This lecture is the primary source that focuses on existentialism, where the author argues how it is synonymous with humanism. According to the author of this article, everyone tries very hard to become what they wish to be. From the onset, Sartre has a conflict with his public image, which he sees as being at crossroads with his detractors, who view the issue of existentialism differently from his worldview (Sartre 1). For example, his critics dismiss existentialism as something that does not exist in the first place. However, he vehemently opposes that notion and argues that existentialism exists and is the principle that makes people take responsibility for their ethical and moral actions. According to the article, existentialism happens to be a framework through which human action forces people to have moral responsibility and ethical judgments.
In his opening remarks in the lecture, Sartre defends existentialism because of the criticism it had attracted from Christians and Communists. The article argues that existentialism is not an excellent philosophical concept because it is action-averse. In this case, Communists who criticize the existentialism concept claim that it acts like contemplative philosophy. According to the Christians’ perspective on the issue of existentialism, they criticize the concept because it does not provide an interconnection between individuals and their projects (Sartre 4). In addition, Sartre argues that Christians’ accusations are because they think existentialism has a disproportionate view of the negative aspects of life. According to the lecture, Sartre also argues that people only view existentialism as pessimistic, which means it does not give hope to the lives of humanity.
This article is a secondary source with a lot of relevance because it focuses on the need to highlight the issues of elderly people whose population is on the rise globally. According to this article, old age is a sensitive period that deserves a lot of attention. Therefore, it is a social necessity to demonstrate concern for the elderly and the issues they face. The article highlights that older people have limited social interactions which makes them vulnerable to social and psychological issues (Khezri et al. 63). Therefore, it is common to find most elderly people having mental challenges since they do not have people to socialize with. The author of this article argues that most elderly individuals have reduced relationships and also constant withdrawals which all affect their social and emotional well-being. According to this article, the elderly population is vulnerable to depression and psychiatric disorders which may lead to early death.
The journal is a secondary source that has a lot of relevance in highlighting the correlation between humanism and existential hope in suicide interventions related to COVID-19. According to this article, there is a need for the world to have numerous inquiries to have many lessons to learn from. In this case, the author argues that having such inquiries will provide an opportunity to act as an intervening opportunity for spiritual and religious support in the event of a pandemic (Egargo and Jan 2). The article highlights the relevance of religious bodies like the Catholic Church and spirituality in the provision of humanism and hopes to the affected people. According to this article, the long periods of lockdowns in various countries such as the Philippines adversely affected the people because of exposing people to psychological challenges that also resulted in self-destructive behaviors and self-harm. Therefore, the article provides the significance of religious bodies such as the Catholic Church in providing and conveying messages of hope during times of crisis.
This article is a secondary source that focuses on the relationship between higher education and existentialism. In this case, the journal is significant because of highlighting how enhancing the well-being of the faculty, staff, and students has become the primary perspective for many colleges in North America. According to this article, the well-being of everyone who works or resides in an institution of higher learning has relevance in the present society (Sherman 2). Therefore, promoting the well-being of people tends to focus on their wellness, which relates to stress management, environmental conditions, enhanced coping, and overall health. However, the author asserts that well-being efforts only focus on the symptoms without looking at the root causes of the un-wellness of people. The article also signifies the role of the well-being theory in a higher education setting. According to this article, the student’s subjectivity connects to higher education.
This article is a secondary source focusing on Ubuntu, which means togetherness as part of the existential-humanistic approach to social work issues. According to the article, the axiology and ontologies of the existential-humanistic approach are very relevant in contemporary society. The journal is significant because it highlights the relevance of Ubuntu within the context of existentialism (Chigangaidze 148). The journal’s author provides relevance to some features of the existential-humanistic methodology, which are explored to have a comparative analysis of the axiology and ontologies of the approach. Some features include spirituality, motivation, social justice, death, human dignity, self-determination, and social justice, among others. This journal contradicts other articles that do not see the relevance of Ubuntu in the existential-humanistic approach. Therefore, the Ubuntu philosophy happens to be at the core of the primary thesis of this article.
Chigangaidze, Robert K. “An Exposition of Humanistic- Existential Social Work in Light of Ubuntu Philosophy: Towards Theorizing Ubuntu in Social Work Practice.” Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, vol. 40, no. 2, 2020, pp. 146–165..
Egargo, Faye Jessa, and Jan Gresil Kahambing. “Existential Hope and Humanism in Covid-19 Suicide Interventions.” Journal of Public Health, vol. 43, no. 2, 2020.
Khezri Moghadam, Noshiravan, et al. “Efficiency of Cognitive-Existential Group Therapy on Life Expectancy and Depression of Elderly Residing in Nursing Home.” Salmand, vol. 13, no. 1, 2018, pp. 62–73.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. “Existentialism is a Humanism.” P. 1-5.
Sherman, Glen Lewis. “Existentialism and Higher Education: A Renewed Intersection in Well-Being.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 2020, p. 002216782091723.