London As A Global City Essay Essay Help Online

Introduction A global city is a city which has a big economic significance in the world. Thus for a city to be deemed as global or world class it has to pass certain criteria. These criteria include economic characteristics, political characteristics, cultural characteristics, transport characteristics, and many others such as population, information exchange, human capital, and business activities.

According to recent surveys Asian cities are emerging as newcomers in the prominence of cities on the globe. For instance in the latest survey according to Kearney (2010), 5 of the top ten global cities come from Asia. Currently London is ranked second after New York City.

Reasons why London is a global city The city of London is considered a global city because of many reasons. The city is a metropolitan and therefore it has a mixture of different cultures. According to Bloomberg Businessweek (2010), London ranks second after New York. This index is based on the rich human resource and the cultural wealth and other strengths. Business activities in London are also of a very high index. The human capital of the British capital is also increasing.

Population of London

According to Bentham (2010), London’s population is set to reach 8.3 million people. This means that the population is increasing by 10% in a period of eight years. In addition to this, more people in England are moving from the rural areas into London for many reasons. The report also states that fewer Londoners are moving abroad. Increased population has the advantage of increased human resource and also the presence of a ready market for goods and services.

GDP of London

The GDP of London is currently on the rise. As Packer (2004) writes, London has grown to become a major financial centre of the world. London is a metropolitan capital and which still remains a powerful center where the world gets sucked. Before being overtaken by New York in the twentieth century, London had been leading other world cities in terms of size and wealth.

Cultural wealth of London

Since time immemorial, London has continued to increase in its cosmopolitan state. The British capital has continued to attract human labor from across the whole world. For instance it attributes its name from Italian linguistics whereby the city of London emanated from the Roman Londonium which was a tribal capital of Britannia.

Cultural wealth of London is an accompaniment of the way in which Britain gained colonial powers. Slave trade as Packer (2004) puts it, made Britain ports to fill with cultural diversity which later on spread to the interior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transport facilities

London has invested heavily in the transport sector. There is an excellent network of roads and railway lines traversing across London. London is also well known for its highly developed marine transport. The good network of transport facilities provides the ease of movement of goods to and from the market.

Movement of Human labor is also enhanced. According to Litman (2006), London has continued to decongest its roads by implementing certain measures. Henrion (2010), also states that businessmen can travel quickly into London from other European cities.

Medical facilities in London

London is well endowed with world class medical facilities. According to Uhlhorn (2010), London health care facilities are among the top of the world as it is with the Australian facilities. Major laboratory researches are done in London universities. Medical centers such as the UCL medical center are also characterized by world class research facilities.

Information exchange of London

London was among the first city in the world to use transmission of information in form of radio waves. The use of this system is dated back during the Second World War when Britain used the technology of radar to track airplanes. London has also excelled in the IT sector such that its development has also been attributed to its existing IT policies.

Business and economic activities

There are many business activities in London. The major businesses activities include stock exchange, banking industry, insurance industry, transport industry, real estate business among others. Services in the business industry also present a major source of income for the Londoners. The City University, London (2010) informs how information exchange is used in almost all sectors and how Londoners are being educated on how to use this system.

Political stability

Political stability of Britain has enabled her capital to grow expansively throughout the years. British political system has enhanced the presence of peace. The presence of peace makes London an attractive place to invest, visit or live. According to Durham (2005), political situation in London has been formulated to accommodate all kinds of people including gays.

Conclusion In conclusion London’s prosperity has been depending upon the above factors. Other factors which have enabled London to develop to a world class city include, tourism sector whereby people from all over the world have been able to access London’s beauty. London has some of the best hotels in the world. In addition to all the above, Britain also has an excellent learning system whereby some of the universities are well known to be world class. This is according to the Consolidated School District of New Britain (2010)

We will write a custom Essay on London as a Global City specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Bentham, (2010). Population of London set to hit 8.3m high, Evening Standard, 2010 Web.

Bloomberg (2010). Business week, top global cities 2010. Web.

City University, London (2010). Guidelines on the use of Display Screen Equipment. Web.

Durham, M. (2005). Abortion, Gay Rights and Politics in Britain and America: A Comparison, Parliamentary Affairs Vol. 58 No. 1, Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government 2005, pp 89-103.

Henrion, N. (2010). Transportation Guide from Paris to London by Air, Rail and Road. Web.

Kearney, A. T. (2010). Global cities index. Web.

Litman, T. (2006). London Congestion Pricing Implications for Other Cities. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, pp 8.

