Management Of Change At Procter And Gamble Case Study Essay Help Online

A descriptive case study of Procter and Gamble A brief background of Procter and Gamble

The current staffing issues facing the accounts department at Procter and Gamble are very relevant in determining the strategies, structures and practices to be assumed in order to achieve and manage change in order to meet organizational objectives. The efforts towards ensuring that an organization is cognizant of staff issues is a major step in determining the ability and levels of successes that will be realized via seeking the best strategies of addressing the issues pro-actively.

Being a worker at Procter and Gamble, I noticed a major management problem in the area of staffing since the staff working in the accounts payable department did not have adequate knowledge of the work they were to carry out.

This problem gave rise to accumulation of work load, high stress levels, dissatisfactions and eventual quitting of work by managers in the department as well as some staff. In my view, organizations should regularly review and harmonize their management strategies with organization learning and communication to cohere with the highly dynamic business systems.

Procter and Gamble is a leading American multinational company that manufactures and sales wide range of goods to its consumers in over 180 countries. Its channels of primary sales are drug stores, membership club stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers. It has several business segments some which include family care segment whose brands are pampers, Charmin, and bounty.

The products from this segment include paper towels, facial tissues, diapers and bath tissues. Other segments include homecare, snacks and pet care, healthcare, grooming and beauty segments. The latter manufactures products that include skin care products, prestige fragrances, personal cleansing, hair care, deodorants and cosmetic products.

In the period between years 2000 to 2007, Procter and Gamble’s organic sales growth was marked at 6% with a growth of 13.9% in its earnings. Its growth in terms of sales has massively grown, a consideration that is reflected by its sale of $ 82.6 in 2011. Procter and Gamble has been able to establish its competitive edge via differentiation of its offerings. It leadership has devoted finances and time to research and development with an aim of creating new products needed by consumers.

In addition to research and development, the company has invested heavily in enhancing relationship with retailers and learning consumer behaviours. This has been effective in helping it understand the needs of consumers and improve its products. As a company, it is decentralized with each segment focused on the country it is situated. While these strategies reduce overhead costs, its local and global scale focus have been some of the key pillars in gaining competitive advantage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Procter and Gamble staffing and change management

Change management is the most important tool for modern organizations’ demand to increase productivity and profitability. It acts as the link between the organization and its future by deriving the necessary visionary demands for progress. Besides, it forms the main platform upon which all aspects of revitalizing productivity are established.

The ability of Procter and Gamble to profitably operate is based on its overall capacity to harmonize its strategic operations in a manner that coheres with its inherent culture.

Following the high demand for the products and the insatiable quest for more profits by consumers and shareholders, many employees working in the accounts payable department were recruited and established hurriedly and therefore the management overlooked the general proficiency requirements. Since this department requires processing and maintenance of account payable transactions, it became impossible for the current staff to manage the work.

The problem of staffing where I work was not a major problem immediately after the establishment of the company until in the last few years when the efficiencies of the accounts payable department started to decline. The problem was attributed to the fact that the members of staff operating in this department were not well conversant with data entry, computer applications and general accounting practices as well as accounts payables.

Most of them could not handle the jobs given to them and therefore could not meet work expectations. This problem eventually led to the others such as dissatisfaction with work, excessive work loads and high stress levels. The problem which was initially thought to be minor escalated into a major management issue.

One of the observations I made from the situation was the negative effect of the problem reflected in reduction in morale of the workers, a notion that has threatened the whole company with stagnation due to lack of commitment, innovation, and creativity necessary to ensure the highest possible quality of work in the department.

Emerging difficulties –organization staffing and management problems Lack of training/ organization learning

Training acts as the best platform for acquisition of new skills. The latter is dependent on factors that directly affect personal change at all levels. The problem facing Procter and Gamble’s department of accounts payable is that it failed to provide an opportunity where its staff would be able to understand their deficits and therefore move with vitality to address them.

We will write a custom Case Study on Management of change at Procter and Gamble specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The lack of training for workers in this department indicates absence of emphasis that an effective person must be able to relate institutional requirements or objectives with organizational demands. This viewpoint is of great importance in the industry as skills require specified application on a market that is highly dynamic.

As a worker in my department, institutional training enabled me to figure out how to perform my tasks effectively and conduct real-time simulations. Since most workers at Procter and Gamble were suffering from stress, I understood well enough the need to comprehend the market dynamics.

Most workers in the accounts payable department at Procter and Gamble have great expectations, but they fail to maximize on their input in raising value due to inadequate skills. Though it is largely the role of the management of Procter and Gamble to motivate its employees, important skills in processing and maintenance of account payable transactions are very crucial in order to enhance performance and reduce work loads.

Resistance to change due to recalcitrant leaders

Another difficulty that I observed in the department I work in is resistance to change among leaders. The act of streamlining the accounts process is a new concept and the management at Proctor and Gamble is not used to it. The calls for such changes culminate to major misinterpretation, misunderstanding, and misrepresentation of the concept at the lower levels of the organization’s operations.

Besides, the organization’s staff appeared to have assimilated internal subcultures that often further deliberate major issues that affect them especially when they are being addressed by the management. Notably, the internal subcultures of the organization appear to be strong since there seems to be robust resistance towards implementing change.


It is my view that all aspects of an effective change process can only be articulated in the presence of good communication at all levels of the process. As indicated earlier, one of the major barriers that Procter and Gamble accounts payable department staff and the company management lack is effective communication. Communication has a great potential of undoing any barrier. Effective communication is a holistic inculcation of the necessary identity with current issues facing an organization.

The major difficulty that has been in this company where I am working is lack of communication between leaders and subordinate staff. The change group and the management of Procter and Gamble does not engage in direct communication with staff at all times since any slight process of change takes long time before it is accomplished.

Indeed, I appreciate the expected difficulties that may be encountered while employees are working in account payable department. However, lack of communication among leaders at Procter and Gamble and the concerned department is a major issue.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management of change at Procter and Gamble by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Areas that needed change and application of Morgan’s mental model Organizational change has become an important aspect in management of businesses since it provides an organization with opportunities to enhance its overall performance. As such, theorists have developed models which have been of utmost importance in providing the way forward in accomplishing change. One such theorist is Gareth Morgan who developed the mental model. This model is very crucial in determining areas which Proctor and Gamble should change.

Organizations as machines

Morgan uses the metaphor organizations as machines to reflect how management should think of an organization to derive change. The leadership at Proctor and Gamble needs to ensure that its staff at the accounts payable department acquires efficiency of high levels just like machines. It needs an effective staff that will work with a machine-like efficiency. This will be attained by adding value to employees and especially the accounts payable department.

Notably, the vision of the company had remained vague for a long time with its values being equally ancient and perhaps inapplicable or undesirable by the staff and consumers. Its managers have relied on the fundamental metaphor and ignored the idea that the staff in the affected department needs to be machine-like to enhance profitability.

An organization as brains

The brain of an organization in implementing change is critical in creating networks. The problem facing Proctor and Gamble can be eradicated when the model of employing the aspect of brain is applied in the affected sector. Its leadership should cultivate knowledge, requisite variety, feedback, intelligence, mindsets, distributed control and learning as strategies in curbing the work overload, stress among workers and lack of skills.

The capacity to grow at Procter and Gamble is based on its ability to bring into play organizational learning to enhance the brain of its staff and inculcate best staffing systems for sustainability and success.

An organization as an organism

A business organization is similar to an organism. Therefore, it needs to change, evolve and survive in order to gain a competitive edge. It is through viewing Proctor and Gamble as an organism that the problem of management and staff’s capacity to deliver in the accounts payable department will be addressed. This will provide a platform for understanding that the business is an organism that can be born, grown, faced challenges and eventually die.

Proctor and Gable must have organism-like and machine-like characteristics, understand its staffs’ weaknesses and strengths and make improvement through training. As indicated in the case study, a new initiative can be established when the performance is poor and the organization which is on a negative progress to aid in restoring it back to the profitability tract. New initiatives can also be assimilated when an organization is stalling and require re-energizing for better development

An organization as a political system

An organization’s system brings out the necessary cohesion among departments and also culminates into better performance quality. Procter and Gamble should introduce an effective leadership structure that is internally oriented to ensure that it puts across the emphasis of staff learning.

As indicated earlier, there is need to ensure that the accounts payable department’s performance remains ahead of others as a mode of keeping the department effective. Organization learning should also be attached to innovation with the rewards being very high.

An organization as culture

Success in an organization has been cited as a factor that is determined by the culture whereby management and staff’s demonstrate the ability to work together in a harmonic mode. Notably, it is this coterminous harmony that emphasizes the need for learning to develop skills, quality and customer value.

Therefore, it is necessary for Procter and Gamble to establish an organization’s guiding values and principles since they help in adding quality and defining an organization especially in terms of organizational learning. There is need for the management at Procter and Gamble to appreciate that lack of skills in account payable tasks is perhaps the main cause of its downward trend. The aforementioned features will form the most important culture of the organization.

Organization as flux and transformation

A constant change is crucial for Proctor and Gamble to experience the much needed change. It came out clearly that this organisation was peculiar in the sense that it relied on the ability of the staff and employees to handle the functions of the account payable department. The staff should be held fully responsible for all the transactions between the business and the consumers of its services.

Most importantly, organizational transformation through staff learning and limited complexities will dictate the need for team work in all the operations as a major facet of improvement and seeking alternative as well as most effective systems that would guarantee the highest returns.

The management of Procter and Gamble should make the staff understand that the department is a single unit and that only cooperation and learning between the staff and all the departments would assist them in achieving the required results.

Through team work, it becomes possible for all the staff and employees to part of the engine that drive the business towards profitability. Arguably, it is through flux and transformation that members of the staff and other employees will be able to derive identity after understanding that their contribution is being appreciated.

Some of the areas that were changed The problem facing the account payable department at Procter and Gamble has been a major source of concern that has created the need for change. One such change has been through encouraging works in the department to become change agents. It is in this respect that continuous improvement among employees has become an integral part of the change process. The staffs in the department have been allocated the role of instilling continuous change in the process and in the bank too.

Besides, they alongside the management team will seek to identify any creativity and innovative consideration by the members of the change team and the organization as a whole. It is worth noting that plans have been set up to ensure this team undergoes special training to ensure that they develop the necessary skills for the hard task.

Besides, together with the management, they will seek to ensure that the business remains sensitive to the needs for better customer value, staff motivation, and better communication between the company’s staff and the management.

Main learning points

One of the key learning points from the study is that a desirable change in a company is linked to the approach a management adopts towards addressing the different cases of employees’ problems. There is need for the management to change its attitude towards the employees from a mechanistic point of view to increase their performance.

Besides, it is also desirable that a link between accounts payable department and the management is achieved to reduce such a problem recurrence in future. The law requirements should also be followed to avoid conflict with the legal system which paints a bad image of the company at the market.

Communication is a core aspect that can enhance better harmony between the team being involved in account payable duties, other staff, middle level management, and the top management in Procter and Gamble. Taking into consideration that Procter and Gamble is organized in a hierarchical mode, effective communication will be a better platform for assessing the change progress and indeed contribute to it.

However, the lack of it has made it impossible for it to ensure that all its leaders and staff offer least resistance which could result from ignorance. With communication, it will be easy to bring the management at the local level where the people assimilate the management roles via contribution to the overall decisions made.

Continuous change is a cumulative system that demands inclusive and continuous analysis of progress as exemplified by the returns in productivity as well as the staff orientation and assimilation of the new approaches. Therefore, a system should involve surveys especially of the short term win-win situations for all new procedures and methods being followed to reduce the time taken, workloads, stress and dissatisfactions.

Besides, there should be evaluations on the basis of the staff’s ability to change and assimilate new systems to welcome more change for improvement as opposed to spontaneous changes. To ensure long term benefits, the system should establish systematic reporting systems for the change team, staff and management to assess the rate of progress.

References Ahenkora, K.


Data Mining Concepts and Methods Research Paper college application essay help

Data mining can be defined as the process through which crucial data patterns can be identified from a large quantity of data. Data mining finds its applications in different industries due to a number of benefits that can be derived from its use. Various methods of data mining include predictive analysis, web mining, and clustering and association discovery (Han, Kamber and Pei, 2011).

Each of these has a number of benefits to a business. In predictive analysis, analytical models are used to deliver solutions. Using this model, a business can uncover hidden data which can be utilized for the purposes of identifying trends and therefore, predicting the future.

This method requires a business to define the problem before data can be explored. There is also development of predictive models that must be tested. Finally, these models are applied in the population identification and in the prediction of behavior. The process followed helps a business to identify its current position in relations to the industry (Simsion and Witt, 2004).

From this, businesses can plan on how best they can improve their positions in relation to other companies in the industry. The trends obtained from analysis of the acquired data can be used for the purpose of planning which might further give a company an edge over its competitors.

In association discovery, the main aim is to discover correlation among different items that make up a shopping basket. The knowledge of these correlations is important in the development of effective marketing strategies. This is possible due to the insight gained on products that customers purchase together.

This method of data analysis can also help retailers in the design layout of their stores. In this layout, the retailer can conveniently place items that customer purchase together in order to make the shopping experience interesting to customers as well as increasing chances of high sales (Kantardzic, 2011). The method can also be used by a business to determine the products they should place on sale in order to promote the sale of items that go together with the first one.

Web mining is the process through which data present in the World Wide Web or data that has a relationship with a given website activity is made available for various business purposes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This data can either be the contents of web pages found in various websites, profiles of website users, and information about the number of visitors in a given website among others. Web mining can be used by a business to personalize its products or services in order to meet specific needs of the customers. This is possible through tracking the movement of a given target customer on various web pages.

