London Airports Operations Analytical Essay College Admissions Essay Help

Introduction London is one of the most significant cities in the world. Very few cities can boast of a rich heritage such as London. The city is centuries old and has been the seat of the monarchy.

London is a very important city, not just in Europe, but also in the world. It provides vital access to Europe from other continents.

In addition to the role London plays as a transport and communication hub, it is also the financial hub of the European continent. It is a centre of commerce and an international meeting point for various cultures, traders, scholars and scientist.

These responsibilities continue to inform the transport and communication design of the city. London is home to some of the most sophisticated air, water, road and rail infrastructure that help the city to keep moving.

Currently, London has six airports. These are, Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted, Luton City and Southend. Each of these airports plays an important role in ensuring that London maintains its international leadership status.

The goal of this paper is to examine London’s airport strategy. The examination will consider the organization of each of the six airports to uncover the general strategy in use to manage air transport in the city.

It will include the study of the impact the airports have on the economy of London, as well as the economic opportunities they bring to London. It will be paramount to find out the traffic size and patterns for the airports in order to appreciate the difficulties inherent in developing an airport strategy for the city.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the paper will consider the strategic initiatives that the city can use to enhance its airport strategy, against a backdrop of the initiatives currently underway.

Background to London The rise of London as the most important city in Europe in the industrial age came with a heavy burden to streamline transport. In response, London developed a rail and bus system.

At the turn of the century, the airline industry began operations, initially as part of the war efforts in the First World War and then the Second World War. After the Second World War, London quickly became of the busiest air transport hubs, and currently houses the world’s busiest international airport.

The UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) regulates the entire industry. Different companies own and run the airports in different areas of the UK.

London is of itself a very vibrant market. Arguably, it is one of the largest markets anywhere on earth in terms of buying power. It is a relatively affluent city by comparison. Therefore, international business people from different countries seek a presence in London as a gateway to the commonwealth nations, and for the opportunity to buy into the lucrative London market.

Having presence in London usually gives companies a competitive advantage because of the seriousness that the city’s name holds in business arenas. The city houses many of the headquarters of international companies, while the London Stock Exchange is one of the most influential stock markets in the world.

The city’s unmatched connections to different cities across the world make it an important connection point for both goods and services. Both travellers and airlines find it easy to connect via London because of the opportunity that the city gives to them.

We will write a custom Essay on London Airports Operations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More London is also home to some of the most reputed institutions of higher learning, or is the transit route to access internationally reputed learning institutions scattered across the UK. This makes students and professors to be among the important users of the London airports.

Other users include tourists on vacation seeking to enjoy the historical views that London has to offer. In fact, they comprise the largest traffic at Heathrow.

In addition, a number of people who visit London to access advanced healthcare services. These, among other factors, contribute to the importance of London as an international air traffic hub.

Analysis of Physical design of London Airports The six London airports have distinct features and characteristics. This section analyses the airfields, terminals, use and access of the six London airports.


The London Heathrow Airport is the world’s busiest international airport by passenger traffic. The airport is in the Borough of Hillingdon, and is twenty-two miles from central London. Heathrow’s history as a large airport goes back to the Second World War.

There was need to build a large airport to support the war effort. However, the war ended before the completion of the airport. This did not halt the project, but led to its repurposing a civilian air terminal. It has since grown to become the world busiest airport by passenger traffic.

The airport has five terminals. Four are operational, while the fifth will be operational in part after completion of its first phase in 2014. The airport is currently operating beyond its capacity. While it should handle 55 million passengers per year, it handled 70 million passengers in 2011.

There extra passengers cause overcrowding at the airport making it one of the least favoured airports by travellers in Europe. The airport serves eighty-six airlines, which operate fights between one hundred and eighty six destinations in ninety countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on London Airports Operations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The British flag carrier, British Airways operates from Heathrow while Virgin Atlantic uses Heathrow as one of its major hubs. The airport supports a mix of local and international flights with the latter forming the greater source of traffic.

Heathrow has two runways, each of them dedicated to either landing or taking off. There are plans to increase the number to three in order to increase the capacity to the airport. Initially, the airport had six runways but the other four became unusable as the needs of the airport changed.

To access Heathrow, passengers use the M25, high-speed trains using the subway or passenger buses from central London. There is access to parking for London residents, and there are cars for hire for those that want to drive themselves to their destinations. Taxis also provide transport services in and around the airport.

The airport is famous for its innovative methods aimed at increasing the efficiency of operations. As planes approach the airport, the join four holding stacks and spiral on their way down to the airport.

A plane leaves the bottom of the stack to the runway from each stack in succession while new planes join the top of the stack. This arrangement is unique to Heathrow, and is part of the reason why the airport has been able to keep up with demand despite serious capacity constraints.


The London Gatwick Airport is the second busiest airport in London after Heathrow when measured by passenger traffic. The history of the airport dates back to the late twenties when an aerodrome begun operations adjacent to the current airport site.

It was also part of the war effort. It provided a base for the Royal Air force. Gatwick has the largest number of point-to-point flights in Europe. It serves an average of fifty-two aircraft every hour.

The airport has two terminals, the Northern terminal and the Southern terminal. The airport is operating at seventy-eight percent capacity, which will run out by 2030. The airport will handle forty million passengers by the year 2020.

There is a proposal to construct a new runway and terminal, which will double the effective capacity of the airport. However, there are complaints by conservationist who oppose the expansion of the airport because it will increase noise and air pollution in the area.

Another plan that is in the works is the linking of the Heathrow and Gatwick airports by high-speed rail to turn the two airports into a single hub which will only require one check at Customs and Immigration. If this plan materialises, then it will make this hub the largest of its kind in the world.

It will make it possible to transfer flights between the two airports seamlessly. This idea aims at increasing the efficiency of both airports. It will allow one airport to relieve the other in case of any emergency.

Just like Heathrow, Gatwick provides services to many airlines including British Airways, Virgin Atlantic and Ryan air. Initially, most American bound planes used Gatwick airport, but this changed because of the Bermuda II treaty that led to the use of Heathrow as the airport of choice for American air companies.

Gatwick holds the key to the continued leadership position of London as an international business destination. London’s capacity to increase its potential lies in the expansion of the Gatwick airport to take up future traffic.


Just like Heathrow and Gatwick, Stansted’s life as an airport received momentum during the Second World War, but did not begin civil aviation until the early sixties. The UK government decided to develop the Stansted airport as the third airfield in London to ease capacity constraints on Heathrow and Gatwick in the future.

The airport supports local and regional flights and is the main hub of Ryan air, among other airlines. The airport mainly serves low cost carriers because of its lower operational charges compared to Heathrow and Gatwick. There carriers include charter services. Stansted is the third busiest airline in London and the fourth busiest in the UK.

The M11 serves the airport as the main road access to the airport. In addition, there is access to other nearby towns via the A120. In addition, there are coaches and buses that provide transport to the airport. High-speed rail also provides passengers with another option of accessing the airport.

The airport operates with a single runway. Plans to construct a second runway failed to materialise because of local opposition, changes in the political landscape, and pressure on BAA, the then owners, to sell the airport.

BAA owned three out of the six airports in London, which presented a challenge to regulators charged with control of competition in the industry. In addition to the single runway, the airport operates using one terminal, which has three wings. A fourth wing is under construction and it will help to expand the existing capacity.


The London Luton Airport, located in the Borough of Luton, is the fourth busiest airport in London. The airport is relatively small with a total land area of 245 hectares. In 2010, ten million passengers used the airport, marking its highest number of passengers in its history.

The number fell to nine and a half million in 2011. Luton will need to serve up to sixteen million passengers by the year 2030. There is a master plan underway to increase the airport’s capacity to handle the rising passenger numbers.

The airport is the base for easyJet, and other low cost airlines. While the airport mainly serves local routes, it handles chartered flights to nearby continents. Access to the airport is via junction 10a which branches off from the M1 motorway. Like the other London airports, access to Luton can be by road, or rail, using cars buses and coaches.

The owner of the airport up to the mid nineties was a consortium of companies called the London Luton Airport Operations Limited. This consortium was a public private partnership that brought together Airport Group International (AGI) and Barclays Private Equity. However, the parties sold their interest in the airport to the TBI plc.

There is a lot of activity going on in the approval process of the expansion plans that include extending the runways and the taxiways to increase the capacity of the airport. Currently, it cannot carry craft with heavy payloads because of these constraints. The main opponents to the project cite environmental concerns including noise pollution, landscape and visual impact, and destruction of the local ecology and heritage.

London City Airport

The London city airport serves the financial district of London because of its proximity to the centre of the city. In 2011, three million passengers passed through the airport.

Operations at the airport began in 1987 after its original conception in 1981. The current owner of the airport is a consortium made up of Global infrastructure Partners (GIP) and AIG Financial Products.

