after a fellowship in Stanford alongside Pastor Fredrick Terman who they consider their mentor (Crawford, 2004). The Hewlett-Packard Company was incorporated in 1947 but the shares were offered to the public in 1957 (Easterby-Smith et al. 1999).

With the initial capital of US $ 538 they were able to produce their first ever financial successive product, precision audio oscillator HP200A product to the market which gained fiscal uplift unlike the other previous products. In this model they incorporated a small light tuber as a temperature resistor on the circuit.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This project produced a number of the series to the market spanning a record breaking 33 years as the longest-selling basic electronic design of all time. The introduction of HP200AB, an improvement of the model HP200A shoved it from the market. The Walt Disney Company was the earliest customers of the Hewlett-Packard Company as they acquired eight units of the HP200B oscillators’ model for attesting the sound systems in the theatres for the Fantasound for the movie Fantasia as noted by (McHugh et al. 1998)



Toyota Ethics Case Study best college essay help

Identification of ethics and social responsibility issues facing the company Toyota Motor Corporation is an international automobile and financial company, respected for its quality and reliable products; to remain competitive; the company’s management makes timely decisions. In all operations, the company aims to be ethical; it also extends a hand of appreciation to the public through corporate social responsibilities (CSRs). When determining the operation base and the CSRs to undertake, the company considers different issues likely to influence the direction of the projects or decisions.

There has been come ethical issues faced by the company, for example in early 2010, Toyota Company was faced by a problem when some fault vehicles got their way to the market and lead to deaths particularly in the United States of America. The company was considered not to be taking good care of its customers and the public.

The brands of vehicle could accelerate themselves to an uncontrollable level they even led to death. The move or the experience that the company got at the time forced the management to appraise in person on the case and recalled all faulty automobiles.

The case of Toyota was broadcasted in international and national media a point that made the sales of the company reduce ((Habisch, Jonker and Martina 1-123).

Toyota being in the automobile industry has been blamed for environmental damage; the damage has been attributed to the company’s products, vehicles, which use fossil fuels to run.

When fossil fuels are burnt, they produce green house gasses that have been a major talk in environmental debates, for the reason the company has been considered unethical. However, despite the moves and criticism gotten from environmental conservatisms, the company has continued to improve its products and has innovated battery vehicles (electronic vehicles).

Identification of key stakeholders and explanation of their involvement and influence There are a number of stakeholders in Toyota as far as ethics and corporate social responsibilities plans are concerned. The stakeholders are both internal and external players; internally Toyota is divided into departments performing different tasks. Internal team is expected to be creative, inventive and innovative to come up with approaches to ethical and CRS programs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has embarked on enforcement of its operating strategies: the company operates under five principals, they are Kaizen (continuo’s improvement), teamwork, Challenges, Respect and Genchi Genbutsu (go and see): to be ethical, the company aims at fulfilling the above objectives.

Another set of the company’s stakeholders that affect the ethical code of business in the company is the external environment like customers and the society; there is a level of quality that customers expect from the company, the level forces the company to adopt high ethical operations. The company takes social corporate responsibilities as advertising and marketing tools, they offer the company a competitive advantage as communities value the efforts made by the company.

The government and community-based organizations are other stakeholders; the main areas that these organizations get involved is in offering a minimal base and rate of operation that the company should uphold, for instance the environment movements require some level of emission from the company’s products and operations.

When the company is compiling with such regulations, then it has to conduct its businesses ethically. International bodies and regulations are other stakeholders which the company has as stakeholders, there are a number of international conventions, protocols , and agreements that define the way business should be conducted, they include Kyoto protocol, Stockholm agreements, Doha round of talks, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, European Commission, and The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

However, these organizations are more concerned on pollution matters and environmental protection. The company is listed in Asian stock exchange whereby the public can buy shares in the company. The employees have a policy that ensures that they also have shares in the company, all this are stakeholders.

The government and the public also would like to get ethically correct products from whichever the company and thus are included in the context of stakeholders. Shareholders are recognized by paying them dividends and the government by taxes. The public benefit from social corporate responsibilities programs (Habisch, Jonker and Martina 1-123)

Identification of company’s stance Although Toyota has been concerned on ethical and CSR issues, it waited until 2005 when the company developed a CSR policy, in the policy the company’s stance which is “CSR POLICY: Contribution towards Sustainable Development.” The policy team section has been upgraded to full departmental level managed by team of experts; the sector looks into economic, social, political and environmental issues in the company. The department has been successful in innovating environmental technologies in both products and processes.

We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Ethics Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stance is seen as a combination of pragmatic, ethical, or strategic stance; the broad approach of the stance offers flexibility in country. The success of the structure can be seen in different areas which include development of products that are internationally accepted and automating its process to meet international standards. The stance is not limited to guidance in CSR and ethical issues but takes massive research to advice the company on consumers expectations. The following are the policies that are contained in the stance:

Contribution towards a prospectus 21st century society

Pursuit of environmental technologies

Voluntary actions and

Working in corporation with society

The above action policies are implemented using the framework of:

Action plan

Toyota Green purchasing Guidelines

Biodiversity guidelines

Initiative at the new Toyota R


North West Airline Case Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Analysis North West Airline is just one of the major domestic airlines in the country. The company has the objective of being the most preferred airline by the air travelers. The airline also needs to be able to reach various destinations in the country. It has had the challenges of reaching various smaller cities that do not have jet services available to them.

The airline has also been having challenges with the formation of alliances especially with the commuter airlines. The Northwest airline has been encountering problems particularly concerning the inadequate capital available for the purchase of smaller airlines or the provision of services to its relevant destinations (Smith 77).

The cost of labor is also relatively higher when compared to that of smaller careers hence making it difficult for this operations take place. The Northwest airline has made alliances with Airlink which encompasses smaller airlines. Airlink relationships are based on negotiable contracts and performance and whenever the performance is bellow the expectations, the airline has always sought other alternatives from other service providers in the same market which are not always the most viable alternatives.

Unfortunately, there seems to be no connection between the Northwest airline and the Airlink flights. Interline transfers where passengers and baggage are transferred from one airline to the next have been noted to be time consuming. Different carriers may have gates that are remotely separate hence increasing the time for the interline transfers.

The Northwest airline has always been promising its customers convenience in terms of online connections although this has never been fully attained as passengers and their baggage often fail to make interline transfer connections. Some of the airline partners of the Northwest airline provide substandard airport services.

There exist some inconsistencies between the Northwest airlines and its partners especially concerning the information provided to the partners as well as the procedures that are involved in service delivery. The cooperation as well as the coordination in the online transfer between different carriers has had problems with the timeframe.

A number of factors have contributed to this. There is for instance a very big difference between the ground crews and the parties that are involved. The Northwest airline is unionized with rules and regulations concerning the activities to be undertaken by the various workers. On the contrary, the commuter airline workers are characterized by inexperience, they are none unionized and their payment is much lower in comparison to their counterparts in the Northwest airlines (Smith 200).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There seems to be much difficulty in the cooperation between the various management groups. Finger pointing and dominance have been common in most of the cases. The Northwest airlines have often cast any blame about underperformance on their partners given that they have no chance to defend themselves and even if they had, they lacked the incentives to do the same.

There seem to be no clear communication channels set to address the issues concerning the management for the various companies that are involved at the airport level. The other airlines that are involved do not have the resources as well as expertise like the Northwest airlines and this makes it difficult for them to undertake problem solving activities and ensuring improvement in their performances.

The Airlink careers have encountered dysfunctional consequences especially when it comes to performance goals. If the compensation is for instance on departure basis, the carriers might make every effort to ensure that planes leaves on that particular time without waiting for the passengers and baggage that are connecting (Smith 300).

There is need to integrate the activities of the Northwest airline and the Airlink so as to ensure uniformity among the two airlines. The Northwest airline is characterized by quality services, experienced and well paid workers as compared to the Airlink workers.

The fact that a plane is scheduled to depart at a particular time makes the connection of different carriers difficult as the arrival time of one is not always the departure time of the other. Efforts need to be directed towards ensuring the harmonization of the same. The communication channels need to be made clear at the airport level.

Recommendations There are various recommendations to for the problems and challenges that are faced by the Northwest airline. The airline for instance needs to increase the services to the cities that are not served by jet services as this would increase their customer base and would ensure that they have an added advantage over their competitors.

The process of feeding the passenger traffic to the lager partners would greatly improve in such cases. The Northwest airlines should solicit for more capital and ensure that the purchase of smaller airlines is made easier or improve its service delivery to the relevant locations.

We will write a custom Essay on North West Airline Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The airline need to teem up with those companies that have highly qualified staff and those that provide quality services that are of the required standard. The Northwest airline needs to integrate the activities and services of the Airlink into its own operations so as to reduce the costs that are charged during the inline transfers and this would be appealing and hence attract the customers.

The time for the interline transfer needs to be significantly reduced. The airline needs to ensure that the gates for the different carriers are not very much separated so as to ensure that the time taken while transferring flights is less.

The airline needs to enhance the convenience of its services to the customers by ensuring that the passengers are able to connect between flights easily (Smith 100).

The problems associate with the Airlink partners need to be eliminated. The airport services like the issuance of tickets, the check-in of luggage, boarding of the aircraft, as well as the flight information needs to be of high standards. Their should be no inconveniences between the Northwest airlines and its partners especially regarding the information issued to the customers as well as the procedures that are involved.

Cooperation and coordination needs to be enhanced within the respective carriers so as to ensure easy operation and for little time to be taken between the interline transfers. Coordination and corporation would ensure that standard services are delivered and information would be shared across the various carriers hence ensuring that there is standardization of services across the various airlines. The differences that exist between the ground crews and the parties involved need to be eliminated.

The Unionization of workers should not only to be associated with the Northwest airlines but the other airlines as well. The operation between these two needs to be linked and the experience of the workers as well as their pay standardized across the airlines. This would ensure that the services are of the same qualities across the airlines.

The employment process needs to be accompanied by a comprehensive vetting process which would ensure that only the qualified employees are employed. This would in the long run ensure that the services offered across the various airlines are of high quality and the taskforce is satisfied with the pay and the allowances.

This would motivate them to work more hence ensuring greater productivity. The standardization of the services would ensure that finger pointing and dominance is avoided as it has been the case whereby the Northwest airline shifts all the blame on the Airlink knowing that they are incapable of defending themselves and even if they had they would lack the incentives for the same.

Not sure if you can write a paper on North West Airline Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The communication channels need to be made clear at the airport level so as to enable the tackling of managerial issues that exist between the companies at that level. Airlink lines need to be provided with the needed resources and the appropriate expertise so as to enable them to tackle the problems that they encounter as well as improving their performance as it is in the case of Northwest airline.

It is also appropriate for them to ensure that the Airlink goals that are set do not have detrimental consequences to the airlines. The planes need to wait for those passengers and baggage that are transferred across the lines rather than going exactly by the set time and hence inconveniencing the connecting passengers some of whom may opt not to use their services again (Smith 133).


Online learning and classroom learning Essay cheap essay help

The ever changing technological advancement is catching up with all the traditional systems that used to define the parameters with which we conducted our activities. Technology has infiltrated into our education systems, creating an avenue where education is carried out courtesy of technology.

Online learning, also called virtual learning or e-learning has opened up a wide platform and raised the bar in the different educational curricular there are. E-learning can therefore be defined as “a platform through individuals are dynamically linked to a given network or system and are able to swap or exchange information that relates to a given discipline“(Yen, 2005).

Traditionally, the classroom was a composition of a room with a tutor or instructor with students as the participants. This system facilitated face to face communication, enabling the class to hold many interactive forums in the course of their study. Combining the two concepts then, we can define e-learning “as a learning environment that exists solely in the form of digital content that is stored, accessed and exchanged through networked computer and information systems” (Yen, 2005)

The comparisons, therefore among the two platforms vary, but there are similarities to the two also. The difference among the two is basically one, that in an actual classroom, everything that is in that setting is tangible and both the learner and tutor have to physically change locations in order that they attend classes.

A virtual class on the other hand occurs through a purely intangible media that is the internet. The students just get connected to an internet source anywhere around the globe and log onto their respective online portal. That is how my online college experience compares to that of a student attending real classes at Harvard University.

Online learning can in many ways be used as a platform towards the advancement of personal profiles via their programmes. The advantages of online education vary, meaning there are many ways through which it can propel one to the crème of higher education. There are five features to online education, these are; convenience, they enable one to learn at his own pace at a time when a person feels he’s ready to get into the virtual class.

This has helped even the fulltime employees in the different sectors get certified in their various fields of interests. There is control; a student is able to dictate his pace of studying hence he acts as his own manager. This allows the student to determine the most appropriate time for the learning process, and allow for emergencies that may arise in the duration that he is studying for the given paper.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They facilitate connection, in that the interactive forums available on the platforms provide an opportunity for the students from different parts of the world to share the ideas on the topics under study. Cost; they are cheaper compared to the real classroom, and facilitate faster completion of the courses at cheaper rates. These courses nurture a student’s commitment to the given units that one has to cover as only the resilient finish up these courses. Generally, the online courses enhance personal growth and commitment.

E-leaning has many constraints ranging from environmental, cultural to other minor internal and external factors. Environmental factors range from a set of the soft ware’s that make it possible to conduct the study. Appropriate software which provides the best learning environment is therefore required to acquire optimum services (White, 2007). Cultural factors encompass an individual’s personal belief and his perceptions about this mode of study.

References White, S. (2007). Critical success factors for e-learning and institutional change: some

organizational perspectives on campus-wide e-learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 5(38). 12-14.

Yen, M. (2005). E-learning systems and parameters. Journal of academy of Business and Economics, 2 (12). 54-57.


Juvenile Justice Case Management Essay college essay help near me

Introduction When people who have not attained the age of majority commit crimes, they have to face the criminal justice system for justice to prevail. However, their treatment is somewhat different with that of adult offenders considering the age factor and the fact that some of them may not have the mental capability to perceive the gravity of their actions.

Over the years, there has been a pressing need for justice systems in various jurisdictions to come up with various techniques of case management as a way of offering assistance to the people who have been convicted for various crimes in jails.

While people convicted of various crimes are seen as a threat to society and thus the need to seclude them, it is important to remember that there are various issues especially health matters that affect those incarcerated. It is this reason that has necessitated the need of adoption of methods to deal with some of the problems that such people face. The focus of this discussion is the case management approach that is applied in juvenile justice.

Purpose and Goal of Juvenile Justice Case Management

When juveniles are incarcerated or put behind bars for having committed crimes, this whole experience affects them mentally especially due to their tender age. The same also affects adult offenders. The purpose and goal of case management for both juveniles and adult offenders is to ensure that the experience they go through due to incarceration does not later lead to recidivism, mental disorders, or developmental problems (Robert, 2004, p. 76).

Various programs have therefore been developed by the justice systems in various jurisdictions with the help of social workers and medical practitioners which focus on the holistic aspect of an individual. Being able to take a juvenile detainee through the criminal justice system while applying these technique and ensures that they go back to the society unscathed is the challenge and thus responsibility of case management officials.

Case Management Models

There are two main models of case management. One of the models is strength based and focuses on the strengths and capabilities of a detained juvenile. This model puts much emphasis on those talents which the client has identified on his own and they are nurtured through the service and treatment plan adopted for him.

Under this model the manager in charge of implementing the treatment plan on the client is expected to have great regard for the juvenile and that such a person has an inward ability to discover on their own the capabilities and talents that they may have (Grisso, 2005, p.98).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The assertive model on the other hand is more forced on the client where services are delivered aggressively to the client. In this model, the managers in charge will have to go out of their way and seek out the clients so as to link them with offices that provide the treatment services that such a client may require.

Necessary Elements for Effective Implementation of the Practice

Traditionally, a case manager was viewed as a service broker whose main function was to search and broker for services much needed by his client. However, over time, there have been proposals to change this perception and come up with key elements that would ensure effective implementation of this practice. The include intake which involves creating a good relationship between the manager and the client and helping the client respond positively to the treatment plan.

Assessment is another key element which involves a general evaluation of how well the client is responding to the treatment plan. Classification is yet another important element which involves classifying offenders depending on the crimes committed so as to correctly establish which treatment plan best suits each juvenile offender (Ghezi


Australian and Hong Kong monetary policy Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction According to Edirisuriya (2010, 5), monetary policy is the regulation of the monetary supply and interest rates by a central bank so as to counter inflation and make the local currency more stable. Monetary policy refers to the actions and policies initiated by a country, through its central bank or through other government regulatory authorities to control the supply and flow of money in the economy. Monetary policies impact the economy in terms of short term interest rates, inflation rates and liquidity in the domestic country.

As per the theoretical model of money supply and inflation, increases in money supply in an economy will lead to inflationary pressures. An expansionary monetary policy is meant to help grow a country’s economy. Expansionary policies increase money supply in the economy through government investment programs, which usually leads to inflationary pressures.

Monetary policies are not always enough in the maintenance of stable inflation levels because the inflation rates may also be influenced by changes to the global economy. For instance the oil crisis in 1970 and the recent financial crisis and global recession in 2008 influenced almost all economies in the world (Kidwell, Brimble, Beal and Willis 2007, 56).

Australia and the Hong Kong monetary policy Australian monetary policy

In Australia, the Reserve Bank of Australia is in charge of inventing and putting into practice the monetary policy. Monetary policy resolutions engage setting the interest rates on overnight advances in the money market. Other interest rates in the economy are influenced by these interest rates to varying levels, so that the actions of those borrowing and lending in the financial markets is influenced by monetary policy, although maybe by other factors.

The objectives of the monetary policy are to attain the “goals set forth in the Reserve Bank Act 1959, which are; stabilise the Australian currency; maintain full employment in the country; and ensure economic development and welfare of the Australian people” (Hunt and Terry 2008, 19).

The primary medium-term goal of the Australian monetary policy is to counter inflation, so an inflation mark is therefore the focus of the monetary policy approach. “The Governor and the Treasurer have concurred that the appropriate target for monetary policy is to attain an inflation rate of 2 to 3%, on average, over the cycle” (Hunt and Terry 2008, 24).

This is a rate of inflation adequately low that it doesn’t significantly deform economic decisions in the society in quest to attain this rate, on average, gives discipline for monetary policy decision making, and acts as a pivot for private sector inflation anticipations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the past decade, the monetary-policy structure in Australia has changed significantly. Currently, Australia uses an inflation-targeting approach to monetary policy. The inflation target is explained as a medium term average instead of a rate, which should be held at any given time. This formulation gives room for any expected in eventualities, which are entailed in predicting, and snarls in the impacts of the monetary policy on the economy.

Occurrence in Australia and all over the world has proven that inflation is hard to fine tune given a tapered band. The inflation target is also, essentially, positive and optimistic. This framework allows responsibility for monetary policy in countering the variations in output over the ongoing of the business cycle. When collective demand in the economy is low, monetary policy can be eased that will provide a short term stimulus to economic action (Canova and Pappa 2007, 727; Lewis and Wallace 1997, 39).

The principal responsibility of the Australian monetary policy is the open markets operation. This involves controlling the amount of money in distribution in the economy through the trade of the different financial instruments, for example government bonds, company bonds, treasury paper and forex exchange. This trade leads to more or less base currency inflowing or out flowing in the market. However, normally the short-term objective of open markets operation is to attain a certain short-term interest rate standard level.

In other cases, monetary policies might rather involve the aiming of a particular currency exchange rate comparative to some overseas currencies or else comparative to valuable metals. Whenever a fiscal deficit is high, the government demand for debt funding will decrease the amounts of money available in the economy as capital investment in the private sector and hence limiting economic development (Edirisuriya 2010, 56).

In Australia, “the central bank adjusts the official cash rate so as to assist keep inflation within sustainable levels. The International Monetary Fund argues that in order to allow more policy “room” at the time of crises, an economy needs to set a higher inflation target” (Reserve Bank of Australia 2011).

The Reserve Bank of Australia applies an inflationary range of 2 to 3 percent as its reference when coming up with monetary policy resolutions. Thus, the Reserve Bank uses interest rates so as to calm an overheating economy (by increasing the cash rate) or to pace up a snarling economy (by reducing the cash rates).

Flow of the cash rate is fast fed through to other capital markets interest rates, for example money market rates and bond yields. These interest rates are also affected by the risk forbearance of depositors and shareholders and utility for holding their funds in a form that they are easily exchangeable.

We will write a custom Essay on Australian and Hong Kong monetary policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The cash rate and other capital markets interest rates then passed through to the whole framework of depositing and loaning rates. In Australia, most deposits and loans are at variable or short term fixed rates, therefore there is a high pass through of variances in the cash rate to depositing and lending rates” (CPDS, 2011).

Nevertheless, because of the other aspects affecting capital markets rates, and variations in the degree of competition in the banking sector, deposits and lending rates do not always change directly with the cash rate. Nevertheless, Australia’s monetary policy is one of the most liberal approaches worldwide today, with many other nations struggling with an inflationary range of between 1 and 2 percent (Valentine, Ford, Edwards, Sundmacher and Copp 2006, 124).

The strength of the Australian monetary policy can be better seen in the way Australia rode out the 2007-2008 global financial crisis. It was far much better than most other countries.

At the time of the financial crisis, Australia could not escape the wrath of the economic crisis because; at the time, Australia was ongoing into an acute shortage of capital that made it be at risk – particularly if property values went down; safeguard against a financial crisis would be ineffective due to lack of serious international attempts to solve ongoing worldwide macro-economic issues; in addition, there were practical limitations on essentially mounting foreseen protection.

However in 2009, the federal government responded to the risk and pumped in a $42 billion package to increase spending and payment to individuals to increase demand. This in a way adequately addressed the symptoms of the failure of the GFC (that is, the distortion of the economy).

Monetary policy in Hong Kong

The government of Hong Kong is directly responsible for formulating monetary and fiscal policies according to Article 110 of the Basic Law (Osborne 2007). Therefore, there isn’t any external control from either Main Land China or PBoC thus leaving the Hong Kong Government fully autonomous on its monetary policies. Hong Kong monetary policy mandate is to maintain currency and economic stability in the region.

Due to the fact that Hong Kong’s economy is externally oriented, the HKMA is obligated to have a stable exchange rate against foreign exchange markets. “The currency board arrangements, requires the Hong Kong dollar monetary base to be at least 100 per cent backed by, and changes in it to be 100 per cent matched by corresponding changes in US dollar reserves held in the Exchange Fund at the fixed exchange rate of HK$7.80 to US$1” (HKMA, 2011).

The stability of the Hong Kong Dollar is maintained through a system known as the “interest rate adjustment Mechanism”. The monetary policy is therefore formulated and implemented by the Hong Kong’s central bank. It stabilizes the economy by further adjusting the interests’ rates and money supply just like it did during the 2008 recession especially, given the fact that price stability for vital items such as oil is the main target of the central bank when adjusting interest rates and money supply (HKMA, 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Australian and Hong Kong monetary policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the introduction of the fixed exchange rate, note issuing financial institutions has been required have certificates of indebtedness which are issued by the Hongs Kong’s Exchange Fund which acts as a backup for the bank note issuance which are usually made against the US dollar.

“The expansion or contraction in the monetary base leads interest rates for the domestic currency to fall or rise, respectively, creating the monetary conditions that automatically counteract the original capital movements, ensuring stability of the exchange rate” (HongKong2004, 2011).

Hong Kong Monetary policy dictates that there be a fixed exchange rate against the dollar, though a lot of debates have emerged over this issue, Hong Kong has continued to prosper economically due to this policy. The economic prosperity is due to the transparent and dependable monetary discipline that is associated with the currency exchange rate.

In addition, this exchange rate has also influenced the interest rates especially in the just past recession. The Hong Kong’s policy of a fixed exchange rate made it avert serious economical crises in Hong Kong which would have resulted in further economy depreciations and damage to the region’s economy (Mishkin and Eakins 2006, 56).

However in 2008, Hong Kong slid in the global recession thereby joining other global economies that were experiencing the same issue. Due to the recession, its GDP fell by 0.4 percent thereby derailing the economy of the region.

In order to control recession and have a stable economy, the Hong Kong monetary policy is keen on having a transparent policy that will ensure that the financial sector and the public in general is quite aware of the functions of the currency board that is charged with implementing the Hong Kong’s monetary policy.

In order to achieve this, the board the board publishes its currency accounts on a monthly basis. Furthermore, the Hong Kong Government fully supports the continuous interrelation of the linked exchange rate system that is the keystone to Hong Kong’s Monetary and fiscal stability.

Comparison and contrast between the two monetary policies

Both Australia and Hong Kong use open market operations to impose control over monetary supply. Open market operation involves the buying and selling of government treasury bonds and papers. Primarily, the short term objectives for open market operation are specified by the currency board system. These objectives are often to attain a specific level of currency reserves or a given interest rate (Anonymous 2011).

Unlike Australia, Hong Kong uses a pegged exchange rate system that adjusts the exchange rate of Hong Kong Dollar; this means that the Hong Kong Monetary Authority does not dictate the monetary supply.

Because under the currency board system, monetary supply is determined by market forces of demand and supply, the market demand exclusively depends on the flow of capital, that is, the inflow or outflow of capital would direct to an adjustments in the interest rates rather than the exchange rate. For instance, when there is an inflow of capital into the financial system, the currency foot would rise.

However, the issue reverses when there is an outflow of capital. According to the pegged exchange rate system, the currency board cannot determine the interest rates independently or alter the exchange rates; hence it does not have the privilege to formulate monetary policies.

Indeed, the current financial system ensures the authority does not print as many bank notes as it would like, hence lowering the likelihood of inflation. Currently, Australia has a flexible exchange rate system against all currencies making it one of the most liberal currency markets in the world (HK gov. 2011).

In Australia, the Governor and Treasurer are responsible for formulating the monetary policy objectives and monetary system, while in Hong Kong the HKMA has to attain the monetary policy goals on its own, this could include finding out related approaches, instruments and ways of implementation, to make sure the stability and reliability of the financial system of Hong Kong.

References Anonymous, 30th April 2011. “Monetary Policy Week In Review – 30 April 2011.” Daily Markets, p. 9.

Canova, F. and Pappa, E., 2007. “Price Differentials in Monetary Unions: The Role of Fiscal Shocks.” The Economic Journal, 117, 713-737.

CPDS, 2011. “Defending Australia from the financial crisis.” CPDS. Web.

Edirisuriya, P., 2010. Money and capital markets. New York: McGraw-Hill.

HK gov. 2011. “Monetary policy.” HK gov. Web.

HKMA, 2011. “Monetary policy.” Hong Kong Monetary Authority. Web.

HongKong2004, 2011. “Monetary Policy.” Hong Kong 2004. Web.

Hunt, B. and Terry, C., 2008. Financial institutions and markets (5th ed. Melbourne: Thomson.

Kidwell, D. S, Brimble, M., Beal D. and Willis, D., 2007. Financial markets, institutions and money. Sydney: John Wiley


Digitization and Convergence of Music Industry Essay online essay help

Traditional record industry business model Sacha Wunsch-Vincent and Graham Vickery note that the relationship between the artist and the record company is usually contractual which normally last for a limited period of time or number of records depending on the specification of the contract.1 Record companies converts the artistic creation into consumer products alongside investing in artists to expand and market their works.2

A record industry can be said to be doing extremely good if one in ten of the total artist investment in turn out profitable. Noteworthy, most artist often never sell enough to recover the incurred overall cost. Record companies sponsor novice artists from profits, catalogues sales and new releases. Artist must achieve a specified number of copies sold to break even.

The customary recording industry revenue is collected from recordings while the turnover from T-shirt sales, concerts and so forth, normally grow to the artist. Once a music piece has become popular, the music industry package industry in diverse bundles to sell the same consumer the same piece multiple times.1

In times of increasing revenue from sponsorship, merchandised, live touring and declining sales of CDs the industry has experience a shrinking share in the general

1Sacha Wunsch-Vincent and Graham Vickery, ‘Digital Broadband Content: Music’,

Working Party on the Information Economy: Directorate for science, technology and industry committee for information, computer and communications policy, 2004, p. 39.