The method can also help a business improve on its marketing strategies through effective advertising. This can be achieved when used together with business intelligence. It also helps a business to identify the relevance of information present in its web sites and how it can improve this information with the view of increasing its visibility in the market.

Clustering involves grouping of data into specific classes based on specific characteristics (Han, Kamber and Pei, 2011). The process helps in the discovery of specific groups that the business should focus on. The method also helps a business to provide specific information that can be used to win over a given class of customers.

Data mining follows a sequence that ensures the data mined meets the requirements set down by the person mining it. Different algorithms handle the process of data mining differently based on the content of the data to be mined. Therefore, the reliability of the data obtained depends highly on the method used and the nature of data. Speed of data mining process is important as it has a role to play in the relevance of the data mined.

Therefore, a given algorithm should support speedy mining of data. The accuracy of data is also another factor that can be used to measure reliability of the mined data. For this reason an algorithm should be able to use specifications issued in the process of data mining. The two requirements for reliability are met by most algorithms which make them to be reliable for the purposes of data mining.

Various concerns arise over data mining and include invasion of privacy, ethics and legality. The issue of privacy arises when private information is obtained without the consent of its owners. Application of such information for business purposes can have detrimental effects to the business. Ethical issues arise when information mined is used by a business to take advantage of the owner of such information (Kantardzic, 2011).

There is also the question of legality of data mining without the consent of the person owning such information. To address the issues above, some businesses request permission from people before they can use information on them for various purposes which must be disclosed to the person.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Data Mining Concepts and Methods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Predictive analysis is used by businesses in market segmentation, analysis of the shopping basket and the planning of demand. Market segmentation enables a business to serve a given market better than if it had to serve a diverse market. In shopping basket analysis, a business can easily identify the products that are needed at specific times. The business can also determine demand and effectively plan how to meet it.

References Han, J., Kamber, M. and Pei, J. (2011). Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. Amsterdam: Elsevier

Kantardzic, M. (2011). Data Mining: Concepts, Models, Methods, and Algorithms. New York: John Wiley


The Importance of Leadership in Shaping the Direction an Organization Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Need for Ethical Leadership

Qualities of Ethical Leaders

Developing Ethical Leadership

Countering bad Leadership with Ethical Leadership


Reference List

Introduction The importance of leadership in shaping the direction an organization takes cannot be gainsaid. This is because the leadership of an organization is charged with the responsibility of influencing followers and rallying them together for purposes of performing an action, completing a task, or behaving in a specific manner (Bass


A visit to Grandpas Dylan Thomas Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction A “visit to Grandpa’s” is a story by Dylan Thomas, featured in the “Harrap book of modern short stories,” published in 1956. It portrays the artist as a child, and the close relation he develops with the country side of Wales, at an English village, characteristic with the twentieth century literature.

The book also presents the way the artist felt about the experiences he associated to the place. The story is greatly connected to the artist’s life, and the experiences he would develop after growing up. With reference to the artist’s life, a comparison is built, relating their experiences with those of the memory of the reader, about their childhood experiences.

The story offers immense attention on the characters and the atmosphere, towards developing the narration, which are linked to the appearing situations and atmosphere.1 The artist also uses the experiences of dreams, which are used towards the development of the meaning of the story.

The story, generally, centers on explicating how an adult reader still comprehends the problems and the feelings presented through child memories, as presented through the child story. This paper is an explicative account of the concept expressed through the story, including comparisons, references to the English village, and what the feelings of the Grandpa and how the end of the story are developed.2

Discussion The concept of the author lies behind the blending of atmosphere, characterization and narration, towards the development of a captivating life story. These three areas of reality and abstraction are blended together, to present the memories of the artist as a child, depicting their childhood memories and the experiences of their early years. The concept of Dylan, further, lies in creatively presenting his home place, Wales, in a way that will make the reader see and feel the truth that the author experienced.

The artist’s creativity is not only represented in the way he portrays his home place, but also the way that he presents the characters of his masterpiece. The artist’s creative secret of the characters of the story lies in his ability to use them without introducing them, like the norm is for many stories. The author, simply, goes ahead to introduce them, without considerably, taking the pain to develop them, which is not expected from any story, but a style that works so well for his work.

Throughout his creative story, the only character which is considerably developed, which can be comprehended in a clear manner, is that of Dylan himself.3 Further, the character Dylan is the narrator, which shows that the writing style used is quite liberal. It can also be argued that the work revolves around liberal creativity, where the character Dylan, who is narrating the story, presents what they are able to remember and what they observed.4

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under characterization, the artist partially introduces the character of Dylan, through a statement put as, “I woke up from a dream full of whips and lariats as long as serpents.” That is the point in the story, where the artist develops the character of the narrator, who is among the characters of the story, and more than that of the artist writing the story, thus depicted in the usage of the first person voice, I.

The other character that is incorporated into the work without any attempts of developing the character, is that of the grandpa, through the line, “the old man in the next room crying, Gee-up! And Whoa! and trotting his tongue on the roof of his mouth.” From that point on, the character of the grandfather is introduced into the story, although he refers to him as the old man.

Another character incorporated into the artwork is that of the narrator’s mother, as expressed through the line, “for my mother had said that he lit his pipe under the blankets.” Another character incorporated into the story is the man that they came across, while taking a walk around Johnstown village, who is introduced as, “a man with a whippet said,” “there is a nice morning, Mr. Thomas.” This character is apparently compared to the experiences of the author at night, where he had dreamt seeing some men riding on horses, using cloth whips to direct them. Other characters, though passively incorporated, are those introduced as, “all the men who leant on the gates congratulated grandpa on the fine morning.”5

The artist relies on comparisons to develop his story, where he talks of whips as long as serpents, where he intends to create a mental picture of the length of the symbolic whips, as a reader would imagine a serpent to be lengthy. The second case of comparison is that of the floor boards squeaking like mice, as the writer climbs onto the bed, through which he tries to create the mental picture of the squeaking sounds of mice, which he argues as coming from the floor boards of the grandfather’s house.

This is also, clearly a case of symbolism, as it may mean to present how old the house was. The author uses this comparison, to create a picture of how noisy the mice and the wooden floor were, which, according to him, produced comparable noise. The author talks of roaring and riding in a book, after he talks of pulling the sheets over his head, which shows that he is comparing the sleeping position with the shape of a book, which he uses towards the development of the story.

Another comparison is that introduced as, “the overfilled bow of his pipe smoldered along his whiskers like a little burning hayrick on a stick.” Here, the author is trying to create a mental picture of the look of his pipe placed in his mouth, which seemed like a burning hayrick placed on a stick.6

The artist relies on similes, as they may be viewed as a major model through which he develops his characters, atmosphere, surrounding, comparisons and meanings, towards presenting a clearer image of what they are talking about to the reader.

We will write a custom Research Paper on A visit to Grandpas Dylan Thomas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Examples of the similes incorporated into the work include, the floors squeaked like mice, which he uses to create an abstract image of the kind and the intensity of the noise produced by the wooden floor. “The mice between the walls creaked like wood,” is another simile incorporated into the work, where the author is evidently creating a mental picture of the kind of noise produced by the mice, which he almost mistook as that of the floor, when a person was walking over it.7

The artist also uses reference to Wales, towards developing his story, which he presents as one that is representative of the then time, the twentieth century possibly, as a way of trying to show how the atmosphere looked like and what it meant or how it affected the shaping of his childhood experiences.

At the start of the story, the author talks of a dream full of whips, which he continues to present throughout the story, where he presents characters like “a man with a whippet,” which indirectly implies that the Wales region was characteristic with the usage of whips and the riding of horses, which use the whips he talks about throughout the story. The author also talks of mountains, windy gallops across cactus fields, which he presents through the story.

This environment, clearly, presents the look of the Wales environment of that time, which is characteristic with the vegetation he talks about and refers to.8 The author talks of a mild summer night, where he presents the feelings that one would experience during a time of summer at the Wales region.9

The author relies on the figure of sounds, towards creating a clear image of what his child hood experiences were like. These sounds are used as models of creating the shape and the look of the surrounding, the atmosphere of the region and the different characters used. Examples from the story include windy gallop sounds over cactus fields, which give the reader the idea that the story may present surroundings associated to the usage of horses, which produce the gallop sounds.

The sound of the old man, Gee-up and Whoa! Gives the reader, the idea that, the old man may have been smoking, which would have made him produce such sounds, which is proved right through the story. The author talks of the squeaking sounds of mice, towards the creation of a comparison between that sound to that of the wooden floor. The author, here, is trying to offer insights on the type of noise, the intensity of the noise and the nature of the wood floor.

The same case applies with the sounds produced by the mice, which the author compares to those produced by wood, which offers an idea into how sleeping in such a noisy place was like for the artist, during his childhood.

The author talks of the flapping of the curtains and the beating sounds produced by the branches of trees hitting against the window, which he uses to portray a climate and atmosphere, which was characteristically windy and noisy. The author talks of a wet dog-whistle, which offers a clear picture of the sounds produced by the grandfather as he smoked.10

Not sure if you can write a paper on A visit to Grandpas Dylan Thomas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The narrator of the story is one of the characters presented through the story, and one who is a first-hand witness or bearer to the events and the experiences presented through the story. The narrator of the story is also the major character throughout the story, as well as the author of the artwork.

This is clear from the voice used right from the beginning of the work, where he says, “I woke from a dream full of whips.” This voice shows that the main character is the major character of the story, which is further supported by the knowledge that the author/ narrator is presenting his own childhood experiences. Based on these insights, the narrator of the story is Dylan Thomas, who is the renowned author of the story.11

The grandpa feels that the author is showing behaviors of hallucination and being affected by his dreams and nightmares, as he talks of a case where the grandfather commands the author not to ask any more questions. This is evident from the quote, “ask no more questions,” after which he asks him whether they experience nightmares. After that night, the grandfather talks of the extreme windy conditions that he had experienced the previous night, which justifies and offers information on what the source of the noises, might have been.12

The grandfather also feels knowledgeable, as he takes the grandson around, offering him information on different issues, including the comparable nature of birds flying through trees to that of horse ridding, as he felt in the night. Towards the end of the story, the grandfather is presented as one who feels hopeless, and maybe delusional. This is the case, as he is presented as one who believes himself as dead, which may show him as one who is mentally challenged in a way, if not confused.13

Conclusion The end of the story may be associated to the confusion that develops in the mind of the author, who was then still a child, as he offers an account of having looked for him for some time, consulting the grandfather’s neighbors, including the carpenter, Dan Thomas, Mr. Griff and the butcher among others.

The confusion of the author escalates further, after they found the grandpa around a bridge. The escalation of the author’s confusion, may have led to the end of the story, as the experience of dealing with the grandfather who argued and believed that they were dead. The efforts to convince the grandfather that he was not dead are also not successful, which may have led to the authors failure to continue tracking the story and enjoying the childhood experiences, which he recollects through the story.14

Bibliography Benson, S, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, pp. 1-22.

Bullocke, J, The Harrap Book of Modern Short Stories, Nelson Publishers, Tennessee, 1985, pp. 23-25.

Ketu, K, “The Aesthetics of Dislocation,” The Women’s Review of Books, vol. 5, 2002, 5-6.

Lahiri, J, Interpreter of maladies: stories, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1999, p. 20.

Moeller, A, Dylan Thomas, A Visit to Grandpa’s – an Analysis, GRIN Verlag, New York, 2009, p. 23.

Noelle, B, “Reading Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies as a Short Story Cycle,” MELUS, Vol. 29, 2004, p. 123.

Footnotes 1 J Bullocke, The Harrap Book of Modern Short Stories, Nelson Publishers, Tennessee, 1985, p. 76.

2 A Moeller, Dylan Thomas, A Visit to Grandpa’s – an Analysis, GRIN Verlag, New York, 2009, p. 12.

3 B Noelle, “Reading Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies as a Short Story Cycle,” MELUS, Vol. 29, 2004, p. 123.

4 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 1.

5 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 1.

6 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 14

7 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 15.

8 J Lahiri, Interpreter of maladies: stories, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1999, p. 37.

9 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 17.

10 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 18.

11 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 19.

12 K Ketu, “The Aesthetics of Dislocation,” The Women’s Review of Books, vol. 5, 2002, pp. 5-6.

13 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 20.

14 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 21.


Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Biblical Theology Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Abstract


Catholicism Revelation

Roman Catholicism Doctrines

Church Annunciation

Biblical Temptations




Abstract Contemporary Roman Catholicism embraces a lot of biblical beliefs like most churches in the world do. Contemporary Roman Catholic Church has gone through several political, social and religious tumults all over the world. However, their understanding of God through the Bible has grown very strong across the period1.

Any religion in the world has its Bible, which governs and helps followers and believers in their everyday lives; the Roman Catholic Church has extraordinarily strong ties to their Bible, too. The Bible marks the foundation of Catholicism and Christianity grown on the pillars of the books contents, its translation and importantly its interpretation among the believers.

The Bible as an inspired sacred writing has a divergent and varied understanding beyond scientific analysis. Roman Catholic Church has gone through difficult times like many Christians regarding Judaism faith and other sacred literature. Roman Catholicism uses the Bible as a divine book that God communicates with from old prophetic times to the times of Jesus reign2. The Bible is a book under God’s own co-authorization.