There are some significant restrictions on the London City Airport. The first restriction came about because of the location of the airport in one of the busiest air spaces in London. A new authority came up to control airspace use.

The second restriction is that the airports runway is short and thirdly, in order to abate noise pollution, the airport allows only aircraft that can manoeuvre a steep glide slope. These restrictions mean that there are only certain types of aircraft can use the London City Airport.

The airport has only one terminal. Its location makes it very competitive for business travellers. However, the number of tourist travellers is on the rise.


The London Southend Airport also has its roots in the world wars. It started operations in First World War. After a brief return to its use as a grazing field, it gained prominence in the Second World War.

The current owner of the airport is the Stobart Group, which also operates the Carlisle Airport. Southend airport, located in the east of London at Essex, was the third busiest airport in the UK until Stansted took up that position in the seventies. Just like many of London’s airports, the Southend airport operates one runway.

The airport hopes to raise its passenger traffic to two million by the year 2030.Like the other London airports, access to Southend is by road, train, bus, and coaches. In addition, there are taxis and cars for hire at the airport to facilitate personal travel.

One of the major prospects for the airport is the upcoming London Olympic Games. Due to its location, the airport will have a major advantage as the airport serving the games. The airport anticipates a lot of business from visitors coming into London to participate in the 2012 Olympic Games.

The airport currently operates from a single terminal. There are major works underway to make it possible for the airport to support intra European flights once again.

Two airlines operate flights from the Southend Airport. Aer Lungus and easyJet operate flights to destinations within the UK, but easyJet has plans to expand its flight routes beyond the UK via the airport.

Airlines using London’s airports

The list of airlines using London’s airports is long. The British flag carrier, British Airways, flies to three London airports. The airports are Heathrow, Gatwick and London City Airports. The British Midland Airways, a fully owned subsidiary of Lufthansa operates almost two thousand flights from London’s airports every week making it one of the largest users of London’s airports.

The airlines serve routes in Europe, Asia and Africa. Virgin Atlantic is the other significant airline operating from London airports. It has destinations in America, Europe, Asia, and Africa and Australia. A number of national airlines from other countries operate flights to London with five or less flights per week from various capitals of the world. This makes London one of the most connected of all international cities in the world.

Apart from international long haul flights, London’s airports also support a large number of local and regional flights from its airports. The most prominent among these are Ryan Air and easyJet, which operate point-to-point no frills services to many destinations in Europe and in the UK.

Ryan air is the largest low cost carrier in Europe followed by easyJet. easyJet’s headquarter is in London Luton Airport while its main operating hub is the London Gatwick Airport. It is the largest airline by passenger traffic as s result of its point-to-point flights. Ryanair on the other hand largely operates its flights from London Stansted Airport, though its head office is at the Dublin Airport.

London is one of the busiest aviation routes with over a hundred airlines operating flights to the city. It is impossible to list each of the airlines within the scope of this paper. London has one of the best networks of international flight destinations in the world. This position will remain in that state for some time to come.

London’s Existing Capacity limitations

London has three significant capacity limitations that will limit its growth as an international air transport hub. First, most of London’s airports use single runways. While this is not an immediate problem, it is a very risky position for the city given the capacity constraints witnessed at Heathrow.

Heathrow has two runways, but it is operating at almost full capacity with very little margin for emergencies. Most of the other London airports will approach full capacity usage within the next two decades. The runway problem will be more difficult to mitigate because of the increasing pressure from social and environmental activists who are against the expansion of airports in their neighbourhoods.

The second significant capacity constraint that London airports face comes from the single terminal structure of most of its airports. While this is not necessarily a problem if the airport functions efficiently, it limits the overall capacity of the airport.

Heathrow has increased its passenger carrying capacity by the construction of new larger terminals demonstrating the potential impact of increasing terminal capacity. The single terminal structure used on more than half of London’s airports will become a significant constraint on the city once it exceeds its capacity to handle all the passengers in the city.

Thirdly, most of the airports do not own sufficient land to make it possible for them to expand their runways, taxiways and terminals. The worst affected airport is the London City Airport, which cannot extend its runway to allow aircraft with larger payloads to access it.

In addition to this limitation, the cost of real estate surrounding most of these airports is prohibitive to enable the airport authorities to acquire and develop them conveniently. If the city does not take radical action, it will find itself in a situation where it does not have any reserve capacity, which will in turn stall the city’s growth.

Consequences of Physical Design Air Service Provided in London’s Airports

Due to their strategic nature, London’s airports provide a number of air services for both airlines and passengers. These services include aircraft maintenance, hotel, airport transfer services and parking service. The range of services is much broader.

The airports provide hangers for aircraft maintenance for the airlines with local bases. Airlines such as British Airways and easyJet use their bases in London airports to maintain their aircraft.

In addition, international aircraft that require emergency maintenance services get them from the London airports while on transit there. This is a significant economic resource for London because it provides jobs for maintenance crews and thereby stimulates the local economy.

The hospitality industry is also a critical provider of services at the London airports. The high numbers of passengers using London’s airports make them a perfect place to put up hotels. These hotels provide connecting passengers and crew with an opportunity to rest between flights.

This is very critical in London because of its place as an international hub. The presence of hotels also adds value to the local economy because it makes the provision of services a source of foreign exchange. The two largest airports, Heathrow and Gatwick have a number of hotels near their locations while there are plans to build an airport hotel at Stansted.

The third service area that is significant is the array of transport services linking the airports to the city of London. All the airports have road, and rail connections. Under road transport, several options exist for users. It is possible to use buses and coaches, or taxis to access locations within London.

In addition, there are car hire services for people who want to drive themselves into town. There are concepts in the books relating to the linking of the airports directly to facilitate better connection for passenger with connecting flights.

Airports also provide parking services for people flying out of London. The provision of parking is an important part of the service industry provided by airports that determines which airports people prefer to use.

As a result, the airports make it possible for passengers to book their parking spaces in advance to reassure them that they will have space to park their cars when they arrive.

How Airports Affect London’s Economy

The impact of the airports to London’s economy is very significant. The airports provide both direct and indirect jobs to the city residents and to some international workers. In addition, the airports bring in many business people from all countries of the world seeking trading opportunities in London. It also makes it possible for students, tourists and people seeking specialised services to travel to London.

Heathrow airport employs seventy six thousand people directly in the various services it provides there. These people come from all cadres from aeronautical engineers to baggage handlers.

The sheer numbers of people that pass through the airports make it necessary to have a very large number of people working in different departments. Passengers must go through security checks, medical exams, and other types of screening to ensure that the airport is safe for everyone.

This means that there are police officers, medical service providers and anti-terror operatives active at all times. The passengers also need food when they land or when they are stopping over for flights. This calls for hotel and fast food services. Some travellers like to get gifts from different countries hence the need to have souvenir shops at the airports.

The major impact the airports have on the UK economy is that it provides direct jobs for many Londoners, and gives London a special place in the world as a trading centre. Indeed, London is the financial capital of Europe because of the ease of access to it from different cities across Europe and the world.

Tourists also come to London bringing in foreign exchange. On the outward bound, Londoners can access jobs and opportunities in any city in the world that has a connection with London through one of its airports. They can export goods and services through these vital links. The airports are arguably the lifeblood of the city of London.

Consequences of Capacity Limitations

There are stark warnings that if London does not address its capacity limitations in the coming days then it may end up making huge losses in lost opportunities. Heathrow already has a bad reputation as a crowded airport, and one that may not handle an emergency effectively.

Most of the other airports have some reserve capacity, which will run out by 2030. The lack of space to expand airport runways in some airports and the already tight schedules that Heathrow operates threatens London’s expansion as an international destination.

In particular, London is very vulnerable in the South East where there is no international airport. A report by FTI Consulting showed that there will be “lost long benefits from around twenty million pounds to forty seven million pounds in net present value terms over periods of thirty to fifty years”.

The report adds that this is equivalent to loss of the opportunity to create fifteen thousand jobs every year . If London does not spruce up its capacity, then there is a real chance that the city will lose the related opportunities to other cities in Europe that have greater capacity for expansion.

London’s strategy London’s airport strategy has several aspects informing its development. The first key feature of this strategy is that it evolved over time. Most of the airports did not arise from a citywide design but came up because of the needs at their time. The Second World War was especially influential in the location of the current airports.

Most of them came up to support the war effort as bases for the Royal Air Force, and the American forces. The administration of civil use airports also underwent several changes further demonstrating the fact that the London Airport strategy evolved over time as a reactive and not a proactive process.

This strategy development process explains the fact that there are issues currently with London’s vulnerability in the South East relating to its access to air transport.