2Barney Wragg, Vice President, eLabs, Universal Music International (UMI) and Ms. Sara John, Government Affairs Head, EMI Music during the OECD Digital Broadband Content Panel (OECD, 2004b).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More music revenue. With regard to declining CD sale, the negative outcome of the changing record label approach on the artist’s returns had to be revisited in terms of digital music sales also which may shift artists’ returns. 1

Digital rights management (DRM) Effective DRM technologies have been embraced as the business enablers has for the digital delivery of music as well as for the numerous business models that meet the consumers expectations. In spite of their drawbacks, they may be a significant technical device for protecting the IPRs and have potential of becoming persistent across the overall digital distribution chain.

Through their capacity to secure content, they may motivate the content rightholders to avail content for digitization and ensuing digital sales. By virtue of their ability to offer diverse access schemes to content the, DRMs may afford content aids that are conform to consumer needs including the right to buy time-limited admittance to songs and thereby increasing consumers choice and expectation. Many problems are associated with DRMs.

To begin with the key problems with DRM’s appear to have had difficulty in curbing unauthorized access. DRM programmes and technologies should be substantially robust to guarantee the protection of digital content to piracy. Means of harnessing technology to secure intellectual property have been developed and have taken effect.

3European Commission, ‘communication on The Management of Copyright and Related Rights in the Internal Market’.

To address this issue, various governments have pledge to develop a sufficient legal protection and useful legal solutions against the circumvention of technological security interventions such as DRMs. These lawful protections are prerequisite for DRMs to function as expected. 1

Second, the expanding adaption of DRM technologies has posed question that the latter may potentially restrict usage rights. Indeed this concern has become a policy basis presumably for consumer association and is apparent in relevant forums. Based on some academics, limits place to private copies can turn out bothersome when they swing the equilibrium between the expectations of copyright holders as well as the public.

We will write a custom Essay on Digitization and Convergence of Music Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More DRMs have seldom been known to block legitimate access of content and services, unlike the CD-Rom copy-protection technologies. Nevertheless, designers of DRM, users of DRM-protected product must be equally concerned to ensure suitable usage rights, and players in the market adapting DRM, transparency, privacy, and ease reliability of access.1

Bibliography European Commission, ‘communication on The Management of Copyright and Related Rights in the Internal Market’, 2004, pp. 11

Wragg B,


Smartphone as a Communication Sector Revolution Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Smartphone’s are the true face of the 21st century digital era. Since their manifestation in the domain of mass communication three years ago, they have revolutionized the communication sector.

They allow wireless access to internet, sending emails and retrieval of information on the web. Before showing the positive aspects of the Smartphone, it would be prudent to acknowledge that their impact on the society has not been flawless. They bring one segment of the society together but push away another segment. These ambivalent forces are referred to as centripetal and centrifugal correspondingly.

The Smartphone has done much to pull the world towards the core of digital database. Students and researchers find it a tool for browsing information. Its portability and wireless connectivity has made it peerless in internet access amongst researchers in remote fields.

Moreover, it has helped to break the geographical boundaries to connect continents and compress the world into a global village. Its technology has employed speed to defy distance by using instant messaging, live chats, and emails. Its use seems to compel the world towards shared values and information.

Smart phones also have large inbuilt memory for storage of data. The youth has exploited this utility to download music and movies from the world over and store it for their personal entertainment. Concurrently, these movies and music influence perceptions and opinions, shaping new cultures and ways of life. This sets the platform for a common way of life whereby young people may be worlds apart but are connected by their musical preferences entertainment and lifestyles.

Even though Smart phones have done their fair share to unite the world, it has also played a role in separating individuals. They have greatly reduced face-to-face interactions by creating illusions that people are in touch when actually individuals may be disjointed. Absence of non-verbal cues and physical intimacy has reduced their effectiveness as compared to face to face communications .They have also favored the electronically savvy at the expense of those with little penchant for technology hence creating a digital divide.

This has put a wall of partition between the two groups as far as information access is concerned leading to knowledge imbalance in the society. Moreover, the global culture enhanced by the Smart phones may not be in tandem with the individuals local culture thus may create tensions and separations. Those who have smart phones tend to isolate themselves and socialize less with neighbors preferring to chat with friends to the internet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The utilities of the smart phones have invaded the confines of privacy. Through the applications of GPRS, tracking of individuals can be done easily and their positions located with exactitude. Personal information can also be retrieved from remote locations making individuals and corporate vulnerable to external intrusions. For instance, some smart phones take screenshots for all recent activities including web pages, e-mails, and SMS then they send them to interested parties without the users consent or awareness.

Recently Smartphone manufacturer Apple was sued for letting Smartphone applications send private information to advertising networks without the users express consent. This just shows how the Smartphone has broken down the relation amid solitude and publicity.

Smart phones also have powerful cameras that can take clear photos and videos. These can be used to outwit security officers and take photos in places forbidden for public photography. The information can then be relayed to the public via the internet creating insecurity.


Economic of Immigration and Economics of Mexico Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Abstract Immigration refers to the movement of people from one area to another mainly in search of greener pastures such as employment and investment opportunities. America as is known is a country that is made up of different communities and cultures. More than 80 percent of America’s population comprises of immigrants from different parts of the world with a small portion of the population being representative of the indigenous communities.

Immigration to America is said to have had very serious consequences both positive and negative and especially on the economy of the country. This discussion will look at the various ways in which immigration has had an effect on the economy of America. Further, this discussion will also look at the economics of Mexico focusing on the growth of the Mexican economy.

Background Information Since time immemorial, immigration to America has remained a common phenomenon and with time, the number of immigrants keeps rising. Some of them have entered the soil of America legally while others are illegal immigrants but the bottom line is that the number keeps going up by the day.

The immigrants have affected the economy of America in both positive and negative ways. On one hand, the immigrants have provided the very much needed labor thereby helping the economy expand since the source of labor is not imported (Conrad 98). Secondly, the taxes they pay as well as the consumer goods they use help in generating income for the federal government and this has helped the country’s economy remain top and stable among competing world economies such as that of China, India, Brazil and the United Kingdom.

Impacts of Immigrants Positive Impacts

One of the issues that has been brought about in regards to the immigrants who come to America is the fact that compared to the citizens of this country; they tend to pay an amount less in terms of taxes to the federal government (Kposowa 98).

This has been said to affect the economy of the country negative considering that the immigrant population in America forms the greater percentage of the entire population. In addition, the average immigrant in America receives more in terms of social services than an American citizen. These are some of the issues of contention that many and especially American citizens have.

The beneficial impact of immigrants coming to America is the fact that they have provided labor especially in industries and construction sectors and this has seen the government reduce considerably the amount of money they would have spent on imported labor (Kposowa 98). As a result, companies have expanded and this has been a big plus for the economy of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Negative Impacts

One issue however that has been brought out by those who are opposed to have immigrants in America is that these people have literally taken over the position of the American citizens. It is argued that the jobs held by the immigrants rightly belong to the American citizens and therefore the immigrants have sort of hijacked all that which belongs to the citizens if America.

The opponents therefore argue that industries should give more in terms of payment to the American workers thereby eliminating the need to have people from foreign countries providing labor. However, this argument is not practical because if companies were to pay more than they are already paying to the America workers, most of the companies would not remain in business as the cost of operation would be way higher than the amounts of profits they would realize(Kposowa 98)..


Instead of speculating on whether immigrants are beneficial to the American economy or not, maybe it would be better to take another perspective to the whole issue and ask ourselves what is likely to happen of people no longer moved to America or the current bunch of immigrants in America were to leave the country.

If this were to happen, it is argued that this would be very disastrous to one of the giant economies of the world and the economy would not only be affected so drastically but also the ripple effects would be felt in many parts of the world.

This is because America would have to pay more for provision of labor and this would increase the cost of production thereby reducing the profits realized. We can therefore argue while immigration in America may have negative impacts on the economy, there are positive impacts as well and the economy may not thrive as well without the immigrants.

Economics of Mexico

According to the World Bank, the economy of Mexico is middle in terms of ranking meaning that it is not too neither too rich. However, the rates of poverty in this country are somewhat widely spread out with an estimated 44 percent of the populating living below the standard poverty line. The economy of this country was hardest hit in the year 2009 when it experienced its worst recession which could only be compared to the 1930 recession which had affected almost the entire world.

In the year 2009, the country was not able considerable exports to America who is the main consumer of Mexican products while revenues from oil equally declined. Tourism which is yet another major generation of income was slapped a major blow when there was an out break of H1N1 influenza leading to a travel ban to and from Mexico.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Economic of Immigration and Economics of Mexico specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trade Regime

The trade regime of Mexico is based on free trade between Canada, the United States of America, member states of European countries and many other countries bringing the total number of countries to 44. The Mexicans living in the diasporas and especially in the United States of America send remittances to their mother country and these remittances have contributed to the growth of the country’s economy. These remittances are said to contribute largely to source of foreign currency in Mexico coming a close second after oil.


In terms of trade, Mexico is ranked second in terms of export and third in terms of trading partner. The biggest exporter of products from Mexico is the United States of America with the exports ranging from electronics, spare parts of a motor vehicle and chemicals (Lustig 55).

In terms of agriculture, it is only a small portion of the land that is arable. However, even with the limited portion with which to carry out agriculture, Mexico still manages to produce sugarcane, avocadoes, tomatoes, corn and beans. Dairy products, beef, pork and poultry are also produced in Mexico though in very limited quantities. Due to globalization, Mexico is now gaining more in terms of agriculture more than they were in the past and this has continued to contribute in terms of economic growth.

Investment from Foreign Countries

Mexico has also created a conducive environment for foreign investors to invest in the country and this has been a major boost to the economy of this country. America just as she is the main exporter of Mexican products is also the biggest investor in this country. The recession which hit the American economy really hard in the year 2008 also had an effect on Mexican economy, as America could not invest as much as was the case in the previous years (Lustig 14).

Production of Gas and Oil

Mexico was ranked among the top producers of crude oil in the world. Due to high volumes that this country produces, more than a third of the revenues generated to the government comes from this sector. It is actually one of the pillars of the Mexican economy.

Conclusion The success or failure of the economy of any given country is highly dependent on many factors. Therefore, having a strong economy and being able to sustain the status quo is not always an easy assignment for any government. Looking at the manner in which both the initiated States of America as well as Mexico have managed to remain up despite turbulent times in the world goes a long way to show, there are multiple issues and factors that always come into play when it comes to matters economy.

One thing is for sure though that every country should to the best of their ability make maximum use of the available resources in the country as most of the resources form the backbone of growing and a successful economy.

Works Cited Conrad, Cecilia. African Americans in the U.S. Economy. London: Rowmann


The social and cultural impact of new media in the performing industry Essay a level english language essay help

According to Russo and Watkins, Digital Cultural Communication (DCC) is a novel field that aspires to create a link between the community and cultural institutions by using new media to generate audience-based cultural interactive experience (2005, p.2).

By placing the growth of cultural communities within the DCC framework, the institution takes on a more symbolic curatorial practice and gains via the formation of new community-based content that form new digital set.

The community gains through superior production and consumption (Russo


Impact of Unionization on Publix Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Employment is essentially a business transaction out of which all parties should come out fairly like in any other business transaction. It involves employees exchanging their skills, knowledge and experience for a wage with employers. Naturally, employers would like to pay as little as possible for work done while employees would like to get as much as possible for their work.

Since employers are few in number and more powerful than employees and can conspire to remunerate workers unfairly, there is need for employees to come together in form of labor or trade unions in order to enhance their bargaining power regarding fair remuneration, as well as, provision of good, safe and secure working conditions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how unionization has impacted retail food industry (Publix) and the role of labor unions in shaping retail food industry and current business conditions for Publix.

How unionization has impacted retail food industry (Publix) in US Labour unions popularly known as trade unions play significant roles in protecting unionized workers labor rights against abuse by employers in virtually all industries. Unionization has enabled retail food industry workers to enjoy various work related benefits. For instance, according to Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2002), unionized retail food industry workers earn higher wages in comparison to those not unionized.

Unionized workers also stand greater chances of enjoying health insurance cover through their employment, get relatively bigger health insurance premium subsidies and are more than two times likely to take part in an employer or union-sponsored pension plan than non-union counterparts (IWPR 2002).These benefits help in safeguarding the economic well being of retail food industry workers and their families.

In response to extra labor and operational costs brought about by unionization of workers, as well as, competition some players have opted to merge. Others have been driven out of the market while others have been replaced by nonunion chain drugstores selling food products, greengrocers and upscale specialty food stores (Ness, 2005). Other supermarket chains like Publix have lowered costs by establishing part-time jobs that give much lower wages and offer few if any benefits.

Some players employ new immigrants who work longer hours under poorer work conditions (Ness, 2005). In addition, supermarkets have been pushing for labor unions to assist in cutting down labor costs in their quest to expand their profit margins. In fact, entry of new immigrant jobseekers in to retail food industry is one factor that has been significant in reorganization of the conventional employer-employee relationships.

The role of labor unions in shaping retail food industry and current business conditions for Publix Despite the numerous labor challenges facing players in the retail food industry Publix is still ranked among the list of 100 Best companies to work for (griffinreport 2011). For example, in the year 2010 it was ranked No. 86 by Fortune Magazine. Publix profit margins have remained considerably high irrespective of the labor trends in the retail food industry with its future looking even brighter if its current performance record is anything to go by.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Publix’s year 2009 sales stood at over US$25.1 billion with a profit margin of over $ 1.2 billion (griffinreport 2011). However, it is to note that Publix like any other player has witnessed a rise in labor costs as a result of union-related trends in the industry and it is safe to argue that proposed union-related legislation by the federal government might positively or negatively affect Publix and other players.

For example, a labor legislation that requires employers like Publix to provide health insurance for their permanent and part-time workers would result definitely into an increase in labor costs and thereby affect adversely their profit margins. Examples of unions that have dominated retail labor market for a considerably long period of time include United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW) Local 1500 and Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (RWDSU) Local 338.

Conclusion Irrespective of the many benefits that workers in the retail food industry stand to enjoy as a result unionization, employers would like their industry to remain union-free in order to ensure increased profit margins at the expense of workers. Some players in the industry have turned to hiring new immigrants as well as those who have overstayed their visas who work for lower wages under poorer conditions knowing very well they may not have any one to turn.

However, from a labor and human rights point of view the government should make fair labor legislations that will ensure that workers in this industry are not exploited unnecessarily by their employers who are ever determined to cut labor and overall operational costs at the expense of poor workers. Nevertheless, such legislations should not be unfair to industry players like Publix who play a significant role in national economic growth and development.

Reference List Griffinreport (2011). Associates


Al Tayyar Travel Group-role in transforming Saudi tourism Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction and Overview of services offered.

Partnership with government

Challenges and mitigation.

Strategies and successes.


Works Cited

Introduction and Overview of services offered. Al-Tayya Travel Group is a limited company which has its origin from, and operations centralized in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The company also has interests abroad. The specialization of the company is in planning and designing of tourism trips as well as itineraries (Bloomberg Business week 1). The company offers reservations tickets for customers on many backgrounds. For those travelling by the sea, the company is ready to make them bookings for their stay upon disembarking from the sea trip.

Those travelling by air also receive this service. For those on land, there are many reservation and related services offered (Hertog 204). They include car rental where the company helps them obtain transportation to the different destination they would desire upon disembarking from their vessels of travel. Besides the car rentals services, the company also offers tourists, services of external hotel reservations. They help the tourists get their bookings to hotels which fit their descriptions (Bloomberg Business week 1).

This service enables the tourists, not only to get access to the best in the hotel service sector but also to match other issues such as their financial base. While servicing as a middle ground on these, the company has developed a wide connection with many travel agencies as well as hotels in the country and the region to which it books the clients or to sea, air as well as land.

The above are not the only services which are offered by the company. Besides the above, the company also offers airport schedule transfers. This activity is wholly done by the company through online messaging upon request for such by the customers who wishes to make flight reschedules. For the company, this is achieved through the customer advancing the details which he or she intends to be passed to the flight operators as reasons for this change.

Serving as a middle ground in the communication, the company gets paid for enabling the two to converse and the customer to have satisfaction of travelling at his or her convenience. The above aside, the company is also engaged in helping tourists with their cargo issues. In this, the company helps such individuals in their clearing of cargo at custom points (Bloomberg Business week 2). To enable this, the company has staff that operates to bridge the services of cargo handling with the necessary officials.

They help such get the permits for transit of cargo at these points. For the tourist with large cargo, this whole process of cargo handling can be done by the company without their presence as long as the customer sends the details. This way, the company has helped many people ensure the safety of their cargo and their reach to their desired destinations many days before they make their own trips to transact or visit places.

The company has been framed to absorb many of services relating to the needs of tourists. At the center of the company, are staffs employed to engage in different activities. Besides the above staff, the company also has staff to provide security to the tourists if they desire to take them on.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The persons employed by the company as bodyguards for hire are enough and each tourist would easily get the number that he or she desires (Bloomberg Business week 2). The bodyguards taken on for his duty are individuals who are employees of respected security companies in the country.

They are those who have distinguished themselves in their service as trustworthy, efficient and effective. These credentials are usually analyzed before such are taken on for the jobs. With such professionalism, some tourists indeed depend on the company for this sole service of sourcing their security detail while they are on their touring ventures.

At the heart of the services being offered by the company, there is identification that the bigger portion of the customer base is in the country thus a population of Arabic speakers.

The company too realizes that the Asian continent especially the Arabic-speaking counties form the most important base from which the tourists come. To this end, the company has invested a lot in having many employees competent and fluent in Arabic offer services to the large portion of the clients who would prefer being addressed in this language (Bloomberg Business week 3).

Today, the company’s staff meets the demand from clients in relation to language of communication not only because of this emphasis on Arabic but because of the culture of language teaching and learning which has been developed. In the company, employees are required to attend language lessons in the company’s academy. Here they are taught different languages which ensure that they are able to meet the language demands of all clients.

The number of services offered by the company is insurmountable. They also include postal services. I this, the company helps those traveling to be able to communicate or correspond with various authorities or relations they would be visiting or making contact with. The framing of the postal services also helps the tourists to send messages across the country from the different locations they are in.

The company, in ensuring the success of this, has allocated transit vehicles among other tools, to ensure that the letters sent by the customers across the different locations are reaching their destinations promptly. Besides the postal services, the company also engages in making conference venue arrangements upon the request for this service by customers (Bloomberg Business week 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Al Tayyar Travel Group-role in transforming Saudi tourism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this, the company allocates conferencing hall as well as facilities including communication and utility facilities. Besides the conferencing facilities, the company also offers some recreational activities. Some of these which are offered by the company include yatch ad sea cruises. These are available to customers already using the services for which the company engages in. They are bonus services for those for example using the conference facilities of the company.

Partnership with government In the history of the Al Tayyar Travel Group, its founder, Dr. Nasser Bin Akeel Al-Tayyar will always stand tall. The beginning of this group is traced to the goodwill of prince Salman Bin Abdul Aziz. In the beginning of the company, there were only six people as staff. But things have changes much.

By the year 2007, the company already had thousands of employees. It had expanded from this humble beginning at Riyadh to have more than 200 branches throughout the country. Besides those in the country, the company had also nine branches abroad by this year (Business and Finance club 2).

According to the founder, there is much to talk about the company now. Many of these are explicitly telling by themselves. As an example, the company is rated as one of the biggest companies in the country in overall rankings of companies. It ranks among the topmost in asset base in terms of service companies (Business and Finance club 3).

According to the founder, the company is the great company it is today because it has remained committed to its important business which is to take the tourism business in the country to the next level (Business and Finance club 3). Indeed the company has been hailed as the pioneer of tourism services in the country. Because of the coordination between the prince and the founder of the company, tourism had grown in the last twenty years of the country.

As the founder identifies, when the company was breeding, there was identification that though the country was richly possessed with vast tourist attractions, there was lack of strategy to exploit it. As Dr. Nasser Bin Akeel Al-Tayyar identifies, taking the step into the unknown, the company became the only one which was venturing into the sector of tourism and in opening up the country to international tourism.

This foundation as the first company in tourism service has been its important asset because it stays ahead of the park in relation to understanding the real issues. As Dr. Nasser Bin Akeel Al-Tayyar identifies, the trying in the end bore fruits. Thanks to the company, the country now boosts of numerous tourism destinations which are always completely filled to capacity with both local and international tourists.

As Dr. Nasser Bin Akeel Al-Tayyar states, the prince has always been at the heart of all these. His commitment to developing tourism especially through the many tourist projects that he puts forth has indeed been very important. The company has always watched every opportunity being opened by the prince.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Al Tayyar Travel Group-role in transforming Saudi tourism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As an example in the recent time, there was an intended project by the prince of opening up the Arkah area as a tourist destination. Sensing this to be an important venture for the future, the company moved to study the details of the case. This project was promising to be an important one because of the success of the Champs Elise which had become great tourism destination in the country.

Being only a few miles from this place, the Arkah area was promising. In the end, this project has bored frits and both the prince and the company are happy from what has been achieved. Today, the cooperation of the two (prince and Al Tayyar Travel Group) has ensured that the place is the best destination for those wishing to engage in all kinds of hobbies. The place has, for example, been framed to make possible walking ventures through the expanse.

Basing on this cooperation such as in the above project, the group has in the end remained so linked with the government. Throughout the history of the company, it has been receiving government social as well as financial support. For the government, it is always true that the intention of the company is not strictly profit but also to strengthen the whole of the tourist sector of the country.

Using the coordination with the government, the Al Tayyar Travel Group has not disappointed (Walker 205). The belief of the Al Tayyar Travel Group which has formed the basis of the cooperation is that the tourism sector can also be made into becoming one of the greatest sectors depended on by the economy.

The view of the company is not specifically to make profit but also to help the government and country diversify the sources of revenue. It is to make the country to expand it resource from the overdependence on oil to have tourism also bringing in the benefits in such volumes.

Challenges and mitigation. The view of the company has always been that there are not enough infrastructures for the country to fully exploit the tourism potential she has. The belief by the company is that the ball has however started rolling and there is need for important players to be aggressively engaged. The vision of the company is to have the tourism sector in Saudi Arabia equaling the framings in countries such as Spain, France, Egypt, Dubai and Germany.

The company sees many things as needing to be done. Modernization of the existing infrastructures in the tourism sector is one of the greatest concerns of the company. As the company collaborates with other players, it has identified that there is need for all players to ensure upgrade of the existing systems to match them to those possessed by the countries already high in the competition (Business and Finance club 4).

For Al Tayyar Travel Group, the mission is to use the human skills possessed as well as the material and financial resources at disposal to ensure that the transformations in the infrastructure of the tourism sector in the country is happening as fast as possible.

Besides the modernization of structures and infrastructure, the Al Tayyar Travel Group also identifies the legal structures as another objective to be taken on. As the company believes, the country still lacks enough legal guidelines to guide the practice and thus make it beneficial to all players. In relation to the legal infrastructure, the company identifies the lack of a tourist authority in the country for so long. However, working with the government the company has ensured that the creation of this is on track.

Strategies and successes. Competency is the driving force of the company. To this end, it has invested a lot in its human resource training. The company realizes that taking the country’s tourism sector to the next level is indeed the way forward in making sure that benefits flow to everyone. At the same time, the company realizes that this cannot be a possibility if the country still lacked the human capacity to drive the tourism sector.

To achieve this dream of transforming tourism, the company, besides its important objective of offering tourism services, has also established an academy for training of individuals in tourism and the role it can play to making individuals, companies and the country benefit.

To this end, the company has established the Al-Tayyar Training Academy. The visions for this are two fold. The first is to ensure that going forward; the company is assured of a highly trained staff. The areas emphasized on include booking staff training, tourism design training and tourism accountancy (Business and Finance club 5).

According to the mission of the company, the academy has a central role in ensuring that the services received by the customers are world-class thus cutting-edge. But to fulfill the overall objective, the company does not tie the individuals who graduate to the company. Instead, it allows them to go out and influence positively on the transformations to the tourism sector in the country to make it more enriching.

In transforming the country to a tourism economy, the company intends to carry along the objectives of equality. This is clear in the way it approaches the issue of gender balance at the workplace. From inception, the company has been harboring the dream of one day making the gender disparity in employment opportunities non-existent.

To achieve this, the company has rolled out an aggressive plan to ensure employment of women. The main focus has been to avoid aggressive competition through giving women priority in some areas in order to balance their inadequacy in representation in others.

According to the founder, this dream has been achieved through focus on having all the booking tasks thus jobs taken on by women staff as opposed to having mixed gender. As the founder identifies, this has been an important step which has paid-off by ensuring that the company is an equal opportunity employer. As the founder identifies, ticket bookings in the company is a service which is exclusively offered by women employees (Business and Finance club 5).

Besides the ticket booking, there are many other areas where the women are given focus and some leverage in order to ensure their including. Such areas also include the phone reception. According to the founder, visiting the company today, one is likely to encounter a situation where the person who is booking him or her as well as the one who received is or her phone to make the bookings is women. Besides the two, the company has also given woman presence in the many other jobs relating to entering of data.

One who visits headquarter identifies that the company is built on a data system which ensures that the customer’s needs are attended to promptly and are well coordinated. Though the technical sections are mostly held by men, the company has ensured that the majority of those in the non-technical sections of the technology process are women. This has been an important avenue in balancing the gender at the company.

For a long time, the Saudi Company had been concerned on the lack of synergy between the technological transformations happening in the country and in the continent with the connections; this can have with the tourism sector. For such a long time, the tourism sector remained secluded from many other sectors which had easily embraced technology as the way forward.

On this ground, the company has charted a path to make breakthroughs for the tourism sector. On May 4th may of 2011, something new was happening at the company. On this date, the company was introducing the use of iPhone by customers to make their bookings through the company (Al Bawaba 1).

This strategy was being taken in collaboration with telecommunication players such as 2share as well as Amadeus. According to the the CEO’s’ message at a gala on the launch of this application, this was a strategy aimed at making the company and the country the choice for customers who wished to have the greatest satisfaction in the tourism service industry.

As the CEO identified, it was something whose time had come because with the use of technology now engraved in the Saudi society, it was imperative to avail to consumers something which would increase convenience in obtaining the services they desired (Al Bawaba 3).

The view of the company in taking this path was thus not specifically to reach benefits, but to further open-up the tourism sector and increase profits coming to it. According to the objectives set in this rolling out, the aim of this was also to continue the overall objective for making collaborations with other sectors of the economy to make the tourism sector stronger. As it was identified at the event of the launch, the iPhone mode was also to market not only the company but the sector as a whole.

Many speakers at the event lauded this move as a step for the best for the tourism service sector. According to Nashat Bukhari, Amadeus’ general manager, this step by Al Tayyar Travel Group was to be the first in the country and would help a lot not only in increasing the customer traffic but also in setting a benchmark for the rest to follow suite.

As the manger Amadeus manager identified, this was an important step in assuring the trust of the customers in the company to be the leading in providing them with a cutting edge tools to reach the objectives (Al Bawaba 4).

Conclusion As discussed, Al Tayyar Travel Group is highly related to the transformations which have occurred and made the tourism sector in Saudi Arabia as booming as it is today. According to the discussion, the company has been at the heart of all reforms shared by the government of making the country an attraction for tourists.

According to the discussion, cultural issues such as gender disparity, infrastructure issues such as lack of recreational centers as well as competency issues have all been influenced and addressed by Al Tayyar Travel Group in the bid to transform the sector. According to the discussion, all these bore fruits and thus more benefits such as the use of technology have been taken on as the new paths.