The writers were inspired and directed by the Holy Spirit according to God’s plan. The book was written by God’s directions. The Contemporary Roman Catholic Church has remained united by their teachings and understanding of the Bible throughout difficult political times. The biblical teaching and interpretation have remained the main tool that guides Christians and strengthens their faith in God3.

Introduction The paper focuses on Contemporary Roman Catholic Church in the Bible through their teachings, interpretations and religious movements. To underscore its aim, the paper uses scripture guidelines and puts them side by side with Catholicism. This is very vital since Protestantism has influenced many Western countries in the modern society.

Consequently, Catholics’ identification of God has come mainly through the Bible. They have come to realize that God’s communications are set in the Bible. Additionally, the church believes that the Bible is uniquely written to meet every individual satisfaction without reliance on interpretation from any other party in the magisterium of the church.

However, Roman Catholics faces difficulty in selecting materials to believe since the churches are flooded with scriptures of almost similar content. In creating catholic understanding of the Bible, the paper brings out some biblical aspects that guide and help catholic believers in their everyday lives. It also highlights reasons why Catholics have fought strong wars and political tensions in defence of the Bible.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Catholics strongly believe that only the word of God can unite the world as shown in the Holy Writ. Catholics take the Bible to be a revelation that God presents Himself through. The Bible hence makes people develop friendship between themselves and God. Without the Bible, there would be no freedom between man and God as strangers can never agree on similar terms. Revelation among Roman Catholics can be seen in different forms.

Catholicism Revelation Natural revelation is seen from the creations of God and the development of the human mind. The Old Testament in the Bible are devoted to expressing natural revelation of God to man through the creation stories. Catholics believers acknowledge the power of God through the creation process. Consequently, the power of mind is revealed in the book of Wisdom. The book criticises those who do not apply their rationality in almost its nine chapters.

The book emphasises the openness of Gods revelation to man; those who do not believe hold no excuse. “They strive to comprehend them and fall victims to appearance, seeing so much beauty” Wisdom (13: 1-9)4. The verse continues, “Even so, they are not to be excused; if they are capable of acquiring enough knowledge to be able to investigate the world, how have they been so slow to find their Master?”

Wisdom (13: 1-9)5. St. Paul also denounces those who do not believe in God as His actions are enough massage to enable each and every one to believe in Him (Rom 1: 18-236). Catholics believe in the Bible as their revelation to the Master as per the teaching of the verses7.

Catholics understand the supernatural revelation of God to man through the Bible. Supernatural revelation is shown in the Old Testament when God directly or indirectly talked to ancestors through prophets as shown in Hebrews. In the recent days, God spoke to man through his son Jesus, the son who is the glory of God and His copy (Hebrews 1: 1-2)8.

From supernatural revelation, Catholics have come to believe in the Holy Trinity. God is presented as the Father, the Holy Spirit and the Son. This is a unique sign and practice within the Roman Catholic Church9.

Roman Catholic Churches have their traditions, which are controlled by God’s past revelations as in the Bible. There are sacred traditions and ecclesiastical traditions that hold the Church together. Church traditions known as magisterium has been the tool that Roman Catholic Church fights with.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Biblical Theology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Church sends instructions about God through apostles such as Roman Pontiff, who is seen as the successor to St. Peter. Also, The Pope is the Christ Vicar and the head of Catholic Church. Despite changes in doctrines, from Old Testament times there has been no significant change over divine revelation and accretion. The bible hence can be seen as a tool that has maintained Catholic Church10.

The Roman Catholic Church believes and teaches God’s inspiration. According to prophet Hosea, the authorship of Pentateuch is ascribed to God himself (Hosea 8: 12). David’s Psalm are ascribed to His authorship as well, “Lord, you are He who by the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of our father David …have said” (Acts: 24-25)11.

God as the author of the Old Testament is also shown in the New Testament with St. Peters. Peter says, “No prophecy of Scripture is made private by interpretation. For the prophecy comes not by the will of man at any time, but the holy men of God spoke inspired by the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 1:2)12. Peter and Paul warned the Church against false prophets as the old prophets did. The Roman Church as well warns against false prophet from the biblical lessons.

Pope Clement 1 was the first pope to pronounce the sacred books to Corinthians as true words of the Holy Spirit (Letter to the Corinthians, 45)13. These words were later repeated by pope Eugenius IV who combined the Old and New Testament in the understanding of the Church of Rome as inspiration of Holy Spirit. Catholics believe in the Bible is the sacred book inspired by God14.

However, the church as well has been facing a crisis of the Bible in regards to several issues. Believers have developed the so called mind violence based on inerrancy. This comes out because of errors in the modern Bible made by scholars. it in its turn has made some of the Catholic believers take the Bible with less respect than they perceived before.

The Bible is expected to hold no contradictions that any form of such errors raises doubts on its inspirational nature. In such stances, people tend to believe that the book was never inspirational rather it was a human authored. The challenges of many texts also raise many doubts as people get confused over the original text. This is difficult for some people as they fall in the confusion.

Roman Catholicism Doctrines The Roman Catholicism is also identified by its biblical Canon. As a Holy and inspired book, the Bible canonical writing is used in the church as the only rule and standard in the Church for teaching and liturgy. The Bible, on the other hand, is a norm of practices and faith among the believers’ virtue. Contemporary Catholicism has canonized the Bible in their beliefs. The canons are found both in the Old and the New Testament as the foundation of sacred agreements between God and the man.

The Catholic canons, hence, owe their origin from the biblical during the Old Testament. Examples of the canons are the Alexandria and Palestinian canon and the Jews Mosaic law found in the Testaments. The New Testament canons contain all the books that were released by Saint Damascus. These form the binding agreements between the catholic believers and their Church15.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Biblical Theology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Contemporary Roman Church owes its doctrines’ development to the Bible. The church doctrines are the beginning of God’s revelation and understanding. The dogmatic nature of the doctrines allows the church to grow not only by additional faith mysteries and accretions but also conferred insights by the Holy Spirit. The dogmas are authentically approved by Catholic Church to aid the believers in walking in the right path.

The church doctrines are traced back to God. They are opened by his creation stories and command to man. Consequently, they became more open in the Old Testament in Gods Revelation to the Jews through the prophets and other different means. These enable the Jews to remain united and develop stronger faith. Doctrines chronologically grew and got passed from generation to generation of the Church16.

In the New Testament, the revelation of the doctrines developed immensely. This can be seen in the last Supper when Jesus tells the disciples, “I shall not call you servants anymore, because a servant does not know His masters business. I call you friends because I have made known to you everything I have learned from my Father” (John 15: 15)17.

The trinity is one of the most mysterious doctrines that was revealed and is practiced in the contemporary Catholicism. The church believes that Yahweh revealed himself through prophets in the Old Testament and through His only son in the New Testament. The fact that Jesus dwelt among men is a son of God’s revelation and redemption18.

Catholic Epistles, which include letters of Apostle Peter, John, James and Jude have been studied by Roman Catholic Church since their inception from Lusebius from Caesarea. The books mark unique distinction of the church from other religions and the protestant groups. The contemporary church has continued with this practice by ensuring that the believers are provided by with the best Bibles for their study19.

The Conception of the three fold anointment practiced by the Catholic Church is biblically traceable. The Messiah was expected to be a priest, a teacher and a King, who were anointed by God. These Old Testament versions symbolises the triad of code and the creed found in the Roman Catholic Church.

The Church has hierarchical system that bore its roots to the Testaments as well. The priests are ordained people who once served as Catholic deacons and teachers. They are highly respected people and serve as God’s messengers who bring the word of God to the Church20.

Church Annunciation The Catholic Church annunciation is one of most practices carried out by the contemporary church. Mary Magdalene is referred to as Hail Mary in the Catholic Bible. This translates to a person full of grace. According to Catholicism, Mary is blessed by God to be the mother of Jesus. God uses Mary for redemption of the world. This makes Mary a revered symbol in the contemporary Catholic Church.

Through Holy Mary, God was able to communicate to the world. Christmas celebration among the Roman Catholic Church includes teachings and praises over Mary. Catholics are strengthened to believe in God like Mary who had no doubt in angel’s message. The church’s teaching over the spiritual conception of Christ is of considerable importance. The believers are made to accept that God is not an ordinary person despite the fact that He lived among men21.

Catholics carry prayers in reflection of Mary. The prayer is a long discourse in Mary’s heart. Mary’s prayer is the best show of humility, which is full of inspirations. Consequently, it is a humble adoration among the believers. The Roman Catholic Church carries out magnificat as a liturgy from the early Church. It is also referred to as the prayer of consecration. Mary’s magnificat is in four parts. The first part gratitude is offered to God.

In the second part, God is praised for his holiness, power and mercy. In the third part, the way God deals with the humble and the proud is compared. The fourth part refers to the fulfilment of prophesies. Catholic believers are taught the importance of each and every part of the magnificat in the Bible.

By faith, they are able to adore God in the prayer through praise. Praise is the way the believers appreciate God’s interventions and acknowledging themselves. Catholic believers are able to understand how God works with the proud and the humble. The magnificat guides the believers when they pray as well as in their daily actions22.

Biblical Temptations Catholicism teaches about temptations and prepared the believers accordingly. Temptations are drawn in the Bible from the early lives of Abrahams and later in Christ Himself. In the New Testament, Jesus temptations were the last message to the believers. Temptations are aimed at testing and strengthening hearts among Christians.

From the Bible, Catholics are prepared to meet tough moments while walking in the path of God. From the temptations of Jesus, Christians learn that temptations come from the world, devil and the flesh. Jesus was a revelation to believers on what is encountered while seeking eternal life23.

Just like Moses and Elijah, Jesus was tempted for forty days and nights in the wilderness. The Roman Catholic Church practices Lent from the biblical understanding of preparation for temptations. The first temptation to Jesus came after His thirsty and hungry moments.

The devil’s aim was to make Jesus lose God’s confidence in providence. Catholics learn from this temptation that despite the level of mortification, God’s providence should never be doubted. Additionally, God’s powers should not be utilized by one’s personal gains. These temptations show the devil as a deceiver to Christians24.

Roman Catholic Church teaching over the temptations consists in the fact that the Bible can be used as a weapon against the devil. Jesus was able to counter the devil from biblical quotes.

The second temptation was a test whether God does miracles for no cause. Jesus teaches the Christians not to test their God and rely on biblical guidance in case of temptations. Catholics are taught to pray constantly since God, through his providence, can put the church in mysterious positions. Some of the tests might be too hard to cope with, but prayers always win God’s will.25

The virtue of adoration is tested in the last temptation where Jesus is asked by the devil to worship it in exchange of the earthly possessions. Roman Catholic Church teaches the believers to fully adore their only God and recognize Him as the creator of the heaven and earth.

God should be adored by will and mind among the believers. Contemporary Catholic Church as well insists on service to church and God as a sign of adoration. Jesus sets the best example by stating that there is only one God. This acts as the best guidance to Christians during their temptations26.

Unlike the early Church, contemporary Roman Catholic Church offers believers opportunity to make their own choices in matters relating to their faith. The believers are at free will to make their own biblical understanding and interpretation, despite, the lessons the Church teaches.

As a result, issues such as marriages have become contentious in the contemporary Church. The influence of growing technology offers some confusion in biblical interpretation since so many varied materials reach the believers. Nevertheless, the Bible has remained the main fighting tool in developing Catholicism across the world27.

Conclusion Despite many traditional beliefs in contemporary Catholic Church, the church holds several biblical truths. Most of the contemporary church practices are traditions carried down from the Old Testaments as well as faith initiated from Jesus ministries. The Church’s development is founded on its strong inclination to the Bible through its interpretation, teaching and usage.

Roman Catholic Church acknowledges the inspired and mystical nature of the Bible as God’s communication to man. As a result, following biblical teaching becomes an essential in acceptance of God. Churches mould their believers to fit the eyes of God through doctrines adopted in both Old and New Testaments.

These include the teachings of the commandments as brought from Mosaic laws to Christ times. Roman Catholic Church rebukes poor practices in the church as directed in the Bible to enable Catholic followers to follow the clear path. Believers are guided from the lessons of the early prophets, Holy Mary and Christ Himself as written in the scripture.

Bibliography Coxon, H. B. Roman Catholicism: An Explanation of Catholic Belief Taken from Official Sources. South Carolina: BiblioBazaar, 2010.

Fergus, Kerr. Twentieth-Century Catholic Theologians. New York: Wiley, 2007.

Francis, Schüssler and John Galvin.Theology and the Sciences. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.

Geisler, Norman and Ralph MacKenzie.Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: Agreements and Differences. Michigan: Baker Academic,1995.

Gerard, Mannion. Church and Religious ‘Other’ Volume 4 of Ecclesiological Investigations. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2008.

Gillis, Chester. Catholic Faith in America. New York. Infobase Publishing, 2002.

Kelly, Kapic and Bruce McCormack. Mapping Modern Theology: A Thematic and Historical Introduction. Michigan: Baker Books, 2012.

King James Version Bible

Michael, Horton. The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way: Roman Catholic Perspectives. London: Zondervan, 2010.

Noll, Mark and Carolyn Nystrom. Is the Reformation Over?: An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Michigan: Baker Academic, 2005.

Noll, Mark and Carolyn Nystrom. Is the Reformation Over?: An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Michigan: Baker Academic, 2008.

Scott, Hahn. Covenant and Communion: The Biblical Theology of Pope Benedict XVI. Michigan: Brazos Press, 2009.

