Lock’s Concept Ideas Of A Perfect Society Explicatory Essay Custom Essay Help

Many philosophers and thinkers tried to build the model of a perfect society. Some of these works were completely utopian, and some of these ideas were successfully (or unsuccessfully) applied in practice. One of the greatest thinkers of all times whose political view found their reflection in practice was John Lock.

John Lock is one of the greatest thinkers and philosophers of England whose theories were taken as the basis for many studies in the fields of philosophy, pedagogics and political sciences. The main fields of his activities were education, metaphysics, political philosophy and epistemology.

The most famous of his theories are “tabula rasa”, state of nature, rights of life and theories related to the structure and principles of a perfect society. Some of his ideas were adopted and extended by other philosophers and scientists, such as Hume and Kant. One of the major fields of his work was the sphere of politics. He made a great contribution to it with his investigations.

Lock worked on the problem of the “human nature”, “civil society” and “natural state”. The essence of these ideas were presented and discussed in his major work Two Treatises of Government.

In The Second Treatise (the second part of the book), he presented his ideas of the state of nature and civil society as the basic ideas of a perfect social structure and commonwealth analyzing such concepts as freedom, property, common good, positive law, social contract and some others.

However, some of these ideas, in particular the idea of property and positive law, sometimes call several contradictions of their applications to their implementations to real social and political structure.

At any rate, Lock’s ideas of equality and independence became the basis for many social laws, particularly, they were reflected in the American Declaration of Independence. Moreover, several principles of the Lock’s government could be found in the state papers of many countries. The concept ideas of the state of nature, law of nature, civil state and common good were discussed by Lock in his works.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major of them are Two Treatises of Government, First Tract of Government, Second Tract of Government, Questions Concerning the Law of Nature. In these works, Lock explained his views on the role of government and the principles of its functioning. He accentuated that all people are equal and have rights and needs that should be the major preoccupation of every state.

Lock accentuated that people should obey the rules of their society, however, they have a full right to change the government if it does not fulfill its functions and its actions begin to violence the society. Lock also presented the conditions when people can rebel against the government in order to replace it by another one.

The most detailed and augmented explanation of Lock’s political theory can be found in his major work on political philosophy Two Treatises of Government. This work is dedicated to the development of the ideas of the civil society that should be based on the natural law. The major ideas and theories are presented in The Second Treatise.

The principles of The Second Treatise had an influence on the core ideas of the political philosophy of the west countries. Moreover, the liberal premises of the Lock’s theories became the concept ideas of the present-day liberal-democratic state.

In addition, the structure of the government suggested by Lock coincides with the structure of government of many modern countries. Thus, John Lock’s political ideas had a great influence on the formation of the state structure of many modern countries.

What are the major concepts of a perfect society and how should they be applied to the state structure and government? As it has already been mentioned, the major principles of the liberal government system described by Lock are the state of nature, civil state, personal freedom and property. All these ideas are gradually and logically presented in the book, and supported by explanations and examples.

So, according to Lock, the basis for every civil state is the state of nature that presupposes a complete freedom of every individual. Everybody are equal and nobody has any power over another person: “… a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other” (Lock, 1980, p. 8).

We will write a custom Essay on Lock’s Concept Ideas of a Perfect Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, everybody posses the common property (the earth) and an individual property, which is his body and every product of the individual’s labor. In the chapter “Of Property”, Lock often reveals to God and assuming that God gave to people the right for the common and individual property.

Man can use the earth, however, without waste. If one has to many products of his/her labor to cover personal needs, one can exchange these products with other person. These leads to the barter and later the trade establishes. Now, all goods can be trade and that is the purpose of money development. As people have right and property, they want to protect their property and their natural rights.

Consequently, they enter the society, as the natural law cannot do it for them anymore. This is the main reason why people form communities and establish the government. This community of people becomes a civil state. Thus, people should live in the community and obey their complete natural freedom to the laws of the civil state. In its turn, the civil state is based on the natural laws that indicate people’s equality and freedom.

Entering the society, people make a social contract according to which they have individual rights and freedoms and they should respect the rights and freedoms of other individuals. The government of the civil society should think about the commonwealth of every member of it and work for the common good.

It is directed by the rules of the positive law. The positive law is a written law that presuppose the adoption of the natural law to the social norms: “…laws human must be made according to the general laws of nature, and without contradiction to any positive law of scripture, otherwise they are ill made” (Lock, 1980, P. 72)

. Lock presented the structure of the government which should have executive, legislative and federative power. The government is the majority which watch the implementations of the civil laws. However, if the government acts for its own benefit and begins to harm people, they have the right to rebel against this government and replace it by another one.

These ideas are extremely progressive for Lock’s time and they sound as a model of the democratic power, actually, it is the basic structure of it. However, Lock assumed that he did not describe the democratic power and his ideas may be implemented in every type of government. The idea of the Lock society is almost perfect, however, there are several questions that appear after analyzing it.

What if one does not want to join such society and what if one does not possess any property and cannon enter into the trade? How will the society treat those people and what laws can be applied to them? Lock does not answer such questions. Moreover, Lock does not take into account human’s negative values, such as anger, envy and the pursuit of easy profit.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lock’s Concept Ideas of a Perfect Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some people always have more than others and some are not satisfied with what they have. Moreover, if to consider the differences of the cultures and beliefs, his ideas cannot be implemented at all. Such system may be realized in west countries as it coincides with the laws of God and its mentality. However, can such civil state be the basis for the eastern countries as they have absolutely different social values?

The idea of the “Positive law” is often debated by some scientists. For example, Alex Scott Tuckness in his book mentions, that positive law should be interpreted from the point of view of moral and legacy, “Positive law must be interpreted in light of those (moral) principles that can render it legitimate” (Tuckness, 2002, p. 147).

At any rate, the concepts of the Lock society were adopted by many state systems, especially those, based on the democracy and liberalism.

In particular, the concepts of personal freedom, natural rights and social rights to change the government shaped the criteria of the constitution of the United States which rested on Lockean principles of equality and a government working to the best advantage of the people” (SparkNotes Editors, n.d.).

John Lock’s work Two Treatises of Government is one of the best works devoted to the political philosophy. The majority of his ideas was very innovative for his time that were adopted by lots of countries as the basis for their state system.

However, certain ideas, such as the idea of the property and positive law, regardless of their perfect concept, are sometimes met with skepticism. Thus, they were discussed and interpreted many times. Some of them can be found in the constitutions and state papers of numerous Western countries.

Reference List Locke, John. (1980) The Second Treatise of Civil Government. United States of America, C.B. Macpherson.

SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Locke’s Second Treatise on Civil Government.” [Internet], SparkNotes LLC. n.d.. Web.

Tuckness, A. S (2002) Lock and the legislative point of view. New Jersey, Preston University Press.


Company Supply Chain of Amazon and Mobil Oil Research Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The plan

Pros and cons of the plan



Introduction The supply chain in the plan is designed to deal with problems of low profitability and lack of physical resources in Amazon. It will also address the need for personalization of services and greater consumer reach for Mobil.

The plan The new integrated network between the two firms will be focused on offering consumers sales services for twenty four hours. Although, Amazon was already doing this, now Mobil will also get the opportunity of providing such services as well (Miliotis, 2010). Additionally, this new supply chain will be focused on offering direct sales to clients.

Mobil will not just focus on its traditional supply chain partners such as wholesalers, retailers and the like. Now the firm can get a chance of dealing directly with consumers and hence be better able to personalize its services as well as customize some of its offerings. The plan will involve the collection of information from a variety of sources so technology will be playing a critical role here.

The amount of time needed to get material from either firm to the market will be substantially reduced. Amazon has traditionally been managing supply chains for other companies so it would greatly benefit by adding yet another outlet to its business. Amazon will use a huge share of its resources in order to sell Mobil’s good and then deduct a portion of its profit.

To this end, Mobil will be saved from excessive inventory and will be exposed to a wider client pool than it would have been through its traditional outlets. Mobil on the other hand already possesses warehouses. It will therefore provide Amazon with yet another opportunity to increase its physical supply chain network (Exxon Mobil, 2010).

Also, because transportation costs have always been a problem for Amazon then the latter organization will tap into the resources already possessed by Mobil. Little information structure investment will be needed because Mobil will take advantage of what Amazon has set up for itself.

It should be noted that both these organizations have been having a hard time tapping into their potential and it would probably be best for them to solve this problem by merging. The two organizations will also need to come to an arrangement of what the right price will be for their products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recent reports have shown that Amazon’s overemphasis on free shipping and affordable prices have compromised on its profitability. In order to avoid a repeat of the same, these two parties will come up with realistic prices for their commodities. Lastly, the two companies will focus on handling the returns of their investments because there are always immense returns on ordering through the use of such a model.

Pros and cons of the plan Since formation of an integrated supply chain network between Mobil Oil and Aamzon.com involves bringing together two separate corporate cultures, then this may prove to be a disadvantage. There should be some resemblance between the two organizations and when this is lacking then chances are that trust will be lacking between the two groups.

Another issue is the need for thorough planning before implementation of the process. Stakeholders from Amazon and Mobil oil need to think of all the logistical needs, inventory needs, information needs and capacity needs of the integrated network before implementing it. Failure to do so could result in bottle necks in execution. Furthermore, there may be a debate over who will be in charge of operating controls.

One firm may feel as though the other is dominating. In relation to the latter problem is the issue of extendedness. Perhaps the time, resources and time dedicated towards this integrated network will not be able to yield immediate results. Therefore, the two firms need to agree on the extendedness of their relationship by getting into a contract.

The major advantage of this plan is that the gains that Amazon was repeating from its e-supply chain can be shared with Mobil oil. On the other hand, the profitability that Mobil oil was enjoying can also be enjoyed by these respective firms. There will be mutual sharing of the pros and cons of the supply chain (Miliotis, 2010). Even the burdens that each company’s supply chain was exerting on both firms can now be shared and reduced.

Also, these organizations will greatly benefit from information exchange. Amazon.com has not reached or tapped into its full potential in supply management so it will need as much information as it can get in order to improve. Mobil on the other hand has been dependent on the traditional supply chain model.

The best way of dealing with inefficiencies in both organizations is to merge the two systems together and hence establish a superior supply chain network. This network will also provide a way of enjoying costs savings for Mobil oil and Amazon. The two organizations will be in a position to give accurate responses, optimize their facilities as well as optimize the levels of stock that either of them selects.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Company Supply Chain of Amazon and Mobil Oil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The overall performance of these firms is likely to go up because both of them will not just be using traditional measures of success to assess the effectiveness of their supply chain.

Traditional measures here include lead times, inventory costs and correction or detection of defects. Non conventional performance measures in this case refer to customer satisfaction, customer contribution to product design, long term partnerships and good information use.

Conclusion The integrated supply chain network between these two companies is designed to optimize the current resources that the two organizations have while still making sure that the missing elements in these supply chains are efficiently handled.

References Exxon Mobil. (2010). About the Company. Retrieved from https://corporate.exxonmobil.com/

Miliotis, P. (2010). Supply chain and e-supply chain. Web.


Mega Byte Restaurant Essay (Article) best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction The key to a successful business is customer satisfaction. Customers want to have their needs addressed in the right way and manner, and only then it is possible to win their loyalty and drive business growth since satisfied customers will always want to come back and even give referrals.

Mega bytes restaurant does not underestimate the power of customer satisfaction and hence the reason the management decided to assess how well their customers were satisfied.

A survey was conducted for a period of three months in which customers were asked to rate their satisfaction. Surprisingly, the survey revealed that customers had issues, for example, the waiting time was long. Information from the respondents showed that lack of customer satisfaction was a product of many factors as outlined below.

First, the customers had to wait for seats and this was the major source of dissatisfaction followed closely by poor arrangements of the buffet table. Thirdly, the tables were not clean and that at times, the rooms were so drafty. Those were cited as the major causes though in addition to them, other minor reasons were cited as waiting for coffee for a long time, missing utensils, failure to provide dietetic sweetener and lack of ashtrays on the table.

In order to address the issues and improve customer satisfaction, management resulted to getting a team of employees who used the Seven Step Model (SSM) to critically analyze the root cause of the problem, potential causes and probable solutions in an analytical approach. The following is a systematic procedure and analysis of the seven step method.

The Seven-Step Method According to Winston and Mark (2008, pg.9), the first step is project definition which entails defining the problem in terms of the current situation and what is expected, determining the importance of analyzing the problem and establishing evaluation measures. In this case, the problem was defined as customers waiting too long to be seated and the team had to analyze issues such as when the waiting started and when it ended.

Therefore, the problem that needed to be solved was waiting time taken by a customer to be seated. The second step involves assessment of the current situation, which implies that baseline date is gathered, designing flow chart and sketches, identification of relevant variables and data collection instruments, collecting information and taking a summary of the variables effect on the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Any useful additional information can be gathered at this time. In this case, current situation was assessed in terms of floor set-up (arrangement) and the number of customers who waited for more than one minute before being seated as well as on what days of the week waiting time was higher.

Baseline data showed that waiting time was high during weekdays and during the busy hours. The main reason for waiting during this time was unavailability of tables merely because they were waiting to be cleared and not because they were occupied by clients or lack of space at preferred sitting position which normally was the non-smoking region. The third step is to analyze the potential or probable causes of these problems.

This step requires that a cause and effect diagram is constructed to assess the conditions that could be leading to the problems at hand. The causes should be verified through appropriate measures such as observation or controlling variables.

The team at mega byte restaurant cause and effect diagram showed that the distance from the kitchen to the tables was one of the factors that contributed to uncleared tables and waiting for non smoking sitting positions.

The fourth step in the model entails developing a number of alternative solutions and screening them thoroughly to come with the best possible solution and implementing it. In the case of mega byte restaurant, the team opted for a solution that could be tested easily just by observing. Temporary workstations were set up in the non-smoking area and no other changes were made.

The team then wanted to establish the number of people who had to wait for more than one minute before being seated after the change was effected. Step five involves checking the results.

In this step, the effectiveness of the solutions undertaken in step four is assessed, additional relevant and baseline data is can be added at this point and a repeat of necessary steps conducted. Disparities between the planned and the actual results should be explained and accounted for.

We will write a custom Article on Mega Byte Restaurant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the case study, there was drastic improvement in waiting time after implementation of the solution in step four having dropped from as high as 40% to as low as less than 5%. In step six, standardize the improvement. This means adopting and incorporating the improvement in a manner that it fits well into the organization’s operations and policies.

Strategy implementation and ensuring its success is also done at this stage as well as identification of other areas that can improved by application of the same strategy and the subsequent implementation if any. In the case of mega byte restaurant, institutionalization of the improvement was done by replacing the temporary workstations with permanent ones.

The last and final step is establishment of future plans. It focuses on assessing whether the gap between what is and what should be needs to be narrowed further and if need, who would be the key participants.

A summary of what was learnt should be availed to act as a guideline to future projects or for reference purposes. From the case study, mega byte team of employees decided to focus on the next major issue listed as customer complaints and in particular poor arrangement of buffet tables.

How to Boost the Seating Capacity The sitting capacity can be boosted in several ways; one being the main reasons as to why people take time to sit is associated with uncleared tables or search for a sitting section away from the smoking areas. This issue can be addressed by first addressing the issue of preferred sitting section.

From the study, it is evident that most clients prefer the non-smoking section. More tables can be added to the section and also convert a part of the smoking section to non-smoking to increase the sitting capacity of the people.

The tables are far from the kitchen; this can be addressed by redesigning the floor in such a way that the tables are located near the kitchen to reduce the physical distance. Time taken by the waitresses to take the check to the counter can be minimized by introduction of self service where the clients are required to pay before they are served. Payment mode can also be diversified to incorporate cash payment system.

Such mechanisms will give the waitresses more time to clear the tables. The waitresses salaries should be reviewed and paid a salary that commensurate their services and also look for ways to boost their morale so that they clear the tables in good time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mega Byte Restaurant by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Staff Reduction It would not be advisable for mega byte restaurant to reduce staff since during the busy hours they have shortage of staff. It would be advisable to look into the root causes of high turnover of the staff and look into the staff welfare with regard to their pay.

Incentives such as rewards should be given to the staff to motivate them to server the customers in an effective and efficient manner. Reason being satisfied customers are likely to be loyal and bring in others thus creating more jobs hence employ more staff instead of reducing the number.

Relevance of the Study The study team learnt various skills such as formulating the problem statement which requires posing the solutions as the problem. This skill can be used in addressing other issues concerning the business such as the reasons behind improper setting of the buffet table.

Collection of data with accuracy and ability to use and interpret baseline data to get relevant information was also another aspect learnt that would be very useful in solving the other problems the organization is facing.

Eliminating the Smoking Section May Cause Waiting Time to Decrease From the case study, introduction of temporary workstations in the non-smoking zone led to an overall reduction in the number of people who waited for more than a minute to sit. This shows that most of the clients preferred to sit on the non-smoking section.

The study showed that percentage of people who waited for seats after temporary work stations were set up in the non smoking section reduced from as high as 40% to as low as less than 5%.

Considering that most of the clients are business people who travel a lot and mainly meet to discuss business or official matters, few people will want to smoke from the restaurant since most people prefer to smoke when they are relaxed and without interfering with the comfort f others. Hence, to some extant, elimination of the smoking are can lead to decreased waiting time.

The SWOT Analysis According to Bohm (2009, pg 2), the SWOT analysis refer to strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Each organization needs to understand its SWOT analysis to be able to remain competitive in the market or industry. Strengths refer to the strong aspects of an organization that gives it a competitive edge over the other competitors.

Mega byte restaurant has a strong management team that understands the importance of customer satisfaction and thus addresses issues from customers’ point of view in a systematic and procedural manner. This gives a competitive edge over the competitors who try to look for solutions without considering what the customers’ needs and wants are.

However, it has weaknesses too in that it does not adequately cater for employees welfare hence high turnover that is costly to the firm and drains funds that could otherwise be used to expand the building. Employees’ motivation is very important in determining their productivity and this is an area that is wanting with regard to mega byte restaurant.

The design of the building is also wanting and needs redesigning to save on time and energy spent on physical movement. Considering that the firm is normally very busy and especially during weekdays, it stands a better chance to improve on its services, satisfy customers, and generate more business revenues and profits that will allow it to grow and expand.

The fact that customers opt to wait for seats instead of leaving implies that it stands a better chance than competitors in winning and retaining customers. The biggest challenge or threat is that if the firm fails to address the customer complaints addressed by clients during the survey, the might easily lose on to competitors in terms of both customers and employees.

Conclusion /Alternative Mega byte restaurant has the potential to meet its customer needs if proper measures and procedures are put in place. The case looked at how customers could be served in a more satisfactorily manner by reducing waiting time to be seated. This was done by increasing workstations in the non-smoking zone and this greatly reduced the waiting time.

In the alternative hypothesis, elimination of smoking zone will not decrease the waiting time. This can be supported by the fact that even with introduction of more workstations in the non-smoking zone; the smoking zone was still operational.

Based on gathered information, elimination of smoking zone will lead to a reduction in waiting time but not fully since other factors such as uncleared tables have to be considered as causes of increased waiting time.

References Böhm, A. (2009). The SWOT AnalysisAkademische Schriftenreihe. Norderstedt, GRINVerlag. Web.

Winston, W. L and Mark, C. (2008). Practical management science. OH, Cengage Learning. Web.


Strategic Marketing Principles Research Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Strategic Marketing Principles

Cooperative spirit

Selectivity and Concentration

Principle of customer value

The principle of differential advantage

The principle of integration



Introduction Marketing is primarily aimed at identifying and meeting customer preferences to and retain them (Coxhead Et al, 2005, p v). Consumer education has increased and they are more demanding than ever before. The changing business environment calls for a change in the methodology, perception and approach from marketing managers.

Continuous review of marketing strategies is therefore important for any organization that aims at surviving in the current competitive business world. The ultimate goal of strategic marketing is the improvement of profit margins of a firm. Firms identify market segments that are likely to increase profit in the future.

Strategic marketing plans therefore aim at creating marketing time frames and the mode of implementation to capitalize on the promising market segments. Besides improving a firm’s performance, strategic marketing also aims at increasing customer satisfaction by engaging one on one with consumers. Besides, other goals of strategic marketing include growing a firm’s market niche and improvement of innovation and penetration.

Sahaf too acknowledges that strategic marketing is dynamic and in that context, it is only better for marketing managers to master strategic marketing principles (p17). The principles will help in guiding them through their thought, actions and decision making.

Strategic Marketing Principles These principles according to Sahaf include; the principle of cooperative spirit, the principle of selectivity and concentration, principle of customer value, principle of differential advantage and principle of integration (p 17). These principles will be used as the guidelines in critiquing the article. Strategic marketing principles help in development of customer relationship.

In the article, Relationship Marketing and Organizational Performance Indicators by Shaker, T. Ismail


Employee Relations Issues in Potential Reasons for Workplace Violence Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Interpersonal conflict

Identifying signs of work place violence

Reasons for workplace violence

Cost of conflict and violence

How to manage workplace violence



Employee relations issues are the day-to-day occurrences in the working environment among employees, friends, family members, strangers, and even employer. They may be positive or negative leading to workplace violence.

Workplace violence may involve physical violence, threats, insults, molestation, intimidation, or any act that disrupts peaceful environment at workplace (The USDA Handbook on Workplace Violence Prevention and Response, 1998).

Such issues arise when employees are not equipped with the right methods of solving the matters arising in their work place. The probability of work place violence is always high since people spend most of their time at workplace, exercising teamwork in most activities.

According to the National Security and intelligence Unit in America and Canada, statistics have shown that the fastest growing crime is workplace violence. This is not only happening in the US but all over the world. Murder cases have been reported many times resulting from work place violence, making the level of security at workplaces wanting.

The following essay will cover on the employee relations issues and the potential reasons for workplace violence whose major cause may be interpersonal conflict and management decisions among others.

Interpersonal conflict Interpersonal conflict refers to a situation where colleagues in a work place or an employer and his junior collide, and they may not be getting along well. Most people in workstations spend so much time conflicting amongst themselves, avoiding conflicts, or recovering from conflicts. It includes bullying, intimidation, harassment, competition among workers among others.

Interpersonal conflicts in workstations may lead to stress since colleagues spend the better part of the day together. It may also lead to physical violence when a solution is not found on time. Below are some of the reasons that lead to interpersonal conflicts at work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sharing of work among colleagues may lead to conflict whereby some employees feel that their partners are not contributing enough to a share of work given. Other interpersonal conflict arises when employees feel that there is no one to run to in times of conflict especially when senior personnel collides with his/her junior.

Different professional groups working in the same unit may also be a source of interpersonal conflict where by one team suffers form superiority complex and intimidate or harass the other group. This is mostly evident in the medical professions where doctors always look down upon nurses thus resulting into conflict.

If job description is not clearly outlined to the workers, conflict with the supervisor may arise when one does not accomplish what is expected of him/her or between employees when blaming each other on a piece of work not done. At times, the workload may be beyond the employee ability, where by their leader are not sensitive and they give them deadlines to meet the targets (Hoel


The Effects of Teaching English as First Language on Arab Young Students on Moral and Values Research Paper essay help: essay help

Abstract Saudi Arabia is trying to implement an education system for young children to impart the right values and morals to them so that it does not affect the culture and tradition of the Arabs. The Ministry of Education of Saudi Arabia has a major role to play in this regard and as such it must develop Early Childhood Education Programs that uphold the Arab Muslim values to prepare the children to face the challenges of the future.

To achieve this, education must have priority over all other mundane things of the day to day life of the Arab community. Special emphasis should be made to include English learning in the curriculum so that the Arab students in Saudi Arabia will be able to seek more knowledge in a world that is developing at a fast pace towards ultra modernization.

With English learning, Arab students will become the torch bearers of a new era and in that attempt they will be able to relive the past glory of the Arab civilization. The new generation of the Arab students has to become world citizens of tomorrow and witness the remarkable developments in all fields of knowledge.

With right education they will attain enough confidence to move ahead and send a message to the rest of the world about the rich values, tradition and morals of the Arab society. The Arab students with the help of English language learning will in due course herald positive change in the society in every walk of life.

In the present context, there is a need to examine the prevalent social and educational systems carefully in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which have been successful in the past and improve them further so that the Arab students get the education that will prepare them for the great opportunities ahead.

The Arab value system will not be affected negatively by English learning; rather it will only help the Arab students to have a modernized outlook so that it will create a strong and stable Saudi Arabia, every Arab could be proud of.

Introduction Universal Education and the influence of religious beliefs

Education accelerates development in human beings, and the first and foremost aim of universal education is to allow people to exercise the freedom to lead the life they want and provide the right tools and opportunities to satiate their dreams.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bahgat (1999) states, “Education is essential and all standards of training and teaching throughout the world of mankind should be brought into conformity and agreement; a universal curriculum should be established and the basis of ethics be the same.” This means education has a universal quality by which it taps the inner forces of an individual.

Moral values happen to be the constructive core elements of any social fabrics and they are the real expressions of the individual’s self that lies in the subconscious spiritual reality of a person. The right kind of education will recognize these forces and make them a catalyst in motivating a child in school and bring about a meaningful and lasting change in him which in turn will contribute to the world community at large (Bahgat, 1999).

