Introduction What is the concept of Taylorism?
According to the online English dictionary the concept of Taylorism is defined as a form of production technology that breaks a job into smaller segments which can be taught easily. This concept aims at;
Minimizing use of skills and learning time.
Separate employees who are directly involved in the production process from those who are not.
Concentrate on precise measurements.
Increase job performance through motion study
Separating work execution and work planning.
The concept of Taylorism aims at maximizing work efficiency through the use of machines and workers. It is also a model that targets mass production. It involves people who are not qualified in specific fields but working there also known as quality control.
This concept was not very reliable in the old times as workers were not willing to work considering the lack of motivation. It was therefore a system that was not very effective in terms of productivity.
Taylorism concept also aimed at increasing the amounts of profits the company makes for the benefit of running of the business and paying workers wages in time.
This implies if the worker is working extra hard the employee is able to make extra profits to pay the workers there wages in time and also remain with a good balance to start the next day’s work (Winslow,1911).scientific management believes for maximum prosperity an employer depends on the effort put in place by his employees. However, in most cases this is not always achieved due to the following reasons;
Majority of employees do not work efficiently because they want to protect their own interests
Most employees believe that use of machines in trade will result in majority of employees losing their jobs. In addition, the mentality that even if they work hard the payment remains the same.
Rule of the thumb.
One particular disadvantage of the Taylorism concept was; it was believed to suppress and destroy creativity among employees. The process made work easy through the use technology therefore making it easy for workers to be in control of the whole process.
Taylorism process was also bias to low level workers reason being; there was a division among the majority class, which comprised of the rich and able and the minority class that was comprised of the subordinates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disintegration among workers meant there was no equality making the low level people less motivated which later led the workers to demand equal payment of salary and be able to participate in the decision making process.
This disorganization was believed to bring embarrassment in the top executive because qualified workers joined hands with their compatriots to demand for change and equal salary. This demonstration led to the beginning of Post-fordism that changed the entire labor organization (Rudra, 2002).
What is the concept of Bureaucracy?
Bureaucracy according to the Online English dictionary is a structure with regulations used to control activities in an organization and government. It shows the division of labor within an organization in terms of power, relationships as well as Hierarchy (Janoski, 2005).
Bureaucracy can be divided into four concepts.
Division of labor within the administration and offices.
A consistent recruitment pattern and linear career.
A form of communication network that connects the organization.
Clear division of authority among staff members.
Use of technology in work setting covers freedom of censorship. It embraces the freedom to discuss truthful and public matters that concern the public without fear of subsequent punishment. Technology should therefore be used to improve people’s condition at work and not be used as a form curiosity with the intension of harming others though messages from fax machines and emails.
This system is well applied in the Taylorism concept of management. It is also imperative that the employee preserves the autencity of information to protect others. This system is well applied in the Taylorism concept of management.
Rules should also be put in place in any work setting to reinforce balance between technology and workers (Lucey, 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on Managing and Organizations: Taylorism and Bureaucracy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This applies much in the concept of Taylorism workers should be aware of the repercussions of being too inquisitive to cause harm to other employees through technology, the concept of bureaucracy gives rights to citizens or persons to assemble peacefully with a view to influence the formulation and execution of policy.
It also goes ahead to explain how workers can construct a case and appeal against unfair treatment by their employees and or, government.
The concept of bureaucracy shows that no individual is above the law it is an illustration of civil liberty. In regards to these the concept of bureaucracy is suppose to operate for the people without judging people on aspects of gender ,religion, rich or poor.
People working together should be respected equally not be judged on prejudices but according to the rules not identity also known as rational bureaucracy. The concept of Bureaucracy therefore frees people from injustices from bad leadership.
Literature Review Organizational culture
An organization is defined as a dynamic structured process where individuals come together to achieve a certain goal. Organization knowledge is the important resource in the development and growth of a business (Vorbeck et al., 2003). Organizational culture is a set of artifacts, values, and assumptions that emerge from the interaction of organizational members.
It is the umbrella concept for a way of thinking which takes a serious interest in cultural and symbolic phenomena. Organizational culture seems to mean talking about the importance of people to symbolism-of rituals myths stories and legends-and about the interpretation of events, ideas and experiences influenced and shaped by the groups within they live (Druker,1998).
Culture is a system of common symbols and meanings. It provides shared rules, values, and beliefs governing cognitive and affective aspects of members in an organization. It creates meaning that guides human action and interprets their experiences.
It is linked to history and tradition an organization is therefore defined by culture. Each organization is believed to have a culture. Managers and executives express more interested in organizational culture to improve productivity, effectiveness and efficiency (Merkle, 1980).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing and Organizations: Taylorism and Bureaucracy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Culture is also a pattern of shared basic assumptions learned by a group as it solved its problem of external adaption and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, thought, and feeling in relation to those problems.
It is therefore the role of any organization to come up with strategies to use this powerful resource for the positive growth of the business (Berk and Berk, 2011). This can be achieved by developing factors that encourage the spread of information. This is clearly illustrated in the concept of Taylorism.
It clearly shows how knowledge and communication through technology can be used to improve work in the company as well as increase turnover. There are two principals behind how to increase knowledge in an organization (Kallinikos, 2006).
Competitive advantage and management innovation, which has cultivated knowledge creation.
Competition of the jobs, which aims at using people effectively to increase profits for the company.
Organizational culture plays a big role in influencing knowledge. Organizational culture is defined as shared values and or, beliefs through leadership (Keyton, 2011). Value is a tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over another. It determines ones view of reality. Values have both intensity and direction. They are also strategies, goals, principles or qualities considered ideal for organizational behavior.
Characteristics of organizational cultures include: being dynamic, which is composed of; competing assumptions and values, emotionally which are charged and inextricably linked to organizational members. Focus on incremental change (Willmott et al., 2010).
Leaders in any business setting should always be aware of the activities of the organization. Like for example, in any government institution it is the responsibility of leaders to ensure work is done effectively in this type of organization (Clegg, 2008).
The concept of bureaucracy is where information is channeled through a hierarchy of offices (Hill, 1992). There is also a particular line of recruitment with stable careers. The concept of bureaucracy is very rigid as compared to the Taylorism concept, which is flexible and allows for free movement of information within the organization set-up.
It therefore gives people a chance to be heard without passing through a hierarchy of offices hence information is quickly passed, this therefore ensures decisions are made quickly unlike in the bureaucratic form of government where decisions is passed slowly.
Discussion Advantages of the concept of bureaucracy
The concept of bureaucracy has several advantages: it promises responsibility and the company is able to achieve more because control is done by top executives.
This ensures there is consistency because decisions are entirely controlled by top executives and incase change it starts from the top management. The bureaucratic concept also allows for the government to serve not only the people under its management but the entire the country thus serving the people.
This concept also allows for specialization of jobs. It therefore gives responsibility to people who are capable of doing the job well that in return promises effectiveness and maximum profits. It is also a system where fairness is a priority. It ensures people are respected for who they are, and what they are able to achieve depending on their education.
It gives an equal chance to both the rich and the poor to Christians, Muslims, gay or straight people by ensuring they are treated equally. It is a concept that had a lot of weight in the beginning of the 20 century. The disadvantage of this method was that information took longer.
Advantages of the concept of Taylorism
The Taylorism concept also had several advantages the use of computers in communication ensured information was passed in time meaning orders were delivered in time (Rudra, 2002).
This system also ensured information was passed accurately and communication between customers and client was done effectively such that incase there was a problem the customer was quickly helped out.This therefore increased productivity and improved production. The Taylorism concept also reduced human workload as computers were used more often (Taylor, 1911).
The Taylorism type of concept provides citizens with freedom of expression. The ability to communicate effectively with individuals and groups strongly influences ones professional and personal success (Janoski, 2005). Communication is the fundamental key to the growth of any business.
This concept enhances effectiveness of both individual and team performance. Most employers rank the ability to communicate as the most vital job related skill.
The key to effective communication involves active knowledgeable and Participation. Communication cycle involves two categories of messages verbal and non-verbal (Keyton, 2011). Verbal is unspoken Non-verbal is visual, audible and involves movement clues called signals.
Apart from the verbal and non-verbal knowledge, transfer can be influenced by several factors; Relational channel, partner similarity, Depreciation, what the individual knows, and interest of individuals to learn (Alvesson, 2002).
Types of organizational cultures:
Innovation-this is the type of organization where the manager not only plans the change but also participate in it.
Task-oriented-this is the type of organization where responsibly are distributed among staff.
Bureaucratic-this is the type of organization with a defined form of division of labor and there is no dependency. This form of organization is believed to limit knowledge transfer and discourage interpersonal form of communication among employees.
Completion/confrontation-this form of organization is almost similar to Bureaucratic.
The concept Bureaucracy therefore encourages dependency among employees but at the same time formalize communication, a system mostly used in military units and governments (Janoski, 2005). Although organization may limit transfer of knowledge this should be done partially and allow employees fair opportunities for the divergent of fair views and dissenting opinions (Clegg, 2008).
These are opinions aimed at improving the face of the company for commercial interest. The use of technology should promote freedom of speech, which allows truth to prevail and lies to be discarded (Tummala, 2005). It should not include publication, or broadcasts that represent or dehumanizes a group based on religion, race, color, or ethnicity in any working environment.
Conclusion The success of any organization depends on both the employee and the employer. The employee should be able to keep up with what the employees are working on and or, the behaviors they are exhibiting. It is not correct for a leader to say he was not aware. He should focus with on “means” and” ends” to reach for goals. There are two types of employee performance that is not accepted in an organization.
Not getting results and getting the results in wrong way. Ethical business starts with ethical leadership. Everyone must do their part to make the organization successful; it is the responsibility of leaders to ensure no pitfall. Communication and technology are also important forces for the success of any company because they have an impact on how information is distributed within the company.
References Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding organizational culture. London: Sage.
Implications of Privatising Public Utilities and Accountability Issues Analytical Essay online essay help: online essay help
Abstract The focus of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the implications of privatising public utilities with regard to accountability issues. In addition to the provision of supporting evidence, the paper assesses how privatisation of public utilities affects accountability. Privatisation of public utilities has two main effects on accountability. Efforts to privatise public utilities lead to demotivation on the part of the government.
The responsibility of the government is to investigate and respond to the demands of the public. When public utilities are privatised, the private sector takes up the role of providing the various services needed by members of the public. In addition to the government, efforts to privatise public utilities demotivate the entire public. The public sector lacks the resources and the mandate to mobilise resources and rouse for quality services.
The private sector ends up holding the public at ransom, inflating the costs charged on the government and, in extension, the public. In the process of legislating, some politicians may be biased and favour the issue of privatising public utilities. In most cases, they are the ones who benefit as most of the private companies that end up taking up the role of providing public services belong to them.
By privatising public utilities, the government reduces the role of members of the public in ensuring that the services provided are of high quality. The development has various effects as far as accountability is concerned. At the end of the day, the consumers pay more for the same services.
Introduction Privatisation initiatives are mechanisms and components that fall under the broader liberalisation strategies and policies adopted by governments around the world. The main objective of privatisation initiatives is the formulation and implementation of policies aimed at restructuring the economy.
The major aim of such restructurings is to control the economy, especially if it has become inefficient and inebriated with corruption and other economic problems. The driving force behind the government’s decision to undertake such a policy is, in most cases, its ‘heavy’ involvement in the public sector. Resource privatisation, as a policy, is not an ancient phenomenon.
It is one of the most recent and most revolutionary innovations in economic policies. While this idea seems restricted to majority of the developed nations, a significant number of developing countries in the world find the initiative more applicable to their economies compared to other policies. All over the world, nations and governments regard the idea as a financial desire and a growth strategy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, while the idea continues to gain more ground and acceptability in most nations, some policy makers look at it from an accountability perspective. Most of the issues raised by these policy makers with regard to the honesty of the idea revolve around accountability issues.
They are also concerned with the credibility of the move, as well as the level of involvement among the three parties or stakeholders, namely the government, the private sector, and consumers of public utility goods and services.
Colonisation and Drug Trade Term Paper essay help
Abstract The global drug trade is worth billions of dollars. Colonialism has had a huge role to play in the growth of this trade. Consequently, this paper traces the influence of colonialism in the emergence and growth of the drug trade.
Comprehensively, this paper shows that the influence of colonialism on drug trade centres on the opium wars, expansion of drug markets, and the role of colonial wars in liberalising the trade. Further evidence shows the emergence of international drug trafficking cartels from the colonial era and the growth of the drug market through drug abuse by colonial labourers.
Introduction The emergence and growth of the drug trade stems from the willingness of drug addicts to pay for drugs at any cost. Indeed, Shmoop University (2010) affirms that drug addicts are very good customers because they are not motivated by reason but rather, by a need to fulfil their addictive desires.
Consequently, drugs are among the most lucrative products in the global market because drug cartels and drug companies make handsome profits from the sale of legal and illegal drug types (Rexton, 2009, p. 7). Profits realised from the sale of drugs even rival some of the world’s most lucrative legal trades such as the sale of coffee, corn, or even gold.
Currently, the sale of petroleum and coffee (in the same order of dominance) dominate the biggest global markets. Even though the drug business trails these products (in terms of market size), undoubtedly, drugs are more precious today than most products around the world.
Shmoop University (2010) even says, some drugs (like cocaine) are more precious than gold because a gram of Cocaine may cost $100 while a gram of gold may cost $25. Other drugs such as marijuana have a very high value in certain parts of the world such as the US where Shmoop University (2010) considers it the most valuable cash crop. Marijuana growers in the US rake in about $36 billion annually.
Most of these sales link to illegal marijuana sales. Corn is the second most valuable cash crop in the US and it is worth only $23 billion (Shmoop University, 2010, p. 1). From these statistics, there is little evidence to contradict the belief that the trade is among the most lucrative business in the world. Even though it remains destructive to human life, the drug trade will not end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One question many people ask is how this trade started and became so profound in the global market today. Since some of the most notorious drug cartels emerged from the colonial era, there is a strong indication that colonialism has a huge role to play in the emergence and sustenance of the drug trade. This paper explores the influence of colonialism and the dominance of colonial powers in supporting the drug trade.
Role of the Colonial Powers in Aiding Drug Trade The emergence of colonial powers in the 15th century heralds the birth of colonisation and the dominance of European powers around the world. However, colonisation is not the only product realised from the emergence of colonial powers; the emergence and growth of the drug trade is also a conspicuous product of colonisation (Rexton, 2009, p. 7).
Before colonisation, there was little distribution of drugs beyond western nations; however, the growth of the drug trade filled the voids of this trade. This happened mainly through wars and conflicts such as the opium wars.
The Opium Wars By far, the opium wars are among the most notable atrocities committed by the British. This war traces its origins to the 19th century when Britain fought with China over the sale and distribution of Opium and heroin (Compilation Group, 2000, p. 1). At the time, Britain had a strong monopoly over the supply of both drugs.
Britain’s control over the supply of both commodities culminated through the control of the drug production process by British trading houses and banks. Most banks involved in this trade engaged in the laundering of drug money, while the trading houses dealt directly with the control of the trade (regulation).
The dominance of Britain over the supply and distribution of Opium stemmed from its influence and control of the Indian peninsula, including the biggest Opium producer known today as Afghanistan (Annu, 2009).
When the Chinese empire banned the sale of Opium within its borders, the British felt greatly threatened because they were already involved in the trade of tea in silver with the Chinese empire. The British perceived the trade of tea as a big threat to its future sustenance because the Chinese only accepted silver in exchange for tea (Annu, 2009). Britain was paying a lot of silver to the Chinese who did not do much with it.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Colonisation and Drug Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the trade between the Chinese and the British counteracted through a new trading paradigm where the British could get their silver back. The opium trade was a perfect opportunity for the British to do so. Before the opium war, the Chinese consumed only small proportions of the drug.
Somewhat, the consumption of opium was considered to have a religious significance to some Chinese communities. However, Compilation Group (2000) explains that broadly, the Chinese did not know much about opium. The opium war however changed this situation.
The British waged an all-out-war on the Chinese empire where millions of Chinese people died. Chouvy (2010) explains that the Chinese empire was no match for the world’s most powerful country (Britain) and therefore, the Chinese had to concede defeat in an embarrassing way. This defeat led to the enslavement and colonisation of the Chinese empire (plus the exertion of British dominance in the once flourishing empire).
Through this dominance, China became the biggest drug zone on earth because the British exploited their newly found dominance to encourage the trade of Opium (Compilation Group, 2000). The unrestricted access, distribution, and sale of opium to the Chinese people (with little regard for their social or economic well-being) simplified this trade.
Chouvy (2010) says that wealthy Chinese people could afford the drug but poor Chinese people could spend up to two-thirds of their earnings on this drug. Therefore, most Chinese families became neglected, broken, and abandoned because of the trade.
Even though the British claimed they were trying to protect the sovereignty of the Chinese to use Opium as a religious practice, Polachek (1992) says the motivation of the British to engage in the war was far more than protecting the religious rights and freedoms of the Chinese. Consequently, the British conveniently established their trade imbalance with China and recovered their silver from the tea trade.
The Chinese population was distraught from the consumption of Opium (it was not until Mao Zedong won back the sovereignty of the Chinese people did they understand the meaning of sobriety). Comprehensively, through the opium war, the British supported drug trade.
Afghanistan and the Opium Drug Trade In many debates regarding the war on terror, people see terrorism as a product of the drug trade. Indeed, the link between Afghanistan and the drug trade is because Afghanistan enjoys a strong monopoly in the production of Opium around the world. In fact, it is estimated that close to 95% of the world’s opium comes from Afghanistan (Annu, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Colonisation and Drug Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The equivalent of this output is 3,500 tonnes of the annual drug shipment out of Afghanistan. United Nations (U.N) says that the opium market in Afghanistan is worth $65 billion every year (about 15 million opium users depend on this market) (Annu, 2009). When the Afghan government had a strong control on legal opium production, illegal opium production had a very severe penalty (death or the loss of a limb).
This period was especially characterised by the control of opium production by the Taliban regime. According to Annu (2009), the decline of opium production affected western world powers. Through the influence of the Taliban on the opium drug trade, Annu (2009) says, American and British forces invaded Afghanistan on the pretext of the war against terror to safeguard western interests in the opium trade.
To further cement accusations that Western powers had a huge role in protecting their interest on the opium trade, Annu (2009) says, American and British forces invaded Afghanistan on the pretext of the war against terror.
Within the western sphere of influence, it was completely unacceptable for a country that did not have any army (navy or air force) to impede the flourishing drug trade that formed the bedrock of western civilization (Annu, 2009). In fact, the above ideas informed the argument of the western world to seek the support of the U.N in invading Afghanistan.
The west got its way because the U.N practically gave the west an unregulated mandate to invade Afghanistan. Western-allied forces therefore forged a war against Afghanistan and attacked many defenceless citizens. After the war, the Taliban control over the opium trade ended and the production of the drug recovered.
Today, Britain and America account for the biggest markets for heroin and opium. Their consumption increased with the demand of the drugs from other European countries. Consequently, the biggest drug traders and beneficiaries come from the US and Britain.
In fact, Annu (2009) says that these traders are among the most powerful and influential people today. Some of them trace their dominance to the opium wars of the 15th century. Others trace their notorious heritage to drug trafficking cartels that ruled in the early 20th century.
Pundits accuse the U.S CIA of being at the helm of this drug trade as demonstrated by the Iran-gate Contra scandal where critics accused the CIA of protecting the drug trade to further selective political activities (Annu, 2009).
This accusation also spread to the British M 15 and M 16, which links to the drug business (Annu, 2009). Proceeds accrued from the drug trade (by the CIA and other security organs) fund illegal political and business ventures (Annu, 2009). Some of these illegal activities include organising assassinations, coups, and similar activities.
Tobacco and American Colonisation The colonisation of America further led to the emergence and spread of the drug trade within Europe and the rest of the world. Shmoop University (2010) says Virginia and New England mainly depended on the drug trade because their economies were quickly collapsing after other economic ventures failed.
After the first tobacco grower in Virginia (John Rolfe) made handsome profits from the sale of tobacco to Europe, other farmers around the state quickly embarked in farming the product. In fact, Shmoop University (2010) says tobacco occupied every empty space in Virginia. Virginia’s tobacco production peaked to 20,000 tonnes annually.