Packer, D. (2004). London: Heart of Empire and Global City Socialist Outlook: SO/04 – Autumn 2004. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on London as a Global City by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Consolidated School District of New Britain ct, (2010). Britain Board of Education website. Web.

Uhlhorn, D. (2010). The fifth estate, Medical facilities: Translational research – from the Bench to the bedside. Web.


Ethics Awareness Inventory Analysis Essay essay help: essay help

An ethical awareness inventory is an instrument that is used to identify an individual’s central ethical style by demonstrating their prevalent ethical philosophies used to make ethical and moral decisions.

The inventory descriptions are then used in analyzing individual’s perspective on ethics and determining their consequent basis for ethical decision making. Although the general perspective presented by the inventory may not exactly fit an individual’s perspectives, the instrument results provide crucial insights into an individual’s general approaches and views with regard to ethical issues.

The ethical awareness inventory indicated that my profile was more strongly aligned with an obligation ethical philosophy and least aligned to a results based ethical philosophy.

An obligation oriented ethical style indicates that such individual generally tend to base their ethical perspectives on obligation or duty to perform moral acts or make moral decisions. Ethical conduct in this case appeals strongly to the conscience. Making ethical judgments thus entails examining the person’s intent in carrying out their actions rather than the results of their actions.

Emphasizing on intent and conscious in obligation oriented style opens the style to risks of individual’s egocentrism and conformity to group thinking, which may distort individuals conscious and intent (Paul and Elder, 2006). Nonetheless, an obligation oriented philosophy results to a perspective that regards ethical principles as universal, and as intended at promoting individual autonomy and freedom besides laying an emphasis on respect for human dignity.

Understanding your ethical perspective and ethical decision making driving forces is a crucial step in preventing misunderstandings between an individual’s ethical perspective and an organizations’ perspective. Individuals should select career options or work for organizations that hold similar ethical perspectives to their own.

Ensuring there is no mismatch between the individual’s ethical perspectives and organizations dominant perspectives would also aid an individual in career development as few ethical based conflicts are likely to be present. Fewer conflicts would give the employees better opportunities for career development, promotions and reduce employee’s chances of terminations and demotions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One other way of reducing the mismatch is through formal educational experience and educational training. Potential conflicts may occur where a mismatch exists between individuals in their ethical philosophies and perspective.

For example, a superior who may hold results philosophy may opt for the most beneficial choice to be undertaken especially where a cost benefit analysis clearly indicate that it is the right choice. However, an individual with an obligation oriented philosophy may still desire for a choice based on a moral duty or obligation.

An obligation oriented individual who believes that use of cost benefit analysis is not the best method to deal with ethical issues may thus find themselves in conflict with most organizations that use a cost benefit analysis to make ethical decisions. Education experience may impart a person with various reasoning skills that will further aid in decision making and more so in ethical decision making (Paul and Elder, 2003).

An ethical inventory is thus clearly an important tool in identifying individual’s general prevalent ethical perspectives, philosophies and style and their consequent underlying ethical decision making criteria. Using of the tool for both an individual and the employees may aid to reduce a mismatch between an organizations ethics framework and the individuals and also reduce ethical conflicts amongst employees.

Individuals can also use the instrument to understand the way they make ethical decisions and thus reduce conflicts by selecting to work for those organizations that they most agree. Still, use of various concepts to aid in ethical decision making can further aid individuals in ethical decision making.

References Paul, R.,


The Salem Witch Trial Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Witchcraft operations in Salem

Cause and trial of the witchdoctors

In the courtroom

Defense of the accused

Challenges of the trials


Works Cited

Introduction Salem is a village in Massachusetts, which is a state in the New England region, in the North East of the United States of America. In the year 1692, it was afflicted by a certain kind of mysticism that drove some of the villagers into hysteria.

The hysteria manifested first in young girls whereby the girls exploded into bizarre behavior whose natural cause could not be traced. The young girls could be seized with convulsions, blasphemous screaming and melodramatic behaviors which were not normal. Since the physical source could not be traced, the community was led to believe that witches had invaded Salem.

The term witch should be understood and used in caution here. This is necessary in order for one to understand the trials of the witch in Salem. During the 17th century it was believed that a witch is a person who had made a treaty with the devil so that there will be an exchange of a soul for evil powers which the witch can use to torment human beings (MacBain, 4). It is quite normal for victims of these powers to claim to have experienced horrible dreams and illusions.

They would also experience physical pain and exhibit bizarre habits which could be alarming to the community. The perpetrators of this evil act would be identified by the villagers, investigated, tried and then condemned if found guilty. In a village such as Salem, a person found guilty of performing witchcraft would be hanged. Thus the word witch is a strong word used as an accusation of Satan’s treaties. If someone were found involved in this pact, it would lead to death. Salem villagers were religious.