The second significant element of London’s strategy is that it responded to demand, and still does. While this make a lot of business sense, it adversely affects the long range planning potential of the city hence exposes the city to serious bottlenecks.

The growth of Heathrow, and its expansion plans all respond to demand. The case of Heathrow is testament to the fact that demand patterns alone are a dangerous way of planning because of the potential for demand patterns to change. Currently, Heathrow is approaching full capacity and there is little space left to expand the airport.

The opening of terminal two will help to ease current congestion but it does not address the strategic issues relating to the airline industry. Other airports such as Gatwick are under increasing pressure to take up the Load from Heathrow with plans to connect the two airports to increase efficiencies.

This overreliance on Heathrow is very dangerous for London because of the adverse effects the economy would experience if Heathrow went offline.

The third aspect of London airport strategy is that the city is currently under immense pressure to increase its demand if it hopes to remain competitive. The only two airports with the capacity to handle international flights using long haul, heavy payload aircrafts on a constant basis are Heathrow and Gatwick.

If either of them went offline, then the city will simply be unable to cope with the consequences and it will lose its attractiveness as an international business and travel hub. This is the source of the pressure behind efforts to develop a second runway for Gatwick and a third one for Heathrow.

The final element of London’s airport strategy is that it is under increasing pressure from conservationists not to expand. There is very little that the London City Airport can do to expand its size because of its limited space.

Gatwick and Heathrow can annex some of the nearby land, but this is not acceptable to many conservation groups within London because they feel it will only increase pollution, and destroys heritage sites. Heathrow called off plans to builds new access routes based on concerns by conservationists and lack of political support.

Finally, each airport seems to respond to its challenges using its own priorities. While this is fine for business, it can be dangerous for London because it means that strategic decisions with a large upfront cost but greater longer-term benefits will not feature in the current plans.

This element of London’s airport strategy may cost the city future revenues because of the capacity limitations. It is true that some locations have better chances of hosting successful businesses, but neglecting others bring about problems as described by FTI consulting, where the South East of London lacks access to an airport.

This example demonstrates the need to develop a proactive strategy that looks at the longer term than simply those that make the most business sense in the short term.

The final feature of London’s airport strategy is the move towards greater efficiency with existing resources as compared to expansion of the resource base. This is one of the most promising trends in the London airport strategy.

This strategy is what makes Heathrow operational today despite its traffic load. Without the efficiencies that the airport uses to handle landings and takeoffs, it would not be possible to operate Heathrow at its current levels.

The only issue is the risk that these methods bring. If an accident took place at Heathrow, the economic cost will be very high. This explains why there is need to develop more capacity at Heathrow.

Alternative strategy The following proposals can help London to improve its airport strategy.

Coordinated development: London’s airports have different owners who have different priorities hence they pursue different development models. While this is the main philosophy behind liberalization of markets, it often fails to deliver all round development.

Business people go for the best opportunities to make a profit as soon as possible hence they may fail to consider the overall needs of the communities that host them. There is a critical need to control the development of London’s airports to enable the city to respond better to both unforeseen disasters and opportunities.

For instance, there is need to develop risk analysis models to determine whether London can survive the catastrophic loss of either Gatwick or Heathrow.

Expansion of Gatwick and Stansted: The second proposal for London to consider is expanding the physical size of both Gatwick and Stansted to ensure that they can handle Heathrows traffic if need arises. It will be better if the city uses a longer planning horizon such as fifty years as opposed to the current fixation with 2030.

All the airport expansion plans seem to look at 2030 as the crunch year for London’s airports. A longer planning horizon can look at issues like reserving space for development such that when the time comes for further airport expansion, then the process will be quicker.

It will eliminate constrains such as those outlined regarding the London Luton Airport, which is currently too small, and it cannot acquire the land it needs because of local resistance.

Work on an efficiency focussed paradigm: There is a real opportunity for the airports in London such as the London City Airport to expand its operational capacity by increasing its operational efficiency. The example of Heathrow on this front provides lessons on how to manage increasing demand versus dwindling capacity.

The idea behind this proposal is that if there is an airport that cannot expand its capacity simply by increasing the size of its runways and taxiways, and also its terminals, then it can improve the efficiency of handling the passengers to ensure that they take as little time as possible at the airport.

It means that the airports should invest in efficiency by studying better handling methods, such as online check in and remote security checks, and faster baggage handling to reduce check in and checkout time.

Development of a gateway to the South East of London: On the issue of South East London, it may not be viable to construct a new airport, but it may be sensible to connect the nearest airports to the southeast using high-speed dedicated rail service.

In fact, the idea of remote check in and remote frisking can work here. Using remote sites to conduct security checks means that the airports will become rapid transit zones. It will be even safer because no one, such as terrorists seeking access to the airport will be near enough to inflict any damage on it.

This approach will also ensure that there is an area in London free from air traffic. This in itself will make the place attractive to locate facilities evading noise from aircraft.

Conclusions London is a strategic city with a lot of economic potential because of its network of airports. The city has six airports each with some kind of capacity to handle international flights. The connections of the airports to many cities around the world make London a convenient connection point and stop over for many flights and passengers.

The current capacity constraints threaten future prospects for the city as an international hub. The airports cannot expands as easily as they would like hence London stands to lose some of the aviation business to better placed European countries. This will lead to massive losses in future opportunities in both revenues and jobs.

The most significant forces derailing the expansion of London’s airports include rise in property prices and conservation activism. Airports that must acquire land to expand have to spend much more that it cost to acquire the original sites because of the rise in value of lands adjacent to airports because of their commercial value. In addition, there is pressure from social activists and environmental activists who are against the expansion of airports citing air and noise pollution, and the destruction of natural habitats and heritage sites.

Efficiency is one of the major opportunities for the growth of the aviation industry in London. Airports can significantly increase their operating capacity by improving the efficiency of operations. The model available for the development of this concept is Heathrow Airport.

A possible idea to use to increase airport efficiency is the development of remote immigration and customs, and security checks to help expand the airports capacity. It will transform the airports to rapid transit zones. It also calls for a similar baggage handling system.

The future of London rests in the actions that the current industry players will take. If they choose a strategic route that takes into account the future needs of the city, then all will be well. However, if they follow the current demand driven models and short range planning, then London will lose its competitive advantage as an international hub.

Reference List Bazargan, M., 2010. Airline Operations and Scheduling. 2nd ed. Hampshire: Ashgate publishing.

Bieger, T.


Adolescent Sexuality and Sexual Health Analytical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Pregnancies among the adolescent is a norm among many societies in the world. According to a Neelofur-Khan (2007) approximately 14 million teenagers, aged 15-19 get pregnant each year. In the sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of the populations of women give birth before they attained the age of 20.

The regional birth rate among the sub Saharan adolescents is approximately 115 births per 1000 pregnancies (Neelofur-Khan 2007). However, this reality is not limited to the developing countries in the sub Saharan region only; some of the developed nations are acutely affected by the menace of teenage pregnancies.

While the concepts of modernization, law, and other controls have led to a slight decrease in cases of adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy remain prevalent in most regions of the world. The number of girls getting pregnant during their teens, all over the world, remains high despite the worldwide campaigns launched to discourage teen pregnancy.

Adolescent pregnancy affects all communities and countries in the world. In fact, both the developed and the developing nations encounter the problem of adolescent pregnancies. In the United States, for instance, adolescent pregnancies remain higher than in most of the developed countries.

Although the number of pregnancies among adolescents between aged 15 to 19 has decreased by an estimated twenty-one percent in developed nations, the number of adolescent pregnancies in the America remains high (Rothenberg and Weissman 2002). Approximately 40% of women below the age of twenty in America get pregnant annually (Dangal, 2006).

National statistic records in the United States indicate that an approximate 12,000 female below the age of 15 are pregnant (Rothenberg and Weissman 2002). With these staggering figures seen in the United States seeming hard to beat, it is astonishing to learn that the numbers of adolescent pregnancies in the sub-Saharan Africa are higher. Research conducted in the 1990s show that sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of teen pregnancies (Demographic health surveys 1995).

The sub Saharan region is affected by various factors that encourage teen pregnancies. Factors such as poverty, sexual abuse, and lack of career opportunities among other causatives lead to early pregnancies among the sub Saharan adolescents. Teenage pregnancies are accompanied by various risks. Some of the risks include potential death of the mother, spread of HIV to among the adolescents and high potential death of the infant (Matson 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adolescents may suffer death in case they try to abort under unsafe conditions. According to a report released World Health Organization, the number of abortions in the United States range between 2 and 4 million per year. Adolescents resort to unsafe procedures performed non-professional doctors because abortion is illegal in most countries of the world. The unsafe procedures performed these doctors increase the risk of teenagers contracting HIV and AIDS.