There are different cultures in the world and the value of education is recognized by all. It is only through education that ignorant person gains knowledge, the fearful becomes brave and fearless; it shapes the personality of an individual and makes him a perfect human being.

It is only through education that people will become more humane and civilized. Education has such a great impact on the human mind and as such the differences perpetuated by education will have immense magnitude (Bahgat, 1999).

Educationists all over the world are concerned over the gradual degradation in the morals and values in the students in the modern times. When a person attains knowledge, it is then directed for the betterment and progress of the society and the children are taught good morals and values that stay with them throughout their lives. Education is instrumental in bringing positive change in the person as well as the community.

An educated member of the society will have the will and determination to overcome all kinds of divisive forces and conflicts in the society and work towards a united and enlightened community (City Montessori School, n.d.).

Education is defined as a continuous and creative process through which a person gets an opportunity to develop his dormant capabilities. The creative process, therefore, begins in a child from the moment he starts learning in the school. With proper education a student can rightfully attain harmony between his own religion and reasoning, as it encourages the individual to investigate reality.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Effects of Teaching English as First Language on Arab Young Students on Moral and Values specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The human mind is trained gradually to recognize the truth, no matter where it originates from. Each and every person in the society has a responsibility and should amalgamate it with one’s own community and the world outside so that a positive change is instilled. The best educational approach is directed towards the personal growth of an individual and aims to bring in a social transformation.

It is essentially based on the belief that human beings are spiritual in nature and the elements of universal education answers the true needs of the human society and brings its different sections closer to culminate in the unification of the world. Education shall help a person to understand the ways of life and at the same time it must infuse universal qualities that are synonymous with the human race (City Montessori School, n.d.).

The family and the community as a whole have a dual responsibility in developing the student’s moral character and improving his intellect. Parents, grandparents and the neighbors have an important role to play here.

The child must be provided with the best environment possible so that proper growth and development takes place over the years. Education leads to the awareness that people need to be free from all religious bigotry and fanaticism that has gripped the world in the present times. With a broader outlook achieved through education, they can become more tolerant towards other religions and communities (City Montessori School, n.d.).

There is a strong influence of religion on the education system of a country. Every country has its own specific culture and Saudi Arabia too has its own distinct religion and culture. The Muslim community in Saudi Arabia has been a conservative one where education was closely linked to religion. Arabic language is the language of Islam and because of this reason it has gained considerable importance in the Arab community.

Followers of Islam have high respect for Arabic language and teach their children to read and write the language from a tender age. It is taught in the Madrasas and it is a must for every primary school student in Saudi Arabia. Children are trained to read the Holy Quran so that from an early age itself the children are aware of their religion and its teachings (Abdan, 2002).

Culture is a definite method of organizing and improving human activity that in turn is characteristic of the people in general and portrays their national and individual ethnic identity and also reflects the religious environment. In the modern times, the international and intercultural links are developing at a quick pace and the Muslim culture is being redefined and its place in social progress is seen in a new perspective.

It has an undeniable influence compared to other religious communities in forming the new world culture. The Arab world too is going through many changes and English is being taught in most of the private schools so that the coming generation of Arab students does not get left behind in any way.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Teaching English as First Language on Arab Young Students on Moral and Values by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They have to become global citizens with a broad outlook that will teach them to accept other cultures with an open mind and become more tolerant towards other religions of the world. The Arab people need a universal education that will bring them closer to rest of the world and English learning is the only way to achieve it in the coming years (Abdan, 2002).

The present Arab educational system


Currency Wars in Japan Report college admission essay help

Recently, several nations around the world have attempted to devalue their currencies through artificial means. This has resulted in global currency wars as countries battle for economic recovery by intervening so as not to allow their currencies to float freely in the market. Besides China, the other country that has been criticized for fuelling this battle is Japan.

The Japanese government has historically been concerned about the rising value of the yen against other countries. Therefore, it has been engaged in buying and selling of dollars so as to make the country’s products competitive in the international market.

Most recently, on 15 September 2010, the Japanese government unilaterally intervened in the foreign exchange market with the intention of lowering the exchange rate of the yen. It sold about one trillion yen that was equal to about twenty billion dollars (Grey; Butler).

As illustrated by the figure below, the Japanese government took the biggest ever one-day currency action since the value of the yen had risen by more than ten percent since the month of May. It is important to note that the action was contrary to the international agreement that prevents industrial powers from effecting unilateral currency moves in the financial market.

Figure1: USDJPY Monthly outlook from October 2009 to October 2010.

Since October 2009, USDJPY has been on a downtrend and now the pair is at its 15-year record bottom (Prescience; Nasdaq). The behavior of the pair for the past one year can be contributed to a number of fundamental and technical factors. The downtrend suggests that the yen has been growing stronger against the dollar.

During the period, the Japanese government has traditionally maintained its interest rates at low levels. This is a strategy by the country to artificially keep the yen weak in the international market so as to increase profits for its exports (Keating; Hotten).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, from the chart above, it is evident that the interest rate action has not had very much impact on the behavior of the pair (Saettele). The USD continued to fall against the JPY signifying the speculation of the United States Federal Reserve possible expansion of the country’s quantitative easing program.

The balance of trade represents the quantity of goods that the U.S. is importing in relation to the quantity that it is exporting to other countries. If the U.S. is exporting more than it is importing, then it implies that it will have a positive balance of trade. On the other hand, if it is importing more than it is exporting, then the balance of trade will be negative.

Currently, the U.S. is accustomed to operating at a negative balance of trade since it imports more goods from Japan than it exports to Japan. It is believed that most of the U.S. negative trade balances come from much more importing of goods from China and Japan. The balance of trade influences the value of the United States dollar in the foreign exchange market.

Using the monetary approach exchange rate theory, the demand and supply of the dollar affects the value of the United States dollar. When the U.S. is importing more goods from Japan than it is exporting, which results in a negative balance of trade, it has to convert U.S. dollars into Japanese yen by selling U.S. dollars on the foreign exchange market.

This increases the supply of the United States dollar in the open market. As the supply of the U.S. dollars increases, the value of the currency reduces. The figure 2 below illustrates how the price point for the United States dollar decreased as the supply of the currency is increased.

Figure 2: U.S. dollar-supply rising, price falling.

According to the monetary approach exchange rate theory, the demand for yen may have played a significant role in the fluctuation of the pair.

We will write a custom Report on Currency Wars in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Businesspersons carrying out investments in the country and require the local currency or foreign corporations who are purchasing the country’s exports may have caused the demand for the yen to go up, which increased its strength (Economy Watch).

Therefore, the increasing strength of the yen resulted in the downtrend. In addition, instead of allowing its currency to float in the market, there were interventions to prevent its appreciation.

Figure 3: Yen demand rising, price increasing.

The devaluation of the Japanese yen is advantageous for the country since it has more exports than imports that make up its Gross Domestic Product. Since it is largely dependant on exports, maintaining its currency at weaker relative levels encourages other countries to purchase its products at cheaper prices.

Because the demand for the country’s products has increased in the international market, more jobs have been created, which has led to increased economic development. The depreciation of its currency has also assisted Japan to have a lower current account deficit.

The improvement in the country’s current account has resulted from the more sales it has made from its competitive exports. It is believed that the main cause for a current account deficit in any country is the reduced levels of domestic savings. This is because of the increased levels of consumer spending.

Lastly, the depreciation of the Japanese yen has resulted in increased inflationary pressures because of at least three reasons. First, the boost of the country’s exports has resulted in the rise in Aggregate Demand (AD). Consequently, this has led to demand inflation.

Second, imported goods to the country are generally more costly than goods produced locally. Japanese consumers have inevitably experienced an increase in the price of imported products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Currency Wars in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cost of manufacturing products, which require imported goods, has also risen. Lastly, it is believed that the depreciation of the yen has lowered the incentives for producers and exporters to reduce costs and produce at greater efficiency.

In conclusion, the intervention of the Japanese government to prevent the appreciation of its currency has played a crucial role in the economic development of the country. Because of this initiative, its goods are able to compete favorably in the international market. In addition, it assists in increasing the profits of firms when they exchange foreign earnings back into the yen.

If there were no such intervention, the economic growth of the country could be lower than it is now. In addition, the initiative that Japan took to devalue its currency competitively in the foreign exchange market assisted it in tackling some of its domestic problems. These are the problems of its aging population, increased public debt, and the yen’s susceptibility to deflation.

References Änderung, L. Dollar – Yen – Devise/Währung – Line-Chart. Web.

Butler, J. Begun, The Currency Wars Have. Web.

Economy Watch. Monetary Approach to Exchange Rate Determination. Web.

Grey, B. Economic crisis threatens to unleash global currency wars. Web.

Hotten, R. Currency wars threaten global economic recovery. Web.

Investopedia. Economics Basics: Demand and Supply. Web.

Keating, J. E. Why do currency wars start. Web.

Nasdaq. Forex: USD/JPY still close to 15-year low. Web.

Prescience. USD/JPY nears 15-year low ahead of Philly Fed, U.S. jobs data. Web.

Saettele, J. USD/JPY Monthly Technical Forecast. Web.


The Business Environment of India Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to prepare a country report of India in order to assess the business environment of this country and to provide the CEO with important information for making a decision about business. In order to do so, this paper considers political, social, and economical environment of India, Gross Domestic Product, FDI, geographical position, natural resources, work force values, and consumer attitudes.


NCAER (2010) argued that the global financial downturn caused by the Western countries in 2008 and prolonged all over 2009 has seriously injured the world economy but China and India have gained tremendous economic growth under the recessionary economy. India has achieved such challenging success for its policy, business innovation, and skilled human resource.

Prabhudesai (2010) analysed the economic survey of India 2009 and pointed out that the country is going to record 7% GDP growth in 2009-10 whirl it largely connected with the US Economy and the quick recovery of financial crisis.

Indian policy has vastly aimed to accelerate the economy with balanced Human recourse development, Information Technology, Agricultural and infrastructural development while the county is the pioneer of global outsourcing market.

Meanwhile the government and private sector of the country to grasp greater equity in the banking sector while it has also aligning of attracting FDI1 inflow, export oriented Industrial growth and regulatory reforms in higher education.

Country Profile Geographic


Role of Planning Professionals Qualitative Research Essay college essay help near me

Introduction The purpose of this essay is to discuss the role of a planning professional in the creation of a social and spatially just city. A planning professional is described as an individual who works in the field of urban planning and development. The main role of a planning professional is to optimize the effectiveness of the urban community’s land resources, land availability and infrastructure as they perform their duties.

The duties of a planning professional include formulating plans that will be used in developing and managing urban areas that are undergoing some form of development. Other tasks that the professionals perform include analyzing the compatibility of the land use to economic, environmental and social factors.

The role of a planning professional has continued to gain more prominence over the last century as urban planning in cities and urban areas have continued to grow.

Urban Planning Urban planning is defined as those activities that are directed towards improving the welfare of a population located in a city or an urban area by creating convenient, reliable and efficient structures that will be used in the present and future time frame (Chang 2010). Urban planning is a management tool used by most governments and countries the world over to deal with effective urbanization and development activities within cities.

Despite the fact that urban planning has faced a slow growth since its inception one hundred years ago, a number of countries around the world have adopted innovative approaches that can be used to develop their cities to meet the 21st century planning standards (Fyfe and Kenny 2005).

These new approaches include spatial planning in integrating the functions of the public sector to those of regional or local areas, land regularization and management approaches, new techniques of master planning, and urban planning techniques that are aimed at producing spatial forms such as compact and urbanized cities (UN-Habitat 2009).

The known Spatial planning in a built-up area refers to the systems and designs that are used to sway the distribution of the residents in spaces of various scales. The activities that fall under spatial planning comprise of regional setting up, urban planning and national spatial plans (Cowan 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Urban planning has however faced challenges in the past such as environmental challenges, climate change, demographic problems, land misuse and unavailability, rapid urbanization, shrinking cities, economic challenges, social-spatial changes, changes in governance and noise, air, land pollution (Seto et al. 2007).

The most common challenge that affects urban planning and urban professionals are the socio-spatial challenges that arise from new spatial forms and processes that are beyond the control of local authorities. Socio-spatial changes usually affect the functions that take place within cities as they affect the fragmentation and specialization of these functions.

There have been notable contrasts in the suburban areas of most cities with tenement zones such as the low income and high-income areas becoming more apparent. These contrasts have emerged as a result of the changing land market, changing uses of land and new policies that govern land use and urban development (Naison and Mangiza 2009).

These challenges have slowed down the growth of urban planning over the years, making it difficult for any new developments to take place in the sector. They have also made it difficult for any meaningful progress in urban planning to take place due to their complex nature. So that the field of urban planning can be able to progress and move ahead, specific steps need to be taken to overcome the challenges that threaten urban planning.

These steps include addressing the above challenges in the form of a global urban reality that affects all countries and employing the skills, talents and capabilities of professional urban planners (Sclar 2010).

The Role of Planning Professionals Urban planning professionals can fall under various categories, which include:

real estate developers, transportation planners, metropolitan planners, economic development planners, regional planners, civil engineers, neighbourhood planners and strategic urban planners.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Planning Professionals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Urban planners usually work for developers or governments that have initiated large scale commercial development projects in the urban setting. In setting up a strategy for development, urban designers have to deem several issues which include things like the zoning codes, land availability, crime in the area, traffic congestion and land sustainability (Hall 2001).

Urban professionals play an essential role in the urbanization process, which is characterised to be iterative and dynamic in nature. The scope of their work can be described to be classical articulation where the planning professional’s role mostly deals with presenting a decision-maker with the relevant solutions and courses of action that are important in the planning process.

Once the decision-maker approves the solution and sets it out as a policy, the role of the urban professional is to carry out the decision according to the decision maker’s mandate.

While performing their duties, planning professionals incorporate the use of methodological and technological expertise to develop plans that will be used in urban planning activities. Methodological and technological techniques are used in defining the problem and formulating appropriate alternatives that would be used to address these problems (Barton et al. 2009).

Planning professionals are usually involved in decision-making activities that determine what information will be used in managing the urban development process and whether this information will be presented to the major actors of the process. Once they have made the planning decision, the next stage involves the implementation of the decision.

The role of the planning profession in this stage is to exercise judgement and discretion due to the ambiguous nature of the urban planning process and public policy that deals with urban planning. This ambiguous nature is characterised by many uncertainties and rigid policies that are used in formulating urban development plans.

The job of the professional becomes essential in this stage because legislators lack the technical know-how to deal with the ambiguous nature of urban planning which inevitably leads to them creating vague and unclear policies (Sclar 2010).

The job of a planning professional is deemed to be technical in nature as they have to translate the development objectives developed by the government into strategies that can be used in urban planning activities. The goal of these strategies is usually to implement the objectives set out by the government that has been designed to meet urbanization and development.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Planning Professionals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Bertaud (2010), the most critical role of a planning professional is to set up a framework that will be used in the area that has been identified for development. This framework is usually made up of three components, which include land-use regulations, investments in infrastructure and taxation laws that are related to urban development.

The professional planner has first to review the existing regulations on land use, which have been formulated by the government to ensure that the intended development is consistent with those regulations (Bertaud 2010).

If there is a need for a new land use regulation, the planning professional has the task of drafting a new guideline that will meet the requirements of the new development.

The new guidelines have to follow the six steps of urban planning which include determining the objective of the urban plan, formulating the strategy, determining the number of inputs and outputs that will be used in the development activity, the outcomes and impact of the program to the area that has been identified for development.

When the planner drafts the new regulation, they have to ensure that there is a projection of what the impact of the regulation will be on the intended area’s structure (Bertaud 2010).

Planners should always look at what effect the new regulations will have on the market. Many regulations that deal with land use usually have some adverse side effects like for example regulations that require high standards for housing will see the development of objectives that define housing conditions, and the sizes of the buildings (medium, small or large housing).

The side effects of such a regulation would see the houses being sold at a higher price in the real estate market, making it difficult for a large number of people to access decent housing.

This leads to a situation of overcrowding in the existing houses reducing the standards of housing in the area or city. The planners should also ensure that the new regulations do not affect the density of the area that has been identified for development (Bertaud 2010).

Regulations that increase or decrease the density of an area have an impact on the price of the land which could go up or down considerably, thereby affecting the relative worth of the land. For example, imposing a regulation in a low-density area will reduce the price of the land.

The adverse effects of these actions will see the planning activities for the city requiring more low-density land for development because of massive demand for low-density areas.

A regulation imposed on a high-density area would have the reverse effect of increasing the price of land, but it contributes to the decrease in land availability, which is required for development. The outcomes of such effects will affect the prices of land in the market leading to a situation of instability and uncertainty in formulating urban plans (Bertaud 2010).

The other role of planning professionals is to assess the investments that have been made in the existing primary infrastructure. Primary infrastructure is made up of roads, electrical connections, water and gas supply. The investment that has been made on fundamental infrastructure has an impact on the demand and supply of land available for development within a city’s boundaries.

The infrastructure will also have an impact on the prices of buildings, or houses that have been developed within the primary infrastructure framework. Planners are therefore charged with the role of understanding the infrastructure of the area that has been earmarked for development (Walton et al. 2005).

Infrastructure usually has a double impact on the urban planning as it allows for development to take place in certain piece of land. The double effect of this is that infrastructure influences the supply and availability of houses or buildings. The planners should, therefore, measure this impact with regards to the supply. The other role requires planners to observe the laws of taxation when it comes to urban planning and development.

Governments the world over usually impose taxes on land and also on the amount of rent that has been paid for the land. Taxation on land raises enough revenue that will be used by the city planners and municipal council to maintain and sustain the infrastructure found on the land (Kochanowski 2006).

The taxation of land has an impact on land use as it determines whether the land will be used by the owner or sold. High land taxes might force some landowners to sell off their land to the city, which will in turn, reform the land for further urban development. Land taxation is therefore seen as an essential tool in ensuring the efficient and effective use of land.

The role of the professional planner when it comes to land taxation is to be aware of the effect that these taxes will have on land use. If high taxes lead to the limited use of land, the planner has the task of consulting the relevant authorities to request them to reduce the high taxes so that the land can be properly used (Kochanowski 2006).

The same applies to the reverse situation. If the land taxes are low, the land will be disused where unnecessary developments will take place in areas that are not designed for them.

Bertaud (2010), therefore notes that all professional planners involved in urban development should focus on the three areas identified; regulations, infrastructure and taxation when they are formulating plans to be used in development. They should also analyse how these three areas affect the spatial development of cities and whether there is room for economic growth.

The Role of Professional Planners in Developing Socio-Spatial Cities Spatial planning is the consideration of what can and should happen in a particular region or area. This type of urban planning involves investigating the interaction that takes place when different policies and practices are employed in urban development projects.

Spatial planning goes beyond the traditional practices that govern land use in urban areas by setting out strategic frameworks that will be used current and future development activities.

Spatial planning extends the work of the professional planner from that of land use management, development of layout plans or formulation of land use regulations to include activities that deal with living conditions or the liveability of certain areas marked for structural development.

Spatial planning also attempts to bridge the gap that exists between the economic, social environment and urban development activities making the process of urbanization also to be focused on sustainability. Spatial planning also plays the role of coordinating sectoral policies by creating recognition of the objectives of these policies and how they relate to the economic or social environment (Thompson 2007)

The American Planning Association (APA 2010) describes the role of a professional planner in spatial planning as that of researching, designing and developing programs that will be used in urban planning development.

Professional planners also have the role of leading public change processes by effecting social change, performing technical analysis of urban areas and educating the general population on urban development planning. While most planners choose specific roles or areas of specialisation in urban development, majority of professional planners practice most or all area of urban planning (American Planning Association 2010).

The major role of professional planners as identified by APA is to create a plan that will be used in development activities. These plans are usually based on the objectives, goals, and strategies that have been developed by the municipal council or the city by-laws for urban development projects and activities. Apart from formulating these plans, the professional planners also have the role of implementing or enforcing these plans.

They achieve this by coordinating the work of the actual implementers of the plan, such as the construction workers, the developers, or the site contractors. A further task of the professional planner is to carry out field studies on how land is being presently used in a particular area. This is done by performing interviews on the people using the land and also assessing the current structure of the land (APA 2010).

The Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS 2010) identifies the role of regional and urban planners to be that of developing short and long term plans that will be used in land management as well as in the revitalization of communities based in urban, suburban and local areas.

The planners accomplish these activities by helping the local officials to alleviate any social, spatial, economic, or environmental problems that might affect the community and formulating recommendations that will be used in developing the appropriate infrastructure. Professional planners also have the role of providing recommendations that will be used in developing zoning regulations for commercial, public and private land.

These recommendations are usually based on forecasts and projections for urban developments in particular areas within the city’s limits. Planners also have the role of promoting the best use of land and land resources amongst community members in a specific area.

Professional planners have also been known to perform the role of addressing the environmental, social, and economic problems that affect city dwellers or people that live in an area undergoing certain levels of developments.

The plans they formulate and develop are mostly used for the construction and development of essential community structures such as hospitals, churches and recreational facilities such as gyms or stadiums (BLS 2010).

Professional planners also participate in decision-making activities on what natural resources will be used in development activities. These natural resources include land, minerals, rock and soil that are important in urban development projects. If using these resources will prove to be a threat to the natural ecosystem, the planner has the task of informing the developer of these adverse impacts.

A number of planners are engaged in activities which are aimed at environmental preservation with their roles and activities mostly being centred on the control of air, water or land pollution, the preservation of land and forest areas, wetland preservation activities, and the conservation of natural habitats or ecosystems (Bureau of Labour Statistics 2010).

Professional planners also have the role of drafting relevant legislation that will be used in developmental activities that will address social, economic, or environmental challenges that affect particular communities that live in the urban areas. Planners usually study and analyse the current practices on land use before they develop reports that will be used in urban planning.

The information that is usually contained in these reports includes the location, power lines, water supply, gas supply pipes, roads, street lights and other essential amenities that are important for to the area (BLS 2010)

The report also analyses the kind of activities or land-use practices that have been exercised on the area under evaluation. With this information, the professional planners try to optimize the land use by formulating plans that will see developments such as buildings or houses being initiated in the area.

These plans are usually used as guidelines and blueprints by the people who are responsible for setting up these structures. Planners are also involved in rehabilitation activities by examining the current structures in a given urban setting and determining whether there is a need to improve these buildings (Bureau of Labour Statistics 2010).

The field of spatial planning has played an essential role in the planning and development of urban areas. The role of professional planners has mostly been relegated to preparing and designing layout plans that will be used to develop towns, cities. Once the developer gets these plans, the work of the planner is seen to be complete until the next developer comes with a new project for development.

This limited role has made it difficult for them to plan for spatial and social problems that might arise as a result of land allocations and extensive developments in city areas. Urban professional planners have not been active in searching for new ways that can limit the number of spatial issues that arise due to land disuse and depletion (Wang and Zou 2010).

Role of Professional Planners in Developing “Just” Cities Professional planners have to consider the societal context when they plan for a city. A city is usually identified by the people and therefore, professional planners have to consider the societal characteristics of these people when they create a “just” city.

All the aspects of planning require the professional planner first to understand what a just city is after which they should seek a balance between the city resident’s who are going to be impacted by the development activity and those who are going to benefit. A “just” city is defined as a city that has equitability in resources and in the number of planning and development activities that take place in the city.

Fanstein (2005) defined a “just” city as one that was democratic, equitable, sustainable and growing. However, planning for a just city that incorporates such values is an elusive and challenging concept.

Illiberal majorities might view democracy to be indifferent while the high cost of trying to achieve equitable distribution of resources might create resentment to those forced to give out more. Sustainability might diminish the growth of the city’s population leading to high unemployment rates and an increase in social justice.

Professional planners are faced with the challenge of creating a socially “just” city given the various disparities that exist in society. Planning for a just city also involves incorporating the views of the affected citizens to ensure that the planning process does not discriminate against them.

The social inequalities such as crime, different income levels and level of education make it difficult to ascertain the planning outcomes of the urban development process.

The role of professional planners in developing a just city is to ensure there is social justice in land use, environmental, economic incentives, technological innovations and local resources. Planners should have experience in dealing with disputes that arise as a result of economic disparities as well as resolving environmental and economic equity issues (Campbell 2010).

The professional planner’s activities in the recent past have mostly been characterised by downtown developments, freeway planning, public and private partnerships and other urban planning activities that do not add up to equitable planning and development.

This has limited their responsibilities when it comes to economic justice and equity. The planner’s role in the present and future context will, therefore, be to reconcile the two aspects by ensuring that there is growth in the economy and that there is equal distribution of resources without degrading the natural ecological system (Campbell 2010).

The role of the professional planner in creating a just city will be to arrange the procedures and approaches that will be used in making important decisions by using techniques such as bilingual translation, political pluralism, the developing of market mechanisms and conflict negotiation.

Bilingual translation will require the professional planner to relay the necessary economic and environmental information to the affected citizens of urban planning. Campbell (2010) notes that professional planners should use economic and ecological bilingualism to achieve a socio-spatial framework that will be used in urban planning.