Works Cited Al Bawaba. Al Tayyar Travel Group launches the first mobile application for booking in the Middle East. 4/ 05/2011.Web.

Bloomberg Business week. Al Tayyar Travel Group. 2011. Web.

Business and Finance club. Interview with Dr, Nasser Bin Akeel Al-Tayyar, the vice chairman and managing director of Al-Tayyar Travel Group. Web.

Hertog, Steffen. Princes, Brokers, and Bureaucrats: Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press, 2010. Print.

Walker, Jenny. Oman, Uae


Ancient Poetry Analysis Explicatory Essay essay help

Ethos is a conviction that becomes evident when the author depicts diverse character. It equally accords the author authority to exemplify facts. Interestingly, it focuses on capturing the reader’s attention (Braet 316). The author begins by describing the entry of reporters into the scene as undiplomatic.

This portrays journalists as unprofessional. The description of reporters makes the reader develop negative impression on the reporters and their agenda. This is evident in the quote “With little regard they swarmed into the courtyard” (Rulli-Gibbs). The author reveals his disappointment by the invasion of the scene by reporters, cinematographers and news anchors. This makes him reveal them in a negative manner. This revelation accords the author authority since the reader acknowledges the writers’ perspective.

In addition, the poem’s title “the exploitation” exudes sympathy (Rulli-Gibbs). The title of the poem depicts a situation when the exploited are unlikely to fight for their desires. Thus, readers will sympathize with writer. Eventually, this accords him authority.

Pathos is an instance where the writer solicits for an emotional response. In order to obtain such a response, the writer’s choice of language is paramount. This achievable by creating a grouping that the reader appreciates (Braet 316). The author’s description of the ensuing mayhem highlights the concept of pathos.

“On the first strike, the reports run for cover while the camera operator and the soundman persevered on, only to realise they stood no chance in the confusion” (Rulli-Gibbs). During the mayhem, all the reporting crews took cover. The writer describes the frantic efforts to take cover as “testosterone prowess” (Rulli-Gibbs). Testosterone is a male hormone, which makes the writer exemplify that causes the fight among the news personalities.

Logos is a conclusion that results from the logical evaluation of events. This form of rhetoric will evaluate conclusion based on preceding events (Braet 316). Once the brawl had begun, the author concludes, “Now this was a story but there was nobody remaining to tell it”. This is because the journalist and camera operators fled, thus nobody was able to record the scuffle (Rulli-Gibbs).

There poem lacks a distinct character making the protagonist a group of journalists. Evidently, they are in a certain location where they are shooting a piece of news. Their large number is an indication that the story is crucial since media outlets dispatched reporters to cover the proceedings. Attributable to the large number of reporters there is a lot jostling since every channel wants to be the first to broadcast the piece of news. The jostling culminates in a brawl between journalists as one of the reporters loses his temper and strikes a colleague.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author satirizes the events because most reporters escaped leaving their equipment. Thus, there was no one to cover the scuffle that would have formed part of the news (Rulli-Gibbs). Candy and Alan are news anchors who are flat characters because their elimination from the setting would not change the poem. This is because the writer users them as an example of the journalists that were present. The two form part of the crowd that did not take an active part in the events.

Conclusively, Alan is a soundman who is involved in the scuffle. He is a round character because he contributed to the overall plot of the poem. Unfortunately, this poem titled “the exploitation” lacks a character with an opposing opinion. The author fails to offer differing opinions.

Works Cited Braet, Antoine. Ethos, pathos and logos in Aristotle’s Rhetoric: A re examination.Springerlink.6.3. (1992):307-320.

Rulli-Gibbs, Adam. The Exploitation. Fantastic Poem. 2006. Web.


Power Relations in Greco-Roman Myth Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Thesis Statement

Women’s position in society as seen in the Greco-Roman mythology



Several literatures available describe the position men and women occupied in the Greco-Roman mythology, with the most interesting consideration being on the position of the women in the Greek and Roman societies.

In these societal settings, women were no better than slaves who often had no power, thus they had to be submissive to their masters. There was much discrimination against women in these societies, with women being subjected to some restricted form of life. They were denied permission to argue publicly to over any issue and they had to be submissive to the men’s directives.

Men only turn to obtain support from women when they were faced with certain difficulties. Frequent suppression of mortal women by mortal men is depicted in the Greek and Roman mythologies. Women’s uprising against societal expectation is the most significant aspect of power structure to be considered in this paper. Women attempt to use their power of love to outdo the men’s authority. However, such powers do not last long, and after some time, men assume the authority.

Thesis Statement In The Epic of Gilgamesh, a promiscuous woman was used to illuminate on the position given to the women in the society. In this context, women in the society are depicted as tools that become useful to men only when the men are faced with difficult situations. Through their sexual attraction, men use women to lure strong male opponents who are threats in the world of the living.

In providing this service, the women are not to exercise their individual powers. They have to go by the directives of the males. After defeating such key opponents, their power and role seem to have been brought to an end (Assyrian International News Agency, n.d).

Women’s position in society as seen in the Greco-Roman mythology In the Greco-Roman mythology, mortal women are seen to be powerless in the society, as compared to their immortal counterparts. The latter are portrayed to have some powers, and men seek their advice and intervention in times of difficulties. In the world, women only have the power of love to win the hearts of men. In The Epic of Gilgamesh, the tale unfolds with the people’s lamentation of the deeds of Gilgamesh, the fifth king of Uruk after the flood and the son of Ninsun, a goddess.

They wonder if these are the right deeds required of the shepherd of the city (The Epic of Gilgamesh, n.d, p.3). Gilgamesh had other powers and new all that was taking place everywhere in the country. The people lament to the gods that Gilgamesh is taking away sons daughters of men and no one is strong enough to stand before him.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They plead that gods create another strong man that can match his strength and might, so that peace could be restored in the lad of Uruk. The gods understand their plea and Aruru, the goddess of creation, creates another man Enkidu. However, Enkidu takes to the wilderness, lives, and is associated with wild beasts. It is at this point that a trapper encounters Enkidu in the wilderness. He (Enkidu) loosens all the traps laid by the trapper; he fills the pits drug by the trapper and frees the wild animals caught in the trap.

To this state, there are problems that need a solution. Firstly, Enkidu was in the wilderness yet he was to use his might to counteract that of Gilgamesh. It is necessary that he be lured to come to the land of cultivation. Secondly, Enkidu is strong and mighty and the trapper cannot face him. When he reports to his father about the strong man in the wilderness, the father suggests that he visits Gilgamesh to seek information on the source of Enkidu’s powers.

The father also suggests that a promiscuous woman be brought from the Temple of love to overpower the man from the wilderness through her love (The Epic of Gilgamesh, n.d, p.5). The trapper follows all the directives and succeeds in managing the wild man. The woman goes ahead to convince Enkidu to live the wilderness and come to the land of cultivation, where he would latter meet Gilgamesh and become his servant and co-warrior.

The position of women in the Greek and Roman mythologies is revealed in how the harlot was used to tame Enkidu and make the wild beasts run away from him. The women have to be submissive to the directives of the men. ‘There he is. Now, woman, make your breasts bare, have no shame, do not delay, but welcome his love.

Let him see you naked; let him possess your body. When he comes near uncover yourself and lie with him’ (The Epic of Gilgamesh, n.d, p.5). These were the directives of the trapper to the promiscuous woman as Enkidu approached the drinking hole with the other wild animals. There is no objection given by the woman in relation to the statements. She is seen to be obedient to all the directives and makes love with Enkidu. The women are seen as tools to obtain the solution to problems that face men.

Having obtained the solution, the role of the woman seems to diminish and she goes underground. This is evident when the harlot manages to help the trapper in the hands of Enkidu. After succeeding in taming Enkidu and making the wild beasts reject him, the trapper appears to have no more business with the harlot. Similarly, after introducing Enkidu to the palace where Gilgamesh stays, the role of the harlot seems to diminish and the tale takes a different direction.

The fate of the daughters of men in the in the ancient society was also determined by their fathers. The father would arrange for the marriage of her daughter in some manner accepted by the laws of the society. This was at times ignored, and a father would force her daughter to marry a man of his choice and the daughter did not have to compromise.

We will write a custom Essay on Power Relations in Greco-Roman Myth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is seen in the Hymn to Demeter where a father arranges for her daughter to be abducted. Zeus, the ruler of the upper world, arranges for the marriage of Persephone, her daughter, to Hades, the king of the underworld (Anonymous, 2002, p.33). Contrary to the people’s expectations that a man arranges for the formal marriage of his daughter, Zeus takes part in the arrangements to abduct Persephone when she is in the playgrounds, away from Demeter, her mother (Anonymous, 2002, p.33).

Some versions of the myth even claim that the father also took part in the abduction. The daughter cries for help and seeks support from her father, who has distanced himself from the scenario and is thus not available for the support. Zeus planning for the informal marriage of her daughter without the knowledge of his wife brings the picture of what men think of the women in these societies.

Another legend that depicts the position of the women in the ancient Greek and Roman societies is that of King Oedipus of Thebes as illustrated by Sigmund Freud. Having killed his father who was the Theban king unknowingly, and having solved a riddle, the Thebans makes him their king.

As reward, he is given Jocarta, the former king’s wife, and who is his biological mother, to be his wife (Freud, n.d, p.70). Again, women are portrayed here as powerless individuals and the men can dictate the different aspects of their lives. Their sexual charm can be used to reward other men who have been of significance to the society.

Conclusion The struggle by women to struggle to obtain power in the society faces such problems. It is the belief of the men that the women have to obey the orders provided by the men. There are beliefs that even if women were to be given the power to exercise their authority over men, they would not have the ability to do so.

The power to rule would naturally be relinquished to the men. The quest of the women to seek and obtain power in the society is also impeded by a belief in some of the women. Some of the women are depicted to have surrendered the authority to the men and are not attempting to make their individual discretions. The promiscuous woman who follows the directives by the trapper shows the proportion of women who do not have their fundamental principles, or if they do have, then the principles are inferior to the men’s principles.

References Anonymous. (2002). The Homeric Hymn to Demeter. (Attached material). Assyrian International News Agency. (N.d). The Epic of Gilgamesh. (Attached material).

Freud, S. (N.d). The Oedipus Complex. (Attached material).

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The Total Rewards System Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction Compensation system in an organization is very important because it helps organizations improve their performance through increased employee output. Total reward programs are systems set in place by the management of an organization with the main aim of rewarding employees for their efforts and excellence in their work.

The compensation system may involve things that address the needs of employees hence boosting their morale such as recital and gratitude, work life balance and chances for professionalism within the organization (Kaplan, 2007). Successful implementation of a reward system in an organization should result in improved performance of employees hence the firm while reducing operating costs. This study examines total reward programs as applied in organization in different industries (Durfey, 2002).

The Total Rewards System employed in the Publix The Publix supermarket is among the largest private retail enterprises in the U.S. Having its’ headquarters in Florida, the supermarket has more than 1000 branches operating in different parts in U.S. with an average of 130 associates creating many employment opportunities. In recognition of the importance of total rewards in value creation to a firm, the supermarket has designed a number of the total rewards elements to benefit its employees. The consequent actions have seen the supermarket perform better than other firms have.

Among the designed elements are flexible schedules provided to part-timers in order to accommodate for their academic studies and family responsibilities, opportunities to transfer into other positions of the company such as manufacturing, distribution and corporate offices.

Other fundamental benefits available at Publix include an opportunity to purchase additional shares of its privately held stock, annual holiday cash bonus and weekly payment for hourly associates. In addition, the company provides a 401(k) retirement savings plan with a company match, group health plan, credit union, tuition reimbursement and training opportunities. Employees working close to the cafeteria have the opportunity of eating free while full time employees have six paid holidays.

Similar to other firms, development of these total rewards have befitted as well as disadvantaged both Publix and its employees. First, it provides employers with flexibility since it allows awards to be mixed and remixed to meet the different emotional and motivational needs of employees (Durfey, 2002).

This has further helped companies in allowing employees to determine when they work, where they work and how they work. In particular, total rewards, policies recognize that employees would wish to have the ability to integrate their lifestyle and their work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, total rewards strategy enhances improved recruitment and retention since it is a critical aspect in addressing the issues created by recruitment and retention. It can help create a work experience that meets the needs of employees and encourage them to contribute extra efforts that address a number of issues in the firm such as low performance. In addition, they total rewards programs encourage the firm to spend reward dollars where they are most effective in addressing workers’ shifting values.

Many studies have also shown that employees would always look at the total rewards package when deciding whether to join or to stay with an organization. Thirdly, it reduces labor costs or the cost of employee turnover. Majorly, these costs are not noticeable within an organization. The costs include loss of customers; reduced sales as well as decreased efficiencies as productive employees leave and the remaining employees are distracted from their activities (Parbudyal, 2002).

In spite of this approach having advantages, it also suffers from a number of setbacks. Primarily, it is the high cost of offering high levels of benefits that affects firms. The numerous benefits available to Publix employees would cost the company a lot of money. In addition, the company may realize wastage of resources if the whole package will not be appreciated or used by some workers. If again the total return is not designed well, it may result to discouragement of employees rather than motivating them.

Therefore, Publix has to restructure its total returns by dropping the numerous less sensitive benefits because they raise the cost of operations and focus on the main aspects that negatively affect the good performance of the company. This will minimize costs as well as increasing level of performance.

In general, well-designed packages of total rewards should be embraced by all companies since they motivate employees to perform better than they would in the absence of the packages. This leads to the average good performance of the companies (Kaplan, 2007).

Reference Durfey, K. (2002). Aligning Employees to Organizational Objectives, Solutions, 15(3), 26-28

Kaplan, S. (2007). Business Strategy, People Strategy and Total Rewards. Benefits and compensation Digest, 44(9), 13-19.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Total Rewards System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parbudyal, S. (2002). Strategic Reward Systems at Southwest Airlines, Compensation


France Tourist Industry Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Geography, Climate and the Socio-Political History of France France is commonly officially known as the French Republic. The country is in the Western Europe with several territories and islands. France is sometimes referred to as the Hexagon because of the Hexagonal shape of its territory. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Monaco and Spain and Andorra lie on its south.

It is connected to the United Kingdom via a Channel Tunnel which passes through English Channel. France is the largest country in West-European country with the second exclusive economic zone in the world. It covers 11,035,000 square kilometers (Dahl, 2006).

France is one of the worlds most populated country and also one of the world most developed nation. It is the country with the words’ highest life expectancy and one of the best in terms of health care facilities as listed by the World Health Organization. In terms of tourism, it is the worlds most visited country receiving 82 million tourists each year.

It’s the founding member of United Nations and a member of G8, G20 and NATO among other organizations. Two third of France is composed of mountains and hills. These include the Alps, Pyrenees and Vosges ranges. Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest mountain in Europe. The capital city of he French Republic is Paris which is the world’s most beautiful city and a popular tourist area (McKenzie, 2007).

The French population has diverse origins. Many people have settled in France including Celts, Romans, Germans, Russians, Asians, Africans and North Americans. The population composition and size varies with region in France. Traditionally France used to be a rural based population but today about 75% live in cities and towns.

One of the most important parts of France is art and culture. Many famous artists are from France with several writers coming from France. Sports are Commonplace in France with soccer being the most common sport activity in France. France is located mid-way between the equator and the North Pole. This gives France a temperate climate with some areas at times becoming either extremely cold. The Mediterranean coast is washed by the warm Gulf Stream current that provide mild winter and hot dry summers.

In the mountainous regions of France, climate tends to be moderate with some considerable rain and snow (Dahl, 2006). The official language in France is French although in addition, there are more than seven officially recognized languages including Catalan, Gallo, and Tahitian among others. In addition, there are nine local French based languages which give up to 23 languages spoken in France.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main religion is Roman Catholic with Muslim, Protestant and Jewish forming the minority. The education in France is composed of 10 years of compulsory education with literacy levels being 99%. The fact that France has access to the rest of the word places it strategically to reach different markets to sell finished products as well as get raw materials for its industries (Kabundi, 2004).

Dominant Economic Activity France has many economic activities which it carries on to finance its economy. Key among the economic activities is trade. France mainly relies on exports which earns it a lot of revenue. The exports are wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, pork, wine and fruits especially grapes that are used to make wine. These economic activities are agriculturally based and are mainly practiced in those areas in France that have good climate that favors agriculture.

Tourism industry still remains one of the most important economic activities in France providing employment to many people. France, because of its moderate climate and a number of tourist attraction centers remain one of the most visited countries in the world. Every year travelers across the world come to France to have a look at the breath taking and interesting view of the landscapes and mountains.

They also come with an interest of checking the museums and monuments. Because of these reasons, tourism in France plays a very central role and it has gained a lot of importance in the country. The government has taken all steps necessary to promote tourism. France is deeply involved with word economic bodies like GATT and WTO which continue to shape the economic. These bodies have impacted positively on the face of economic policies.

These economic organizations have liberalized market and effects have created new avenues for trade which have promoted the position of France in the global market. In summary, the economic activities in France can be categorized into agriculture, industry, services, trade and exchange. Industries found in France include aircraft, electronics, transportation, textile, clothing and food processing. France is the founding member of NATO and has worked to adapt NATO internally and external (Kabundi, 2004).

The Effect of Globalization in France Globalization is changing countries lifestyles with the pace of economic interdependence. This in other words is changing the lives as the pace of interdependence grows between developed and emerging countries.

France has reaped substantial benefits from globalization. The important question we need to ask ourselves is what efforts has France done to enable consumers, workers, companies and governments reaped the advantages of globalization which it continues to reap. On trade, globalization has enabled France to reap benefits from both imports and exports. France remains one of the most competitive trading entities in the world.

We will write a custom Research Paper on France Tourist Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Globalization has enabled France to gain both in manufacturing and service trade which has benefited many companies and industries. Because of globalization, France continues to enjoy strong outflows and inflows. France has experienced net outflows because its one of the most attractive sites for multinationals. Multinationals are finding it particularly advantageous to invest in France given its economic policies which are sound and its strong as well as due to its political stability.

Globalization has had an effect on labor mobility in France. Because of globalization, there is now greater mobility of labor. Mobility of labor is the movement of labor from one point to another. This has enabled French firm meet their labor requirements. The immigrants have provided an offsetting factor to the declining population as well as France’s aging population (Adekola


IT System for Louvre Hotels Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help

Louvre Hotels has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years. This growth momentum has been spearheaded by multiple acquisitions as well as internal expansion program (Louvre, par.2). The hotel chain has been expanding its global network alongside strengthening its brand (Louvre par.2). In order to attain the aforementioned goals, it is necessary to embrace modern pace of technology that will effectively streamline operations of the entire hotel chain.

The main challenge that any growing business is likely to encounter during rapid globalization positioning is inefficient and ineffective technological systems in place (Sigala, Lockwood


Rococo Chocolates Report (Assessment) essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

SWOT analysis

PESTEL analysis


List of References

Introduction The fundamental motivation behind the establishment of Rococo Chocolate was the window of opportunity that existed in London. However, the passion of the founder of Rococo was also a key driving force. In addition to passion, profit maximization is also a main reason for the establishment of any business. A marketing plan critically examines the company in a holistic manner.

Moreover, it focuses on the marketing strategies, performance, strategic positioning, measures achievement, and evaluation of company objectives. In this case, Rococo Chocolate Company will be evaluated using two main approaches; these are SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, and Legal Factors) analysis (Ferrell


Concept of Fallacy Spotting in Philosophy Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Introduction Despite the fact that people accept their existence and usage in the day-to-day life, there has been no agreed definition for the term fallacy. Different people come up with different definitions depending on the applicability of the term and the nature of the situation in which the term is being used. However, some elements of the definition remain constant regardless of the context of usage. The fact that the term is used to refer to an erroneous reasoning that leads to a wrongful conclusion about a fact.

In some definitions, a fallacy is referred to as an invalid deductive reasoning instrument while others define it as an argument with minimal validity and strength (IEP, 2011). Despite the differences in the two definitions, it is evident that these they have a commonality of invalidity or error in an argument that has been put forward. Many fallacies are in existence and are applied on several occasions in our lives. The nature of a fallacy depends on the context within which it is being used.

This paper focused on one fallacy, guilty by association. Many people in the society apply this fallacy. This fallacy is one among the many version of ad hominem (a fallacy that is made through an outrageous comment of an argument of an individual by stating that the comment undermines the argument and not the individual while in real sense it does).

In guilty by association, a person is presumed guilty of an error due to the mere fact that he/she belongs to a particular group. Here, people make unfair judgements based on circumstances rather than the actual argument that has been out forward.

Political sex scandals are good example on how the fallacy of guilty by association has been put into practice especially by the media to influence the reasoning and actions of the public.

A good number of politicians have been involved in a number of sex scandals. Due to the shame and unpopularity that they face, most of the politicians who have been involved in sex scandals have been forced to resign if they do not step out of office at their own will. It is therefore an assumption that all politicians who are involved in sex scandals should resign from office.

Several articles have been written on this topic, with the most recent one that was published by Britni Daniel, a journalist for a local magazine in Los Angeles. In her article, Britni focused on the Andrew Weiner incident (Danielle, 2011). Mr. Weiner, a congressional representative was caught on a sex scandal after he posted dirty photographs of himself in one of the social media networks. Once he was found guilty, the politician faced a lot of pressure from the public to resign from office.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The media played a critical role of inciting the public to force the politician out of office. This is because, it is like a tradition that once a politician has been found guilty of a sex scandal, he/she should step out of office. Mass actions, publications and articles such as the one written by Brinti will be made to force politicians involved in sex scandals out of office. Weiner was not an exception.

Conclusion This should not always be the case. People should not generalize situations and treat them universally due to the fact that the nature of the action is the same. In the case of sec scandals, there are politicians who have fought and remained in office and proved to change their characters. A good example is Bill Clinton. Therefore, people should be given a chance to prove themselves.

References Danielle, B. (2011). Should Politicians Caught in Sex Scandals Resign? Clutch Magazine Online. Web.

IEP. (2011). Fallacies. Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from to Ignorance


Sikh-Muslim conflict Research Paper a level english language essay help

Amongst the first remarks made by Guru Nanak upon his enlightenment as a Sikh, is that ‘there is no Hindu, there is no Musalman’ (Singh 134). Guru Nanak, the religious founder of Hindu Sikhism, used this remark to address the long standing relationship between Sikh and the Muslim. Nanak implied that all human beings are equal and that any profiling of people on the basis of their religion, skin colour, gender or any other form of stereotypical description is founded on ignorance.

Nanak also added that racial profiling of people does not have any sense of truth since all people are created equally by one creator. As such people from all backgrounds ought to live in peace and harmony, love and kindness towards each other as brothers and sisters from the same creator. Despite Guru Nanak’s philosophy of peace and love towards each other, the conflict between Hindu Sikhs, of which Nanak was one and the Muslim has had along history.

The Sikh-Muslim conflict has evolved over long period of time but many philosophers, analysts and scholars tend to focus on the negative nature of this special relationship forgetting the more positive aspects. Suffice to say that, other than the strong personal relationship between Guru Nanak and other Muslim leaders of the time, it has also been recorded that some Muslim solders served in Guru Nanak’s Hindu army.

Despite the positive relationship the Sikh-Muslim conflict has at times been so strained to the extent that it has turned violent. Moreover, many philosophers and scholar argue that this conflict is religio-political. Therefore, despite friendly relationship between the Sikh and the Muslim, violent confrontations have characterised this conflict that has also assumed the religio-political perspective.

Despite the fact that Many Muslims and Sikhs view each other as inveterate enemies, these two communities have a long and complex relationship characterised, at times by very friendly relationships.

Many scholars tend to focus their attention on studying the more confrontational aspects of this special relationship. However, the Sikh-Muslim relationship is historically founded on cooperation rather than conflict. Many Sikhs and Muslim are oblivious of the fact that Guru Nanak sole aim was to promote friendly relationships between the Hindu and the Muslim people.

Guru Nanak sought to attain this by bridging the existing gap between the two communities through his teaching of love, peace and harmony. Furthermore one of Guru Nanak’s closet ally and disciple, Mardana, was a Muslim. Other than this, Guru Nanak made several symbolic journeys to Mecca and Baghdad in search of peace between Sikhs and Muslim. There are other symbolic occurrences that sought to cement friendly relationship between the two communities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Harminder Sahib, the Golden Temple of the Hindu Sikh, had its foundation stone laid by a muslin cleric Hazrat Mian Mir Sahib upon the requests of Guru Arjan (Sikand, “Interview” paras 7 – 10). Singh also reports that some of the soldiers who served in Guru Nanak’s army professed the Muslim faith, while still maintaining their loyalty to Guru Nanak (134). As such to claim that the Sikh-Muslim relations have been usually negative is to miss the point.

Despite the long history of friendly relationship, the Sikhs and the Muslim have also have bitter differences that have at times turned violent. The confrontation have at times been too much violent that the two communities have been accused of ‘washing their dirty linen in public’ (Kundnani para 1). There are various instances of violent confrontations between the Muslim and the Hindu Sikhs in recent times.

Some of these violent confrontations have been motivated by such issues as war on terror. In 2001, Sikhs and Muslims engaged on running battler in Bradford, India, over the differences of the definition of terrorism.

In the same year, a 15 year old Hindu girl was reportedly severely injured after an argument over the event of the September 2001 bombing of the world trade centre in New York. Some of the violent confrontations between these two communities have turned tragic, such as the killing of three British Muslims on holiday in India.

It has been reported that the killings were inspired by the state sponsored war against terrorism and as such any Muslim especially foreigners in the Gujarat state was seen as a representation of terrorism. The state government was accused of distributing weapon such as machetes that were used in such murders (Kundnani para 2 – 4). While the confrontation seems like isolated occurrences, the violence is a manifestation of long running hatred inspired by religious and political propaganda.

This type of propaganda is spread through journals, newspaper and newsletter articles, with very strong views against the other community dominating such publications. Readers of these articles are influenced to stand up and defended their sovereignty. This type of attitude has slowly led to the build up of these violent confrontations (Brass 436, 438).

The conflict between the Sikhs and Muslims is a result of the long standing religious and political differences. Suffice to say that that other than being racial groups, the Sikhs and the Muslim are distinctive religious groups.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Sikh-Muslim conflict specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The confrontations are drawn out of the fact that the Sikhs and the Muslims religious foundations have assumed a political dimension such that the two see each other as opposing political ideologies. The hostilities emerge as a result of the intention of the Sikhs and the Muslims to maintain a religious identity through a political agenda (Johnstone 132).

This type of religious and political identification is totally against the philosophy of Guru Nanak (Singh 134). Due to the concerted effort of Guru Nanak and other Muslim clerics made to maintain friendliness in the 15th and 16the centuries, the religious and political hostilities are only sees as the characteristic of post-Nanak era. Furthermore, the post Nanak Sikh identity has fundamentally changed from the open an accommodating to a more radical religio-political identity.

The Sikh sees the Islam as the enemy religion. These strong religion-political conflicts are felt in Punjab where the two communities kill each other in what is seen as religious massacre (Sikand, “ Life of Baba Nanak” para 4). The strong religion and political differences still drive the conflict not only in Punjab but in other areas such Kashmir today.

The Sikh and the Muslim have a complex historical relationship. Despite the fact that many see this relationship and only based on violent confrontation, the Sikhs and the Muslim have existed peacefully.

There have been several instances of cooperation between Sikhs and Muslims scuh as the laying of the foundation stone of the Sikhs golden temple in Amritsar by a Muslim cleric, a symbolic event that is emblematic of the historical cooperation between the two communities. The violent nature of Sikh-Muslim relationship is a manifestation of religious and political differences that exist between the two communities. Due to the complexities involved, there is no end in sight to this historical affair.