Winter (1997) in his paper ‘why teenage girls become pregnant’ revealed that, a number of factors might lead to pregnancies of the adolescents. He noted that most teenagers became pregnant because they lacked ambition.

Moreover, Poor grades, low self-esteem, unrealistic expectations, and lack of proper parental control lead the teenagers into the trap of early pregnancies (Harrington 2004). This paper discusses some determinants of adolescent pregnancy. Moreover, this article describes an intervention program that has had some success in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with pregnancy in adolescent.

Adolescent Pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa Teenage pregnancies in the sub Saharan countries is almost a norm in most societies. Poverty in these countries is very high and most children, especially the girl child, do not get sufficient education to sustain their future needs.

Therefore, by the time a girl attains the age of 14, she may be married or pregnant (Sarri


Shuzworld Company Evaluation Essay college essay help

Workflow at Shuzworld (Discussion and Recommendations) Shuzworld’s case embraces the aspects of workflow. This section of the paper discusses the workflow provisions and provides appropriate recommendations applicable in this context.

This will ensure credible workflow augmentation in the Shuzworld Company with specific reference to Chinese plants. For example, the workflow in the production system is not efficient enough to serve growing demands for several types of shoes globally.

It is notable that the company takes nearly 46 minutes to produce one Rugged Wear Workboots product. There are recommendation on how this timeframe can be reduced (per process) to ensure efficiency, quality, and enhanced output.

Workflow recommendations and Justifications Firstly, it is recommendable for the company to use sound management principles and decision analysis in order to make sense of the available options. Although it is impossible to merge some of the processes due to protocol disparities, it is recommendable to restructure the production line as Catherine Pang drew it on the white board.

The company will save time and money as demanded by any proficient workflow. This is a critical provision when considered critically. It is notable that the workflow can either proceed to B or C after passing through process A.

Process E and F can also be selected for viability and time factor. Supportively, Shuzworld should use process ACDEGH, which will consume only 36 minutes instead of the current 46 minutes. Thus, it is appropriate to assert that the company should restructure its production line/processes as shown the subsequent output forms.

Shuzworld’s Rugged Wear Workboot Assembly Schedule Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Another recommendation is that the company can increase the number of its workstations within china in order to curb the workflow challenges. Additionally, it can purchase more machines that will be able to handle numerous tasks simultaneously.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relying on fewer machines might distract the production system especially when one machine breaks down. Another recommendation is for the company to hire proficient and reliable workforce capable of operating the machines faster and accurately.

This will help in enhancing the workflow and other related concerns. Additionally, Shuzworld ought to improve the efficiency of its plants by enhancing competence and providing the correct number of workstations.

The company should also schedule the production of new products coherently in order to enhance the workflow. It is also important to enhance the reliability of the three machines meant to produce casual deck shoes. One production process should not interfere with others.

Notably, the company has been grappling with the reliability of machines. If one machine breaks down, the production is highly affected. Indeed, no shoes are produced if one machine has a problem. Therefore, there is the need for the company to improve the reliability of the machines in the plant by acquiring other reliable ones.

These should be put on standby waiting to replace the broken ones. This will obviously enhance operations and the ultimate output of the concerned operators.

Alternatively, the company can hire new employees, train them appropriately, and nurture their workmanship in order to enhance the workflow, productivity, and profitability of the company. This decision will reduce delays, lower labor costs and improved output.

With regard to frequent machine breakdowns, the company can acquire new machine models or hire qualified machine repairers then distribute them to different plants for reliability and efficiency. Another recommendation is to assign operators on jobs they know best.

We will write a custom Essay on Shuzworld Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of having four operators, whose labor costs shift from one process to another, the company can facilitate the specialization of employees on single jobs. For instance, job machine operator C ought to handle process 1 owing to reduced amounts of costs.

Indeed, the company can save at least $3 dollars in this process. Second, Machine operator B ought to handle process 2 due to the cost efficiency as well. Process 3 should be the work machine operator D while the last process should be the work of operator A.

Job Machine Operator A B C D 1 $10 $12 $10 $11 2 11 9 11 11 3 9 8 11 9 4 10 8 9 10 Justification Output By improving the company’s workflow, the company will increase its output. At the outset, there will be an apparent and a marginal reduction of labor costs ($4) associated with machine operators. Besides, specialization improves the quality and the flow of work due to the improved skills for the specialists as depicted by Ryan (2009).

Second, the company will also enhance its ability to meet its customers’ needs without having by increasing its machines and hiring some skilled professionals. Although the company will incur significant costs by hiring more laborers to handle the new sandal line, it will break even within the second month of operation. Therefore, no customers will be waiting in the line. Below is the output form after the required changes.

Copy of the prospected output Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Output for machine operators Job Preferred operator Cost 1 A $10 2 D $11 3 B 8 4 C 9 Work Flow Analysis Tool The Shuzwolrd case demand a viable workflow analysis tool, which addresses all the issues fronted to the new employee ranging from the assembly line issues to inventory challenges. The decision analysis tool was chosen because it was comprehensive and could tackle all the issue that faces the company.

Additionally, it could give quick and well-analyzed resolutions to the issue faced within the company and the industry at large. Concurrently, the tool could be used specifically in some areas to address particular issues raised by Cynthia Crowninshield, Alistair Wu, Catherine Pang, and Gloria Rodriguez among others.

For example, when analyzing the mall store sales, the tool can prefers on employing one efficient cashier for cost effectiveness. Another reason behind this choice is the ability to attain precise decisions on critical matters.

It is important to claim that the analysis tool used in scrutinizing the mentioned workflow and other relevant provision is viable, feasible, and applicable in various contexts. It is from this concern that the entire workflow concerns rest.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shuzworld Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Precisely, the tool used is practicable, considerable and comprehensible indicating its applicability in this context. This is an important consideration.

Cost Analysis Analysis of the initial and ongoing costs

The entire costs that the company incurs include the costs associated with inefficiencies evident in highlighted workflow analysis ranging from assembly line issues to transportation factors among other provisions. The Maui Sandal Project presents the company with a huge opportunity to improve its global appeal and ultimately its revenues.

The production costs of women’s shoes are quite varying. This depends on the four machine operators with regard to which job type each one of them assumes (Fischer, 2008). It is important to assign each operator on a job, which he does best. This will help in reducing the costs indicated upon analysis.

Additionally, the transportation costs assumed by each plant while serving each of the three warehouses vary considerably. It is notable from analysis that the cost incurred by Shuzworld F (on a per unit basis) is higher when shipping products to warehouse 3 ($6 per unit). Nonetheless, it is cheaper to move from Shuzworld F to warehouse 1 ($2 per unit).

Concurrently, the Shanghai plant incurs a considerable cost when transporting products to warehouse 1 ($4 per unit). It is crucial to note that the three plants can reassign their operations such that each plant ships its products to less costly destinations.

Additionally, the plan by the Shanghai plant to increase its capacity from 1300 units to 2800 units translates to additional costs despite the benefits. Nonetheless, demand for more products has not increased as stated by Alistair Wu.

The inventory costs are equally infuriating. Shuzworld utilizes 300,000 pairs of shoelaces annually. The cost is estimated at $125 each time an order is made to the supplier. Since the cost of storing shoelaces in inventory is 10 cents a pair, it is improper to stock or purchase more than necessary. This is costly for no apparent reasons.

The company will also have to incur set up costs since the batches of sandals will have to begin after setting up the machines. Besides, the costs of designing the efficient processes that will oversee the production of singular units notwithstanding the pairs of sandals that is in a batch (Sharp


Islamic Culture: Land Ownership in Pakistan Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Organisational culture is a set of rules and priorities which help the company meet its mission and vision, complete tasks, satisfy customers’ needs, and create its image. Depending on the country the company performs into, the principles of the organisational culture may differ.

The innovation in organisation change may vary because of the peculiarities of business running in a particular country. The innovation is a set of actions aimed at solving the problems by setting up new decisions, approaches, etc. Considering the problem of innovation, change, and organisational culture and applying the issues to personal experience, it may be stated that the main purposes of this paper are to review the theories of the nature of organisational culture.

We are going to dwell upon the impact of innovation in those theories and critically discuss how the leaders of an organisation can affect the change. We will examine how culture influences behaviours related to innovation and change in an organisation in the investment banking, and recommend the strategies and actions that could be implemented by the organisation’s leaders to improve or create a fitting culture.

A critical review of the theories of the nature of organisational culture, including how it may impact innovation, and how it may be affected by the leaders of an organisation

The notion of organisational culture is similar to understanding business and leadership. However, there are several differences noticed only because of the organisational culture. Therefore, some sources claim that the leadership is a notion, which has the same definition in different cultures, however, due to the cultural differences, the organisations usually point at the characteristic features of the leaders.