Thus religiously speaking, a witch is a follower of an ancient pagan belief system (MacBain, 4). The discovery of this fact led to a series of activities aimed at flushing out all the witchdoctors who had run amok with their evil activities. Since Sale was a religious village, its inhabitants began praying and fasting in order to get rid of this satanic evil (Sutter 5).

Witchcraft operations in Salem Witchcraft in operation could manifest in several ways. All of these ways alter the normal and natural ways things operate and cause abnormal things to happen (Sutter 7). The effects were usually seen in human beings, animals and plants. Salem was not an exemption. Witchcraft would go as far as killing infants and adults (Fradin


Post Colonial Literature Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Central Themes in the Two Poems

Criticism of the Two Poems

Comparison of the Two Poems



Introduction In the modern times, a hot debate has emanated on colonialism and post colonialism and what they stand for. It is an area that has attracted so many writers with a lot of criticism based on different opinions. In their poetry, Judith Wright and Bhatt explicitly bring out post colonialism and modernism as major themes albeit in different ways. This has been achieved through their use of discourses on rhetoric questions, imagery and metaphor (Bery and Murray 2000).

The two writers embrace irony and symbolism to forward their discussions concerning the oppression brought about by the colonialists on the natives. This paper is a review of the these two poems; Judith Wright’s Two Dreamtimes and Sujata Bhatt’s A different History where it is going to primarily compare and criticize sentiments postulated by the poets in their literary work.

Central Themes in the Two Poems In her poem Two Dreamtimes, Judith Wright presents the Aborigines as poetic symbols to represent the entire historical oppression and injustice that instilled fear and guilt. Judith’s observation concerning the aggression and instability of the Aboriginal post conquest past extends to stand for the entire human race.

On post colonialism, Judith Wight talks of how both the whites and the black natives have lost in terms of culture and property then she proposes forgiveness and unity of the two groups as the only solution tom their problems (Wright 2002).

On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt in her poem A different History, talks of the environment and cultural degradation that is rampant in the modern post colonial era. She also elaborates on political oppression meted against the once colonized nations by their former colonial masters (Bhatt 1995). Sujata symbolically uses India to represent all those countries that are still experiencing these effects of post colonial oppression.

Both writers have dwelt so much on emphasizing the importance of culture as a sense of belonging. Judith Wright shows how the whites looked upon the blacks as minorities and never wanted to associate themselves with the black race. From her poem, we see the persona explaining how his parents warned him not to play with the black children. The white settlers grabbed all that belonged to the native Aborigines and left them piteous without anything to cling on.

However, with time, the two groups ended up loosing to their colonial masters due to their disunity. Sujata talks of the oppression directed towards the minorities and how everything had become oppressive in all dimensions. She admires the native Indian culture. This meant to arouse a sense of belonging and also show how much is lost when a country loses its cultural background due to modernism and post colonialism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both writers embrace culture as an important aspect of every community and individual. They have also vividly shown how modernism has brought about multiculturalism and erosion of cultures (McLeod 2000). The two poems pose intellectual questions to the reader and stimulate critical thinking and analysis of the entire theme of post colonialism and modernism.

Criticism of the Two Poems From her work, it is very true that Judith Wright was both an environmentalist and a social activist. The writer uses her childhood and lifetime experiences to vividly point out on various contemporary but fundamental issues affecting the society. For instance in her poem

Wright points out on post colonialism and racial segregation which she says was ‘eating up’ the society which was a hindrance to development. Also, she is keen to highlight cultural alienation versus modernity as another key issue of major concern but what she fails to indicate is how effective her notions and perceptions were practically applicable in during the times in which her poem is set.

Harsher criticism has been leveled on her work asserting that she does not present herself a person who lived in the contemporary society she writes about since she does not appreciate the fact that the issue of racial segregation was a lot more complicated than simply a given race being oppressed. There was the reality of where these segregated persons came from and their social standing both economically and politically at that time.

On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt uses her multicultural experience to clearly air her criticisms on matters she thinks are of concern. In her poem, she succeeds in bringing to understanding vital concerns like culture, oppression and post-colonialism. With all the traces of a bard and postcolonial uniqueness, she demonstrates her passion for the local traditions and linguistic communication. In this poem, Sujata Bhatt shows the significance of culture and language to any particular individual and how they help define someone.