Works Cited Brass ,Paul. The production of Hindu-Muslim violence in contemporary India. Washington: University of Washington Press, 2003. Print

Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in society: A sociology of religion. Michigan: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print

Kanwarjit, Singh. Political philosophy of the Sikh gurus. New Delhi: Atlantic publisher and distributors, 1989. Print

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sikh-Muslim conflict by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kundnani, Arun. An unholy alliance? Racism, religion and communalism. 2002. July 14, 2011

Sikand, Yoginder. Interview : Makhdoom Syed Chan Pir Qadri on Sikh Muslim relations. 2002. Web.

Sikand, Yoginder. Re-Imagining Sikh-Muslim Relations in the light of the Life of Baba Nanak. 2005. July 14, 2011


Economic development of Thailand Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Political instability

Environmental issues

Health issues





Thailand is a Southeastern Asian state that endured sixty years of military political governance from 1932 until 1973 when a democratically elected-government assumed office. After the change of governance, the country has been experiencing growing economic growth rate; however the country heavily suffers from unstable balance of payment (BPO).

The economic situation of the country can be pegged to its participation in international trade with exports accounting for two thirds of its gross domestic growth product (GDP). It has seen its GDP grow of 2% in the 1985 to 10.6% in 1996; in 2010, the country recorded an economic growth rate of 8.0% (Roger, Sedghi


Alfred Adler’s individual psychology Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Major Principles of the Theory

Differences between Gender and culture

Personality Development

Changes in Personality over the Lifespan

Individual Psychology in the Modern World


Major Principles of the Theory In his work of developing classical Adlerian psychology, Adler emphasized seven major principles which include; utility of the individual. According to this principle things like feeling, thinking, behaviors and emotions can only be understood well if considered as being subordinates of one’s lifestyle. “People are neither divided internally nor battleground of forces that conflict each other but every concept of individuality heads in the same direction” (Shultz,


The Importance of Arizona Law Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction The creation of a powerful and properly evidenced argument is not an easy thing. There are a number of issues to be taken into consideration and certain opinions to be evaluated. However, when the nation undergoes certain legal changes, many people are ready to share their personal opinions and ideas about the steps taken. The question of illegal immigration and its role in the development of Arizona society plays an important role for a long period of time.

Usually, people want to be in safe and feel protection of their government; still, they are not always ready to accept the legal changes offered. One of the latest reforms taken by the government and critically accepted by society was Arizona S.B. 1070. In fact, this legislative Act is considered to be one of the strictest anti-illegal immigration issues in the state of Arizona as well as in the history of the United States of America.

In this paper, the ideas of two different authors will be thoroughly analyzed: Roger Mahony, a famous American cardinal, whose thoughts and activities are supported by millions of people, and Kris Kobach, one of the principle drafters of the Act under consideration. Mahony’s “Thank You, Arizona!” is an attempt to describe the measure taken as a “mean-spirited and useless” measure that deprives people of a chance to be free and to be equal in society (Mahony 17).

And though Kobach’s “Defending Arizona” introduces absolutely another point of view, this article should not be regarded as an opposition to Mahony’s work. The two authors share their opinions about the reform taken and try to persuade the reader. Mahony makes use of religion as a powerful weapon to achieve the required justice and protect immigrants from unfair judgments.

And Kobach helps to analyze the worth of Arizona S.B. 1070 admitting that many people’s “charges are completely false” and lead to “a vastly disproportionate response” (Kobach 31) . Kobach and Mahony are the writers, those words may be interpreted in a variety of ways; they are not only helpful and influential in the world of politics and religion, but they established the key points according to which governmental activities may be properly evaluated.

Summary/Analysis To understand those ideas may play more crucial role in understanding of the worth of Arizona S.B. 1070, it is necessary to analyze each article and the approaches preferred by the authors. Kris Kobach is the drafter of the Act, so, his opinion and explanations of this governmental change should be thoughtful and properly organized.

At the beginning of his article, the author admits that many political leaders “from President Obama on down” jumped into criticizing the law without its thorough analysis. The point is that some opponents, such as Eric Holder and Janet Napolitano, say that they have not read the whole text of the law, still, they are ready to argue the importance of the reform.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question is if it is reasonable and normal to create some judgments without clear arguments. Personal opinion should not be the main claim to rely on while arguing the activities of the state Governor. “Defending Arizona” is Kobach’s chance to explain why so many misunderstandings take place around the law offered. He identifies three charges which are wrong and give clarifications. The point is that the law does not introduce as many influential changes as people actually think.

The main claim of the article is not to make fast decisions and find more time and analyze the law from a variety of perspectives to understand that Arizona officers are provided with appropriate instructions to follow during the contact with illegal immigrants, racial profiling does not become a crucial point, and certain order of immigrants’ documentation is important.

Kobach’s supportive facts are powerful indeed: he takes some extras from the law to prove that people’s judgments do not have any grounds, he remembers real-life examples such as “Gonzales v. City of Peoria” case, and he clearly explains the role of documentation provisions in this particular reform.

The tone chosen in this article is persuasive, not hostile. It helps to explain the reader that the author is not satisfied with the conclusions made by some people and is ready to point out the mistakes and give informative explanations. His evidence is his personal experience and desire to create appropriate living conditions for the citizens of Arizona.

Still, the creation of appropriate living conditions may be interpreted in a variety of ways, and one of them is introduced in the article by Roger Mahony. A crucial aspect of this work is the attention to religion. The main claim of the article makes many readers realize that Arizona S.B. 1070 is a successful decision for the citizens of Arizona as it is defined by Kobach.

What he suggests is to comprehend the importance to consider immigrants “no longer as strangers or statistics, but to see and hear them as real, flesh-and-blood human beings – neighbors, family members, whose lives are adversely affected every day that our leaders fail to enact just and fair immigration reform” (Mahony 18).

On the one hand, this claim has clear humanistic evidence where God’s role and impact play an important role. People should be kind to each other and do not use the idea of citizenship as the main criteria for human separation. Attention to the Bible and the necessity to hear the stranger may be regarded as an influential factor.

We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Arizona Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Still, it is necessary to admit that not all people are ready to live in accordance with the rules identified in the Bible. So, on the other hand, people’s attitude to the role of the Bible and the ideas supported by a particular religion should not influence the political sphere of life. It is wrong to combine religious and political aspects to create one comprehensive law.

What Mahony offers is to consider the Catholic community as one of the main issues to human justice. The point is that the immigrant experience is familiar to the vast majority of people: we are immigrants in society, religion, education, etc. And a properly organized opinion about immigration reform should be “a matter of justice” as well as “a part of our identity, of what we are as a church” (Mahony 19).

Mahony uses rather convincing tone in the article. He does not want to provide people with any other choice but the one he supports. And his thoughts and devotion to religion are the main factors of his argument.

Response Though the question of illegal immigration did not touch me personally, I cannot neglect the impact of this reform on human lives. The articles chosen for the analysis in this paper help to comprehend how it is easy to create inappropriate judgments and follow them in life. I found the both articles rather interesting and educative for many people. Kobach and Mahony make a decision to consider the same issue from absolutely different perspectives.

If Kobach rely on his personal experience as the drafter of the Act and analyze thoroughly misunderstandings which take place around the issue taking into account different aspects of the, Mahony fails to consider various opinions but choose his religion as the only correct point. It is hard for people, who are far from some religious beliefs, to understand Mahony’s desire to unite politics and religion.

This is why I want to say that I have more common grounds with the author of the article “Defending Arizona”, Kris Kobach. First, this writer does not rely a lot on his personal understanding of the reform but uses the facts. Second, he analyzes what has been already said and explains why the conclusions made should be regarded as false.

And, finally, he does not want to convince the reader to accept one particular side but be able to evaluate all ideas discussed in the Act. Certain information in the article turns out to be new. For example, it is interesting to know that some leaders are ready to make conclusion without having clear grounds and reading the law itself. Such attitude to the case can explain why some people are not able to comprehend true essence of the reform offered.

This is why the preferred article by Kobach makes me think about many things and understand that each law and reform offered should not be judged superficially. I like the way Kobach introduces facts in his work. Though I cannot say that I dislike the way chosen by Mahony, still, I would like to admit that his approach is less understandable for me and does not correspond to my ideas to rely on clear facts.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Arizona Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Kobach, Kris, W. “Defending Arizona.” National Review 62.10 (2010): 31-33.

Mahony, Roger. “Thank You, Arizona!” America 202.19 (2010): 17-19.


We Can Stop Poverty in Ghana Today Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Critique of policy options

Policy recommendations

Reference List

Introduction Since the day of announcing Ghana as an independent country (1975), it has been trying to solve the problem of poverty. Many problems which exist in the country are either caused by the poverty or can influence it.

People don’t get appropriate health care, children don’t receive education, living standards and nutritional status are very low (Whitehead, 2006). The inability even crop farmers feed themselves is caused by the lack of technical support which cannot be purchased by rural citizens (Sackey, 2005). Both rural and urban citizens suffer greatly.

The issue cannot remain unsolved anymore, as people die. Previous programs were effective only for a short-term period. The main idea of the policy is to make it effective for a long period of time.

Critique of policy options The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS I) and the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) were the main policies aimed at solving the problem of poverty in the region up to 2009. The problem of making a new policy appeared, but it remained an unsolved issue up to June 14, 2011, when a new Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies for 2010-2016 was adopted (Parliament adopts report on poverty reduction strategy, 2011). Current policy options:

This program covers many problems and poverty is only one of those. One of the main disadvantages of the document is that the problem of poverty isn’t considered separately, but only as a part of other economic and social problems. However, it gives an opportunity to see the connection of the issues (Mills, 2011).

Lack of governmental support is the main disadvantage of the previous program. The program failed as it was directed at short period of time and didn’t presuppose the governmental support.

Policy recommendations This policy pays attention to the mistakes of the previous variants, that is why it may be considered as the most effective way for solving the problem of poverty. Having many options which may help solve the problem immediately, we would like to focus on modernization of the agricultural sector.

First of all, we recommend help those farmers who live in the unfavorable areas, like northern Ghana, which depends on rain-fed agriculture (Molini, Keyzer, Van den Boom, Zant,


Social Movement and it’s Influence Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The goal of a social movement is to influence the political sphere. A social movement is a movement that is formed with an aim of addressing social concerns of a group whereas a political sphere in this case shall be used to mean a field of politics. This paper shall discuss this statement in relevance to two Australian social movements namely: the Aboriginal Movement and The Labor Movement.

The Aboriginal Movement came into existence in early 1960’s with the core aim of addressing problems that were faced by the Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians were not allowed to reside and labor where they wanted, wed anyone, be responsible over their children, receive equivalent wages for equal labor, obtain education, participate in elections and to manage individual property (Brennan, 1997).

The Aboriginal Movement was aimed at obtaining political influence, interaction and connections amid the American experience and the Aboriginal (Butlin, 983).Before the formation of this movement, Aborigines’ was politically marginalized. They were denied the right to register and vote in national elections. However, in 1962 as a result of the movement’s mediation, aborigines’ were let to register and vote during the lections.

Up to 1967, Aboriginal Australians were officially barred from Australian nationality and were not enumerated in the Census (Brennan, 1997). The provision for voluntary electoral enrolment for Aborigines was abolished in 1978, therefore placing Aboriginal electorates on the same level with white voters. The Commonwealth Electoral Act was modified in 1983 so as to make electoral registration and voting essential for Aborigines.

The statistical and political segregation of indigenous Australians, together with the outcome of financial weakness and social displacement, made the Aboriginal assembly more influential in the parliamentary prejudiced system (Verity, 2005).

The liberal democracy had no array for indigenous Australians causing changes since Aborigines lacked the statistics to apply force on the electoral procedure, either straight through the election of contenders in place of the Aboriginal welfare or somehow through the load of Aboriginal view.

As a result of political influence, several Aborigines are currently elected as certified candidates for the main parties to the congress all through Australia. However, autonomous Aboriginal candidates have all unsuccessfully been voted, except at local management level in a few areas (Gooder


What freedom entails Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Aspect of freedom

Constitution balance

Texas: People and Events Surrounding its Birth

Works Cited

Aspect of freedom North America of the seventeenth century provides a clear understanding of what freedom entails. Many episodes happened portraying the essence of freedom. Freedom is a synonym to liberty and independence and refers to the absence of unnecessary restrictions and/or an opportunity for an individual to exercise his/her powers and rights.

People need to have freedom to choose what they deem right or correct and without any restriction from authority or individual. Therefore, people are free when they can independently decide their religious affiliations, economic systems, political groups and their social groupings without any objections or restrictions whatsoever.

North America is therefore a good example, as the people were denied freedom, witnessed in form of slavery, religious persecutions, property ownership, and indentured servants among many others. Indentured servitude provides a model in the North American during the 17th century showing one degree of freedom: the social freedom.

In pursuit of such social freedom, the servants sold their labor voluntarily for a certain period of about four to seven years after which they were freed and given freedom dues inform of cash, clothing, land and tools. In practice however, this form of providing labor was violent in that a number of English women and men were kidnapped and forced into becoming servant, which saw many die before being freed (Pope 1480). This form of servant’s is believed to have ushered in slavery.

Slavery flourished in North American during seventeen century. “Among the indigenous people in northern America, slavery was seen as a ritual of passage or away or a method of assimilating outside individuals into groups as opposed to a property or ownership right” (Pope 1482).

Slaves provided a source of labor hence they were a stimulus to economic growth of the North American. African slaves were preferred as opposed to the Indians who were familiar with the environment and less resistant to diseases like malaria. In addition, African slaves could not escape easily like the Indians.

Religious freedom also played a major role in the history of North America especially in the 17th century (Wood 86). The Roman Catholic and the Church of England had their conditions, which violated the freedom of its people. This denial of freedom made many of the European to migrate to the North America in fear of persecutions from the churches. This led to the start of the protestant churches, which were opposed to the ideologies of the Roman Catholics and the church or England.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Puritans then came up as English Protestants who wished to nurture reformation and had the passion of purifying the Church of England, which they believed to be a product or a residue of the Roman Catholic. They therefore moved in North American from England in order to have liberty and freedom to worship God as they chose. These puritans suffered a lot of agony due to their stance. Some were imprisoned and even subjected to physical abuse.

Economic freedom is another important factor in the history of northern America especially in the 17th century. It entailed concepts of free markets, welfare, and idea of private property, justice in distribution of products and freedom of the individuals and freedom to engage in collective bargaining.

Free market in perspective of economic liberty or independence implied the freedom of the people or the country to engage in production, trade, consumption of goods and services, which were acquired without any form of threats, use, theft or fraud. This degree of freedom therefore came in through “…the establishment of laws like the rule of law, property rights and freedom of contract, openness of markets, property right and economic initiative freedom” (Wood 89).

During 17th century, economic freedom in northern America was limited, as the colonialists imposed restrictions on the conduction of trade. For instance, the manufactured products were not allowed or exported to countries within the Britain’s trade empires. Exportation of products like wool, woolen cloth and yarn from one state or colony to other was also limited. This affected negatively the economic level of the northern America and hence the cry for the freedom, which was later realized.

There also exist some similarities and differences between these forms of freedoms. For instance, in the indentured servant, the people captured served as labor forces for a certain period after which they were freed. However, when it came to slavery, the slaves were subjected to physical violence, as they were supposed to work under harsh environments and were not freed from their slavery. Religious freedom was also different from other countries like England.

In northern America, there existed freedom of worship, as people were free to worship their God. The Puritans therefore found home in these parts, which led to the inception of protestant churches. The differences that existed in these versions of freedom, economic and religious is that in the economic sphere, the most important thing was labor while in the religious freedom, people wanted that liberty to make decisions for themselves about the God to worship.

Constitution balance Like any other society, there exist interests among different sections of the society in the governance and resource ownership. It is therefore important for those given the mandate to frame the constitution to consider all the competing interests in order to come up with a document that will be acceptable to the majority of the people to be governed by the constitution.

We will write a custom Essay on What freedom entails specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In North America, the framers of the constitution had to put in mind all these competing interests for them to satisfy many of their citizens’ expectations. For instance, on the sectional interests, ownership of property was an important area especially the ownership of land.

The framers of the constitution treated private or individual property as one of the cornerstone of a free society. People would be contented when their right to own individual property is recognized in their constitution. This meant that people could work hard and acquire their own personal wealth in form of ownership of property. The framers of the constitution encountered problem in the debate of whether, the right to own property was to be validated (McDonald 46).

This led to debate whether the owners of slaves were to be compensated for their deprivation. This is an example of how the framers of the constitution encountered competing interests. Because of the fear of the breaking of civil wars, such a move of compensating the slave owners was abolished hence, serving to address the interest of inferior people.

Furthermore, the framers of the constitution also sought consent of views from various states like the Virginia, Pennsylvania that affirmed the all people had the natural, essential and inherent rights of possessing acquiring and protecting property. Therefore, they insisted that under whatsoever condition would a person be deprived of his liberty, life and be affirmed the right to gain or acquire property.

The assertions and affirmation originated from the magma Carta, which stipulated the respect of freedom or liberty of the state to respect and allow free acquisition of property. The framers of the constitution had to follow these suggestions in their coming up of the constitution. The framers also had to come up with the bill of rights, which clearly illustrated the right of every organ in the constitution that every citizen was to abide by.

The framers had to solicit views from an array of people who provided some views on the bills of rights. The bills were meant to provide guidelines on the law that was to govern the state in administering and enforcement of laws. Furthermore, the framer had to subject the constitution to the citizens for their approval (McDonald 76). The citizens were to vote for the constitution in order to approve it. This is a sign of democracy whereby the people empower themselves by either agreeing to the laws they would wish to govern them or not.

This is a fair method and an inclusive form of ensuring that every citizen is able to make a decision based on the laws to govern them. Therefore, in summary, the framers of the constitution had to consider all the interests of the society by seeking their approval to the laws. They also had to consult with all the institutions and interested groups in order to capture their interests and views. This therefore led to the coming up of a constitution that captures all the interest of the society.

Texas: People and Events Surrounding its Birth Texas is the second largest states of the United States in terms of the population size and the area of coverage. The birth of Texas dates back from the early 1400s. Before the arrival of the first European explorers between Rio Grande and the red river were occupied by the Indians of Texas.

Not sure if you can write a paper on What freedom entails by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the mid 1519, Alonso Alverez de Pineda a Spanish explorer sailed from Jamaica and was the first European to explore and map the coastline of Texas. In 1528, Cabeza de Vaca pitched camp on the Galveston Island, traded in the region for a period of six years, and later explored the interiors of Texas as he moved his way to Mexico. Searching for seven cities of Cibola during the years 1540-1542, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led an expedition to the South United States across North Texas (Andrews 656).

During February 1685, Fort St. Louis was established at Matagorda Bay by Robert cavalier, Sieur de LaSalle that was to form a basis of France’s claim to Texas but unfortunately after two years LaSalle was killed by his own people. In 1689, Alonso de Leon a Mexican explorer reached Fort St. Louis and found it had been abandoned.

This was during his expedition to reestablish Spanish authority in Texas. For the whole of 18th century, Spanish people began establishing catholic missions in Texas towns like San Antonio, Nacogdoches and Goliad. In 1812, Gutierrez Magee, with around 130 strong men, went to Sabine from Louisiana during a rebel movement that was against the presence of Spanish and their rule in Texas.

During the years 1817-1820, Jean occupied Island of Galveston, which he used as his smuggling and private operations base. However, in 1823, 3 January, Stephen Austin began colonizing the region of Brazos River after being granted a grant from the Mexican government. The constitution of 1824 had some limitation since it gave Mexico republican kind of government but did state the rights of every state within the republic, Texas being inclusive.

This led to indentation of relationships between Mexico and Texas when Mexico placed restrictions of emigrations to Texas by people coming from United States. This saw the battle of velesco result in this indented relationship. After fighting for few days, Mexicans who were under leadership of Domingo de Ugartechea surrendered because of lack of weapons and ammunitions.

Dissatisfaction with polices in the Mexico City government triggered the formation of the convention of 1832 and 1833 during the period 1832-1833. Revolution began in 1835 in the battle called battle of Gonzales in which Texas reused detachment of the Mexican Calvary, the Goliad campaign of 1835 ended with the storming of 4 Texas by Ben and George Collingsworth.

A consultation was held in which a document called organic law was signed in order to reach an autonomous rule in Texas. The document outlined all the functions of the new provisional government and organization (Andrews 645). A fight by the name Grass Fight was won by Texas under the leadership of Jim and Burleson, which saw Mexicans surrender to Texas because of the siege of Bexar. Ben succumbed to death because of the extended siege.

In 1836, Texas declaration of independence was signed by convention of 1836 members, which saw the formation of an interim government for the new republic of Texas. Attacks between Mexico and Texas continued with many people succumbing to death. For instance, in 1836 around 400 Texans were killed by Mexicans in the Goliad massacre under the leadership of Santa Anna until the American troops intervened.

In 1845, President James Polk promised to Annex Texas trough signing of legislations, which made Texas to become 28th states of US. Boundary disputes cropped out which saw south boundary of Rio Grande River fixed up, payment of debts in the compromise of 1850. This saw the reconstructions of Texas begin with Texas being readmitted to the union (Andrews 630).

In 1874, the Coke Davis’ dispute ended in peace in Austin, which saw Davis relinquish governor’s office, and a democratic part dynasty was kicked by Richard Coke, which lasted unbroken for over 100 years. These counts of events have contributed to the long history of rebirth of Texas. The states then set out policies and laws, which were to govern them. The discovery of black gold in 1901 led Texas into a century of exploration of oil, and business at large.

Works Cited Andrews, Gregg. Black Working-Class Political Activism and Biracial Unionism:

Galveston Longshoremen in Jim Crow Texas, 1919-1921. Journal of Southern History 74.3 (2008): 627-668.

McDonald, Forrest. We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Pope, James. Contract, Race, and Freedom of Labor in the Constitutional Law of “Involuntary Servitude”. Yale Law Journal 119.7 (2010): 1474-1567.

Wood, Nicholas. A Sacrifice on the Alter of Slavery. Doughface Politics and Black Disenfranchisement in Pensilvania, 1837-1838. Journal of the Early Republic 31.1 (2011): 75-106.


The issues in business management Term Paper best essay help: best essay help

One of the issues in business management and growth arise from the application of characters in order to realize business goals. One of the issues that make character to be of importance than other issues is dependence. This is the aspect of having something with which someone relies one. While this is an inborn aspect, dependence contributes a lot in business management. One of the areas within which business contributes to development is in the decision-making process.

While many businesses have been known to operate under independent environments, the aspects of having dependence is known to influence many issues in business (Bowie


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Explain the concept of corporate social responsibility Defining the concept

The term CSR was first coined in 1953 following the publication of the article, ‘Social Responsibility of Businessmen’ by Bowen (1953). The article sought to establish the responsibility of businesspeople to the society.

This definition was later expanded by authors on the subject in the 1960s suggesting that organizations were responsible to the society in other ways, other than through legal obligations only (Carrol 2000). Academic discussions on the concept registered tremendous growth in the 1970s and 80s, but the first publications of a social report occurred in 1989. Shell was the first company to publish a CSR report (Marlin


Internet should be free from all government control Research Paper scholarship essay help

Introduction The debate on whether governments should censor internet usage has raised much criticism as it has drawn support. The role of government, as well as government agencies, has come under spotlight in the recent past over what has been seen as infringement of freedom of speech by censoring internet content (Reporters without Borders 4).

While governments have defended themselves as intending to protect the public goodwill, effort to control the use of internet have been found to be more detrimental than advantageous, therefore, the Internet should be free from all government control. It is however safe to argue that despite the much acclaimed advantages of unrestricted internet access, there may be genuine concerns that justify government censorship of internet use. This paper is an argument for internet that is free from all government control.

History of government censorship of internet and definition of terms Government censored internet access can be traced to the commissioning of CSIRO by the United States government in 2001to look into the effect of censoring the use of internet through filtering softwares (Mehlman para 2). This trend has been subsequently picked by governments all over the world. Governments contend that it is their responsibility to protect their netizens from the harmful effects of the open world of internet.

Currently, the most vocal governments that support and actually do censor internet content include Australia, China, Iran, Egypt, Tunisia, Iraq, Saudi Arabia among others (Reporters Without Borders 11 – 49; Alharbi 2010). The term netizens mean citizens who use internet. Internet is an information network that uses the web, while filtering software is a special kind of program that restricts access to certain websites in particular regions.

There are three basic ways through which internet can be censored. The most common one include technical filtering where website are blocked using a proxy. There is also the use of search result removals where undesirable content is removed from content by internet search companies.

Furthermore, governments do encourage self censorship where content publishers do limit the publication of information that may be against the public good (ONI ‘About Filtering’, paras 3 – 5). The diagram below depicts the Great Firewall of China showing the negative effects of government censorship of internet

Source: GFIC. Cyber Information Control – China Great FireWall

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of uncensored access to internet Argument I: Unrestricted internet access leads to personal and societal development.

Unrestricted internet access is seen as a leverage through which all people in the society have equal means to personal advancement. The internet is one of the key pillars for economic development.

A report by the group of eight most developed countries in the world, the G 8, indicates that information and communication technology is one of the most powerful forces that will play a decisive role the realization of the economic potential of many nations in the 21st century.

Furthermore, information and communication technology is billed as a key driver for global economic growth and as such there are infinite opportunities for economic growth (Kenny 99).For countries that are interested at expanding economic, as well as social growth, the internet is seen as one of the major avenues that will facilitate this expansion.

Where the internet is well developed, it constitutes a significant part of the national infrastructure. Furthermore, it is easier to develop the internet as a form of infrastructure. This will facilitate easier access to socio-economic opportunities by people in areas that would have otherwise been unreachable.

This is evident in comparison studies done between African and South America. South America has double the number of people who have access to internet than Africa and as such the rate of economic development is more than double in South America as compared to Africa’s (Madon 2).

In addition, the internet, because of its infinite potential, has endless economic opportunities that it provides for people (Kenny 101). However, under ordinary circumstances, it is expected that some people do benefit more than others in exploiting the economic opportunities for themselves.

According to Rawl’s social constructivism, concentration of wealth and economic advantages on one segment of the society has detrimental effects to the society at large. As such, a just and moral society must have a fair distribution and access of economic means. Furthermore, no one should have too much wealth at the expense of others. Everyone thus deserves a chance to justified means of social economic, as well as personal development (Quinn 89).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Internet should be free from all government control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Societies must strive to provide equal opportunities, as well as advantages, to all for social, economic and personal development. While there may be economic inequalities, those inequalities must be justified by providing the most benefits to the least disadvantaged. Therefore, free and uncensored internet is a way of providing the most economic benefits to the disadvantaged in the societies.

Argument II: Internet for a free and open society.

The internet is one of the major components of a country’s infrastructural development and thus it opens up societies to the wider world. It is also one of the platforms through which people are guaranteed free speech. Therefore, the internet is one of the most powerful manifestations of free and open societies.

It is one of the tools for strengthening democracy because it is an avenue for free speech. Email, blogs and social network sites such as Facebook and twitter among others provides an opportunity for free speech and thus lead to the flourishment of democratic governance (Reporters without Borders 4).

In Saudi Arabia, a country that aims to maintain a very strong religious identity, the government maintains a very strict control over the use of internet. This government censorship has increased public anger and activists are now protesting and demanding for free internet access. The figure below shows a censored website in Saudi Arabic.

Source: Alharbi: Internet Censorship in Saudi Arabia.

While Saudis have turned to blogging as a tool for free speech, the Saudi government maintain a keen eye on internet content especially one that is deemed critical to the government. Due to the strict control of public inter-gender socialization; many women are now turning to the internet as an avenue to socialize (ONI ‘Saudi Arabia’, 1, 2). The table below shows that internet access by Saudi Arabians is still very low due to government censorship.

One of the principles of the Social Contract Theory is that all people are equal and have a right to equal access to means that would ensure social and economic advancement. Every person in any society regardless of social standing and background has guaranteed inalienable rights and basic liberties such as freedom of expression, association, conscience, right to own property, right to life, and education among others.