Thus, being charismatic personalities, the leadership style under such characteristic feature aims to seek for transformational style of leadership with the purpose to set up innovation. Thus, in some cultures “one might need to take strong, decisive action in order to be seen as a leader, while in other cultures consultation and a democratic approach may be the preferred approach to exercising effective leadership” ([email protected] 1999, p. 1).

Considering such approach as the nature of innovation and the difference as the personal characteristic feature set on the leader, it may be stated that the failure to meet the requirements of the leadership in a particular organisational culture may lead to failure to run business. The organisational culture is to meet the social processes, corresponding to the environment and meet the rules prescribed in the country.

Dwelling upon the nature of the organisational change, many scholars believe that there are three layers of organisational culture which imply the correct functioning of business in the frames of one specific tradition. The lower layer of the organisational culture is the assumptions, the issues that are taken for granted. The next level is the beliefs which control behaviour. The upper level is considered to be the values which usually cover the mission, the vision and the objectives of the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each of these layers performs a particular purpose that cannot be substituted. Moreover, each layer is responsible for particular characteristics which accept that the organisational culture of a particular company is unique. This theory is believed to be rather effective as it explains the information mentioned above about the similarities of understanding the organisational culture and the similar approaches in most cases but different in performance.

The organisational culture may be compared with iceberg in this case, when the visible part of it represents the issues which are accepted by all of the cultures and are considered to be similar, and the biggest part which is hidden from the eyes of others which is considered only inside of the company.

Such approach is effective as following the commonly accepted rules. Each company may refer to one specific model of creating the organisational culture which does not contradict the commonly accepted rules and at the same time has specific peculiarities (Holbeche 2006).

Trevino, Weaver, and Reynolds (2006) have developed the theory that behaviour of the employees depends on their ethical decision-making processes which depend on the intrusion of the company. The authors are sure that the company is to play an essential role in the decision-making and ethical consideration of the company as these beliefs form the organisational culture. Moreover, they are sure that the behavioural ethics influences other aspects of organisational culture.

If to accept the fact that organisational culture is the collection of assumptions, beliefs and values of the company, it is impossible to disagree with the theory. According to the literature review conducted by Trevino, Weaver, and Reynolds (2006) and the definition of the notion “organisational culture”, it may be concluded that the belief that the ethical behaviour is the basis for the organisational culture is correct as the nature of this notion is in the organisational expression, the way how the company is represented.

This aspect is considered to be the main in the discussion of the organisational culture as the company is usually perceived on the basis of the behaviour of its employees and the way the company operates at the market, which is also the activity and one of the main characteristic features of the organisational culture.

The companies are to review the behaviour of their employees based on the ethical beliefs to make sure that the organisational culture presented in the mission, vision and objectives is exactly how the company is perceived by others on the basis of the behaviour of the company employees. The unity of the concepts and believes positively influences the organisational change and shares the responsibility among all the members of the company (Belcher 2006).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Islamic Culture: Land Ownership in Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a belief that the organisational culture differs greatly in the companies where either men or women predominate on the leadership position. Considering this aspect as one of the theories about the organisational culture, a thorough research may present the following results. Several years ago, male and female organisational cultures were absolutely different as the style of running companies was different due to characteristic features of male and female leadership style.

Nowadays, the characteristic features in leadership lose gender feature and the organisational culture is defined by means of other issues ([email protected] 2005). However, remembering the Arabic countries, it is possible to state that the gender may play a significant role in the development of the organisational culture as Arabic people do not want to be run by women and this desire is expressed in their decision.

Doman, Glucksman, Tu, and Warren (2000) stress on the formation of the organisational culture on the basis of the talents of employees. Such theory is not effective as it is impossible to imagine the organisation which does not pay attention to the behaviour of employees, their vision and mission, motivation, company image, etc.

In case the company bases its organisational culture only on this aspect, the innovation and change processes are to be complicated by the outside processes which are to be weighted but the company does not refer to them due to cultural peculiarities (Shiu,


The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka Analytical Essay best essay help

Introduction The stay of mankind on planet earth has often witnessed moments of helplessness when natural disasters have stuck; thus, destroying many lives and disorienting mankind in the process. From our earliest ancestors to the modern man, we have not been safe from the anger of natural disasters.

Ranging from volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and the destructive tsunamis, we are susceptible to an array of natural disasters that is always waiting to strike. Such was the case when a tsunami hit the coastline of Sri Lanka on 26th December, 2004.

Without warning, thousands of people were killed by the 2004 tsunami. Such is the common story that is often told when catastrophic disasters like a tsunami strikes. Although we have evolved in science and thus learned many secrets of our world, we have not been able to subdue natural disasters. Since all life is precious, it is our responsibility to use the resources we have, and adopt a behaviour that can help us preserve even a few lives during catastrophic events.

Generally, a tsunami can be defined as a series of wave disturbances which usually originate from a vertical displacement of a water column (Abek 1561). The word “tsunami” has an origin in the Japanese language. Here, “tsunami” can be directly translated as a series of waves that often form at bays (Hassain 51).

Usually, anything with a potential of displacing, or moving a large volume of water can cause a tsunami (Vitarana 84). The most common causes of tsunamis include earthquakes, moving heavenly bodies such as meteorites and asteroids, volcanoes, and landslides (Vitarana 84).

Earthquakes Most tsunamis originate from earthquakes. Once an earthquake occurs on a sea bed, a large mass of water is displaced upwards. Due to the force of gravity, the displaced volume of water will move downwards to regain its original position (Vitarana 84).

A repetitive cycle where a water column moves up and down is created; hence forming a wave. Usually, a displacement of a water column will occur when part of a sea bed is displaced (UNEP 12). A fault line in the earths crust can especially create a boundary where a vertical displacement of the sea bed can easily occur (Liu 106).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Earthquakes that occur on subduction trenches are the main causes of most tsunamis (Liu 106). The tsunami waves that originate from an earthquake source can then move away from the place where they originate thousands of miles (Moore 143). Knowing the magnitude of an earthquake can especially be useful in determining the scale of tsunamis that have travelled thousands of miles from their source (Hassain 51).

Landslides Tsunamis can also originate from landslides. Landslides can occur at the seabed, or at the coast (Vitarana 84). Possible causes of such landslides include the earthquakes, the erosion of sea slopes, and volcanoes (Hanson 67).

The erosion of coastal slopes can occur as a result of rain action, from sea waves, and storms (Hanson 67). Due to a displacement of sea water as a result of displaced debris from landslides, a series of waves that has a potential of causing a tsunami is formed (Van 24).

Volcanoes When a volcano occurs above the surface of the sea, but in proximity to the sea’s surface, a large quantity of rock debris is thrown into the sea. When such debris falls into the sea, it displaces water; hence, creating waves that can cause a tsunami.

However, volcanic eruptions that occur under a sea are more hazardous in forming tsunamis (Hassain 51). Tsunamis can originate from a displacement of water that is caused from a rising slope of a volcano (Van 24).

Besides, gases that are usually released from an erupting volcano can also cause a large water displacement; hence, forming a tsunami in themselves (Hanson 67). Moreover, a volcano can also trigger an earthquake, which can then trigger a tsunami (Damen 106).

Meteorites, Comets and Asteroids Our earth is constantly in danger of colliding with heavenly bodies like comets, asteroids and meteorites (Hanson 67). While one might think that great damage from such collisions will occur if such bodies hit the earth’s surface in an area that is densely populated (such as a town), a greater catastrophic damage will happen if such bodies strike at sea (Abek 1561).

We will write a custom Essay on The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, scientists estimate that if an asteroid that is about six kilometres in size was to fall in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, a third of the US population would be killed (Damen 106). The gigantic speed and size of a typical asteroid can create huge waves (tsunamis) that can cause a devastating damage to our population (Liu 106).

Although the possibility of us experiencing such a collision (from a heavenly body such as a comet) is almost zero, there is always a possibility, however remote, of such a catastrophe (Abek 1561).

Activities of Man Any human activity that can result in a displacement of a large volume of sea water can lead to the build-up of a tsunami wave. The carrying out of nuclear tests in deep sea can especially release large amounts of energy which can then displace large volumes of sea water; hence, leading to the development of a tsunami wave.

Characteristics of a Tsunami As we had seen earlier, a tsunami originates from a displacement of a large volume of water (Van 24). Such a displacement creates a wave that moves up and down. A tsunami is therefore a wave that is very similar to the kind of wave ripples that we usually observe when we throw a stone in a tank of water (Damen 106).

Very often, a tsunami will travel as a series of multiple waves; hence, it is usually called a train of waves (Damen 106). Once it forms, a tsunami can travel thousands of miles in the sea before reaching a coastal area (Liu 106).

For example, a tsunami with an origin in the Atlantic can travel at an incredible speed of over 1000 km/hr to reach the Japanese coastline within 24 hours. Usually, tsunamis travel at very high speeds in deep sea waters (Hassain 51).