In 1619, colonialists started using tobacco as a currency to buy women because women offered a natural way to sustain Virginia’s natural production. About 120 pounds of tobacco bought a woman. The introduction of slavery heralded the onset of women trade and tobacco became a currency to pay for the slaves.
The introduction of the slave trade led to the expansion of the tobacco industry because slaves worked on tobacco plantations. Concerning the rapid expansion of the tobacco produce, Shmoop University (2010) says the slave trade helped expand the drug trade.
The rapidly expanding tobacco trade also complemented the growth of the opium trade because the consumption of tobacco complemented opium consumption. Furthermore, the colonisation of America supported the drug trade because the colonial powers provided a ready market for American drugs in some of their major colonies (including China).
Colonial Labourers The link between colonialism and cocaine trade stems from the labour practices implemented by colonial powers. Throughout the colonial period, there was a thriving slave trade where traders sold labourers throughout the world to work in cotton fields, sugar plantations and other agricultural industries (Jankowiak, 2003). The human conditions that the slaves experienced were demeaning and inhuman.
These conditions posed a threat to the colonialists because it demoralized their workers. A demoralized work force was also disastrous to the colonial powers because it would decrease their industrial output.
To correct this imbalance, the colonial powers introduced several drugs to motivate slaves to work harder. These drugs ranged from marijuana, opium, to cocaine. The drugs provided psychological relief for the slaves. The productivity of labour increased in this regard and colonial powers benefitted from improved productivity (Jankowiak, 2003).
The manipulation of colonial labourers to join the ever-expanding group of drug users was not a secretive affair. The use of drugs was an effective strategy employed by colonialists to keep the expanding workforce captivated and rewarded for their hard work.
Once this tool gained acceptance among colonial powers, the labourers started influencing one another to engage in drug consumption. For example, Jankowiak (2003) says, Caribbean labourers influenced Indian labourers to consume rum instead of marijuana (for optimum satisfaction).
Jankowiak (2003) says the involvement of colonial labourers in the drug trade was unavoidable because the pain of working hard on the fields and the psychological torture of separating from their families were bound to have a strong psychological effect on the labourers. Often, these labourers worked in the new colonial territories and lived in appalling conditions, which were characterised by poverty, disease, and death.
Drugs therefore helped the labourers to blot out or deflate this psychological pain and accustom themselves to psychological pain. Their physical pain was also suppressed in the same regard because the labourers were able to work longer and harder (Jankowiak, 2003).
Cocaine Trade The ability of colonial powers to control international drug trade increased their dominance in the world. This dominance was especially conspicuous since most of the major cocaine producing territories such as Columbia and Peru were under European colonisation.
After the establishment of the cocaine trade, predominant international drug trafficking cartels that controlled the opium trade also started to get a strong hold of the cocaine trade. However, in the early eighties and late nineties, this control fizzled out to local criminal cartels.
There is however a close relationship between drug cartels in cocaine producing countries and international drug traffickers. For example, the notorious Columbian cocaine drug lord, Pablo Escobar, had a strong link with international drug trafficking cartels (Gootenberg, 2008).
South America has the highest incidences of drug crime. Marcy (2010) says the most worrying issue about the cocaine drug trade is the sophistication of drug cartels and their penetration of government institutions and agencies. The penetration of drug interest in British and American intelligence manifests in this study.
These government institutions enjoy a very high security clearance, which has given them the power to influence drug trade. The involvement of the CIA on the use of drug money to finance political interest is one example. However, the involvement of western powers in the drug trade does not match the influence of drug traffickers in the governments of some drug producing nations.
For example, the influence of drug cartels in the Mexican, Columbian and the Afghan government is very high. Comprehensively, dominant drug cartels from the colonial era still engage in the sale and distribution of cocaine and other illicit drugs around the world.
Conclusion The global drug trade is worth billions of dollars. Colonialism has had a huge role to play in the growth of this trade. This paper demonstrates the influence of colonialism on the emergence and growth of the drug trade through the opium wars, expansion of drug markets, and the role of colonial wars in liberalising the trade.
Further evidence shows the emergence of international drug trafficking cartels from the colonial era and the growth of the drug market through drug abuse by colonial labourers.
From the evidence provided in this paper, drug trade played a pivotal role in the economic expansion of colonial powers. The introduction of European drug trade to new colonial territories either significantly transformed local drugs or completely replaced them. The role of colonialism in increasing the growth of trade manifests through its influence on increasing trade and the intensification of labour productivity.
The link between trade and drugs occurs through the increased dependency of new colonies to their colonial powers for drugs. This was especially vivid through the opium wars where China was heavily dependent on Britain for the supply of opium. Britain controlled most of the opium supply.
In addition, the colonial powers used drugs to increase the intensity of labour by providing drugs to slaves and other labourers so that they were relieved from the burden of intense labour and psychological torture.
Comprehensively, from the role of the opium war in increasing colonial domination of the drug trade, the link between war and the flourish of drug trade manifests (Kan, 2009). The opium war strongly compares with the ongoing drug wars in Latin America because these wars offer the instability needed for the growth of drug trade.
References Annu, O. (2009). What is the American Army Doing in Afghanistan? Web.
Chouvy, P.A. (2010). Opium: Uncovering the politics of the poppy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Compilation Group. (2000). The Opium War. New York: The Minerva Group, Inc.
Gootenberg, P. (2008). Andean cocaine: The making of a global drug. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
Jankowiak, W. (2003). Drugs, Labor, and Colonial Expansion. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
Kan, P. (2009). Drugs And Contemporary. London: Warfare Potomac Books, Inc.
Marcy, W.L. (2010). The politics of cocaine: How U.S. foreign policy has created a thriving drug industry in central and South America. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
Polachek, J. (1992). The Inner Opium War. Massachusetts: Harvard University.
Rexton, P. (2009). Drugs and Contemporary Warfare. New York: Potomac Books, Inc.
Shmoop University. (2010). Economy in History of Drugs in America. Web.
Problems of Population Growth in China Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
China is the world’s most densely populated country and makes up one-fifth of today’s world’s total population. The country’s large population, rapidly changing demographic patterns and future uncertainties has caught the attention of policy makers worldwide (Riley 3).
The country’s rapidly growing economy and its demographics are a proof that China will be in the global spotlight for years. China has endured several socio-economic challenges over the past few decades; however, most of the problems that the country faces today are related to recent demographic changes.
A census taken recently has revealed that population increased to 1.34 billion in 2010 as compared to 1.27 billion in 2000. Annual population growth rate averaged to 0.57% in the past 10 years. This is a significant decrease compared to 1.07% for the previous ten years. The census statistics also revealed the emergence of a rapidly aging population. People over the age of 60 years comprised 13.3% of the total population in 2010.
This is an increase in comparison to 10.3% for the year 2000. Part of the population under the age of 14 years was 16.6%, a decline down from 23% in the year 2000 (United Nations Population Fund 18).
The Chinese government has been implementing a one child policy law since 1979. This law limits the number of children that a married couple can have to one child. It was a policy created to mitigate environmental and socio-economic problems in the Country (Riley 9).
Authorities concerned with population matters claim that prevention of over 400 million births occurred since the implementation of the one child policy. The policy makers have further claimed that the law has led to decreased pollution levels and decreased pressure on global food supplies.
In spite of the preventing millions of births, the one child policy has created immense socio-economic challenges for China and caused irremediable interference in the structure of Population Growth in China. A projection by The United Nations Population Division has revealed that the population of people above 60 years old in China will be 31% of the country’s total population by 2050 (United Nations Population Fund 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a challenge for the country’s policy makers. It has already been evidenced that the constantly growing percentage of the elderly in China is straining the country’s resources.
Over the past decades, family compositions and marriages in China suffered due to changes in government policies, reduced fertility rates and marriage laws. China just like other Asian nations has a custom for son predilection.
This can be observed with the followers of Confucianism who openly prefer sons over daughters. They consider a son to be more helpful in the farms than a daughter. They believe that having a son is better because he will provide monetary support to his parents later in life when they retire.
These Confucian beliefs and the one child law have created a shortage of females in the Country. The male to female ratio in China is the highest in the world and stands at 1.13 male to 1 female. Projections show that China will have approximately 30 million more males than females in China by 2020; this may lead to social volatility (Riley 22).
Conclusion Vast demographic changes in China’s recent history affect a country’s development and operational policies. Considering China’s economic, political and demographic importance to the world, the country’s future population is of immense significance worldwide (Riley 32). Predicting what exactly will happen in China over the next decades seems to be impossible.
However, the effects of the government policies on reproduction, family size, fertility rates and marriages will almost certainly continue to affect the country in the predictable future.
Problems brought about by reduced population growth rates and the one child policy, for example, a dwindling labor force; are sufficient reasons for policy makers in China to be concerned about the Country’s future development and social status in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Problems of Population Growth in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Riley, Nancy 2004, China’s Population:New Trends and Challenges, Population Bulletin 59, no. 2. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. PDF file.
United Nations Population Fund. Report on Population Dynamics in the LDCs: Challenges and Opportunities for Development and Poverty Reduction. PDF file.
Lance Armstrong Gets Dumped by R. Albergotti, V. O’Connell and S. Vranica Essay best essay help
In the article Lance Armstrong Gets Dumped Reed Albergotti, Vanessa O’Connell and Susanne Vranica (2012) describe the actions against the famous athlete Lance Armstrong by such companies as Nike or RadioShack. In particular, the authors report that these organizations cancelled commercial contracts with this athlete because he was found guilty of using performance-enhancing drugs (Albergotti, O’Connell,
Strategic Management of Organizations Essay best essay help
Organizational structure Structure generally means the framework on which an organization is built and functions that keep the organization going. Organizational structure is the operating guideline that informs the members or workers how the organization works.
Structure explains the way members are received, how leaders are chosen, and the process of decision-making. Organizational structure explains the way an organization puts workers and jobs for effective work performance and goal realization (Baligh, 2005).
Channel of communication depends on the size of the organization; small organizations have short channels of communication because the top manager can reach the lowest ranked employee easily. On the other hand, large organizations have long channels of communication because they contain many departments and functions. From these decisions, an organizational structure is established.
Organizational structure may be centralized or decentralized. In centralized structure, the top management is vested with the most of decision-making and total control over the organization’s departments, subdivisions, and divisions.
In decentralized organizational structure, power and authority over control and decisions making is evenly distributed and the independence between departments and divisions is different (Baligh, 2005).
In an organization, regardless of its size, employees’ tasks and complexity is defined by what function it partakes, its supervisors, and managers. Organizations use organizational charts to simplify relationship between its departments and positions and their interdependence.
The finest organizational structure designed by any organization relies on many factors such as its work, revenue, number of employees, geographic distribution of its amenities, and the collection of its trading. Organizational structures have been in existence since the ancient past, they have evolved to date because of their needs and complexities in the current organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How Organizational Structure Implement Organizations Strategy Organizational strategy is the tactic, which an organization uses to meet its future goals, mission, vision, and targets. An organization must compare its present state to the projected future state then look at the difference and plan on how to cover the difference through changing its working tactics.
There are several organizational structures, which include pre-bureaucratic structures, bureaucratic structures, post bureaucratic structures, functional structures, divisional structures, and matrix structures. Organization strategy includes sequence of authority, span of organizing, departmentalization, circulation of authority, and organization’s height.
These elements are integrated within an organization to give out the desired outcome in type of the organization and the management required (Baligh, 2005).
The Basic Building Blocks of Organizational Structure An organization needs to be built on several organizational blocks to ensure and strengthen its survival. These blocks help in making sure that the organization is focused in its target of meeting its future goals. These blocks include:
Hierarchy or layers of organization is the primary most component of the organizational structure, individuals’ need to have people above them to obey, respect, consult, and structure the way of achieving a target. Organization’s layer means the length of the line of communication, that is the procedure followed before the information from service man reaches the department manager.
Hierarchy flow of information is mostly exercised in the bureaucratic organizations where the individual must report directly to his or her immediate supervisor. Hierarchy act as a major organizational block because it determines each employee’s authority and responsibility in the organization. Hierarchy makes organization to be organized because every employee is aware of his or her duties (Tannenbaum, 2006).
Formalization is another major form of an organization building block. Through formalization, an organization decisions, orders, and standards are passed to all employees. Formalization is closely attached to both leadership and hierarchy. A number of organizations prefer tight bureaucratic system of administration because these systems establish strict orders and methods in the organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management of Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bureaucratic systems call for rigid communication channels. On the other hand, some other organizations allow for non-bureaucratic procedures, which allow for collaborative decisions making, employees dissent, and alternative ideas from employees. These kinds of organizations allow for flexible decision-making and channels of communication (Swayne, Duncan
Globalization and Environment Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of Globalization
Causes of Climate Change
Successes and Failures
Introduction Throughout history, the world has continued to pursue avenues aimed at promoting economic development and integration. Due to economic connections, the world has often been referred to as a global village. Through the process of globalization, countries have a lot in common and have become more dependent than before.
In essence, globalization has had commendable impact in the world, with economic development having been enhanced. Nevertheless, it has negatively affected the environment even though its impact can be changed if certain measures are taken. This paper explores the issue globalization, its impact on the climate, and what can be done to change the situation
Globalization Globalization has been defined by numerous authors and experts in the world, basing their description on certain factors or a given context. It can be defined as the process that involves causes and consequences of global integration of activities, which may be human or non-human (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 4). In this case, integration revolves around transnational and trans-cultural aspects of people.
Unlike other definitions, this approach acknowledges the fact that globalization is tied to human and non-human factors. In this context, the environment and globalization are connected by ecological processes, whose impact traverse beyond national boundaries and environmental problems, which pose challenges that are not limited to a given country.
Importantly, globalization and the environment intersect at three points: economy, knowledge, and governance. For instance, countries get connected because of economic reasons like consumption needs, which allow highly diffused externalities.
Additionally, lack of resources or excess supply of certain products prompts globalization since no economy around the world is self-reliant to depend on another (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 5). Importantly, globalization promote interaction and sharing of information and practices across borders.
In cases of environmental stress, such indicators are likely to be shared within a short time because of enhanced channels of communication. With regard to governance, different states have found it hard to promote the well-being of people without involving the outside world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Essentially, environmental standards observed by a given country have the potential of trade and investment on national and global scale (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 6). This aspect has become paramount in promoting business relationships among countries around the world.
Impact of Globalization As mentioned before, globalization has a wide-range of effects; negative and positive. One of the aspects of human life, which has been affected widely by globalization, is population. It is evident that current demographic patterns do not resemble those witnessed several decades ago.
Cities are growing at an alarming rate, forcing governments to consider the expansion of facilities, which initially met the needs of a small number of people. For instance, research indicates that the number of people living in cities has hit 50% from 5%, two centuries ago (McMichael 1117). In line with this trend, it has been projected that almost two thirds of the world population will be living in cities by the year 2030.
This means that more people are getting attracted to urban centers for various reasons, which may differ from one city to another and country to country. Importantly, globalization has significantly reduced the size of the world by cutting down time and space, which were previously available in plenty.
While more people are getting attracted to cities, the negative effects of this trend are being felt, especially on the natural environment. For example, in the mid 20th century, only New York had a population of more than ten million. However, this has been overtaken with time, with several cities accommodating millions of people.
Similarly, there were twenty cities, which registered a population of between five and ten million people in the year 2000 (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 5). These trends have been used to project that twenty three cities will have more than ten million people by the year 2015. The main concern is the challenge of meeting the needs of the cities as the number of people increases.
Of great significance is the fact that cities are the leading consumers of energy and contribute approximately eighty percent of the greenhouse gases, emitted into the atmosphere. This has widely led to what is commonly known as climate change.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalization and Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Climate Change Climate change has become a major issue around the world, dominating leadership ideologies, yet no significant progress has been made in addressing it. While others may assume that several strides have been made in addressing the issue of climate change, substantive and practical results are yet to be realized.
According to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), climate change focuses on quantifiable deviations in the state of the climate. In other words, it entails variability in climatic conditions, which may be experienced for a longer period of time than usual, say decades (International Panel on Climate Change 30).
In other words, it refers to measurable change in the climate, over a specific duration, and can be influenced by natural factors or human-related factors. These activities cause alteration of the natural composition of the atmosphere.
Causes of Climate Change According to the IPCC, the temperature of the earth surface has continued to rise, with a deviation of 0.6oC, from early 1800s. Based on this, the world will experience a huge difference of up to 4.5oC by the year 2100. Regardless of the difference, which will be recorded, it will be a representation of the highest magnitude in human history (International Panel on Climate Change 36).
As mentioned before, large cities are the leading consumers of energy. They widely contribute to the increase in the temperature of the earth surface as a result of massive industrialization, which attracts people for employment opportunities.
Industries emit greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, which are the leading causes of climate change. These gases are further produced during combustion, and their levels rise when forests are destroyed as pressure heightens on agricultural land due to poor methods of farming.
While every nation is responsible for the effects of climate change, it is doubtless that not all countries contribute to this menace equally. This is based on the fact that there is variation in the quantities of products exported and imported, depending on whether the country is developed or developing.
There is usually an ecologically unequal exchange, since developing countries concentrate on the exportation of resource-intensive products while developed countries focus on exporting services like tourism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization and Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unlike developed countries, developing countries experience environmental costs, which are never felt by developed countries. In other words, there exists an ecological debt between the two sides, since they contribute to climate change variedly, depending on their levels of emissions (International Panel on Climate Change 37).
From this point of view, it can be argued that all nations of the world bear the responsibility of climate change; it knows no boundaries. While this is the case, citizens equally have a role to play in addressing the issue of globalization and climate change. This analogy is linked to the fact that citizens elect leaders who are supposed to champion ideas and interests of their people (International Panel on Climate Change 37).
These individuals become important in decision-making and initiating safety measures, regarding climate change. In essence, people need to be global citizens in order to view the issue from a global perspective, regardless of their home countries.
Successes and Failures The world has in recent years witnessed the emergence of organizations and programs aimed at promoting climate change awareness around the world. Importantly, most of the movements and organizations advocate for a safe environment as a way of promoting sustainable development (International Panel on Climate Change 38). As a result of these efforts, people understand climate change and its negative impact to the environment.
Several treaties like the Montreal Protocol of 1987 and other agreements have been adopted for the purpose of protecting the ozone layer. Whist these successes have been realized, several failures have been registered, including the failure of the Kyoto Protocol and the slow pace at which nations react to climate change issues.
Conclusion From this presentation, it is clear that globalization has contributed to climate change, which threatens the global environment. Nevertheless, globalization may offer solutions for dealing with climate change. For this to occur, there is need for leaders and citizens to change their attitude towards climate change. Lastly, the fight against climate change can only be won through collective responsibilities and actions.
Works Cited International Panel on Climate Change. “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report.” International Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Web.. .
McMichael, Anthony. “The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78.9 (2000): 1117-1126. Print.
Najam, Adil, David Runnalls and Mark Halle. “Environment and Globalization: Five Propositions.” International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2007. Web. .
Green Computing in Botswana Qualitative Research Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Aim of the Research
Introduction Green Computing refers to eco-friendly utilization of computers. Green computing is quickly gaining popularity in various organizations and it should not only be seen as an environmental issue, but as a way of making good use of electronic gadgets.
The primary goal of green computing is to mitigate the use of harmful resources. Second, it is concerned with efficient utilization of energy in the entire lifetime of electronic equipment. Third, it focuses on encouraging reprocessing of obsolete products and industrial spin-offs. Specifically, green computing ensures that utilization of Information Technology does not harm the environment.
Aim of the Research Majority of students and other individuals that have embraced computer technology in Botswana are aware of its benefits, but they are oblivious of its negative consequences. It is against this background this research endeavors to find out the extent to which Botho College community has integrated green strategy into their activities.
Research Methodology In conducting this research, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated to both the learners and tutors at Botho Institute. The learners who participated in the survey answered the questions during lecturers.
The respondents pursued various disciplines that ranged from IT to accounts. 110 respondents completed the questionnaires. Sampling methodology was applied in assessing the respondents at Botho College. The participants had varied computer competency and experiences.