The role of the planner in conflict negotiation is to reduce the gaps that exist between the economic, social and political environments. Conflict negotiation is essential for a planner in developing a “just” city as it balances all these environmental contexts. Conflict negotiation and resolution is more likely to be successful when there is a specific dispute that needs to be resolved.

The political pluralism approach will require the planner to incorporate political ideologies in their planning approaches to ensure that their vision of a just city includes political frameworks. Market mechanisms are essential for the professional planner as they bridge the gaps that exist in economic disparities and the environmental priorities of the affected groups.

The role of a planner in creating a just city will also involve taking into consideration technological improvements such as alternative resources, land use and design, and bioregionalism (Campbell 2010).

The importance of developing socially and spatially just cities is to ensure that there is an equitable distribution of economic and ecological resources, to ensure that there is an appropriate use of land and land designs, layouts, to ensure the social aspects of the city’s residents have been taken into consideration and to ensure that everyone benefits from the urban development activities.

Developing socially just spatial cities ensures that the difficulties experienced in plan implementation are reduced considerably and there is development of a just, democratic city (Fanstein 2005).

Socially and spatially just cities are also important as they reduce ecological devastation on the natural environment and they ensure that there is equal distribution of economic outcomes by considering the views of affected citizens.

Socially just cities foster economic growth and justice reducing crime and unemployment levels in these cities. Socially and spatially just cities reduce the variations that exist in tolerance levels, quality of public services, utility infrastructure, the availability of affordable housing, a reduction in economic segregation and a reduction in autonomy.

Conclusion Professional urban planners need to recognize the importance of social and spatial planning in urban development projects. This recognition has been referred to as new regionalism because cities, towns and urban areas have been recognised by planners as important spatial units in a globalized world.

New regionalism has been seen to be an essential approach in urban planning as it has reduced the level of land misuse and the depletion of natural resources that takes place in areas that are facing urban developments. The role of professional planners is therefore essential in ensuring that new regionalism is achieved in urban planning activities.

References American Planning Association (APA) (2010) What is planning? Web.

Barton, H., Grant, M., Mitcham, C., and Tsourou, C., (2009) Healthy urban planning in European cities, Health Promotion International Journal, Vol, 24, No 1, pp 91-99.

Bertaud, A., (2010) The role of government, urban planners and markets. Web.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2010) Urban and regional planners, Occupational outlook handbook, 2010-11 Edition. Web.

Campbell, S., (2010) Green cities, growing cities, just cities? Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development. Web.

Cowan, R., (2005) The dictionary of Urbanism, Tisbury, UK: Streetwise Press

Chang, G., (2010) Urban planning and development, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 136, No.3, pp 177-285

Fanstein, S. (2005) Planning theory and the city. Journal of Planning Education and Research. Vol. 25, pp121–130.

Fyfe, N., and Kenny, J., (Eds) (2005) The urban geography reader, Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Hall, T., (2001) Urban geography, 2nd Edition. London, UK: Routledge.

Kochanowski, P. S., (2006) Site value taxation in a declining city, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol, 50, No.1, pp 45-58

Naison, D., and Mangiza, M., (2009) New role of urban planning in a changing environmental climate. Web.

Sclar, E., (2010) Urban professionals in the 21st century: challenges for pedagogy and professional practice, Columbia, US: Centre for Sustainable Urban Development Earth Institute. Web.

Seto, E. Y., Holt, A., Rivard, T., and Bhatia, R., (2007) Spatial distribution of traffic induced noise exposures in a US city: an analytic tool for assessing health impacts of urban planning decisions, International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol. 6, No.24.

Thompson, S., (2007) Planning Australia: an overview of urban and regional planning, Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press

UN-Habitat (2009) Planning sustainable cities: policy directions, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Gateshead, UK: MapSet Limited

Wang, Y., and Zou, Z., (2010) Spatial decision support system for urban planning: case study of Harbin City in China, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol.136, No.2, pp 147-153

Walton, J. S., El-Haram, M., Castillo, N. H., Horner, R. M., Price, A. D. and Hardcastle, C., (2005) Integrated assessment of urban sustainability, Engineering Sustainability, Vol.158, No.2, pp 57-65


Female Performance in Standardized Tests Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Female Performance in Standardized Tests

Advantages of Standardized Tests

Disadvantages of Standardized Tests


Works Cited

Introduction In order to understand how females perform in standardized tests, defining the term-standardized tests would be important. A standard test is a test that is programmed or standardized such that the mode of their provision and grading is somehow fixed.

These tests treat all the takers in an equal manner in that, they are given the same test under the same conditions and therefore they are perceived fair as compared to other tests such as non-standardized tests.

Although these tests are perceived to be fair in the manner of administration and all other procedures pertaining to them, on average, females normally perform poorly in these tests having a significant difference between their scores and scores by males.

Many scholars and other groups that are concerned with female welfare have tried to look into the root causes of such disparities between female and male performance.

Some scholars argue out that these tests are administered in a gender biased and boys or males are perceived to be favored by the tests whilst in other cases , stereotypes held by the society regarding women inability to score well in such tests are to blame for low scores by women in standardized tests.

These tests are somehow seen as the gatekeepers to women progress since they are used to make important decisions such as programs to be undertaken by students and the schools they enroll in. This paper will focus on how women perform in the standardized tests and explain whether such are beneficial or not.

Female Performance in Standardized Tests Generally, boys perform better as compared to women in standardized tests. Those who advocate for girls argue that girls tend to perform well, they are academically active, and majority of them manage to secure places in higher education institutions. The minor gap between their performance and that of boys is mainly attributed to sociological and psychological disparities, which include but not limited to confidence and self-esteem gaps.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the girl crisis crowd argue it out differently and point out that boys perform better in standardized tests such as “scholastic Assessment Test and law school, medical school, and graduate school admissions tests” (Pinnick et al 115). For example, in 1998, boys scored 35 points ahead of girls in math and 7 points ahead in English during the Scholastic Aptitude Assessment Test (Pinnick et al 115).

He argues that the lower score in girls is not attributed to unfairness or biasness, but other reasons play part such as, a greater percentage of girls as compared to boys sit for the standardized tests and gives a ratio of 54% to 46% respectively.

In addition, the college board profile of SAT and achievement Test takers shows that a large number of girls from “at risk” category sit for the tests as compared to the number of boys who take the test from the boys “at risk “ category.

The number of girls who sit for the SAT from poor families or families with low income and parents with poor educational background is also high as compared to the number of boys who sit for the same having a similar background. Due to the large number of disadvantaged girls taking the test, the average score of girls tent to be lower as compared to that of boys (college bound seniors, cited in Pinnick et al, 115).

The SAT should therefore not be entirely used to create a bias against the girls’ performance, criticize them, or draw a conclusion that boys perform better than girls do since there are various factors that should be put into consideration. Girls are perceived to perform poorly in the standardized tests without considering that the test results are normally skewed.

On the side of boys, the trend is that there are more male geniuses as well as male idiots. Therefore, the male scores are highly spread in terms of abilities and disabilities as compared to the spread in girls’ scores.

The list of males who drop out of school, the failures, and those with learning disability is also large as compared to that girls, the implication is that these males do not take the standardized tests leaving a large of males with potential to do the test as compared to that of females.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Female Performance in Standardized Tests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Over the past few years, statistics show that girls have come of age in their performance in mathematics and sciences, yet there are no significant improvement in boys’ performance in languages.

According to a1995 research conducted by Hedges and Norwell (cited in Pinnick et al, 116), an observation of girls performance in math showed that there was an insignificant deficit although it could affect the number of females made it in technical and scientific careers.

On the other hand, the number of boys with poor writing skills was alarming and posed a great danger considering that the world is rapidly growing as information driven economy.

Stereotypes play a major role in determining the performance of women in standardized tests. There has been a stereotype that men perform better than women in standardized tests have.

According to Inzlicht and Zeev (cited in Alexander $ Winnie 623), if women were given say for example a math test in a group that men were the majority, and the same women placed in a group with other women for the same test, women would score lower in the men’s group than in the women group.

That was attributed to the stereotype that men are generally better as compared to women and therefore they would lack the confidence.

According to Kendall (399), females tend to perform poorly in standardized tests due to Gender biasness and hidden curriculum that present in both informal and formal educational systems.

For example, females in the US have a greater opportunity to receive formal education as compared to the females in the developing countries where in most cases they are seen as housewives who should stay at home, take care of the children as well as the homesteads as men go to school and work. However, the same females in the US are not exposed to the same or equal learning opportunities as men in the same social class.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Female Performance in Standardized Tests by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For a long time, females have received differential treatment from teachers and families and this has affected their self-esteem, making them feel as if they are less important as compared to men. This has made them fail to take courses that are science related or math and even when they take, they score poorly.

Though this perception has changed slightly, the number of girls or females who enroll for courses such as computer science and design is still wanting. Even in cases where females enroll for such courses, most of them will do data entry and clerical jobs while men will engage in more tasking areas such as development of computer programs.

In most parts of the world, females are a group that is socially stigmatized and this affects their performance in standardized tests. It happens that they are constantly reminded either intentionally or unintentionally of their membership to the social groups that are associated with negative stereotype regarding intellectual ability.

This contributes to poor performance in standardized tests. However, this ideology can be changed or used to improve their performance by identifying them with other social groups that are associated with positive stereotypes.

This hypothesis was proved by Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test (McGlone 9) where different social identities were given to women who were pursuing their undergraduate program before the standardized test was administered to them. The test results showed that women who had an identity as students from a selective private college scored better than those who identified with their gender or a test irrelevant identity.

It can therefore be said that standardized tests can be used as a tool to help women perform better in other tests by disregarding the stereotypes associated with their gender and focusing on their abilities and potential just like any other human being.

In addition to how stereotypes affects females performance in standardized tests, its important to look at how standardized tests involving mental rotation displays a huge gap between male and female performance.

Such tasks require the student to visualize a still two or three-dimensional objects from various perspectives and determine how the mentally rotated object is similar to another comparison object. Men are believed to perform better in such tests while women are viewed to be weak in how they conceptualize the images.

Therefore, even when such a test is to be administered, the female students’ attention and focus will not be entirely to the test, but rather divided between the test and the way their failure would confirm a preconceived stereotype regarding their performance in such tests. This divided attention will therefore to some extent account for their poor performance in standardized tests.

Over the years, standardized tests have been a major determinant of educational opportunities accessed by the students. They determine which students gain access to secondary education and securing places in institution of higher learning. As if that is not enough, they also determine the institutions to be joined by the students in terms of facilities and quality of education.

Ordinarily, a person would think that the road ends there; unfortunately, it is the beginning of another journey since, more often, these educational opportunities are the key to success in securing competitive job opportunities and boosting the economy. Some standardized tests such as the PAST determine the students to benefit from valuable college and higher education scholarships based on their performance in the test.

For instance, the National Merit Scholars offer $27 million every year as scholarship to high school juniors. Though there are many students in dire need of the scholarship, not all of them can benefit from it since it is not enough. The implication is that more than one million students compete for the scholarship by taking the PSAT.

Generally, the average score of girls in the PSAT test is lower than that of boys and therefore end up receiving only 40% of the scholarship even though they constitute the biggest percentage of the test takers (56%) (Women Equity Resource Centre Para 8).

With all that in consideration, it seems that these standardized tests at times are gatekeepers to female progress. To understand this concept better, let us look at how things were before enactment and implementation of Title IX’S. By then, test administration and interpretation of results showed aspects of gender biasness as well as stereotypes instead of revealing the interests and capabilities of the students.

A good illustration is that in the 1960’s were a pink vocational test, which was for women and a blue vocational test for men. Such tests indicated that women had neither the ability nor the capability to become presidents. Based on such tests, SATS could at times be seen as gatekeepers to women progress.

However, the intensity of gender biasness has reduced since enactment of Title IX and most SATS currently emphasize on a context of national educational reform (Women Equity Resource Centre, Para 9).

Advantages of Standardized Tests Though standardized tests have a number of flaws, they are beneficial in some way. These tests ensure that all students or the test takers are given the same test without favoritism and the grading system is standardized in such a way that test scores are identical irrespective of who is taking the test. This shows objectivity in the tests and eliminates any doubts that may be harbored by the scorer if a subjective test is otherwise used.

Though not all, some standardized tests are a good predictor of students performance in the school applied for. Standardized tests such as MCAT help in testing whether the student has crucial skills required to be successful in a medical school. Though the test does not give 100% guarantee, research has shown that it is a better tool as compared to interviews (standardized tests para.2).

Aggregation is also crucial as it gives more precise and steadfast assessment on a groups potential in terms of understanding and ability to perform. A large group of people normally takes the test and therefore aggregate scores provide more accurate information since assessment error is reduced when there is an increase in sample size (standardized tests Para. 3).

Disadvantages of Standardized Tests SATS are a poor indicator or benchmark of a student’s success in subjects such as mathematics and physics. Women performance in the test is significantly lower as compared to that of men in graduate and undergraduate math and physics courses hence stand a higher chance of elimination during the admissions screening process.

These tests do not take into consideration factors such as the gender gap that is on the boys case or better put, it favors the boys. Gender gap has a great implication since it is prevalent across all demographic traits, which include but not limited to course work, parental education, class rank, grade point average, as well as family income.

Wallace (Para.4) also supported the idea that Standardized tests are a poor indicator of a woman’s potential and therefore it should not be used by colleges and universities to evaluate a student’s eligibility in securing a place. The argument is that a test that takes three hours is inadequate to portray all the characteristics of a successful candidate.

Another flaw in the test is that there are so many and varied preparation techniques and do not necessarily show what the student is familiar with. For example, some firms claim that their product can help a student get a score hat would assist the student land into the dream college.

The main question lies in whether admission to college should be based on four short week knowledge or on twelve years knowledge investment in education. Wallace (Para 5) added that use of standardized tests implies unintentional favoritism to males and those from upper class by the colleges or universities.

The tests are biased tending to favor only those who have a shared culture and common upbringing background with the test makers. Schools should therefore come up with better mechanisms to evaluate a student instead of discrimination.

Bearing in mind that the role of a woman has increasingly changed allowing the woman to study and further her studies as much as she wants, use of standardized test would not be an ideal idea since it discriminates against women, which is counterproductive (Wallace Para.7). Standardized tests do not give the student a chance to be thorough and do good work.

The tests are done in haste since they have timed sessions for doing the test. For instance, a math SAT will primarily focus on answering many simple questions paying little or no attention to the difficult questions; here, the student cannot do much since only 25 minutes are allowed to do 20 math’s questions.

Though the questions are not very difficult, students never get time to go through their work and correct mistakes if any. Other than poor work in math test, the essay session does not necessarily test quality of the work done but rather the quantity since the students are encouraged to write a lot in a short time.

Standardized tests are used by the government to control or direct concentration towards certain preferred areas. For instance, a need to add a new section in the math section test might compel changes in the local curriculum in order to compensate for the new section added.

Tests then become the forum used by government and school systems to convey what policy makers believe is important in the curriculum and requires more attention. Such tests that influence decisions are known as “high-stakes.” The test can also be used to buy educators to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in terms of development (Jones Para. 4).

Conclusion Based on information gathered regarding female performance in standardized tests, it can be concluded that on average, females score low in the standardized tests. However, this does not mean that they are foolish or have less potential as compared to males. Other factors such as gender biasness, gender gap, parent educational background, income levels among other factors play a role in their performance.

Most girls from “at risk” categories sit for the test as compared to the number of boys who take the test from the same category. Standardized tests have their advantages and disadvantages though they should not be used to solely determine a students’ potential since they do not reveal all the qualities that may be required.

Works Cited Alexander, Patricia


Quality Education in Non-Funded Private Schools Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

The Province of Manitoba (2010) states that, non-funded private schools also referred to as independent schools, are run by individuals or groups of people whom have to be licensed by a representative of the public schools Act which was created in order to ensure that the children are getting an equivalent level of education to that provided in pubic schools.

Non funded private schools do not have to meet some of the requirements that funded private schools have to for instance, hiring certified teachers of the country they are operating in and use of the same provincially approved syllabus. Non-funded private schools are run as businesses and they have the right of admission and they get their funds from their students paying fees and tuition money.

Therefore, the income and expenditure of the school depends on how much money the parents of the students are willing to spend which varies from school to school depending on the location of the school, the peer tuitions and the schools financial donation.

Mortimore (1991, 34) notes “extravagant tuition rates in these schools claim are used to fund high salaries for the teachers and afford improved environments for learning, a low student to teacher ratio, undersized class quotients and services like, libraries, computer and science laboratories.”

In terms of education, non-funded private schools have to offer top of the range education to their students and also provide first-rate extra curricular activities as that is the main reason they are up and running.

Parents prefer private schools only if the eminence of education is equal to the extravagant high charges demanded by the schools. Looking at the explanation of private schools overcharging their clients one often wonders why teachers are always looking for better paying jobs as they claim that they are overworked and underpaid.

So the question is why then do private schools overcharge their clients and underpay their staff? Where does all the money go? The directors and owners of the school may be exploiting their clients and their staff while keeping all the money for themselves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Armstrong (2000, 56), quality in education is defined as the maximum use of school systems to bring forth an individual who will use the theory learned in class practically and prosper in life.

Quality in education is signified by the characterized inspection which creates alertness which in turn raises purpose for government policy makers and politicians. It has been argued that the reporting system put to use in the schools inspections is crucial for supplying advice on progression in terms of both provision and the quality of education.

The definition helps one learn that quality education will help an individual become a better person in the society as this quality education will equip the individual with necessary tools to enable one to give back to the society through his occupation.

This definition on the other hand also leads to the conclusion that people who did not have quality education do not flourish in life. This is not true as a person’s success does not depend only on the quality of education they received as children.

Quality and effectiveness in education go hand in hand, as the higher the quality of education, the more the effectiveness of the education, when put to use whether practically or theoretically.

Quality and effectiveness however, vary from person to person what one person may think is quality and effective, is not what another person may look at as quality and effective. Levels of quality and effectiveness vary also from school to school as there is no definite universal measurement used to determine the quality and effectiveness in schools or in individuals. (Armstrong 2000 p4)

School quality and effectiveness are linked to each other as they are interdependent. Effectiveness of education relies on the quality of education offered, if one offers low quality of education then the effectiveness and efficiency of that education will be low, if the quality of education offered is high, then the effectiveness and efficiency of education is also high.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Quality Education in Non-Funded Private Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In reference to Mortimore (1991, 34) effectiveness in schools has brought about important modifications in the education policy in many countries by stressing the answerability of schools and the reliability of education providers to provide all children with opportunities for elevated success hence developing the dire need for school improvement.

Murphy (1992, 98) emphasizes that school effectiveness indicated the necessity for school improvement in specific by concentrating on adjustable school aspects like the time day to have certain subjects taught.

School quality and effectiveness are important as they not only help students, parents and government officials to know which schools are performing well but they also encourage students to work hard to keep the quality and effectiveness of the school in check.

In the same case school quality and effectiveness may also be affected when the students and teachers slack off as they see their school quality and effectiveness is moderate. This slacking off would lead to a drop in the quality and effectiveness of the school.

Business forces that play a part in the quality and effectiveness in schools are the amount of resources the school has at its disposal and the end result of the school and individual students.

The fact that parents dig into their pockets to fund the high level of education their children receive from non-funded private schools, means that they expect their children to get good quality education to ensure their children can use the education they have received to better themselves.

This in itself is a business as they invest into their children’s education and they expect returns that are profitable, people make investments expecting high returns and it no different when it comes to schools and education. Resources at the schools disposal may influence the students to concentrate on extra curricular activities that would in turn affect their studies this would affect the quality and effectiveness of the school.

According to Armstrong (1990, 6), quality in non-state funded private schools is defined by how well the students perform in their education and other co-curricular activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Quality Education in Non-Funded Private Schools by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The board of governors, teachers, parents and government officials monitor the quality in non-state funded private schools so that they can pin point out areas that need to be changed or improved upon so as to maintain the quality of the school.

Monitoring is done through inspection of the curriculum to find out if the level and quality of education offered in these schools is equivalent to the level and quality of education offered in public schools.

Quality in schools and education is measured through fitness for purpose in the non-state funded private schools. Through the fitness for purpose, the school is able to ascertain a position in the competitive market of education, to obtain proof of accomplishment and attainment and to make sure that their clients are content and get value for their money.

This method of measuring quality in non-funded private schools scrutinizes the requirements of the schools mission statement, its aspirations, its intentions and its learning end products. Another method used to rate the quality of education in non-state funded private schools is by use of best practice.

Best practice is a method in which researchers compare and contrast these schools with the schools known to provide the best level of education in the same categories (Armstrong 2000, 5).

According to Owen (1999, 2) benchmarking is way of improving that exploits other peoples superior performance to progress or develop one owns processes. Benchmarking is a system of recognizing what must be developed, looking for ways to enhance the developments then putting into practice these developments. In short, bench marking is used as a way on improving one school by using other schools ideas.

The state sector uses industry standards and accountability to measure quality in schools and education. Industry standards are used to find out whether the non-funded private schools are needed and if the level of education they offer is up to standard with the public schools at nation wide and universal standards (Armstrong, 2000, 6).

In reference to Powell (1991 56) Accountability on the other hand is the measurement of accomplishment markers for competence and success. The state uses accountability to show value for money and to validate efficiency in these schools.

According to Lock (2000), non-funded private schools area accountable to the public as these schools can easily go out of business and close down if their customers are not content with how they run eh school or the results the schools offers. In this way non-funded private schools become accountable as they use the policy customer is always right.

Non-funded private schools run by religious organizations are accountable to the particular religion that funds the school. For example Lutheran schools teach religious education in accordance to Lutheran religious views, values and beliefs.

Non-funded private schools are also accountable to the state the state through a number of laws and regulations put in place by the government that they have to follow like the provision of safety provisions in the schools for both students and staff and medical facilities in the school at all hours when the school is in session.

Quality, school improvement, effective leadership and strategic planning are linked as they influence each other and play a role in the outcomes of each other. According to Hopkins, Ainscow,


Fargo Publishing Company Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Benefits of integrating HRM

Current problems related to Fargo Publishing

Recommendations to improve Fargo Publishing

Measuring the Cost savings of these Recommendations


Benefits of integrating HRM Every successful sector in every industry has a strong correlation with the critical service component rendered by human resource personnel as a specialized function. The human resource management component is a definite process that ensures organizational efficiency in hiring, training, appraising, and offering the right compensations packages.

In addition to that, HRM component is critical in overseeing employee labor relations and in ensuring a safe and healthy working environment besides other concerns of fairness. Organizational employees remain the most fundamental asset in driving organizations towards achieving their strategic goals.

Thomson and Hecker (2000) argue that integrating these aspects of human resource management comes with a host of benefits that span an organization. These include strategic workforce planning.

This benefit is achieved by identifying well talented employees and retaining them within the organization to ensure appropriate workforce capacity is maintained. Coupled with this benefit is improved organizational and human resource productivity by optimizing on their talents and abilities.

Improved financial performance has been identified as another benefit of integrating HRM into running an organization. Human capital is an asset most companies have not exploited to give them a financial edge (Thomson


Channelling and Pricing Strategy Argumentative Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Globalisation has facilitated trade among countries. It has made the world a global village where goods made in one country can get access to another, off-course after meeting logistics set by the exporting and importing countries. Selling in international market has advantages to the producers of a certain product with the most notable benefit as large access to market. Japan and United States have good trade relation.

Goods from Japan can be sold in United States of America without major trade barriers other than duties and import quotas. When venturing in the market, the marketing team, product and development team and the general management must decide on appropriate channelling and pricing strategy. These strategies will assist the products enter Unites States market and remain competitive thereafter.

There are different rationales that are used when determining the channelling and pricing strategies to use (Grant, 2008). This paper looks into channelling and pricing strategies to be adopted in domestic market and United States of America market on goods made in Japan. It will also justify the choice of United States as a secondary market.

Justification for choice of United States as the second market area United States has the world largest economy. The country has embarked on massive international trade and places limited trade barriers and restrictions to international trade. In the efforts of ensuring that there is fair competition among all players, both local and international, the country has removed/given subsidies to local producers.

It removes subsidies when local products are likely to be produced at a lower price than imported goods. On the other hand, it may use taxes on imported goods to create equality in imports and locally produced goods. Secondly, the country gives subsidies when local products are produced at a higher price than imports. This offers a growth to free trade.

United States is a world market destination; this will assist the company is targeting customers who are not only Americans residents but from other countries.

To facilitate such a trade, United states have a re-import re-export mechanisms which means that if imported goods are to be exported from United States at their raw state, then taxes which were paid for the goods is refundable. The only thing that is not refunded is intention to import declaration fee (IDF) and handling charges. This move will assist in targeting traders from other parts of the globe.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal market is another factor that has made the choice of United States. The population of United States is increasing by day. According to United States bureau of census, the population of the county as per 2009 census stood at 310,600,915. This number is increasing with at least one birth every 7 seconds and in every 37 seconds on average the country record’s an immigrant.

The net effect is an increase in one person for every 12 seconds. The population on the other hand is composed of people from different parts of the world. This move will help in reducing negative perception of goods made from other countries.