Surhone, Lambert M., Mariam T. Tennoe, and Susan F. Henssonow. Roman Catholic Diocese of Ogdensburg. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller AG


Participation in Stakeholder-Based Evaluation: A Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents The introduction

Program evaluation

The conclusion


The introduction To improve conditions in local communities certain programs were created. The most well-known types of programs include surveillance systems, training programs, direct service interventions, social marketing campaigns, administrative systems, etc. The stated purpose of the case study is to clarify what types of evaluation seem to be more appropriate for a common understanding of program evaluation.

Program evaluation Health and development program represents the most effective type of evaluation, as it provides the stakeholders with an opportunity to clarify program plans, improve program effectiveness and communication among partners.

One is to keep in mind that while choosing the type of evaluation, it is necessary to determine what should be evaluated and what evaluation criteria must be used. To make a sound evaluation, it is important to engage stakeholders, gather credible evidence, describe the program, focus the evaluation design and justify conclusions.

The most common purposes of the evaluation are to gain insight, to determine the effects of the program and to affect the participants (Berkowitz


Learning Process and Incorporating Technology Research Paper essay help site:edu

Ancient Greek philosophers like Aristotle (322BC); Plato (347BC) as well as Socrates (399BC) contributed the basis for theorizing the learning process (Hammond et al. 2001, p.2). Descartes (1596-1650) reintroduced the Platonic concept of innate knowledge (Hammond et al. 2001, p.3).

Descartes scholarly works provided leverage for the behavioral psychologists seeking to understand the genesis of behavior as well as laid the bases for furtherance by the cognitive scientists who had an interest in understanding the thinking process (Hammond et al. 2001, p.4). Along these lines Locke (1632-1704) worked on child’s thinking maturity process as influenced by individual experiences. Rousseau (1712-1778) was among the first philosopher to argue that education should be tailored to suit the child (Hammond et al. 2001, p.4).

Kant (1724-1804) enhanced further the works of Plato on the rationalist theory by arguing that prior knowledge exists before the current experience. Kant was among the initial philosophers to recognize the processes of the mind and that the mind was integral of the thinking process and has the capacity to add value to the development of thoughts (Hammond et al. 2001, p.5).

Modern psychologists have relied on the works by the likes of Descartes, Kant and Charles Darwin to study how people learn and discover better approaches for use in teaching (Hammond et al. 2001, p.5).

Piaget (1896-1980) is credited with recognizing that learning is a developmental cognitive process where the learners construct knowledge instead of receiving from the teachers (Hammond et al. 2001, p.6). A Russian scholar Vygotsky (1896-1934) further developed Piaget works by giving it a cultural dimension (Hammond et al. 2001, p.7).

Twitter is an internet based multimedia technology tool that allows interactive engagement by its users. This technology tool is a social networking site with audio and visual capabilities (Hussain et al., 2012, p.189). Twitter allows learners and teachers to create and propagate their own virtual communities where they can interact freely (Richardson and Swan, 2003, p.69). This virtual environment created forms the bases for the learning experience (Kreijns et al. 2003, p.336).

Paradigm shifts in learning experience brought by the social and multimedia tools:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From: Traditional teaching and Media

To: Collaborative and Virtual learning (Social networking)

Modified: Dawley ( 2009, p.122)

In order to integrate Twitter’s multimedia perspective into the cognitive learning, assumptions will be made on mind processing. These assumptions should be in-line with the cognitive learning theories by psychologists like Locke, Kant, Piaget and Vygotsky. The minds information processing system interfaces are the audio and visual channels, that is for sound and pictures.

The dual channel has bases on the works of Paivolo’s (1986) on the dual coding theory and Baddeley’s (1998) theory of working memory (Mayer and Moreno, 2003, p.44). Twitter pages have images and wording that can provoke mind processing. The second assumption that each channel has limits during the human information processing (Cobb, 1997, p.21). This is at the center of the Cognitive Load theory fronted by Chandler and Sweller (1991).

The third assumption is based on generative-learning theory and selecting-organizing-integrating theory of active learning fronted by Wittrock (1989) and Mayer (1999), respectively (Mayer and Moreno, 2003, p.44). The integration of Twitter into learning has the influence as illustrated below.

Modified: Mayer and Moreno (2003, p.44)

We will write a custom Research Paper on Learning Process and Incorporating Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effect of behaviorist learning theory on education has led to advancement in structure and the sequence of curricula as well as the use of instructional programs and workbooks (Hammond et al. 2001, p.6). The advancement has made it easy for learners to gain certain skills, particularly those offered through rote through reinforcement and practice. Skinner (1904 –1990) is credited for the modern behaviorism (Hammond et al. 2001, p.7).

The elementary principle that needs to be observed in using multimedia is to ensure that it is constructive in generating the desired stimulus. This means prior to introducing Twitter to the learning environment the stimulus should have already been predicted and deemed reliable. Twitter supports back channeling that is an active real-time online conversation behind or in conjunction with live spoken remarks or presentation. Take for instance the learning session in the figure below.

Source: Western University (2011)

Two assumptions can be made learners are active and respond to environmental stimuli as well as learning is a behavioral change due to experience and depends on the association developed by the moment the behavior occurs and the behavior itself.

Twitter allows active learning participation and students can add their perspective through commenting. Students and teachers can add elaborations and links in order to enhance learning towards the desired goal. Moreover, even those who are not physically present can participate. Twitter provokes interest and keeps learners alert.

Based on the works of Albert Bandura on social learning theory that learning can be experienced through observing another person’s actual behavior (live model), verbal exchange as well as use of symbolism where real or fictional characters demonstrate the behavior (Grusec, 1992, p.778).

Live models can be likened to the Twitter page followers as illustrated in the figure below.

Source: Western University (2011)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Learning Process and Incorporating Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Verbal exchange can be likened to the Twitter interactive exchange as illustrated in the figure below.

@larryzapeyeRe: those picsof TO and Zenyattathat have been tweeted… what are the red blotches/spots on her front wraps? 6:16 PM Oct 17th, 2010 via Twitter for iPhone in reply to larryzapeye

Source: Western University (2011)

Use of symbolism can be likened to the Twitter page for followers as illustrated in the figure below.

Source: Western University (2011)

References Cobb, T. (1997). Cognitive Efficiency: Toward a Revised Theory of Media. ETR


The Impact of the Megatrends in Business Essay best essay help: best essay help

The modern business world develops according to the progress of the megatrends in such spheres as Information Technologies (IT), Human Resources (HR), and Management. These trends influence many aspects of the business and the company’s development also including the range of duties and responsibilities of the Purchasing and Supply Management professionals (P/SM).

Some years ago, the main accents in the work of P/SM professionals were made on the effective interactions with suppliers and customers with basing on the successful problem-solving and decision-making process. Today, the duties and responsibilities of P/SM professionals are affected by such tendencies as globalization, e-commerce, professional development, cross-functional teaming and project management.

Thus, to follow these tendencies, P/SM professionals are expected to orient in their responsibilities to global purchasing, and as a result, widening the relations with customers and suppliers. Moreover, the development of e-commerce makes P/SM professionals focus on the opportunities provided by the Internet.

Today, the online market is discussed as more economically advantageous in comparison with the traditional market because of saving the costs on advertising, retailing, and delivery (Wisner, 2011). Furthermore, modern P/SM professionals also actively use the possibility of auctioning online.

Such megatrends in HR and management as the necessity of the intensive professional development, the concentration on cross-functional teaming and project management result in the increase of the improvement of P/SM professionals’ skills, in the growth of the competitiveness within the industry, in the orientation to the balance between the role of the individual and team in the decision-making process toward achieving the definite goal.

Nowadays, there are few aspects which can limit the deepening and expansion of the relations between customers and producers, and the P/SM professional’s duty is to use all the opportunities effectively and reduce all the challenges.

It is also possible to speak about the impact of these trends on the organizational and operational aspects of the Purchasing and Supply Management Department.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, the main focus is on the effective supplier selection and strategic relationships with suppliers, on the development of the strategic perspective and the vision of a wide picture of the situation with references to the results of the project management and concentrating on the global diversity and integration. The major aspects of the process are flexibility in overcoming the industry’s challenges and risks with the help of effective planning and making decisions (Wisner, 2011).

In this situation, to face all the business, IT, HR, and management challenges of the 21st century, it is necessary for P/SM professionals to develop their specific skills which are based on the improvement of the communication and presentation skills in the work with suppliers and customers, of the ethical knowledge, of flexibility and a quick reaction to the situation, and of the problem-solving skills.

The development of these skills is significant in the context of the manager’s purpose to work out and follow the effective strategy in relation to reducing the costs, increasing quality and service (Wisner, 2011).

From this point, P/SM professionals should be able to provide the broad vision of the situation in the industry with references to the developed e-commerce and globalization trends. Moreover, the abilities to review, analyze, and evaluate the tendencies of the development with choosing the best strategies to follow are as important as the skills to manage the work of the employees, to organize the relationships with customers and suppliers effectively.

Reference Wisner, J. D. (2011). Principles of supply chain management: A balanced approach. USA: Cengage Learning.


Foreign and Security Policy of US and Middle East Coursework writing essay help

Introduction This treatise aims at discussing at length on state and its effects on foreign and security policy, paradox of US being the most economically and military powerful nation, effects of globalization and economic interdependence to stability and security and finally the effects of water shortage in the Middle East.

Discussion The paper will give limelight to the issue of national security by following various relevant aspects which will be discussed at length.

The nation state as a primary unit of action

Whether state remains the primary unit of action in world affairs will indeed matter as far as issues related to U.S foreign and security policy is concerned1. The state remains the primary political unit in all areas of political life2. It is obvious that the state will continue being powerful but that does not mean that the conflicts of global politics and foreign policies will end.

The nation cannot at all profess to remaining pertinent in a world that is full of insecurity. As it continuously remains to be the main geo political influence in the global affairs, there will always be challenges that do result from ethnic, tribal, socioeconomic and religious issues3.

The state still remains as the main form of political organization locus of authority as well as point of reference as far as world affairs are concerned. With that, It is clear that as an influential component, it is quite important as far as foreign and security policy is concerned as it is the main authority over the foreign affairs and the national security4.

The future of nation as a primary unit of action as far as world affairs is concerned can entirely be said to be insecure. This is because of the heightened global interconnection. Also, the whole idea of globalization has intensified the connection internationally which leads to a nation that is interconnected to various institutions of politics, economics and society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The challenges that have been posed to the nation by the aspect of globalization are numerous. First, there is reduction of the aptitude of the nation to influence the economy as all the economic transactions are usually done in the global stage.

Moreover, it heightens the transnational bodies which could be economic or political. Also, it allows emergence of sub national and super power centers and finally it increases non governmental organizations as well as world migrations importance.

The insecurity of the states has adverse effect on US security and foreign policies. Through introduction of globalization systems the US policies are undermined and hence a negative impact on its main role as far as security issues is concerned. Moreover, the United States will end up losing its control as far as international economy is concerned which will ultimately lead to other countries undermining the policies. The decline will widen the security scope as well as stability hence affecting the US security policies.

Finally, the state will not be in a position to control the security requirements for instance controlling the technological assets as well as information which ultimately threatens the security policies as well as the US foreign policy.

Paradox of US being the most military and economically powerful nation There has been a paradox of the US being the most economically and military powerful nation globally. The American citizens have always taken pride due to the fact that other nations do recognize it as the most influential nation as far as economic and military issues are concerned.

However, the main question still remains why despite its predominance, it has always been engulfed with security issues. It is also the aim of this paper to discuss on the reason why America is considered to be the most powerful nation and how it can handle the alleged paradox and maintain its power.

The reason behind America being the most powerful nation as far as military and economic aspects are concerned is for instance in their use of soft and hard power. For example, soft power played a major role in unifying Europe despite the fact that most military conquests in the region had failed earlier. Another reason why America has been a powerful economically is due to the fact that it has been given the mandate to print gold, hence making it quite influential as compared to other nations.

We will write a custom Coursework on Foreign and Security Policy of US and Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In “the US foreign policy: the paradox of world power”5,Hook explains on the sources as well as the conditions of American power giving the readers a prescription on how they can maintain as well as extend the country’s power and might. The author asserts that so as to handle this paradox, the nation must be able to combat criminal activities such as sale of illicit drugs and deal effectively with international terrorism.

They should endeavor to maintain and enhance democratic values as well as political stability. The U.S in handling this power paradox should shape the foreign policy so as to combat issues of international security such as terrorism. Additionally, The US should engage other powers in policymaking so as to heighten positive outcomes. It should do away with unilateralism and engage coalitions so as to come up with solutions to their main threats.

America ought to use its power in enhancing long term interests and set rational goals and priorities which will not in any way affect its resources’6.

In addition to that, U.S should enhance their power as it is important for the country’s security and foreign policy. Hook avows that the U.S can handle their power paradox by effectively using and maintaining their soft power attributes as far as foreign policy is concerned so as to protect the people, promote values and enhance superiority7.

Also they should eliminate parochialism, unilateralism and arrogance so as to handle the power paradox. This is because, such factors can undercut on the effectualness of the American power especially the influence as well as the attractiveness of its leadership and soft power8. It is hence clear that America is the most powerful nation and if the US can handle the paradox effectively, it will continue being a powerful nation economically as well as military.

Globalization and economic inter dependence in relation to security and stability Economic interdependence and globalization is closely related to international stability and security. The immense sense of security issues that terrorism has inspired unto the American government and economy which are the main forces behind globalization, has led to reassertion of sovereignty by the America as well as other nations.