People have the right to enjoy those basic rights and liberties provided the enjoyment is not to the disadvantage of others in the society (Quinn 88). Since the Saudis only want freedom to freely associate with others without causing harm to both fellow Saudis and the government, then government censorship of internet access is not justifiable at all. The diagram below shows the level of internet access in Saudi Arabia.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet should be free from all government control by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Source: ONI: Internet filtering in Saudi Arabia

Argument III: Internet censorship is against the rule of law.

The passing of the bill by the United States Senate Judiciary Committee in 2010 that proclaimed to be combating online infringement and counterfeiting in online content is against the rule of the law. Even though the bill has gained much support from major stakeholders in such as Hollywood, the bill aims to blacklist certain website for restriction. This will be attained by blacklisting certain website domain names.

Since it will be impossible to issue court injunctions to website owners, most of who are located outside United States, website registrars within the States will be issued with a court injunction to limit such access. The main problem with this move is that website domain name registrars will be required to keep large catalogues of blacklisted websites, and as such wrongly connect them to counterfeiting activities.

This is unfair and against the rule of the law as website registrars have nothing to do with infringing activities of these websites and the court injunctions will be issued on mere accusations of infringement. Furthermore, they will neither be notified nor have an opportunity to contest with the injunction. This bill is thus unconstitutional and against the First Amendment of the American constitution (Lee paras 1 to 4).

This move violates Neo Kantian constructivism which stipulates that an action can only be termed as moral if is it is justifiable beyond any reasonable doubt by those acting. Neo Kantian theorists also argue that an action must be for the goodwill of all and should also result to justice for all (Earman 138 to 144). Quinn adds that an action is only justifiable if only it is for the purpose of the achievement of goodwill (71).

Goodwill is defined as the intension of an action that is in line with duty (what ought to be done rather than what people want to do). The Bill is thus unjust because it violates Kantian ethics as it unjustly accuses website registrars of infringements. The government wants to censor internet but in doing so violates the constitutional rights of Americans. One of the government’s cardinal duties should be to protect the rule of the law. As such, the government should not censor the internet.

Counter argument: Demerits of uncensored internet access Despite the fact that the internet is a way of opening up the world to new endless opportunities for social economic, personal and cultural developments, this should not obscure the fact that it also has detrimental effects. Consequently, some cases have warranted censorship by some governments in order to promote public common good and reduce chances of moral and social retrogression.

Counter argument I: Unrestricted internet access might lead to personal,as well as societal retrogressiveness.

Internet usage needs to be regulated as it might lead to societal retrogressiveness. The government needs to censor the internet against transmittal of obscene content and thus limit the spread of such vices that lead to moral retrogressiveness, such as child pornography. Research demonstrates that countries that have stringent laws prohibiting the internet pornography do have very low rates of rape and murder.

Therefore, some countries such the United Kingdom passed the Obscene Publication Act that made it an offence for someone to use the internet to transit any material that is considered depraving or corrupting the morality of people (Bott 2). In the United States of America, research by University of New Hampshire shows that States such as Nebraska, which have as much as five times access to internet pornography have eight times the number of rape cases than those States with limited access to pornography (KACST para 6).

According to the Divine Moral Theory, there are a number of major religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hindu, Judaism and African traditional religions. Each of these religions has an established set rules and beliefs which form the basis of the establishment of morality for those who ascribe to that religion.

Despite the fact that there may be variance in belief between these religions, they all believe in the existence of one supreme creator who made the law, which adherents of that particular religion consider sacred and supreme. Islam stipulates that Allah prefers that people should not have access to any thing that might turn their attention away from Him (KACST para 7).

Since pornography is against the wish of Allah, then most of the Muslim countries censor the internet against pornography. It therefore becomes necessary for the government to control the use of the internet, in accordance with Divine morality ethics, for purposes that are outrightly morally harmful to the people.

Counter argument II: Unrestricted Internet usage may cause harm to others

Despite the fact that uncensored internet is for the advantage of free and open societies, freedom to use internet should not lead to any form of harm to others. Some governments claim that unrestricted internet is detrimental to the society as there are people who have been known to publish or transmit information through the internet for malicious purposes.

This includes publishing private information about other people without their consent. It is also notable that people may tend to use the internet to publish or transmit private information for their own selfish gains.

Most states in USA, such as California, New York, Florida, Indiana, Texas and many others, have implemented laws to prohibit any one to publish or use another person’s name or private information, no matter how factual it is for exploitative purposes. Citizens of these States thus have the right to stop any individual or organization from using their names, or private facts.

Such limitations include using the name or fact about a person without their permission for economic or any other gain that is not for public good. Furthermore, it is illegal to use the internet to publish or transmit information that may lead to the malicious damage of person’s reputation, no matter how factual that information is. It is sufficient to say that publishing information that is considered malicious is only allowed if it is not done maliciously and whose effect is for public good.

This law was implemented by the United States government, as well as other governments, to avoid cases where by people use the internet to cause harm, disrepute or injure a person and thus protect such people against public embarrassment (Citizen Media Law para 1 – 4).

This law follows the Principle of Utilitarianism based on the act of utility, which stipulates that an action is right if it promotes the greatest happiness to all, and wrong if it reduces the happiness to all. The measure of overall happiness and unhappiness is the net effect. If the net effect of happiness outweighs the net effect of unhappiness than the act that lead to such happiness is ethical. Furthermore, act utilitarianism argues that an action is wrong if it causes harm to someone (Quinn 72).

Publishing information on the internet maliciously has a bigger net effect of unhappiness and as such the act causes personal harm and thus unethical. This justifies why the government needs to censor internet use to reduce chances of causing great unhappiness and harm to others. Such law has been to the advantage of the influential, public figures and celebrities.

Counter argument III: Internet censorship to protect the rule of law.

The government needs to censor internet usage so as to protect the rule of law. Suicide in whatever form is illegal and thus the internet should not be used for transmission of information that may lead to loss of life. The government of Australia sees it as its own responsibility to protect its citizen’s from such detriments and consequently has passed very strict laws that control the use of internet within the country’s borders. This law is contained in the Broadcasting Services Amendment Act 1999.

Under this act the government of Australia has criminalized the use of the telephone, the fax, as well as the internet, to pass any information that may cause people to take away their lives. Any information intended to be published or transmitted through these media is vetted by a government controlled body. Contained in this law is the Suicide Related Materials Offences Act which bars the transmission of any information that promotes the act of suicide amongst Australians (Commonwealth of Australia 1).

According to the Devine Moral Theory, there is a supreme being who is the creator and controller of life. As such, morality is defined by the Supreme Being. An action is only morally right if it pleases the Supreme Being. According to the Devine Moral Theory, life is sacred and no person has the right to take it away.

Therefore, it is unethical to use internet to promote or help a person end his or her life or provide others, through the internet, with information that will be used for the purposes of termination of life. This theory is intended to promote the dignity of life and argues that no one has the right to end life other than the Devine creator (Quinn 66 – 68).

Rebuttal: Unrestricted internet access is still beneficial than restricted access

Despite the genuine causes for internet censorship, Internet access and usage should be free of all government interference. According to the G8, internet is one of the most effective tools earmarked as drivers of economic growth and development in developing countries, as well as economic prosperity for developed countries.

This is because internet provides infinite opportunities for social-economic development of the majority in communities. These eventually lead to improved standards of living and personal development. As such, uncensored internet promotes general well being, common good and advancement for all.

Conclusion Internet should be free from all government control. This is because free internet has a number of advantages in comparison to censored internet access and usage. Internet is a fast and reliable means of efficient transfer of information and therefore opens up people to a world of free information.

Therefore, not only does it lead to economic growth but it is also a means of better governance. Through the internet, democracies flourish, so does free speech. Despite the fact that the internet has been used negatively to cause harm to people, as well as deny them individual rights, its benefits have ensured that the common good and happiness for the majority is achieved.

Works Cited Alharbi, Khalid. Internet Censorship in Saudi Arabia. 2010. Web.

Bott, Frank. Pornography, the internet and the law. Department of Computer Science, University of Wales. 2006. July 20, 2011 for BCS Leicester.pdf

Citizen Media Law. Publishing personal and private information: understanding your legal risks. 2008. July 20, 2011

Commonwealth of Australia. Criminal Code Amendment (Suicide Related Material Offences) Act 2005. Com law. 2011. July 20, 2011

Earman, John, inference, explanation, and other frustrations: Essays in the philosophy of science. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1992. July 29, 2011


The role of management in business Deductive Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Body



Introduction Management is an important part of business for both commercial and non commercial organizations. Management can be described as an act that brings together all resources belonging to an organization including people with the aim of achieving and utilizing them optimally to achieve overall corporate goals (Watson 2006, 34-40).

Organizations are governed by missions, vision and values which stakeholders are part of and it thus becomes the duties of organizational managers to plan, organize lead and control various activities and individuals who possess certain talents within the organization in order to ensure that the organization succeeds in its objectives (Camillus 1986, 54-56). Effective management theories can be the basis of a success in a business.

Management in any kind of organization can learn from the tried and applied management ways. Top leaders are often enthusiastic to adopt the most recent theories in their organization. For instance if the latest change management concept is espoused with a big fanfare, the staff are trained properly, only for the benefits to be accrued insignificant after some time. And when the programs stutter to a stop the management turns its interest to another management craze.

Today’s volatile business environment has even made the role of managers within organizations become more imperative and complex hence making the technical and rational depiction of managing differ largely with realities of being a manager. Thus, the level of ambiguity in the commercial environment may require managers to defy logical and textbook descriptions of management descriptions in order to maximize their performance.

Organizations are often divided into different functional areas which are similar to sub systems that exist within the entire organization. It is thus the duty of managers to plan, organize, lead and control the various functional areas with the aim of ensuring that the entire organization moves towards the same organization (Roberts 1984, 287-302).

Main Body Managers are individuals who must possess certain set of skills that will enable them carry out their intended responsibilities, this is why in some cases managers must be individuals who have the necessary technical skills, communication skills, logical reasoning skills and analytical skills that will often assist them to plan, organize, lead and control the organization in the right direction.

But it is in times of crises that reality strikes and it demands quick decisions be made managers thus they may not follow conventional theories of management but may rely on their own wits or internal mechanisms to make decisions. It’s therefore important to have technical and rational knowledge of being a manager but when it comes to real life situations managers are often required to go an extra mile to successfully carry out their roles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Looking at companies like HP, IBM, BMW, Samsung, General Electric, Toyota, Apple, Google and other leading multinational organizations, it becomes clear that the managerial skills within their managerial pool in their organizations have made these organizations very successful despite some of them being very big conglomerates and spreading their operations across many nations ,this is simply because they have trained managers to adapt to varying situations and not only rely on what they learnt on the book. (Johnson


The significance of the Prison Films Essay college admission essay help

Introduction Film noir is a categorical description of Hollywood crime movies especially the ones whose main plot is driven by cynical attitudes and sexual intentions (Conrad 2006 3-4). Most of the films in this category are the ones that emerged from the Hollywood mills in the period between 1940 and 1950.

These movies were mainly done in black and white and their cinematography was mainly inspired by Expressionist cinematography originating from Germany. The storylines of the films that fall into the film noir category of the period were mainly inspired by the criminal outcrops that arose in the United States in the period after the Depression.

Even though the concentration of Film noir was in 1940s-50s, many other films in decades to follow had characteristics of Film noir. However, these films being not typical noirs were branded Film neo noir meaning that they had both cinematic and thematic elements of Film neo noir but were essentially hybrids of various styles (Conrad 2007 1-10).

This essay seeks to shed light on the distinguishing features and characteristics of film noir. To this extent the works of two popular directors (Park Chan-wook and Quentin Tarantino) shall be assessed with the aim of identifying the noir elements in them.

Later, a comparison of the styles of both directors shall be presented with an aim of establishing the elements that they do in a similar way as well as establishing the fundamental differences in their work. To this end a various literature, spanning print to electronic shall be consulted to provide background material for the essay.

Existential characteristics of film noir There are various elements that are used to distinguish film noirs. These components cover both visual and stylistic aspects as well as the narrative element. For instance, it has been generally agreed that the typical film noir has to have a tragic ending (Donovan 38). Below is a detailed explanation of the film noir distinguishing factors:

Visual elements

Most of the distinguished film-noirs carry low-key lighting schemes where there are clear contrasting between dark and bright elements. This style has been defined as chiaroscuro. In some scenes of noted noirs, the faces of characters were partially (or sometimes fully) covered in darkness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These effects were in some instances achieved through obscuring the artificial lights used in sets with things such as banister rods. Another visual element that must be present for a film to be classified as a noir is the omission of color. However, this is not a categorical element as some color films have been routinely classified as noir by various film scholars.

As far as shots and camera work is concerned, noirs are notably known for using low, wide and skewed angles. Some shots are taken through translucent glass or other items that could result in distortion. In the primary film noir era, night shots were taken at night which was a stark contrast to night shots being shot during the day in modern filmography.

Narration and structure

The plots of film noirs are generally not straight-forward. Most of them involve frequent flashbacks as well as various other editing styles that end of distorting and to some extent shadow the sequence of the narrative. In some films, the fundamental narration is presented as an independent flashback.

When voice-overs are used to complement the visual narrative they to some extent end up appearing as noir hallmarks. Experimentations have been done with some noirs being narrated from the point of view of the protagonist, and some being presented without ever clearly revealing some characters.

Storylines and characterization

A majority of film noirs are characterized by plots that revolve around crime and mostly the element of murder. Other society-shunned vices such as greed and jealousy are regarded as the basic motivation for the criminal activity informing the story.

Once the criminal has been identified, the story shifts to introduce an investigator, whose main purpose is unveil the crime and ensure that justice is installed. Unlike in other film categories, noirs generally the characters of heroes are to some extent questionable and these characters end up appearing alienate. A number of other characters appear archetypal such as corrupt policemen and writers going through mental block. In most film noirs cigarette smoking is commonplace.


The setting of most Film noirs is urban and certain towns such as Los Angeles, New York and Chicago among others form the popular location. Bars, animal-fighting dens, boxing arenas and gambling hideouts shape most of the scenes for the films in this category. Some movies in the film noir classification happen in complex settings such as railway stations, factories and warehouses. On average, in most film noirs, there has to be a scene where rain falls, and this scene happens at night.

We will write a custom Essay on The significance of the Prison Films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tone

The tone of most noirs is ‘downbeat’ and hopeless, and lacks the excitement that is typical of films in other genres. Film noir is generally described as primarily pessimistic with most of them presenting the stories of individuals who find themselves in unbearable situations. Most of them find themselves in such situations that are propelled without them playing an exacerbating role. To some extent, these individuals will more often than not be fighting against fate. These films present the world as fundamentally immoral.

Existential characteristics of film noir in the movie Old boy

The movie Old boy , directed by Park Chan-wook is a cinematic translation of the Japanese comic going by the same title and written by Nobuaki Minegishi and Garon Tsuchiya (Lee 203). This film is sequel in The Vengeance trilogy and it presents the story of an individual named Oh Dae-Su, who spends around fifteen years of his life locked up in a hotel room.

From the outset, it is easy to identify the noir element of this film in the plot of the story. First, Dae-Su does not know what he did for his captors to torture him for that long (Ridely 38). Secondly, when he is finally let free, he still finds himself entangled in a web of crime and violence. The darkness is further propagated by the fact that he is so much engulfed in his quest for revenge (Tomkins 73).

However, he still maintains a loveable trait when he falls in love with a beautiful Sushi chef. The sexual motivation that is characteristic of noirs is presented in the fact that Dae-Su ends up discovering that the Sushi chef, Mi-Do, with whom he has had sex is actually his daughter, and that his captors had actually plotted from the beginning to get him to commit incest (Philips 97-98).

Dae-Su again involves himself in irrational actions when he slices off his tongue as a presentation of the extent he is willing to go to get the silence of Woo-Jin, who was one of his captors. Woo-Jin tragically takes away his life, essentially contributing to the darkness of the film (Spencer 18-20). Towards the end of the story, Dae-Su gets hypnotized and the film winds up on a rather unconventional note with him in a relationship with Mi-Do.

Various flashbacks have been used in the film especially when Dae-Su recalls the growing up of his daughter to culminate with the revelation that the daughter he has in mind is actually Mi-Do. These are the types of flashbacks that were typical of the 1940s-50s films and have ended up giving up this film a noir characteristic (Lee 203-219).

As far as the setting is concerned, various locations have been chosen and combined with strategic lighting to give the film a characteristic noir look (Lee 203-219). For instance, the fight in the corridor is well played out to partially obscure the participants from time to time. Another scene that that has been consciously presented with noir elements in mind is the final scene whereby the shots on snowy landscapes end up distorting the viewers regard of the passage of time.

Critical reception of Old boy

Old boy generated a lot of warmed-up opinions, particularly by film critics. This is particularly in regards to the ending which left most viewers uncertain of the safety of Dae-Su’s secret. Robert Egbert, a reviewer with the Chicago Sun-times found the film superior and described the violence in it as purposeful., through its writer Stephanie Zacharek also finds the film interesting and praises the noir element that according to her words makes the film ‘beautiful, anguished and desperately-alive”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The significance of the Prison Films by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, there are a number of reviewers who found the film either too shallow or too confusing. Among these individuals are Manohla Dargis and J.R. Jones of the New York Times and the Chicago Reader respectively. Dargis says that the film leaves the viewer with very little to think about while Jones claims that too much critical information has been left out. He actually describes the film as over-glorified.

The other two films in the vengeance trilogy have had a lukewarm reception with the first installment, Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance receiving more acclaim for its cinematography, which is mildly noir and regarded by Elaine Perrone of says that the film is more visually striking than its successor.

The last installment of the trilogy, Sympathy for Lady Vengeance has characteristic noir elements particularly in its narrative and plot. It received numerous positive reviews for its music, which was seen to complement the narrative hence increasing the weight of the story.

Existential characteristics of film noir in the movie Pulp fiction

The movie Pulp Fiction was made in 1994 and was directed by Quentin Tarantino. Like Park Chan-wook’s Oldboy this film is a neo-noir as it has characteristic noir elements from the outset.

The story has a rich and satirical combination of humor and violence which play a big role in making it both easy to watch and also more effective as far as driving the message home is concerned (Tarantion 1-360). The storyline in its direction has inherent noir elements. This is because it employs various intersecting storylines of individuals in the dark world of crime.

It is not immediately easy for viewers to tell the direction of the story because the presentation follows a scatter-sequence format. Tarantino, in his characteristic style, avoids chronological sequencing it takes some time for a first-time viewer to catch on with the ‘fluctuating-pace’ story. The humor presents in the dialogues of characters and most reviewers have regarded the film as dark-comedy and definite example of a post-modern film.

The entire structure of the story is flipped such that the end comes at the beginning, making the film appear like one whole flashback. It is actually the sequence at the end of the movie that informs the viewer that the credit-roll after the very first scene was actually strategically and accurately placed. This is an editing style that was typical of a number of noirs and Tarantino employs it appropriately with the result of making his film neo-noir.

The choice of location also makes the film classically noir. The scenes at a small diner, boxing arena’s and dark criminal dens are elements of setting that distinguish a noir and have been appropriately used in this film to give the slow and classical pace of the 1940s-50s films.

The kind of film stock that was chosen was also intentionally-picked with the aim of giving the film the pace of a noir while at the same maintaining the clarity of a modern film. These two elements combined to give the film the visual appearance of a neo-noir.

Critical reception of Pulp-fiction

Pulp fiction received very favourable reviews from some of the most respecteds film critics in the world. Robert Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times described it as very well written and consciously designed to be a hit. Richard Corliss of Time magazine also gave the film a thumbs up declaring that it had towered over other films to ever emanate from Hollywood.

He went on to say that it is such films that will encourage the come-back of the theatre culture. Other critics who found the movie appealing included Owen Gleiberman and Peter Travers of the Entertainment weekly and Rolling Stone who both said that the film made individuals rediscover how enjoyable film watching can get.

However, even with these positive reviews, there were a number of critics who found the film wanting to some extent especially with the noir effect that Tarantino wanted to present. The lighting of the film was distinctively and this is one of the elements that make the film not qualify as a typical noir.

Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times concluded that there is no way this film could be defined as noir or a parody of noir as it was very clean and failed to give room for operatic death and other characteristics of traditional noir. Stanley Kauffman of The New Republican found the movie extravagant on the effects and very little on content.

Park Chan-wook vs. Quentin Tarantino

The direction of both Chan-wook and Tarantino from the films Oldboy and Pulp fiction appears to be drawn towards resolution of conflict at a very slow pace.

Both films capitalize on extreme violence to capture the attention of the viewer as well as distract him/her from directly getting the gist of the story. Even though both films were done in the 21st century, the two directors ensure that they bring out noir characteristics which are essentially the features that make the movies very compelling to follow.

Comparison and contrast of character development by Chan-wook and Tarantino

Chan-wook develops his characters by introducing characters gradually and with the pace of the story. He dedicates a lot of time following one character which makes it easy for the audience to understand and appreciate the persona of the character. Existential characters are also brought in gradually and the reader is given ample time to appreciate their inherent nature.

Tarantino on the other hand develops his characters at a much faster pace than Chan-wook . He introduces his characters in a sequence of cross-linking scenes early in the film essentially making the viewer aware of the presence of a number of protagonists and antagonists as well as side-characters. Oh Dae-Su in the film Oldboy presents as a victim from the outset especially because he is not aware of why he is in the situation that he is in.

This ends up leaving the viewer more sympathetic to him and even leads one to be tempted to support him in his cause. Jules Winnfield from Pulp fiction on the other hand is a toughened character who knows the direction he is headed right from the time he is introduced. It is therefore easy to predict that the film will end with him on top of the case. This is unlike in Dae-Su’s case where the viewer cannot immediately tell whether or not he will succeed in his mission.

Differences between Korean and American film values

Korean films are more reserved and tend to steer away from over glorifying crime. This is well ensured by making criminals shoulder their own burdens and making victims triumph to some extent (Cage 123-143). American films on the other hand are never shy of controversy and may actually make the antagonist dominate the show.

Nudity and violence are provided in American films as long as they can be used to capture the attention of the viewer. This is in contrast with Korean films where the two elements (nudity and violence) are only portrayed whenever the situation calls for it. The Korean style of narration is also very straight forward as has been detailed in the film Oldboy.

This makes it easier for any individual to follow the story. American movie makers on the other hand have a pre-conceived notion of who the film is targeted at and this makes the complexity of their presentation target a particular section of society. This segregation element has been presented in Tarantino’s Pulp fiction which to some extent requires some degree of film style understanding to watch comfortably.

Conclusion Each film is an independent work of art and it will tend to have unique structure particularly in terms of the narrative and structural elements and this will primarily depend on the choices made by the creator. This essay has analyzed the narrative structure of the film Pulp fiction directed by Quentin Tarantino and Oldboy directed by Park Chan-wook.

Focus has been on the assessment of the general narrative, visual techniques and elements of characters and characterization that are applicable, particularly in the regard of the films being easily characterized as Film noir. Various forms of literature have been used to provide the background for assessment of the films and this has come in handy to help in further explaining the element of film noir.

Works Cited Cage, Rober L. “The Good, the Bad and the South Korean Violence, Morality and South

Korean Extreme Fim.” Choi, Jinhee Wada-Marciano, Mitsuyo. Horror to the extreme: Changing boundaries in Asian Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. 123-143. Print

Conrad, Mark T. The philosophy of Film Noir. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006. Print

Conrad, Mark T. The philosophy of Film Neo-noir. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007. Print.

Donovan, Barna William. Blood, guns and testosterone: action films, audiences and a thirst for violence. Lanham: Scarecrow press, 2010. Print.

Lee, Nikki. “Salute to Mr. Vengeance!”: The making of transnational auteur Park Chan-wook.” Hunt, Leon Wing-Fai, Leung. East Asian cinemas: exploring transnational connections on film. London: I.B Tauris, 2008. 203-219. Print

Philips, Kendall R. Controversial cinema: the films that outraged America. Westport: Praeger, 2008.Print

Ridely, Jim. “Film: (Very) Oldboy.” The village voice (2009):38.Print

Spenser, Liese. “Revengers tragedy.” Sight and sound (2004): 18-20.Print

Tarantino, Quentin. Pulp Fiction: A Screenplay . New York: Hyperion/Miramax, 1994. Print

Tomkins, Joseph. “The political unconscious of Park Chan-wook: The Lofic of revenge and the structures of Global capitalism.” Essays in film and the humanities (2008):69-8.Print


Effective Communication Process Aspects Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Characteristics of the audience

Appropriate communication channel

Important considerations due to audience diversity

Ensuring effectiveness of the message



Introduction Effective communication is a desire of anyone involved in the process. As a result considerations have to be made with respect to type of meeting, characteristics of the target audience, appropriate communication channels and considering the diversity of the audience. Each of these considerations shall be examined singly.

Characteristics of the audience The presentation is in-person and its information quarterly sales. The target audience a group, which constitutes stakeholders: managers, sales people and customers. For such like mix of the audience, the characteristics to be considered are physical abilities of the audience, the age profile gender, race and ethnic backgrounds of the audience.

These characteristics determine the how the presentation is going to be executed. For instance, some section of the audience may require a special attention in order to communicate due to their physical ability aspect, thus determining and influencing the choice of communication channel.

On the other hand, gender is a characteristic that must be carefully considered during an in-person meeting. Aspects of language such as sexist language should be avoided in a meeting constituting of diverse audience. In addition, race and ethnic backgrounds of the audience is also a consideration that must be put in mind.

This diversity has a lot to do with the cultural aspect of the audience. Since the customers are part of the audience, probably constituting the majority, we would expect to have a good feedback at a later stage. If your communication touches the positive attributes of the ethnicity and racial aspects without any edge of discrimination, then the sales information will reach the diverse audience, leading to good feedbacks.

Appropriate communication channel Channel selection for communication must be given the same caution and weight as the message to be communicated. In this incidence, the sales information is to be presented in-person to a group of people. Since this is an in-person communication, the most appropriate channel an orally presented speech, which will integrate other media to pass the message. Oral communication has persuasive capability to an audience. Media such as power point presentation.

It also has the power using gestures to convince the stakeholders of the company about the performance in the sales for the quarter just ended. Besides, brochures and printouts can be distributed to the audience to enable them to have an updated follow up of the presentation ever time the speaker puts across a point. Another importance of using oral communication in this presentation is that the presenter is given an opportunity to assess attentiveness, which is an indicator of appropriateness of the communication process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the presenter realizes that the message is not getting to the recipient as intended, he has an opportunity to rectify and use an appropriate means (Trehanu,


Leila Khaled: Freedom Fighter or Terrorist? Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Leila Khaled a freedom fighter



Introduction It is usually easy to regard any forceful and violent behaviour as an act of terrorism rather than a cause of justice, this is normally true when extreme actions are used to voice plights of a community. A case of a Palestinian woman named Leila Khaled is analysed.

This essay elaborates her intentions with the support of academic sources and her movie in order to demonstrate her cause of action as a freedom fighter for her country and not a terrorist as perceived. Khaled extreme actions were inspired by suffering Palestinians in their tents. This essay therefore analyses Khaled cause as a freedom fighter and not a terrorist.

Leila Khaled a freedom fighter Leila Khaled has strong basis to support her claims as a freedom fighter rather than a terrorist despite her extreme actions. In 1969, Khaled and another male companion decided to hijack a TWA plane from Los Angeles in route via Tel Aviv.

Their intention was not to harm the passengers but rather voice their grievances. According to Eager (2008, p.186) Khaled clearly states that her intentions of hijacking planes was driven by her urge to attract international attention which had not been addressed as thousands of Palestinians languished in tents.