This is facilitated further by good relation that exists between the United States and Japan. The culture of the people facilitates trade with other countries; the most important thing the people look for is quality and price of the product; they are less concerned about the country of origin (US. POPClock Projection, 2010).

United States has a well developed transport and communications network. This will facilitate transport of goods from Japan to United States where there are options of using water transport of using air. Japanese national carrier fly’s to United States at-least three times in a day. This will facilitate trade among them.

Getting a licence for an international business is easy in united states; the country also has a special taxation policy aimed at encouraging foreign direct investment. Japan and United States have a double taxation policy which ensures that income taxed in united States will be an allowable amount in Japan. This will reduce chances of double taxation of the company’s income (Alexander, 2010).

Channelling strategies Channelling refers to the method used to ensure that good move from the manufacturer to the market where the consumers they can get them. The way goods are distributed and places where they are found are elements of channelling.

The methods adopted for channelling determines the effectiveness of a certain venture. In international trade, getting into the market involves massive campaigns and persuasion to customers to accept a company’s products.

We will write a custom Essay on Channelling and Pricing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of United States, the channel strategy that will be adopted is a combination of four strategies; they are competition strategy, value strategy, direct strategy and third party strategy.

Direct strategy The company will establish a permanent business in the country which will be receiving goods from Japan and distributing then in the country. They will be whole-selling and also retailing. These establishments will be stationed at different strategic points. They will not be manufacturing but their task will be distributing.

Third party strategy Third parties like super markets will be target market for whole sale goods. They will either be encouraged to buy from the company’s branch in United States or import directly from Japan. This will ensure that a larger number of customers will get access to the products.

Competition strategy After venturing in the market, an S.W.O.T. analysis will be conducted for the company to ensure that it has understood the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that it has. Good produced by competitors will be analysed and a gap that they don’t fulfil established.

This is the gap that the company with its products will aim at filling. Continuous product improvement will be made to ensure that the company is ahead of its competitors in product differentiation and quality.

Value strategy To remain competitive in the highly competitive United States market, the company will ensure a continued product improvement. Internal processes will be improved to ensure that goods of high quality are produced from the company. This will make the company competitive, increase customer satisfaction and the end results will be loyal customers.

To help in entering the market and increasing sales, there will be a number of marketing campaigns in the country. Advertising and marketing costs will be borne by the company. Research and development will be the order of the day to ensure that the needs of customers are recognised and addressed appropriately (Kotler


Stress Management in the Workplace Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Stress is among the major costly and significant cause of health troubles and mental agony. Stress at work place is considered the major primary stressor. Work stress is thought to affect individuals psychological and physical health as well as the organizations effectiveness in adverse manner. Work stress is one of the ailments that are acknowledged worldwide to be affecting the healthiness of the organization and the health or workers.

Workers who are stressed out will probable have a low motivation towards their work. In addition, stress can be detrimental to such member of staff as it possesses potential danger to their safety at work and in generally their efficiency is extremely low.

Pressures at workplace and at home can cause stress. Sometimes it may be beyond employees mandate to protect the staff against the stress caused by external factors for instance domestic strife but they can protect them from the stress that arises from work (Mandler, 2008).

Stress has proved to be a major challenge in the realization of the organization objectives. It may have adverse effects on the organization and the workers. Effective and good management and an aspect of good organizational structure and culture play a vital role in stress prevention.

In case the staffs are already stressed, the management should be aware of the situation and possibly devise a mechanism of addressing the challenge. There is generally low or minimal stress when one is adorned with resources, time, and experience to manage the challenges in any given situation.

Stress can be viewed as a negative experience that deprives the organization of the productivity potential and it is an inevitable consequence of an occurrence. Stress depends on the peoples perceptions and attitudes towards a given situation and this determines how they will cope with the situation.

To be able to develop stress management strategy for any organization, it will be essential to understand the causes of the stress in any given organization (Davis, Eshelman, McKay


Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment Qualitative Research Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China


Reference List

Introduction Increasing competition among business organizations cause business organizations to become innovative and to pay keen attention to the trends in the market in order to maintain sustainability and ensure profitability. Many factors within the environment shape business organizations and market dynamics.

These factors determine the levels of competition in the market and hence the profits made by business organizations. This implies that business organization should modify these competitive forces to enable them gain competitive advantage in the market and thus improving their position in the market (Morrison 2008).

These factors may include entries of new competitors in the market or the threat of substitute product or service. Human beings are rational and would normally shift to substitute products or services especially when the cost of switching to the other product is low and again when the product or service has relative performance and price advantage.

They may also include the purchasing power of the buyers or even the bargaining power of the potential and actual suppliers. Another major force comes from the existing players in the market. The strength and the size of the existing competitors and the new players in the market must be given much consideration and should not be underestimated.

Business organizations tend to exploit the existing barriers to new players in order to maintain competitive advantage over them. They develop business tactics that enable them capture and maintain the loyalty of their customers (Ries and Trout 1981).

Strong competition in the market between existing businesses organizations normally lead to low returns especially if the existing players are almost the same size or when the products or services rendered by these companies are similar.

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China Coca-Cola’s acquisition of Chinese leading juice company, Huiyuan Juice Ltd is a clear indication of its aspiration to conquer the world market. Coca-Cola Company owns businesses in almost all countries in the world either singly or through partnerships with other companies. According to Weisert (2001) today Coca-Cola owns 24 bottling joint-ventures in China.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It partly owns some of these companies and also operates as a corporate partner with some. Coco-Cola started its investment in the country by importing its products and selling them to foreigners in the country, but has stabilized in the market today to become one of the leading beverage producers in the country.

Its business strategies of focusing on localizing its productions as well as building infrastructure in collaboration with the Chinese government and other local companies has enabled it to establish itself throughout the country. Coca-Cola is a major player in the Chinese market today and according to Weisert (2001) it generates annual sales of about $1.2 billion.

Coca-Cola has survived in the Chinese market for a long time due to its innovativeness, its localization of production, its corporation with other companies and the government as well as its greater understanding of its customers, the market trends and the factors that influence its products in the market.

According to the case study, the company changes its products to suit the taste and preference of its customers. This implies that Coca-Cola Company carries out constant market survey that enables it understand the trends in the market as well as the factors that may impact on consumption of its beverage products. This is the reason which made possible for the company to divert its focus from production of carbonated beverages to fruit juice.

It realized that it was bound to lose its market share due to the respiratory infections that had affected Chinese citizens in 2003. The carbon gas from its beverage products was viewed to be a major contribution of that condition. They therefore had to be innovative in order to save its market share from falling.

This means that Coca-Cola does not generalize its customers but does as much as it can to retain its market share across the globe. It employs global-local approach in production that ensures that the taste and preference of all its customers are taken care of. This implies that Coca-Cola has the potential and capacity to develop a unique product for its customers in each region.

The global-local approach has enabled it escape the negative impacts of economic cycles (Perner 2008). It also applies the global-local approach in marketing its products. It ensures that its marketing strategies take into account diversity in the social cultural behavior of various communities. Its commercial advertisements meant for its Chinese customers cover almost all aspect of Chinese cultural festivals.

We will write a custom Essay on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Weisert, (2001) it is the first foreign company to advertise on CCTV. The company has been able to effectively apply its ‘think local, act local’ approach in maintaining its market share in the country. It has been able to successfully balance its localization strategy while maintaining profitable product lines.

Its innovativeness enables it maintain sustainability in the market. Its ability to produce varieties of beverages and creative branding and packaging which match the market trends has enabled it to withstand the unending changes in the consumers’ taste and preference.

The company sells its international known brands such as fanta and coke to its Chinese customers as well as the Diet Coke and Tianyudi (a non-carbonated drink) brands which are also doing fairly well in the market. Its innovativeness enables it beat many beverage companies in the market including new players.

The company understands that taste and preferences are dynamic factors and therefore occasionally introduce a new brand in market after some time. For example, according to the case study, it acquired the Huiyuan Juice Ltd in order to diversify its product portfolio and as a result meet the demands of the various market segments within the country.

According to Weisert (2001) after introducing Tianyudi brand in the market in 1996, it introduced the Xingmu (Smart) brand in the market in 1997. Xingmu was able to outpace Tianyudi in the market since it was a new brand even though it was a carbonated drink.

Perhaps the major social factor that has greatly contributed to the company’s ability to conquer the Chinese market is its corporation with the government and other local companies in joint ventures. In 1970s the company was not allowed to sell its products to Chinese people.

Over time the company has been able to woo the government to allow it to fully operate in China; and today, the company’s products account for about 35% of the country’s carbonated beverages (Weisert 2001). It assisted the government in most of its facilities’ development by providing technical assistance and financial resources.

Most of the company’s bottling facilities are owned on joint venture collaboration with other companies including government agencies. This gives it a local image in the market which in turn gives it a competitive advantage over other companies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Its interaction with the domestic companies and government agencies gives it an advantage in acquiring other firms such Huiyuan Juice Ltd which enables it expand its business operations in the country thereby increasing its revenue generating opportunities. Its collaboration with the government in some of the governments activities also enable it acquire a more local image.

Demographic factors also influence Coca-Cola’s investment in China. The Country has the highest population in the world with the total population being over one billion. Again, China also has one of the largest economies in the world which is estimated to be the second after US.

This has been a major reason as to why Coca-Cola seeks to expand its market share in the country by buying the leading juice producing company in China. It strong economic growth has increased the purchasing power of its population; therefore it is important to produce beverage products that deliver economic values to its customers and attracts the customers more to the company.

Although Coca-Cola Company seems to be enjoying monopoly in beverage production in some countries, it also faces challenges from other companies which are also established and others, upcoming. Pepsi is one such company that challenges Coca-Cola in competing for the market share in America.

The Adidas and Nike companies also compete against each other in order to gain competitive advantage over one another in the market. They are both struggling to come up with new fashions and technologies in sports.

One factor that worries the company’s management is the fickle-mindedness of their Chinese customers. They seem to have a very dynamic taste and preference which only focus on the present trends and not on the long term impacts of brands in the market. This implies that it is difficult to capture their loyalty.

Conclusion Marketing sustainability requires flexible management and innovativeness in order to always match the market trends. International companies need to focus on a global-local approaches that are sensitive to consumers’ taste and preference. This means that business organizations have to put in place measures that enable them acquire an in-depth understanding of consumers’ trends.

Reference List Morrison, M., 2008, Porter’s Five Forces: Competitor Analysis. London: Richard Byrd Company.

Perner, L., 2008, Introduction to Marketing. Los Angeles: University of Southern California

Ries, A,


Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China


Reference List

Introduction Increasing competition among business organizations cause business organizations to become innovative and to pay keen attention to the trends in the market in order to maintain sustainability and ensure profitability. Many factors within the environment shape business organizations and market dynamics.

These factors determine the levels of competition in the market and hence the profits made by business organizations. This implies that business organization should modify these competitive forces to enable them gain competitive advantage in the market and thus improving their position in the market (Morrison 2008).

These factors may include entries of new competitors in the market or the threat of substitute product or service. Human beings are rational and would normally shift to substitute products or services especially when the cost of switching to the other product is low and again when the product or service has relative performance and price advantage.

They may also include the purchasing power of the buyers or even the bargaining power of the potential and actual suppliers. Another major force comes from the existing players in the market. The strength and the size of the existing competitors and the new players in the market must be given much consideration and should not be underestimated.

Business organizations tend to exploit the existing barriers to new players in order to maintain competitive advantage over them. They develop business tactics that enable them capture and maintain the loyalty of their customers (Ries and Trout 1981).

Strong competition in the market between existing businesses organizations normally lead to low returns especially if the existing players are almost the same size or when the products or services rendered by these companies are similar.

Analysis of Coca-Cola Company in China Coca-Cola’s acquisition of Chinese leading juice company, Huiyuan Juice Ltd is a clear indication of its aspiration to conquer the world market. Coca-Cola Company owns businesses in almost all countries in the world either singly or through partnerships with other companies. According to Weisert (2001) today Coca-Cola owns 24 bottling joint-ventures in China.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It partly owns some of these companies and also operates as a corporate partner with some. Coco-Cola started its investment in the country by importing its products and selling them to foreigners in the country, but has stabilized in the market today to become one of the leading beverage producers in the country.

Its business strategies of focusing on localizing its productions as well as building infrastructure in collaboration with the Chinese government and other local companies has enabled it to establish itself throughout the country. Coca-Cola is a major player in the Chinese market today and according to Weisert (2001) it generates annual sales of about $1.2 billion.

Coca-Cola has survived in the Chinese market for a long time due to its innovativeness, its localization of production, its corporation with other companies and the government as well as its greater understanding of its customers, the market trends and the factors that influence its products in the market.

According to the case study, the company changes its products to suit the taste and preference of its customers. This implies that Coca-Cola Company carries out constant market survey that enables it understand the trends in the market as well as the factors that may impact on consumption of its beverage products. This is the reason which made possible for the company to divert its focus from production of carbonated beverages to fruit juice.

It realized that it was bound to lose its market share due to the respiratory infections that had affected Chinese citizens in 2003. The carbon gas from its beverage products was viewed to be a major contribution of that condition. They therefore had to be innovative in order to save its market share from falling.

This means that Coca-Cola does not generalize its customers but does as much as it can to retain its market share across the globe. It employs global-local approach in production that ensures that the taste and preference of all its customers are taken care of. This implies that Coca-Cola has the potential and capacity to develop a unique product for its customers in each region.

The global-local approach has enabled it escape the negative impacts of economic cycles (Perner 2008). It also applies the global-local approach in marketing its products. It ensures that its marketing strategies take into account diversity in the social cultural behavior of various communities. Its commercial advertisements meant for its Chinese customers cover almost all aspect of Chinese cultural festivals.

We will write a custom Essay on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Weisert, (2001) it is the first foreign company to advertise on CCTV. The company has been able to effectively apply its ‘think local, act local’ approach in maintaining its market share in the country. It has been able to successfully balance its localization strategy while maintaining profitable product lines.

Its innovativeness enables it maintain sustainability in the market. Its ability to produce varieties of beverages and creative branding and packaging which match the market trends has enabled it to withstand the unending changes in the consumers’ taste and preference.

The company sells its international known brands such as fanta and coke to its Chinese customers as well as the Diet Coke and Tianyudi (a non-carbonated drink) brands which are also doing fairly well in the market. Its innovativeness enables it beat many beverage companies in the market including new players.

The company understands that taste and preferences are dynamic factors and therefore occasionally introduce a new brand in market after some time. For example, according to the case study, it acquired the Huiyuan Juice Ltd in order to diversify its product portfolio and as a result meet the demands of the various market segments within the country.

According to Weisert (2001) after introducing Tianyudi brand in the market in 1996, it introduced the Xingmu (Smart) brand in the market in 1997. Xingmu was able to outpace Tianyudi in the market since it was a new brand even though it was a carbonated drink.

Perhaps the major social factor that has greatly contributed to the company’s ability to conquer the Chinese market is its corporation with the government and other local companies in joint ventures. In 1970s the company was not allowed to sell its products to Chinese people.

Over time the company has been able to woo the government to allow it to fully operate in China; and today, the company’s products account for about 35% of the country’s carbonated beverages (Weisert 2001). It assisted the government in most of its facilities’ development by providing technical assistance and financial resources.

Most of the company’s bottling facilities are owned on joint venture collaboration with other companies including government agencies. This gives it a local image in the market which in turn gives it a competitive advantage over other companies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coca-Cola’s Acquisition of Chinese Juice Company: Understanding Business Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Its interaction with the domestic companies and government agencies gives it an advantage in acquiring other firms such Huiyuan Juice Ltd which enables it expand its business operations in the country thereby increasing its revenue generating opportunities. Its collaboration with the government in some of the governments activities also enable it acquire a more local image.

Demographic factors also influence Coca-Cola’s investment in China. The Country has the highest population in the world with the total population being over one billion. Again, China also has one of the largest economies in the world which is estimated to be the second after US.

This has been a major reason as to why Coca-Cola seeks to expand its market share in the country by buying the leading juice producing company in China. It strong economic growth has increased the purchasing power of its population; therefore it is important to produce beverage products that deliver economic values to its customers and attracts the customers more to the company.

Although Coca-Cola Company seems to be enjoying monopoly in beverage production in some countries, it also faces challenges from other companies which are also established and others, upcoming. Pepsi is one such company that challenges Coca-Cola in competing for the market share in America.

The Adidas and Nike companies also compete against each other in order to gain competitive advantage over one another in the market. They are both struggling to come up with new fashions and technologies in sports.

One factor that worries the company’s management is the fickle-mindedness of their Chinese customers. They seem to have a very dynamic taste and preference which only focus on the present trends and not on the long term impacts of brands in the market. This implies that it is difficult to capture their loyalty.

Conclusion Marketing sustainability requires flexible management and innovativeness in order to always match the market trends. International companies need to focus on a global-local approaches that are sensitive to consumers’ taste and preference. This means that business organizations have to put in place measures that enable them acquire an in-depth understanding of consumers’ trends.

Reference List Morrison, M., 2008, Porter’s Five Forces: Competitor Analysis. London: Richard Byrd Company.

Perner, L., 2008, Introduction to Marketing. Los Angeles: University of Southern California

Ries, A,


Techniques Employed by Managers in Ensuring Success of Plans in their Firms Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents Abstract


Strategy formation

Strategy evaluation

Project management approach


Works Cited

Abstract The leadership of any organization is always tasked with the responsibility of effecting ventures or projects that are aimed at making their firms grow on various fronts. To achieve this, various resources are at their disposal and what is expected of them is to utilize these resources effectively to attain the set objectives (Blaxill


Pragmatic Development Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature Review


Discussion of Results



Abstract The present study is the actual replication of the study of Chang (2010) on the analysis of developmental pragmatics and evolution of speech acts of L2 learners with the increased proficiency levels in English. The speech act of apology was analyzed with the help of tools and analysis instruments similar to those of Chang (2010), but with the introduction of a new sample of L2 learners with the levels from moderate to proficient.

The purpose of the study was to enlarge the body of knowledge in developmental pragmatics and to investigate the order of linguistic acquisition in combination with the theoretical account of interlanguage pragmatics.

The article specifically deals with the acquisitional pragmatics field, investigating the development of such pragmatic competencies as expressing an apology in the L2 at various proficiency levels. The conclusion reached in the present study is fully consistent with the replicated study of Chang (2010) on the direct impact the increase of linguistic proficiency produces on the speech act competencies and variability.

Introduction The current attention to interlanguage pragmatics results in the necessity to conduct deeper, more grounded and expanded research in the field of language acquisition and pragmatic performance of L2 learners. There is much research being held nowadays in the field of developmental pragmatics, though the field itself is rather young, and findings in the discussed area of scholarly attention are scarce.

There is much incongruence between the actual pragmatic performance and the development of pragmatic competence, as it is discussed from various angles in the currently available studies. Hence, more attention is now paid to the developmental pragmatics as a science able to help unveil the hidden cognitive and learning processes occurring in the L2 learners’ knowledge base during the English language studies.

The most significant findings in the field pertain to the studies of apology, request, and gratitude expression evolution by L2 learners.

However, only students with high proficiency levels have so far been subject to research; different age groups and specific speech acts have to be researched to achieve a much more profound understanding of the evolutionary processes in self-expression and variability of speech acts of L2 learners in the process of language acquisition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The present study is the continuation of Chang’s (2010) work on identifying the apology expressions found in the responses of Chinese students.

While the focus of the present study is on the same study design and instruments, it offers a clear step forward in enriching the idea of developmental pragmatics because it intends to provide data on other age groups, enabling the further comparison and generalization of results in communion with the results of Chang (2010).

Literature Review The present study takes the interlanguage pragmatics findings and interlanguage competencies as the theoretical framework for the research.

The works on which the theoretical and practical inferences are based are the one of Cheng (2005) that represents a cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of gratitude speech acts, the study of Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1986) dedicated to the theoretical and applied domains of pragmatic failure, and the work of Cohen (2004) explicitly explaining the subject of developmental pragmatics and pragmatic ability of L2 learners.

Such researchers as Bataller (2010) who investigated the immersion technique as a contributing factor to the development of interlanguage competence, and Trosborg (1987) discovering the importance of sociolinguistic competence in the formatting of communicative appropriateness awareness have also contributed to the theoretical basis of the present research.

The book of Trosborg (1995) on interlanguage competence offered much theoretical material for consideration in the framework of the present research. The scholar decomposed the notion of the communicative competence and outlined the main components contributing to the formation of interlanguage proficiency for L2 learners.

These essential components include the linguistic competence (the mastery of the target language code), the socio-linguistic competence (informing the L2 learner about the socio-cultural rules of the native-speaking society), the socio-pragmatic competence (enabling the L2 learner to assess the appropriateness of contextual meanings), and the strategic competence (helping the speaker to bridge the gaps in language knowledge and fluency by other communicative strategies) (Trosborg, 1995).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Pragmatic Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some other findings of Trosborg (1995) are of great value for the whole field of developmental pragmatics research; the author outlines the psycholinguistic competences that enhance the L2 learner’s interlanguage proficiency acquisition, including the knowledge and skills component.

Methods Participants. As the purpose of the present work was not to create a new body of knowledge on the pragmatic development of L2 learners, but to extend the existing body of research on the issue, a group of L2 respondents was chosen for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data for the study.

The present group of 12 students represents a new age category as compared to the study of Chang (2010), thus enabling the comparison of results obtained in the present study with those of the original study’s author. There are various levels of proficiency within the group resulting from various backgrounds of respondents (China, Taiwan etc.) and hours per week previously allocated to the English language studies.

The proficiency of the respondents is from intermediate to advanced (according to the researcher’s estimate), and they represent older ages than the respondents used by Chang (2010) do. The respondent sample is based on Taiwanese and Chinese immigrants to the USA, mostly female (n=11), with only one male.

The respondents have been living and studying English in the USA for a different number of years (from 1 to 22 years), and started studying English at school in their native settings at the age of 10-17 years old. Only one woman reported studying English on her own, at home, from 32 years old; she is 46 years old, which implies that she has been studying English for about 14 years until the moment of the study.

To assess the proficiency levels evident in respondents participating in the present study, one can see the self-reported proficiency levels indicated by them in the questionnaires, systematized according to the respondents and categories of competencies. The figures in the present table should be decoded the following way: 1 – Very poor; 2 – Poor; 3 – Fair; 4 – Functional; 5 – Good; 6 – Very good; 7 – Native-like.

Table 1. Proficiency Levels of Respondents.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Reading proficiency 5 – 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 Writing proficiency 5 – 6 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 Speaking fluency 6 – 6 5 4 4 6 6 5 5 5 7 Listening proficiency 5 – 6 5 6 4 6 5 5 5 5 7 Instrument Design. Since the present study replicates the study of Chang (2010), the instrument design of discourse completion tasks has been borrowed from the original study. The construction of tasks included consideration of participants’ understanding of scenarios and their ability to respond to them adequately.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Pragmatic Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The scenarios were altered slightly, eliminating the figure of the teacher and substituting it by an abstract high-status partner, either an elderly person or some other respectable acquaintance. However, the four scenarios were generally retained and included bumping into people, losing a borrowed book, being late or rude to someone.

Each scenario was used two times, with one variant including the peer relationship of a student to another student, and the second variant containing the student – high-status person relationship. Description of context is provided to each scenario, with the opportunity to give the answers to open-ended role-play questions. The unified set of scenarios applied in the present work may be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. Scenarios for the discourse completion task questionnaire.

Item Speaker-Hearer Apology Situation 1 Student-co-worker You lost a book that you borrowed from a co-worker. 2 Student-supervisor You lost some paperwork that you should submit to your supervisor. 3 Student-supervisor You complained to your co-worker about your supervisor being very demanding. The moment you finished complaining, you found that your supervisor has been standing behind you and heard what you said. 4 Student-friend You complained to your friend about another friend – Judy’s English being very poor. The moment you finished complaining, you found that Judy has been standing behind you and heard what you said. 5 Student-co-worker You were one hour late for a scheduled meeting with your co-workers. 6 Student-friend You were one hour late for a planned get-together with some friends. 7 Student-high-status person You bumped into an elderly person on the street and he/she fell down. 8 Student-friend You bumped into a close friend and he/she fell down. Data Collection. The method of data collection was chosen similarly to the one of Chang (2010) – it is the discourse completion task questionnaire (DCT). The DCT is still seen as the most effective tool for the students to produce an L2 apology reflecting their linguistic proficiency, and for teachers to investigate the pragmatic competency in L2 apology.

The DCT also involves written replies, which adds material for consideration in the process of data analysis, driving some competence conclusions from the given replies and grammar, spelling and other mistakes students may make.

The first stage of the DCT questionnaire fulfillment included the completion of the form with biographical data pertaining to the study; the students were to indicate the country of their birth, the period of studying English both at home and in the USA, and finally they had to state by which means they thought the prime portion of language acquisition occurred in their life.

The second portion of data they needed to provide was their self-assessment on four competencies, including writing proficiency, speaking fluency, listening and reading proficiency as well.