The feedback form was divided into section A and B. Section A had vocabulary quiz that was meant to gauge the extent to which computer users understood green computing. The respondents were asked ten questions that focused on the basic components of eco-friendly computing. Section B of the questionnaire focused on assessing how the respondents handle computers.
Questions in this section were scenario-based. For instance, the respondents were asked to explain what they do immediately after accomplishing their computer tasks. Section B was simply examining the energy saving skills of the respondents, especially, when they use electronic appliances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Study Outcome In general, the survey at Botho College revealed that most participants had little or no information regarding green computing. 40.8 percent of the participants responded to section A properly; 59.2 percent of them failed. In section B, only 35.4 percent of students made the right choices. This implies that serious induction on green computing should be carried out at Botho College.
The study also demonstrated that most learners and academic staff were ignorant of energy saving skills. Energy saving guidelines was strategically pinned in various class doors. The college does not have energy efficient computers, and they do not monitor their energy saving trends. Thus, it can be concluded that this institution lacks proper strategies on environmental protection.
Recommendations These recommendations are drawn from secondary sources such as books and journals that describe the concept of implementing green computing. In order to ameliorate its energy utilization, Botho College should develop a comprehensive policy on environmental protection which should be implemented through eco-friendly computing.
Computer procurement should be undertaken with proper consideration of the energy efficiency of the computers to be purchased. Moreover, the school should invest in the latest computer equipment since it is efficient. Lastly, the school should come up with a better strategy of disposing its junk computers. For instance, the college can donate its used computers to charitable trusts and remote communities in Botswana.
The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Training is a crucial process in every organization. Regardless of how it is structured, it has a prime role to play in the development and success of all organizations. It is a productive and rewarding course to both employers and employees. Training enhances employer/employee knowledge and skills by addressing workplace weaknesses, and thus increasing productivity.
It also helps in maximizing human resource utility by improving employee morale and creating a working organizational climate. It further creates an environment where there is less supervision, but high efficiency and productivity of the workforce (Rees and Porter 254).
This paper looks at training in the Ministry of Interior (MOI) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) coupled with how it has helped in the maximum utilization of human resources. In so doing, the paper begins by looking at the history of UAE coupled with how the MOI came to existence.
The paper significantly analyzes the strategic plan of the MOI including its vision and mission. The paper then identifies some of the key training programs offered at the Ministry and reviews the structure of the organization. It also gives a report on how these training programs apply to different levels of employees working at the Ministry.
History of United Arab Emirates Even though the federation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was officially established in 1971, early history of the Emirates dates back to thousands of years ago. Perhaps the turning point was the defeat of non-Muslims in the 630s, which saw the various Arabian Peninsula sheikhdoms converted to Islam. Later in the 19th century, these sheikhdoms disintegrated, with most of their members becoming pirates.
However, in 1820, the British imposed a truce on them and renamed the disintegrated sheikhdoms to Trucial Sheikhdoms. When the British finally granted them their independence, the Trucial states agreed to form a Union. This federation became known as the United Arabs Emirates.
The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates was created almost immediately after the states agreed to form a federation and work together. The member-states expressed a strong determination to realize peace, unity, and prosperity for the region. They also endeavored to achieve strength and dignity to improve their International reputation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was thus very necessary to unify their security under one essential federal authority. This unification brought about the creation of the MOI. The setting became one of the most important tenets of the federal government (Lori 315-337). Since its creation, MOI has gone through transformations with major changes witnessed in the leadership styles and human resource utilization.
For instance, at its early beginnings, the leadership of the Ministry was cunningly preserved to a certain class, specifically the elite officials. Sheikh Mubarak, its first Minister, is a very good example.
Even his successor, Hmooda bin Ali, was equally privileged. However, substantial developments started in the early 1990s with the posting of more professional leaders at the Ministry. Lt. General Dr. Mohammed was particularly responsible for defining the levels of stability and security in the region.
He helped raise the security standards by introducing principles and values, which ensured that the Ministry employees fulfilled their duties and obligations in various security-fields. In recent years, the Ministry has achieved large-scale developments and equipped its staff with efficient knowledge and skills to fight crimes and improve security (Lori 315-337).
Large Scale Developments The Ministry of Interior has adopted a leadership style based on scientific rules to enhance progress, skills, maturity, accountability, and help in developing efficient human resources. These rules include a vision, mission, values, and strategic objectives. The vision of the Ministry is to make UAE one of the most peaceful, safest, and securest nations in the region and beyond.
Its mission is to improve the quality of life in UAE by guaranteeing everyone security. The Ministry values include honesty, integrity, justice, respect for human rights, teamwork, excellence, quality leadership, and creativity and innovativeness.
Lastly, the strategic objectives of the Ministry include enhancing safety and security, ensuing readiness, maintaining public confidence, investing in the public, working in partnerships, and finest utilization of human resources. However, to prioritize security and safety matters, the Ministry has developed training programs for its employees.
We will write a custom Report on The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These programs seek to equip employees with more knowledge and skills so that they can understand their roles and objectives the best way possible. They also seek to help employees understand the needs and necessities of the society in a better way.
Training Programs Training programs are very important in improving employee performance. They help in the development of human resources, which ultimately helps employees to achieve both organizational and personal goals. Secondly, these programs help employees to expand their skills and knowledge of the job.
They also help in measuring success and addressing workplace weaknesses. Above all, training programs aim at developing superior personnel that is equal to the tasks of the organization (Sloman 73-87).
The Ministry of Interior of the UAE has adopted a similar training program to that of the U.S army leadership model. The “Be-Know-Do” model is a superior training program, which focuses on leadership. It prepares everyone to be a leader in his or her own capacity.
Thus, the model forms responsible, mature, and focused employees. In effect, employees require less supervision, become well acquainted with goals, and have fewer chances of making errors (U.S. Army 1-22).
The “BE” training model is about placing the character of the employees first. Every organization is value based. Every organization wants to have employees who are respectful, loyal, courageous, selfless, honorable, responsible, and persons of high integrity.
This element is exactly the purpose of this program. It aims at forming the character of the employees in all human areas (emotional, physical, and mental) to increase their ability to lead. It also prepares employees to be leaders at all times, regardless of the circumstances.
Above all, this model aims at training employees to be in a position to balance their personal values with those of the organization. It can be so stressful to have employees who do not have common values or who act on their personal values regardless of the organizational values.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The “KNOW” model is a training program aimed at developing employees to become more competent in their jobs. The employees are trained particularly on four areas, viz. interpersonal, conceptual, technical, and tactical skills. Interpersonal skills comprise of motivational, counseling, communication, and teaching skills. Conceptual skills include critical, ethical, and innovative skills.
Technical skills apply to the employee-knowledge of equipments and systems. Lastly, tactical skills are those that enable employees overcome hardships or face challenges. Overall, the mastery of these four categories of skills enables employees to handle their jobs with the deserved delicacy and professionalism (Jenter 413-443).
The “DO” training model aims at preparing the employees to act. Given that the character has been formed and employees have been equipped with enough intellectual skills, this last program seeks to empower the employees to act. However, to act, employees require three qualities, viz. influence, operation, and improvement. Workers should do the right thing regardless of the outside forces.
They also need to assess the situation before they can act. Additionally, without creating room for improvement, their actions might not be of much help to future actions, and to sum up everything, through the training programs, the Ministry of Interior aims at forming its staff to be people with character, intellectual capacity, and presence.
The Structure of the Ministry of Interior of the UAE The Ministry of Interior is structured into nine various departments. They include Traffic Department, Department of Finance and Support, Private Security, Police Sports Association, Department of Punitive and Reformatory Establishments, Human, General Inspector Office, Police College, and Law Respect Culture Bureau (United Arab Emirates Para. 3).
The Traffic Department supervises traffic services in all parts of the country to ensure that accidents are minimal. The General Department of Finance and Support (GDFS) provides the financial support to all public administrations under the Ministry. Its creation follows the “Council of Ministers Decision” No. (37). The Department of Private Security (DPS) ensures that there is security in the country.
It does this through creating partnerships between the security sector and the public. Established under the Federal law No. 43, the Punitive Reformatory Establishments (PRE) ensures that punishments are within the basic standards, while the Police Sports Association (PSA) ensures that police sports are properly developed through technical policies.
The sixth department oversees the maintenance of human rights and sees to it that there is freedom and dignity for everyone in the country. The mandate of the General Inspector Office is to ensure that safety and legitimacy are prioritized. It also oversees all the other police security services. The Police College is responsible for training all police officers.
Through training seminars and extensive courses, the College ensures that police officers are competitive in terms of their knowledge and skills. The last department, Law Respect Culture Bureau (LRCB), ensures that the rule of law is upheld by educating the society on the various categories of laws through languages that the people understand best (United Arab Emirates Para.6).
How the training programs are useful to employees in different Departments The training programs are extremely useful to all employees across the Departments. Regardless of the different levels, all employees should be people with character, intellectual capacity, and presence. Besides, the Ministry of Interior has very clear values, viz. honesty, integrity, justice and respect for human rights, teamwork, excellence, quality leadership, creativity, and innovativeness.
These values appeal directly to the character of the employees. Not everyone possesses these qualities. Nevertheless, even for those who do, balancing their personal values with the organizational values might be challenging in many ways. It is only through training the ‘character’ of the employees that there can be a working harmony in the employee-values.
The Ministry conducts its training at two levels. The first level, the administrative, aims at training the directors of various departments to be competent leaders. The directors are trained to lead by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to those under them.
They also learn to lead by example through communication and by extending their influence beyond their departments. The directors are further taught to be result-oriented. However, this aspect calls for them to create a positive environment that would inspire their juniors to accomplish their duties consistently.
The second level, the staff, aims at training the employees to increase performance. It begins with forming the character of the staff members so that their personal values can fit into the organizational values.
The program is also meant to equip the workforce with necessary skills and knowledge to enable them to be competent enough in carrying out their duties. The staff training can be summarized as follows “know yourself, know your job, and be professional in what you do”. Alternatively, know your mission, earn the reputation, and rigorously pursue it.
Conclusion As aforementioned, training is a crucial process in every organization. Regardless of how it is structured, it has a prime role to play in the development and success of all organizations. Training programs are important in improving employee performance as they focus on addressing workplace weaknesses.
They also help in the development of human resources, which ultimately helps the employees to achieve both the organizational and personal goals. Moreover, training programs aim at developing superior personnel that is equal to the tasks of the organization.
The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has adopted the “Be-Know-Do” training model to enhance superior performance in its various departments. The training programs occur at two levels: administrative and staff.
The administrative program is the training given to the directors to improve their leadership competencies, while the staff program seeks to equip employees with more knowledge and skills to improve their performance.
Works Cited Jenter, Dirk. “Security Issue Timing: What Do Managers Know, and When Do They Know It?” Journal of Finance, 66.2 (2011): 413-443. Print.
Lori, Noora. “National Security and the Management of Migrant Labor: A Case Study of the United Arab Emirates.” Asian
Relational Database Management Systems Expository Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The idea of database management systems arose in the early 1970s following research conducted by IBM and university of California at Berkeley. The research intended to provide an alternative to the techniques in use at the time, especially to help reduce the cost of deploying and maintaining complex systems (Seltzer, 2008).
In the modern competitive world, the accessibility, accuracy and timeliness of storage and retrieval of information necessary to meet customer needs ensure an entity’s superior performance (Larson, 1988).
Relational database management systems improve productivity, speed and flexibility of data management in an organization through a design that encourages a clear boundary between the logical and physical aspect of database management system (Codd, 1970).
Most enterprises have embraced relational database management system due to their ability to ensure high levels of data security. Data security arises from the authentication and authorization functionalities of a relational database. Authentication is the process of validating users’ credentials to prevent unauthorized access to the entity’s information.
It requires users to enter their usernames and passwords, which can be encrypted to enhance their security. Authorization is the concept of controlling the information that each users can access by allocating different access permissions for users. This ensures that only individuals with the appropriate authorization can access sensitive information.
Organizations have also embraced relational database systems due to their capability to store huge amounts of information; that is, their data-warehousing capabilities (Seltez, 2008). This helps enterprises record customer transactions over time.
Such customer information can give insight into customer’s purchasing patterns, trends in product popularity, and regional product preferences. The entity can use such information to offer customers products that are more relevant to their needs, thus encourage more purchases (Seltez, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relational databases management systems provide superb directory services. With the increasing dependence on distributed resources, relational database directory servers organize the information in a hierarchical structure similar to that of the physical organization.
An example is LDAP standard that emerged in 1990. The standard is currently used in major companies e.g. IBM Tivoli’s directory server and the Microsoft’s Active directory server. This reduces the amount of time used in locating information in an organization and, for instance, facilitates management of various employee directories.
The relational database’s XML management capacity also provides core tools for entities to grow their business. Most online transactions are encoded using XML documents. These documents require conversion to a relational structure, storage in relational database, and reconversion during retrieval.
Relational database management systems support this workload of queries and traffic as experienced in online transaction processing. While creating data tables, one can define a relational table with a column of type XML that stores an XML document per row.
This means that expressions to search the XML are executed in an opaque manner to the query optimizer. This helps cap the advantages of XML into the data manipulated in the database, for instance, enabling consumer online ordering functions (Hellerstein, Stonebraker
Business college essay help
The world that humans live in today was shaped by the rapid economic growth that was witnessed in Western Europe over the last 1000 years. This growth was attributed to developments in various sectors including political, social and economic sectors in that region. Western Europe went through a period of sustained growth that had never been witnessed before.
This period, which took place between 1500 and 1800, marks the earliest significant sustained divergence in per capital income across various parts of the world. This made Western Europe substantially richer than other regions of the world such as Eastern Europe and Asia.
This paper examines the patterns of social and economic growth in Western Europe over a period of 1000 years. It also looks into some of the important periods in the history of Europe, such as the dark ages, the middle ages, and their impact on modern Europe.
The dark ages describe a period that occurred about a millennium ago that historians have no knowledge about due to lack of accurate records that were salvaged from the era. Thus, this age is usually clouded by legends and myths. During the dark ages, “Western Europe was under the leadership of hundreds of feudal kings and lords” (Greer
Virtual Museum Tour Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Humans have used art for centuries as a medium for secure expression and communication. Through art, artists have been able to explore their imagination, expressing their cultural and historical understanding or simply how they view the world through their artistic eyes.
Their ideas have been captured in portraits, paintings, sculptures, buildings, ornamentals, furniture and many other forms of art and objects branded with art. These products follow a style depending on the period at which they were developed. Art styles have been changing every now and then.
Great museums such as Vatican Museum in Italy founded in 1503 and Louvre Museum opened in 1793 as a museum in Paris; have greatly contributed in the preservation of the art style cultures. Art styles evident in these museums include; Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque and Rococo. Each style was unique. The following are examples of images of the above art styles and their characteristics.
Renaissance Michelangelo (The Accademia Gallery, Florence), David
Renaissance art style was developed in Europe between 1400 and 1600. This style was named after the period of rebirth in Europe commonly known as renaissance. Art work made in this period had more emphasis on human nature than God and other spiritual beings. Oil paint was the medium used for painting. Bronze and marble human sculptures had a high level of anatomical precision.
During this period artists emerged as independent personalities comparable to poets and musicians who did their work with realist goals. Leonardo da Vinci was one of the great artists who spearheaded this revolution during renaissance.
The period was characterized by artists employing perspective in their work to deliver a more sensible presentation. Shortening lines in drawing created an illusion of depth. This is called foreshortening. Also to create an illusion of depth or three-dimensionality in a piece of work; a technique called sfumato, discovered by Leonardo da Vinci was employed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Artists also used strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or three- dimensionality. This style was referred to as chiaroscuro and was the opposite of sfumato. This period artists used balance and were proportionate in their work. They carefully considered the size of their materials.
Mannerism Parmigianino’s, Madonna with the Long Neck.
Mannerism is an artistic style that was embraced by artists in the 16th century after renaissance. In this period artists were more interested in creating an interesting piece which expressed emotion with human figures in different poses and unrealistic settings.
This period is characterized by artists painting people in peculiar positions with exaggerated body parts such as the neck and limps creating a denial of harmony and balance in the piece of work. Unlike the renaissance style, mannerism used diagonal and out of line perspective.
Baroque This period of art started around 1600. Artists concentrated on human perfection with strong lighting effects and distinction between lit areas and darkened areas.
Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens
This period is characterized by use of dramatic lights and darks which made the picture look like there was a spotlight; adding some drama to the art. The source of light is well-known as tenebrism. The baroque art depicts reality and naturalism. This is evident in muscular structures made in that period e.g. “saint George and the dragon” by Rubens.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Virtual Museum Tour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In sculptures, movement effects were applied such as a lot of twisting which lacked controlled posses. The artist of this period used time effect in their art. For instance an old man was incorporated in a piece of art to symbolize everybody will once get old. The artwork also had big facades. All these characteristics build up emotions and the intensity of the artwork.
Rococo Antoine Watteau, Pierrot, 1718–1719
This style was developed in France in the 18th –century and spread to other parts of Europe.It is a word derived from French meaning small rocks and shells in an ornamental garden. It was associated with wealthy people; furniture and ornaments were quite costly.
Rococo was diverse and the artists themes were more creative. It made use of materials such as gold and creamy paste-like colors. It was therefore embraced in interior decorations and theatre. Every piece of art was taken to be elegant and pretty. Unlike other styles rococo almost had no religious theme.
This period of art is characterized by a lot of decoration and lightness appearance. Sculptures were irregular and curved. Subject matters are highly highlighted and a sense of motion was created by shifting of the art design e.g. from convex to concave and many openings that allowed the effect of light and shadow.
In conclusion, art is a mode of communication that is interesting and does not require a voice but puts many ideas together in a small space. Art styles have continued to change with time as more people venture into art. The difference in the styles creates one beautiful view and a diverse platform for artists to choose and specialize or exploit.
Evaluation of Assistive Technology Essay college essay help
Table of Contents The Tools
The team composes of the following
The first step is to identify the need for assistive technology
The second step is to Explore Assistive Technology Solutions
The third step is to perform Assistive Technology Tests
The fourth step is to implement the technology trials
The phrase ‘One size fits all’, in this context means that one type of technology can be used by all categories of students. It means that there should be no modification on the types of technology used by normal student s to make them appropriate for students with disabilities (Beard, 2011).
Assistive technology, should not be approached with a “one size fits all” due to different requirements by different students. Assistive technologies need customization and modification depending on the specific needs of students with disabilities.
The greatest challenge for teachers of students with disabilities is to help make reasonable accommodation and modification in the education environment.
Students with disabilities have unique needs from those of other students; in order to meet their needs it is important to supplement individualised techniques with more special services. The risk involved is choosing the appropriate technology for people with disabilities (Wandeman, 2000).
When deciding on an assistive technology one must consider;
The Student: The student is the key issue in this team. The student should actively participate in decision making only constant on the team. His / her opinions should be respected since he or she is the one to use this technology. Student’s goals should be put into consideration, her or his current abilities and disabilities, and special requirement for the student.
Environment: This is also a very important aspect; institutional setting, institutional physical arrangement, available materials and equipments greatly affect a student’s performance under any circumstance and should be considered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Tasks: a task that enhances progress towards the IEP goals should be should be put into consideration, identify tasks keeps the student actively involved in the environment (Tracey
Consumer Buying Process Analytical Essay custom essay help
A vast number of existing formulations of consumer decision making assume that consumers go through a specified succession of mental and behavioral stages in their decision processes as they engage in a convoluted search of the set of available alternatives to make a purchase.
A widespread characteristic of many of the formulations is that they are grounded on hierarchy-of-effects models postulating that on their way from identifying the need for a particular product/service to making the actual purchase, consumers move in one direction through a given sequence which involves or incorporates a set of stages (Dellaert
Business Commerce and Consumer Privacy Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Protection of Consumer Privacy
Key Developments in Privacy Protection
Protection of Consumer Privacy The development of new information and communication technologies has had a tremendous impact on individual privacy as well as security. Although previously confined to paper records, personal information ranging from name, address, and telephone number data to sensitive financial, medical, and behavioral information, now exists in electronic form.
Individuals routinely provide their personal details to businesses and employers online or through electronic transactions. In turn, companies use this information for analytics or marketing, and entities share the same information with a wide range of third parties (Horvath et al., 2009).