In her dual multicultural milieu, she freely uses language as a tool to further her ideologies through writing that is drawn from her vast experience after having lived in three continents (McLeod 2000). This notwithstanding however, Bhatt’s work can be criticized in the way she leans so much on her multicultural experience to present her surmises. Over reliance of personal perceptions and beliefs bereaves her work scientific and universal acclaim since it may be dismissed as lacking empirical facts and realities.

Comparison of the Two Poems Looking at the poem, ‘Two dreamtimes,’ there is an aspect racial segregation that is very evident in the first two stanzas, “You were one of the dark children I wasn’t allowed to play with-riverbank campers, the wrong color, (I couldn’t turn you white)” (Wright 2002, p.35). White children were not allowed to mingle with the black children. This was a form of oppression that the writer brings to light in her work. The stanza also states that black was a wrong color.

We will write a custom Essay on Post Colonial Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This literally means that blacks were treated with a lot of contempt by the whites who looked upon them as an inferior race. This was extended even to their children who were warned never to associate with the black children. The writer’s criticism of this vice is depicted when she refers the black as, ‘riverbank campers, the wrong color’ and finally says, ‘(I couldn’t turn you white).’ Here, the writer is being sarcastic of the descriptions given to the blacks by her parents.

Scramble for property that belonged to the natives was a common phenomenon as evident in the poem, “late I began to know they hadn’t told me the land I loved was taken out of your hands” (Wright 2002, p.35). When the colonialists arrived in ‘their colonies,’ the white settlers grabbed all that belonged to the natives including land and went ahead to sell most of it for their own lavish interests (Bery and Murray 2000).

This left the natives with nothing but a state of hopelessness while the white settlers continued extravagantly enjoying what was not theirs. This is shown when the persona in the poem says, “The sullen looks of the men who sold them for rum to forget the selling the hard rational white faces with eyes that forget the past” (Wright 2002, p.35).

The writer uses irony when she says that the white settlers traded the land they had grabbed from the natives for rum. This brings out the contemptuous attitude of the writer towards the imperialists. Her criticism is furthered when she negatively describes the whites and assigns innocence to the blacks in her description (Dohra 2007).

There is an aspect of cultural degradation that was as a result of colonization from the same poem. The oppression the natives were subjected to caused them to remain hopeless and their traditions and practices faded away with time. There was no time since even what used to be their own had been snatched away fro the leaving them as piteous beings struggling for existence leave alone survival.

From the poem it is said, “Over the rum your voice sang the tales of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming” (Wright 2002, p.35). The once happy and beautiful culture was lost and people were mixed in the multi-culture without any identity. This led to a feeling of withdrawal among the colonized (Afzal-Khan 1993).

The writer goes ahead to highlight how the Aborigines are oppressed by the colonial laws when she openly critics these tyrannical laws as, ”Raped by rum and an alien law, progress and economics” (Wright 2002, p.35).The use of the word ‘raped’ shows how these laws and regulations were evil and also reveals the writer’s negative attitude towards (Moore-Gilbert 1997). This negated perspective of the law is almost a direct opposite of what Bhatt surmises in her poem where she presents a similar case but rather using more benign terms.

There is violation of human rights especially against women who are viewed as weak beings that deserve no right a case that is brought out by both poets in their work. Women were double colonized by the colonial rule and also by the entire society. This is shown in the poem, “Telling sad tales of women (black or white at a different price) meant much and little to us” (Wright 2002, p.35).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Post Colonial Literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This explicitly illustrate that all these exploits were offensive but no one had the right and courage to stand and fight against them. People were so oppressed that they had given up in life and just took life as circumstances dictated to them (Bill, Gareth and Helen 1998).

In addition to this, the two authors tend to share common views and both tend to critic the outcomes of colonialism and post-colonialism. They both accentuate the importance of culture but are disparagative of colonialism and post-colonialism consequences (Elmer 1995). Concerning culture, Sujata Bhatt says uses the first stanza to create a culturally entrusted society where the set norms are respected by everyone. She says, “Here, the gods roam freely…every tree is sacred and it is a sin to be rude to a book” (Wright 2002, p.35).

Judith Wright on the other hand talks of cultural dilapidation as a result of colonialism when she says; “Over the rum your voice sang the tales of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming” (Wright 2002, p.35).

The two poems also criticize both colonization and post-colonialism effects through the use of language techniques. Sujata Bhatt employs the use of rhetoric questions to forward her criticism (Kerwin 1997). This helps infuse critical thinking in the reader’s mind and hence make him or her think alongside the writer throughout the poem. For example she says, “Whose language has not been the oppressor’s tongue?” (Wright 2002, p.35).