However, on reaching shallow waters, the speeds of tsunamis usually reduce gradually (Van 24). Such behaviour results from an energy flux that remains constant during a wave travel (Hanson 67). Since the energy flux of a tsunami is proportional to the speed and amplitude of a tsunami wave, tsunamis at deep waters will travel at high speeds and low amplitudes.

Unlike their counterparts in shallow waters, such tsunamis will usually consist of waves that are small in amplitude and long (in horizontal size) (Abek 1561). Indeed, it is sometimes difficult to physically observe a tsunami wave that is travelling in the deep sea (Moore 115).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, as a tsunami moves into shallow waters towards a coastal area, its speed decreases while its amplitude increases. Travelling at a speed that is proportional to the square root of gravity constant multiplied by depth, a tsunami that is travelling in water that has a depth of five kilometres can move at a speed of over 800 km/hr.

On hitting a coastline, such a tsunami can travel at amplitude that is within ten to fifty meters. Such tsunamis can be observed as a series of water waves forming a series of rises that alternate with falls at the coastline. Usually, tsunamis can occur for several hours.

Like any other wave, tsunami waves can add to one another to form waves with higher amplitudes, or subtract from one another to form waves of lower (or zero) amplitudes (Moore 116).

The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka The date of 26th December, 2004, will be remembered for a long time by many people in Sri Lanka. During this particular date, a tsunami of a large magnitude and scale hit the coastline of Sri Lanka (Liu 117). The 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka was caused by an earthquake of a high magnitude that occurred in the western coast of Sumatra (Moore 138).

The focal depth of this particular earthquake was about thirty kilometres (Liu 117). Described as the worst earthquake to occur in the history of our planet in the past five decades, the earthquake that caused Sri Lanka’s tsunami measured over 9.0 on the Richter scale (Liu 106).

The above earthquake originated from an interaction of Australian, Sunda, and Burmerse tectonic plates. Here, as much as 30 meters of the sea bed covering a distance of over one thousand kilometres was displaced (Abek 1561).

Thus, the displacement that was caused by the described tsunami resulted in a vertical displacement of a very large volume of water; hence, creating a tsunami (Moore 129). Moreover, the 9.0 earthquake caused a series of about fifteen other earthquakes in the affected region.

As a result of a water displacement (caused by the resulting upward movement of the sea floor) that was caused by the 9.0 earthquake, a series of three tsunami waves was formed (Liu 106). Time duration between these tsunami waves averaged about twenty minutes.

Effects of the 2004 Sri Lanka’s Tsunami When a tsunami reaches a coastline, it travels with high amplitude (from ten meters to even fifty meters). Thus, water overflows from the coastline towards the inland. Such a moving volume of water travels at a high speed, and with enormous energy that can cause huge destructions.

The 2004 tsunami, which hit the Sri Lankan coastline, affected more than two thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline. More than 20% of the Sri Lankan population was thus affected by the 2004 tsunami. Here, the moving tsunami wave drowned and killed thousands of people.

There were especially many deaths since the country was not expecting a tsunami, and was not therefore prepared for an emergency evacuation. It is reported that due to ignorance, thousands of Sri Lanka’s went to learn of what had happened when the first of the three series of tsunami waves hit their coastline (Liu 119).

Usually, due to interactions with a coastline (often leading to a loss of energy), the first wave of a tsunami is often less devastating than those that follow after it. Thousands of people here were thus caught unaware and killed by the second wave of the 2004 tsunami.

The total number of people who were killed in Sri Lanka by the 2004 tsunami has been estimated to be around 31,000 in total (Liu 119). A larger proportion of those killed by the 2004 Tsunami consisted of women and children.

It is estimated that over 10,000 of those killed here during the tsunami disaster consisted of children (Liu 119). Apart from deaths, about seventeen thousand people were injured by the tsunami tragedy while more than five thousand were reported as missing (Liu 119).

Moreover, the overflowing waters of the 2004 tsunami resulted in a massive destruction of property along the Sri Lankan coastline. As a result of the 2004 tsunami tragedy, more than eighty thousand homes were destroyed; hence, displacing about a million individuals as a result.

So as to cater for the needs of the people who were displaced by the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka, about 800 camps for the displaced were formed. Many of the people in these resettlement camps had lost their property and livelihoods as a result of the tsunami tragedy. Many others had to undergo psychological trauma due to the negative ways in which the tsunami had affected their ordinary living.

Apart from houses, many infrastructural facilities were destroyed by the 2004 tsunami; thus affecting transport, communication and also posing a reconstruction challenge. A lot of debris could be seen around all the areas that had been affected by the tsunami.

Besides, the 2004 tsunami affected the ground fresh water table through salinization of fresh water sources. It will take a lot of efforts and time to clean some of these water tables that were affected.

Since the Indian Ocean bed has been proven to contain lesser amounts of titanium as compared to the Pacific Ocean, more studies will be required before we can determine if large amounts of titanium was deposited inland during the 2004 tsunami.

Economic Impacts The 2004 tsunami affected the economy of Sri Lanka in several negative ways. Many people lost their sources of livelihoods as a result of the 2004 tsunami. Some of these people who had lost their livelihoods had lost their businesses and houses, which had been destroyed by the destructive tsunami waves (Dawson 224).

Moreover, since a large community of the Sri Lankan population depends on fishing, many fishermen became poor as a result of losing their boats to the destructive tsunami waves that had hit their coastline (Dawson 224). A United Nations report on the 2004 tsunami catastrophe estimated that about two hundred thousand people in Sri Lanka were in danger of becoming poorer following the 2004 tsunami tragedy (Dawson 224).

Because a large part of hotels, beaches, among other tourist facilities were destroyed by the tsunami tragedy, the tourism economy of Sri Lanka was affected negatively. With no places were tourists could visit and relax, the number of tourists arrivals in Sri Lanka decreased significantly.

As a result, many people who were directly employed by the tourism sector lost their jobs. Moreover, due to a decrease in tourist arrivals, Sri Lanka was thus losing an important source of foreign exchange for developing her economy.

With a destruction of her infrastructure as a result of the tsunami tragedy, billions of dollars were needed for restructuring. With limited resources, it will be difficult to meet the cost of restructuring affected infrastructure. Meanwhile, as a result of infrastructural destruction, many businesses were affected negatively (Dawson 224).

Many of these businesses depend on telecommunication, electrical power, and transport to carry on with their day to day activities. Most of these businesses are small businesses that contributed positively to the Sri Lankan economy (through employment of people and paying of taxes).

Since most of these businesses have suffered from a displacement of people (hence a loss of market and human resource), and also from a physical damage of their properties and facilities, they have found themselves in a very repelling environment to operate in; thus, limiting their capacity and output to the Sri Lankan economy.

Measures that can be taken to Avoid Future Tsunami Disasters No matter how much we prepare, we can never be ready for natural disasters. However, a possible measure of precautions and preparedness can help us to avoid, or minimize the destructive effects of natural disasters.

Although there is uncertainty on the effectiveness of using technology to mitigate the effects of natural disasters such as tsunamis, we should always work in the direction of utilizing such technologies if we can save a few lives as a result.

Together with several countries, the United States has developed and placed sensors at specific areas on the seabed of the Pacific Ocean. These pressure sensors have been designed to detect possible tsunami waves (UNEP 18).

Since tsunamis consist of waves that have rising and falling amplitudes, the resulting difference in the depth of water can cause pressure alterations at sea beds. These pressure alterations can thus be detected by pressure sensors at the seabed (Meihde 56).

However, since such a process of measurement is highly complex, it is very difficult for sensors at the sea bed to have accuracies that can detect tsunami waves. Still, the progress that has been made in using sensors to analyse data for a possible tsunami waves is positive (UNEP 12).

Moreover, since tsunamis interact with the coastline in a way that is difficult to predict, it is equally difficult to predict their behaviour. Sometimes, tsunami waves can add together or cancel one another; hence, making it difficult to determine their eventual behaviour (Meihde 56).

Several researchers remain uncertain if the tsunami warning technology in the Pacific Ocean can be replanted in the Indian Ocean. Still, Sri Lanka has been part of an ongoing program that has been working with several other countries to develop a system that can monitor for possible tsunamis before they occur (Liu 106).

Under the tsunami warning system, The Sri Lankan meteorological department will work together with Japanese technologies and the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC) to possibly help in the detection of future tsunamis (Yadav 107).

Although we do not have a reliable system of detecting tsunamis, the above development is progressive in developing reliable systems that can be useful in detecting and monitoring tsunamis before they hit a coastline (Andrew 23). However, since the Indian Ocean bed is different in structure and complexity to the Pacific Ocean bed, there is a need for scientists to develop a warning system that is unique to the Indian Ocean (Patra 362).