The ease with which personal information is collected, used, and shared has significant benefits for consumers and businesses. This free flow of information increases convenience, facilitates transactions, enables sophisticated and targeted marketing and assists law enforcement.
These benefits, however, are accompanied with challenges including the potential for a decrease in individual privacy, the possible spread of inaccurate or incomplete information, and the risk of identity theft among other crimes (Pitofsky et al., 1999). Advances in technology have also affected privacy and security in other ways. In particular, the Internet has made personal computers a gateway to an entire world of information.
Key Developments in Privacy Protection The primary catalyst leading to policy discussions about information privacy protection has been technological change (Rule
Cloud Computing Evaluation Essay essay help online free
Cost reduction AWS offers a lot of economic benefits to Ericsson Company by reducing its expenses. Ericsson derives operational advantages including quicker setting up of infrastructure and convenient cost effective finishing of huge computational projects (Malaher, 2009). Amazon provides a free tier which allows Amazon EC2 to get started at no charge.
AWS does not include long-term commitments and up-front costs making its initialization to be easy and cost effective. Amazon cloud computing services allow Ericsson to save a lot of money by providing inexpensive plans for compute capacity consumed.
Amazon allows Ericsson Company to cut the costs by cutting the Information Technology (IT) staff. By obtaining expertise outside the company, Ericsson can lay off its IT staff since its services are maintained by experts from Amazon (Mitchell
Challenges and Human Resource Mechanisms in Multinational Companies Coursework essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Multinational companies have operations in more than one country. Therefore, companies employ people from different countries and culture (Feely 2003). These companies have a culturally diverse work force. Multinational companies have subsidiaries in different countries thus have diverse work forces.
Diversity is characterised by religious and cultural differences among employees (Som 2006). Human resource managers are expected to provide an environment where needs of all employees are adequately addressed.
There are several challenges that face human resource specialists in multinational companies. This relates to various aspects of human resource management practice including recruitment and selection, employee training and development and performance appraisal. Therefore, multinational companies are expected to put in place mechanisms which address challenges ensuring that employees remain motivated.
This contributes to the overall organisational performance and realisation of organisational objectives. The following article explores some of the challenges faced by multinational companies in human resource management practice. Similarly, human resource mechanisms addressing the above challenges shall be explored in the article.
Changing Landscape of HRM and Organisational Behaviour Domain
Human resource practice has evolved greatly. There are several challenges that faced personnel managers in the 1970’s and 1980’s. One of the challenges that faced personnel managers during that particular duration, before incorporation of human resource practice is reduced influence in decision making.
Personnel managers input in critical organisational decisions was minimal (Caldwell 2003). This includes decisions of selection of employees where personnel managers were expected provide a breakdown of tasks associated with different positions.
Also, personnel managers had decreased autonomy in decision making. Therefore, they were not in a position to significantly influence the organisational culture. Similarly, personnel managers were expected to harmonize employee and management interests (Caldwell 2003). Managers were not in a position to be highly innovative in addressing emerging employee needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, researchers were keen on justifying the role of the human resource function in organisations. Some of the early human resource management models developed linked employee output and company strategies (Noe 2008). Under the models, emphasis was on management of employees thus ensuring that the organisation was in a position to realize strategic objectives.
Furthermore, human resource management models introduced the aspects of selection, recruitment and performance appraisal as part of the human resource function. Therefore, the human resource function was entrenched in corporate culture and has become an integral part of modern firm’s organisational culture.
The human resource function has greatly evolved including incorporation of technology in modern practice (Becker
International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents What is Globalization?
A Review of Guidia’s Socio-Economic Profile: A SWOT Analysis
Benefits of Deeper Globalization
Risks of Deeper Globalization
The recommendation by the IMF for Guidia to embrace deeper globalization aims at increasing the economic opportunities of the country. The IMF believes that Guidia will have an increased volume of trade, more foreign direct investment, and greater transfer of knowledge if it pursues deeper globalization.
The basis of this recommendation is the view held by development economists from the IMF based on the belief that globalization can improve the economic fortunes of any country. Research into this subject does not support a universal positive outcome for countries that embrace globalization.
This paper reviews the specific economic circumstances of Guidia in order to determine whether it will benefit or lose from deeper globalization.
What is Globalization? The term globalization normally refers to the sum total of several forces that are shaping the relationships of nations across the world. It includes political issues, social and economic relationships, and cultural interaction among the peoples of the world. There is no consensus on when globalization started.
Some scholars pin the origin of globalization to the departure of Columbus to the Americas, while others prefer to associate it with the colonial era during the industrial revolution. Others prefer to look at it as the technology driven changes of the latter half of the twentieth century.
For purposes of this report, globalization refers to the current forces shaping global relationships. The recommendation of the IMF to Guidia to pursue deeper globalization assumes this meaning.
In this sense, this report will investigate the actual circumstances of Guidia in relation to its political, social, cultural, and economic realities through a PESTLE analysis. While the IMF offered its recommendation to Guidia to improve the performance of the economy of the country, deeper globalization will precipitate several other changes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the political scene, globalization creates a greater desire for political space by the citizens of any country. Depending on the political system in use in the country, globalization can lead to either political instability or political maturity. If the government does not want to become more accountable to its citizens, then globalization can precipitate political instability.
Economically, deeper globalization can create opportunities for profit by meeting the demands of the international market. The IMF foresees this situation for Guidia.
Becoming a player in the international market will ensure that Guidia harnesses its competitive advantages as a country on order to enjoy the benefits of international trade. However, deeper globalization can also lead to deeper exposure of the country to shocks. Events in far off countries that trade with Guidia will have an effect on local economic conditions.
On the social front, globalization tends to increase the expectations of citizens from their governments when they see how people in other countries live. Globalization exposes citizens to new ideas and different viewpoints that at times contradict local customs.
For instance, many African and Asian countries are reluctant to accept same sex unions as an alternative to heterosexual unions. In the West, same sex unions find wider acceptance. Globalization means that the ideals of a country will experience challenges associated with the ideals of other countries.
Technologically, deeper globalization calls for the introduction of new technologies that support globalization. The most significant technological investment needed for deeper globalization is the internet.
It also means that the country will need the human resource to handle the technologies it adopts to support deeper globalization. Increasingly, a free press is becoming an important aspect of globalization. In a globalised economy, it is impossible to control news because people have a multiplicity of new sources.
We will write a custom Report on International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental issues are also an important part of the global economy. The main issue underlying global discussions on the environment is global warming and the fight to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
Industrializing countries such as India and China are opposed to emission reduction because they feel that it is unfair to ask them to control their emissions at this point in their development. They feel that no one asked the West to do the same thing when they were industrializing.
Finally, on the legal landscape, international law is becoming more important. The free movement of labor means that every country needs to subscribe to an internationally acceptable code to guide international trade and international relations.
The issue of jurisdiction in cyber crime is a very sensitive topic in online commerce. For instance, what happens when someone located in a foreign country hacks into local systems? Is there a way to prosecute them for cross boarder crimes?
The issues above underlie this analysis. They will form the bedrock for the analysis of the benefits and risks Guidia will experience by taking IMFs advice to pursue deeper globalization.
A Review of Guidia’s Socio-Economic Profile: A SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis is the best tool for carrying out a socioeconomic analysis of the condition in Guidia. Guidia has a relatively high-income per capita standing at four thousand dollars. This means that with a population of sixty million, the country has a strong local market. The fact that sixty-five percent of the population is in urban areas means that it will be easy for the country to embrace deeper globalization.
Urban communities tend to have better exposure to international issues. A high urban population is a critical sign of the ability of a country to pursue deep globalization. The country also has raw materials, which it currently exports.
The presence of raw materials is an indication that the country can establish local industries through foreign direct investment (FDI) in order carry out value addition for products before export. Finally, the country’s trade in natural gas and the recent establishment of export processing zones are sources of learning for the country that can enable it to pursue deeper globalization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main weaknesses of the country include the potential problems associated with middle and low-income countries that have high population densities. The information provided does not substantiate the population growth rate or the demographic ratios. Therefore, the classification as a weakness comes from the perception that the country has a high population.
High population can hinder the growth of a country because of competition for resources. Secondly, the country will suffer because of little industrial development. The fact that the country exports natural resources shows that the industries in the country are underdeveloped.
The opportunity cost of being a net exporter of raw materials high. It is always better to sell value-added products. Thirdly, the country has limited experience in international trade. So far, the only exports the country makes are natural gas and products made in the newly created export-processing zone.
The two opportunities the country has in the context of deeper globalization the availability of affordable labor and the availability of raw materials. The population of the country is an asset. The citizens can provide labor for business process outsourcing. As a middle-income country, it can compete favorably for outsourcing contracts with companies from high-income economies.
Apart from this, its population is already high enough to provide a market for products from both local and international companies. Secondly, the presence of raw materials makes the country an ideal investment destination for international investors. The country can attract foreign direct investment from investors who can utilize the raw materials in the country to produce products for sale in the international markets.
The threats facing Guidia include the potential for exploitation by international investors, and lack of capacity to deal with the consequences of deeper globalization. Experienced international investors can bind the country in unreasonable contracts. Due to its lack of experience in international trade, Guidia can fall for one-sided contracts.
Elements of one-sided agreements include unreasonably long tax holidays, long land leases, and unfair profit repatriations. Secondly, the country is vulnerable to the disruptive effects of deeper globalization.
People in the country will demand changes in the political and social environment to match the experience of other countries. Such changes can cause political and social instability. If Guidia’s political leadership is not accountable, then deeper globalization may lead to political unrest in the country.
Benefits of Deeper Globalization Based on the SWOT analysis of the socioeconomic environment of Guidia, and the examination of its environment, the country can enjoy some benefits by pursuing deeper globalization.
First, the country can gain from deeper globalization by making use of its competitive advantages. The SWOT analysis revealed that the country has natural resources, and a high population.
In addition, its classification as a middle-income country suggests that labor costs are more competitive in Guidia than in high-income countries. These are potential sources of competitive advantage for the country as it determines the best policies to pursue in its globalization efforts.
According to Faulkner and Segan-Horn (2004) when a country concentrates on using its competitive advantages in international trade, it receives better returns. In turn, the country can access products from other countries, which are more expensive to produce locally.
In this sense, Guidia can enjoy better quality of goods and services by increasing its returns from international trade. It can then use those returns to access high quality goods and services bought at lower cost from competitive producers.
If Guidia chooses to pursue a globalization policy based on the Washington consensus promoted by the IMF, then it means that the country will need to focus on institutional changes as the primary means of economic development. Institution-driven changes usually mean that the country’s development programs will move from personality driven to issue driven policies.
As such, decision-making will move from a centralized model to a more institutional approach. Foreign investors usually feel more confident in institution-driven systems rather than personality driven systems. The benefit that Guidia will experience from such a shift is that it will have a more predictable environment. Therefore, no radical changes take place when new people ascend to the helm of the institutions.
The second model that Guidia can follow is pursing growth spurred by foreign aid. This model will involve finding countries and international lending organizations that can forward development aid to Guidia. The basis for this approach is an economy grows through various thresholds. Each of these levels corresponds to certain operating characteristics of the economy.
In order to grow from one level to another, the country needs a certain amount of capital injection in order to arrive at the next threshold. International aid is an example of the capital injection needed to spur the growth of an economy. An example of a region that benefited from international aid at some point in its history is Europe after the Second World War.
However, the structure of the aid is very important. Some countries in the developing world have found themselves in a perpetual poverty cycle caused by aid. When international debt equals or exceeds GDP, the debt becomes unsustainable. Apart from the debt cycle, international aid may come with conditions. These conditions may not reflect the priorities of Guidia.
For instance, the IMF and the World Bank promote democratic ideals and free market policies in their aid programs. If Guidia does not believe in these ideals, then it must take care as it accepts the conditions imposed on it. Change is very disruptive. Guidia must take such aid with caution if it decides to use this model to pursue globalization.
Risks of Deeper Globalization The global financial crisis of 2009 illustrates the interdependence between global economies. The crisis arose from events in the financial markets and the real estate sector in America. Property prices plunged as many people saw their investment in real estate disappear. Financial institutions suffered most because most of their assets were in the real estate sector.
When more and more people defaulted on their mortgage payments, financial institutions could not remain afloat. These events affected the entire global economy. The countries that had the most globalised systems suffered most from the global crises. This illustrates the exposure Guidia will have if it pursues deeper globalization. Globalized economies are at a high risk of exposure to events taking place in other countries.
Another risk that Guidia will need to address if it takes on deeper globalization is that it will have to deal with the disruptive impacts of globalization. As a country, Guidia has a set of national values, culture, and a generally unified worldview. These elements of the Guidia society will come under scrutiny from outsiders, and its citizens will ask questions.
The Arab Spring is a good illustration of the disruptive nature of globalization. The citizens of the countries that faced the wave of popular dissent found their voice based on information gleaned online. The actual coordination of the protest meetings took place via social media platforms. The demonstrations received support from people across the entire world.
In response to these disruptions, some countries developed controls over the internet to reduce the risk of popular revolt coordinated through the internet. China, for instance does not allow unhindered access to the open web by its citizens. Some commentators refer to the Chinese control over the internet as the great firewall. This is means of controlling the disruptive effects of globalization.
There is debate whether such efforts will remain in place over the long term. The point here is that deeper globalization will have an impact on Guidia. These impacts will be more severe if the country does not embrace democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press. As soon as the citizens of the country learn about the extent of freedom citizens in other parts of the world enjoy, they will revolt.
The success of deeper globalization in Guidia also depends on the financial system of the country. Deeper globalization will force Guidia to conform to international norms of trade. Part of these norms includes market driven currency exchange rates. This means that the strength of the national currency of Guidia will depend on the demand and supply of the currency.
In addition, Guidia will have to develop a tariff system that is in conformity with rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Failure to conform to these rules will lead to the isolation of Guidia from international markets. In addition to these issues, Guidia will stand a better chance of benefiting from international trade if its financial policies conform to the national culture and business practices.
While the World Bank and the IMF previously argued in favor of free market economies, the experiences of many countries show that it is better to develop a national policy in line with the governance systems rather than adopt foreign systems. The Asian financial crisis affected countries with liberal financial policies proposed by the Washington Consensus.
However, China, which still controls many aspects of its economy, did not suffer a lot from the crisis. The lesson here is that opening the markets to the forces of globalization without appropriate checks and balances can result in economic problems for the country.
Conclusion Guidia can benefit from deeper globalization based on the following conditions. First, Guidia must develop policies that affirm its aspirations and its economic objectives, and not the will of external parties. Secondly, the country will benefit from deeper globalization if it can align its political system to conform to the international norms of governance.
This means that the country will benefit more from globalization of it upholds open and accountable governance. Thirdly, there will be a greater reward for the country from globalization if the country uses a capitalist model in its economic planning. The model must take into account the country’s culture and traditions, and the expectations from players in the global markets.
Finally, Guidia will benefit from deeper globalization if it can identify and use its competitive advantages as a country as it positions itself as a global player. The competitive advantages should encompass aspects such as national branding, strategic planning, and any peculiar elements of the population such as availability of skills.
On the other hand, Guidia will face a number of risks associated with deeper globalization. These risks include the disruptive effects of forces of globalization, risk of increased national debt, and the risk of internal economic instability caused by institutional changes demanded by international financiers.
Reference List Bond, P 2008, ‘Global Uneven Development, Primitive Accumulation, and Political Economic Conflict in Africa: The Return of the Theory of Imperialism’, Journal of Peace Building and Development, vol 4, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
Changes in Social Media Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Changes in social media
Introduction With the rapid change in the digital economy observed in the last century specifically in the last decade, the future only looks brighter for this area. The last decade has seen various developments in the way people keep in touch. This move has mainly brought into shape what is popularly regarded as social media.
These changes raise questions of where the social media will be in the next decade of 2020. The essay seeks to find out the changes in the social media in the last decade, and the future of this industry.
Changes in social media The information and communication industry has changed over the last decade with advances and revolution in the way people interact. Some of the most significant achievements in the social media include Skype, email, social networks such as Facebook, and short message texting over mobile devices.
All these have the combined effect of making the world a global village in the year 2020 linking people previously separated by physical and political boundaries. The last five years alone have seen the multiplication of people engaged in social networks with new sites being developed almost annually (Donath,
Cognitive Mapping, Imagery and Mirror Neurons Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Mental Imagery and Cognitive Mapping
Utilizing Cognitive Mapping and Imagery
Mental Imagery and Cognitive Mapping Imagery can be considered a means by which an individual experiences a particular event, perceives a certain object or views a distinct scene all without the event, object or experience being there in the first place.
For example, if a person were to close their eyes and imagine an apple that act would already be a form of imagery given that the perceived apple is not actually there but is viewed utilized stored memories which take the form of an apple.
While the origins of how the human brain is able to accomplish the task of imagery is still a mystery, the fact remains that it is an action that is often utilized in order to remember particular key details about an event, object or scene that is necessary for a particular task to be accomplished.
For example, mental imagery can be defined as a form of mental rehearsal wherein an individual visualizes an action or an event and then subsequently practices the motions within his/her mind in order to better understand how to perform that type of action within a given situation, all of this in absence of actual physical exertion.
One of the first theoretical guides in examining the worth of mental imagery is neuromuscular theory which specifically states that the neuromuscular pattern associated with a particular movement in a sport can actually be “excited” or rather activated through imagery as well thus facilitating the process of trial and error that comes with repeated practice of a specific skill.
The basis of this particular theory can be seen in studies such as those by Knäuper (2009) which show that the activation of neurotransmitters associated with a particular action do not necessarily need to rely on performing an action but can actually be accomplished by thinking of the action itself (Knäuper, 2009).
One of the supposed applications of mental imagery can be seen in the various claims over the past few years which consist of supposed improvements in performance, energy, technique, motivation and the overall enjoyment that an athlete can derive from the sport that they are in as a direct result of utilizing mental imagery in their training regimen (Eddy. 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advocates of the technique claim that given enough time and practice an athlete will be able to determine what mistakes he/she has made in previous games and as a result can practice within his/her own mind in order to determine what to do right next time (Sargent, 2002).
Cognitive mapping on the other hand is an entirely different type of skill that is a form of mental processing which enables individuals to observe, acquire, store then subsequently recall specific types of information collected through observation. From a certain perspective, it can be considered that cognitive mapping is a method of associating a particular cognitive device with a set of information that one wishes to remember.
For example, a specific object such as a tree, home, or lake can be utilized as a means of association regarding a particular type of information. This can come in the form of a type of home and rural background being associated with either one’s parents or an individual’s first love.
It should also be noted that cognitive mapping as a frame of reference is not limited to mental imagery as a means of recalling information, rather, it can encompass other “points on the map” in the form of auditory and textual clues.
For example, the acronym “H.O.ME.S” is utilized in various high school classes within the U.S. as a cognitive mapping method in order to remember the names of the great lakes region (i.e. Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).
Various forms of mnemonic devices are applications of cognitive mapping and are commonly utilized in order to remember and code large amounts of data into snippets of information that can be obtained from the mind via the use of various mnemonic points in the brain’s cognitive map.
It must be noted though that similar to case of imagery the process by which cognitive mapping is put into practice is still fairly unknown to researchers. One way in which researchers have attempted to explain how cognitive mapping works is through the use of the Baddeley and Hitch (1974) multi-component model.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive Mapping, Imagery and Mirror Neurons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model states that working memory operates via a system of “slave systems” and a central controller which supervises the transmission and coordination of information (RepovŠ
Ybarra v. Spangard Case Case Study online essay help
Introduction People make mistakes and it is obvious that people forgive, however, when it deals with medical malpractice, the mistakes are forbidden, however, they still occur. Ybarra v. Spangard is a case study which deals with a specific situation when doctor’s mistake has lead to patient’s injury.
Clinical negligence is a very serious and one of the most complicated accusing as at one and the same time the fault of a person is difficult to achieve. Having considered the case study Ybarra v. Spangard, the form of negligence that best fits this case is going to be discussed along with the elements for a claim of negligence found there.
Which form of negligence best fits this case?
The duty of care is one of the clinical negligence which perfectly fits the situation.