The fear that liberal standards which are as a result of globalization are facilitating terrorism has been causing the US to control the transborder transactions. It is hence clear that globalization and economic interdependence facilitates security and stability.

The effects of economic interdependence and globalization are wide ranging. The political, economic as well as security environment is vastly shaped by interdependence and globalization. The affirmative effects of globalization are obvious as it leads to rapid rising of standards of living. However, globalization has exhibited negative effects in matters of national security.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign and Security Policy of US and Middle East by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Globalization has profound effects on economy as well as security, though this does not mean that globalization on its own is capable of creating such immense changes in the areas of security in US.

It is clear that security and foreign policies has a major role to play in the area of national security. Globalization is one aspect that tends to influence local and foreign policies such as policies that govern the borders. Globalization influences foreign policies that are related to communication technology, expansion of the global borders and factories, emergence of markets among other policies9.

The relationship between security and economics is quite a complex one depending on the features which tend to be powerful in the eyes of the decision makers. Often, concerns of sovereignty and nationalism can be so powerful that a country like the US can end up entering into an inter-state conflict despite the economic interdependence hence leading to economic loss.

Heightened interdependence in itself might not prevent conflict and insecurity. Nevertheless, while the likely threats can end up leading to conflicts with an increase of arms expenses, it is clear that the greater the country’s dependence on another, then the heightened cost of insecurity and conflict10.

If two countries are interdependent economically, then it is most likely that there will be conflict. Economic interdependence in US enhances security. It can hence be argued that globalization and economic interdependence in US contributes a lot to economic growth as well as economic dynamism in the entire region. As the well being of the American citizens heightens, the nation becomes increasingly stable hence enhances nation’s security.

Progressing globalization and economic interdependence has caused significant effects on the national security. The 21st century has brought with it a world in which the U.S economy as well as those of other nations has become more interdependent. Hence, the U.S National interests will not just expand but will also vary in its intensity.

Though globalization to a large extent enhances security, we cannot forget that it also leads to insecurity with the increasing demand of resources across the globe. The technology of globalization for instance links the world together with no any respect to cultures or borders. It is hence clear that as globalizations envelops more nations, it is quite inevitable that there will be both losers as well as winners as market competition heightens.

In such environment, there will be vast potential for the policies and interests of various policies. If this is indeed true, the scale of conflict that results from irreconcilable policies and interests on a global level might lead to war. Therefore, the cumulative effects of globalization and economic interdependence for most parts will be on the outcomes of the conflicting foreign policies among the actors involved.

This means that the U.S policy on future decisions to use military in order to protect the national interest will be affected. It is clear that globalization and interdependence has exposed us to new challenges changing the way in which the old challenges do touch our values as well as interests at the same time enhancing the capacity to respond.

Shortage of water in the Middle East and conflicts Recently, various pressures such as water shortages and demand, population increase among others are increasing the need for water in most poor countries. One of the regions that have been most affected is the Middle East where lack of water has affected the region’s politics11.

This is a region where water related disputes go hand in hand with other known tensions such as ideological, political and religious conflicts. Even in those places that have immense water resources for example Tigris, Nile and Euphrates have been under pressure. Competition for fresh water is not new in Middle East, as people have been fighting over water issues for many years.

This trend hence plays down religion and ideology as the only source of conflicts and tensions pointing to the fact that other survival motivations such as competition for water can lead to conflict.

Water disputes have become a major issue in the Middle East to an extent the government has called for peace talks. Among some of the issues that ought to be solved in order to curb this problem once and for all is the allocation as well as control of water rights to rivers such as Jordan.

In the past, conflicts have emanated between regions such as Jordan and Syria as a result of ineffective operation and constructions of dams in River Yarmuk12. Other examples of disputes have emanated from the joint management of Euphrates River between Syria, Turkey and Iraq and ways to protect water quality for those who are dependent on such resources.

Conflicts among diverse nations are usually caused by various factors including ideological disputes, religious differences, economic competition, and arguments over borders among others. Though it is quite difficult to separate the various entangled causes of competition and conflict over natural resources as well as disputes, it is clear that environmental factors are also playing a major role in the international relations.

Such conflicts take various forms such as use of resources or even environment as major instruments of war or even motivations and goals as far as military conquest is concerned. Research shows clearly that water has offered a justification for engaging into war as it has been a major object of political and economic strength, military conquest as well as a tool of conflict. Shortages of water are understood that it constrains the nation’s political as well as economic options.

Water just like other known and common factors can cause rivalry due to its scarcity, extent of supply from one state or region to another, basin states’ relative powers as well as ease of access to other alternative freshwater sources among others. As the water delivery systems as well as the water supplies continue to be increasingly valuable in those regions that have scarce water, so does conflicts heighten.

Conclusion It is clear that security issues are a major concern among Nations. This paper has at length discussed the nation state and its effects on U.S foreign and security policies, the paradox of U.S being the most economically and military powerful nation, effects of globalization and economic interdependence on security and stability as well as other factors that lead to insecurity and conflicts such as water scarcity in the Middle East.

Bibliography Hook, Steven. 2010.U.S foreign policy: the paradox of world power. New York: CQ press

Morgan, Patrick. 2006. International security, problems and solutions. New York: CQpress

Nye, Joseph. 2002. The paradox of American power: why the word’s only superpower can’t go it alone. CA: Oxford university press

Rosenau, James. 1961. International politics and foreign policy: a reader in research and theory. New York: Free press of Glencoe

Scheumann, Waltina. 1998. Water in the middle East potential for conflicts and prospects for cooperation. New York: Springer

Zwass, Adam. 2002. Globalization of unequal national economies: players and controversies. New York: Illustrated

Footnotes 1 (Morgan 2006, 26)

2 Ibid, 1

3 (Rosenau 1961, 31-89)

4 Ibid, 1

5 (Hook 2010, 338)

6 (Nye 2002, 116-127)

7 Ibid, 5

8 Ibid, 5

9 Ibid, 5

10 (Zwass 2002, 56-119)

11 (Scheumann 1998, 22-76)

12 Ibid, 11


Disparities in health outcomes in homeless people Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors leading to health disparities among the homeless

Policy actions that will reduce disparities in health


Introduction Throughout history, homelessness has been an aggravating factor of health disparities in the world (Smedley, Syme, 2000). Recent studies show considerable difference health outcomes between homeless populations and people with homes (Davis, Cook


Solipsism and Solitude Essay essay help free: essay help free

Solipsism and solitude are two ideas that are closely related. The ideas are a part of an extensive topic brought up by early western philosophers, and is still widely studied by today’s philosophers. Solipsism is a complex philosophy that explores the individuality of the mind. It is the belief that the mind exists while nothing else is certain.

In this case, the mind of a person must exist since it is able to perceive. However, whatever the mind perceives could be pure deception or a corrupted representation of the reality. This is the basic concept of solipsism. Philosophers have complicated the concept of solipsism such that it has gained meaning that makes it seem to represent the most radical ideas about existence. The philosophy of solipsism depicts a universe, which exist as a creation of the mind.

This means that the surrounding environment may not be distortion of the real existence, but may be the mind itself. Moreover, the concept, which embraces metaphysical thinking, dictates that the environment around the perceiver represents the mind. Thus, an individual’s universe is made up of his or her mind alone. Today’s criticism of solipsism is that the concept advocates for ignorance of the importance of other people’s opinions. It is regarded as a kind of escapism.

On the other hand, solitude is a state of separation from other living beings. In this case, living beings are those, which can be perceived by the human eye. Solitude can be viewed as the moment which one’s mind is not distracted by the surrounding environment. This concept is separate and distinct from the idea of loneliness. Whereas solitude could be utilized for constructive thinking, loneliness can only serve to develop a depressing feeling.

However, there is a close relationship between the two concepts. While solipsism focuses on the power of the mind, solitude defines the state of the surrounding, which the mind is allowed to perceive and discern. It is during moments of solitude, that an individual can form constructive thoughts. Rene Descartes first explored the two concepts deeply, and later several other thinkers, including David Thoreau and Kurt Hoelting analyzed the concepts keenly.

In the book, “Walden”, David Thoreau focuses keenly on the subject of solitude. He says that he is more comfortable when he is alone than when he has company. He presents a paradox when he says that he has never found another companion as good as being alone. This means that his best companion is solitude. He defines the degree of solitude as the distance between an individual and his human companions.

He then continues to give an example of a student in a university. A student who is hard working in his or her studies often goes into isolation. This is because the isolation is a good environment for learning. Thoreau relates the concept of solitude to solipsism. Although he does not put an emphasis on metaphysics, he asserts that solitude results to a clearer thinking (Thoreau 127).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This kind of thinking is sometimes not good for the psychological wellbeing of an individual. Constant thoughts are likely to result in uncomfortable feeling. He describes the experience as the tormenting of an individual by thoughts. In turn, the thoughts that engulf the mind and separate it from the physical world in times of solitude fit the description of solipsism.

Thoreau describes an incident where a person is in distress in the woods. The man is hungry and cannot move about due to his physical weakness. While the person lies down, many thoughts occupy his mind such that he is not alone. This incident seeks to separate the physical existence from the mind. Consequently, such situation where the mind is separated from the body is a case of solipsism. Thoreau attests to a personal occasional situation when he is alone in the morning (Thoreau 120).

At this time, no one is talking to him and no one calls. He finds that he is not alone despite the fact that no one is talking. Solitude is a perfect companion at this time. Thoreau seeks to assert that the mind is most constructive during time of solitude. At this time, the mind is not forced to think. It wanders freely and forms constructive and positive thoughts.

According to Thoreau, it is during the time of solitude that one is able to observe the aspects of nature. During this time, a person observes the usual daily surroundings such as the sun, the wind and the vegetation. He compares these to the psychology of man, which keeps on changing depending on the current experiences.

He acknowledges their eternal happiness. These natural occurrences such as the daylight never lose their glamour. They seem to be satisfied with their condition at all times. Such observations are a result of solipsism (Thoreau 105). There is positivity of the thoughts, and the constructiveness in the thought is an aspect of solipsism. These thoughts are conjured up by the mind, and are not elicited by the experiences of the individual.

In the book, “Meditations on the First Philosophy”, René Descartes says that all along in his youth he has lived in deception of what he sees. He says that he must dismantle his present perceptions and build new philosophy of existence. This means that Descartes does not believe in what he sees in his environment. In his exploration of the concept of solipsism, Descartes says that senses deceive a person, but may not always present falsehood.

According to him, there is some truth in the perceptions of the mind. He analyses the usual perception of the human and concludes that according to the usual perception, there is no ground for denying the existence of everything else apart from the brain (Descartes


FedEx Essay college admission essay help

Introduction All corporations aim at success. Some achieve it. Others fail. For those that achieve it, they may experience the challenge of sustainability and ultimately fade. Still, there are organisations that have been able to achieve success and maintain it over decades. Such organisations have achieved and sustained superior performance that meet or surpass both their internal and external relations’ expectations.

This essay shall analyse how FedEx has created and maintained superior performance using five forces, value creation, and culture school at a micro-level focusing on Human Resources (HR) practices.

FedEx aim has been able to create superior financial returns for its shareholders using its value-added services, business strategy, HR practices, supply chain management, and focused operation systems (FedEx, 2011). FedEx strive to meet all the needs of its diverse customers both in the national and international markets.

In order to achieve and sustain superior performance, the company strives to establish mutually beneficial relationships with its shareholders, employees, business partners, and suppliers (Business Services Industry, 2002). The company observes safety of its employees and aims at conducting business to the highest professional levels. Concentration on human resources has made policies and functions of HR in FedEx important part of creating and sustaining superior performance.

The company FedEx is a logistic company serving global markets. Fredrick Smith founded the company out of the need to serve a service-oriented economy of the US in the year 1973 that needed quick and reliable delivery services (San Jose Consulting Group, 2003).

The company had suffered some losses during its entry into the international market. This was due to expensive expansion strategies. In addition, the company also used the US strategy in an international market like China. There were also cases of cultural differences, acquisition, organisational adjustments, structural policies, and adaptation of human resource issues so as to reflect and enhance FedEx culture.

The company did not experience success in its attempts to conquer the Chinese market due policies that did not favour foreign operations. The company had challenges in embracing the regional culture. On the other hand, FedEx competitors such as UPS and DHL understood Chinese market and grew their strategies gradually.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More FedEx National Operation The logistic industry complements operation of other organisations and individuals. FedEx has competition too from other local firms that offer similar services. However, operation at the national level affects services that FedEx Ground offers. The main competitor in this area is UPS. The global strategy mainly relies on FedEx Express that also faces threats from other international logistic companies. Thus, FedEx Express should complement operation of FedEx Ground (San Jose Consulting Group, 2003).

FedEx relies on several factors of production in order to realise superior performance. These are mainly managerial strategies, the company resources, and logistic technical know-how. The company has been able to develop reliable logistic systems that ensure successful operation of its complex systems. At the same time, the company has been able to exploit its resources and physical infrastructure such as ports and roads in order to deliver superior performance.

The domestic demands and competition in the US make FedEx constantly keep pace with such needs through upgrading its service. Customers need fast and cost-effective delivery; thus, logistic firms must see the need of upgrading their services to satisfy customers’ demands. As many companies come up to offer such services at reduced costs, FedEx must improve its customers’ responsiveness and introduce innovative products and use of technology so as to avert challenges that may result from consumers’ activities and competition.