From her intentions, it would be wrong to dismiss her actions as a mere act of terrorist. It should however be considered cause to liberate Palestinians. If indeed her intent was to inflict pain on innocent people, she could have blown up the plane with the passengers onboard as terrorists did in the U.S. during the September 11 incident.

As Khaled sat while hijacking the TWA plane she saw young children sited in the palms of their parents. She was concerned about the consequences that her actions could cause in case the plan backfired and the plane exploded as a result of the explosives that her male companion had. While she was still meditating on her thought, she recalled what thousands of other Palestinians children underwent while in camps. She was then convinced to let the world acknowledge their grievances through any means that she could master.

In the end, Khaled succeeded by landing the plane and allowing the passengers to leave before blowing up the plane. This incident attracted the attention of the international community and thus making her a strong female figure among the Palestinians and other women worldwide. She consequently became a sex icon not only for her cause but for other revolutionaries that were making their concerns known worldwide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her video, she struggles to put forward the message of her revolutionary intentions rather than terrorism by clearly distancing herself from terrorism. As noted by Buxton and Provenzo (2010, p. 66) Leila Khaled was the first female activist who used extreme tactics to get the world’s attention on the plight of the Palestinians. Despite her actions and other several attempts to hijack planes that eventually led to her arrest and later released as a result of hostage exchange, Khaled altered the world’s image women.

Although her actions tainted her image and Palestinians image during that period, her actions had indeed spoken to the world about the plight of Palestinians during their conflict with the Jews in early 1960’s. Based on these fundamental facts, the actions of Khaled have not in any way created a bad image to the Palestinians but rather ensured that their cries were heard by the international community (Martin, 2009, p. 70).

As stated by Eager (2008, p.186) Khaled also explains her intentions in her book titled My People Shall Live. This book seeks to clear the air on her intentions in the cause of her revolution. On the contrary Martin, (2009, p. 70) believes that Leila Khaled is a violent extremist as a result of her actions; she is considered a political activist with extreme and terrorist behaviors.

More so, she seems to have created a foundation for other freedom figher who have committed terrorist acts by blowing themselves in order to die with passengers. Khaled has however genuinely distanced herself from such individuals and such actions. It can thus be genuinely considered that her cause was the motivation behind her extreme actions and not terrorism intentions.

Conclusion As evident from the above analysis, it is clear that Khaled is not a terrorist but rather a freedom fighter despite using extreme tactics to get the attention of the international community. Her actions were a result of the international community failing to hear Palestinians cries from their tents.

More so, the Palestinians image has not been damaged as a result of Khaled actions, her actions achieved her goal of getting the world’s attention to the plights of many Palestinians. Without her extreme actions, the world could not have recognised the sufferings of Palestinians.

References Buxton, C. A.,


The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Growth and Development of the Broiler


Issues Affecting Broilers



Introduction Chicken production in industrialized countries has undergone huge changes in the course of the last century. In the past, chickens were fed on farm diets and kept to produce eggs and meat. This has changed with the establishment of specialized industrial production systems that are characterized by factory farms. Nierenberg and Garces (2005, p.11) define industrial farming as “a system of raising animals, using intensive ‘production line’ methods that maximize the amount of meat produced, while minimizing costs”.

Chicken factory farms have thrived significantly in the past 2 decades and they supply the largest share of chicken meat demands in the country. This paper will set out to offer a detailed description of the process of raising factory farm chickens. The paper will focus on the environmental conditions that chickens thrive under as well as their food.

Growth and Development of the Broiler The lives of the chickens that are raised in the factory farm begin at the hatching machines. Here, thousands of fertilized eggs are placed into incubators which play the role of brooding hens. In the incubator, the temperature and humidify levels are carefully controlled and monitored so as to ensure successful hatching (MacDonald, 2008).

In 21 days, the breeding cycle is complete and the chicks are hatched successfully. When the chicks are hatched, they are delivered to the broiler shed where they will be raised for meat. In order to increase their chances of success, it is necessary to transport the chicks to the farm quickly and begin feeding them in the proper environment. Before being transported to the farm factory, the young chicks which will become broilers are administered with vaccinations to help them overcome diseases that are common to chickens.

Monitoring the climate conditions is of most importance for chicks since they lack the ability to regulate their body temperature for a period of up to two weeks. Preheating the house is therefore crucial for the survival of the chicks. The air temperature should be 86F while the litter temperature should be 82⁰-86⁰F (Aviagen, 2009).

The relative humidity (RH) of the houses should be relatively high when the chicks arrive from the hatchery. This is because RH at the hatchery is high at the end of the incubation process (approximately 80%) and if the chicks are taken to a house with low RH, they may suffer from shock and will be predisposed to respiratory problems. The ideal RH for the first few days should therefore be 60-70%.

The chicks which are kept as broilers are specially selected fro their high growth rates and low feed to gain ration. Broilers are raised to 35-42 days of age by which time they have acquired a weight of 1.5kg. The Aviagen (2009) stresses that it is important for chicks to be able to feed and drink freely upon their arrival to the house.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The water should have low mineral content while the food should ideally be in the form of pellets. Pellets are preferred to mash feed since they encourage food intake and performance by the chickens. The nutrients levels in the pellets are balanced and have ingredients with high digestibility. This reduces the amount of energy needed to eat the feed hence increasing performance.

In the first days of their lives, chicks are fed with crumbled feed or mini-pellets. The main objective of the starter feeds is to give the chicks a good appetite and ensure optimal growth within the first 10 days. After the starter feed, the chicks are introduced to grower feeds which consist of pellets.

The pellets have a high concentration of energy and amino acids and during this intake, the chicks’ exhibit dynamic growth. Chicks are fed grower feeds for a period of up to two weeks. The final course of feeds is the finisher feeds which are given from 25 days until the day of processing which is generally at 42 days.

Antibiotic use in poultry factory farms is high due to the crowded conditions in which the chickens live. Antibiotics are used both for preventive and curative measures. As curative agents, they are used to treat bacterial infections which the chickens may succumb to. As preventive agents, antibiotics are used to prevent and control the spread of diseases which would otherwise overwhelm the entire farm. Aviagen (2009) recommends that the antibiotics be distributed though the water that is given to the chicks.

When the chickens have reached the desired weight, they are taken to the processing companies. Before the birds are taken for slaughter, it is important to withdraw feed so as to eliminate pharmaceutical residuals that are in the bird’s system due to the constant use of antibiotics during the bird’s growth.

Housing The housing provided for the broilers is crucial to the survival as well as the productivity of the flock. The MacDonald (2008) notes that housing is of great importance in the chicken production industry since housing influences the feed efficiency as well as the mortality rate of the chickens. A typical house has a side curtain that can be lifted or dropped to control the climate in the house through natural ventilation. Even so, more modern houses have climate control equipment installed to give the farmer greater control over the climate.

MacDonald (2008, p.8) asserts that they two most important climate control equipment are “tunnel ventilation and evaporation cooling cells”. The Tunnel ventilation systems are made up of huge fans at one end of the house and air inlets at the opposite end of the broiler house. The fans pull the air through the house thus creating a wind effect while removing the excessive heat in the house. The evaporative cooling cells provide further cooling by lowering the temperature of the air as it moves through the pads and the chicken house.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Litter material is spread up to a depth of 4inches on the floor of the building that is to house the chicks. Litter is mostly made up of soft wood shaving material. This litter is important since it helps to raise the temperature of the floor. It is therefore important that the litter remains loose and dry through the entire period that the chickens are in the house.

Lighting is also an important consideration when constructing the house since light plays a role in the performance of the chickens. Lighting programs adopted by the farm are such that log day lengths of 23 hours are provided with only an hour of darkness per day. Continuous lighting ensures that chicks have an optimal feed intake which increases their growth rates.

Issues Affecting Broilers While in the house, chickens face a number of contaminants that adversely affect them. Common contaminant emissions from the houses include nitrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia.

If these contaminants of air are not properly regulated, they may lead to the damaging of the birds’ respiratory tract which will result in reduced performance. Continuous lighting is another conditions that negatively affect the welfare of the chickens. Aviagen (2009) reveals that continuous lighting throughout the life of the flock results in abnormal feeding and drinking habits due to sleep deprivation.

Another important issue is that of stocking in the houses. Decisions on the stocking density are made on an economical consideration since profit maximization is the primary goal.

Aviagen (2009) asserts that “stocking density influences bird welfare, broiler performance, uniformity and product quality”. With these considerations in mind, it makes sense to avoid overstocking which not only increases environmental pressures on the house but also reduce profitability due to low bird performance. The US recommends 2 birds per ft2 with the live weight of each bird being 3lb.

Wise and Jennings (2002) report that the growth rate of bones in broilers is greatly outpaced by the growth of muscles and fat which results in the chickens not being able to support their weight efficiently. As a result of this, many boilers suffer from leg deformities or even lameness.

Researchers conclude that “birds might have been bred to grow so fast that they are on the verge of structural collapse” (Wise and Jennings, 2002, p.286). Also, Rauw et al. (1998) assert that broilers that have been genetically modified for faster growth are susceptible to a myriad of diseases as a result of the weakened immune system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion This paper has described how producers raise chickens with particular focus being paid to the conditions and environment under which the chickens are raised. From this paper, it is clear that the major concern for most factory farms is high productivity which translates to greater profitability.

As such, the welfare of the chickens is secondary to profitability. Even so, chicken welfare is linked to higher performance and because of this, most farms aim to provide conditions that are conducive for high productivity. Through broiler meet produced through factory farms, the dramatic increase in broiler meat demand has been met effectively.

References Aviagen (2009). Ross Broiler Management Manual: Chick Management. Web.

MacDonald, J.M. (2008). The Economic Organization of U.S. Broiler Production. USDA.

Nierenberg, D.,


Management information resource Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review




Introduction The IT industry is among the fastest growing avenues of business and investment. It also bears an equal measure of risk and volatility and therefore requires informed and competent decision-making. The objective of any business is to make profit and this depends on the strategy adopted in managing and hedging against costs while keeping a reasonable margin of quality. It therefore falls upon the cio officer to make appropriate choices in as far as making or buying a product or service or constituent factor of production.

Literature review Companies and industrial scientists have developed and recommended various schemes and approaches to the build or buy decisions. These have been all based on the situational analysis of each proponent hence making their strategies limited to a specific situation. Therefore, there is no foolproof method or formula to the issue. However, it is common ground among all these proposals as to the factors that a manager should consider before making a build or buy decision.

In line with the profit-making objective of the firm, the manager should evaluate the economic benefit of the existing or proposed outsourcing option. Clearly, the economic aspect lies heavily to influence the manager’s decision in as far as buying or making. The manager should obviously consider the cheaper of the options for implementation. This factor is however to be considered alongside other factors.

If he chooses to go fro an out sourcing option, he should also consider if the outsourcing option can be r negotiated in future. If the manager decides to go for an in sourcing option he needs to consider the costs involved in transitioning from the buy to the build option. If tit is the first time, the manager needs to evaluate the decommissioning costs of the building option. A build option also means that there will be an interruption in the IT resources within the organization and therefore a need for a re-evaluation of the department.

Undeniably, both options have their own benefits besides the cost. The outsourcing option for instance guarantees variety and quality since the outsourcing firms invest a lot of talent and expertise in the creation and provision of the product or service. A build option on the other hand is a cheaper option in the long run since it reduces the dependency of the business to external factors.

It therefore gives the business a competitive advantage by allowing it to alter the product to suit emerging trends at little or no cost. The manager should also evaluate the growth prospects of the build option in as far as talent expansion and growth.

Keeping all these in mind the general trend among companies has been to maintain equilibrium between their build and buy options. This involves outsourcing secondary services and building primary functions. This allows the firm to balance the level of external dependency while still making the best of the outsourcing options

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion Designing and Building infrastructure is a costly and lengthy process. In an organization that has an existing outsourcing option, would consider the odds of switching from the existing option against the building option. The building of infrastructure also attracts a competitive advantage to the business and therefore is the more viable of option. If the infrastructure is pat of a primary function then I would go for a build option

Customer support is a secondary service to an infrastructure and therefore would be cheaper if bought from a vendor. This reduces the workforce involved in the infrastructure and cuts on costs. It is a growing aspect of the infrastructure that needs constant expansion and growth. The outsourcing option can always be renegotiated in the future (Buxbaum 2002, pp5-16).

Infrastructure maintenance is a recurrent cost in the organization. It affects the primary functions of the infrastructure and therefore should be internally sourced. It is cheaper and reliable if in sourced due to the effect on operations

Infrastructural upgrades are accessories that can always be replaced. The upgrades provided by a vendor have more quality and skill invested in them. It would therefore be preferable to purchase them from a vendor.

Decommissioning of infrastructure can go either way and therefore depends n the cost of either buying the service or performing it from within the organization. In most cases, however most firms prefer an in-house decommissioning option due to the value attached to the resultant salvage value.

The market for applications has gown greatly over the years especially due to the onset of android and cloud computing technologies. It has therefore received heavy investment by interested parts and development partners. The outsourcing option for applications has proven profitable and convenient since there are numerous application developers who have driven the outsourcing cost down. I would therefore consider adopting an outsourcing option in the short run.

Customer service for applications goes to the primary function of applications and therefore requires in-house attention control and regulation. In effect, I would prefer an in-house customer service strategy to ensure that the organization has a firm grasp of the operation of the organizations customer base.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Management information resource specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Maintenance of applications is also an important aspect of application services. The organization therefore has a competitive advantage if it has its own personalized maintenance strategy since the risk of an in effective maintenance mechanism is far too high. It also allows the organization to identify and grow talent for future design purposes.

The development and improvement of an application requires an independent perspective. Developing upgrades from an in-house source limits the creativity and diversity. Outsourcing firms also invest a lot of resources and funds in developing new upgrades and therefore present the better option in as far as upgrades are concerned.

Since the preferred design and development method is an outsourcing option, it follows that the decommissioning of application is best done by an outsourcing firm or vendor. This saves the organization the overhead costs that accrue to decommissioning (McCall 2010, pp 13-29).

Conclusion It is important to establish equilibrium in the strategy adopted while keeping a clear hedge between the implications and benefits of each option. The outsourcing option has however grown tremendously and continues to present pertinent advantages and alternatives to firms.

References Buxbaum, Peter. Bringing IT back home. [2002]. Retrieved from:

McCall, Owen. Insource, Outsource, Everything as a Service. [2010]. Retrieved from:–outsource–everything-as-a-service.html


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The project was headed by a global leadership team working under the management of Beauty Care Global Business Unit. The intention of the unit was to ensure that the project would be a skincare line in Japan (Bartlett 1). The meeting to deliberate on whether there is need to start the line of skin care in Japan took place in November 1999.

The panel had to meet to deliberate on the budget presented, organization and the expansion of the project that would see the start of the project in Japan. The project needed to have convincing blueprints to make sure that it gives a high threshold competition to existing manufacturers. The project had faced challenges in the name of organizing and restricting the programs of the global project. The organizers of the project are meant to make sure the project meets global standards so that it does meet global standards.

To make sure that the project meets the intended standards to be at the helm of global competition; the management should be strategically positioned to make sure that the company adapts to the local businesses in the market (Bartlett 2).

For the company to hit global standards like other competing ones, the management should be in a position to ensure that it is suited with right strategies to help it in the production of products and services that meet global standards. Products produced should be made in standards that please all consumers globally in order for it to compete with other manufacturers.

However, in the effort to making sure that it makes competent goods, it is likely to face challenges such as the cost of running the company. Funding for development laboratories and plants made the company reduced its profit margin. After setting up such a huge company that needs to meet global standards, it should adopt technology changes and the most recent technology.

To make sure that the company attains the needed global impact; its management should strive to attain global management skills. P


FIFA World Cup Essay essay help

Table of Contents Historical overview

Summary of soccer’s influence

Consumer profile

Business case

External growth


Works Cited

Historical overview Soccer (sometimes known as football) is a sport whose earliest development was in the Middle East over three thousand years ago. Even though these early presentations had some elements that the modern-day sport can associate with, the rules then were not similar to what is currently used.

ne of the earliest forms of soccer was a game called Cuju, played in ancient China, which featured anything between two and ten players a side (Helmer and Owens 1-16). The aim of the sport was to direct a ball towards a miniscule hole with players being allowed to touch the ball with any part of part of their body but the hands. Any fouls were penalized through point deduction and in the end the team with most points was announced the winner.

Other regions in the world that had games similar to soccer include South America and Greece. Over time, the sport’s popularity gradually began to move towards Europe where it began to take shape and acquire the characteristics of today’s soccer. Between 1307 and 1327 AD, King Edward banned it in England due to its brutal nature and constant reports of injuries (Helmer and Owens 77).

However, even with the ban it continued growing until the regime had no option but to legalize the sport again. By 1863, various soccer clubs had been established and later that year founders of the clubs sat at a meeting where official rules of the sport were drafted. The rules were gradually redrafted and gradually the sport acquired professionalism, and rose to become the world’s most popular sport.

Summary of soccer’s influence Soccer’s most popular event is the world cup which is held every four years. In this event over 800 qualifying matches are played before 32 teams meet in the finals to pick out the best. With a average viewership of 26 billion in 2010, the soccer world cup is the single most watched sporting event (Michaels 1).

During this period all forms of technological access were utilized to follow the event with both traditional (TV and radio) and modern (avenues) recording record-breaking numbers. For instance, ESPN registered an average of 355,000 viewers per minute during the semi-final clash pitting Germany and Spain (Chong 1). MobiTV, a company that facilitates mobile access to live television was reported to have streamed 1.8 million hours of ESPN Mobile TV of the 2011 World Cup (Chong 1).

The soccer world cup is also the biggest generator of sporting earnings both for the host nation and FiFa, the organization governing the sport. For instance last year, FiFa reported over 2.5 billion sterling pounds in profits at the end of the twelve-month long event while South Africa, the host, made over 300, 000 pounds in tourism revenue alone (Michaels 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumer profile The viewership and earning numbers are both on an upward trend. The World Cup earnings to Fifa in the year 2006 were $3.4billion and went through a 85% increase to reach $4billion (Wyludda 1). Viewership in 2006 was recorded at 14 billion and moving to 26billion in 2010 went through a 36% increase. The increase in viewership can be linked to the increase in popularity of online and mobile television (Dunmore 1-2).

Based on figures from the 2010 World Cup viewers, in the United States over 49% of the audience were between the ages of 17 and 50 (Chong 1). Of these number 56% was male while 44% was female (Chong 1).

Business case The soccer gear market is one of the sources of earnings for most stakeholders. Around the globe, the soccer gear business is estimated at almost three billion dollars. This section of the industry has witnessed a 67% growth from $1 billion in 1998. The major participants in the apparel market include Adidas and Nike controlling 40% and 20% of the soccer market share (Cengage 1).

It is worth noting that the aspects of supply and demand are probably the most important determinant of market forces for any product. These are the two factors that would make any market be either competitive or monopolized. These elements of business as well determine the pricing of commodities and services especially in regard to how they influence each other.

For the soccer market, the field of supply and demand is by far the most critical area of analysis since it is from here that one can explain situation that could arise with market trends. Aside from this, it is also interesting to realize that the supply and demand are always present alongside each other in every element of the growth of the sport because the demand cannot exist without the presence of supply and vice versa.

External growth External growth means the growth of the outer components of a firm. For the case of soccer, improvements in external factors have been present in five different factors. These are political, economical, social, technological, and ecological factors. Positive changes in any of these factors have led to operational excellence for the sport.

For instance, an increase in the spread of the internet and participation of broadcasts in the sector has seen the consumerism of the sport reach an unprecedented high. Favourable political climates have also contributed to the growth of soccer and its popularity. For instance, for a long time the sport had been outlawed in Middle-East on religious grounds. However, with changes in regime, some bans have been relaxed making it easy for the sport to penetrate in such regions.

We will write a custom Essay on FIFA World Cup specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The target consumers of soccer are individuals between 15 and 50years and these are persons who have completed high-school all the way to early retirees. By nature a majority of individuals in this group are drawn to non-participatory sporting entertainment. Therefore, in order to capitalize on all opportunities, all key stakeholders have had to ensure that they use all available opportunities.

For example, in Africa, it has been a common trend for multinationals like Coca-cola to establish World Cup viewing centers for individuals who cannot afford television, radio or the internet. From these set ups it becomes easy for them to market their products as well as adequately sell their name.

Conclusion From a personal point of view the sport is estimated to grow even more. This is because with advances in technology it is becoming easy to penetrate hitherto unreachable areas, consequently leading to an increase in the number of followers of the sport.

Another element that could effectively contribute to the growth of soccer is the gradual appreciation it is developing in countries such at the United States where other sports such as baseball and American football have been given prominence. This is an advantage that will see the sport gain more fans, essentially bringing in more income.

Works Cited Cengage. Online Case 10.1 Addidas, Nike and Umbro. Cengage learning. n.d. Web.

Chong, Kristie. Breakout Year for ESPN Digital Media in 2010. ESPN Media zone. 14 Jan 2011. Web.

Dunmore, Tom. 2010. World Cup ratings: Time is on American soccer’s side. Pitchinvasion. 16 July 2010. Web.

Helmer, Diana Star and Tom Owens. The history of soccer. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000. Print

Not sure if you can write a paper on FIFA World Cup by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Michaels, Steve. World cup viewing figures prove that this really is the world’s game. 29 May 2010. Web.

Wyludda, Angie. The Impact of a Mega Sports Event for a Nation: Analysis of the FIFA World Cup 2006 in Germany. GRIN Verlag, 2009. Print


Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” Term Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Poems, short stories, novels, narratives among other literary works offers us a means through which we can see and understand our nature as human beings, as well as, various cultural, social, and political features of our society which are critical to our societal and individual well-being. They act as a mirror through which individuals and a society can attain self realization particularly in relation to its desired destiny in terms of social, political and economic development.

Academically, they are usually a creative and constructive way of condemning and attacking evils such as corruption, impunity, gender violence, general moral decadence and discrimination among others which are understandably a stumbling block to realization of societal dreams in the eyes of the intellectuals and wise people, as well as political leaders, of good will.

Due to their significant contribution towards progress of a society poets and authors should strive to be clear in their writings so that readers of different intellectual and educational caliber can understand what they are trying to articulate through their works. The purpose of this paper is to discuss Christina Rossetti’s poem titled “Goblin Market” as a guide to behaviour for children and adolescents.

“Goblin Market” as a guide to behavior for children and adolescents Children and adolescents’ good behaviors are not only necessary in school where they are required in order to create a favorable environment for learning but also in general life where they cushion them from engaging in things and activities that can potentially endanger their young lives.

Even though at times Rossetti asserted that her poem which features considerably sexual descriptions was not intended for children, she frequently stated in public that the poem was meant for children. Rossetti wrote many children’s poems after her masterpiece “Goblin Market” written in April 1859 and published in 1862 (Barfoot 248).

“Goblin Market” is a story a bout two sisters Laura and Lizzie who dearly loved one another, goblin merchants from whom the title is derived and another girl called Jeanie (Rossetti 1). Lizzie comes out as the eldest of the two sisters who are the main characters because she seems to be well aware about the goblin merchants.

Laura like a good loving sister knowing too well the consequences that would befell one if he or she ate the forbidden fruits of the goblin men following the death of a girl from their village known as Jeanie advised and cautioned her sister Lizzie against looking at the goblin merchants as well as buying their fruits (Rossetti 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Laura, they were not supposed to eat the fruits of the goblin men which they sold in fantastic abundance, savor and variety because it was not known to any one let alone themselves what kind of soil the ravenous roots of their fruits were fed of (Rossetti 1: Rossetti 2). A keen look at Laura’s stern warning to her sister against eating fruits of the goblin men clearly indicates that they were poisonous and fatal. This fact is well demonstrated by the death of the girl called Jeanie whose story Laura told her sister.

Unfortunately, despite Laura’s advise and caution to Lizzie against buying fruits from the goblin men, Lizzie as curious as most of our typical adolescents and daring children partook the forbidden fruits like Jeanie.

That became the beginning of her horror and a slow death. She first lost her hearing ability and then since she was not able to purchase more of the forbidden fruits from the goblin men, she was constantly sickly and immediately fell into a slow physical weakening and depression. With time she was unable to undertake her household chores.

A seed from the fruits of the goblin men she had kept bore nothing when she tried to plant it. Her sister Lizzie despite Laura’s disobedience and failure to honor her advice against eating fruits from the goblin men was however determined to save her disobedient sister from an immature death. Lizzie finally managed to safe her sister though at a price that would have too left her harmed by the malicious and wicked merchants of death.

Certainly Rossetti’s poem “Goblin Market” has valuable lessons for our children and adolescents who are easily swayed away by anything that glitters and ‘good’ things of our intensively complicated world that is full of many selfish people who are determined to exploit and take advantage of the simple and the less experienced in our society.

Children should learn to genuinely listen and honor advice and cautionary information from their parents, guardians or elder sisters and/or brothers in order to avoid putting their young lives into unnecessary irreversible dangers.

They should avoid despising caution and advice from elders however traditional or old fashioned their opinions and ideas may seem in relation to their adventurous and daring attitudes which have ended up putting many in to undeserved dangers and even sending some into an early grave.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children and adolescents should strive to practice high degree of self-control when they find themselves in tempting situations rather than bowing down to their bodily desires which mostly enables them to realize short term gratification with dire consequences.

For instance, if a child or an adolescent finds himself or herself in a situation that can force him or her to engage in pre-marital sex he or she should consider physically running away from the scene in order to avoid the temptation that may eventually lead into addiction to sex and expose them to dangers of contracting Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or the deadly HIV/AIDS or even falling into the trap of unwanted pregnancies.

Even though we are inherently curious beings children and adolescents should just like traditionalists learn to practice restraints upon their curiosity which has the potential of getting them into trouble that we can live to regret the whole of our lifes or which can even result into unnatural death.

We should not for instance be over curious to find out how it feels like to be high on narcotics however fashionable it may be made to appear to us by our peers or others. Trending into such dangerous paths can turn out to be the beginning of your physical and mental deteriorations due to narcotics’ adverse effects up on an addict’s body and mind like in the case of Laura in “Goblin Market” who fell in to a quick physical deterioration and depression after partaking the forbidden fruits from goblin merchants.

Conclusion Even though Christina Rossetti’s poem “Goblin Market” at a high level of literary analysis has deeper themes about Rossetti’s world and its people especially women, it is certainly a good guide to behaviour for children and adolescents.

It teaches Modern children and adolescents to learn the value of adhering to conventional wise sayings such as all that glitters is not gold and when a deal is too good think twice in order to avoid fatal traps set by the wicked and selfish with an intention of exploiting the undiscerning, the simple and the carelessly curious in our society.

Children and adolescents should learn that although they can easily get away with a wayward action in the short-term they can hardly get away with dire consequences of deliberate disobedience and uncalculated curiosity.

Works Cited Barfoot, Charles. And Never Know the Joy: Sex and the Erotic in English Poetry. New York, NY: Rodopi, 2006. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rossetti, Christina Georgina. Goblin Market and Other Poems. New York, NY: Courier Dover Publications, 1994.Print.pp 1-15


Different educational systems Report custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasons why giving students grades do more harm than good


Reference List

Introduction Educational growth and development is a complicated process that requires professional and proper management. First, it requires the cooperation of all stakeholders involved, including general school managers, teachers, students, parents, top education officials, and the wider society where learning institutions are located.

In addition to quality management and cooperation of all relevant educational stakeholders, learning requires the application of effective and efficient content delivery approaches and an evaluation or assessment of the methods. Various educational schools of thought have put forward numerous educational theories on the most effective evaluation methods. One such school of thought holds that giving students grades does more harm than good.

It is thus proposed that schools should replace grades with written evaluations of the student’s strengths and weaknesses. Scholars who have adopted this school of thought maintain that doing so would benefit not only the students, but also their parents or guardians in terms of keeping abreast with the children’s overall educational progress and performance. This task is an argumentative report against this school of thought.