The DCT for the present study was distributed to participants asked to write down that they would respond in English to eight role-play situations. Similarly to Chang (2010), no rejoinder was available for the students. The percentage of replies equals 100%, expect the second respondent who did not indicate her proficiency levels in the studied competencies.

Data Analysis. The theoretical findings on analyzing the speech act of apology were used to generate the coding scheme for analysis; Chang (2010) consulted a professional in the sphere of coding, thus ensuring the unified coding scheme for speech act evaluation, and ensured the reliability rate of 91%.

The discussed coding scheme completely fits the requirements of the present study replicating the one of Change (2010), therefore the same coding scheme will be used; it may be seen in Table 3.

Table 3. The Coding Scheme of Apology Strategies of the present study.

Source: from Chang (2010), p. 413.

Upon coding the data, the researcher intended to conduct similar analysis procedures as those ones applied by Chang (2010) – the frequency of apology strategies usage, and the content of strategies used by respondents. To assist the first data analysis task, all apology strategies were grouped into ‘IFID’ and ‘Adjunct’ categories, according to the pattern utilized by Rose (2000).

Frequency of each strategy’s usage was calculated on the background of the whole number of strategies used by all respondents in all situations. Secondly, the frequency of each strategy’s occurrence in the responses of each participant was counted to identify the most frequent and widespread apologies.

Finally, the number of apologies used as well as the number of strategies used in general by category was calculated to generate a rating scale of popularity and usage of certain apology strategies by the indicated group of respondents.

To answer the second question, the researcher needed to assess the order of each strategy’s usage in certain proposed scenarios. In this case, each scenario was researched for the number of various strategies applied by respondents, with the proper summary of the results on the expansion of apology repertoire with the growing proficiency level.

It was necessary to disregard the contextual requirements of the scenario offered for the sake of answering the present research question.

Therefore, ignoring the situational context, the variety of strategies was arrived at by using two means also borrowed from the study of Rose (2000) – first of all, the usage of each certain apology was counted across all eight scenarios, with the proper rating scale generation to see the emergence of each strategy in the whole questionnaire context.

Secondly, the occurrence of each particular strategy was assessed in each separate scenario, to investigate the patterns of occurrences and to produce relevant inferences on apology usage aimed in the present study.

Discussion of Results Frequency of apology strategies. As it has already been mentioned, the approach generated by Rose (2000) and borrowed by Chang (2010) is also applicable for the present study; the apology strategies were broadly divided into two categories, IFIDs and adjuncts, to calculate and compare their usage in all scenarios disregarding the context.

The analysis of coded qualitative data showed that the number of IFIDs used is really high (66; 28.4%) as compared to any other apology used. However, it is also evident that adjuncts are used by the present group of respondents are also varied, and they are utilized in multiple contexts, with the most popular ones being the intensifier, repair offering, and concern (13.3%, 12% and 10.4% respectively).

This finding supports the conclusion of Chang (2010) that students with higher proficiency levels employ many more adjuncts in their expression of an apology than smaller children and people with lower proficiency levels do. It is hard to say whether the usage of the discussed adjuncts is influenced by the contextual specificity of scenarios, since no tendency of such kind could be observed, as one can see in Table 4.

Table 4 also shows the distribution of each strategy in each given scenario, giving the figures from 6 to 12 strategies applied in each scenario. The figures 6 and 7 prevail in the majority of scenarios, leaving only scenarios 4 and 5 with the largest number of apologies invented by the respondents.

Scenario 6 shows the implementation of 8 various strategies, which implies that it is the third most diverse situation for respondents to make an apology.

Though the results are not the direct breakthrough in the number of apologies investigated by Chang (2010) and showing that high school students gave from 8 to 14 different apologies in each scenario as compared to schoolchildren of the 3rd grade who stopped at 8 strategies in scenario 8 being the most diverse in responses, it is still clear that the evolution of apology implementation is in place.

The present finding may be derived from the fact that the respondents with higher proficiency levels managed to use from 3 to 5 strategies to respond to each scenario, which implies a certain measure of progress in self-expression.

However, as it has already been mentioned, the IFID type of apology has been detected as the most frequently emerging reaction, which is consistent with the findings of Chang (2010) stating that IFIDs were dominant in all grades researched, and were used indiscriminately often by representatives of each focus group.

The fact that they are common for all groups investigated by Chang (2010 and in the present study presupposes the universality and the first apology coming to mind to all L2 learners (which is also natural for native speakers as well).

However, the correlation of the 1st IFID “I am sorry” or “Sorry” met 63 times in the responses with only 3 occurrences of the 2nd IFID “Please forgive me” also draws a parallel with the former research of Chang (2010) indicating it to be rare and practically non-occurring in the written and oral practice.

Table 4. Comparison of the use of apology strategies in eight scenarios.

Reaction/ Strategy Scenario1 Sc.2 Sc.3 Sc.4 Sc.5 Sc.6 Sc.7 Sc.8 Total IFID Regret/ Apology 8 6 5 7 10 9 9 9 63 Forgiveness 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 Admission of fact 9 6 0 0 0 2 0 0 17 Blame 4 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 10 Lack of Intent 0 0 2 3 1 0 2 2 10 Acknowledgment 0 1 2 3 3 2 0 0 11 Intensifier 8 4 0 1 4 3 6 6 32 Repair 10 10 2 1 1 3 2 0 29 Forbearance 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Concern 0 0 1 2 2 0 10 10 25 Explanation 0 1 2 1 1 7 0 2 14 Minimize 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 1 7 Justification 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 2 10 Alerter 0 2 2 2 2 0 1 0 9 Total no. of strat. 41/6 32/7 18/9 27/12 30/11 30/8 31/7 32/7 241 Proceeding to the discussion of adjuncts, one has to note that they are surely both proficiency and situational, since the inventory of apologies used in the scenarios 7 and 8, as compared to the scenarios 1 and 2, will be completely different for all group members disregarding their proficiency level.

Thus, for example, the most commonly met strategy for the scenario 7 and 8 is concern for the bumped person, with the majority of respondents showing equal concern for the elderly person and the close friend. The present study provides further evidence of this fact because it shows the incidence of concern apologies usage the highest in the 7th and 8th scenarios (10 times in each).

Sub-strategies of ‘admission of the fact’ and ‘lack of intent’ were commonly used in the scenarios 1 and 2, which is also consistent with the findings of Chang (2010).

The figures 10 and 11 for acknowledgement and lack of intent apologies respectively show that the respondents from the present respondents’ group applied the apology revealing their responsibility for the incident practically in every situation, though not every respondent did that.

Intensifier being on the second place after apology and regret shows that the higher proficiency level group often adds intensifiers to the apologies voiced, which is fully consistent with the findings of Chang (2010) stating that the increase of intensifier usage was observed only with higher grades of respondents, being totally unpopular with the 3rd grade students, and being much more common in the 10th grade.

Table 5. The comparison of respondents’ usage of various apology strategies.

Reaction/ strategy R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 R 6 R 7 R 8 R 9 R 10 R 11 R 12 IFID Regret/ Apology 0 6 8 5 4 3 7 7 8 7 6 2 Forgiveness 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 Admission of fact 1 2 2 0 1 6 2 3 0 0 4 3 Blame 2 0 3 0 2 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 Lack of Intent 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 Acknowledgment 1 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 Intensifier 2 1 5 4 2 1 2 4 3 5 2 1 Repair 0 2 1 2 3 2 3 6 3 4 2 2 Forbearance 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Concern 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 0 2 Explanation 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 0 1 Minimize 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Justification 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 1 0 Alerter 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Total no. of strat. 12/8 18/8 33/11 16/7 16/8 24/12 23/9 31/9 21/7 21/6 19/7 13/8 The content of the apology strategies. Proceeding to the discussion of the apology content, one needs to note that the regret-apology forms were mostly used in 90% of situations first, then followed by other categories of apologies; they were used in the forms “Sorry”, “I am sorry”, “I am so sorry”, and “I am very sorry”.

The phrase “I apologize” was met only twice, which implies the indisputable popularity of “sorry” and its derivatives in voicing an apology. No misinterpretations were noted in the responses of the discussed sample, with no usage of ‘excuse me’ phrase in the described scenarios.

The strategy of ‘admission of the fact’ is used more often in all scenarios by the present group of respondents, which supports the hypothesis of Chang (2010) on the evolutionary usage of apology forms by students with higher proficiency levels.

As a matter of fact, admission of the fact is recognized as a more complex form of an apology, hence its more frequent usage supports the idea of the findings arrived at in the present group being a logical support and continuation of Chang’s (2010) research.

The ‘lack of intent’ strategy was also used predominantly in the scenarios 1 and 2, as well as 7 and 8. The overwhelming incidence of that strategy’s correct usage supports the idea of the developmental patterns of apology as a speech act of L2 learners.

Table 6. Frequency of apologies implemented by respondents in all scenarios.

Regret/apology 26.14% Intensifier 13.3% Repair 12% Concern 10.4% Admission of fact 6.27% Explanation 5.8% Acknowledgement 4.56% Blame 4.15% Lack of intent 4.15% Justification 4.15% The innovative apology tool of older groups – emergence of avoidance strategies. The present study revealed an interesting tendency in the responses of the present sample that had not been previously investigated by other researchers. While no rejoinder was available for the usage in the DCT questionnaire generated for the present study, no deviations from the coding scheme were expected.

However, the incidence of avoidance strategies was viewed in several scenarios applied by 3 respondents. One of the respondents reacted the following way to the scenario 4, when the friend of hers heard her complaining about the poor English she had: “Sorry, I have to go”.

It is a clear avoidance of the need to give apologies. Another situation was observed in the scenario 8: “Oh, I am so happy to see you that I bumped you. We have to see each other more often!”. It is the strategy of turning the offence into a humorous situation and avoiding saying anything similar to an apology.

Scenario 4 also showed several responses similar to assuming that the friend Judy did not understand any of the complaints because her English was really bad, which means that no fault in the situation was detected by respondents.

Avoidance of complaints is also widely spread in scenarios 5 and 6, where the respondents voiced their hope that nobody had noticed their absence and lateness. 3 respondents stated that in case nobody asked them about lateness, they would just join in and say nothing.

Such absence of the wish to apologize may be presupposed by the age of respondents, experience in life and the unwillingness to pose themselves in a weaker position by searching explanations, justifications, and offering repairs.

However, another most common strategy used in the same scenario was offering to pay the bill, without even mentioning an apology, which notes the practical attitude to lateness, and the wish to compensate the fault with food and drinks, and not an apology for the offense and lack of respect.

Conclusion The present study represents the continuation of research in the field of L2 learners’ communicative competency development research on the example of the speech act of apology.

The findings refer to the developmental processes in the apology reflection field of Taiwanese and Chinese L2 learners of moderate to high proficiency levels, and contribute to the findings of Chang (2010) on the expansion and variability of apology strategies applied by various proficiency groups of L2 learners.

The study was based on the written DCT data collected from L2 learners in the classroom, taking a step forward in the interlanguage pragmatic development research. The discussion of results obtained in the course of the present study indicates that students extend and enrich their apology strategies, use more complex strategies more readily in various scenarios with the higher proficiency levels of English knowledge.

However, the research produced seems rather isolated from the common body of research in the developmental pragmatics, as the necessity to introduce the longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in a combination was repeatedly indicated by researchers and practitioners of the field.

Lack of the ability to compare the L2 data with a similar sample of L1 speakers represents the major limitation of the research, thus preventing it from generalizations. Context specificity research is also potentially beneficial for acquiring better understanding of the internal incentives of L2 learners to choose the apology strategies, so it has to be attributed more attention in the future research.

References Bataller, R. (2010). Making a Request for a Service in Spanish: Pragmatic Development in the Study Abroad Setting. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 43, Iss. 1, pp. 160–175.

Blum-Kulka, S., Olshtain, E. (1986). Too many words: length of utterance and pragmatic failure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, no. 8, 165–180.

Chang, Y.- F. (2010). ‘I no say you say is boring’: the development of pragmatic competence in L2 apology. Language Sciences, no. 32, pp. 408–424.

Cheng, S.W. (2005). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development of expressions of gratitude by Chinese learners of English. PhD Diss., University of Iowa. Retrieved from https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/104/

Cohen, A.D. (2004). The interface between interlanguage pragmatics and assessment. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference. May 22-23, 2004. Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Keizai University.

Rose, K. (2000). An exploratory cross-sectional study of interlanguage pragmatic development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, no. 22, pp. 27–67.

Trosborg, A. (1987). Apology strategies in natives/non-natives. Journal of Pragmatics , no. 1, pp. 147–167.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints, and Apologies. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.


Literacy Linguistic Usage Qualitative Research Essay online essay help: online essay help

The concept of language is a complex one; it has been long ago discovered to be not isolated from the communicative situations and individual differences of speakers. The linguistic discourse has hence become a subject of close scrutiny, and the socio-cultural, individual, institutional and other implications of language usage have come to the forefront of scientific attention.

The connection of language, identity, and social practices of individuals has to be studied in the whole complicity of their revelations in the overall discursive essence.

There is much empirical evidence nowadays on how identity is reflected through language, and on the ways language becomes and indispensible part of the human social practices and experiences. There are also findings on how the connection between language and identity can be used to enhance language learning and acquiring linguistic proficiency.

The article of Joseph (2006) summarizes the main ideas of how language has become a useful tool in both expressing one’s identity and evaluating the identities of other people on the basis of their language usage peculiarities.

Joseph (2006) emphasizes the fact that language is now used more in the function of representation than communication, and that the transformation derives from the cultural and individual diversity of speakers evident nowadays.

One more useful finding of Joseph (2006) is that the conventional vision of realization of only national identity in language is now actively debated because of the need to take into consideration the individual contribution every person makes into the linguistic usage and identity formation as well as realization through linguistic means.

The opinion about language representing identity in action is shared by Lane (2009); the researcher has made this conclusion based on the results of the survey conducted with two immigrant Finnish groups residing on the territory of Canada.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their national identities reflected through language turned out identical, but the social practices they implied by language usage differed substantially, thus making them distinct. Therefore, individual identity becomes a significant component of linguistic usage patterns and is reflected though symbolic attributes in linguistic practices worldwide.

Language is also based on identity realization through the individual practices and experiences, both within the language learning and usage framework and beyond it. This point can be well illustrated by the work of Darville (2009) proving that true literacy in language learning can be acquired only in case when learned items can be tied to the learners’ real life experience.

It means that literacy should be perceived as practice, with the language representing a social construct that is exercised in the context of learners’ lives, perceptions, opinions and feelings (Darville, 2009).

Another finding in the field of tying the learning process to the students’ identity is provided by Hamilton (2009) – the author investigates the role of individual educational plans, and the role of teacher as a mediator formulating the plan according to the students’ educational needs, ambitions, and state requirements.

Another powerful work on the significance of identity considerations in language studies has been provided by Atwood (2007) – it is an account of the Nunavit training camp in which Indigenous women were taught their ethnicity, traditions, customs and crafts. At the same time, they were taught literacy, which was hard for teachers because of lack of self-esteem and understanding of the literacy’s importance for Nunavit women.

It became possible to engage the camp participants in learning to write and read only when the parallel between their customs and literacy was drawn, making them realize the power knowledge could give them (Atwood, 2007).

The author finally makes a conclusion that identity is a part of people that defines their paths, and the Nunavit historical context of oppression and traumatic educational experiences are also barriers in learning hard to overcome within knowing the history of each particular group.

We will write a custom Essay on Literacy Linguistic Usage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, it is vital to apply the findings on the relationships between language and identity in the practical sphere of learning and teaching languages.

The serious step forward was made by Fairbairn and Fox (2009) who outlined the major barriers in studying English for immigrants and non-citizens in Canada and the USA, and marked the regressive attitude towards their cultural, social and individual identity taken by the North American governments.

Their account shows how seriously the distinction in understanding and learning English is revealed by immigrants becoming victims of standardized and unified principles of learning and assessment.

The set of key changes needed to restore the adequate access to English learning for non-English speakers is provided on the basis of identity, social background, and individual peculiarities’ considerations. This account proves that identity reveals itself in speaking one’s native language, and at the same time in learning a foreign language as well.

The topic of learning a language being indisputably connected with social practices is pursued by Alderson (2006) in his overview of the diagnostic testing type and its role in the adequate language testing.

The author makes the specific emphasis on the fields of knowledge tested by diagnostic and other tests, making a conclusion that the diagnostic test is of particular importance in language testing, providing the framework for assessment of the way students may apply their language knowledge, their reflection of knowledge obtained etc.

Because of the long time it takes to take the test, and lack of facilities for testing at educational establishments, the diagnostic test is not popular with teachers; however, it possesses the highest potential in multi-faceted testing and adequate assessment of knowledge farther from the formalistic, unified testing types that do not reveal the true knowledge of students.

Drawing a conclusion from the present set of articles, one has to note the close, organic relationship existing between human identity, experience and language (often realized through human literacy).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Literacy Linguistic Usage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On finding out that relationship, researchers and practitioners in the field of linguistics have obtained a set of tools to assess the impact of identity on language usage, to identify the most constructive experience-based methods of learning and assessment.

In addition, nowadays literacy linguistic usage are obtaining social significance, so the application of various communicative means as well as their choice by speakers may add much useful data for the applied linguistic research, and enrich the modern vision about the discussed relationship and its causes.

References Alderson, J.C. (2006). Diagnosing Foreign Language Proficiency: the Interface between Assessment and Learning. London (UK): Continuum.

Atwood, M. (2007). The Alphabet of Hope. Writers for Literacy. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Darville, R. (2009). Literacy as practices, teaching as alignment: A message in a bottle. Literacies, No. 10, pp. 14-18.

Fairbairn, S.B.,


Collaborating with the Science: the Brand New Form of Research Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free

The number of theories considering the teamwork of a teacher and a student is really uncountable. Thus, the approaches that have been used so far can hardly be calculated. Still the process of learning is far not that effective as it is desired to be. That is what has made Paul Greenbank consider the ways of improving it once again.

After conducting a research in this field, the author has come to the conclusion that this method of organizing cooperation between a teacher and a student has its certain advantages that not all people know about and that makes them withdraw from using this method in their practice.

As Greenbank proceeds with his conclusions concerning the given method of working in a team, it becomes clear that the suggested way of teaching can be an actual way out of the situation when neither the student has will to study, nor the teacher has the wish to teach.

Indeed, the mutual interest in the study can improve the situation much, and the eagerness of the teacher can balance the unwillingness of the student, so this is what could make the fairy tale of a student studying the given material with a heavy interest or at least without showing his disgust.

The collaborative method of research is the road paced together, a teacher guiding his student and correcting his mistakes, and encouraging him to go on further and continue the progress made (O’Doherty, 2008).

This sounds like a dream that we have never had in our lives but the future generation might, and making the educational committee work in the direction of approving the idea of collaborative research as the basis for education can be a goal to strive for.

However, it is far not that easy as it might sound, Greenbank warns. The research of his (which, in fact, was not collaborative), shows a thorough work on the topic, and the results that he has drawn up are far from being satisfying. It has turned out that the method works right only with those students who are initially aimed at serious and fruitful work, the students who are resourceful enough and ready to work on their own as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is, such method of organizing work will not be efficient in case the students are not willing to make their contribution as well. In such a case, it would be a mere one-man-show where the teacher would be the researcher, the guide and the editor at once.

This very moment has driven Greenbank to make sure if the results of the research conducted in such a way are good enough.

As it turned out, the method works only with the students of a particular temper. These are the people who, once starting the task, are bound to take it to the very end and find the solution whatever it might take. In this case the teacher plays his part of a spectator and a guide that can be of some help at the particular moments when the student is confused about the further actions.

If the student’s character does not feature the qualities in question, and the temperament that provides them is the sanguine one, the research is doomed to a failure.

However sad it might sound, it seems that the mankind, or at least its studying part, is not yet quite ready for such experiments.

Meanwhile, most of senior schools and higher educational establishments have been practicing the given method for quite long, and the generations of students brought up on the basis of the collaboration with the teacher have transformed into diligent and creative workers who have achieved certain success in their fields.

The question of whether such way of conducting research is reasonable remains open. Still it seems to me that we are not developed enough to level the student and the teacher.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Collaborating with the Science: the Brand New Form of Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This might be achieved further on, as the students get used to the idea of getting necessary knowledge on their own, the teacher being simply a guide and a consultant on their way to the cognition. But nowadays that sounds far too idealistic and driven too far from the facts of the reality.

Maintaining the notorious momentum that has been spoken for so long and so much about (Harris, 2007) only works right as long as you have this very momentum, as long as you feel the feedback. In this case, the work can be handled within a minimum amount of time. However, it takes too many qualities combined to be able to achieve this very momentum and to get it to the full spin.

Just consider the following: to be able to work on this very level a student must be organized, creative (the given two already pose a contradiction to each other!) and resourceful. The student must be able to concentrate on the subject as fully as the teacher does, moreover, he has to be just indulged into the process as the teacher is, otherwise it would be a mutual torment.

To sum up, Paul Greenbank has the point discussing the drawbacks of the new method of conducting researches. It might look like a good idea for teachers, but the students might simply not be ready to address to the teacher as to a peer in a research.

However, the possible way out could be not changing the structure of education, but trying to bring up a child so that he or she could possess the wanted qualities. Being resourceful and responsible is not reaching for the stars, actually. The idea is that we still have a long way to go to improve our selves and change our ways of cognizing the world.

Reference List Harris, T. (2007) Collaborative Research and Development Projects. Heidelberg, Berlin: Spindler Verlag. Print.

O’Doherty, E. (2008) Education in a Changing Environment: Conference Book. Vol.4. New York, NY: Informing Science. Print


High School Bullying Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction High school bullying manifests in more ways than one. It may be perpetrated through emotional, verbal, or physical abuse. Basically, those who bully their fellow students exert some level of subtle coercion on their subjects and do it repeatedly such that they dominate their subjects in a social or physical manner (Levinson, 2002, p. 1).

Bullying is usually outlawed and discouraged in many schools in the United Kingdom (UK) but currently the country does not have any clear legal definition of the term (Oliver, 2003). However, other countries such as the United States (US) have a clear-cut definition of bullying and those proved to have committed the act usually face legal action at a school or state level.

High school bullying normally takes the form of group or individual domination over vulnerable targets and usually involves the witnessing of unfair acts by bystanders who most often condone such actions so that they do not become the next victims (Swearer, 2009, p. 4). Nonetheless, USA Today reports that:

“school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do, and may even derive enjoyment from it, and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it if brings them joy on some level” (p. 5).

This complicates efforts to tackle high school bullying because some students often see it as a normal occurrence and therefore do not collaborate or take part in initiatives to curb the vice.

It becomes extremely surprising that bullying is not only perpetrated by fellow students but by teachers as well. This often occurs because of the imbalance of power between students and teachers that which leaves room for subtle coercion from the teachers (Swanwick, 2010, p. 349).

This study further exposes this topic but with the assertion that bullying can only be stopped if student cooperation is fostered and if moderators are introduced into the school system so that dispute resolution can be easily enhanced. This study will however accomplish these goals in a professional context such that the contents of this study can be considered for publication in a professional journal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering this unique goal, we will establish the professional journal to be considered and why it is appropriate for this study. Emphasis will also be made on the kind of audience to read this article because the contents of this study need to be at par with other similar articles in the journal to be selected. This therefore means that this article will be developed in close similarity to the similar articles in the selected journal.

To achieve a precise outcome, we will evaluate some of the existing articles in the selected journal to establish the development criteria for preferred articles. Lastly, we will also evaluate the author guidelines in the selected journal and in so doing; we will develop a list of guidelines that outlines this study.

Journal Selection The Journal of human behavior in the social sciences will be the journal of choice for this study. Considering the nature of bullying as largely a social issue, this journal will best accommodate such a problem because it seeks to analyze developing issues relating to human behavior at all cognitive levels (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

Moreover, the journal will provide an outlet where other schools can learn about the underlying human/ student behavior issues that dictate or necessitate bullying in the first place. In detail, the journal analyzes the complexities associated with social work and even categorizes the different levels characterizing human relationships in a social environment (which can be easily compared to a school scenario).

The journal of human behavior encompasses up to date research on human behavior and incorporates only groundbreaking studies based on empirical evidences or theories which dictate human behavior (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

The journal also explains the complexities of human behavior in a conceptual and empirical basis through the outline of existing study frameworks explaining human behavior. Articles are therefore initially descriptive in nature and then later diagnose and predict human behavior with the provision of possible explanations to human behavior (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

Authors’ Guidelines For consideration by Taylor and Francis (the primary publishing house for the Journal of human behavior), a number of guidelines ought to be adhered to by all authors for their manuscripts to be considered for publication. Firstly, authors should present an unbiased work where certain social parameters like age, race, culture, sex and the likes are offered a significant degree of consideration (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

We will write a custom Essay on High School Bullying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The final work should therefore be purely based on merit. Secondly, all developed works ought to be developed in an efficient manner and also submitted in good time and in the best possible quality (Routlege, 2010, p. 1). Thirdly, editors are at liberty to reject a given piece of work based on personal discretion.