This statement engages anyone reading it to pause and think broadly concerning the subject matter. Conversely, Judith Wright capitalises on the uses of satire, sarcasm and irony to surface her criticism. She also uses imagery when she says, “We the robbers robbed in turn” (Wright 2002, p.35). She directly refers to the white settlers as robbers and thus, she succeeds in delivering her denigration.

Conclusion In summing up, in my own view, Judith’s work is a picture of what is happening in the modern post-colonial era. Despite getting freedom from colonialism, there is still indirect oppression in terms of leadership, trade and resource exploitation imposed by the once colonial masters on their former colonies (Greg 2004).

These countries still receive unfair terms of trade in the world market and do not really benefit from their products and services (Childs and Williams 1997). This sentiment that is central in her poem has been articulated better than Bhatt has presented her central theme of societal injustices in post-colonial times.

References Afzal-Khan, F., 1993. Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R. K. Narayan: The Realm of Mythic Realism. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP.

Bery, A. and Murray, P., 2000. ‘Introduction’ in Comparing Postcolonial Literatures: Dislocations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bhatt, S., 1995. A Different History. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bill, A., Gareth, G. and Helen, T., 1998. Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge.

Childs, P. and Williams, P., 1997. An Introduction to Post-colonial Theory. London: Prentice Hall.

Dohra, A., 2007. “Introduction: ‘This Is Ma Trooth,’” in Rotten English: A Literary Anthology, ed. Ahmad. New York: W. W. Norton.

Elmer, A., 1995. The Art of Brian Friel. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Greg, G., 2004. Ecocriticism. New York: Routledge.

McLeod, J., 2000. Beginning Postcolonialism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Moore-Gilbert, B., 1997. Postcolonial Theory: Contexts, Practices, Politics. London: Verso.

Wright, J., 2002. Collected Poems. Sydney: Angus


Code switching and millennial generation Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction The millennial generation is extensively influenced by technology. This generation has had access to mobile phones, digital equipments and the internet. The Millennials prefer text messaging, IMing, and social networking sites rather than conventional forms of communication such as phone conversations (Godwin-Jones 13).

Consequently, technologically-inflected version of English has evolved. There has been fear that the technologically-inflected version of English is having effects on standard written English. Although the Millennial generation has learnt to code switch between the two versions of English depending on audience, it is unquestionable that technologically- inflected version of English is affecting standard written English.

Discussion Code switching is a common practice in the multilingual world. Individuals have to switch from one language to another in order to communicate effectively. In most cases code switching is common in minority linguistic groups while in a dominant language (Auer 78). The practice is also common in bilingual or multilingual individuals. Individuals who code switch tend to choose the language to use automatically depending on their audience.

Technology has led to unmistakable two versions of English. The millennial generation’s version of English does not adhere to standard words and rules in Standard English. Words such as ‘wassup’ ‘gd ngt’ ‘gr8’ ‘luv u’ have evolved because of need to write shorten words and phrases when text-messaging and IMing.

The millennial generation has perfected in use of the technologically-inflected version of English considering that they have been brought up during the era of technology (Godwin-Jones 19). However, the Millennials have to communicate with other individual in the society. In school, they have to communicate with their educators, write academic essays and make presentations. In such situations, they have to use Standard English rather than the technologically-inflected version of English.

Code switching between technologically-inflected version of English and Standard English has become necessary for millennial generation. At school, students use technologically- inflected version of English when communicating with their peers on social issues. For example, students are unlikely to use Standard Written English when updating their status on social networking sites like Facebook, when text-messaging their peers or when using Instant Message applications.

However, they switch to Standard English when writing to their instructors on academic issues, when writing academic papers or when writing a formal letter. It is clear that the students choose the version of English to use depending on their audience and subject. For instance, students are likely to use Standard Written English when responding to discussion topics on academic discussion boards, but use technologically-inflected version of English in a sports blog.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of technologically-inflected version of English has effect on standard written English despite of code switching between the two. Text messaging, blogging, IMing, social networking sites and other modern forms communication have become common and frequent (Godwin-Jones 17).

The language used in the new forms of communication is likely to find its way to Standard Written English. For example, frequent use of abbreviations such as HR, HRD, HOD, and ALT in Standard English can be attributed to frequent use of technologically-inflected version of English.

Summary Among other reasons, code switching is motivated by the need to show social solidarity among members of the millennial generation. Technologically-inflected version of English is not just a communication tool but also a social identity for the millennial generation. In school, the main challenge for English trainers is how they take code- switching as a tool for communication rather than viewing it as threat to Standard English.

Works Cited Auer, Peter. Code-Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction and Identity. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Godwin-Jones, Robert. Emerging Technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing Language Learning Strategies