Intensity of competition in the logistic industry is responsible for driving growth and sustainable performance. Thus, FedEx and its main competitors must continuously strive to enhance qualities of their products and services through innovation and technology. At the same time, such companies may also focus on lowering costs. However, cost reduction may affect business performance of logistic companies due to high costs of maintaining resources. Therefore, the only way is to improve services, create superior performance and sustain it.

Analysis of the company’s superior performance Competitive analysis

Five forces

Threats of new entrants

Logistic business relies on economies of scale. Thus, most firms aim at expanding their local operations and acquire small firms. Success and superior performance in the freight industry requires extensive networks and distribution centres (Porter, 1998). This implies that FedEx must possess highly reliable delivery facilities like vans, planes, trucks, and other means of delivering large cargo like trains and ships.

FedEx has created superior performance in overnight delivery business. On the other hand, its competitor like UPS has conquered the ground delivery business. Rivalry in the field has created conditions that ensure that main players like FedEx, UPS, and DHL diversify their services in order to provide value for customers and create superior performance. Such companies strive to create a one-stop shop for their customers.

FedEx and other players have reduced chances of new entrants. Any new entrant shall not pose serious threats as to FedEx as the company already has established competitive positions in all segments of the transportation business. FedEx has created a strong brand in the last few decades characterised by performance and achievements. Thus, any new entrant must struggle to build a brand name and have a share of the market.

We will write a custom Essay on FedEx specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More FedEx took time to educate its customers about overnight delivery services and benefits of package deliveries. FedEx has established long-term business relationship with international companies such as McDonald’s, and Home Depot among others. FedEx also gets contracts from the government. The US government agencies have established confidence in FedEx to hand highly sensitive and hazardous deliveries. This can present challenges to new entrants who may have challenges establishing such high level of confidence.

FedEx also uses its brand name to enhance both domestic and regional business. It has take advantages of trade agreements and favourable trade regulations so as to position itself as regional solution for packages delivery. This means any new entrant will face strong opposition from established giants. For instance, when DHL acquired Airborne in order to challenge express delivery companies of the US, it met strong oppositions from UPS and FedEx.


Rivalry among competitors tightens as a result of reducing demands of products, increasing numbers of competitors, decline of the industry growth, fixed cost, as well as increasing costs of exiting the industry. FedEx rivals, in the delivery industry, include DHL, UPS, and TNT.

FedEx penetrated the market in the US and ruled the parcel delivery consequently leading in the international market. In 1984, FedEx extended its operations to Asia-Pacific after a successful acquisition of Gelco Express International. Afterwards, FedEx utilised the strategy of taking opportunities of the existing international transportation companies to outstretch its international business as in the case of 1989 when it acquired Flying Tigers.

This came with challenges as FedEx had to integrate local companies and strive to come with excellent international routes. In addition, FedEx had to develop trucking solutions in Europe and embrace changes of the international environment. In the quest of achieving profitable sale, FedEx applied the strategy of subsidizing its international business. As a result, its entry to international business resulted to massive losses in the early 1990s.

DHL thrives in the international transportation business and supply chain management, a fact that makes it the key rival of FedEx. The time when FedEx concentrated on seizing domestic market, DHL took this opportunity to dominate the international market. Therefore, by 1980 it had the largest share of customer internationally. In 1983, DHL penetrated the Chinese market. Consequently, it became the first express transportation company in China.

This prompted it to liaise with airlines and freight companies. It invested on air fleet and by 2003 acquired Airborne Express. The successful investments on different forms of transportation, and penetrating the international market, make rivalry between FedEx and DHL intense.

UPS is another competitor of FedEx in the domestic market in the US. It is fast overtaking FedEx because of its aggressiveness in bracing itself for the challenges in the industry. In 1985, it successfully launched its air service operating between US and six European countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on FedEx by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The peak was in 1990 when the UPS managed deliveries of packages and documents to over 175 countries. TNT is also a possible competitor of FedEx. TNT offers similar services to those of FedEx, but the only hindrance is that the rivalry is not on a global scale as TNT operations are no longer in the US market (Charles and Gareth, 2004).

Irrespective of this rivalry, FedEx has managed to achieve economies of scale before its competitors due to its pioneering strategies as e-transactions, logistics related solutions, and supply chain even though they do not match new developments, inexpensive and powerful technologies that their competitors utilise to match FedEx standards.

Pressure from substitute products

Substitutes penetrate the market with the sole intention of making the customer switch from the product that dominates the market. Major substitute threats for FedEx include the Internet. Internet providers enlighten people on the benefits associated with the use of emails, document digitization and online forms.

Firms also embrace the idea of online digital signatures for the sake of time and money saving and institutions like banks check accounts online. These technological advancements prompt people to substitute their paperwork with digital advancements.

Massive usages of email and facsimile resulted to a drastic reduction of the industry volume. However, the only issue that may favour these companies is security as not all information especially the sensitive type can be sent through email. However, threats reduce due to factors like slow speed, insecurity, and unreliability.

In order to overcome challenges of substitutes, FedEx has embraced latest technology, for instance utilising the Internet in provisions of some services. FedEx has aggressively improved aircraft and shipping facilities to international standards, a factor that makes it impossible for any threatening substitute to match FedEx’s standards (MacKerron, Cowe and Milliken, 2009).

Bargaining power of buyers

Buyers get power from their high levels of concentration, or when they are few or in cases where product differentiation among organisations is not clear (Gonrig, 2008). The three firms are in stiff competition in the transportation industry for provisions of excellent delivery services that call for attention from prominent companies, especially after business expansion into international markets. In addition, the e-commerce has thrived.

Therefore, these logistic firms must show their potential in the delivery of products around the globe. At this stage, FedEx comes in handy in solving customers’ issues. FedEx’s competitors provide similar products at almost the same prices. Therefore, it has adopted a strategy by creating value-added services for the sake of differentiating its services from those of the competitors.

Potential customers worldwide have preference for their delivery providers. They do not rely on a single service provider and have the advantage of going for cheap providers. Therefore, FedEx considers this and puts efforts to achieve economic sales via penetrating the global market as well as decreasing the cost of operation so as to offer considerable prices. Therefore, FedEx has embraced medium bargaining power.

Bargaining power of suppliers

When there is an absence of substitutes in the market, or when there is a low concentration of suppliers, suppliers take advantages of increasing the prices of goods and services. In addition, suppliers have the ultimate say in their prices.

FedEx relies heavily on different suppliers, ranging from companies supplying fuel, shipping materials producers, airport, airplane and vehicle manufacturers. Less concentration of the fuel companies in the market and inadequate substitute for fuel give the fuel suppliers advantage of strong bargaining power. In addition, the FedEx’s profitability at times is unpredictable due to fluctuating fuel prices.

However, suppliers of packaging materials such as plastics and boxes, have less bargaining power. This result from the availability of substitute products and shifting cost reflected is negligible to FedEx’s total expenses. In the vehicle industry, FedEx gets the advantage of strong bargaining power as vehicle manufacturers are many and it does not depend on one manufacturer. In the aircraft and train industries, oligopoly gives the suppliers strong bargaining power as there exists limited manufacturers (Porter, 1998).

Value Chain

For FedEx to add value to its services and goods, its activities ought to operate at the optimum level for the company to achieve real competitive benefits. FedEx value chain begins with pickups of packages. The employers collect the packages at designated points such as residences and businesses.

They create value through ensuring package pickups take place anytime and anywhere. These create value through assurance of timely delivery. After package collection, FedEx secures them in a hub. Here, sorting of packages according to their destination takes place. The packages pass through a chain of hand to their final destination. From the hub, the packages head to their destination through trucks or plane.

FedEx ensures that deliveries of packages are at professional levels and in turn wins customers trusts and create great value. For achievements of perceived values, FedEx drivers carry out their duties efficiently. They strive to ensure that packages get to their destinations on time regardless of experienced hitches. This increases positive value for the company (Sand, 2010).

The final activity of delivery is customer service. This service entails after sales support. FedEx role in this is to provide support to their customers in tracing their packages while still in route. Such support enables customers monitor the status of their packages in transit. Such activities of FedEx exhibit extreme value for their customers (Barney, 1997).

Success in achievement of these values emanates from support activities of the company‘s infrastructure e.g. storage buildings, trucks, planes among others. Another support system that adds value to the services is the Internet services that FedEx offers to aid customer track their packages on transit online. Human resource and material management team as well support all the primary activities to function smoothly.

FedEx has managed to conquer the industry because of utilisation of information system and its competitive infrastructure that many competitors lack. FedEx has technological capabilities to track its customers’ packages during transit. The service saves the company time and money. Its competitors offer numbers that customers use to track their packages. This is an engagement that presents a challenge to customers.

FedEx’s fleets of vehicles, aeroplanes and human resources contribute to its massive infrastructures. These infrastructures facilitate success in FedEx delivery of services. They also consider the importance of time in deliveries of packages.

FedEx’s Business Level Strategy The company’s strengths, in terms of technical know-how in logistics, technology, and innovation, put it in a position to pursue differentiation strategy at the business level. Customers and competitors know FedEx for provisions of high levels of services that are almost impossible to imitate and match.

Industry analysts know FedEx as an innovative company with a strong orientation towards high levels of service provisions. Consequently, such high levels of services translate to high charges. FedEx prices are usually higher than most of its competitors. Most customers consider such charges premium and believe that they will get the same value of services worth their payments. The company has been able to differentiate its standard of quality services from its competitors (Grant, 2005).

The company aims at establishing strong customers’ base through differentiation and provisions of superior services than its competitors. We must recognise that all logistic firms have the capacity to deliver packages. However, FedEx has differentiated itself as customer-friendly. Thus, the company has extensive support system, home deliveries, and money back guarantee approaches. These are what distinguish FedEx from its rivals.

Differentiation in the transport industry is not simple. Customers of today tend to be cost sensitive and would like to get value for less pay. Different in costs means customers may not have brand loyalty. Most customers do not know technical know-how of FedEx or how their technology is superior for managing the chain.

A typical customer will only consider costs and safe deliver of his or her packages. This implies that typical consumers may not opt for quality services, but rather consider affordability of services. Therefore, FedEx must find ways of differentiating itself from its main rivals and offer superior services. This enhances superior performance of the company. Sustaining superior performance will enable many customers pay for premium services of FedEx.

FedEx business level strategy for superior performance also targets customers’ needs. FedEx has understood the needs of its customers. Consequently, the company has established different branches of business, namely FedEx Ground, FedEx Trade Networks, FedEx Express, FedEx Custom Critical, FedEx Supply Chain Services, and FedEx Freight.

The company has created such segments in order to target certain customers depending on their diverse needs. This differentiation strategy enables FedEx to cater for all the needs of most customers. Targeting different customers with different services enables FedEx to offer superior services and create superior performance.

FedEx has segmented its market according to its customers’ needs. Segmentation strategy aims at creating superior services, products, and advanced provisions of services to customers. FedEx different segments operate independently but represent the company in terms of its values and efforts of creating superior services. Segmentation in different units provides each unit with a chance to concentrate on its own target market and offer superior services. This makes FedEx a specialised company.

FedEx Express is the busiest as it offers speedy delivery of packages based on the money back guarantee strategy. This enables customers to have confidence in the company. On the other hand, FedEx Ground mainly concentrates on small packages delivered to small business.

This segment derives its strength from satisfying the needs of customers who need quick deliver within a short distance. It almost works like FedEx Home Delivery services. FedEx Freight covers mainly heavy packages of over 150 pounds. The company restricts such services to regional deliveries within the US continent. This segment also delivers packages that have flexible delivery schedules. FedEx Custom caters for a small market segment due to the nature of packages it handles.

These are mainly products and packages that require special care and attention during transportation. FedEx has specially equipped transportation resources to cater for such customers. FedEx Trade Networks offers services to international destinations. The company last segment is FedEx Supply Chain services that track movement of parcel so as to enhance safe delivery and ensure customers satisfaction.

We can posit that FedEx uses the needs of its customers to segment its markets, and in turn, it offers superior services and products. FedEx Express and FedEx Ground are responsible for most operation of the company and its profits.

The two segments generate nearly $ 14 billion annually in terms of revenues. It is FedEx Express that has been responsible for creating superior services and customers’ satisfaction. Customers view superior level of performance in terms of express delivery and money back guarantee. This means that FedEx Express must deliver such packages.

FedEx has also adopted differentiation in quality in order to create a superior level of performance for its stakeholders. The company has invested enormous amounts of resources in order to keep its promise to its customers. This has enhanced its international operation among its rivals. The company has extensive organisation of units using its advanced logistic technology and know-how. This ensures that there is a smooth flow and delivery of packages.

This enables the company to deliver high quality services that satisfy its customers. FedEx has been able to create such a level of superior performance based on its customers’ responsiveness and innovation in terms of services and products.

The company has package tracking systems, efficient support functions, special package handling systems, hub coordination, and logistic supports. Provisions of these services have enabled FedEx offer superior services relative to those of their competitors and in turn achieve a high level of superior performance.

FedEx has competence in the transportation industry. Competence enables the company to offer competitive products and services to challenge those of its main rivals. The company derives its competence from its human resources and cutting edge technology. In addition, FedEx has facilities like fleets of aircraft that guarantee safe and timely delivery of cargos. The company’s commitment to customers is outstanding.

FedEx aims at creating superior customer services using its innovation and technology. The company has been collaborating with the local universities so as to improve its technological capabilities. FedEx competence and technological position are the driving force behind claims of international market shares.

Technological superiority for superior performance Most customers know that FedEx is a leader in using technology in logistic business. In fact, FedEx was the first company to use technology in the logistic market (Powership system). Poweship was not effective. It could only store addresses and airways bills, and track packages.