However, in certain cases, the editor is also at liberty to consult with other stakeholders for a second opinion before a decision for consideration or rejection of manuscript is made (Routlege, 2010, p. 1). Fourth, the peer review process done to all research articles should be done with a high degree of confidentiality and lastly, all manner of conflict of interest should be exposed before consideration for publication (Routlege, 2010, p. 1).

Article Review and Target Audience An article titled “Interprofessional Education for Practice: Some Implications for Australian Social Work” by Gosallie Pockett, cited in the Journal of Human behavior sets precedence for this study’s article because it explains the Australian education system that fosters cooperation between students and external social agents in creating a good learning environment for Australian universities.

The article identifies the importance of teamwork and its impact on socialization and acculturation of students in Australian universities. The article also further goes on to indicate where professional standards can be emphasized to increase collaboration and improve teamwork among students; more like what is needed to eliminate bullying in high schools.

This article will therefore be largely similar to the article about high school bullying (to be developed in this study) because it will outline specific areas where professionals in the education sector can consider in eliminating high school bullying (Taylor and Francis, 2010, p. 1).

The target audiences for articles from the Journal of human behavior are majorly social workers and policy makers. Teachers and other educational stakeholders fall into this category and are therefore suited as a good audience for this journal because they deal with a high number of students with variable personalities in a social set up (school) (Routledge, 2010, p. 1).

Professional Paper High School Bullying

Bullying has become a key concern in the public sector for decades now. There have been increased concerns from obvious quarters such as the general public and educational professionals of high school bullying; specifically because it affects the emotional well-being of students and the academic development of victims/perpetrators (Vernberg, 2010, p. 2).

In a study done on primary and high school students in the UK, it was established that about half of all primary school pupils and 54% of all high school students sampled, thought that bullying was a big problem for the British system of education (Sehgal, 2010, p. 3).

Not sure if you can write a paper on High School Bullying by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In related research, it was reported that about 60% of all students sampled thought their school was on the right track in tackling bullying but the rest thought that their schools either neglected or was on the wrong path towards eliminating bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 2). Other studies report that some teachers are better at dealing with the problem than others (Oliver, 2003, p. 2).

This especially manifests through the way teachers listen to their students because some are good at it while others are not (Savage, 2009, p. 238). In addition to policy development, many educational professionals, teachers and parents alike have sat down in various school committees to come out with viable solutions to the ever-present problem of child bullying in high schools (Anderson, 2010, p. 3).

The government has also been on the forefront in coming up with viable programs such as Bullying: Do not suffer in silence and anti-bullying policies (Thompson, 2002, p. 115). However, the biggest problem even in the development of anti-bullying policies and programs is the neglect of student views. This deficiency has therefore left a gap in the understanding of high school bullying.

Contextual Analysis

A study done by Child line international (a non-governmental organization group dealing with youngster issues) identifies that bullying manifests itself in various forms. Its manifestation was however representative of power imbalances between students which leads to situations of vulnerability and inequality among students (Oliver, 2003, p. 3).

Some social parameters were also identified as elements that dictated the level of student vulnerability such as physical appearance, race and such like variables (Oliver, 2003, p. 3).

The most common type of bullying identified the world over is name calling (Oliver, 2003, p. 3). Contrary to common belief, physical aggression does not stand out as much as verbal abuse. Verbal abuse currently manifests itself in various forms like the common habit of students spreading rumors or gossip about other children. However, this type of bullying normally goes on among students of lower forms (Shore, 2006, p. 3).

Physical aggression and name-calling is however more observed among older students.

A small number of students usually report certain types of bullying on the lines of racial or sexist comments but equally small minorities of students in lower forms are usually more engaged in name-calling, on the lines of sexual preferences; like gays are normally called derogative names because of their sexual orientation (Macklem, 2003, p. 45).

However, the level of bullying in such manner varies across the type of school, culture or setting involved. On gender grounds, recent research affirms that girls are equally vulnerable to bullying as boys but the nature of bullying varies across the gender divide (Sanders, 2004, p. 78).

In this manner, it has been affirmed that boys are usually more prone to physical abuse than girls but girls are more prone to bullying on sexual grounds than boys; with many girls purporting that they have often been inappropriately touched in a sexual manner (Geffner, 2001, p. 66).

Responding to Bullying

A significant number of schools are noted to ineffectively respond to bullying incidences, majorly because they adopt one-off initiatives as opposed to undertaking long-lasting relationships through influencing ongoing programs (Davis, 2007, p. 3).

A good initiative among school management is through appointing anti-bullying counselors or assigning different responsibilities to different individuals regarding the type of role to play in eradicating bullying in high schools.

Key concerns in the responsiveness of schools to bullying, rests on the approach teachers take in listening to student concerns (Oliver, 2003, p. 4). Good teachers are noted to express some degree of empathy in addition to dealing appropriately with student concerns.

Conversely, schools which have been identified to have a poor record at dealing with bullying are observed to deal with the problem majorly at assembly grounds and in school councils, in addition to taking student concerns lightly without first listening to the students.

The emphasis on teachers is especially important because most students express the fact that teachers often have a huge responsibility of presenting themselves as good examples to which students can emulate and confide in (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). Teachers can therefore respond better to bullying by setting a good example to the students.

Effective Responses to Bullying

In trying to establish the most preferred strategies to eradicate bullying from the students’ points of view, cultivation of friendships, avoidance, and taking matters into ones own hands are important strategies that can be used. These strategies are further analyzed below:

Standing up for Oneself

In a research study done to analyze the effectiveness of talking back to a bully, more than half of the young students sampled thought it was more effective for victims to talk back or be assertive to bullies (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). The most common type of assertion was verbal assertiveness.

This kind of strategy was deemed effective because it broke the continuous cycle of bullying where students were constantly targeted by certain individuals because of their vulnerability. In so doing, it was established that talking back in an assertive manner was likely to reduce the appropriate profiling of victims by a potential bully.

However, some observers point out that adopting such a strategy is likely to leave the victim vulnerable to more instances of bullying; especially involving physical harm (Oliver, 2003, p. 5). A large number of identified students almost entirely think such a strategy is fully practical.


Ignoring a bully is expected to work because of the dynamism of human behavior identified among bullies. In detail, this strategy is expected to work because the primary intention of bullies on their victims is to make them angry and reactive.

If a victim doesn’t express anger, the bully is likely to experience some level of dissatisfaction, which may potentially break the cycle of bullying. Nonetheless, it has been established that this strategy has its potential weaknesses because in extreme cases, a bully may go to extreme levels to seek a response from his/her victim by committing a grave act to the victims.

Victims therefore run the risk of experiencing worse types of bullinf if they ignore the bully in the first place. However, this strategy is expected to work because of the psychological satisfaction associated with bullies when they bully their fellow students.

For instance in name calling, a bully gets more satisfaction by watching the victim get mad bout it but if such a reaction is absent, it potentially becomes dissatisfying on the part of the bully if the victim becomes blind to such provocations.

Hitting Back

Unlike earlier forms of strategies identified in this strategy, a significant number of students believe that standing up to a bully by hitting them back is a good strategy to end the endless cycle of bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

More specifically, students believe that hitting a bully back in the case of physical bullying or talking back in the case of verbal or emotional bullying is likely to deter bullies from further causing harm on the victims. This kind of sentiment is especially harbored among older students than in younger students (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

Learning martial arts as a self defense mechanism is the number one strategy identified by students as the most appropriate form of self-defense against bullies. However, on a short-term basis, reacting to a bully in an unregulated manner is likely to deter a bully from further inflicting harm to a victim. Learning martial arts like karate, or self-defense tactics is therefore a long-term strategy in reducing the risk of bullying.

Nonetheless, this strategy enjoys varied support across gender lines because girls don’t give much support to it when compared to boys (Oliver, 2003, p. 6). Instead, girls, prefer a milder kind of strategy in tackling bullying.

This observation is almost replicated along racial lines because Asian and black children are normally observed to support the “violence with violence” strategy as a way to reduce the risk of bullying when compared to their white counterparts (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

Some parents also support this strategy especially if they believe their children are not in a position to prevent instances of bullying or when school officials have neglected the issue altogether (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

However, this strategy has its potential weaknesses just like the above-mentioned strategies because victims often risk suffering the risk of more violent attacks from bullies who are more determined to instill their superiority on their subjects.

Talking to Someone

Many students find it easy to talk to a friend when they are experiencing bullying from fellow students. However, it is established that students in lower forms are likely to talk to their mothers instead of fellow classmates or friends.

This fact has an implication on the type of policies or programs to be developed to curb bullying because policies and programs built around friendship networks are likely to be more effective than those built around other parameters such as teacher-student relationships (Smith, 2003, p. 165).

It is therefore established that if students have a strong network of friends, they are likely to wade off bullying tendencies much easier than students who don’t have the protection of such networks.

Friendship networks do not only provide a safeguard against bullying but also help victims cope better with bullying. In fact, there have been reports where students often don’t know how to cope with bullying and then end up taking their own life (Osborne, 2001, p. 1).

These are the kind of students who don’t share strong friendship networks because they lack the moral support from external parties (Garrett, 2003, p. 138). Friends have therefore been identified as the most important link to the success of anti-bullying campaigns because they are usually in a position to witness bullying in and out of the school.

In this context therefore, friends are better placed than adults and teachers in tackling bullying because they can provide the necessary support when needed. Moreover, students normally cite friends as easier to talk to when it comes to speaking out against bullying.

Some friends have even been identified to stand up to certain bullies on behalf of their friends and protect them from violent attacks. However, the biggest problem with involving friends is that they can be picked on by the same bullies when they stand up for their friends.

Seeking External Help

When students are faced with compromising situations or when they feel that they have no other alternative to dealing with bullies, external help from agencies like the police, or child services should be sought.

In as much as these agencies give the necessary help, some students often cite certain concerns with approaching agencies like child line because they may not really understand the kind of bullying they are going through in the local context.

The police have also been identified as a bureaucratic institution because students cite concerns such as going to court or the fact that the police would have to bypass parent involvement in tackling bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6).

Nonetheless, student counselors are a better pick than the police or child line services because they are better placed to understand bullying in the local context and can therefore give the necessary advice in tackling the problem.

The UK Child mental service has also been cited by many students as one of the most effective agencies in tackling bullying (Oliver, 2003, p. 6). These external agencies provide professional help for helpless victims of bullying.

Conclusion It is clearly evident that before any agency decides to tackle the problem of bullying, they ought to understand the fact that students often engage in a process of risk analysis before they report bullying instances in their schools. However, there are no clear-cut solutions to the said problem because human behavior is largely unpredictable and different solutions normally work in different contexts.

This study has analyzed and provided remedies to the problem from a student point of view with the aim of representing what may actually work on the part of students (who are both the victims and the bullies). Collectively, this study points out that anti-bullying policies and programs may fail to materialize if they fail to acknowledge the intrigues that happen in the students’ social world.

In this manner, it is important that all stakeholders involved in tackling high school bullying engage the process from the “bottom-up” approach instead of the “top-down” approach. Moreover, students should be involved in every step of the policy making process because they offer the key to the sustainability of such initiatives.

References Anderson, J. (2010). How to Stop Middle and High School Bullying. Web.

Davis, S. (2007). Schools Where Everyone Belongs: Practical Strategies for Reducing Bullying. London: Research Press.

Garrett, A. G. (2003). Bullying In American Schools: Causes, Preventions, Interventions. New York: McFarland.

Geffner, R. (2001). Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions. London: Routledge.

Levinson, D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment. London: Sage.

Macklem, G. L. (2003). Bullying and Teasing: Social Power in Children’s Groups. New York: Springer.

Oliver, C. (2003). Tackling Bullying. London: Thomas Coram Research Unit.

Osborne, E. (2001). Citizenship and PSHE. London: Folens Limited.

Routlege. (2010). Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Web.

Sanders, C. E. (2004). Bullying: Implications for the Classroom. New Jersey: Academic Press.

Savage, T. V. (2009). Successful Classroom Management and Discipline: Teaching Self-Control and Responsibility. London: SAGE.

Sehgal, N. (2010). 50% High School Students Admit Bullying in Last Year’s Survey. Web.

Shore, K. (2006). The ABC’s of Bullying Prevention: A Comprehensive Schoolwide Approach. London: NPR Inc.

Smith, P. (2003). Understanding Children’s Development. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Swanwick, T. (2010). Understanding Medical Education: Evidence, Theory and Practice. London: John Wiley and Sons.

Swearer, S. M. (2009). Bullying Prevention and Intervention: Realistic Strategies For Schools. New York: Guilford Press.

Taylor T. and Francis, L. (2010). Interprofessional Education for Practice: Some Implications for Australian Social Work. Web.

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Peculiarities of Using Drama, Improvisation, and Creative Approach Qualitative Research Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The contemporary society faces the concept of globalisation. As every issue, globalisation has its advantages and drawbacks that cover all sectors of human activity.

Cultural issues should be taken into account as well as peculiar features of every language including teachers who would teach certain languages and approaches applicable to different categories of students in terms of age groups, skills for learning a second language, and implementation of those skills into practice.

One of the burning issues for the linguistic sector of cultural heritage are the methods used in class for teaching people whose native language is not English. In this respect, drama used in class to facilitate the process of acquiring English language can be effective when all criteria are followed. For instance, active participation should be combined with a thoroughly prepared plan to follow during the class activities.

The discussion of the effectiveness of drama implementation for second language acquisition will include such issues as theoretical background and adaptation of certain methods for use with second language learners, concepts and strategies used by the great English educator Dorothy Heathcote, training teachers to use drama with second language learners, effectiveness and limitations for implementation of this approach in class.

The discussion will exclude explanation of lessons and will not provide examples of plans of lessons for use of drama for more effective second language acquisition. The literature selection is based on the effectiveness and readability of sources and their practical use for the discussion.

The review is organised in accordance with an essay structure where an introduction present the scope of the review, the body includes the basic themes for discussion with topic sentences opening each new paragraph, and a conclusion containing a summary of the review with some recommendations for further research and analysis.

Historical Background Approach by Dorothy Heathcote

Though many researchers present their vision of the second language acquisition process, it is necessary to emphasise the importance of contribution made by a distinguished English educator Dorothy Heathcote. In this respect, this educator can be considered a pioneer in adjusting drama to the class implementation and analysis of the method’s effectiveness and applicability to different settings and categories of learners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training teachers to use drama

Training teachers to use drama in class is very important because a failure can result in inadequate interpretation of information by a student and inadequate assessment of learning efforts by a teacher. In this respect, one of the most brilliant statements by Dorothy Heathcote can be regarded the following: “Teaching is creative work…” (Heathcote, 1991, p. 26).

In other words, the author means that training educators can be considered a part of teaching and an important aspect of implementation of drama for learning.

The teaching-learning activity is analysed as a flow of energy surges by Armstrong-Mills (1997) who shares her personal experience of acquiring knowledge on using drama in class and implementing it with children: “Whatever was happening seemed to be related to an increase of energy and concern with the events we were making” (p.93).

The main idea in this case is that educators learn to do something and then can try those methods and approaches immediately with children in class by implementing theory into practice. In other words, teaching can be considered equally important for educators and learners.

Nature of educational drama

Drama and its implementation in class is the changing issue that progresses as far as the educational methods and techniques progress every year. As reported by Heathcote (1991), the changes in the use of drama have shifted the emphases from individual learning to improvisation:

There has been a shift in direction from an interest in the personal development of the individual pupil, through the acquiring of theatrical and improvisational skills to the recognition of drama as a precise teaching instrument, which works best when it is part of the learning process (p. 42).

In this respect, drama can be used in a great variety of ways and treated differently by different educators who support different views on education. So, Cook (1973) suggests a brief but extremely clear explanation of drama as educational method and justifies its use: “The natural means of study in youth is play [while]… a natural education is by practice…” (p. 145).

We will write a custom Essay on Peculiarities of Using Drama, Improvisation, and Creative Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this respect, drama provides educators with an opportunity to teach children in the most effective way that can be used with second language learners as well as with monolingual children (Kao


Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation Argumentative Essay essay help

Introduction A balanced score card is a tool used by senior management to measure organizational progress in attainment of set goals and objectives (Smith 2007, p.166). This does not imply that other tools cannot be used to measure performance and therefore, management is at liberty to use other tolls even where balanced scorecard has been used.

A balanced score card focuses on four areas namely financial, internal processes, customer as well as learning and growth (Schniederjans 2007 p.163). These are also known as the four legs of a balanced score card and without any of them, the whole system is incomplete. Financial perspective enables a firm measure where they want to be in terms of finances and the image that they create to the shareholders.

The firm main financial areas of concern are operating income and return on investment (Matthews, 2002, p.107). Customer perspective focuses on serving customers in a satisfactorily manner and the image that the firm portrays to the customers.

Internal business processes focus on how the firm can improve its internal processes and operations in order to achieve efficiency while learning and growth focus on how can the firm can improve on the skills and abilities of the employees.

This paper will discuss on how a balanced score card can help management in developing new organizational goals, how to integrate corporate vision and values with the four perspective of a balanced scorecard. In addition, the paper will also look at how the scorecard can be used to communicate organizational goals to employees and the role played by the compensation mechanism.

Development of New Goals for UNUM Corporation by Chairman and Chief Executive

The chairperson and chief executive of UNUM realized that their goals by then were not sufficient to achieve success in the organization. He therefore focused on achieving goals that are more meaningful by engaging balanced measures that would incorporate the interests of all the parties who had a stake in the organization.

He realized the importance of teamwork in achieving meaningful goals and therefore formed a team of thirteen senior managers who were to engage in the process of designing and implementing balanced goals and measures. A balanced scorecard was to be used and the four legs of a balanced score card were the focal point.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The chief executive therefore informed his team that he wanted them to develop a customer scorecard, a financial score card and an employee productivity score card. He then acknowledged the importance of education and knowledge and gave the team ample time to learn about the balanced score card since it was a new concept (Hannabarger, Buchman and Buchman, 2007, pg. 9).

James Orr therefore sought to develop new goals by use of a balance scorecard that has four different but closely integrated aspects and failure or negligence on one aspect might lead to business failure.

Relationship between Development of Corporate Vision, Corporate Value and Balanced Score Card

UNUM has a vision to achieve leadership in business. Integrated in the vision is the desire to serve the customers in a satisfactorily manner and have therefore incorporated in their values aspects that will make customer satisfaction a reality. They therefore intend to respect their customers and deliver what the clients want as well as what they promise to deliver.

To assess their efficiency in customer satisfaction, a scorecard has been designed to measure how customers appreciate the quality and performance of their product. Achieving goals need employee support and employees therefore should be equipped with necessary skills and knowledge as well as remuneration packages that match their skills and expertise.

In achieving business leadership, UNUM must make sure that employees are equipped with appropriate skills through adequate training and that they understand their roles properly. A scorecard has been developed in which employees’ opinions can be assessed to see how organizations vision is being met while still upholding the values. In its vision to achieve business leadership, the firm must achieve operational effectiveness.

In its values, it focused on the importance of proper, open, and clear communication that will allow free flow of operations and emphasized on improving and reengineering their processes. A balanced score card was developed to that would be used to measure growth in operating costs. The benchmark being that in the year 1998, the total operating costs should have declined by at least a third.

The shareholders are integral part of UNUM and achieving business leadership implies that the shareholders will be a part of the success and should enjoy and celebrate the success. The firm has therefore established values that focus on performance and setting individual goals that are in line with organizational goals.

We will write a custom Essay on Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To ensure that the shareholders feel as part of the success, a balanced scorecard has been designed to measure shareholder value. The benchmark is to have the company as a top 125 in the Stand list.

How UNUM use the Balanced Scorecard to Communicate Its Corporate Goals to Employees throughout the Organization

The process of implementing a balanced score card requires that the organization communicates to employees constantly in a way they understand. To ensure this, UNUM started by defining what each score card vision meant. The UNUM people vision ‘we will have the mind of a customer and the pride of an owner’ explained the company’s expectations from the employees.

The scorecard established a measure that would be used to give feedback on employees’ perception. UNUM organized workshops to determine or the reasons why employees did not trust the managers and the results based on employees’ perception were communicated to the organization.

The firm also uses a 360-degree appraisal system that is used to give feedback on how managers are in line with corporate behavior (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997. Employees are encouraged to think and act like owners by use of a goals stock option plan.

For example, in 1998, if the balanced score card goals were met, employees would be given a grant to purchase shares and incase the goals were not realized, the employees would miss the grant.

The employees are made aware of how the stock works and they are given financial information on quarterly basis in order to understand how the plans works through a guide known as ‘know your options’ (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).

The annual bonus that are given by the firm achieving the annual goals also serve as a communication tool since employees work hard to meet the annual target goals in order to benefit from the bonus. In achieving, operational effectiveness, the firm uses statements such as ‘Bending over Backwards’ (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).

Revisiting achievement and the way they were achieved is used to motivate employees to work and commit themselves to making things better by ensuring that resources are deployed effectively and the company performs better than competitors do. The chairperson has also developed some questions that are for use across the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Balanced Score Card – UNUM Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The questions focus on the firms’ goals in terms of overall goals, customer satisfaction, and people goal, operating effectiveness and shareholders value. The questions seek to understand how employees understand the firms’ goals, what they are doing to ensure their success and seek their opinion on what they think should be done or not done.

Role of Compensation Mechanisms in the Balanced Scorecard at UNUM Corporation

Compensation mechanisms act as motivation to the employees to work towards achieving organizational goals (Niven, 2006, p.213). The goal stock plan that gives employees a grant to purchase shares in the organization motivates workers to work as if the business is theirs.

They strive to achieve the best since they know that failure to achieve the goals that have been set will not be a loss to the organization alone but rather they will miss that golden chance of getting a grant to purchase the shares.

In pursuant with their goals of getting the stock plan option, employees are able to understand how the organization works in terms of generating revenue and eventually invest it to achieve company growth (UNUM corporation annual report, 1997).

In the long run, the company grows as a result of outstanding performance from the employees who work and take pride in it as if they were the owners and employees benefit from the compensation scheme.

UNUM does not focus on company and employee growth only; it takes into consideration the welfare of other stakeholders such as the shareholders. Shareholders are paid their dividends in good time and they are first made to understand how the company runs in terms of its operations. This gives other investors confidence to invest in the company and this enables the company to generate more capital when needed.

The company therefore has greater potential to expand since it is not limited by capital restrictions. It also serves to improve the company reputation and more customers and investors can believe in it giving it a better competitive edge over the competitors. The compensation mechanism therefore draws employee attention to focus on areas that are of great significance to the organization.

Balanced Scorecard as either a Diagnostic Control System or Interactive Control System at UNUM Corporation

prior to making a conclusion as to whether UNUM uses balanced score card as either a diagnostic control system or a interactive control system, a distinction between the two systems of control will be given for purposes of better understanding. According to Simmons as cited in (Kellen, 2003), a diagnostic control system is a system that assists organizations in monitoring and evaluating their present and past state.

Management set thresholds within which performance is acceptable, beyond the threshold, whether on the upper or lower side calls for management attention to diagnose the cause of deviations and attempt to rectify the situation.

This system enables a firm to keep in line with the set or target goals, as management is control through constant monitoring of progress. On the other hand, an interactive control system gives the firm additional control measures that makes the firm ready to handle strategic uncertainties in case hey strike.

Simmons as cited in (Kellen 2003) defined them as “the formal information systems that managers use to personally involve themselves in the decision activities of subordinates.” These control systems therefore create room for newer information and learning in the decision making process.

After understanding the difference in the way the control systems work, it can be said that UNUM Corporation uses integration of both control system. This can be justified by the fact that the firm measures performance against some predetermined targets.

For example, there are annual targets that are to be met and incase of deviation, management has to establish the cause of variation and design mechanisms to ensure that it will not happen in the future. This indicates use of diagnostic control system.

On the other hand, management tries to get new ideas and opinions from employees on how the can improve the process and their performance thus making employees’ part of the development. Such activities involve use of interactive systems where new ideas are welcome.

Balanced Scorecard for UNUM Corporation

Cause and Effect Relationship between the Four Perspectives of UNUM Corporation

UNUM people perspective serves as the learning and innovation perspective of the organization. It requires the employees to think like customers and act as owners and this challenge them to be very creative in everything they do in the organization. They look for additional information and newer ideas that will help other employees grow as the company grows.

This helps the organization achieve efficiency and have improved performance as all employees work towards achieving common goals. The operating effectiveness perspective focuses on ensuring that the company’s resources are utilized in an effect and efficient manner.

If all resources in terms of labor and capital and other resources were to be utilized in the best way possible, then it implies that the firm would achieve its goals and even exceed them. This gives the firm an advantage since with lower costs it can be able to price its products better than the competitors can. The customer satisfaction perspective aims to ensure that the firm’s customers are satisfied.

To achieve customer satisfaction means that the firm must first understand the needs and wants of the customers. Then come up with a marketing mix that will meet these needs in a satisfactorily manner by ensuring the right quality and using the appropriate mechanism to deliver the products or service.

Once the firm does this, it is almost guaranteed of customer loyalty from all the satisfied customers ceteris paribus. The company will therefore continue to enjoy increased sales and have more customers as this will earn it good reputation.