Reasons why giving students grades do more harm than good All relevant education stakeholders are concerned about the need to regularly evaluate how well their students are performing academically. Consequently, different educational systems found in different countries have crafted diverse evaluation approaches with a view to determining the education growth and development of their students on a regular basis in relation to their desired ultimate educational goals and objectives (Kohn, 1994).

Opponents of grading as an evaluation and assessment approach have offered various reasons to elucidate why giving grades to students does more harm than good. First, they argue that grades cannot adequately be dependent on in effectively classifying students (Kohn, 1994). Secondly, grading is counterproductive to one of the major rationales of education, which is to motivate students to put more effort in their studies so that they can receive a favorable evaluation (Kohn, 1994; Casas, 2009).

Thirdly, avid critics of the grading system contend that grades are an absolutely inadequate method of accessing the other main rationale of education, which is to provide a feedback to the learners so that they can do a self-introspection and work harder towards achieving higher grades in their studies (Kohn 1994).

The first underlying principle of grading is to sort students or designate them on the basis of their academic performance. However, this principle has been criticized from three points of view. To begin with, it is argued that grading as an instrument of labeling students in accordance with their performance does not enable educators to put individual students into the right group (Kohn, 1994).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is interesting to note that numerous studies have consistently shown that learners’ performance does not get better when educators grade their students more rigorously and on the other hand making it considerably easier for students to get a good grade does not make students to do inferior work.

As a result, critics argue that grading is not sufficiently reliable to as a yardstick with which to efficiently categorize students (Kohn, 1994). As a matter of fact, a larger disparity emerges when a given piece of work is assessed by more than one instructor. Critics thus contend that grades do not of do not offer anything meaningful evaluation rather than “…a subjective rating masquerading as an objective assessment.” (Kohn, 1994).

Furthermore, critics also argue that when grading is used as an instrument of sorting student on the basis of their performance, it is not clear if it is done to set apart learners by their abilities and teach them separately. They therefore dismiss sorting as a process that is not only different but also often mismatched with the objective of assisting students to gain knowledge.

The second rationale of grading which like of any other assessment strategy is supposed to motivate students to put more efforts in their studies has also been severely criticized. It is argued that since more often than not, grades function as rewards or punishments instead of useful pointers to students regarding what part of a test or exam was done well and which part needs improvement, they are counter helpful (Hargis, 2003).

According to Kohn (1994), this argument is anchored on the premise that in real life, there is a significant and qualitative difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Critics assert that these two motivational orientations tend to pull in opposite directions (Kohn, 1994; Casas, 2009). Critics argue that grading is essentially an extrinsic motivator that has the potential to undermine intrinsic motivation.

For example, Casas (2009) argues that grading makes learners with performance goals orientation struggle for better grades or put every effort in acknowledging their abilities because they are largely anxious about how well they are performing when compared with their classmates. Critics of this aspect of grading therefore argue that by and large, it overshadows the most important goal of studying for purposes of self-improvement.

Grading thus makes students prone to be trouble about their assignments and over concentrate on achieving good grades and basically, to focus on finishing their work rather than taking pleasure in the process of learning (Hargis, 2003). In the long run, since grading makes students look for extrinsic incentives like good grades, rewards and honors, they easily resort to poor cognitive approaches like cramming and memorization (Casas, 2009).

We will write a custom Report on Different educational systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third justification of grading is also criticized on the grounds that even if it is okay to assist students internalize and pull up their socks for a better performance, it is likely to occur effectively when learners understand success and failure as meaningful information pointing to where they were strong or weak in a given exam and not as rewards or punishment (Kohn 1994).

In other words, critics argue that assessing a student’s work in terms of a mere number or letter can hardly help a learner because a letter B on top of a student’s paper informs a student nothing regarding what was inspiring about his or her paper or how it can be made better. In short, critics such as Butler and Nissan cited in Kohn (1994) contend that even though grading can put emphasis on quantitative aspects of studying, it largely discourages creativity, encourages fear of failure and undermines students learning interests.

It is perfectly safe to argue that there is no particular evaluation or assessment strategy in learning that can be effective on its own in classifying and helping students to work hard for better performance.

Even though written evaluation is greatly helpful in evaluating students’ strengths and weaknesses it also has its own inherent weaknesses which must be complemented by other evaluation strategies like conventional grading which is quantitative and thus fairly reflective though numerically of the average performance of a student (Riner, 2000).

Teachers can only give a meaningful and conclusive written evaluation of a student on the basis of a number which is in turn assigned a letter to represent a grade. In other words, grading has its own shortcomings and as such, it should be thoroughly complemented with written evaluations which are more informative in terms of guiding students where they were strong in a given paper and where they need to improve (Nunan, 1992).

Conclusion Learning is certainly a complicated process which requires evaluation and measurement on a regular basis so that teachers, students and parents and other concerned educational stakeholders can determine their progress in relation to their overall educational goals and objectives. Different educational systems have varying evaluation strategies some of which are more quantitative while others are quantitative.

Even though grading is largely quantitative and have other shortcomings it cannot be entirely be replaced with written evaluations without risking objectivity of evaluating in the learning process. It should therefore, be supplemented with written evaluations rather than being replaced with grading completely. In short, there is nothing in learning and examining like an exhaustive or comprehensive evaluation or assessment strategies which do not need to be supplemented by other approaches.

Reference List Casas, M. (2009). Enhancing Student Learning in Middle School. New York, NY: Taylor


Wireless Carriers in the United States Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Historical Strategic Issues

Key Players and their Operations

Strategic Change

Works Cited

Historical Strategic Issues When it comes to wireless carriers in the United States the most common historical strategic issues revolves around price, performance, and customer service.

The key players in this industry had to mindful of all three factors because the consumers in the U.S. market can easily switch to another carrier if they are not satisfied with the value they are getting for their money and the kind of service that they believe they deserve.

Take for example the ability to SMS or to text one another. There was a time when this type of service was non-existent in North America (Gow


Youth Culture under the Globalization Time Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Spread of American Pop Culture

American Pop Culture and Political Globalization

Globalization and Communication Technologies

Globalization and Business

Effects of Globalization


Reference List

Introduction Globalization is an evolving phenomenon that is complex in nature; it involves the interaction of many economic, cultural, technological and social trends of different nations. Many nations embrace economic globalization because it allows access to consumer goods not available locally. Economic globalization involves production and distribution of commodities.

However, globalization, in economic sense, disrupts local production and affects local producers. Globalization also involves international trade in cultural products such as music, movies and films. This increasingly exposes the local societies in many nations to foreign cultures. The exposure to foreign cultures, more frequently, has profound impacts on the local traditions and values. One notable impact of globalization on national cultures is the effect it has on cultural identity.

The globalization of local cultures, the effects of “increasing interaction between people of different cultures”, is more common in youth culture and the youth’s sense of identity (Turkle, 1995, p. 13). The youth comprises the part of a society that is more receptive or susceptible to influences of foreign cultural practices especially in modes of dress, aesthetics, language and ideologies.

More often, the youth are more receptive to the dominant culture, which occupies center stage in global cultural industry. Among the major concerns of the globalization of culture is that it not only results to homogenization of world cultures but also represents the U.S. cultural values and traditions. The globalization of culture that the American “pop culture” dominates has profound effects on youth cultural identities all over the world.

The Spread of American Pop Culture The imperial nature of American pop culture among the majority of youth in the world is due to a number of reasons. The wealth of the US economy and the large size of the US consumer market, about 300 million consumers, put it in a dominant position. Additionally, the widespread of US corporations in all parts of the world has greatly affected the local cultures in other countries (Burnett, 1996, p. 109). Among the effects of globalization on culture is the spread of pop culture, which many see as actually “Americanization”.

Their view is justifiable because the US is the major producer of pop culture products, which represents the culture of American consumerism. Its global influence on the youth is significant. The spread of pop culture around the world occurs through movies, television shows, clothing, fast foods, consumer goods and entertainment.

The Western entertainment agencies produce and transmit most of the world’s entertainment products. Estimates show that the American mass media revenues constitute about 75% of the world’s broadcast revenues (Burnett, 1996, p. 117).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Burnett (1996) argues that the global media, largely dominated by the Western media, propagates an American centered culture that ignores the diverse cultures and perspectives that exist in the world (p. 111). Most of the images viewed by the young people originate from the West, which evidences the dominance of the American pop culture among the youth in the world.

The dominance of American pop culture has both economic as well as political impacts. The power dimensions of cultural globalization are evident. Burnett argues that global culture and by extension, the American pop’s culture, relates to institutional and material elements that underlie the globalization of culture (1996, p. 129), thereby implying that globalization is an economic phenomenon.

He further argues that contrary to popular belief, globalization does not involve the development of a single global culture but a political struggle for dominance. In this respect, globalization is a both political and a cultural phenomenon.

American Pop Culture and Political Globalization Popular culture provides a platform for political struggle involving the traditionally subordinate groups resisting the interests and values of the dominant group, usually the older generation. Many of the issues raised by various groups find their way into popular entertainment in the media, in a bid to enhance their legitimacy.

Through comedy and humor, pop culture challenges discriminatory views held against minority groups such as gay people, racial and ethnic groups as well as undermining the traditional view about women’s position in the society. The American media, therefore, has promoted specific issues traditionally viewed as illegitimate to a popular level in many societies and in the process; it has transformed many societies in the world.

The popularization of culture in democratic societies like the American society provides a means for political communication. Many contemporary societies have replicated this culture in their political systems. Robertson (1992, p. 321) argues that politics and pop culture are related especially in aesthetics of style and performance much of which is fundamental to pop culture. Most societies have become more democratic by integrating politics with pop culture.

Robertson argues that pop culture provides means through which citizens communicate their collective political experiences (1992, p. 358). The new media, including social networking sites and the internet, offers a means through which the public debate their views as well as political issues hence promoting spread of democracy. While most popular shows and media spaces primarily offer entertainment, they also provide topics and themes that evoke discussions contributing to the expansion of the democratic space.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Youth Culture under the Globalization Time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The media, as an institution, shapes the values and beliefs of the citizenry and provides an arena for political talk (Burnett, 1996, p. 127). In addition, the popular media through its many programs, allow knowledge acquisition with regard to politics. While the level of political knowledge, which media provides may have some limitations, it nevertheless provides a wide range of knowledge to the masses irrespective of their social status.

Globalization and Communication Technologies Globalization manifests itself in different ways; the modern world articulates it through economic, political and cultural globalization. These different articulations of globalization have led to emergence of various manifestations of cultural identities in many parts of the world.

In particular, cultural globalization resulting from western cultural influence, has affected the values, traditions and the sense of identity among the various cultures of the world. Assimilation of the cultures into Western culture in the wake of cultural globalization has affected the articulation of global identities of the respective cultures.

Modern technology in transport and communication has promoted the interaction of people in all round the world in areas of education, trade, commerce and welfare programs. However, the dominance of the US cultural products in these areas has promoted the American consumerism, particularly among the youth while at the same time affecting the other cultures.

One of the main factors that drive globalization in the new world has indeed been the communication and technology, which has promoted the spread of Western culture across the world. Castells (1996, p.107) contends that globalization is a product of developments in communication technology intertwined with economic, cultural and political features.

Increased reliance on new information communication technologies characterizes globalization. The need to have a networked global society, where people from different cultures are connected through information communication technologies (ICT) accelerates globalization in the modern world.

The “global network concept” or the “cyberculture” represents the cultural neutrality acceptable by all people (Castells, 1996, p.97). However, the concept of global village removes the national boundaries and cultural differences and thus presents a form of colonialism. ICT is vital in the achievement of this concept and is itself a feature of globalization.

Globalization and communication technologies are essential in promoting prosperity and democracy in many countries. ICT provides the means of information dissemination, promotion of peace, health, social justice and gender equality. Therefore, without access to ICT, societies risk exclusion from economic and social development that comes with globalization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Youth Culture under the Globalization Time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the domination of the ICT by Western societies creates a new form of colonization as the ICT lacks a global identity. Although ICT has facilitated globalization, it has had profound impacts on political, economic and cultural features of many societies. The flow of ideas and cultural products enhanced by ICT from the US to other nations has had major economic, political and cultural implications (Castells, 1996, p. 121).

The concept of global village dominated by Western media can serve to eliminate racial, ethnic and cultural differences and bring people together. Castells observes that a new generation, free of old cultural prejudices, is emerging from the current digital technology such as the internet (1996, p. 124). However, cultural imperialism by the Western media has led to a single culture that eliminates cultural diversity and traditions.

Globalization and Business ICT development particularly the spread of the internet has led to growth and expansion of multinational companies into virgin markets of developing countries. There is an increased drive by multinational companies to capture new markets.

Hoogvelt (1997) argues that this trend perpetuates the digital divide that exists between Western media and other nations (p. 54). It also spreads the Western culture of consumerism while benefiting a few corporations. This in turn causes inequality and emergence of ‘social class’ in the society as globalization benefits only a few corporations.

Although globalization is a multidimensional concept, its economic dimension has the most implications. Globalization creates a global economy, an economy where coordination of essential activities occurs on a global scale and in real time. Thus, capital and most capital markets are global. Additionally, the value of investments and savings in all countries are dependent on the global financial markets.

In the 1990s, multinational corporations directly employed about 70 million workers. The total output constituted a third of the total private output globally (Hoogvelt, 1997, p. 67). This indicates that multinational corporations involved in financial services, manufacturing and processing, along with their network of subsidiary companies are essential to the global economy.

Additionally, the researchers have concentrated the scientific research and technology essential in economic growth and development in research centers in the US. The innovations and technological products overwhelmingly produced research centers in the United States. US sets up research centers linked to the US research centers in foreign nations and employs local workers. This means that labor mobility is increasingly becoming global.

At the same time, a large proportion of jobs may not be global but local or regional. However, the living standards of the workers is ultimately dependent a globalized economy through production and trade relationships. The recent developments in global technological infrastructure have enhanced the global economy.

Advancement in air transport, along with the development of high-speed trains, information systems, cargo transport, telecommunications, improved manufacturing and processing are essential for global economy. For an economy to be truly global, it must encompass all territories across the globe ((Hoogvelt, 1997, p. 71). However, the new global economy is exclusive; it links up valuable systems while leaving out producers and consumers. Thus, the global economy is selective based on the dominant values or interests.

In a global economy, there exist networked financial institutions. The national Central banks, therefore, cannot adequately control the financial trends in global financial markets. Additionally, various factors influence global financial markets and these factors do not conform to common economic rules.

As a result, national governments created supranational organizations such as the World Bank and the IMF or regional cooperation agencies to manage global or regional capital flows. In sum, globalization of economies is a form of capitalist restructuring according to the dominant values and interests, which in this case are US interests.

Innovation and competition among multinational corporations characterizes globalization and is dependent on the new information technologies. Additionally, most wealthy nations including the US offer agricultural subsidies to manufacturers making US commodities cheap. Thus, small farmers in other nations find it increasingly difficult to compete effectively creating a trade conflict.

Effects of Globalization The modern world associates social media with youth culture, and thus it serves as the agent of socialization and influences the beliefs of the young people. Globalization contributes to the spread of the dominant culture such as pop among the youth across the world. It also aims at establishing a global economy and markets by propagating the Western culture of consumerism. Non-consumerism, on the other hand, results into economic exclusion and inequality.

Furthermore, globalization increases consumer expectations, which once unfulfilled results into frustration, social alienation, and criminal tendencies and in some cases, social strife (Turkle, 1995, p. 37). In developing countries, images of American consumerism including lifestyles and items are common. This can be problematic because these lifestyles are not usually accessible particularly to the poor members of the society.

The global culture is an essential component in many youth’s lives. The youth more than any other social group rely heavily on the global consumer culture. Culturally, globalization increases the cultural divide as the youth in developing countries consume the cultural products from the US.

This creates cultural conflict as well as income inequality as the availability of resources in many nations is not comparable to the US. Globalization creates economic inequality especially in developing nations as multinational corporations and advertising agencies compete in promoting the US consumer culture among the youth. The efforts to promote consumerism serve to increase social divisions in many societies.

The global media and the new technologies allow the young people to define their identities and attitudes. Young people are consumers of global cultures, which influence their lifestyles and attitudes (Turkle, 1995, p. 34). However, since US dominates the global media, the young people model their behaviors and attitudes based on global capitalist’s ideologies.

The global capitalism, through multinational corporations, target young people for their cultural products. In this respect, the dominant US cultural values embraced by most young people promote global economic divisions with the youth constituting the majority of the poor members in the society.

Conclusion The cultural impact of global economics varies in many countries. Evidently, globalization comes with increase in market power and dominance, which some players may misuse. The effects of globalization including unaccountable multinational corporations, cultural consumerism and economic inequality have a direct impact on the lives of the youth.

In global economic terms, globalization represents the values and interests of the US that adversely affect segments of the population in other countries. The youth in other countries are more prone to cultural and cultural globalization as they lack necessary opportunities and financial resources to adopt the American culture of consumerism. Thus, the experience of the youth in globalization is negative as it increases economic inequalities and social conflicts.

Reference List Burnett, R. (1996). The Global Jukebox: The International Music Industry. London: Routledge.

Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hoogvelt, A. (1997). Globalization and the postcolonial world: The new political economy of development. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

Robertson, R. (1992). Globalization: Social theory and global culture. London: Sage Publications.

Turkle, S. (1995) Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon


Discipline as an integral part of effective police supervision Essay best essay help

Introduction The police department, as faction of the judiciary and law enforcer, cannot be allowed to be tainted with traces of indiscipline. It is a ridicule and an outright insult to the judicial system in its totality. The duty to ensure that unbecoming behavior and unacceptable professional conduct does not gain ground in the police force is bestowed on the police supervisor.

For the effective role of supervisor to be fully realized, the individual supervisor cannot overlook the importance of a disciplined force. Without discipline, the supervisor will have failed as an individual and failed the whole institution as well. This essay looks into the maintenance of discipline among the police as an integral part of effective police supervision.

Fostering discipline in the police force Supervisors as disciplinarians

The ability to maintain discipline among the subordinates is one way of measuring the suitability of a supervisor for the role. The sergeant is the most important party in the police force, and his position the most challenging one. “It is the sergeant…who plays the pivotal role and, in large measure determines whether the police department will face unfair labor practice charges, costly arbitrations, lengthy litigation, and more union activism,” (More


Stacy’s Pitaman Chips Cinnamon and Sugar Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The free market economic model dominates the world economy. With the exception of china, Cuba and North Korea, the rest of the world’s economies are dominated by free market principles where forces of demand and supply dictate market trends.

In the theory of the firm, business operate in conditions dictated by the two forces but that operate on larger context of microeconomic and macroeconomic environments. The microenvironment represents the market conditions and/or elements that a firm has control over and which it can easily be manipulated to suit its marketing operations.

They are the factors that determine the firm’s provision of goods or services. The factors may include intermediaries, the competing firms, and conditions within the firm itself. On the other hand the macro environment refers to the expanded business space that is characterized by forces beyond the individual firm’s control.. They include demographic factors that largely involve characteristics and trends of the population, economy, political climate, cultural characteristics, technology, and natural forces.

In the free market environment, firms are in business to make profit. One of the most important concepts in capitalism is marketing. Due to competition, firms try to entice customers to buy their products to make extra money. Competition is brought due to the presence of multiple players in different industries and sectors in the economy. Food and snack industry is one of the biggest scores in the above economic order that employs millions of people in the US and worldwide.

Stacy’s Pita Chip Company, a manufacturer of healthy, baked, natural snack foods, and a leading player in the snack and food market will form the basis of analysis in this paper. Both the micro and macro business environments in which it operates will be analyzed as well as the marketing mix that it has adopted to sell its products. The company has wide variety of products on offer to its customers.

This paper is supposed to specifically analyze the marketing approach of cinnamon and sugar chips. It’s important to note that the company has no explicit marketing approach that explicitly focuses on the product. The marketing strategy that it has adopted focuses all the products under the Pitaman brand name. The paper will therefore be focusing on cinnamon in reference to the overall strategy adopted by Pitaman.

Macro and Micro business environment Microenvironment

The microenvironments in which Stacy’s operate as include the company itself, marketing techniques, intermediaries, suppliers, and competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current environment of the company refers to the departments and management of the company. The various departments may include finance, research, development, and accounting. All the departments have a role to play in the making of marketing decisions.

Stacy’s is a relatively small company compared to industry leader such as Frito North America or Kraft Foods Inc. before it was purchased by PepsiCo, the company only had a handful of employees and served the city of Boston. However, popularity of its products and capital injection from new owners has enabled its expansion and presence of its products nationwide. By the end of Q1 of the year 2005, the company had over 200 employees comprising of both permanent and contracted staff.

In the microeconomic environment, suppliers form one of the most critical aspects of a firm’s operations. Delay in receiving supplies has a negative ripple effect since customers will not be served in time. This is likely to lead to customer satisfaction and customer relationship is likely to be affected as a result.

Stacy’s operates in a highly competitive environment where snack manufacturers are very specific about supplies. Stacy’s has however managed to keep reliable suppliers and there is not any time that customers have experiences delays due to shortage f the snacks they offer.

In marketing intermediaries can be referred to as a “necessary evil”. Intermediaries have grown to be one of the most critical elements in the microeconomic environment.

They include distributors, resellers, marketing agencies, and financial providers who help in the distribution channel of the products to the customer. They help in the promotion and distribution of its products to the consumer at the end of the distribution channel. Stacy’ operates in a microeconomic environment where they have engaged the services of major reseller chains such as Wal-Mart.

According to the company, “its products can be found in food retailers across the nation including Shaws, Stop


Gender inequality in Canada Definition Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Do you think gender inequality exists in Canada? Why or why not?

What is heterosexism?

What are some key gender issues in contemporary Canada?

Work Cited

Do you think gender inequality exists in Canada? Why or why not? The term gender describes the physical difference between people. Gender gives an individual personal a trait that the societies commonly attach to as being either of male or female gender. Gender inequality on the other hand is unequal distribution of privileges between men and women in terms of different issues like employment opportunity, wealth, and power position.

Women are the most affected victims of gender inequality and they deserve a top priority among any other group as action to address inequality issues are being put across. Canada is described as a society that lives in denial of the fact that there exist gender inequality issues. The persistence in gender inequities is becoming a major problem as Canadians seem even more confused on issues pertaining gender and how to address the problem.

According to (Naiman 123), although it is certain that men and women have actual differences particularly physically, most of the social indifference perception are not because of the biological connotation but because of the over time cultural practices and beliefs. There exists some kind of gender discrimination in markets as well as in systems of public provision and due to its prevalence presence associated with factors outside the household they are shaping peoples perception about gender inequality.

The significance of women unpaid work for their capacity to respond to market signals shows inequality. Gender inequality extends in societies where there exist unequal roles, responsibilities and distribution of resources in the household. This leads to men and women feeling constrained in their response behaviors.

What is heterosexism? Heterosexism is predisposition towards people who are heterosexual who include gay, lesbians, bisexuals and the transgender (GLBT) members of the community, the word is commonly used to express societal institutions biasness in wanting people to behave as if they are all heterosexual. Heterosexism firmly embeds the existing customs and traditions of the society. It depicts the ideological system that disgraces any person who is not heterosexual.

An individual who claims to be homosexual is usually seen as abnormal because the society believes that only heterosexuals are normal beings. Heterosexism seeks to judge these particular groups of people (GLBT) making them appears as weak, low social status and inferior as compared to the ‘straight’ people. It allows the society to make judgments towards them and deny the homosexuals the same rights and privileges given to the heterosexuals members.

What are some key gender issues in contemporary Canada? In the 20th century the Canadian state introduced policies and programs that defined a new form of citizenship in Canada. Women could now vote while human rights legislations protected basic freedoms and prohibited fundamental forms of discrimination. Despite these efforts, there is evidence that there are certain groups of people who are privileged over others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gender role defines the attitude and activities communities believe to best suite different sexes. This is among many issues related to gender. In contemporary Canada context the male is obligated to be an ambitious person and every competitive while his female counterpart is expected to be fragile and emotional.

Gender biasness is also experienced in most parts of Canada as many women continue to experience sexual discrimination, unequal treatment, and unfairness. Another gender issue is superiority. Males are perceived as superior beings more competent than women even though there are several instances where by women are equally as intelligent as men this is why they are underrepresented in important professional fields like medicine, engineering and law (Naiman 233).

Schools are known to encourage boys to attain good grades in mathematics and science as compared to girls. Canadian government is encouraged to ensure that men and women have equal rights and opportunities in all areas of the economy and the society to achieve a sustainable social and economical development.

Work Cited Kuper Island: return to the healing circle. Dir. Welsh Christine and Peter Campbell. Gumboot Production.1998. DVD

Naiman Joanne. How Societies Work: Class, Power and Change in a Canadian Context. Winnipeg. Fernwood Pub. 2008. Print


Saint Claus Myth Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Thesis Statement

The Origin of Saint Claus Myth



Works Cited

Introduction A social practice can be viewed as that practice observed in the society though without any legal foundation. In the American culture, there are a number of social practices in which people are engaged in their lives. Some of them are occasional while others are demonstrated in their day to day practices. A social practice is that activity in which people are involved into without any legal direction, but as a custom. A person usually tends to engage in these activities continuously.

One of the common social practices in the American culture is the Santa Claus myth. Santa is a figure who is very common in American culture. It is more prevalent in the northern American culture. Santa Claus is believed to bring gifts in the houses of the good children on the night before the Christmas day. Santa Claus can be related with a historical figure known as Saint Nicholas who was widely known as a gift giver.

Thesis Statement In American culture, there are a number of things in which Americans are involved in by custom rather than by law. People are engaged in such practices in their day to day activities. One of these social practices is Saint Claus’ Myth. Over the past, the practice has been integrated in people’s activities through the customs.

The Origin of Saint Claus Myth In the contemporary American culture, the belief in Saint Claus has significantly influenced how the Americans have been celebrating the Christmas day. Over the past, the phenomenon of Santus Claus has been integrated in the American culture. Many children have been introduced to the belief in Santus Claus as soon as they reach the interaction stage where they can understand their environment.

As already noted, Santus Claus phenomena can be traced back to Saint Nicholas. Nicholas is one of the most beloved saints among all the saints of the times (Bucher Richard Par 6). Most of the churches (both from Western and Eastern) accorded him great respect than any other saint, for instance, Justinian who was an emperor built a church in honor of him (Allhoff and Lowe 107).

According to Siefker (2006), the idea of Santa Claus in America can be traced back in the seventeenth century when the Dutch established their colony in America (10).

The Dutch came along with the idea of the Sinter Klass (Saint Nicholas). After some time, the colony was taken from them and the place was renamed New York. However, the English children longed to have their own Sinter Class through which they can be able to receive gifts. However, the day was changed to December 24 because the English Protestants did not recognize saint days.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the past, there have been several legends that during the feast of Nicholas, he would come from heavens and visit children in their homes taking gifts to them (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 35). It was believed that he would reward the good children. The legends also had it that he distributed gifts to the people through windows (Allhoff and Lowe 106).

Dr. Clement played an important role in shaping the modern version of Santa Claus in America (Bucher Richard Par). For instance, he wrote a poem about Santa which has been cited over the past. Through his poems, Moore has significantly influenced the contemporary version of Santa.

For instance, he described the way Santa comes at night through the chimney where he leaves behind toys (Moore


Psychodynamic play theory Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Play therapy is a way of expressing feelings in children especially where stressful events are involved since children are unable to communicate by mouth as effectively as adults. Thus, they make use of play to express their inner feelings and interpersonal conflicts. Psychodynamic play therapy is utilized where a therapist is involved in listening to the details of a child’s play and emphasizes the causes of the child’s experiences in regard to motions of the child’s body.