One of the main reasons for this is the four elements which are included in its definition, which are as follows, “the medical professional had a DUTY OF CARE owed to the plaintiff”, “the medical professional BREACHED that DUTY OF CARE”, “the breach was both the ACTUAL and PROXIMATE CAUSE of the injury”, and “the injury resulted in DAMAGES to the plaintiff” (Negligence, 2009).
In our case, the plaintiff was injured, however, due to anesthesia he is unable to make sure who of the doctors was responsible for it. Being put at the operational table, doctors failed to follow whether the patient is appropriately comforted.
Due to anesthesia, a patient was unable to comfort himself as well as he was unable to say about some problems which made him feel pain. Therefore, the doctors failed to take care of a patient while they had such a duty.
Are all the elements for a claim of negligence found in the case? Identify each of the four Ds.
Before answering a question whether all the elements for a claim of negligence are found in the case or not, it is important to enumerate those elements. Duty, dereliction, direct cause and damages are elements for a claim of negligence (Lynch, Hancox, Happell,
Military Leadership in US Essay best college essay help
The capacity for an organisation to adapt to changing dynamics and effectively discharge duties to the society is dependent on the leadership within it. Such an understanding informs why effective military leadership is paramount for a resilient, dynamic, effective and ethical military. Many scholars are interested in designing parameters that can develop a framework for leadership suited for the military.
On reviewing multiple studies on military leadership, my perspective of crucial elements required for an effective leadership within the military despite many challenges there is wider. Here, leadership must balance between adopting mechanisms that are useful for an effective accomplishment of missions within a supporting environment for the military without compromising core military ethics.
What is military leadership? During an interview after retiring as the United States 29th commandant, the famous General Al Gray (credited with implementing crucial changes that transformed the US military into a modern and effective fighting machine), summarised crucial aspects that must define leadership within the military (Bartone 2002, 494).
Here, Al Gray talked about exerting a positive influence on the military through the use of selected actions as well as by example. Military leadership involves the use of suitable behaviours, personality, and actions that can align the overall behaviour of the military with mission goals without compromising the growth, wellbeing, and development of the military force (Bartone 2002, 494).
Apart from strong mental and performance capabilities, an effective military leader must have a suitable personality that can expand the ability of the military force to do difficult tasks within challenging environments. As it will become clear, a military leader must inspire the military, as well as work within ethical standards (Bartone 2002, 490).
The US military has in the recent past faced multiple challenges resulting from the shortage of resources and the changing dynamics of modern warfare. While the US government is tightening the military budget, potential threats to the US are on the increase (Charles et al. 2009, 4).
As a result, military personnel overwork due to frequent deployments in places like Afghanistan where they face unseen enemies in an unconventional warfare (Charles et al. 2009, 4). As they face a highly challenging environment of operation, the US military personnel must develop resilience to complete missions within required goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several studies show that people who develop high resilience are more suited to deal with stressing environments than those with low resilience (Charles et al. 2009, 4).
Highly resilient people are able to make out meaning from stressful environments and can create a happy atmosphere despite the challenges they face. Therefore, military leaders must inspire resilience capabilities within the military force to protect mission goals (Charles et al. 2009, 5).
A number of factors, such as separation from friends and family, meeting with continuous threats from the enemy, unclear instructions on how to react to danger, boredom, the death/injury of comrades, and harsh environments can especially create a stressful environment for military personnel working in overseas missions(Charles et al. 2009, 3).
Military leaders must show an example of high resilience to inspire resilience within the military force. Besides, military leaders should carry out measures which are successful for effecting resilience in a challenging environment. Here, leaders must find ways to encourage group members (Charles et al. 2009, 7).
The issue of ethics is significant for a successful leadership within the military. On one hand, the use of ethical standards within the military is helpful in developing a clear chain of career paths as well in clarifying a framework of operations within the military. On the other hand, it is difficult to counter unconventional warfare without putting some ethical considerations into perspective.
The presence of persons with different values and personalities within the military necessitates the need for designing a clear set of ethics to align the conduct of military personnel with mission goals and societal values (Kermit 1980, 47).
One of the main issues that hinder ethical conduct within the military is an assumption that ethics are of less importance than achieving mission goals (Kermit 1980, 52). Fear of superiors by subordinates can also prevent an officer from questioning the conduct of military leaders (Kermit 1980, 52).
We will write a custom Essay on Military Leadership in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another hindrance to embeding ethical values within the military is an overbearing responsibility on the part of an officer to protect the image of the military at the price of ethical values (Kermit 1980, 63).
Moreover, prioritising one’s career path can act to prevent ethical values in the military (Kermit 1980, 48). Leaders, who among other things, bully their subordinates into unethical actions (or give questionable promotions) are unhelpful in promoting ethical values in the military.
Unconventional warfare is a phenomenon that is defining modern war. Such a shift in military warfare blurs the goal of a military operation from annihilating an enemy to fighting an unseen enemy who can hide in the public as well as use other unconventional means to win warfare (Pfaff 2011, 12).
Here, decisions of military leaders must balance ethical considerations in achieving the goal of a military operation, protecting team members, and minimizing damage (Pfaff 2011, 15). It is always difficult to select among the three areas of compromise to protect the goal of a military operation.
For example, while the use of force against an enemy who is hiding in the public could help to protect team members, an angry reaction from the public could make the task of a mission more difficult in the future.
Here, military leaders should stay firm, aggressive, and decisive during the first stages of a military operation (Pfaff 2011, 15). However, later stages of an operation need leaders who can engage the public to build strong institutions that can protect the goals of a military operation after exit (Pfaff 2011, 15).
Conclusion Military leadership is a challenging task that transcends beyond suitable mental abilities to inspirational abilities, effective personalities and a wide database of knowledge and skills. An effective military leader must inspire ethical values in the military by avoiding improper leadership approaches (such as bullying subordinates to take part in improper acts of cover), which prevent ethical values within the military.
The US military has in the recent past faced multiple challenges resulting from the shortage of resources and the changing dynamics of modern warfare. Emerging challenges, such as unconventional warfare, make it difficult for military leaders to make decisions that can balance between conflicting ethical considerations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Leadership in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A military leader who lives in the 21st century is obviously in a more difficult position than his counterpart who lived in previous centuries. Such a direction calls for policy designers in the military to use an effective training and preparation program for the future leaders of the military.
Bibliography Bartone, Paul. New wine in old bottles: Leadership and personality in the military organization. Chicago: Department of Defence Press, 2002.
Charles L. Barry, Paul T. Bartone, Emily, Richards, and Robert E. Armstrong. Build resilience: Leader influence on mental hardiness New York: Defence Horizons Press, 2009.
Kermit, Johnson. Ethical issue of military leadership. New York: Defence Horizons Press, 1980.
Pfaff, Tony. Resolving ethical challenges in an era of persistent conflict. New York: Strategic Studies Institute Press, 2011.
Panera Bread Business Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Company Background
Strategies to attack major problems faced by Panera Bread
Strategy that works
Implementation of the strategy
Conclusion/Evaluation of Strategy’s success
Company Background Founded in 1981 by Ron Shaich and Louis Kane, the famous Panera Bread Company started operating under the brand name Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. It first grew along the United States’ east coast before it was internationalized between early 1980’s to 1990’s.
This immense growth had the implication of making the company a dominant business operator in the category of bakery-cafe. In 1993, Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. bought St.Louis Bread Company. At the time of this acquiring, St.Louis Bread Company had 20 bakery cafes. In 1993 to 1997, the company recorded an increment of 75 percent in its mean unit volumes.
This prompted the alteration of the brand name from Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. to Panera Bread Company. In 1997, the Panera Bread Company recognized its capacity for growth to become a leading bread maker in the United States. However, to achieve this noble potential, heavy investment of monetary resources was required.
Indeed, in 1999, the company completed a transaction involving a sale of the business units of Au Bon Pain Co., Inc. only remaining with those of the Panera Bread Company. With regard to Panera Bread, after the completion of this transaction, “the company’s stock has grown thirteen-fold, and over $1 billion shareholder value has been created” (Para. 5).
The company acquired the title of the best performer under the category of restaurants with 1, 5, and 10-year shareholders’ returns. Later, in 2007, Panera Bread Company also purchased paradise bakery and cafe. As Panera Bread points out, “in March 2012, the company announced that Bill Moreton and Ron Shaich would both assume the roles of chief executive officers” (Para. 2).
Currently, Shaich acts as the co-CEO and the chairperson of the board of directors. On the other hand, Bill Moreton is the co-CEO and the president of Panera Bread Company. As at September 2012, the company had established business presence in 44 states where it operated 1,625 bakeries.
SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis involves strategic planning approaches engineered to evaluate strengths, limitations, and opportunities without negating threats that businesses face in their operation environment. Strengths are the traits that make it possible for an organization to have an advantage in comparison to other organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the case of Panera Bread Company, the strengths include appealing and attractive food menus that comprise a variety of products from which customers can choose. According to Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, these products include “fresh baked goods, made-to-order sandwiches on freshly baked breads, soups, salads, custom roasted coffees, and other complementary products” (10).
Due to the company’s strong financial position, it has managed to invest in cozy cafes, which create a smoothing environment for the customers. This has the impact of making the company build a strong customers’ experience.
The strength is implied in the company’s statement of goals, missions, and aims in which it stipulates that the central goal is to ensure that Panera Bread Company is the first choice of all customers who crave for sandwiches, soup, and salads. In addition to these strengths, the company has an enormous distribution ability covering a large geographic area (44 states as of Septembers 2012).
It has products having relatively better quality while compared to its competitors. It has differentiated its services with the rival companies besides accumulating customers’ beliefs that the company stocks fresh breads. Besides, it has developed a powerful and winning business strategy. Amid the above-cited strengths, Panera Bread Company encounters some weaknesses.
These include the traits of Panera Bread Company that place it at a disadvantage in comparison with rival companies operating in the same industry. One of the weaknesses is the heavy investments in bread centric line of business, which means that Panera Bread Company has a narrow product line.
Other weaknesses are higher prices at the company-owned stores in comparison to the franchises, declining customer service, and customer preferences. In particular, alterations of preferences and customer tastes may make them consider opting for buying more nutritious food items in other restaurants.
Contextualization of this weakness introduces some chances that the company may consider as existing external chances, which, while utilized, may make it improve its performance. They include international expansions and opening of new outlets to tap the growth potential within the suburban markets.
We will write a custom Case Study on Panera Bread Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that the company has a weakness of narrow product line introduces an opportunity for introduction of new items in the product line. On the other hand, Panera Bread Company encounters external chances that impair its performance. These are threats to the operation of the company.
They include lawsuits, government regulations, and competition from rival companies such as Sturbucks and Mc Donald among other local and international restaurants offering fast foods. In the context of lawsuits and drawing from Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the company admits that it is “subjected to other routine legal proceedings, claims, and litigations in the ordinary course of its business” (10).
This requires heavy commitment of financial resources and management attention. Saturation of the market creates another incredible threat. The company would encounter challenges in getting strategic places for opening new outlets consistent with its strategic plan of enhancing profitability through rapid expansion.
Strategies to attack major problems faced by Panera Bread Panera Bread Company encounters several problems in the derivation of its strategic plans to enhance a continuous growth in an environment that is saturated by a variety of companies offering similar or substitute products. One of the problems of the company is that it offers products in its company-owned stores at prices that are higher than the franchises.
A significant reason for these differences is the need to gain higher profit margins to cater for the costs of running the business-associated issues that are extrinsic from the control of the company such as the cost of settlement of lawsuits filed against the company by past employees.
For instance, in 2009, Nick Sotoudeh filed a case costing the company 5 million dollars in its settlement (Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 2 4). In 2010, Corey Weiner, Caroll Ruiz, and Denarius Lewis filed another case against the company costing 1.5 million dollars in its resolution (Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 2 4).
To meet this cost to ensure that Panera Bread Company is able to offer bread at its own stores at competitive prices, it is crucial that the company results to intensive growth. On the positive side, growth is vital since it will provide the necessary economies of scale. This means that the company will remain profitable amid making small profit margins for every product sold.
The negative side of this strategic move qualifies as a technique of enhancing growth such as forming joint ventures with other big competitors such as McDonald who will deprive the company of its executive control power. Panera Bread Company is likely to experience the problem of reduced profitability due to narrow product lines. To resolve this problem, it is crucial that it focuses on widening its product lines.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Panera Bread Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This strategic move will, on the positive side, help in drawing more customers to its stores. Hence, the revenue will also hike. On the other hand, the strategic move will increase the logistical costs and other costs associated with service delivery at the stores. Therefore, under certain circumstances, increment in revenues would be outweighed by the resulting additional costs.
Somewhat different from the above two strategic moves, to address the challenge of how to increase revenues, the company can resolve to recruit more franchises besides opening more stores that are company-owned. On the positive end, this would increase revenues.
On the other hand, increasing the number of company-owned stores would truncate into recruiting more staff, a case that increases the risk of experiencing more employees’ filed lawsuits. Another strategy that has not perhaps been considered by the company is focusing on extending its services away from America and Canada to other continents of the world.
On the positive side, this would increase the sales of the company since being global implies meeting new fresh markets in which the company can develop products consistent with the demand requirements. Unfortunately, the option would expose the company to different political, legal, and cultural environments.
Consequently, Panera Bread Company would have to change some of its practices to match the new demand. For instance, there might be a conflict between the accounting standards. The company deploys the U.S’ GAAP, which might contradict the national generally accepted accounting principles of the new nations in the global space.
Strategy that works With the current financial and business environment of the Panera Bread, the best option for dealing with the challenge of the need to increase profitability of the company is via recruitment of more franchises besides opening company- owned stores within Canada and America. Hence, I would open 300 new company-owned stores and franchises at the first phase of expansion of Panera Bread Company.
The rationale for this strategy is based on the argument that, as evidenced by the estimations of good will in its balance sheet, the company has an immense market value. Additionally, in comparison to potential competing companies, Panera Bread Company has an incredible market position by virtue of its strengths. However, as argued before, the market is highly saturated with restaurants.
Hence, there is a dominant challenge of acquiring buildings in strategic places within many cities where the company may consider as having the requisite market segment it targets. Additionally, at the entry level, many of these competing restaurants have the will and ability to pose competitive challenges to the company at the new franchises and or company-owned stores since they will have secured their market share.
However, given the brand image and the quality of products and services offered by Panera Bread, the company has probabilities of getting some of this market share to build the clientele level at the new stores and franchises. The claim holds especially when it invests to improve its service delivery experience to levels above those of the existing restaurants in the new markets.
Utilizing the strategy of growth through recruitment of more franchises and company-owned stores is particularly significant in enhancing Panera Bread Company’s competitive position since it will make it develop the capacity to take a full advantage of the economies of scale.
At the current size of Panera Bread Company, attempts to exploit the markets of all continents of the world are found unworthy due to many standards and legal compliance issues, which go into adding the cost of running the company.
Implementation of the strategy In the implementation of the strategy of recruiting more franchises and opening of new company-operated stores, several considerations are vital before the implementation process kicks off. In the first place, this strategy needs financing. It is thus vital to consider whether the financial position of the company and the anticipated incomes can support the strategy.
If not, it is critical to consider whether there are alternative sources of finance. Fortunately, with regard to Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K, the company charges a “franchise fee of $35,000 per bakery-cafe (of which it generally receives $5,000 at the signing of the ADA and $30,000 at or before the bakery-cafe opening)” (4).
By noting that Panera Bread Company does not support the construction of the franchises, the money raised through the fees is utilizable in opening of the additional company-owned stores. According to Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K, the company also has accessibility to a loan facility of 250 million dollars as an additional source of capital (3).
Similar to the old food dealers like Mc Donald, the implementation of the strategy proposed above means the focus would entail opening a store or franchise and then waiting for the customer to do the purchasing. Based on the experience he or she gains with the product, he or she becomes loyal and hence a regular customer. Therefore, the strategy is customer-centric.
For the success of such a strategy, it is crucial that an organization possesses the capability to penetrate new markets. It should develop services and products, which create an immense appeal to the customers besides possessing the capacity to offer outstanding customer services (Wheelen and Hunger 851).
Fortunately, these are some of the strengths of Panera Bread Company. With these strengths, the challenges in the implementation process rests in the development of customer-centric growth strategies in the new company-owned stores and franchises. I would accomplish the implementation of the strategy from three customer-centric paradigms.
These are identification of core business, creation of propositions that have high value and impacts, and focusing on businesses that are highly linked to the core business of the company. Determination of the core business of the new stores starts with the identification of the core business that will be conducted in the stores and the franchises.
In other words, expansion through the opening of new stores and franchises is not done blindly but rather with considerations of geographic areas and channels that would help to generate the highest amount of revenues.
Therefore, before the company’s financial resources are committed to opening and subsequent running of the stores, profitability benchmarking and evaluation of the reputation of the company within the new geographical areas are necessary. In this approach, the stakeholders of the company are fully involved in the implementation process.
Some of the stakeholders that I would include are non-loyal and loyal customers of the existing stores. The views of the loyal customers on why they embrace the products of the company are critical success factors of the strategy implementation. They would help in incorporating the attributes of the company that attract them in the new stores and franchises.
On the other hand, the views of the disloyal customers create opportunities of establishing new stores that have improved customer service experience. This would help to avoid replication of the past mistakes in the new franchises and stores. Arguably, this step of implementation of the project involves planning and analysis stage. It would take six months and an estimated cost of $ 210, 000.
The second implementation step is the creation of propositions that have high values and impacts on the sub-segments of the potential customers.
Based on the results of the first step discussed above, sub-segmentation of the customers’ groups in the new franchises and stores based on the found needs and anticipated buying patterns coupled with the profit contributions of the forecasted sales are vital in setting of a mechanism of reaping most from the new markets.
This mechanism encompasses creation and innovation of value propositions targeting the sub-segments that are likely to be most attractive. This step is followed by conducting a field test of the impacts of the propositions. Based on the results of the field tests, scaling up is done. This step of the implementation process of the strategy is the analysis phase of the project. It is anticipated to take about 3-31/2 months.
Its budget is $1 million. Most of this money caters for the wage expenses of analysts and data collection staff. Lastly, there is a need to focus on businesses that are highly linked to the core business of the company.
The need implies that, after conducting a number of field tests and analyzing the potential of the success of the growth strategy, the next course of action will be to channel the resources of the company to open stores and accept franchise requests in areas that are likely to have large clientele.
The point here is that there is no need of investing in an area where no substantive sales can be made to make the stores break even in the shortest time possible. Thus, the idea is to open stores selectively depending on the competitiveness of the market segments and sub-segments.
Conclusion/Evaluation of Strategy’s success Upon implementation of the growth strategy, it is crucial to evaluate its success capacity. In the context of the proposed strategy for solving the problems of the Panera Bread Company, success refers to the accomplishment of the predicted outcomes when the strategy is implemented.
The desired outcome is the increment of the revenue levels of the new stores and franchises such that the stores would be able to break even in the shortest time possible. On the other hand, it is desired that the new franchises end up being profitable so that Panera Bread Company can get substantive royalties. Measuring success calls for the evaluation of the strategy on its capacity to realize the core objective of the company.
Measuring success in the context of the strategy for growth of the Panera Bread Company takes six approaches. In the first place, the strategy is implemented within fixed timelines. Therefore, one of the measurable success factors is whether the various time schedules for the strategy implementation were accomplished within the set timeframes. The other success factor is the degree to which the scope of the growth strategy has been released.
The original plan is to open 300 stores and franchises. Thus, success is measured in terms of the number of the new company-owned stores and franchises opened. Thirdly, the implementation of the strategy must be consistent with the set budget. Consequently, the degree of success of the strategy is measurable from the context of the degree to which the implemented strategy complies with the budget constraints.
Fourthly, it was argued in the implementation section that the overall goal of the strategy is to focus on opening stores in regions that will attract large clientele only who would get loyalty based on the company’s products. Thus, success may be measured from the dimension of the degree of customers’ loyalty, which is measurable through customers’ satisfaction levels.
Unfortunately, satisfaction is only measurable qualitatively (either happy or unhappy). A subtle strategy of organizational growth needs to reduce the weakness and threats of an organization within the new operational centers.