The shareholders value focuses on creating a good image to the shareholders and maximizing their wealth. This can be achieved through being able to meet organizational objectives and especially in terms of returns and profitability.

The firm will then be able to pay attractive dividends to the shareholders and have prices appreciate and this would happen if the total return on investment and profitability were favorable (Matthews, 2002, p.107). This is an incentive to potential investors, who will have confidence in the company and invest in it thus attracting more capital.

How the Corporate Vision is reflected in the Goals and Performance Measures with Reference to the four Perspectives

The corporate vision of UNUM Corporation is to achieve business leadership and not just being market leaders but also being leaders or achieving success in everything that they undertake. The UNUM people perspective goals are have improvement every year in their scores against the benchmark survey. The benchmark survey acts as the measure for this perspective.

Having the desire to constantly improve is a progressive aspect that shows the desire to succeed. The firm does not just wait for the success to come but engages in continued monitoring to assess how well they are working towards their success. In the operating effectiveness, the firm has set a limit beyond which the costs should not exceed as the measure.

The firm has also set a time limit within which they want to achieve their goal of reducing costs by one third. This two aspects blend into the corporate vision well as the firm should be able to define what it calls success in each case. As for this case, the firm knows that success will be achieved if costs are reduced by one third by 1998.

The firm wishes to achieve success in customer satisfaction by ensuring that they deliver quality products to the customers. However, they will not just sit back and assume they have delivered quality but will rather seek opinions of the customers to know whether they are satisfied.

The firm also intends to achieve success in customer satisfaction by ensuring that they have more customers who prefer their product and feel that it is among the best. The firm is focused on having good share prices that will maximize shareholders wealth and be able to pay dividends to the shareholders.

A firm that is doing badly cannot afford to pay dividends and this means that the firm will have achieved success. The firm also wants to achieve leadership by being ranked among the top 125 companies listed on the standard


Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Corporate philanthropy is the contribution that business makes to the general population using its finances as part of its corporate social responsibility. The activities undertaken by the organization will have a positive impact on the lives of the beneficiaries and sometimes even the business itself.

Most businesses are involved in various philanthropic activities, which vary depending on the community’s main problems and the business’s interests. In addition, the philanthropic activities are usually focused on improving the quality of life of the workforce of the company, their families and the general population where the company operates or may be intending to operate in future.

It may also be targeting the environment in which the organization operates through the improvement of the natural resources of the area that the organization operates in. primarily, corporate philanthropy can be undertaken through various means, which include giving gifts (products of the company or other company’s product), and having the employees of the company doing various activities which benefit the general community e.g. cleanup of the area near the organization.

In addition, an organization can directly be involved in the philanthropic activities or may form a foundation to carry out its philanthropic activities. These foundations are not involved in any business activities; their sole purpose is managing the philanthropic activities, with funding from the parent organization (Anheier, H K and List R 2005 p 67).

However, corporate philanthropy is not only a means of giving back to the community it also benefits the company in various ways.

Principles of Business sustainability and development Principles of sustainability explain the measures that an organizations need to put in place to ensure that they are to able cater for the current needs without having to compromise their ability to meet the needs in future (Landrum, Landrum and Edwards, 2009, p 3). In addition, organizations can ensure their sustainability by properly controlling and improving their main assets. These assets can generally be classified into:

Capital provided by nature: the organization should ensure that its activities do not create damage to nature. The organization must ensure that its activities are nature friendly. A good example is where a company produces or uses of products which are recyclable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human capital: this refers to the people who are affected by the company’s activities or its products. These may be the consumers of the products which the company produces, people who live near the organization, or the employees of the company.

Primarily, the organization should safeguard the interest of the above groups; by ensuring that the products do not harm the consumers directly when they use them, or the products do not harm employees when they are making them.

The products may also harm people indirectly if they lead to adverse environmental condition in the area where the company operates. Indeed, human capital is important since it provides both the workforce and the consumers for the organization.

Social capital: this refers to the social structure of the people who use the products, are affected by the product or the employees of the company.

Manufactured capital: This refers to the assets which the company uses its production.

Financial capital: The Company must also ensure the sustainability of its finances. The organization must ensure that it puts measures in place to ensure that it continues to have desirable profits. The organization must also ensure that the sale of its products continues to improve as well as the value of its shares (William, 2007, p 19).

Corporate philanthropy as a sustainability and sustainable business practice Corporations that involve in corporate philanthropy may do so due to varying reasons. They may be involved in philanthropy if the activity will lead to an increase in its profit either directly or indirectly. The corporation may also be involved in philanthropy as a corporate citizen so as to improve the quality of life of the respondents regardless of whether the activity will lead to an increase in its profit or not.

We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the organization may be involved in philanthropy so as cater for the social and political influences in the region within their operation. This means that they may be involved in philanthropy so as to self-regulate its activities and avoid government controlling its activities (Anheier and List, 2005, p 68).

Corporate philanthropy improves on the human capital of the organization. Employees who engage in corporate philanthropic activities of the company help their leadership skills and are therefore important assets to the company (Shepp, 2010). The philanthropic activities of a company also lead to improvement in the relationship between the employers and the employees.

This in effect leads to improvement of the motivation and loyalty of the employees. Improvement in the above attributes will lead to increase in productivity of the employees. The philanthropic activities also lead to improvement in the relationship between the customers and the corporation due to the direct involvement between the employees and the consumers.

The money spent on philanthropic activities is not used in vain; and this may act as a form of advertising to the company. The philanthropic activities help to improve the image of the company by showing that it cares for the needs of its consumers and the general population. This helps improve the loyalty of the consumers towards the company since the company caters for its needs as a consumer.

In addition, corporate philanthropy attracts media attention towards the company, helping it to raise its corporate image. The activities that a company undertakes in corporate philanthropy may also improve its image towards the government.

This may lead to its tax exemption or reduction in the tax that the government charges its activities. All these lead to improved financial position of the company; hence, corporate philanthropy, apart from taking money away from the company, also helps in generating money for the company though in an indirect manner (Neryan, 2009).

Corporate philanthropy may also strengthen the human capital of the organization. This may happen if the organization engages in programs to provide education and training of the people who are in institution that offer training for the professional requirement that the organization requires or any other institutions that offer education.

This may be in the form of bursaries and scholarships to students who are in high school or even in colleges (Porter, 2008, p 461). These scholarships and bursaries enable the organization get high quality employees who will as well be loyal to the company since the company helped them acquire their skills.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Philanthropy and Business Sustainability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization can also help improve on the quality of products that it produces indirectly through investing in the research and training activities of universities or colleges which deal with its products.

This helps to improve the products of not only its company, but also the product of other companies, thereby making the consumers to get high quality products. Eventually, this will lead to the company having a competitive edge over its rivals even if the initiative benefits even the competitors (Porter, 2008, p 456).

Corporate philanthropy can also help in improving the quality of life of the people who live in the area where it operates. This is through the improvement in the infrastructure, provision of better housing and through support of initiatives which help in improving the environment of the area (Porter, 2008, p 462).

This initiative not only benefits the organization, but also helps in improving the environment in which the business operates. Moreover, improvement in the quality of life of the residents of the area in which the organization operates helps in improving their social welfare, as well as improving the environment in which the organization operates.

Conclusion Corporate philanthropy is a very vital practice of business sustainability and sustainable business development practice. The benefits that the company gets in engaging in corporate philanthropy outweigh its disadvantages if the corporate philanthropy is carried out in a strategic manner. A company can engage in corporate philanthropy as a means of enhancing its sustainability and improve on its image.

This is highlighted by the fact that, even with the economic recession, companies are still willing to be involved in corporate philanthropy.

This is clearly highlighted by the fact that even after it financial crisis and ultimate bailout JP Morgan Chase, an American investment bank which triggered the economic crisis promised $1 million to the victims of the Haiti earthquake even though the company may have tight budgets to meet its financial obligations (Schepp, 2010).

References Anheier, H. K. and List, R. (2005). A dictionary of civil society, philanthropy and the non-profit sector. London, Taylor


International Negotiations Term Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Opportunities of negotiations

Possible obstacles

Strategy advice


Reference List

Introduction This memorandum is aimed at planning the forthcoming negotiations between India and Pakistan. It will discuss the way how the representatives of India can act during the negotiations, the applicable strategies to follow, the possible opportunities and obstacles for the negotiations. We hope that this briefing paper will be helpful in the preparation for the negotiations and will contribute to their effectiveness.

First of all, it should be said that the future negotiations between India and Pakistan can play an important role in the development of the history of the both countries.

In case the parties manage to find a consensus, the existing problems will be solved, and the war of interests that lasted for more than a century can finally end. This is a considerable motivation for arranging a sufficient negotiation strategy, which will be prolific and will let the both countries move forward from the standstill they appeared at.

Framework Before discussing the opportunities that the negotiations can bring it is worth thinking of the pre-negotiation work that can be done by India. First of all, there is an undisputable need for social network to be done. In case of intractable conflicts management, it is vital to create a peace infrastructure, which will be responsible for preventing the military actions or violent attacks.

This infrastructure should better be represented by an independent organ, in order to be impartial in attitude to the parties. What is more, India may consider involving civil society of its own and of the confronting party, in this case of Pakistan, into the peace establishing program. Such network can serve as a profound basis for successful negotiations.

This is due to the fact that the studies have shown, that the introduction of unofficial third parties into the conflict can contribute significantly to its resolution (Chigas, 2008).

There is also an option of introducing an independent agent, who will be able to produce fresh views on the problem and offer some new solutions (Salacuse, 1999). In addition, the independent mediators can help to design a coherent political strategy for the parties (Crocker, 2003).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, while the representatives of government have a power to negotiate and make decisions, there are some spheres which can only be controlled by the civil society (Saunders, 2001). For instance, only the citizens of Kashmir are able to establish certain attitudes towards Indian and Pakistani rules, and only the citizens of the opposing sides are able to be either tolerant or confront each other.

Therefore, in order to achieve the desired results at the negotiations, you need to consider the interests of the mentioned nations, which can both serve as a support for your ideas or prove an impediment to achieving agreement.

Opportunities of negotiations Obviously, the representatives of India should be ready to present the ideas about what innovations can be implemented in the current policies. In order to produce these ideas, it is important to analyze the interests of the two parties. Lying on the surface are the opposed interests, which have been the reason of the multiple controversies between the countries.

For instance, both India and Pakistan are willing to take political control over the territory of Kashmir, and none of the parties is ready to give up this target. Each of the parties has a solid ground for its position, and it seems that there is no resolution that I going to meet the requirements of the both sides.

Therefore, at this point the negotiations can either leave the issue unresolved or lead to the acceptance of one of the party’s options. However, in case one of the sides weakens its position or expresses a will to compromise, there can appear new options for the conflict resolution. However, in order to do this, there have to be some stronger interests found.

For example, for both countries the interest above sharing Kashmir may be a will to establish peace and respect after more than 50 years of disagreement. Therefore, you need to know exactly what the hierarchical order of Indian interests is, in order to be able to define the primary and secondary ones during the negotiations.

There are also compatible interests; to be specific, on one side India demands the stop of the terrorist attacks, which, according to the country’s version, are being organized by Pakistani people. On the other side, Pakistani government has been trying to unite the Muslim professionists, which is impossible again because of Kashmiri conflict.

We will write a custom Term Paper on International Negotiations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is more, the both parties show impartiality in response to each other’s demands, and refuse to take the responsibility for the ongoing events. Indeed, Pakistan government rejects the fact that the terrorist attacks are organized or anyhow sponsored by them, stating that this is a choice of Kashmiri to take such measures (Cheema and Nuri, 2005).

Similarly, India denies the conflict of religions and expresses an opinion that the religious differences do not prevent Kashmiri people from peaceful coexistence with Indian citizens (EPDMA, 2007). In this case, the compatible interests are connected with the domino principle. This means that in case either of the parties refuses from its position, the other party will also have to give up.

Therefore, the possible options here for India are to agree with the division of population and territory according to the religious preferences, or to convince Pakistan to contribute to the preservation of peace on the territory of Kashmir.

The both variants exclude the need for terrorist attacks in future and can bring agreement on this level. Thus, your task is to decide in advance, how flexible, or, in contrast, how strong are you going to be in respect to this issue.

However, the negotiation theory states that “all-gain agreements an only be achieved when the parties stress the cooperative, and not just the competitive, aspects of their relationship” (Cruikshank, 1989). This, our task is to search for some common interests, if such exist. The deeper analysis of the struggle for Kashmir shows that the territorial distribution is not the ultimate purpose of the conflict.

In fact, both India and Pakistan express an opinion that the citizens of Kashmir should not have their rights violated. On one hand, Indian government states that Kashmiri will have their rights and liberties defended under Indian rule, motivating it by the contrast with Pakistani rule where human rights are being violated (Wirsing, 2007).

On the other hand, Pakistani government argues that the citizens of Kashmir should be able to choose the ruler for themselves; the representatives are deeply convinced that Kashmiri seek either to gain independence, or to become a part of Pakistan rather than be a part of India (PA, 2010).

Thus, despite the different points of view about the situation, both India and Pakistani are eager to protect the political and social rights and liberties of Kashmiri people. From this perspective, the interest of protecting the liberties of Kashmiri is common for both of the negotiations participants.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Negotiations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The last mentioned interest, shared by the two parties, increases the possibility of finding the zone of possible agreement (ZOPA). Indeed, there is a multitude of point where India and Pakistan agree, for example:

Kashmiri people should choose the government themselves

The citizens of Kashmir are free to confess any religion

It is essential that both India and Pakistan take part in helping to determine the development of Kashmiri politics, due to the history of the countries.

Taking into consideration the named arguments, it can be derived that the Kashmiri conflict can be weakened if not resolved by setting the ZOPA at the protection of rights and liberties of the Kashmiri people. With this purpose, you could offer Pakistani government to organize a set of activities, which will be supported by Pakistan and India, and will be aimed at helping the citizens of Kashmir to make their choice.

These activities can include creating a Constitution of Kashmir, offering the country the options like separating into an autonomic Republic, or dividing into pro-Indian and pro-Pakistani parts, etc. This approach will also need a series of studies and social investigations to be carried, and their costs can also be shared between the parties.

In this way, neither India nor Pakistan will have to give up their positions, and the resolution of the situation will be determined by Kashmiri people as by an impartial member.

However, the main point about ZOPA is helping Pakistani government to see it and to motivate them to reach it, as the consensual knowledge is vital for establishing agreement in negotiations (Hampson, 1999). You should keep in mind that the opposed site has a skeptical attitude to your offers, so it is important to prepare a solid foundation for your arguments.

The mentioned decision is only one of the options available for the negotiations. It is worth remembering that your task is to achieve joint gains, and for this purpose you will need to (a) be able to share information effectively; (b) be ready to deal with the new appearing problems, and (c) be eager to continue improving the decision during the negotiations (Brett, 1998).

These three factors can make the negotiations prolific and bring benefits to all its participants. However, you should remember that the mentioned joint gains need to be seen by Pakistani government, and if they are not, your task is to show them.

In order to do this, you have to be ready to present to the Pakistani government a list of advantages they would face in case of reaching the ZOPA. This will increase the chances for the negotiations to be successful.

Possible obstacles Besides the mentioned above opportunities of the forthcoming negotiations, there is a number of factors, which can prevent the negotiations from being successful, in particular for India. These factors should be taken into consideration in order to be managed during the negotiations process.

The very first barrier to the negotiations progress is the general rule, which claims that “the prolonged nature of intractable conflict gives rise to self-reinforcing escalatory dynamics” (Chigas, ). In case of India-Pakistan conflict, which lasted for more than 60 years, this rule is likely to work.

The situation suggests that the absence of progress in the conflict has lead to the deep convictions of the both sides of their rightness and of the incontestability of their decisions. Due to this fact, there is a little chance for any party to weaken the opposing BATNA, or to prove the dominance of their own ones.

This inflexibility and unreadiness to accept another position increase the deep-rooted nature of the conflict and prevent it from being resolved with the negotiations.

As for the measures that can be taken in order to overcome this barrier, one of the options is to call for bringing the relations between the countries to a new level. You can demonstrate Pakistani representatives all the negative consequences of the long lasting conflict, and show them the promising perspectives of accepting a new, flexible position.

Another possible obstacle for the negotiations success is the divergence of ideology and belief systems of the two parties. This factor belongs to the ones that usually create additional conflicts and make it harder to settle the agreement (Hampson, 1999).

Besides the political conflicts, there is an underlying foundation of cultural peculiarities, which determine the religions, social attitudes, moral rules, norms of behavior, etc. In other words, what seems to be a perfect solution for Indian people, might be viewed as absolutely unacceptable by Pakistani people, and vice versa. Tolerating these differences is often hard because of their significance for each of the parties.

The ideology also affects the perception of the situation by the parties, suggesting that the war of interests is becoming even more intense. For instance, while India took a liberal position in attitude to Religion, for Pakistani people this issue is a matter of life. Indeed, it is known from the history that Muslims are famous for their devotion to faith, which is often proved by violent means.

Moreover, violent attacks are often seen as the only way to demonstrate one’s faith. In contrast, Hinduism rejects any form of violence, and treats the means of Muslims as unacceptable. Similarly, the differences in value systems affect the perception of Kashmir conflict by the parties, which suggests that there is an increased risk of misunderstanding in the negotiations.

Due to the two obstacles mentioned above, there appears another one, which is a mistrust between the parties. To be specific, Indian government accused Pakistan to sponsor the terrorist attacks for many times. However, Pakistani government keeps rejecting this version and in addition to this refuses to contribute to providing peace.

Thus, until the guilty ones are found, there will be a mistrust from the side of India, which can hinder the negotiations. In order to overcome this, Indian government has to do everything possible to make sure that Pakistan is not motivated to organize such kinds of attacks. It should also be noted that Pakistani government also has some bias towards Indian rule.

The reason of their distrust lies in the fact that Indian government failed to carry a referendum for Kashmir independence, promised more than 50 years ago (The Economist, 1999). In order to remove this condition, the government of India has to provide a guaranty of implementation of all the resolutions accepted at the negotiations; for example, with this purpose a corresponding contract can be signed.

In addition to the discussed impediments to reaching a compromise, there is one that can be decisive for the negotiations. This impediment is the existence of many official parties. You should take into consideration, that there is a number of fundamentalist groups, which are fighting either for Kashmir independence or its joining Pakistan. These groups will most possibly be used by Pakistani spokespersons to support their arguments.

The parties like US or China are also likely to support Pakistan, while the UN is on the side of Kashmiri and their right for independence. These multiple parties introduce the newer and newer views on the situation, which, as a result, hampers making one right decision at the negotiations.

With the addition of new interests, the task of the negotiations is not to finally resolve the Kashmir conflict in Pakistani or Indian way, but to meet all the requirements and leave nobody dissatisfied. The existence of multiple parties has always been one of the main barriers to decision making, and the more parties are there, the more complex the conflict becomes (Hampson, 1999).

What is more, even when the third party has a benevolent intention to help to resolve the conflict, it is often doomed to fail because of its inability to consider the non-objective factors (Chigas, ).

For instance, even though the UN tries to evaluate the situation objectively, it will never be able to realize the deepness of the cultural differences and values, which suggests that there is a very little chance for the UN to introduce a solution, satisfactory both for India and Pakistan.

It has to be utmost clear to the both parties that their conflict has a very deep and broad nature. Besides the Kashmir conflict, there is also a number of other problems of political, economical, social, religious character, which make the relations between the countries tense. Therefore, an expectation to resolve all the issues at once is rather unrealistic, and can bring above disappointment.

The main mistake here is the strong belief of each party that the successful negotiations are those which can meet all their requirements. Thus, in order to overcome this obstacle, you should be ready to accept a different negotiation scenario, which will suggest making quick decisions right at the place if it is needed.

After all, the experience of the composite dialogue of 2003-2005 suggests that the step-by-step problem resolution can be more effective than rapid efforts to introduce dramatic changes (Kux, 2006).

Strategy advice Now that all the opportunities and obstacles of the negotiations have been discussed, and the needed framework was mentioned, it is important to plan the way of handling the negotiation process. In order to do this, you need to choose a negotiation strategy that would be appropriate for the situation.

Obviously, in the conditions of a prolonged and complicated struggle of interests, it is impossible to find one appropriate resolution for all the existing problems. However, several aspects can be considered, which can help to improve the general situation and increase the chances for the negotiations to be successful.

In case if your only task were to reach your aims at any costs, the appropriate strategy would be positional bargaining. However, in the modern world, where the civilized society suggests that there is a need to tolerate differences and compromise, this strategy is unacceptable. In addition, in case of conflict with Pakistan, positional bargaining would only aggravate it and cause the greater resistance from the opposing side. That is why, integrative bargaining is much more beneficial for both parties in this case.

The essence of integrative bargaining lies in searching for optimal decisions, which can fully or partially satisfy the needs of the two parties. One of the options for implementing this strategy is dividing the main interests into several minor interests, or trying to find a number of meanings in one idea. Thus, the will of both India and Pakistan to administer Kashmir covers a number of other wishes, such as:

gaining more territory

becoming a more powerful country

gaining political authority

resolving the religious issue

In this way, we can see that the controversial ideas often have some underlying motives, which have a chance to be conciliated. That is why, you can try to apply this method to India’s interests and offer Pakistan to do the same. This will make the situation more clear and increase the chances for finding a fresh solution for the two sides.

Try to show Pakistani spokespersons, that the interests of their country are being considered, and that the both positions are equally important in this situation. Your task is to remove the mistrust that has been existing for decades, and make the opponent open to new solutions.

In fact, there is a multitude of approaches which can be helpful to lead the negotiations in this way. They include the basic speech patterns, or the way in which your speech can be organized in order to sound more persuasive. Integrating politics with linguistics can be helpful, as the “critical thinking and interdisciplinary research” can contribute into the success of the negotiations (Eagle, 2009).

For instance, sometimes such tools, as ad hominem or bandwagon effect can be used, in case if they are relevant and supported by the facts, of course (Wright, 2001). You can also use an appeal to authority, for example by mentioning how the prominent countries of the world managed the similar conflicts.

In addition, one of the most persuasive strategies is putting the interests of the community before the interests of an individual. Thus, it is important to clarify that the India-Pakistan conflict is caused because of the citizens’ interests, and that its resolution should also be based on it.

One more good strategy is to postpone the denial, or, to be more specific, to agree before rejecting the opponent’s idea. Whatever is said at the negotiation, try to show understanding of the Pakistani position and respect for it, and only after that start to give opposing ideas. All these techniques can help you to achieve the desired goals and to make the negotiation results beneficial for India.

Apart from the mentioned strategy, you should consider organizing the requirements and needs of India in hierarchical order. In addition, the general advise is to start with the minor issues, and “put Kashmir on a back burner” (Kux, 2006). This approach is based on the idea that the aim of the negotiations is to improve the relations between the countries, make them less tense and more trustful.

That is why, a gradual approaching of the countries may serve as a basis for a natural Kashmir conflict resolution in the future. Of course the main points should be discussed; however, working on economical and social problems should be put first. This will also guarantee that the negotiations will bring at least some changes for better, even if the main issue will remain unresolved.

As for the decisions you are going to introduce, remember that all the ideas should be fair, efficient, and feasible (Cruikshank, 1989). Fairness means that it is necessary for the two parties to agree on the uprightness of the decision. What is more, such conclusion is not to be left for a third independent party; otherwise, the decision is to be worked out until the both parties accept it as fair.

The decision efficiency points at the fact that its implementation will satisfy all the parties. Here not only India and Pakistan should be taken into consideration; the other parties in the face of other countries and fundamentalist groups also should agree with the efficiency of the decision. Finally, the feasibility of the decision has to provide the possibility of its implementation.

Therefore, it is not advisory to show too much expectations about a certain decision, and count on its magic effect. For example, expecting that the next day after negotiations Pakistan and India will turn into the closest political and economical partners is far from feasible.

However, making steps in this direction and gradually improving the relations between the parties is a feasible expectation. Therefore, try to be realistic, and support this attitude in the opponent.

Concerning the approach to problem solution, it is obvious that the key point for you is to look for joint gains for India and Pakistan. It was proved that even in the settings of cultural divergence, the joint gains are able to unite the countries for achieving shared aims (Brett, 1998). Therefore, even in case of inability to find a compromise, finding joint gains can be helpful in conflict resolution.

What is more, your task is not only to find the joint gains, but also to present them as advantageous to the opposite side. This is due to the fact that the attitude of Pakistan to India is rather biased, and it would be irrational to count for their instantaneous support of all your ideas.

That is why, be ready to (a) find the new joint gains in the process of negotiation, and (b) show them to Pakistani spokesperson and motivate them to reach these gains together.

Conclusion This memorandum contains the information needed for India spokesperson to lead successful negotiations. It discusses the possible opportunities and obstacles of the negotiations, and gives suggestions about the party’s behavior during the process of negotiations. The paper is based on numerous studies about negotiations and international relations, and thus will hopefully help India to gain satisfactory results at the negotiations.

Reference List Brett, J, Adair, W (1998). Culture and Joint Gains in Negotiation. Negotiation Journal, 1(3): 61-86.