Currently, there has been a debate on whether to allow building of houses a few meters from the coastline (UNEP 21). Here, it will be useful to develop buildings that are protective and safe from tsunamis. Importantly, there is also a need to conserve the Sri Lankan coastline (Meihde 56).

A huge part of the coastline should be planted with mangrove forests (Patra 362). A thick cover of mangrove forests is useful in cutting and breaking tsunami waves before they move further inland (Yadav 107). Conservation of the Sri Lankan coastline will thus be useful in at least reducing possible damages that may occur from future tsunamis (Andrew 22).

Importantly, the political leadership in Sri Lanka has become more aware of damages that can result from natural disasters like tsunami attacks.

With such awareness, the political leadership in Sri Lanka can prepare for emergencies and move with speed to mitigate damages that can arise from similar disasters in the future (Patra 362). Here, it will be useful to develop a quick response system that can help in quick evacuations and treatments during times of natural disasters (Yadav 107).

An important area that needs to be utilised for the purposes of mitigating the effects of future natural disasters is the use of technology. Here, technology can especially be used to help in assessing the damage that could have occurred following the occurrence of a natural disaster (Patra 362).

Importantly, technology can be employed to communicate with the people who are in danger of being hit by a natural disaster (Andrew 22). It is fruitful to relay information to a target populace with instructions on where they can move to stay safe, what they can do, and how they can ask for help during such times (Meihde 56).

As we had seen earlier, a large number of people who died during the 2004 tsunami attack died from the second wave (Yadav 107). Having heard of what had happened, many people moved in ignorance to witness the effects of the first wave before the more deadly second wave hit (Yadav 107).

With the right communication, these people could have been told to stay away from the beach; hence, cutting on the number of fatalities that occurred (Patra 362). As it has been proven time and again, an effective system of coordination and communication is essential in saving lives during times of natural disasters (Andrew 23).

Conclusion Natural disasters will always remain a part of us during our stay on planet earth. So as to minimize the loss of lives during natural disasters, it is useful for man to utilize all resources at his disposal to preserve lives during the occurrence of natural disasters.

Such a direction would involve understanding the science of natural disasters like tsunamis, and thus develop measures that can help in warning, planning and rescue programs when natural disasters strike. The 2004 tsunami has especially provided us with important lessons on the direction that we can adopt to prevent massive deaths during such disasters.

Adopting programs that are helpful in preparing for such disasters can be fruitful in saving many lives.

Such a direction would involve developing an efficient system of communication, designing and implementing a standby resource of manpower and machinery for emergencies, using technological systems to warn for possible oncoming disasters, and importantly, developing a system of peaceful coexistence with our natural environment (such as the planting of mangrove forests along coastlines to help in subduing tsunamis).

Works Cited Abek, Kennedy, “Physical Size of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes from Tsunami Data.” Journal of Geography Research, volume 84.1 (2006): 1561-1568. Print

Andrew, John, “Tsunami Generated Forms.” Science of Tsunami Hazards 10.1 (2003): 21-34. Print

Damen, Michiel, What are Tsunamis? New York: McGraw, 2008. Print

Dawson, Foster “The Identification of Tsunami Deposits in Coastal Sediments.” Science of Tsunami Hazards 9.4 (2000): 206-423. Print

Hanson, Briggs, Sea level Change in North Iceland, London: McMillan, 2004. Print

Hassain, Kundsen, Effects of the 2004 Tsunami in India, Mumbai: McGraw, 2007 Print

Liu, Fearn, History of Tsunami Catastrophes, Beijing: McMillan, 2009. Print

Meihde, Mark, Characteristics of Tsunamis. New York: International Institute For geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print

Moore, Normark, Giant Hawaiian Landslides, New York: McMillan, 2005. Print

Patra, Singh, Agrochemical, Mumbai: McMillan, 1996. Print

UNEP, Early Warning Systems, New York: UNEP Press, 2011. Print Van, Frank, the Science of Tsunamis, New York: International Institute For geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print

Vitarana, Tissa, Sri Lanka after the Indian Ocean Tsunami New York: International Institute for geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print

Yadav, Agarwal, Soil, Water Conservation. Mumbai: Oxford, 2007. Print


Mattel’s China Experience: A Crisis in Toyland Case Study a level english language essay help

Company Overview of Mattel Corporation In 1945, two entrepreneurs established Mattel Corporation with small range of product line, but now, it is the largest Toy Company in the world. According to the report of Gamache, et al (2), the name of this company derived from two founders.

At the initial stage of formation, this company only manufactured picture frames and dollhouse furniture for the customer though the owner intended to diversify products and concentrated on the new products development to increase profit margin. However, the management of this company had changed its strategies over time considering the influence of pop culture on the society, and change of customer behavior.

In addition, the management team also considered the suggestion of the outside members, for instance, it had introduced three-dimensional doll “Barbie” because Elliot’s wife (one owner) suggested this idea for the development of the company and now this company generated 50% profits from this product (Gamache, et al 2).

Important Historical Milestones

The most important historical milestones has included in the following table –

Year Historical overview 1945 Harold Matson and Elliot Handler formed this company 1959 Introduction of Barbie doll in accordance with the suggestion of Ruth Handler; however, Barbie was name of her daughter 1960 Enlisted in New York Stock exchange and rapidly ranked in Fortune’s list of the 500 largest US industrial companies 1964 Mattel started its first International sales outlet in Switzerland 1968 Hot Wheels was introduced, became the second biggest hit since Barbie 1970 Mattel tried to tap into electronic games though it was not successful project because competitor’s low pricing strategy 1975 Elliot and Ruth Handler, founders of Mattel, leave this company 1977 Mattel adopted diversified strategy and penetrated the new fast growing electronics game field and introduced the Intellivision home video entertainment system 1982 Mattel’s next large “hit” product briefly assists the company balance the success of the Barbie doll with a boy’s toy 1986 This company had entered into a joint venture arrangement with Bandai, Japan’s largest toy company; in addition, it acquired Hong Kong–based ARCO Industries to gain competitive advantage 1987 Mattel developed a strategy for maximizing core brands to maintain profitability and consistent profits streams 1988 The company revived its association with the Walt Disney Company to introduce different products infant and preschool toys based on famous characters like Mickey Mouse. In addition, it Mattel agreed to buy Corolle S.A., manufacturer of collector-quality dolls based in France. 1989 It acquired Corgi Toys Ltd., a British maker of scale-model, die-cast cars 1991


China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The UnionPay systems requirements granted the service suppliers to offer payment services using electronic cards to carry out transactions in foreign currencies. Under this system, the Chinese authority categorically stated that the devices used in payment card processes must conform to the entity systems requirements.

In addition, it was required that all the cards used in these transactions must bear the UnionPay’s logo. Another bone of contention under this electronic payment system arrangement is that the Chinese merchants were granted some exclusive rights to access the payment cards. However, the other members who were using this system of payment were meant to negotiate before they were given these access rights.

Analysis of the UnionPay case in China The US dispute on China’s UnionPay case

Under the Unionpay program, the United States of America questioned the legality on the country’s authority to issue credit card for electronic payment services. The US thought this would be a means of encouraging fraud and fraudulent activities regarding the electronic payment systems. Therefore, the US claimed that China was permitted only to use UnionPay for issuing electronic payment transactions that were mainly denominated and done in Chinese renminbi.

The United States’ cause of the rejection of the UnionPay services in China

The US never wanted to accept these UnionPay services because China was flouting the rules governing the electronic payment services. For example, the United States of America argued that China was acting inconsistently with the GATS rules, which regulate such services. The most affected sections of the GATS were the Articles XVI as well as XVII (WHO 1).

Analysis of the main idea for the case

The main idea for the UnionPay case is that it was thought by the United States of America to be contravening the established rules and measures that regulate the electronic payment services. In its defence, the US wanted to see that there was a legalized system that dealt with payment transaction services.

In fact, anything that would contravene the established GATS legal frameworks was not good to be adopted as appropriate means of payment (WHO 4). Therefore, the Chinese authority was found to be contravening the rules governing the electronic payment transactions, and the US could not definitely support such kind of a system.

UnionPay in China and its services

This organization can be regarded as the main bank card company in China, which was established in 2002. Therefore, the UnionPay refers to the banking card that is used by many consumers across the entire country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the UnionPay services in China are also important to other foreigners such as the American merchants, owing to its ability to perform interbank transactions by connecting to other ATMs facilities in the county as well as other parts of the world. The UnionPay cards are also famous with the Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPOS), thus making it easier for the merchants to carry out payment transactions promptly.