For this purpose, SWOT analysis is vital in determining whether the threats and weaknesses of the old stores and franchises have been replicated in the new geographical locations of the Panera Bread company-owned stores and franchises. Lastly, the success of the strategy may be measured in terms of the improvements of service quality in the new company-owned stores and franchises.
Therefore, the growth sort for Panera Bread Company is not only in terms of numbers of stores and franchises but also in terms of increased quality service delivery in every new company-owned store or franchise that opens. Measuring success this way is inspired by the argument that learning organizations stand better chances of success than those, which do not learn.
Works Cited Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K. Annual Report Pursuant To Section 13 Or 15(D) Of The Securities Exchange Act Of 1934 For The Fiscal Year Ended December 27, 2011. Web.
Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Quarterly Report Pursuant To Section 13 Or 15(D) of the Securities Exchange Act Of 1934 For the quarterly period ended September 25, 2012. Web.
Panera Bread. Company Overview. Web.
Wheelen, Thomas, and David Hunger. Strategic Management and business policy. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Potential Unreported Income Case Study essay help online
Introduction Individuals and businesses should present a complete disclosure of income in the financial reports. Unreported revenue comprises of certain income that a taxpayers fail to report in their tax returns. The tax payers aim is to avoid paying tax or reduce tax obligation. There are a number of ways that can be used to discover unreported revenue.
They include bank deposit method, net worth method, source and application of funds method, lifestyle audit, third party contacts, and mark up analysis among others.
Selection of a suitable approach to use depends on a number of factors such as industry in which the customer operates, the permanence of assets and liabilities, stability of net worth over a number of years, availability of clients financial information, and banking practices of the customer among others. Indentifying unreported income is commonly carried out by auditors and tax authorities.
Aim of the paper The paper determines availability of unreported income for Mr. Jung. It uses the net worth method, sources and application of funds method, and bank deposit method. It also talks about the reasonableness of the estimates and the drawbacks of the three methods used for estimation.
Net worth method The difference between assets and liabilities for a definite period gives the net worth for the client. The value obtained is compared with the net worth for prior years. unfounded rate of increase of net worth for different periods gives indications for unreported income.
In this approach, it is necessary to compute accuratelty the net worth of the client at the beginning and end of the period. The increase in net worth that cannot be accounted for gives an idea about unreported income.
Computation of unreported income using net worth approach Total assets
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assets 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 1 Chase bank 15,000 112,500 2 TD Ameritrade 50,000 75,000 3 Rental property 400,000 405,000 4 Personal residence 800,000 800,000 5 Vehicles 33,000 55,000 6 Bank of Nova 240,000 230,000 Total 1,538,000 1,677,500 Total liabilities
Liabilities 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 1 Mortgage residence 200,000 188,000 2 Mortgage – Commercial property 300,000 176,000 Total 500,000 364,000 Unreported income
Assets 1,677,500 Less Liabilities 364,000 Net worth of 2010 1,313,500 Less Prior year net worth (for 2009) 1,038,000 Add Living expenses 60,000 Net income (expenses) 335,500 Less Funds from known sources 307,000 Funds from unknown sources 28,500 Explanation From the calculation above, unreported income totaled to $28,500. It means that the changes in net worth in the two years could not be supported. The results obtained from the calculations are not reasonable. The method relies on a number of assumptions that are not realistic.
For instance, it assumes that the client keeps money in financial institutions. It also assumes that the records of income and expenses are accurate. These two weaknesses depend on the customer’s readiness to reveal required information. Besides, the investigator may not be able to identify private assets acquired during the year.
Sources and application of funds method The approach evaluates expenses and income of the client. All known sources of funds should be used in this calculation. Undisclosed income is the excess of uses over sources.
Calculation of unreported income using sources and application of funds method
Expenses 1 Estimated living expenditure 60,000 2 Mortgage –residence 12,000 3 Mortgage – commercial 24,000 4 Stipend to mother 12,000 5 Suburban 40,000 6 Trip expenses 24,000 Total 172,000 Known sources of funds
We will write a custom Case Study on Potential Unreported Income specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 1 Income 207,000 2 Investment income 21,000 3 Rental income 12,000 4 Tax refund 12,000 5 Loan 25,000 6 Sale of a vehicle 20,000 7 Inheritance 10,000 Total 307,000 Unreported income
Expenditure 172,000 Subtract Known sources of funds 307,000 Funds from unknown sources -135,000 Explanation
From the calculations, revenues exceed expenses. It means that client did not unreported income. However, the estimates are not reasonable. For instance, the known funds used in the calculations are less than the totoal net chas deposit in the bank.
The difference shows the inaccuracy of the estimates. The approach has several weaknesses for instance, the customer may understate revenue or overstate expenses. Also, the method assumes that the customer will disclose all his spending. These assumptions reduce the effectiveness of the method.
Bank deposit method Bank deposit method bank transactions of the customer these are, debits and credit. Changes are made to remove transfers between banks and non income deposits. The method is is beneficial since shows trends that are essential in giving an indication of the possibility of unreported income.
For instance, it shows the regularity of making deposits into the accounts, transfers made by the customer, period within the subject was involved in income generating activities, and the source of the deposits.
Calculation of unreported income
Chase bank Bank of Nova Scotia Deposits Checks Deposits Checks Total deposits Total checks Jan 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Feb 18,250 10,250 5,000 70,000 23,250 80,250 March 18,250 10,500 5,000 0 23,250 10,500 April 18,250 11,000 5,000 12,000 23,250 23,000 May 28,250 10,250 5,000 0 33,250 10,250 June 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 July 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Aug 43,250 10,250 5,000 0 48,250 10,250 Sept 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Oct 38,250 11,000 5,000 12,000 43,250 23,000 Nov 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Dec 18,250 45,000 5,000 0 23,250 45,000 Total 274,000 158,250 60,000 94,000 334,000 252,250 Cash expenses 1 Estimated living expenditure 60000 2 Mortgage –residence 12,000 3 Mortgage – commercial 24,000 4 Stipend to mother 12,000 5 Suburban 40,000 6 Trip expenses 24000 172000 Funds from known sources 1 Income 207,000 2 Investment income 21,000 3 Rental income 12,000 4 Tax refund 12,000 5 Loan 25,000 6 Sale of a vehicle 20,000 7 Inheritance 10,000 Total 307,000 Unreported income
Total deposits to all accounts 334,000 Less Transfer and redeposits 12,000 Net deposits to all accounts 322,000 Add Cash expenditures 172,000 Total receipts from all sources 494,000 Less Funds from known sources 307,000 Funds from unknown sources 187,000 Explanation
From the calculations, unreported income totaled to $187,000. The result is reasonable because it takes care of all the financial activities of the client. The method assumes that the customer banks all revenues. Also, the method cannot be relied on when the client records are inadequate, do not exist or show possibility of manipulation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Potential Unreported Income by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The paper identifies the availability of unreported income for the client using three approaches. The results of the calculations show that the clien didi not disclose some income. The three methods used cannot be relied on with certainity since they are not effective. However, they give a hint of the availability of unreported income.
In addition, they give information about the client such as regularity of income, sources of income, and how the customer spend his earnings. An investigator should use effective approaches such as unit and volume method and mark up method to determine unreported income.
Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help Exploratory Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Mere movement of inanimate objects is subject to certain mechanisms and principles. However, the principles of movement of various objects need to be analyzed to define the reasons and initial origins of these movements, including the controlling mechanisms and the various meanings they have for people1.
In this respect, it is possible to consider an automobile as an object that moves in accordance with certain principles despite the fact that it is controlled by a human. So far, care is considered as a means of transportation where further development of different models has been defined as an individualized representation. The assigned personality makes car movement even more meaningful.
So, it can be admitted that the car is a mask that a human bears to prove its respectable image. The speed, therefore, is the main sign of the quality of the mechanism, as well as the opportunity that a human can enjoy.
An automobile can be compared with marionettes that are controlled by a superior mind, as it represented in Von Kleist’s account on the Puppeter and his puppets2. In fact, the person who controls inanimate objects is also able to give life to them and make them move in different directions3.
Similarly, people control cars that can ride slowly or with high speed. Some cars can lose control, which indicates humans’ inability to control their movements. The wheels of the car are enacted by means of pushing the foot-throttle.
The car engine can be identified with the heart of the mechanism that influences the rest of automated functions. Together with overall appearance, it is often compared with a unique ‘attitude’ and ‘behavior’ that an automobile can disclose. In the majority of cases, car can have various meanings, depending on the person controlling this mechanism.
By looking at the car, it is possible to find similarities between the car and its owner. During movement, one can also find out the connection between its ‘psychological’ qualities and the owner’s attitude to the surrounding world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similar concepts are discussed in Rudlin’s introductory essay, claiming, “’Mask’ refers to character type and is inclusive of each individual mask”4. Therefore, car image can also be inclusive in the image of its owner who has certain tastes and preferences while driving.
The symbolism and aesthetics of car driving is of high importance because it contributes to the owner’s individuality, just like a human face.
This significance is explained in simplistic terms and is confined to the idea that face has features that allow to understand the human soul5. Similar to these characteristics, car as a mechanism moves under control of human actions and, therefore, it becomes the part of human’s nature and individuality.
In conclusion, movement of inanimate objects is distinct from those of animate ones because it is not controlled by similar powers. At the same time, the mechanism has its own principles that make people’s actions limited. In this respect, the movement of an automobile can be controlled to the extent of the human knowledge about the principles of mechanics.
In addition, the mechanism can also embrace a kind of ‘individuality’ that serves as a mask for humans, as well as a means of representing their uniqueness. Finally, aesthetics is another function that the automobile can perform while enacting certain processes. This is of particular concern to movement, engine sound, and color.
Bibliography Craig, Edward Gordon, The Actor and the Uber-marionette. US: The Mask, 1908.
“Pulling Strings”, New Times. 2012. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rudlin, John, “The Mask”, in Commedia Dell’Arte: An Actor’s Handbook. edited by John Rublin. 34-48. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Simmel, George, “Aesthetic Significant of the Face”, in Contemporary Aesthetics, edited by Matthew Lipman. 336-357. US: Ardent Media, 1973.
Von Kleist, Heinrich, “On the Marionette Theater”, 2012. Web.
Footnotes 1 “Pulling Strings”, New Times, 2012.
2 Heinrich von Kleist, “On the Marionette Theater”, 2012.
3 Craig, Edward Gordon, The Actor and the Uber-marionette. US: The Mask, 1908. 45.
4 Rudlin, John. “The Mask”, in Commedia Dell’Arte: An Actor’s Handbook. ed. John Rublin. (New York: Routledge, 1994), 35.
5 Simmel, George, “Aesthetic Significant of the Face”. in Contemporary Aesthetics, ed. Matthew Lipman. (US: Ardent Media, 1973), 336.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Conceptual Framework of a Study about Teachers` Practical Knowledge Coursework best essay help: best essay help
Teacher is a person who implements new curricula and change the people they teach using their ability to initiate and shape in the classroom. There is no doubt that teachers translate theories into practical in class (Westbury 1977). This research elaborates the teachers’ knowledge as practical knowledge.
This is achieved through study of the conceptual backdrop and assumptions underlying the conception of practical knowledge, the methodology of the study, the analysis of data, and data implications.
In the concept of practical knowledge, the researcher concludes the best way to conceptualize practical knowledge should be through direct examination. Thus, a case study on an experienced high school English teacher is carried out.
Five orientations of practical knowledge were identified: situational, theoretical, personal, social, and experiential points of view. This is necessary to put order in the topic of study. To make it more clear rule of practice, practical principle and image were coined. Cognitive style has been used to describe ideas gained as a result of the case study.
The methodology used in the study had to meet practical needs and reach those who know about curriculum field and those concerned with teaching. Other studies in psychology, social science and education were used in the study. They include Wann 1964; Hudson 1972; Giorgi 1970; Parlett and Hamilton 1972; Hunt 1976; Wilson 1977; Smith 1978.
The case study was crucial to give a vivid and account for description of a teacher’s case. It is not only educationally valuable but also particularly called for in the present state of understanding of teachers’ knowledge. It was also essential to give the teachers own perspective of practical knowledge.
How narrative has been used Narrative was most suitable considering the topic of study required interaction with other parties, collecting and analyzing data. The research starts by orienting what drove her to carry out the study. Following her experience as a teacher and a curriculum worker, she was not comfortable with the generalized view of the teacher in the field of teaching and curriculum development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She uses dialogue to gather information for analysis in the study by interviewing an experienced high school English teacher. The researcher has used features of narrative such as dialogue. She carries out an interview on an experienced high school teacher. This builds the idea by providing first hand information. Narrative is evident in the order of events how the researcher carried out activities in order.
One activity led to another. The chronological order of events in the report presents ample time for research and demonstrates order in research. The researcher has used narrative to describe and relate other people’s ideas to her own. For instance, using Connelly’s (1972) view of the teacher as “user developer” concludes the function of the teacher as adopting, adapting, and developing students.
Narratives are used to spotlight on interventions and reflects on the collection of relative factors that pressure outcomes considering research on teaching, like classroom research and the study of curriculum, frequently views teachers in different ways. Narratives have methodically been used to collect claims and information from other independent sources such as Sarason (1971) and Hunt (1976).
The information gathered during the research has been used to compare and contrast with the published work. Narratives data have been accessed for emergent themes such as the adequate approaches formulated against negative and fragmented views on teachers.
The most likely limitation of the study was misunderstandings during the interview which could have made it hard to get the required information. The researcher also states that she was listening poorly.
This is an indication that there was a poor listening skill in the data collection. Another limitation was that the researcher lacked enough information about some parts of the study. Biases in the research could have produced inappropriate results and caused a communication barrier due to disagreements.
The studys validity and reliability are high considering the methodology of research used. It is a suitable position for the researcher to carry out the research being a teacher and a curriculum worker.
We will write a custom Coursework on Conceptual Framework of a Study about Teachers` Practical Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the use of an experienced high school English teacher is an advantage in improving the quality of the research. From the beginning, the research exhibits the indulgent of the study with literature from other sources. This shows the efforts done to make sure the research is valid and reliable.
In conclusion, the study was a success. The study clearly reflects the fact that teachers’ knowledge is broadly based on their experiences in classrooms and schools and is directed toward the handling of problems that arise in their work but, at the same time, the term reminds us that what teachers know is capable of being formulated as knowledge and of being used to generate consistent practice.
Teachers’ practical knowledge should be used effectively to teach students and make teaching models for use in schools. Teachers themselves should take the study crucially and maximize the findings made improve their skills and realize the potential they have got.
The Influence of Emotions on Organizational Change Expository Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Acceptance of change within an organization depends on the emotional state of employees and managers. The behavior, feelings and attitudes of employees within an organization are influenced by their emotions (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). It is important to highlight the interpersonal effects of emotions in order to comprehend the exact influence of emotions within an organization.
The domains of organizational behavior are very essential in understanding the effect of emotions on the performance of employees (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). Organizational behavior domains such as leadership, group decision making and customer service require emotional intelligence from the parties involved.
Emotional intelligence is a very valuable attribute that all stakeholders within an organization need to possess (Zerbe 2008, p. 174). The success or failure of an organization actually depends on the level of emotional intelligence among its employees and managers. This paper will highlight the role of emotions in the management of organizational change.
Discussion Many organizations have always underestimated the effect of emotions in the day activities of an organization (Weick 1999, p. 364). In fact, the topic of emotions never featured in the past until recently when managers realized that emotions actually play a significant role in the success of an organization (Weick 1999, p. 364). Many organizations are now taking the subject of emotions very seriously after discovering its significance.
Organizations believed that emotions could only be expressed at home but they forgot that employees still remained human despite being at the workplace (Weick 1999, p. 364). The corporate world is now discovering that the positive emotions of employees should not be left at home because they are crucial to the success of an organization.
A recent research indicates that the productivity and creativity of employees is affected in a great way by emotions (Weick 1999, p. 366). Emotional intelligence determines the career success of an employee compared to cognitive intelligence.
Although cognitive intelligence is important for an employee, research reveals that a combination of both cognitive and emotional intelligence is crucial for employees to achieve their career goals (Weick 1999, p. 366). The management of organizations has come to realize that their success depends on their ability to utilize positive emotions of employees to their organizations’ advantage (Weick 1999, p. 367).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers who have mastered the art of stimulating and sustaining positive emotions in their employees have actually been able to witness positive results (Vince 1996, p. 17). The current market is very competitive and it is therefore necessary for organizations to come with strategies that can give them a competitive advantage.
The primary sources of competitive advantage such as intellectual capital, customer service, organizational responsiveness and productivity are influenced directly by employee emotions (Vince 1996, p. 17). The creativity and knowledge of employees are very significant in the success of an organization since the modern economy is knowledge-based.
Employees that are creative and knowledgeable are very receptive to organizational change compared to those who are not knowledgeable and creative (Vince 1996, p. 17). The ability of an organization to harness intellectual capital from its employees will enable it to survive in an innovation driven economy.
The intellectual capital of employees should therefore be engaged and cultivated by management for the expected results to be achieved (Vince 1996, p. 18).
The emotional state of employees determines the organization’s level of intellectual capital (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). The intellectual functioning of employees within the organization is also affected directly by emotions. A smart and innovative workforce is a dream of many organizations and this can only be achieved through proper management of employee emotions (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43).
The flexibility and originality an employee’s thinking is normally diminished by a negative emotional state. Flexibility in thinking is one of the key attributes needed in the implementation of organizational change (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). It is the duty of management to ensure that employees remain in a positive state of mind to enhance originality and flexibility in their thinking.
A dispirited workforce loses the interest to innovate and identify new opportunities (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). Negative emotions make employees lose the energy and drive to be creative. A passionate, confident and secure workforce will always make wise decisions and at the same time create new solutions (Pfeffer 1981, p. 44).
We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of Emotions on Organizational Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sharing of knowledge and expertise in the entire organization is very important in a knowledge driven economy (Neal 2004, p. 60). Employees in a negative emotional state are always unwilling to help and share information with others.
Implementation of organizational change requires knowledge to be shared throughout the organization and if this does not happen, then organizational change implementation becomes difficult (Neal 2004, p. 60). The intellectual capital of an organization enables information to be disseminated freely.
Organizations that have effective information dissemination systems experience a lot of success because implementation of organizational changes becomes much easier (Neal 2004, p. 60). Employees who are insecure about losing their positions are normally reluctant to share knowledge with others.
Employees who feel safe and valued show high levels of commitment and are always available to share their knowledge with others (Lyubomirsky, King
A New Role for Contrastive Analysis Critical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Language issues seem to have been the stumbling block for people’s communication for centuries. In his article “Cross-Linguistic Awareness: A New Role for Contrastive Analysis,” Carl James discusses the question concerning the contrastive analysis and its application for the comparative studies of two or more languages.
Considering the following quote from Fries’ paper: “The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner,” James makes it clear that, questioning the reasonability of a cross-linguistic analysis, the researchers are most likely to encounter considerable difficulties in reaching to the representatives of other cultures, hence, causing the entire learning process to shrivel.
While the author gives credit to both the arguments of Lado and Fries (Odlin, 1989), it is obvious that James is inclined to believe that Lado’s idea of a cross-linguistic analysis as the basis of successful communication is not reasonable enough, while Slobin’s arguments for the analysis actually make a lot of sense: “Slobin seems to be suggesting that Behaviourism has not been totally banished from language learning contexts after all” (James, n. d., 2).
Therefore, the seed of doubt is planted into the minds of the adepts of abandoning the CA.
It is also essential that James touches upon the related issues, such as culture learning, to prove the point. With the help of real-life case studies, James makes his argument all the more impressive, demonstrating the instances of cultural misunderstanding on an everyday level:
T1: Qu’est-ce que c’est, saucisson?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More T2: Sausage, yes, what sort? What sort of sausage? Wall’s?
T3: Sort of salami type of sausage, that sort of sausage. (James, n. d., 3-4)
Touching upon the Audiolinguialist vetoes, James adds another interesting point to his chain of arguments to consider, such as the existence of other forms of English (e.g., the Irish dialect) the experience of which can also be considered from the cross-cultural point of view.
However, with the cross-cultural analysis no longer in existence, the experience would be impossible. In addition, James touches upon neo-Whorfianism, which presupposes that languages shape the thinking process greatly.