The system relied on telephone lines for connectivity. However, this changed with the new era of technology. The company adopted many automated solutions to for its shipping business. The company combined such technology with its intranet and business solutions (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2008).

FedEx has been able to adapt its systems to serve the global market. The company has created superior performance through relying on the power of online opportunities (Gerstein and Reisman, 1982). In order to serve the international market well, the company website has multiple languages option to choose. FedEx customers can register online, estimate their shipping costs, prepare airways bills, and avail the necessary document needed. This system has capabilities of handling the entire supply chain of FedEx (Porter, 1998).

The company uses the latest technology so as to enhance sorting and labelling of packages, label readers, and automated conveyor belt systems. Adoption of technology has enabled FedEx improve efficiency, lessen human errors, and enhance sorting of packages. Consequently, the company has been able to provide superior services and maintain superior performance in the industry (Charnovich, 2009).

School Strategy FedEx Culture and HR Practices

We look at culture and HR practices of FedEx at the micro level. This gives an insight into how the company has created superior performance using its human resources and cultivated organisational culture to support its operation (Bettinger, 1989).

FedEx strives to create a high performance culture so as to offer superior customer services and values. The company has created a workplace condition based on loyalty of its employees. The company believes in value and diversity of its workforce. This enables employees to contribute and grow their careers.

This is a significant step towards employees’ inclusion into organisational culture of FedEx (Olson, 2011). Consequently, FedEx workforce derives a sense of pride working for the organisation. In turn, they deliver superior services to their customers.

HR Practices

FedEx is a service company that depends on its human resources for delivering values to its customers. The company hires the right people, trains and leads them with required skills for the job. These practices aim at creating a workforce that is capable of responding to customers’ needs. FedEx believes that only a well trained workforce can deliver superior performance to customers. The company hopes for repeat businesses from its satisfied customers (MacMillan, 2012).

FedEx has reward programmes for its employees. The company recognise unique contribution of its employees and reward them accordingly. It has a reward system known as Bravo Zulu Voucher Program. In fact, nearly 50 percent of the company’s spending caters for workforce pay and benefits. FedEx has created a culture system that recognises individuals’ efforts, generation of fresh ideas, enhanced excellence performance, and teamwork. The reward and compensation system at FedEx recognises such factors (FedEx, 2012).

FedEx also aims at creating a favourable environment for its employees’ individual growth and progress. The company has developed a human resource system (PRISM) that caters for all applicants and recruits. Thus, maintaining personal data of every staff is a central point for superior performance on FedEx. This is because the system has capabilities of posting, testing, and monitoring growth of every employee (Haid and Sims, 2009).

FedEx has Survey Feedback Action (SFA). This is mainly for internal operation of the company that helps the management decide on promotion, evaluation of performance, and workforce’s attitude towards new policies.

The company aims at enhancing communications between its management team and other employees. Employees have opportunities of expressing their opinions freely regarding the company’s policies. FedEx also has an open door policy that ensures that the company handles employees’ issues to acceptable standards (Thomas, Harburg and Dutra, 2007).

FedEx also uses employment retention to enhance the company performance. Employee retention has become a core part of HR policies in FedEx. The company believes that it is less expensive to retain its existing staff than finding new workforce. FedEx employees’ turnover rate is relatively low at six percent compared to the industry rate of 20 percent.

FedEx offers benefits under different programmes such as education, performance, healthcare, and insurance among others as ways of keeping employees satisfied and retain them (Gonrig, 2008). This promotes performance and reputation of the company (Harter, Schmidt and Hayes, 2002).

Conclusion Since its inception, FedEx has transformed the industry of express delivery services. This has been possible due to sustained superior performance over the years. The company has relied on its human resources and policies so as to change and set the pace for other companies.

FedEx has recognised its employees through its various ways of HR practices and employees benefits. Consequently, employees have been able to deliver superior services to customers. Thus, the company has recognised that creating, delivering, and sustaining superior performance starts with employees’ satisfaction.

FedEx has also used its resources to create a strong brand in the US market. Customers know the company for overnight deliveries, efficiency, and excellence customer responsiveness. Transportation industry is dynamic, and there also always five forces and technological innovations that threaten the existence of any company. This implies that FedEx must carry out extensive investments in order to enhance its services and sustain superior performance.

Creating and maintain superior performance is not an easy task. Legendary company like FedEx has managed to do so. The company relies on its technical know-how, and technological innovations to create superior products and offer superior services to customers. FedEx systems track packages handling and in turn provide the needed value to customers. Technology has enabled the company offer additional value enhancing services.

Market segmentation and differentiation are also factors that have enabled the company offer superior services. For instance, FedEx has created different units in order to offer superior products to different market segments depending on the urgency, location, and type of package. The company has specialised in different areas for excellence performance and satisfaction of its customers. This approach does not only ensure superior services delivery, but also ensure increased revenue for the company.

Most customers consider FedEx services as premium due to high costs than its competitors. However, the company believes that it delivers value and superior customers services to match such costs.

Reference List Barney, J 1997 Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage, University of Michigan Press, Michigan.

Bettinger, C 1989, ‘Use Corporate Culture to Trigger High Performance’, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 38-42.

Business Services Industry 2002, ‘Shippers Honor FedEx for Superior Performance’, Business Services Industry, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 1-2.

Charles, H and Gareth, J 2004, Strategic Management Theory, 6th edn, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Charnovich, J 2009, ‘How to Maximize Technology ROI and Create and Lead Superior IT Performance’, TecExecs , pp. 1-2.

FedEx 2012, Compensation and Rewards. Web.

FedEx 2011, FedEx Annual Report 2011, FedEx, Memphis, TN.

Gerstein, M and Reisman, H 1982, ‘Creating competitive advantage with computer technology’, The Journal of business strategy, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 53-60.

Gonrig, M 2008, ‘Customer loyalty and Employee Engagement: An Alignment For Value’, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 29, pp. 29-40.

Grant, RM 2005, Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Blackwell Pub, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Haid, M and Sims, J 2009, Employee Engagement: Maximizing Organizational Performance’, Leaders Insight, vol. 6100, no. 5, pp. 1-25.

Harter, J, Schmidt, F and Hayes, T 2002, ‘Business-Unit-Level Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 268-279.

Hitt, M, Ireland, D and Hoskisson, R 2008, Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts


Language Acquisition in School Going Children Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Stages in language acquisition





Introduction Language is described as a code that is socially shared or a conventional structure of communication that is governed by rules. Language is an in borne tendency as individuals are born with tendencies to develop sounds through cognitive and mental ability. Language acquisition occurs in early developmental stages of a person.

Instead of learning language rules and syntaxes, children obtain language behavior. They learn how to use language to define, operate or explore the world around them. Their main reason for learning language is to express their intentions, describe items and make others perform actions especially in their favor (IPEK, 2009).

This is acquired through exposure to the environment that provides language expressions and non-verbal inputs like waving and signaling. Hence, language acquisition is characterized by interaction of children with the larger community, learning with no tuition being offered as well as exhibiting traits of the community’s language.

Stages in language acquisition There are five language acquisition stages. First is the pre-linguistic period. This is the period in which the child acquires the first language. It occurs between six to nine months of age and lasts till the tenth to thirteenth month. During this stage, the child responds to the environment but cannot express himself. It is characterized by production of certain sounds, an action referred to as cooing.

The infant uses the phonemes of not only what will be their first language but all phonemes in general (IPEK, 2009). Phonemes are the smallest significant sound components that can be distinguished in a language. For example, an infant whose first language is English would be heard making such sounds as “aaaa”, “mmmm” or “tttt”.

The second language development stage is bubbling. This stage is characterized by production of vowels and syllables which are strung together. Usually the infant does this with no communication intentions. This stage occurs around nine months of age. During this stage, the child begins to use phonemes from his native language. For example, an infant may begin producing such sounds as “TI”, “YU” or “NO”

The third language acquisition stage is holophrastic stage. Holophrastic is derived from the term holo-phrase which is the use of one word to represent an entire thought or meaningful sentence. During this stage, an infant learns to use one word to pass a message (Lightbown


All papers will follow similar directions. Don’t plagiarize. If you’d like even more details for how to write a philosophy paper, here’s a very helpful link: a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Don’t plagiarize. If you’d like even more details for how to write a philosophy paper, here’s a very helpful link: are your directions:The final draft will be 4 full pages.Write an intro with three sentences or less. One sentence must be your thesis. A thesis is “a specific point that you are trying to establish – something that you are trying to convince the reader to accept”. The thesis is also your conclusion, and your job will be to defend the thesis. The entire point of the intro paragraph in a philosophical paper is simply to present your thesis. For this paper, you have two options, Innate Ideas are true or they’re not. Your thesis statement also needs to state the fundamental reason(s) that make(s) you correct. A good thesis statement awards 20 points.After stating your thesis, you will need to immediately define your terms. This is absolutely the most fundamental problem in most arguments: no one knows what people are really talking about. You will describe Descartes/Socrates’ philosophy as they describe it, then explain it in your own words. Include examples. Good description awards 40 points.Now that your topic has been well described, you can argue. You will be evaluating the claims of Socrates and Descartes, and supporting whatever reasons you’ve given for your claim. Support can be all sorts of things, but in general, the supports should be more obviously true to help walk the reader to the truth of your thesis. Do not use a shotgun approach to argument, where you take a thousand little reasons and hope they are strongest. The simple argument is the strongest, and you should build up to your conclusion from a strong foundation. Good argumentative form awards 20 points.The next step is done for both integrity and logic. You’ll need to respond to objections and offer concessions. This means you have to anticipate a point of disagreement and address it immediately. This strengthens your reasons for your position. In a full book, you would address any and all possible objections, but I really only need you to pick one or two that you think are most common. Good objection anticipation awards 20 points.If you would like, you may have a concluding paragraph to summarize everything, but honestly, philosophical papers don’t always need these. Do whatever makes you feel comfortable.Don’t plagiarize. Don’t even get close. Put quotes on anything that needs quotes. Use the feedback.


After, reading all three articles for Week Five, please point to one aspect of EACH article that you found be essay help free

After, reading all three articles for Week Five, please point to one aspect of EACH article that you found be of interest and explain why. Be sure to fully elaborate and discuss how this particular aspect of the article furthers our understanding of terrorism and political violence. It must be evident that you have carefully read and reflected upon all three articles. Next, as you know, even the best articles that are published in peer-reviewed journals are never perfect and lend themselves to constructive criticism. Please identify one weakness, shortcoming, or possible area that could have been elaborated or expanded upon in EACH of the three articles. It must be evident that you have given considerable thought to each aspect of the above discussion assignment. You must also pose a critical thinking question to your classmates.


For this assignment: 1.) Create a PowerPoint presentation on the causes and risk factors of Osteoporosis. 2.) Make this presentation essay help free: essay help free

For this assignment: 1.) Create a PowerPoint presentation on the causes and risk factors of Osteoporosis. 2.) Make this presentation for an audience of 4th – 6th graders. 3.) Requirements: Title slide, introduction, the body of information, conclusions. 4.) Main requirement: It must be created in a way to interest the 4th – 6th graders and keep their attention. 5.) On the very last slide answer the following question: Why have I asked you to create a presentation for 4th – 6th graders? Note from your instructor: 4th-6th graders likely appreciate presentations that place emphasis on graphics and will likely tune out presentations that are mostly words. Please keep this in mind when creating your presentation. Please include a works cited slide (or slides) at the end of your presentation OR cite your sources in APA format at the bottom of the slides in which the information appears (make the references small, but readable).


Use my quantitative design with my research questions to develop a qualitative design now. My quantitative design is attached and Essay scholarship essay help

Use my quantitative design with my research questions to develop a qualitative design now. My quantitative design is attached and the directions are listed here. Let me know if you have any questions! Assignment 9 details with developing a qualitative research design for your area of inters. Copy and paste your research purpose statement and research question(s) at the beginning of this assignment. Make sure all the elements are aligned. You need to include the following sections in your assignment. Some of the elements are similar to what was done with the quantitative design. 1. A description of the context and participants What is the setting for the research? What should we know about this setting? Describe the characteristics of the research setting. What is the population? How many participants will you need/expect to have? What criteria will you use to select your participants (i.e., the sampling strategy)? Provide basic demographic information (e.g., gender and ethnicity group) to describe the proposed sample. Or state you will obtain relevant information later. Resources to consider: I highly encourage you to take a look at dissertations! These will provide some of the best descriptions of these sections. Check our sample proposals. You can look for dissertations online that focus on qualitative methodology (


will create a poster 22×28 inches or a tri-fold 36×48 inches. See all the instructions when you look at the assignment in this folder. You can also create a poster throught Powerpoint. I will upload a blank one where you can fill in the boxes but it may take you a little while so do not wait until the due date if you decide on this option. essay help

You will create a poster 22×28 inches or a tri-fold 36×48 inches. On your posterboard you will display a variety of different media platforms. If those platforms have a known icon you can use those icons on your board. You should give a discription of the platform and how it is used. You will need an introduction paragraph to media and how mass media effects society (see chapter 6). You will need to discuss one or more sociological perspectives in your poster and what it says about media. You will also need a conclusion paragraph. You should have your Title at the top, Name/class/date at the bottom and a section listing your references. I will include a drawn picture of what your poster should look like. **There is another option to create your poster. This may work better for online students. I will upload a blank Poster from PowerPoint. It has your boxes and basic instructions within each box. It has been formatted already so you will only need to insert your information and you can choose your font and font size to accommadate your information. I will also include a video on how to make a PowerPoint poster. Just realize most of it is already done for you. You do not have to do everything in the video as you are not presenting your work at a conference.** Ideas of things to discuss: (You do not have to use all of these and you are welcome to discuss any other ideas related to media. These are some suggestions that you can use within your poster) Media’s global reach The right to privacy Cultural lag digital divide Cultural convergence Hyperconsumerism Social capital Gatekeeping Questions to consider: (You do not have to answer all or any of these. They are just food for thought to help you think out the assignment) What are the implications of the pervasiveness of media? How does the functionalist perspective consider the role of media in society? How is media an enforcer of social norms? What are the problems that feminists believe arise from media portrayal of women? Discuss the main concerns surrounding online media growth and the right to privacy


to will an interdisciplinary paper in which I identify, research, and analyze a problem or, issue related to the theme of social media, technology, and digital lives and tackle it from the perspectives of 2 disciplines. The paper will synthesize your findings and offer insight into possible solutions. writing essay help: writing essay help

-10-12 pages -You need 6 sources total to support your arguments. (2 scholarly sources from 1 discipline, 2 scholarly sources from another discipline, and 2 other credible sources) (see guidelines for the research summary for further details on the sources: ) -MLA format: 1” margins; double-spaced; Times New Roman 12 pt; no cover page; first page has your name, my name, the course number, and the date in the left-hand corner -Microsoft Word or RTF format only (I cannot open .pages) -Proper grammar, spelling, and syntax are a must -Works Cited page in MLA format with proper citation throughout the paper. I use Turnitin and other tools to check for plagiarism.