Solution and Conclusion for the case

In sum, there are imminent fears and allegations attributed to the use of the UnionPay systems in China. Therefore, the best solution was found to be a legalized and harmonized framework between the two countries since it was evidenced that there was a legal conflict in the sense that the system operated under the Chinese laws and regulations, which the US thought to be contravening the established GATS rules. This solution would include sound rules and measures on administration and circulation of UnionPay cards.

Work Cited World Trade Organization (WTO) 2010, China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services. PDF file. Web.


Public Health Perspectives on Tobacco Control: The Framework Convention Report college admission essay help

In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) member states successfully negotiated the organization’s first ever framework convention on tobacco control. The aim of negotiating this particular framework was with a view to ensuring global accountability in public health. This means that the Public Health Perspective on Tobacco Control is recognized and certified by the World Health Assembly (WHA). At the moment, it is made up of nearly 190 member states.

Prior to drafting of the FCTC, a number of products and services provided by individuals and corporations both locally and internationally had resulted in a lot of damage. Therefore, the FCTC was meant to address some of these issues regarding tobacco products as well as their processes. Look at from another perspective, the FCTC could be regarded as an attempt to protect and save millions of lives who have are daily exposed to the dangers of tobacco use (Hawkes


Epidemiological studies of tuberculosis Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which mainly affects pulmonary system, but can affect kidneys, brain, and bones. The causative agent of tuberculosis is a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is among the leading causes of deaths globally because it is an infectious disease, which spreads through the air.

Epidemiological studies have revealed that tuberculosis is prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS in low-income countries because of compromised immune system and poor accessibility to healthcare services (Pang et al., 2014; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The revelation implies that immune system and accessibility of healthcare services play an important role in prevention of tuberculosis.

World Health Organization (2014) reports that tuberculosis 9 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2013 out of which 1.5 million people died (360,000 living with HIV/AIDS). These statistics indicate that tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths globally and is prevalent among people with HIV/AIDS in epidemic regions, such as low-income countries. In this view, the essay examines global epidemiology of tuberculosis in epidemic regions such as the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia.

Epidemiology The United States

The prevalence rate of tuberculosis in the United States is the lowest when compared to the prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), 10,528 cases of tuberculosis occurred in 2011, which amount to an incidence rate of 3.4 cases in every 100,000 persons.

Epidemiological statistics indicate that tuberculosis is prevalent in states such as Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii for they have incidence rates of 9.3, 9.1, and 8.9 respectively (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The epidemiological statistics, therefore, indicate that prevalence of tuberculosis varies from one state to another with Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii having the highest incidence rates.

In the United States, there is disproportionate prevalence of tuberculosis according to race. According to the report of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), the incidences rates of American Asians, African Americans, and White Americans are 20.9, 6.3, and 0.8 respectively.

Epidemiological study undertaken to establish the prevalence of tuberculosis among American Indians shows that their mortality rate is 5 times that of national average (Pang et al., 2014). The incidence rates of tuberculosis among African Americans are considerably higher than that of White Americans owing to poverty (Hotez, 2008). Place of birth determine predisposition to tuberculosis in the United States.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other epidemiological studies have indicates that children of foreign parents and foreigners have higher incidences of tuberculosis when compared the children of Americans and Americans (Pang et al., 2014). Regarding co-infections, World Health Organization (2014) holds that HIV/AIDS contributes to the occurrence of tuberculosis. Hence, it is evident that the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States varies according to race, place of birth, HIV/AIDS.

Sub-Saharan Africa

The prevalence of tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa is very high because it has predisposing factors such as HIV/AIDS and poverty. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Mali, amongst other have high incidences of tuberculosis.

Mboowa (2014) states that the incidence rate of tuberculosis is 255 cases in every 100,000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa because it has about 70% of all cases of HIV/AIDS globally. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS cases in Sub-Saharan Africa implies that a significant number of people have compromised immune system, which predispose them to tuberculosis.

A study done to reveal the association of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS indicates that 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS, who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, develop tuberculosis in their lifetime (Adeiza, Abba,


Assignment: Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Part 2: Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity and Professional Ethics scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Nurse-scholars have a significant obligation to their community as well. Their work must have academic and professional integrity. Their efforts are designed to add to the body of knowledge, advance the profession, and ultimately help in the care of patients. Work that lacks integrity is subject to erode quickly or worse.

Fortunately, there are strategies and tools that can help ensure integrity in academic and professional work. This Assignment asks you to consider these tools and how you might apply them to your own work.

In this Assignment you will continue developing your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan by appending the original document you began in the previous assignment.

To Prepare:

Reflect on the strategies presented in the Resources for this Module in support of academic style, integrity, and scholarly ethics.
Reflect on the connection between academic and professional integrity.
The Assignment:

Part 2, Section 1: Writing Sample: The Connection Between Academic and Professional Integrity

Using the Academic and Professional Success Development Template you began in Module 1, write a 2- to 3-paragraph analysis that includes the following:

Explanation for the relationship between academic integrity and writing
Explanation for the relationship between professional practices and scholarly ethics
Cite at least two resources that support your arguments, being sure to use proper APA formatting.
Use Grammarly and SafeAssign to improve the product.
Explain how Grammarly, Safe Assign, and paraphrasing contributes to academic integrity.
Part 2, Section 2: Strategies for Maintaining Integrity of Work
Expand on your thoughts from Section 1 by identifying and describing strategies you intend to pursue to maintain integrity and ethics of your:

academic work as a student of the MSN program and
professional work as a nurse throughout your career. Include a review of resources and approaches you propose to use as a student and a professional.
Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.


Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report college essay help

Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.

High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.

For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.

Introduction Problem Solving

Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.

When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.

The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.

Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson


Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report essay help online: essay help online

Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.

High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.

For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.

Introduction Problem Solving

Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.

When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.

The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.

Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson


Theory Integration in Intelligence Expository Essay essay help

Table of Contents Rational Choice theory

Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies


Reference List

Rational Choice theory George Homas is a sociologist who developed the rational choice theory by assuming that people make economic decisions by considering the greatest benefits and wants that will cost less for more returns. The theory is common amongst economists in cases where the majority of people want to balance less cost for greater profits.

The theory is also applicable in Intelligence Science because the presumption forms part of human behavior that is characterized by wanting greater benefits by giving less contribution. Therefore, looking for information about security threats such as terrorism becomes easier because it is assumed that terrorists or their targets are individuals who want to gain benefits by using easy ways that pose threats to a given country.

Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies The rational choice theory is applicable in every field because choices that free persons make are mostly for self-interest. Every person needs to gain more by contributing less. This scenario brings problems to areas such as economy and security in a country.

A country wants to sell more of its products to its neighbors,but at the same time buy less of what the neighbors are selling, thus jeopardizing international relations. It is interesting to develop a“hypothesis based on this theory in every research subject that human’s choice is relevant” (Gottschalk 2009, 35).

The greatest threat to any developed economy in the contemporary world is terrorism. Terrorism is viewed as a threat coming from religious dogmas. However, it is based on deception, which “is an aspect of human perception that is in turn shaped byobjective reality along with physiological and psychological factors” (Bell 2003, 244).There are huge investments made in the “developments of human intelligence” (Davies and Gustafson 2013, 154).

The contemporary world is incomparable with the past due to the huge developments that have been made in areas such as communications technology, weaponry, and transport developments. During the Cold War era, economic growth of developed countries stagnated due to threats, but it was easy to know every move that an enemy made due to human intelligence and undeveloped technology that was in place at the time.

However, today’s world is more dangerous than it was during the Cold War era due to the advanced technology that makes it hard for human intelligence to keep an eye on the enemy’s moves. Communication technological developments pose a threat to any country in the modern world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, there are numerous sources of threatsdue to the technological revolution; hence,highly sophisticated mechanisms of intelligence science are required to counteract the threats. However, it is very hard for any country to attain confidence in its intelligence science because the enemy knows how to camouflage in the presence of intelligence agents’ watch.

A terrorist would use technology to carry out a terror attack and an intelligent agent would use the same to keep an eye on every move made before the attack. Aware of that, a terrorist would act like a harmless person to keep off the intelligence officer. Hence, technology and huge investment on human intelligence are not anassurance of the successful fight against any threat to a country.

Conclusion The application of the rational choice theory is critical to the human intelligence developments because it requires the identification of the threats posed by human decisions and working them out. The theory depicts that human intelligence needs to find out the reasons why a person would do something that poses a security threat, and hence invest in counterattacking the threat by offering other alternatives that such a person would use to achieve a given goal.

Reference List Bell, Bowyer. 2003.“Toward a Theory of Deception.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence, 16, no. 1, 244–279,

Davies, Philip, and Kristian Gustafson. 2013. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage outside the Anglosphere. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press.

Gottschalk, Petter. 2009. Policing Financial Crime: Intelligence Strategy Implementation. Sydney: Universal-Publishers.