On the one hand, in the preset fast-changing world and the globalization process, the issues of cultural differences seem to have become slightly more insignificant (Suarez-Orozco
Desires in Human Mating Critical Essay custom essay help
Of all the issues which remain just as important for the modern world as they used to be centuries ago, the mechanisms of human mating remains by far the most mysterious.
No matter how many theories have been developed to explain the numerous ways in which people are attracted to the opposite sex, the main question, which is what draws people of the opposite sexes together, remains unanswered.
The author of the article titled Desires in human mating, Buss tries to answer the given question, offering his interpretation of what makes people fall in love.
However, it is necessary to mention that Buss not only tries to discover these mechanisms, but to explain them with the help of a specific theory; to be more exact, Buss obviously chooses evolution theory (Shoemake, 2007) to back his evidence up with.
In addition, Buss asks a number of the questions which are somehow related to the human mating issue: “Why should humans seek similarity or equity? What might be the origins of these motives? What functions would they serve?” (Buss, 2000, 39).
However, when considering Buss’s research in a more general way, one can consider that the answer to the question “Why should humans seek similarity or equity?” summarizes the goal of Buss’s research in a nutshell.
When speaking of the article’s specifics, it is necessary to mention that one of its key peculiarities is the number of curious hypotheses which Buss offers at the very start.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buss’s suggestion that “biological differences, recurring over millions of years of evolutionary history, fail to select for a sex-differentiated sexual psychology” (Buss, 2000, 40) is a very challenging statement to begin with.
However, Buss goes even further in his research, claiming in his next hypothesis that “parental investment is defined by decrements in a parent’s residual reproductive value” (Buss, 2000, 40).
In addition, Buss also states in his third hypothesis that the choice of a mate depends on not only a momentary sympathy, but also on long-lasting plans: “higher-investing sex can select mates on various grounds, depending on the particular species, to increase the survival and reproduction of her offspring” (Buss, 2000, 40).
The above-mentioned signifies that Buss also incorporates the social exchange theory (Nakonezny
Sonoco Case Study essay help
This research systematically looks at HRM practices and organisational behaviours at Sonoco with aims of identifying current conditions, evaluating practices, providing new designs, and ways of implementing best HRM practices.
The company must restructure its HRM strategies in order to promote new initiatives, meet various functions of HRM such as talent management and support of Sonoco growth strategies, and reduce function’s cost by 20 percent or $2.8 million.
Sonoco is a multinational packaging firm that has over 100 years since its inception at Hartville, South Carolina with a capital of $6000. Sonoco has consumer and industrial packaging as its main business categories. Between 1980 and 1990, the company achieved tremendous success.
However, in the 1990s, Sonoco experienced challenges due to global issues. These factors resulted from the decline in the US manufacturing export economy due to Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998. Globalisation created operational challenges and business opportunities to Sonoco.
Sonoco was a highly leveraged company because of its many plants. Therefore, any slight change had severe financial impacts. For instance, between 1995 and 1995, sales fell by six percent (from $2.7 billion to $2.5 billion).
In the same period, the net income increased by 14 percent. Still, Sonoco stock prices fell, which resulted into heavy pressure of restoring shareholders’ value.
Diagnosis Sonoco HRM Situation
Sonoco HRM practices have been highly fragmented. The corporate HR roles are still traditional in which every HR manager focuses on its own initiatives. The HR did not link individual goals and business initiatives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instead, performance and appraisal systems focused on individuals’ benefits rather than the company’s performance. The compensation system depended on the general manager (GM) who used it to favour their employees. In fact, the company lost revenues from these diverse compensation systems.
Analysis Cindy Hartley’s Objectives for Changes at Sonoco
The role of Cindy Hartley as a senior vice president of HR was to introduce new HRM policies that would change performance management, compensation, development, and succession planning.
The aim of this project is to reduce cost, enhance accountability on talent management, and define the role of HRM in supporting strategic business objectives.
The HRM roles have changed to strategic human resource management (SHRM) and strategic human resource development (SHRD) within a global context (Yorks, 2004; Barney and Griffin, 1992; Vaiman, Scullion and Collings, 2012; Scullion and Starkey, 2000; Becker, 1994).
Based on a resource-based theory, the HR manager can use human resources to create competitive advantage that can support Sonoco strategic business objectives (Noe et al, 2012).
According to Barney, strategic advantage entails “when a firm implements a value creating strategy not simultaneously is being implemented by any current or potential competitors” (Barney, 1991, p. 100).
This observation also supports human capita approach, which emphasise the role of HRM in developing human resource for competitive advantage. This implies that Hartley must apply SHRM in HR developments.
We will write a custom Case Study on Sonoco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, some of the Sonoco employees (free riders) perform below the accepted standards. Such employees depend on the performance of other members of the organisation.
First, Hartley must initiate changes in which all employees must provide value and returns to the organisation. HR management must spread various talents across the organisation. Thus, various departments can benefit from diverse knowledge, skills, expertise, and experience of different employees (Mello, 2010).
Second, highly qualified human resources in Sonoco are resources with rare capabilities, which organisations must manage or protect. At the same time, Hartley must insist on high-levels of skills and qualifications of potential recruits.
Wright and McMahan observed that such qualities are scarce due to general distribution ability (Wright and McMahan, 1992). Hartley must ensure that selection and recruitment activities focus on recruits with high qualifications and skills, who can promote Sonoco needed changes and a culture of performance.
Hartley must ensure that HR departments consider changes needed in the organisation (Schuler and Jackson, 1987).
Third, according to Ulrich employees for creating competitive advantage must have inimitable quality (Ulrich, 1991). In this sense, HRM practices must focus on ensuring that Sonoco employees have inimitable qualities.
Finally, Sonoco must reorganise its compensations and reward structures. Currently, every division manager decides on what is best for his team, which leads to excessive spending on employees’ benefits.
The system is prone to manipulation. Still, the performance management also makes it difficult to retrench redundant on non-performing workforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sonoco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation Success of the HR Changes at Sonoco and the Sequence of Changes
When Hartley arrived at Sonoco in 1995, she introduced new HRM policies in order to improve performance management, compensation, development, and succession planning. Corporate evaluation shall enable Sonoco to make the required changes in order to realise DeLoach’s Challenges.
Key performance indicators (KPIs) must focus on all line managers and employees in order to create value for Sonoco. Thus, Harley’s focus on key issues shall enable the firm achieve its desired results.
Unlike other HR managers who are unable to define their roles, Harley seems to have identified HRM issues, which affect Sonoco. In order to make her department relevant, Hartley must show values HRM department has achieved through evaluation.
Executives consider HRM initiatives as expenses, which employees must recover in terms of results (Stone, 2010). This argument posits that HRM practices should shape employee’s behaviours and consequently contribute in achieving goals of the organisation.
Hartley can apply Kirkpatrick’s evaluation framework to enable her account for effects of the HRM strategies on performance management, employee development, and succession planning (Kirkpatrick, 1994).
This framework focuses on the trainees’ reaction to training, learning outcomes, changes in job behaviours and performance, and results of HRM practices based on return on investment (ROI).
Hartley must note that effective HRM practices must influence employees’ behaviours and attitude by developing appropriate programmes, which encourage the best performance among employees. Scholars believe that HRM practices can have positive effects on employees and improve a culture of performance in an organisation.
Hartley must perform cost-benefit analysis on her practices. This is necessary because DeLoach wants Hartley to restructure the HR department and save the company 20 percent ($2.8 million).
At the same time, Hartley must recognise that Sonoco is a highly leveraged company due to fixed costs of its many plants. Therefore, HRM initiatives must minimise direct and indirect costs.
The HRM departments must conduct thorough auditing and benchmarking in order to evaluate progress against HR initiatives. Audit ensures that HR department is on track.
This shall enable Hartley to assess current employees’ performance and develop action plans and future objectives for Sonoco. Hartley must collect information from employees for purposes of improving Sonoco strategies and practices.
Design The Right HR Structure for Sonoco – Evaluation of Centralization and Hybrid Options and Justify Your Choice of Option
Hartley must transform HRM practices at Sonoco. Her new design must meet three objectives:
Implementation of a talent development process
Even distribution of HR talent across the company’s large and small divisions
Support of the company’s new growth strategy with strategic deliverables—all while reducing the function’s cost structure by 20%, or $2.8 million
Given the above objectives, Hartley must align HRM practices with objectives of Sonoco through appropriate design and implementation strategies. Hartley presented two options, which were hybrid and centralised models of staffing Sonoco. Thus, we have to evaluate the best method for the organisation.
Centralised model allows management to have direct control over employees and staffing functions. A centralised model shall allow Hartley to exercise control over processes, strategies, budget, and resources.
On the other hand, hybrid (decentralised model) shall allow line managers to control staffing practices, have local recruitment processes, and create their own strategies and processes at every plant in order to meet their local needs.
Lermusi notes that most organisations favour “centralised model (59 percent) while only nine percent of companies deploy a fully decentralized structure” (Lermusi, 2003). About 32 percent of organisations use both centralised and hybrid models simultaneously. In this case, some aspects of HRM practices take place locally and centrally.
Centralised model shall enable Hartley to pursue a consistent strategy, goals, processes, and achieve economies of scale. Conversely, hybrid model shall allow line managers and other managers to pursue their own needs and give them flexibility in staffing issues.
This model shall create a major challenge for Hartley in terms of establishing corporate strategies, standards, and evaluation of the progress of HRM activities. Nevertheless, it is imperative for Hartley to understand how the HRM department is progressing, in spite of the HRM model chosen.
Therefore, the design of these models must reflect the structure of employees’ functions, effectiveness, and reliability. The model should be:
Aligned with Sonoco business strategies; this enables the HR department to align corporate business objectives with HRM strategies and then change them into tactics for implementation.
Consistent; this provides clear ways of evaluation and measurement with specific methods of gathering data for effective comparison.
Actionable; Hartley must develop a suitable metric that can provide useful information for action.
Tracked over time; the design must allow for tracking over time in order to obtain HRM information and trends.
Centralised model shall enable Sonoco to have:
Reduced organisational and transaction expenses
Concentration of the firm’s skills
Effective knowledge management and learning
Effective coordination of organisational main goals
Cater for organisational skills and needs
Allow for consistency in practices and processes
However, centralised model can limit globalisation aspects such as various cultural needs, languages, hiring and firing practices, and regional needs.
On the other hand, if Hartley considers hybrid model, she can achieve the following advantages:
Favours various cultures in the organisation
Responds to diverse needs of regional managers and regional needs
May advocate for local talents, skills, and experiences among others
This model may increase organisational costs, limit knowledge and talent management, and provide inconsistent processes and procedures in executing Sonoco initiatives.
Given these diverse pros and cons in both models, Hartley should consider both options. However, she has to centralise most of the HRM practices in order to maximise benefits and reduce disadvantages.
In this sense, Hartley must implement a corporate (central) HRM practices on issues like performance management, compensation and benefits, talent management, and cost management strategies.
HRM must also review its reward, benefits, and recognition design. This should be a centralised practice. Agency theory focuses on tension between employees and shareholders. Executives want to reward themselves heavily as a way of pursuing self-interest and not interests of the organisation (Bernthal and Wellins, 2006).
For instance, Hartley established that most divisional mangers often manipulated performance rating to wangle salary increments for their staff. Costs in Sonoco have increased due to evaluation processes, rewards, benefits, and through other indirect ways, which mangers manipulate (Jensen and Meckling, 1976).
Agency theory aims to ensure that all stakeholders in an organisation are content with reward and benefit systems in the organisation. The HRM must be aware of varied interests in the organisation. From Sonoco, we have observed that it was difficult to link performance with individuals and there were free riders.
The agency theory shows that some employees have habits of limiting their outputs and relying on roles of other employees (free ride) in cases where the organisation does not provide incentives to motivate them.
Therefore, HRM practices must include motivational practices by understanding behaviours of various employees in order to empower them (Randolph, 2000). As such, HRM must implement effective ways of motivating all employees.
Therefore, HRM must ensure that there are KPIs for evaluating performances and developing appropriate reward and benefit systems for such staff (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).
Hartley must strive to integrate HRM design with succession and development of employees in order to promote growth of Sonoco. Growths and cost reductions are the main priority of DeLoach. Thus, the only solution for Hartley is to integrate talent management with the HRM design.
Talent management is difficult in a large organisation like Sonoco. Talent management goes beyond the traditional roles of HRM and may create difficulties for some HR managers.
Talent management meets employees’ needs and serves organisational needs (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings, 2012). First, Hartley must design a talent management model with all essential elements.
These elements must demonstrate relationships among themselves.
Second, HRM department must establish the scope of talent management model. This is because organisations have various ways of defining talent management. For instance, some firms may view talent management as a way of attracting and retaining high performing workforce.
Others may consider it as a method of attracting and retaining senior executives while some firms take it as an organisation-wide practice.
These methods have implications for HRM practices on talent management. Hartley must consider her three objectives in her design.
To increase GM’s accountability for talent management
To distribute HR talent and support more evenly across the company’s divisions and make HR systems and processes consistent
To optimise HR’s ability to provide customised and strategic support to the GM’s business
Hartley must develop the best model for Sonoco. This may focus on succession planning and aggressive training of existing staff.
Third, Hartley must also consider the available resources for implementing talent management model. Sonoco is a large organisation that may require a complex model (Evans, 1986).
Lastly, Hartley must determine appropriate ways of talent management necessary to ensure effective implementation of the model. The GM must conduct regular performance appraisal for the entire organisation (Marchington, and Grugulis, 2000).
Therefore, all line managers must be accountable for their employees’ talent and performance because they have strong influences on employees’ behaviours and attitude (Purcell and Hutchinson, 2007).
Implementation Sustaining Changes Based on Advise for Cindy Hartley and Harris DeLoach
The focus is on how GM shall implement and sustain HRM initiatives. In this sense, we can apply the vertical, horizontal, and temporal linkages of Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles, and Truss (Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles and Truss, 1999).
The model shall help GM accounts for different HR practices. These include performance management, rewards and benefits, training and development, recruitment, selection, retention of employees, talent management, and succession.
The main aim is to link these practices with HRM strategies for positive productivity and employee retention (Guthrie, 2001). This is a vertical relationship. Conversely, a horizontal linkage accounts for HRM practices and their relationships to one another.
Therefore, the HRM department has a significant function to play in the implementation of HRM practices for sustainability. However, this requires all line managers and employees to play their roles for successful implementation of HRM initiatives organisation-wide.
Effective implementation requires a 360-degree feedback mechanism, which should minimise cases of employees’ dissatisfaction (Carson, 2006).
The GM must centralise important aspects like employee recruitment, selection, and retention in the entire organisation. GM shall also ensure that employees learn strategic objectives and culture of Sonoco in order to add to value strategic goals of Sonoco.
Performance management and development must focus on individual employees, strategic objectives of Sonoco, and motivational needs of employees (Miner, 2005).
Line managers must actively participate in the implementation of performance management, appraisal, talent management, and needs of individual employees.
Therefore, GM must make them accountable for talent management in their divisions. This shall enable such managers identify employees for succession, those who need improvement, and employees for retention and dismissal.
Employees’ performance is the main indicator of success in the organisation (Becker and Gerhart, 1996). Therefore, performance management must reflect effective KPIs of Sonoco. Divisional managers must be responsible for performance appraisal and designing of effective KPIs.
Sonoco must link its reward and compensation system to performance. This shall enable the company to save costs. This is because managers shall not be able to manipulate the process to increase salaries of their preferred employees.
Reflection This case study has provided an opportunity to understand the role of HR in a real organisational setting. It shows that roles of the HR have changed due to globalisation issues and economic conditions. Therefore, the core roles of HR managers have become formulating strategic business objectives.
Analysis of the case reveals how different factors, which relate to employees’ selection, recruitment, performance management, and retention, can influence the overall business outcomes.
However, these roles have become ambiguous, complex, and shifting in directions of other business needs, workforce’s welfare, change agent, and leveraging human capital. It shows that HRM requires clear planning and set objectives based on realistic practices. This enables the HR manager to gauge outcomes based on the objectives.
This cases study shows that the future roles of the HR shall change based on prevailing economic conditions. Therefore, it highlights how functions of HRM shall be crucial in future for achieving strategic business objectives. In addition, it also highlights the need to work closely with line managers and senior managers to manage their staff effectively.
Reference List Barney, J and Griffin, R 1992, The management of organizations: Strategy, structure, behavior, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Barney, J 1991, ‘Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, Journal of Management, vol. 17, pp. 99-120.
Becker, B and Gerhart, B 1996, ‘The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospects’, The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 779-801.
Becker, G 1994, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 3rd edn, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Bernthal, P and Wellins, R 2006, ‘Trends in leader development and succession’, Human Resource Planning, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 31-40.
Carson, M 2006, ‘Saying it like it isn’t: The pros and cons of 360-degree feedback. Business Horizons, vol. 49, pp. 395-402.
Evans, P 1986, ‘The context of strategic human resource management policy in complex firms. Management Forum, vol. 6, pp. 105–107.
Gratton, L, Hope-Hailey, V, Stiles, P and Truss, C 1999, ‘Linking individual performance to business strategy: The people process model’, Human Resource Management, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 17-31.
Guthrie, J 2001, ‘High-Involvement Work Practices, Turnover, and Productivity: Evidence from New Zealand’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 180-190.
Jensen, C and Meckling, W 1976, ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure’, Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 305-360.
Kirkpatrick, L 1994, Evaluating Training Programs, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.
Lermusi, Y 2003, Metrics in Centralized and Decentralized Staffing Functions, https://www.ere.net/metrics-in-centralized-and-decentralized-staffing-functions/
Marchington, M, and Grugulis, I 2000, ‘Best practice human resource management: perfect opportunity or dangerous illusion’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1104–24.
Mathis, L Robert and Jackson, J 2011, Human Resource Management, 13th edn, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
Mello, J 2010, Strategic Human Resource Management, 3rd edn, South-Western Cengage Learning, San Fransisco.
Miner, B 2005, Organizational behavior I: Essential theories of motivation and leadership, M.E. Sharpe, New York.
Noe, R, Hollenbeck, J, Gerhart, B and Wright, P 2012, Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Purcell, J and Hutchinson, S 2007, ‘Front-line managers as agents in the HRM performance causal chain: theory, analysis and evidence’, Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–20.
Randolph, A 2000, ‘Re-thinking Empowerment: Why is it so hard to achieve’, Organizational Dynamic, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 94-107.
Schuler, R and Jackson, S 1987, ‘Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices’, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 1, pp. 207-219.
Scullion, H and Starkey, K 2000, ‘In Search of the Changing Role of the Corporate Human Resource Function in the International Firm’, International Journal of HRM, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1061-1081.
Stone, R 2010 Human Resource Management, 7th edn, John Wiley
Bisphenol A Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The BPA Debate from Two Perspectives
Introduction For over a long period Bisphenol A (BPA), which is a chemical product, has been used in the industrial manufacture of plastics. The plastics include polycarbonates and epoxy resins. This compound is usually produced in large amounts. Polycarbonates are used in very many ways.
The uses include making the bottles that are used in the packaging of water and food. They include medical devices, compact discs, infant bottles, and safety equipment. Manufacturers use epoxy resin in coating metal products. The products are food cans, water pipes, and bottle tops. Composites of dental sealants also have elements of BPA.
Toxicology Bisphenol A mainly gets into the human body through the diet. Other possible ways include water, air, and through exposure to dust. Food and beverages account for the highest percentage of BPA consumed daily by people. Bisphenol A leaches into the food through the internal coated layer of epoxy resin in products.
The products include food storage containers, baby bottles, polycarbonates tableware, and water bottles (Cooper, 2011). The temperature at which the product is stored determines the degree of the leakage of BPA into the food.
The exposure of BPA to people has spread so widely that the issue has become a concern to governments, health institutions and the manufacturing industries. The impact of BPA affects even the unborn and this is likely to lead to the birth of deformed children.
BPA has very toxic effects to people if they are exposed to it at very high levels. Researches carried out on animals revealed lose of weight along with the consequences that come with weight loss.
Government institutions, production industries, and academic research groups have carried out the research surrounding the toxicological effects of BPA (Deligio, 2010). The different groups came to an agreement that there are no adverse effects if people are exposed to BPA in some circumstances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Exposure resulting from normal industrial production, safe environmental use, and levels below any expected effect are some of the circumstances.