Therefore, the child is able to express and cope with certain difficulties with the help of the therapist. This is done by the therapist getting involved in the context of the play to help the child identify the difficulty, express it emotionally and engage in solving it. The therapist, therefore, has to interpret the play in a meaningful way and then communicate with the child to elucidate indifferent engagement(s) expressed by the child during the play.

In order for this to work effectively, the play or activity involved should be made interesting to the child. For instance, a therapist may choose to engage in an argumentative puppet conversation with the child. The argument could be based on a topic that is sensitive to the child or one that the therapist had noticed some reaction from the child.

This way, the therapist identifies certain feelings from the child through verbal expression and this puts him/her in the best position to engage in problem solving. This could as well be done as part of the play. For example, the therapist may continue with the puppet conversation but this time, focuses on addressing the solution by telling the child what needs to be done about the problem in discussion.

Psychodynamic play theory functions in finding out the complexity associated with a child’s behavior. Psychodynamic play therapy provides education, ego support, and therapist activity which are not present in the common psychotherapy. The recommendation of this type of therapy implies belief that it applies to children with a certain mental diagnosis and is preferable to other approaches, and assessment that the child is capable thereof.

Psychodynamic play therapy could be linked to treatment of psychological disorders in many children especially autistic ones. Autism represents a syndrome or collection of symptoms originating primarily from a basic neurological deficit in information processing and emotional communication.

Consequently, psychological defenses against states are experienced as a result of those deficits. Lack of crucial socializing experiences during development as a result of both the deficits and the defenses is also associated with autism in children. Moreover, and whatever the origins, the autistic child’s development is profoundly altered, for better or worse, by his or her early environment and the critical interaction with his/her family.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There exists a wide range in the severity of the initial biological predisposition and the early life experiences, such that some children may be born so disabled that parents, however healthily nurturing, make limited impact; whereas other children may be born with a milder innate vulnerability, but encounter significantly damaging parenting.

However the situation, psychodynamic pay therapy may significantly make great impacts in the lives of autistic children by getting to understand how they feel about their conditions. This way, they may be engaged in playful activities to make them feel as part of the society and also to interact with other normal children.

Psychodynamic play theory is not only therapeutic to children, but also educative. Through such plays, children get to learn many things alongside getting therapy and having fun.


The Management Systems Related to Internal and External Environment Report college essay help near me

Attitudes towards employees: Employee benefit Wages, Salaries, Annual Leave and Sick Leave

The organization maintains these expenses on an prepayment basis. They are therefore accounted for after they fall due. This therefore implies that they are partially reflected in the books of accounts of the period concerned. In effect the report reflects the payments due for services up to the final day of the reporting period.

Employee Share Plans, Long Service Leave, Long Service Leave

The net value of the amount due and payable to all the employees is reflected as an expense to the employees corresponding to an increase in the organizations equity. The amount due is measured and evaluated for the period within which it is unconditionally payable. With the exceptions of un-qualifying shares the amount is recognized in whole of the total entitlements.

Defined Contribution Superannuation Plans, Defined Benefit Superannuation Plans and Employee Termination Benefit

The organization adopts an individualistic strategy that makes single and individual computations for each plan. The present value of future benefits its therefore calculated by discounting the future benefits at a discounting rate that is a balance on the maturity dates of government bonds.

This incorporates the projected unit credit method by a certified auctorial. if benefits that accrue to every employee increase the amount is distributed on a straight line basis implying that the employee will receive an amount of the increase immediately it falls due. This increase is also reflected in the company’s consolidated income statement of the reporting period.

The past service costs on the other hand are measured as the growth in the present value of the permanent or fixed benefits that the employee is entitled to in previous and current periods.

Attitudes towards Customers: Aircraft configuration meeting customer demand

Like any other business the company has over the past few years faced a great increase in the number of customer as well as consumer needs. The company has therefore made a structural adjustment by increasing the number of aircraft to take care of the addition al capacity. Growing consumer demands have also forced the company to adjust the seating arrangements to improve the customer service experience. This also ensures that the customer service level meets international standards.

Qantas provide their customer to combine points from flying, credit and debit card spend and retail spend into single account

The technological trend in the airline industry has favored the use of plastic money. Amidst the pertinent and obvious structural concerns, the credit card system has ensured convenience security and flexibility in transactions specifically in the transport sector. Passengers get to earn points as a form of motivation and marketing for every flight they take. The points can either be based on the mileage traveled or the amount spent. The points my be used to upgrade a ticket or purchase products at the convenience of the customer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Qantas services their customer by another brand of aircraft which is called Jetstart’s

The diversity of the consumers goes requires the company to make provision for all levels of income earners. The company has taken advantage of the low income segment by partnering with a smaller airline that offers alternative cheaper but equally quality service. This falls in line with the price segmentation strategy in consumer marketing

Caring for customer

Customer care s a fundamental and important aspect of a business. It offers a basis and rationale for the formulation of the companies strategies and policies. The company has made an initiative to ensure that their customers are satisfied and assisted in every possible means. It has engaged consumer service surveys to measure the performance and effectiveness of their customer care. This has generated alternative consumer satisfaction strategies that will allow the company to grow and offer better service ( Qantas annual report, 2010).

Attitudes towards competitors: Higher performance in every thing

The transport sector has over the last two decades grown to become among the most competitive volatile and revolutionary sector in the world economy. The situation is even more aggressive in the private sector with every company seeking a piece of the large consumer base.

The company therefore has a competitive and visionary attitude towards its competition. It has installed strategic mechanisms that constantly review the companies performance ratings as against its competitors to ensure that it remains in front or at least on the front line.


It is every customers requirement that their means of transport be safe and reliable. The government as well as industrial requirements for safety are clear and strict. The airline has therefore given paramount importance to its safety precautions and guaranteed its customers an ultimately safe experience. It has invested in health safety programs such as health surveillance monitors that ensure that the customers along with the employees operate in a safe environment.

Training and development

The airlines employee base attracts a variety of professional limits that allows the labor force to benefit from a wide range of skills. Majority of these employees are based locally and are therefore easily accessible to the company.

Updating market needs

A pertinent characteristic of the contemporary consumer market is the changing preferences and tastes. It is therefore important for every company to constantly redefine and re- evaluate its consumer needs data to ensure that it keeps abreast with the recent trends. The airline has responded to the changing consumer needs by simplifying and easing the check in experience.

We will write a custom Report on The Management Systems Related to Internal and External Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strong complementary Brand

In a market full of substitutes a company needs to diversify its portfolio to increase the chances of consumer following. The company has therefore partnered with an alternate smaller airline that allows it to access the low fare market. This makes sure that it maintains a presence in all areas and segments of the market

Reference Qantas annual report. (2010) The Sum. Web. Web.


Information Technology in People’s lives Rhetorical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Background

The Social Impact


Mitigating Forces


Works Cited

The 20th century saw the emergence of the Information Age. Beginning in the late 1980s information technology (IT) began to dominate the lives of people, especially those in the Western world. This was made possible by two major technological breakthroughs: the invention of the personal computer and the creation of the Internet or World-Wide-Web.

These two distinct yet related technologies were combined to create a powerful network of computers that enabled the high-speed sharing of information and ideas. It did not take long before people began to utilize it for information dissemination, business, and social networking. There are a lot of positive things that resulted from the use of IT.

On the other hand unscrupulous men and women also used the same to make dishonest gain, torment others, and to commit crimes beyond the limitations of geographical borders. It is therefore imperative to develop an international coalition that would establish common laws and ethical standards to govern the use of IT, especially when it comes to the World-Wide-Web.

Background One of the most amazing consequences of information technology is the ability to communicate over long distances. Although long-distance telecommunication was common even before World War II, it was only during the advent of IT when people can communicate to somebody living in another continent and do so without having to spend a great deal of money. As a result websites and other IT applications were developed at a frenetic pace as businessmen and private individuals discovered how IT can enhance their lives.

The proliferation of websites coupled with the increase in computer literacy ushered in the Information Age. At the same time globalization became more evident. It is true that international relations were a reality for centuries.

Nevertheless, the realization that nations were interconnected and that human beings were citizens in one global village was only apparent to national leaders and not to the common people. In the past, two people living in two different countries can establish a relationship only through letters and telegrams.

The process was terribly slow; it is possible that messages can only reach the intended recipient after many weeks. But with the Internet, globalization was a concept readily understood by the average person and not just international businesspeople. The following definition explains why IT fast-tracked globalization:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The World-Wide-Web is an infrastructure of information distributed among thousands of computers across the world and the software by which that information is accessed. The Web relies on underlying networks, especially the Internet, as the vehicle to exchange the information among users. (Dale


Phonograph Invention and Evolution Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction Phonograph is not a new concept or tool. Different names have been used to refer to it in different places for instance record player, turntable or gramophone. The device was introduced towards the end of the 19th century, in 1877 by Edison Alva Thomas while he was carrying out his normal duties at his laboratory in New Jersey. The purpose of the phonograph was to record and reproduce sound recordings.

The phonograph has undergone a lot of notable evolutions, the first invention being marked by some wavy lines that were either etched or grooved on a cylinder that rotated in order to produce the desired results (Pingree, 2004). This paper gives a general overview of the phonograph with much emphasis being given to its invention and evolution as well as how it has affected arts and its connection to humanities.

The time period the phonograph was invented and the circumstances that led to the invention.

The Edison’s phonograph was invented in 1877. The device comprised of a drum in a cylindrical shape which was wrapped in a tinfoil and mounted on an axle threaded in an organized manner. It also had a mouthpiece through which sound would be recorded. The invention was a product of Edison’s other inventions, the telephone and telegraph.

Although the phonograph is greatly attributed to Edison’s efforts, various people had come up with the idea earlier, for example Kruesi and Charles Cros.

The circumstances that surrounded the invention of the phonograph include the desire of man to have documentation whereby they would have a reference of what happens for instance expression of the human voice/ speech and various artistic performances such as music that proved a bit hard to preserve in the human memory. The need for entertainment also contributed to its invention since things like radios and TV were not present at the time (Moore, 1908).

How the phonograph has evolved over time and the effects of the evolution on later time periods Just like any other development, the phonograph was not invented in one day. It took some time, considerations and combination of different ideas. Its evolution has been deemed to have a lot of impact on various life aspects especially in art and humanities. The early invention involved use of tin foil cylinders. Wax cylinders were later developed to deal with problems associated with tin foils like wearing out quickly. Hard plastic cylinders were then developed in the early 20th century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The invention and advancement of the phonograph and its operations has had a part to play on other inventions. This is because the later inventions like radio and TV have drawn ideas on the earlier phonograph and made some improvements to enhance efficiency and effectiveness (Millard, 2005).

How phonograph affected the arts within the time period it was invented Phonograph has had a part to play in the different forms of art including music, theatre and drama among other arts. Phonograph has been deemed to have contributed positively to the field of art and humanities through bringing about diversity which in turn makes these fields interesting.

The phonograph added importance to the art arena by providing a way through which the different works would be recorded and archived for use at a convenient time by any individual that could own the instrument.

Music and drama would for example be recorded and reproduced later and this aspect contributed to the growth of the art industry where artists enhanced their talents and were able to create their presence among the public as opposed to earlier times where they would only be known at the time of performance since there was no form of retrievable storage (Du Moncel, 1974).

How the advancement of phonograph is connected to the humanities According to Ramadhan (2011), the invention and advancement of the phonograph has not existed in isolation but rather amongst many other concepts where some form of dependence has been witnessed. It has, for example, played a great part when it comes to the field of humanities.

The phonograph has made human life easier because they don’t have to rely solely on their memory for their works. People were also in a position to bring different aspects of the world into their homes, an aspect which led to the emergence of a global culture as a result of integration of different elements from different cultures provided by the recordings. Entertainment was also enhanced by the phonograph in a great manner.

Conclusion Technology advancement is inevitable. It is a concept that has been there all along with the speed and sophistication increasing day by day. The phonograph is an instrument that is deemed to be a reference point when it comes to the field of art and humanities especially Music.

We will write a custom Essay on Phonograph Invention and Evolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Later developments have drawn ideas from it and made some improvements. There are various circumstances that surrounded the invention of phonograph as mentioned earlier and with the changes of times, there have been implementation of modifications in making of instruments to incorporate the changes.

Reference List Du Moncel, T.A.L. (1974). The Telephone, the Microphone and the Phonograph. New York: Arno Press.

Millard, A.J. (2005). America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Moore, C.C. (1908). A Treatise on Facts: Or, the Weight and Value Of Evidence, Volume 1. New York: Thompson Company.

Pingree, B.G. (2004). New Media, 1740-1915. New Jersey: MIT Press, 2004.

Ramadhan, A. (2011). Facts about the Phonograph. Retrieved from


Non-alcoholic beverage industry Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Industry competitive structure analysis

Gross profit Margin comparison

Financial comparisons of key competitors

Analysis of the Financial Statements

Accounting Ratios for PepsiCo since the year 2000


Works Cited

Introduction Pepsi Company is one of the world leader producers of food and non-alcoholic beverages. It has got a snack branch in North America known as Frito-Lay, PepsiCo Beverage International and what is known as Quaker Foods also in North America.

Research reveals that the non-alcoholic beverage industry comprises of three major competitors which are PepsiCo, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Schweppes. PepsiCo is known to currently control around 21% of the total market share within beverage industry. However, Frito-Lay controls 60% of the total snack-food market share within the U.S market (Pepsi Company Overview).

Industry competitive structure analysis The structure of the industry is oligopolistic; this is since the industry is dominated by three major players which are Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and Cadbury Schweppes. Analysis and description of beverage products in relation to competition focuses on market share owned by Pepsi in relation to its competitors.

The industry’s relatively slowing market is characterized by tremendous and stiff competition. The rivalry has majorly been between Pepsi and Coca-Cola for fairly longer time. Top ten ranked companies in beverage market based on market coverage includes; Coca Cola, Pepsi, Snapple, Cott, National heritage, Hansen natural, Red bull, Big red, Rock star and others with Coca-Cola at the top and Rock star at the bottom rank with only 0.4% market coverage (Pepsi Company Overview).

Coca-Cola Company owns four soft drink brands which includes; Minute Maid Juices, Minute Maid Lemonade, Fruit Drinks and others. Minute maid orange juices have tremendous success within the market. The success of Coca-Cola in business is based on conducting effective advertising and promotional programs which still keeps them ahead of competitors (Coca-Cola Company).

Pepsi Company deals with products ranging from Fritolay Brands, Gatorade Brands to Quaker Brands and best range of Tropicana juices under the Tropicana Brand. However, PepsiCo has shown improvement over the years in building great brand name.

Example of the companies struggling within the beverage industry is Snapple Juice Company. They have not succeeded yet in consolidating range of Snapple juices through retailers which could be of benefit in efficient product delivery to the target markets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has also found it difficult to cope with the pricing which are always affected by costs of raw materials determined by their availability. They have been unsuccessful in offering Snapple brand having the capability of attaining to consumer’s level of health consciousness. Their new flavors have not yet been fully accepted within the market (Pepsi Company Overview).

Gross profit Margin comparison Pepsi (%) Coca-Cola (%) Cadbury (%) Industry Average (%) 2000 60.46 69.67 53.86% 61.77% 2001 59.46 69.92 52.86 61.43 2002 53.67 63.68 47.9 55.8 2003 53.6 62.9 48.6 55.8 2004 53.7 64.7 49.3 56.98 The comparison of the gross profit margin shows some great concern within PepsiCo’s profitability based on sales. Coca-Cola has clear gain of more profit on sales as compared to other competitors. This gives some hint on PepsiCo’s ability in the management of the cost of production since most of its values are less than industry average.

Financial comparisons of key competitors Despite the low concentration of firms within the beverage industry, the three major firms PepsiCo, Coca-cola and Cadbury Schweppes accounts for almost 80% of the entire global market. The largest market share within the industry is under the command of Coca-Cola accounting for almost 50% while PepsiCo controls around 21% of the total global market share, Cadbury has below 10% coverage. The level of competition amongst these firms is basically based on product differentiation.

Some of the key accounting policies applied in the analysis and valuation of the company’s financial status include revenue recognition, income tax expense and ascertained accruals, quality of brand and valuation of goodwill as well as stock compensation expenses. For the purposes of maintaining high reputation for superior products, PepsiCo resorts to recognizing their revenue upon delivery of products (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Evaluation on the accuracy of PepsiCo accounting policies gives clear picture of their economic reality within the industry in comparison to other companies. All the companies within beverage industry recognize revenue upon transfer of products.

They also apply the use of credit terms allowing payment to be made within 30 days of delivery, at the same time PepsiCo and Coca-Cola applies the same principle on brand and goodwill valuations. Indefinite intangible assets are not amortized while definite intangible assets are amortized within the beverage companies, the three companies also applies the use of fair value methods for the purposes of accounting for employee stocks (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Analysis of the Financial Statements Overall operations of PepsiCo outside United States have proved viable since it generates approximately 35% of the total net revenue. Twenty percent of these are obtained from potential hubs such as Mexico, United Kingdom as well as Canada. The other percentage ranging between 13-15% is generated from other countries of the world.

We will write a custom Essay on Non-alcoholic beverage industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, PepsiCo’s market penetration is exposed to threats such as foreign currency and political unrest. Prevention of such risks involves strategies such as entering into forward contracts having terms of no more than two years (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Accounting Ratios for PepsiCo since the year 2000 2009 2003 2002 2001 2000 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1.28 1.08 1.06 1.17 1.17 Quick Asset Ratio 1.0 0.75 0.72 0.76 0.8 Inventory turnover 9.76 8 7.84 7.51 7.87 Receivables Turnover 7.8 9.5 1.0 13.0 11.4 Profitability Ratios Gross profit margin 53.6% 53.56% 53.67% 59.46% 60.46% Net Profit Margin 14.4% 13.23% 13.19% 9.88% 10.68% Asset Turnover 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.24 1.11 Return on Asset 15.05% 14.09% 14.11% 12.26% 11.90% Return on Equity 31.24% 30.15% 35.81% 30.76% 30.11% Capital Structure Ratio Debt to Equity Ratio 1.07 1.14 1.53 1.51 1.53 Examination and analysis of several accounting ratios helped in determining the liquidity of PepsiCo. The current year financial breakdown and previous years gives the clear analysis on the changes experienced within PepsiCo. The ratios reveal the company to be relatively liquid.

The current ratio reveals favorable status, the increase from 1.2 in 2000 to current 1.3 shows that the current assets have increased compared to current liabilities. The firm’s liquidity is further revealed by quick ratio which determines its ability to meet current obligations on the basis of improved liquid assets.

The improvement could be recognized from 0.8 in 2000 to 1 in the current year, showing that current and future obligations of the company can now be solved faster than previously. However, receivable turnover have since decreased posing some threat to liquidity. Inventory turnover has experienced considerable increase indicating valuable productivity in the use of inventory, the increase from 7.9 in 2000 to current 9.76 clearly indicate this (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

The level of profitability for PepsiCo is considered moderate as revealed through the financial analysis. The company has experienced decrease in Gross Profit Margin, indicating an increase in the level of cost of goods sold over the years. This means that the company spends more on the production of their products compared to the output.

There is an increase of around 0.12% from the previous years. Net profit Margin has since changed creating some positive impact; the notable increase has been around 4.4% since the year 2000. Asset Turnover has however decreased from 2000 indicating that PepsiCo has got trouble in converting the available assets to sales (Sila and Ballard 13-46).

Conclusion The analysis of the financial ratios indicates that PepsiCo has slightly positive results on the capital structure. The ratios show positive Debt to Equity ratio, hence the company’s ability to finance its businesses debt free. The level of liquidity ratios revealed indicates that PepsiCo has got the capability of meeting short-time obligations better off than other competing beverage companies within the market.

Works Cited Coca-Cola Company. Hoovers, 2006. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Non-alcoholic beverage industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pepsi Company Overview. PepsiCo. Web.

Sila, Emon


Intelligence testing Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theories of intelligence

Triarchic theory of intelligence

Multiple intelligence theory

Effectiveness of intelligence testing



Introduction Intelligence entangles one of the subjects widely addressed in psychology. However, many scholars do not have a harmonized definition of what it constitutes. Some of the scholars hold the opinion of intelligence as a general ability, while others stick to the idea that intelligence entangles varying aptitudes, talents and skills.

Theories of intelligence Spearman “…a psychologist from Britain, used the factor analysis concept to describe an intelligence theory he referred to as the general intelligence by examining various mental aptitudes” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 2) Charles observes that individuals who performed excellently in one cognitive test had the highest probabilities of doing better in other tests.

Those who did badly in one test also reflected so in other tests. Consequently, he concluded that “intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 3).

The theory of primary mental abilities, put forward by Louis Thurston, looks at intelligence from a seven-mental-capability perspective point of view opposed from a general single ability point of view. The seven abilities that he described include reasoning, spatial visualization, perceptual speed, numerical ability, associative memory, verbal comprehension and word fluency.

In the Triarchic theory, Sternberg (1985, p. 45) laments that intelligence is “mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life”. Multiple intelligence theory, postulated by Howard Gardner, ignores the test score analysis subscribing eight intelligences laid on the foundation of abilities and skills appreciated within differing societal cultures.

Triarchic theory of intelligence Triarchic theory takes into corporation three facets: practical or conceptual sub theory, analytical or experiential and componential or analytical sub theories.

According to this theory, one can measure and test analytical intelligence theory using his/her capability levels of solving academic problems such as analogies or puzzles, which correspond well to the individual’s prior componential intelligence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sternberg (1985, p. 47) strongly inclines to the idea that “Analytical Intelligence (Academic problem-solving skills) is based on the joint operations of meta-components, performance and knowledge acquisition components of intelligence”.

The meta-components have the responsibility of evaluating, controlling and monitoring the cognitive processing abilities of an individual constituting the highest hierarchical order components that organize all other components of performance. The creative facet entangles insights capacity to respond to various noble stimuli and synthesis of these stimuli. Practical facet draws the capacity to grasp followed by amicable understanding of information then reflected in daily routines.

Sternberg (1985, p.103) says that the intelligence encompasses “Purposive adaptation to, shaping of, and selection of real-world environments relevant to one’s life”. Practical intelligence is a repercussion formed by the capability to actively adapt with respect to the environment so as to ensure objectives and goals are met, adjust accordingly as the novel situations vary and in case the priory mentioned two combinations fail, the individual relocates to a new environment.

Multiple intelligence theory Howard Gardner claims, “…expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people’s abilities” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 5). In his theory of multiple intelligence, therefore, he deviated from Charles Spearman’s theory approach, which indicted that “intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed” (Cherry, 2011, Para. 6).

Gardener described eight characteristics that he totally believed could constitute intelligence. The intelligences in this theory include naturalistic, musical, logical mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, verbal linguistic, bodily kinesthetic and visual spatial intelligence. This theory offers the criteria for selecting the abilities that warrants for inclusion in the formation of any intelligence model for testing.

Effectiveness of intelligence testing Based on methods such as those put forward by Stanford Binet, Wechsler (WAIS) and WAIS-IV, intelligence testing proves effective in several ways. For instance, it gives opportunities for determination of the students who critically require special services. The intelligence testing methods prove effective in the determination of risk factors when it comes to delinquent behavior relationships particularly when deficiencies in students need to be determined.

Consequently, “By administering the IQ test, educators stand a good chance to determine which students have deficiencies, as well as what these deficiencies are” (Anastasi, 1996, p.53). Realization of such deficiencies in good time is vital if at all, the teachers wish to get the appropriate corrective measures worth implementing to ensure students back to norm in good time.

We will write a custom Essay on Intelligence testing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More IQ tests too stand out as effective measures of intelligence since their results correlate with the measures of general knowledge such as SAT and ACT. “The American Psychological Association has found that those students who score well on an intelligence test have higher grades and learn/retain more of what they are learning in school than classmates with low IQ scores” (Anastasi, 1996, p.87).

Even in the light of effectiveness of the intelligence testing methods, critics’ record some dissatisfaction by arguing out that they poses some downfalls. One enormous down fall is that the intelligence testing fails to incorporate environmental factors which may account for the observed differences in the intelligence levels among students.

The tests also do not cover a wider spectrum of variables that may constitute intelligence such the ones identified in the multiple intelligence theory. Consequently, a larger number of students remain left out based on the consideration of their giftedness. This omission is critical since one can use IQ tests to determine an individual’s ability, which in turn reflects itself in job performance.

Conclusion People perceive intelligence as the general ability or their varying aptitudes, talents and skills. As discussed in the paper, four theories need substantial consideration in arriving at a parameter to measure intelligence levels. However, the existing intelligence testing methods among students remain crucial if at all academic deficiencies in schools need be identified and solved fast enough before students possessing them get out of track.

References Anastasi, A. (1996). Psychological testing (7th ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Cherry, K. (2011). Theories of intelligence. Retrieved from

Sternberg, R. (1985). Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.


A Critique of Locke’s Natural Law of Property Essay a level english language essay help

Natural Rights Locke viewed property as a natural right derived from a natural law. Locke put forward that the natural law could be known by all the people through their reasoning (Tuckness, 2010)

His view on natural law is normative rather than descriptive. It is what should be happening in society and not what is happening in the society. Once man had been created, he has a right to live. Secondly he has a right to freedom, as long as it does not interfere with other’s people right to life. The third right is the right to property as long as it did not affect other people’s right to life and freedom.

His right to property comes from his right to live given by God and as such it would not be right to deny anyone their natural rights. Locke put forward that man had changed the natural order of things

Looking at Locke’s theory on natural law, there are a few points that I disagree with. There are natural rights such as the right to live and freedom if one adheres to the law of the land. However when it comes to land or property, with the introduction of a monetary medium of exchange, it ceases being a natural right.

That is why the governments of this world have two categories of land: public land and private property. Private property system allocates land to an individual and others are excluded from using the land without his or her permission (Waldron, 2010) Public land belongs to the state and no one can say they own it. One will only have access to land and its use if they have bought it at a price from the previous owner. Others cannot use the land without the owner’s permission.

Natural right to property Locke put forward that when God created man he gave him the right to property. All men had the opportunity to have land and enjoy it. The second activity that took place is that people started to apply their labor to the land and thus took possession of the land. Locke saw labor as something that was owned by the individual, the concept of self-ownership.

Whatever the man mixed with his labor became his (Locke, 1988 [1689], II, para 27). As they applied productive labor to the land there was enough goods and services for everyone (Forde, 2001). However, further along in the society there was the introduction of a monetary medium. Now people could accumulate land.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When it reaches this stage, it created the need of a political and social order (Suits, 1977). The government was put in place by the people and would only operate if the people consented to the government. Locke wrote that if the government did not ensure that the people got their natural rights of life, freedom and property, it would be overthrown.

Locke also saw labor as something owned by the individual however that is not the case now in the capitalist community. Marx put forward that in the capitalist society, the workers would not even own their own labor. It would come a point where they would have to work or starve to death as there was a reserve of unemployed labor in the market anxious to get employed. The worker’s labor therefore belongs to the rich (Simmons, 1992, p 335).

The worker therefore ends up working for low wages and he does not enjoy his productivity. It is the employer who ends up becoming richer. The poor laborer or worker, once the land becomes scarce cannot equitably enjoy the fruits of labor with the landowner. Furthermore, when the worker puts his labor on the land it does not become his, it is still held by the owner till he can afford to purchase it.

I agree with Locke on the need of a political and social order on the administration of property. Land is a scarce resource. It therefore needs a means of allocation that is measurable and equitable. Locke recognized this and that is why he stated the creation of a political society to see the allocation of property (Tully, 1980, p165). It therefore ceases being a natural right. One cannot just demand for a piece of land unless they have the financial resources to buy the land (Hume, 1978, p 489).

I agree with Marx that the government cannot be relied on to ensure Locke’s natural right to property as it would be under the control of the rich elite. (Marx