Business planning assessment 2 college essay help

See attachments. Please note, I have also attached the previous order of this assessment by your colleague, which was marked as failed.

Q7 not a good answers that not how you support employee to give more work. Answers includes Provide appropriate training • Identify how the employee can be motivated • Sharing ideas with the employee to overcome • Create performance goal Q.7 Method of consultation should be meeting, Open forum, workshop, exchange letter

Q4. Wrong calculation. Not sure where you found those data. You need to do it from the given table in q. 4. Q4b,c and d answer will be based on the calculation from Q4a Q5. You did not follow the email writing structure and in the email content should the the sales and variance report from

Q4a,b,c,d Q5 Q6


Strengths and Weaknesses of Observational Study Designs college application essay help: college application essay help

Begin your one- to two-page entry by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the following various types of observational study designs: ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort. Next, think about how these strengths and weaknesses will play into studies about your Final Paper’s topic. Tell your instructor about which studies or combinations of studies you anticipate relying upon.
You can pick any topic. Please try to use Friis, R. H.


Greece Economic Crisis Effect on the Rest of the World Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction The economic crisis in Greece has not only affected the country but the whole European Union region and the world. Greece is one of the smallest countries in the European, but this has not made its effect on the European Union any less. The cause of the economic crisis is due to the continuous extensive spending by the government resulting to rise of the nation’s debt.

This has left it greatly exposed to a financial crisis as a result of reckless borrowing and great expenditure levels. In 2008, Greece’s percentage debt to its Gross Domestic Product was 110.7% and this increased to 142.8% by the year 2010. The nation’s economy is thus in danger compared to the normal 85.3% debt in the other Euro zones.

It is evident that the country’s financial issue is not only of interest to government heads but also private individuals and corporations in other nations. Every nation in the EU region is now affected by the financial crisis in Greece because they have to spend on bailing it out.

As a result, the financial crisis has transpired into the world’s economy. Research has shown that the effect the financial crises has had varies in different nations. This paper will discuss how the economic crisis in Greece is affecting the rest of the world.

Discussion Greece struggle with a substantial debt load persists to affect the rest of the world. As the financial crisis in this country persists, it is experiencing a 16.3% rise in joblessness and a dramatic decrease in revenues (Madslien). Other effects of this financial crisis to the Greeks include the lack of pay increments, higher taxes, increased fuel prices, and increased retirement age.

The financial crisis in Greece has made many investors apprehensive about buying the government bonds being issued. As a result, interest charges are increasing as governments are forced to pay a larger risk premium. For instance, it is anticipated that due to this financial crisis, the Central bank in Europe will increase its interest rates up to 1.5% (Madslien).

European citizens are facing the problem of increased age retirement because of the financial crisis. Tax costs in the European region have been increased in an attempt to cover the financial cost of the crisis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a EU country Greece expects the rest of the EU members to bail it out and this has resulted in an increase in cost of living in these countries. The countries have been forced to increase their taxes and this has weighed on badly on their citizens.

Another effect the economic crisis in Greece to the rest of the world has been wealth reduction. In this regard, the net income of many people has greatly reduced as they are forced to pay large amounts in taxes. The fact that retirement age has increased has led to low salaries due to shrinking pensions.

Pension funds invest the pensioner’s money in stock markets, and since this has been affected by the crisis, the wealth of the pensioner is greatly reduced. Pension funds in the private sector are also having difficulties in making up for deficits in their income plans due to the diminishing asset values. The issue of wealth reduction has been heavily realized in nations such as Ireland, Portugal and Spain.

This crisis has also led to a slow economic recovery among many nations. This is due to lack of anticipations of any marked return in business ventures. For instance, due to the crisis, the economic development in the Euro zone has slowed by 0.3% to 0.4%. This has prolonged the suffering of the jobless since job creation has become slower compared to the times when this crisis was absent.

By now, the Euro zone redundancy rate is about 10% with Spain having 20% unemployment rate. The people who are employed find it difficult to negotiate for pay increases because they are scared of losing their current jobs and being jobless. Financial experts have predicted that salaries will remain the same and some will be reduced in the coming years if the financial crisis escalates.

The crisis has led to increased unemployment levels. Because of this, demand for goods produced by companies has fallen as people are having less money to spend. With a dwindling market, corporations have decreased their capital ventures in preparation for riding out the economic burden.

It is, therefore, clear that in an environment of reasonable demand and low competence in use rates, then there is no prospect of any remarkable proceeds in investment (Madslien).

We will write a custom Essay on Greece Economic Crisis Effect on the Rest of the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another effect of the crisis is seen in the currency moves. The virtual fall down of Greece’s economy has affected the European Union. This is because all the nations in Europe use the same currency hence deteriorating the Euro dramatically. owing to Euro deterioration, the dollar has sequentially strengthened. The weakening of the Euro currency has led to larger interest rates and loan costs in the continent.

This has affected the capacity of other European nations to move away from their own financial downturns. For instance, Italy and Belgium have above 100% debt levels and this shows how the Greece’s problem has potentially extended to other nations.

Finally, the fact that the crisis has made the Euro to fall alongside other currencies is advantageous to exporters in the euro zone since it makes the goods they sell overseas cheaper, leading to high demand. As a result, exporters have started recruiting more persons and investing more in buying production machines.

This has had a direct effect on the U.S since the cost of exports has increased hence restricting exportation. Since exports are vital for stimulating economic development as well as assisting nations to pull out of their own recessions, then this has offered a major impediment to any economic recovery.

Conclusion As the Greek financial burden now approaches its fourth year, the world is watching how the country deals with its economic crisis. Since this country’s financial problem is international, then there is need for involvement by the outside world. Today, the world is struggling to come up with a solution to this financial burden.

Several packages and answers to this dilemma have been formulated but the world has to wait and see how the packages help in solving the crisis. Some people trust that a default is unavoidable and would have a domino effect on the financial organizations and nations in the world.

As a result, people outside Europe should be concerned about the economic crisis in Greece, as it will affect most if not all the countries in the world. In addition, they too are suffering from slower wage augmentation, increasing taxes and increasing retirement ages.

Works Cited Madslien, Jorn. Why Greece’s problems matter. BBC News, Thursday, 11 February 2010. Web. .

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E-Recruiting Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Abstract



Factors that prompted the advent of e-recruitment

Strengths associated with e-recruitment

Weaknesses that come with e-recruitment



Abstract Human resource has turned out to be one of the key assets for any organization or institution. With a lot of emphasis being human resource, it has become necessary for each and every organization to find ways that can afford them quality and effective recruitment solutions at an affordable rate.

This is where e-recruitment comes in since the internet is no longer a fad; it has now become very potent and effective tool that every organization can use to gain a competitive edge over its competitors.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that prompted the advent of e-recruitment. Conventional methods of recruitment consumed a lot of time and were paper intensive. A better mode of recruitment, one that took less time, lightened the workload, effective yet affordable had to be invented hence the emergence of e-recruitment.

This paper will also analyze the strengths and weaknesses associated with e-recruitment. E-recruitment is at nascent and with time it will become the mainstay for almost every organization. Ways of improving the process of e-recruitment are explored in this paper.

Introduction Modes of recruiting have changed significantly over the past years. Various challenges that firms had to contend with while conducting the recruitment process are largely responsible for the dramatic changes being witnessed in the recruitment landscape. Various firms are finding it hard to get qualified applicants for positions that are usually hard to fill.

This is compounded by the fact that attracting a specialized group of applicants has also proved to be a daunting task. Thus these predicaments prompted the development of e-recruitment whereby technological advances aided in the expedition of the development of e-recruitment (Bondarouk


Formal Curriculum Essay essay help: essay help

Formal education can be described as what students should learn that has been laid down by the syllabus (Urevbu, 1985). As a result, it can be referred to as the publicly chosen body of knowledge that the government, via the Ministry of Education, by subject matter institutes, or regional education authorities, or whichever body is concerned with offering education, would like students to learn.

The formal curriculum, also called official curriculum, is the curriculum that is not only written, but also published such as course documentation (McKimm, 2003).

According to the University of Zimbabwe Distance Education (1995), a formal curriculum refers to the entire work that is planned and used by teachers in conjunction with students.

The formal curriculum is intended to fulfill specified objectives of education of recognized groups of students or learners in their changeable settings. In other words, formal curriculum can be said to be chosen written courses or programs that students experience.

Informal Curriculum According to Urevbu (1985), informal curriculum refers to the curriculum in use. In view of the fact that instructors or teachers may not be able to stick on to the offered formal curriculum, they can include additional features of knowledge that are usually derived from supplementary sources.

As a result, these extra materials are known as ‘informal curriculum’. According to UNESCO (1997), informal (non-formal) curriculum refers to structured and nonstop educational actions that do not characterize formal education, and may take place both inside and outside educational institutions.

A number of examples of the formal curriculum include things like lecturers’ handouts, course guides and the prospectus. On the other hand, activities such as rugby and other games events and clubs, Fresher’s week, treating Asian or female students in a different way, the different ‘ethnic groups and territories’ established in different areas of expertise, are examples of informal curriculum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A case in point of informal curriculum is a case where a mother teaches her child basic aspects of language and grammar at home, before the child goes into a formal education institution (Eaton, 2011).

Contrasting formal and informal curricula

Formal Curriculum Informal Curriculum 1 Mostly deals with young children and adolescents Deals with people of all ages 2 Confers certification to the learning achieved May or may not award certification to the learning achieved 3 Takes place within educational institutions Can take place inside or outside educational institutions 4 In general, classrooms have the same teachers and the same students every day. Generally, the programs are usually drop-in. as a result attendance and leadership are not consistent. 5 In most cases, classroom activities go on for a number of days. In most cases the programs are required to bring to an end each day’s activity since a different group of participants could be in attendance the following day. 6 It can be assumed teachers or instructors have undergone a specified level of training in classroom management, educational philosophy, effective teaching strategies, and content. In contrast, informal curriculum providers have varied levels of experience and knowledge of teaching methods, group management, and expertise in content. 7 Teachers and instructors are required to meet certain educational standards. In addition, they must follow a particular curriculum. As a result, it is difficult for them to slot in nontraditional content. On the contrary, informal programs are more flexible as regards their content. 8 It is predictable and can be controlled One cannot predict or preemptively have power over this kind of curriculum. It is very idiosyncratic and unpredictable. Source: Enhancing education, 2002.

References Eaton, S.E. (2011). Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada, National Metropolis Conference, Vancouver, B.C.

Enhancing education. (2002). Formal vs. Informal Education. Web.

Marshall, K. (2004). Let’s clarify the way we use the word “curriculum.” Education Week, 24(1), 43.

McKimm, J. (2003). Curriculum design and development. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Formal Curriculum specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More UNESCO. (1997). International standard classification of education ISCED 1997. Paris: UNESCO.

University of Zimbabwe. (1995). Curriculum Implementation,Change and Innovation. Harare: Centre for Distance Education, University of Zimbabwe.

Urevbu, A.O. (1985). Curriculum Studies. Ikeja: Longman.


Collaborating with Families and Community Members Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of Family-School-Community collaborations

Importance of School-linked Programs

The Specific Stakeholders in School-Community Collaborations

Parents and Stakeholder Partnerships

Evaluating the Contributions of Parents and Stakeholders


Reference List

Introduction School partnerships involving community and other stakeholders are an essential approach of addressing the diverse needs of the school community. Effective school administrators and principals collaborate with community members, families, and the business community to mobilize community resources in order to meet the diverse community needs and interests.

School principals should aim at establishing relationships or networks within and outside the school. Often, family conditions influence student learning in school settings. Thus, the principal should identify the resources; that is, families, community members, and business, which can support learning in the school.

An optimal approach of promoting school-community collaboration involves blending the school resources with the local community and family resources.

The collaborations encompass various community agencies and organizations including community-based organizations, civic and religious groups, libraries and local parks, businesses, individuals and post-secondary institutions within the community (Adelman,