In the reproductive health, children are not affected unless the level of exposure is very high to be considered systematically toxic. The BPA components used in the treatment of parents do not affect negatively on off springs.
The mammary glands including other reproductive organs of parents are also not affected when exposed to BPA during treatment (Soto, 2010). Experiments performed in various laboratories in an attempt to ascertain the use of BPA as a replacement for estrogen have shown that the two have similar estrogenic activities.
The researchers have however failed to confirm its use due to the unknown extreme effects on human beings. Research emanating the above fear reveals that when BPA is used in amounts that induce maternal toxicity then pups from the animals exposed to BPA will have reduced weight in addition to producing less number of live litters.
The number of live litter and postpartum dam weights also reduced. Among the male animals and the off springs of dams, there was a decrease in the weight of reproductive organs and sperm concentration.
A study on rats concerning the sub chronic and chronic toxicity of BPA showed lower weight as the main effect of using BPA in treatment.
The BPA Debate from Two Perspectives In the early 1990s, Dr. David Fieldman almost discovered the migration of Bisphenol A from polycarbonate test tubes he was using into a test-specimen and looked like estrogen.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Bisphenol A specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since then debate has been hot on the BPA’s chemical safety (Weiss, 2011). This controversial debate has been fuelled by bans imposed on the use of BPA and its PC.
The discovery occurred when Dr. Fieldman and his team saw estrogenic activity develop in cultures of yeast that they had not added precursors. Subsequent experiments showed that the estrogenic activity came from the polycarbonate flasks they were using for the growth of yeast and not the yeast that was being used in the experiment.
The journal discusses the response from Dr. Fieldman over the safety of BPA and includes the defense by Steven Hestges from the industry of the BPA Global Group.
In the Journal Dr. Fieldman admits that the first discovery of BPA was accidental. The chemical was first discovered as it looked like an estrogen molecule. It was leaching from the plastic they were using in the synthesis of yeast.
Further prove came when the experiment was done without the yeast as the activity was seen again. Experiments using glass flasks did not show the estrogen activity. According to Dr. Fieldman, the continued use of PC containers to pack food and drinks is a serious health problem that has not been explored well.
It is still not safe to carry out experiments on people though its adverse effects on people are not clear. Based on the results of diethylstilbestrol (DES) it is confirmed that changes caused by BPA are inheritable (Winas, 2011).
The successful use of DES to stabilize risky pregnancies resulted in high risks of vaginal cancer in the DES babies when they approached their late twenties. This carcinogenic effect led to a stop in its use. This proved that the use of the molecule affected the offspring.
Analysis The similarity between BPA and DES showed that BPA changes the epigenetic profile of the animals exposed to it. BPA alters the proteins that cover the DNA and in the process determines what parts of the DNA are to be used.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bisphenol A by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The long-term effects include causing various types of cancer i.e. uterine, breast, and vaginal among others. (Sato, 2010) BPA is a bioaccumulative chemical making it a high risk factor. Its effects spread fast if it combines with other endocrine disruptors.
Steven Hestges on the hand defends the use of BPA products. He believes that the issue of BPA and endocrine disruptors is fascinating to scientists. He agrees with facts put forward on this matter saying that government legislations are base on them.
To him the use of BPA in its current is safe to human health and therefore acceptable. The new findings on BPA are mere updates of the views previously put forward.
Hestges quotes DR. Joshua Sharfsten of the FDA who argued that banning the use of BPA was acting from the legal perspective but medically it is still safe. No legislation about BPA is new. To him it should be used as the scientists find more facts on it.
Conclusion Analysis of various articles about the safety of BPA I am convinced its use is still safe. The conflicting statements from various scientists do not serve to make matters clear. Even Dr. Fieldman himself in conclusion acknowledges that there is still more to be done to unearth more facts about BPA.
The structure of DES and BPA are very similar hence, the effects of DES cannot be used to rule out the use of BPA. Scientists must dig deep into the matter to make precise differences and similarities are understood.
The regulations surrounding the use of PC containers are currently enough to manage their use. It will be very difficult to develop new packaging products. The loss on the manufactures could be very huge.
References Cooper, J. E (2011). Assessment of Bisphenol. New York: Chemosphere abstract.
Deligio, T. (2010). The BPA debate from two Perspectives. New York: Plastic Solutions.
Soto, A M (2010). Environmental causes of cancer. New York: Endocrinol abstract.
Weiss, B (2011) Endocrine disruptor as a threat to neurological function. New York; Neuroscience abstract.
Winas, B. (2011). Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system. New York: Repro Toxicol abstract.
Leadership Style Emotion Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
Table of Contents Article Summary
Links Between Performance and Leadership
Case Study, Hypothesis
Best Leadership Models
Quality of Work Life, QWL and Its Effects
Article Summary The article on Leadership Style Emotion has broadly explored the impact of negative and positive organizational behaviors. According to the authors, all leaders aim at maximizing the ultimate performance of their workers in regards to achieving their organizational goals (McColl-Kennedy
Critical Marketing Expository Essay essay help: essay help
Critical marketing has recently become one of the most popular objects of research and analysis.
With the growing body of marketing literature and increased relevance of marketing strategies in business, more scholars are willing to reconsider the relevance of the most popular marketing concepts and advance the role of ethics in strategic marketing.
In this sense, critical marketing is believed to be intended to challenge the existing status quo and promote a more objective view of the postmodern marketing realities. Yet, the meaning of critical marketing is not as comprehensive as it may seem.
On the one hand, researchers need to re-evaluate the intent and approaches of critical theory in the marketing field. On the other hand, critical marketing requires a stronger emphasis on application.
Despite the growing body of critical marketing research, the exact meaning of critical marketing remains extremely ambiguous; one of the greatest problems facing critical marketing is that its findings are rarely translated into practical applications, being used mainly to criticise old ideas rather than propose new ones.
Critical Marketing: Defining the Boundaries Critical marketing is a popular object of scholarly analysis. Different researchers proposed their vision of critical theory in the marketing field.
Hastings and Saren (2003) suggest that critical marketers follow the traditions set by Arnold and Fisher, famous reconstructionists, and use diverse approaches to question marketing processes and outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These approaches may include but are not limited to feminism, sustainability, ethics, and discourse analysis (Hastings
Public Sector Financial Management Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction The quality of service delivery in any public service institution is determined by the effectiveness of its internal structures. One of the structures used in the monitoring and evaluation of public accounts is the audit procedure. The main role of an audit procedure is to assess, evaluate and monitor the systems in a public service institution (Moeller, 2007).
Generally, any accounting department in a public institution has to have an audit committee. The committee is normally an independent body comprising of non executive members of the public institution. The committee is mandated to oversee the overall audit programs. In some cases, the committee is tasked to review the internal audit process (Roberge, 2011).
It may involve testing the internal controls for their accuracy and effectiveness. It may also perform operational audits on the overall operational systems. This provides information on the integrity of the accounting and the information systems (Menzel
Houston Air Pollution Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction Air pollution is one of the forms of pollution that affect the environment negatively. Air pollution results from chemical emissions from companies and human actions that pose health risks to individuals as well as to the environment. Furthermore, air pollution may destruct the ozone layer leading to global warming.
Though pollution is virtually everywhere, the paper focuses on Houston, one of the major cities is the US that have unacceptable levels of pollutants that pose health risks to the lives of people, plants, and animals. It addresses the sources of pollution in general besides identifying a major air pollutant in Houston. Further, the paper will present the various bodies put in place to fight air pollution in Houston.
Sources of Air Pollution In Houston, various sources of pollutants cause negative effects to the environment and human beings. Sources of these emissions include toxic pollutants, which are emitted to the environment from chemical manufacturing facilities that surpass 400 in number in Houston (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 3).
Two among the four largest refinery companies in the US include the port of Houston and the Petroleum Complex both of which are located along the Houston Ship Channel in Houston. Other companies that contribute to these emissions include dry cleaners, printing processes, coating process, restaurants, gas stations, gasoline fueled lawn maintenance equipment, and charcoal barbecues amongst others.
Other important sources of these pollutants are tailpipe emissions that come from trucks, buses, and cars. These emissions are spread to the air. Often, they are inhaled by human beings unknowingly.
Other particles from emissions diffuse into the air. These emissions from these companies have negative implications to the ozone layer in the higher atmosphere. When this layer is impaired by the particles, it becomes a health hazard causing global warming, which increases temperatures on the earth surface.
Air Pollutants In Houston, various air pollutants cause environmental pollution. These air pollutants include “fine particular matter, 1-3 butadiene, the Ozone, asbestos, chromium VI, diesel particle matter, nine hazardous air pollutants, chlorine and hexamethylene diisocyanate, ethylene dibromide, acrolein, benzene, acrylonitrile, acrolein and formaldehyde” (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 3) amongst others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ozone air pollutant has high effects on the environment as well as on the health of the people, as revealed next.
The Ozone The Ozone is one of the air pollutants that have raised a lot of concern in Houston for a number of years. The Ozone is a form of gas that usually reacts under the influence of light. Ozone is a two-fold substance implying that it has two layers: one in the high atmosphere and the other one at the ground level that is mostly considered as a pollutant. This air pollutant continues to affect the health of people in the city of Houston.
Measures have been put in place to ensure that the prevalence of ozone gas is minimized. Therefore, the danger inherent in this air pollutant has triggered relevant stakeholders to come up with ways of reducing its levels in the environment (Lezon, 2012, p. 2). The most dangerous areas are Brazoria and Galveston in Houston.
What compelled the issuance of this alert were the atmospheric conditions that indicated that Ozone pollution was in the offing. The Ozone is categorized as a definite risk in Houston because it surpasses the required standards of 8ppm (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 6). The ratings indicated that it has the highest potential of causing air pollution.
It is among the critical causes of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that affect people in Houston. Thus, it is an issue that Houston should be concerned about and work hard to bring its level down. The Ozone appears in two forms. One is formed in the atmosphere while the other is formed on the ground level called tropospheric.
The ground level ozone is formed from the interaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/Oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and the solar energy. For the Ozone to be formed, the most favorable conditions include high temperatures, low speed of the wind, and a low cloud cover (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 2). Surprisingly, Houston reveals all the conditions. The Ozone shields the higher layers of the atmosphere.
It protects people on the ground from the high levels of ultra violet radiations that emanate from the sun. These rays are very strong, as they cause health effects when people, plants, and animals are exposed to them. Furthermore, the ground level ozone is formed from other pollutants. It is able to react with other substances when exposed to light (Lezon, 2012, p. 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Houston Air Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concentration of the Ozone is mostly higher under the aforementioned conditions. In most instances, busy urban centers of Houston experience low concentrations while suburban adjacent rural areas usually experience higher concentrations of ozone. This scenario is mostly exhibited during sunny summers in Houston.
The Ozone formation varies across cities and the time of the day (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 5). Usually, peak occurs in the afternoons. Ozone is air borne. It is “transportable over a long distance through the air and across the borders” (Hackney, 2010, p. 639). Therefore, the pollutant may affect many people following it capacity to cover wide distance.
Trends Houston city is one of the cities in Texas that have been affected by high levels of Ozone. Environmental protection agency has been in the forefront trying to ensure that all areas and regions in the US remain clean. The enactment of the clean air act was one of the efforts by the EPA to ensure that all regions are free from any form of pollution.
Therefore, in line with this act, various standards have been set up by EPA to ensure that air pollution is minimized. Some of these standards were aimed at reducing the ground level ozone, which has had significantly tampered with the lives of people in Houston. The standards of the Ozone have taken quite some time for Houston to implement.
The notable reasons for the delayed enactments are the variability of emissions in the city. Efforts in Houston seemed to bear fruits in the last 35 years because of adherence to the strict control measures. The clean air act that came into effect in 1970 besides the subsequent amendments to the act has contributed to reduction of the Ozone levels in Houston during the period (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 5).
However, the level of ozone is feared to have increased after the year 2000 because of various reasons. There is much concern that the issue may become unbearable. This is a worrying path even as the population of Houston continues to increase each day. For this trend to be managed, experts and concerned parties need to collaborate and find the way forward.
Identification of every particular pollutant that poses health effects to people should be investigated and dealt with. For instance, the efforts put in place by the Environmental Protection Agency should be stepped up with regulations and standards being put in place for the state to comply. This will ensure reduction of these pollutants thus making the city of Houston a place that every person will desire to visit.
Sources The source of Ozone is the high temperature that causes the higher atmospheric layer to be prone to ultra violet rays. This layer is important in deterring sunrays from reaching the earth. On the ground level, sources of Ozone emanate from air pollutions and other substances that are toxic in the air. The interaction of these substances causes the effects of Ozone (Coleman, 2012, p.3640).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Houston Air Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, low speed of wind and low cloud covers contribute to the high Ozone levels. This therefore implies that the level of pollution emitted to the air through combustion of substances and chemicals emitted from industries play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of Ozone.
Therefore, human actions may play a key role in the Ozone air pollution. Studies have revealed that exposure of the Ozone to nitric oxide helps to reduce the levels of the pollutant. This qualifies as one of the strategies that need to be employed to reduce the high concentration of the Ozone, as well as its effects. The Ozone pollutant also results from the meteorological patterns and conditions in Houston.
For instance, between the month of April and that of October, the climate is usually warm and sunny characterized by quiescent breezes that cause the ground level to build up air pollutants that concentrate and cause health effects. Furthermore, high ozone levels are caused by wind especially when it rotates continuously. The Ozone is transported from one place to another as the wind propels.
The wind taps unmoving air in the towns hence transporting it to other areas (Darby, 2005, p. 1788). This therefore makes it difficult to control the spread of the Ozone pollutant.
Apart from the major companies dealing with emissions, other small aggregate airborne emissions have emanate from many other small sources that are spread in Houston such as gasoline-fueled lawn machine maintenance equipment and surface coating processes amongst many others.
Managing the Ozone pollutant Managing the Ozone pollutant has turned out to be a very complex process for policy makers. However, if they want to deal with the solution amicably, they need to trade off between the cost of ensuring that the problem is solved and or whether the problems should continue affecting the health of the people.
Because of the many air pollutants that are in Houston, policy makers should make decisions implicitly or explicitly to determine which pollutants pose higher health risks to be able to strategize on ways to manage them.
Consequences of exposure: Health Risks Various consequences are brought by high exposures to the Ozone. These consequences may affect human beings, plants, and animals. According to Donaldson et al (2004), protection of the health of Houstonians from the effects of environmental pollution and other health risks has always been the agenda and the central goal of the city of Houston (p. 3).
The city adopted various measures to ensure that health of people of Houston is upheld (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 2). These measures include setting up of standards concerning emissions in the environment, requiring the sources of pollutions to limit their levels of emissions, and educating members of the public on the required actions to take to protect their own health besides ensuring that they limit environmental pollution.
These measures have been achieved because the city has experienced a number of risky health implications. Various health risks are associated with the Ozone air pollutant. The consequences of exposure in Houston are evident in the health of those who have been exposed to it.
The vulnerable populations include people who are more sensitive to air pollutants and those with a genetic predisposition, young children, old people who have developed increased sensitivity due to various diseases, environmental and socio-economic factors, and those who are exposed to extremely high levels of air pollutants (City of Houston, 2012, Para. 2).
People who are exposed to the short-term Ozone usually suffer from respiratory diseases, lung, and eye problems. The Ozone level further “increases the level of susceptibility to allergens that are inhaled” (Hackney, 2010, p. 638). When individuals are exposed to the Ozone for longer periods, relatively low concentrations of ozone may affect the functionality of their lungs.
According to Donaldson et al, from the Environmental Protection Agency, many health problems are caused by exposure to high ozone levels (2004, p. 8). He noted that the Ozone poses health problems to children, the elderly, and healthy adults. Asthma is one of the health effects of exposure to high ozone levels. It also causes acute respiratory problems when a person inhales air that is polluted with high levels of Ozone.
It also aggravates emphysema and bronchitis besides impairing the immune system defenses of an individual (Hackney, 2010, p. 639). The other effects of over exposure to high levels of ozone may make an individual have other complications in the body that may make him/her a frequent visitor of health facilities and hospitals.
Ozone Standards under the Clean Air Act The clean air act requires the environmental protection agency to set standards and regulations that should be adopted to ensure that air pollution is minimized. The clean air act requires standards to be established to limit exposure of potentially harmful pollutants in the environment. Six criteria pollutants have been set up by EPA to ensure that environment in various cities, Houston included, is kept clean.
The six criteria standards include “particulate matter, ground level ozone also called smog, lead, Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide” (Lisa, 2012, p. 30088). So far, most of the standards concerning the pollutants have been met successfully by the Houston city. However, the ground level ozone is the only one remaining to be successfully met.
Efforts are underway under the hospice of EPA to revise the standards concerning the Ozone. The proposed plan is to phase out one-hour standard approach to replace it with eight-hour approach to the menace. Since the establishment of the standards, Houston did not comply. Rather, it indicated in its states implementation plan (SIP) that it was planning to attain the standards by the end of 2007, which was the deadline.
Under the one-hour standards that had been set by EPA, every region of the country was not supposed to exceed 125 parts per billion (Schade, Khan, Park,
Product Manager in Mexico and the U.S. Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Being a Product Manager Basically, being a product manager entails developing a particular product in such a way that it appeals to a specific target demographic. What must be understood is that consumer demographics each have their own unique “tastes” when it comes to specific products. As a result, it is necessary to develop products in such a way that they appeal to specific consumers by way of taste, smell, appearance, functionality etc.
For example, a product manager of a soft drink company would attempt to market different classes of soft drinks to suit differing consumer tastes. Examples of this can be seen in the differences between Mexico and the U.S. when it comes to the overall flavor of a soft drink that is being sold in each country.
Consumers from Mexico prefer a certain degree of tartness when it comes to their soft drinks while Americans prefer a greater deal of sweetness. As such, it is the responsibility of the product manager to ensure that the type of product that is being sold in each individual location conforms to the flavors that local consumers enjoy.
Influencing Factors in Getting into this Field The most influential factor in getting into this kind of work comes in the form of the desire to develop a product as if it was your very own child. From conceiving the idea of the product on a drawing board to eventually manufacturing it and having it on store shelves creates a certain amount of pride in a product manager since the idea they initially conceived of is now being bought by consumers.
Should the product become a considerable success this would of course create a feeling of happiness comparable to witnessing your very own child graduate from college.
What type of education is necessary for this job? Should someone wish to enter into this particular type of career it is generally advised that they focus on becoming a product manager within a specific field.
For example, the requirements for a product manager in the food services sector are drastically different to that of a product manager within electronics or social media services. As such, it is advisable that students combine a business degree in management with a secondary degree in whatever field they wish to specialize in.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advice to College Students The best advice I can give to students in becoming a product manager is to gain as much experience in the field as possible. Academic literature can only get you so far, it is important to develop a sufficient understanding of various consumer demographics in order to understand how to best develop a product that they will buy.
It is due to this that experience will be your best teacher rather than theories and literature which may or may not be able to give you the necessary information you need.
What difficulties can students expect when entering into this particular career? The main problem that students can expect when entering into this field is that they will be unable to rise quickly without sufficient experience. While in other career fields employees can rise quickly given enough hard work and diligence, the world of product management often will not promote an employee unless they have accumulated a certain number of years within the company.
The reason behind this is due to the span of time it takes to understand a consumer demographic and know what does and does not appeal to them.
Ethnic Polarization and the Duration of Civil War Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The article discusses the relationship between the civil war duration and ethnic polarization. The arguments in the article provide that civil wars are key barriers to the development of the economy. Civil wars lead to the destruction of infrastructure, loss of human life and have an effect on future prospects for investment.
The causes of civil wars can be analyzed in relation to their onsets, the duration of the wars, as well as the incidence of civil wars. Civil wars may start randomly, after which conflicts emerge. Factors such as a country having mountains where rebels can hide also contribute to the onset of civil wars.
Civil wars may also emanate from low per capita income; this makes a civil war last longer than it would have lasted if the per capita income was high. Lack of democracy may also trigger a civil war as rebels form militia groups in order to oust an undemocratic regime (Montalvo