Cheema, P, Nuri, M (2005) The Kashmir Imbroglio: Looking Towards the Future. Islamabad: Islamabad Policy Research Institute.

Chigas, D (2005) Negotiating Intractable Conflicts: The Contributions of Unofficial Intermediaries. Ch. 6 in Crocker, C, Hampson, F


Responding to “Marketing Shapes Consumers Needs and Wants” Coursework essay help online free

Taking position It is certain that needs and wants exist that must be satisfied by human beings in the course of their survival. Various marketers; therefore, endeavor to gratify the needs of the populace, and they do it through advertisement to inform the public that they stock what they want. I, therefore, disagree with the statement that marketing modifies the consumers’ wishes and wants.

Instead, marketing simply imitates the needs and the wishes of the clients. “A defender of marketing would maintain that the marketing system merely reflects society’s needs and wants” (Reynolds


Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of Ethical Responsibilities in the Business Setting

Role of ethical standards in the workplace

How a strategic plan influences personal ethical perspective


Introduction Ethical behaviour can sometimes be tricky in its form; how a business carries itself can leave a good or bad impression on consumers and other production business associates. Most businesses are today interested in profits than anything else, thus failing to check on critical aspects such as ethics and social responsibility, consequently this is the reason for their downfall.

Evidently, companies that practice ethical values are incomparable to businesses that just want to make profit (Crystal, 2010). Implementing Business Ethics in a company’s strategic plan enhances the work environment. Additionally, it leaves benefits that include improved job satisfaction, a higher degree of organizational commitment and reduction of employee turnover.

Right things are not always easier to deal with since small quandaries in a firm are particularly the major challenges. Staff should know the right ethical act and the action to accept as appropriate form of promoting integrity and professionalism.

Importance of Ethical Responsibilities in the Business Setting The benefits in practicing business ethics in the workplace are wide depending on the organizational culture and policies. Business ethics can lead to employee satisfaction, flexible work schedules and more responsibilities. Improved job satisfaction is a major benefit for boosting employees’ morale, in the aim of completing tasks correctly and in a timely manner.

Making sure the employees are happy can result in a more productive environment and the employee feels appreciated as opposed to over-worked. According to Carpenter and Sanders (2009), one solution could be a simple change of the work schedule to allow flexibility in the employees’ lives.

For example, giving employees the option to create their own schedules satisfies the employees, because they are able to balance time from their structured work.

Flexible working hours are a great start to increase employee satisfaction but it is not the only option. There are other strategies to boost employees’ loyalty and determination while increasing the turnover rates (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Role of ethical standards in the workplace The main reason to include ethical standards in a business plan is to enhance social responsibility for protection of company’s assets. How well do the employees protect their company’s assets? The treatment employees get highly influences their behaviours. The employees are usually proud of the company and its assets if the company accord they respect.

The opinions of the employees at the firm are evident from their behaviours at workplace. The employees’ pride blossoms when the environment delivers respect and the staff are valued as individuals and, treated with fairness and equity in general.

The employees need to perform with unquestionable ethics and integrity. Assigning responsibilities to employees and showing respect by praise or rewards them improves their efforts thus leading to job satisfaction, since they know that the management appreciate them.

Today the most damaging acts emerge from the most obvious ethical problems and irresponsible situations. The subversive acts employees practice in order to protect their own turf at the expense of colleagues affects the working relationships, environment, productivity, trust, and, job satisfaction.

Violations concerned with ethical standards are a high cost to company’s economical performance as well as, cultural reputation. When implementing a business strategic plan, the management of a firm must provide solutions to the small-scale problems. This involves an analysis to make ethics a core value in various departments, other than just having some code of ethics as an organizational culture.

Enhancing the ethics as core values involves setting up an executive tone in the policies or business ethics. This means that the leader has to lead by example (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).

He/she adheres to the highest ethical standards or behaviours as a guide. Mistrusting and lapse over judgement of the leader causes the negative consequences to the company. Displaying a message that implies dishonesty as an acceptable act, is asking the subordinates to practice the act.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, it is important to have written guidelines in the strategic plan. This outlines the ethical policies for instance, a group can engage in a brainstorming session in translation or customization of general code of ethics to fit relevant aspects of the department. This code will serve as a helpful reference for the employees when they meet common ethical quandaries and thus enhance employees’ morale.

What holds together commitment in organizations? Employee involvement, motivation, and attitude are a few antidotes that contribute to the dedication of the organization. A higher degree of organizational commitment can result in dedicated commitment of the employees’, organizational structure and the factors involved in the commitment of the organization.

According to Hahn (2007), “The alteration of commitment is possible if people recognize its factors; personal characteristics, job-or role-related characteristics, structural attributes and work experiences.” This statement is true to its saying; treat people the way you would like them to treat you. A manager will thus respect and trust that employees will do what they are committed to do.

How a strategic plan influences personal ethical perspective Can an ethical organizational structure influence the commitment of the employees’? Well, understanding that the culture and structure places employees’ on jobs so that work is completed and goals achieved. The structure of the organization influences the level of commitment.

Hahn states that (2007), “formalization, functional dependence, and decentralization are all related to commitment.” These factors affect the employees and therefore managers should consider personal attitudes, work experiences, and organizational characteristics by altering needs to improve commitment (Hahn, 2007).

Thirdly, it is important that the strategic plan communicate a leadership vision. The written code of ethics requires orientation and training programs through video, role-plays, games or other regular addresses in meetings, presentations and, speech. It is also important to enhance ethics of reporting the wrong acts. There ought to be an easy and safe way of reporting violations and questionable proceedings.

In line with Hahn (2007), “The employees should be in a position to deliver bad news to the management without the fear of negative career repercussions.” They also need to be reassured of immediate actions or investigations.

Several tasks can reduce employee turnover. Receiving employee feedback, applying attractive compensation packages and job stability will assure long-term ethical performance by existing employees.’ Carpenter and Sanders states (2009), “The business that neglects the feedback of its employees is doomed.”

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics Awareness Inventory and Ethical Choices in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to research, employees who are involved in the day-to-day operations of their organization receive attractive compensation packages such as health benefits, and healthy work environments and this assures increase in company’s turnover and proper work ethics (Carpenter and Sanders, 2009).

Lastly, consequences of unethical behaviours ought to apply equally at all levels. A manager who violates the policies must face similar consequences as the level-one employee with a similar offence.

References Carpenter, M. A.,


The Prosperity Gold Copper Project Report college application essay help

Introduction The Project under consideration would be situated in the Cariboo-Chilcotin District where Williams Lake is a regional service centre. Many people in the district consider as an opportunity to enforce the economy and to decrease the employment rates. The mine would cover 35 square km territory in Teztan Yeqox watershed that includes Taseko River, Fish Lake, and Little Fish Lake together with surrounding area Nabas.

The First Nation together with Environmental Assessment Office in British Columbia expressed their strong opposition to the Mine Project admitting that it has considerable adverse effect on fish and grizzly bears habitat.

In particular that Panel states that the public hearing being the main tool for gathering date from the indigenous people about current use of lands and impacts on cultural heritage. The results of the Panel revealed that the Project would turn out to be significantly adverse environmental effects on fish, navigation, resources for traditional purposes, and on cultural heritage of First Nations.

Background The presented project was submitted to the Minister of Environment by Fisheries and Oceans Canada under the auspices of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act for the Panel Review (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).

The chief issues for Fisheries and Oceans Canada consisted in the Project proposition to use lakes as storage areas for waste rock and tailings within the Teztan Yedox. The federal review panel discussed this project for 30 days at public and committee meetings, including such questions as land use, cultural, economic, and social problems with regard to this Project.

It should also be noted that British Agreement on Environmental Cooperation presented in 2004 also took responsibility for checking and regulating the Project. Environmental Assessment also proved to be controversial and provides a lot of ambiguity over the Mine Project. Additionally, the quality of assessment was overall ineffective.

The objectives Analyzing the case, it is necessary to point out to what extent Taseko Mining Project follows all requirements of Environmental Assessment process and what adversities and effects it would have in regional context. More importantly, the focus should also be made on the analysis of First Nations opposition to the Project and what measures were taken to consider the requirements of the aboriginal population.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proponent description/Project description Taseko Mines Ltd. introduced the Prosperity Gold-Cooper Mine Project in British Columbia. The project would include building, operation, abandonment and decommissioning of a large mine destined for a 20 years operating life. In order proceed with the Project, it is necessary to gain the permission from the authorities and to obtain a license on conducting the planned operations.

The Mandate of the Panel Review. The Panel Review Mandate is to provide an evaluation of the environmental effects of the proposed project, including any alterations that the Project can introduce in the environment with regard to socio-economic conditions and health issues, physical and cultural heritage, land and resource usage for traditional goals of the aboriginal population.

The Panel shall also aims to provide conclusions and recommendation on the importance of the environmental impact of the Project on the Territory (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009, p. 265). During the hearing, the Panel rejected the project because it did not manage to meet the needs of First Nations and because it has adverse effects for environment.

Regional context It should be stressed that the project will have a considerable impact on aquatic environment. In particular, it would include the re-routing of surface flows and the impoundment of the aquatic habitats, notably Fish Lake and Little Fish Lake in order to construct a Tailing Storage Faculty. Hence, the Prosperity Lake would be located to south of the TSF and to the east of Wasp Lake.

The lake would be built by constructing a water retention dam. The eastern side of the Upper Fish Creek will be surrounded by a headwater channel system that would be composed of north and south flowing channels (Levy, 2009, p. 5).

These water channels would be controlled and diverted into the Prosperity Lake through erected spawning channel. In its turn, the Prosperity Lake would deliver water to the TSF and to the open pit that would delivers water to Lower Fish Creek (Levy, 2009, p. 5).

Evaluating the introduced alterations, the project would provide permanent changes to the Fish Creek baseline hydrology. Such alterations involve the total removal of Little Fish Lake and Fish Lake. As a result, surface water stream flow will be decreased by 65 % within the period of operating in the Fish Creek watershed which will lead to diminishing of water area.

We will write a custom Report on The Prosperity Gold Copper Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, the main effects on hydrology involve water diversion channel by 1, 25 Mm3 annually in the direction to Lower Fish Creek and resumption of water flows in the post-closure of Lower Fish Creek (Levy, 2009, p. 8).

The assessment have revealed that the proposed mitigations would turn out to be negative for the territory under consideration because it would have an irreversible impact on surface water hydrology until the post-closure stage when the flows are re-routed in Lower Fish Creek. The flow re-routing would take a time span of about 27 years period that is necessary for filling up the pit.

The Panel Review also concluded that the Project would have adverse effects for the population of grizzly bears. This is explained by the fact that this species is under the threat of extinction due to excessive ranching activities and rapid development of logging due to the rise of the operation industry. The point is that logging continues to influence the habitat due to the rise of human activities (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).

The Prospect Employment Perspective for the Population of the Tsilhqot’in Territory. The economic analysis has revealed that the Project provision involve a simplified version of the population assessment that can led to unequal allocation of labor force. As a result, there is a probability that the unemployment rate will increase.

In addition, there are rough calculations of mineral resources preserved on this territory and there are no guarantees for the population to be insured by work places on a long-termed basis (Kuyek, 2009, p. 4). According to socio-economic impact assessment, the mineral resources of gold and copper are 0.41% and 0.21% correspondently.

The situation is aggravated by the fact that the gold is distributed throughout the mine and it is impossible to retrieve it until the copper is mined. Besides there are some other valuable mineral resources that are not included into the Project provisions, but will be still mined and damaged.

According to the consideration of the Review Panel did reach a consensus concerning the economic benefits of the presented Project due to the fact that its Terms of Reference restricted it to regarding only social-economic impacts of the alterations the Project would have on the environment.

Nevertheless, the panel admitted that the Project would create 275 jobs annually in operation and constructions stages and nearly 600 indirect places only during the 20 years operation period.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Prosperity Gold Copper Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the construction has ambiguous perspectives for the employees for a period of more than 20 years, which creates more concerns with the Project and its environmental impact assessment (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009).

Discussion First Nations’ participation to the EA process While evaluation the effects of the project on cultural, social, and economical issues related to this territories, numerous ambiguous questions have appeared. In particular, there are serious concerns with Assessment of Socio-Economic Impact. First of all, it is difficult to precisely identify the territory on which the project will be located.

In addition, the information about the Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment is quite confusing. The failure to consider some significant provision in accordance to pertinent legislation can have a negative impact on health of the indigenous population of the Tsilhqot’in Territory. More importantly, the cost-benefit analysis revealed that the Project failed to examine the people’s needs, including justice and equity in activities.

The Socio-Economic Analysis has also discovered that the Project would have considerable problems in cultural and social terms. In particular, the project does not guarantee that long-term period of dislocation and disruption will not worsen the cultural and social situation because the project fails to analysis the social infrastructures and communities located on this territory (Kuyek, 2009, p. 5).

The projects have also failed to take into consideration the destruction of social system caused by the disruption of natural ecosystem.

The inconsistency of project procedures and plans also consist in a failure to understand the impact on the Aboriginal people. There will definitely be serious effects of the Tsilhqot’in people who were initially against mine development, believing that its construction will damage their economy, cultural heritage, and their lifestyles (Kuyek, 2009, p. 7).

Additionally, First Nations’ concerns with the current land use were not in vain because the Project provided considerable and irreversible shift to the landscape and to the navigation. They were deprived of the places for hunting, fishing, and agricultural activities and, therefore, they had to introduce considerable changes to their lifestyles.

The First Nations also expressed their resentment towards the Project because Taseko’s plan to destroy the chief rivers, notably Fish Lake and Little Fish Lake was not acceptable. In this respect, it is quite difficult for Taseko to gain the trust of aboriginal people because the knowledge about these peoples was adolescent and irrelevant.

Conclusion Challenge for Sustainable Development

Regarding all issues, regulations and proposals, it should be admitted that the Project has faced a great number of challenges and problems (Sallevane, n.d). In particular, the project has turned out to be adverse to the environmental, cultural, and social issues because its constructions and water flows re-routing has considerably influenced the ecology and hydrology of the examined territory.

Secondly, due to the lack of economic and social date, the Project failed to conform to the First Nation requirements as the indigenous population stands against any cultural, social, and environmental changes. Third, the Project failed the community’s needs for employment and development (Environmental Assessment Office, 2009, p. 26).

What Can We Learn from This Case Study?

A thorough analysis of this particular Case has revealed that any Projects providing changes to the environment should consider a bulk of issues because considerable shifts in the natural ecosystem can lead to the destruction of firmly established cultural, social, and economic norms within a community.

The Panel discussions and decisions have made us learn a lot of information and legal issues that protect the environment from adverse effects on the part of the industrial field. Moreover, the Assessment has provided a lot of facts about Project’s gaps to present their emergence in future.

Reference List Environmental Assessment Office. 2009. Prosperity Gold-Copper Project Assessment Report. British Columbian.

Kuyek, Joan. 2009. Rewiew of the Proposed Prosperity Mine Socio-Economic Assessment. Mining Watch Canada.

Levy, David. 2009. A. Review of the Prosperity Mine Aquatic Impact Assessment. Levy Research Services, Ltd. Web.

Sallevane, John. n.d. Giving Tradition Ecological Knowledge Its Rightful Place in Environmental Impact Assessment. Web.

Western Economic Diversification Canada 2009. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Web.


Information System Design Reflective Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Abstract The future European Champions League final which is going to take place in London in May 2011 sets new tasks before BIF specialists who deal with the hooligan groups in the UK. The main idea of this report is to consider possible solution to the information systematization from different countries via the computer system.

This computer system is aimed at collecting, evaluating, analyzing and disseminating information before it is used by the BIF specialists. The program is rather useful and may reduce specialists’ time on dealing with the information.

Still, many obstacles may be faced while implementing it. Thus, the computer system should be created, but before this the information should be collected, the work planned and the difficulties analysed. This report dwells upon those aspects.

Introduction People got used to the information technologies which became an essential part of their life. It is impossible to imagine the modern world without those facilities. Omitting the part where informational technologies help people communicate with each other, search for information and entertain, it should be mentioned that the information technologies are helpful in more serious affairs.

First of all, information technologies help people run business, enter into cooperation with different companies worldwide and support human security. It is important to remember that all the security systems of any organisation are based on the innovative technologies. All the video cameras in different organisations are connected to the computer systems which help follow the situation.

Moreover, there are a number of different computer systems which help collect and analyse information in such a way that it may be used in catching some criminal groups further.

The main purpose of this report is to provide the analysis and express personal opinion on the computer system which may be helpful for collecting, analysing, and disseminating information more effectively and efficiently than it was made before, relating it to the future European Champions League final which is going to take place in London in May 2011.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main purpose of this computer program is going to be the more effective identification of the hooligan groups and their organisation with the purpose to reduce the violation actions.

Initial Thoughts on the Feasibility of the Proposed System When the Home Secretary asked me to conduct a research and write a report devoted to the computer system directed at the improving the situation within hooligan groups up to the European Champions League final in May, 2010 in London, I thought that the task is rather complicated, but due to the modern technologies it is feasible.

Thus, the Home Secretary wants to consider whether it is possible to create a system which would help BIF specialists make decisions on the basis of the collected, analysed and disseminated information which is going to be generated by the “fully computerised system”.

The proposed system is feasible, still the concise purpose and utilisation of the system should be carefully considered. It should be noted that the European countries have already created such systems, that is why it is unnecessary to dwell upon the importance and the convenience of the similar systems in other countries.

I suppose that it would be useful to create such system which would help BIF specialists collect and arrange information. It would reduce their time on the operations mentioned above and would increase it for judgment and functioning. My personal initial judgment of the proposed system is that it would not too difficult to create it, and at the same time it is going to be extremely useful.

But, the necessary computer system design is not the only thing which should be completed. After the system is utilised, the system designers should think about its security. This is one of the first things which I thought about when I became to check the controversial points to the proposed system feasibility.

The information is of unique importance and should be properly protected as the hooligan groups in the United Kingdom have rather useful relationships with international hooligan groups and are linked with some right-wing political groups.

We will write a custom Essay on Information System Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This causes some problems for the proposed system feasibility, still, it may be corrected. The computerisation of the collected information is an ideal tool for processing that data. It is important to remember that the information processed in this way should comprise only the part of the decision.

The Kind of Information to Seek, the Sources to Seek It from, and the Fact Finding Methods to Employ in Order to Get it, in Order to Gain A Full Appreciation of the Problem Situation

Before getting down to designing a proposed system a thorough research should be conducted. On the basis of the main idea of the further system, we should check what functions it should perform. The problem seems rather easy, still, the supporting clarifications and elaborations may cause a number of problems.

First of all, it is important to understand what kind of the information we are going to collect. The design of the system should be based on this information as well as on facts where this information should be collected.

Thus, system requires the information about the members of hooligan gangs, their names, address, places of their work, family, interests and contact information. These facts will help the BIF specialists identify the psychological type of each person and implement some actions which could prevent them from violence.

Moreover, the collection of this information may help BIF specialists get to know the further plans of the hooligan groups and prevent those in the European Champions League final in London. Moreover, it should be remembered that it is not so easy to gather this information. The UK services should contact their colleagues in other countries and ask them to get access to the protected information about hooligan groups.

The channels via which the information is going to be delivered should be properly protected. Furthermore, it may be useful to check different social networks for the useful information. Facebook may contain some information about the friends and the future events the groups plan. The contacts may be considered from these nets as well.

The BIF specialists may use the information they manage to get from the reliable sources delivered to UK and European police forces. All the information mentioned above and the sources where it may be considered should be properly understood while computerisation of the information and creating a system requires from the designers to be strict and attentive.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information System Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also important to remember about the technology and the equipment, necessary for proper functioning of the system: hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, network, and the Internet, people, and procedures. Thus, it may be concluded that it is necessary appreciate all the facts mentioned and correlate those with the system design.

Even the slightest change in the source of the information may change the effectiveness and efficiency of the work. It is also remember the stages according to which the work on the computer system is going to be completed as about one of the ways to understand the problems situation, feasibility, analysis, design, implementation, test, and maintenance.

A List of Personal Thoughts on the Task Which Has Been Asked to Undertake The Difficulties Which Might Be Faced

There are a number of problems we may face while designing the computer system for information collection and analysis. One of the first problems is the equipment. The implementation of such a great plan requires high quality equipment which will be able to support the necessary software. The information protection may be a great challenge for the system.

There are so many different threats on the Internet, starting with the viruses which may attack the system, and finishing with the computer hacker who may crack the computer program and avoid the authorised access to the system.

Moreover, the information leakage may prevent the proper work of the system as well as some problems which may appear at the testing stage. One more difficulty which may be faced is my inability to get the whole information as limited access is a guaranty for the project’s success.

The Suitability of the Resources at the Disposal

The resources which the organisation has in disposal are huge. All the European organisations which work with hooligan groups are ready to provide it with the information for the sake of the human security from hooligan groups and the violence actions they usually provide. Moreover, the information resources are suitable. Still, it is impossible to say the same about the equipment.

On the one hand, I do not have access to some facts which are protected due to the security considerations. On the other hand, I may say that the computer equipment which was used before did not require such high standards, so it is natural that the organisation does not have it. Thus, it is impossible to say that computer equipment as well as software is suitable for now.

Recommendations to Make to the Home Secretary with Regard to This Proposed System

There are a number of recommendations I want to provide the Home Secretary with. First, it is necessary to employ the computer specialists who are going to deal with the computer design of the system and the implementation of the ideas considered above. Second, the costs should be considered, both on the sole costs and constant costs aimed at supporting and serving the equipment and software.

The contacts with organisations which deal with the hooligan groups in different countries should be established. The principles of the computer system design should be followed in order to protect it from any of the problems which may appear, like the problems with “emergent properties, propagation of effects, incommensurate scaling, and trade-offs” (Saltzer


Samsung: Market Expansion Towards Year 2025 Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Globalization has resulted in an improved trade among different countries. There is movement of goods and services from one country to another. The policies of comparative and absolute advantage are economic tools which have facilitated the development in international trade. Electronic industry is drastically changing with many phone making industries on the increase.

This has resulted in making of different models of phones, laptops and other electronics. One of the world leading electronic makers is Samsung. It is located in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea, and forms the world’s largest conglomerate company by revenue. The main products by the company are Television sets, Radios, phones, Camera tape recorders, and recently it has diversified to a growing laptop market.

The idea to have such a company was coined in 1969 by Lee Byung-chull and started as a small electronic workshop. The company’s main mission is to inspire the world to create a better future for human species. The company aims to introduce its laptops to Australia. Australia is the world’s smallest continent but Samsung has not tapped the market with its new development.

This paper evaluates the decision to venture in Australian market, the focus on developing/forecasting options for 2025. It will also undertake this task by evaluating social, economic, political situation of Australia. In the last pages of the report, it will give recommendations on the leadership style to be adopted in the venture.

Brief background of Samsung

Samsung is an international South Korean company which was established in 1969 in Daegu, South Korea as a small electronic shop. The first venture of the company was to manufacture Television sets, radios, Calculators and other home electronic appliances like refrigerators.

This was in the era of black and white T.V. sets and in 1981, the company had made over 10million black and white T.V.s. as opportunities arose the company diversified to other electronic ventures and in 1988 merged with Samsung Semiconductor


Strategies of Leadership Report (Assessment) college essay help

In the order to become successful, an established manager and leader, I need to look at all elements encompassed in the roles of a leader. To begin with, I will concentrate on the communication skills I possess. As I have rated myself overtime, I have found out that, while listening to people, I do so without interrupting the speaker.

As a leader, one needs to understand my means of communication, (my verbal communication, accent, and my body language). A leaders mind is not supposed to wander of when one talks to him/her, moreover a leader needs to send signals that he/she understands, and that is what am learning to nature (Elerts, 2006).

In addition to this, I have come to learn that decision making should be effectual (Cameron, 2009). In relation to this, I regard myself as a reflector and a pragmatist. Therefore, all I decide on must always make sense and stand in the taste of time.

Priority is mandatory when one is to make up a personal development plan (Mathews, 2000). Things that are not of urgency should come last and urgent matters should be prioritized (Stoner, 2010).

This helps to maximize and make the most out of time. Over the years, the people I work with have received motivation from me. This attitude regardless of how small or big, makes one have the zeal of carrying on (Garner, 2001). In my plan motivating is essential as I have seen it work.

Whichever status one acquires, he/she needs to report to those above or to relevant authorities (Lee, 2004). These things though small carry up so much weight in ones personal development plan. In order to perfect and become one successful entrepreneur, I have realized that there are things I can’t avoid. One of these is time management. I have realized the need to incorporate time management skills in my development plan.

For successful leadership to occur, time should be spent sensibly (Brown, 2002). Time is not only a resource but is also very limited. Therefore, I have recognized the essence of ensuring I don’t misuse my time, all activities must be in writing and each allocated its own time (McVilly, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In my plan, I noticed that, the aspect of technology is necessary. For success, I need to be aware and conversant to the changing technology (Masons, 2001). My plan outlines the exact technology I should put in place, and how I should achieve this and get it in to the system. This means that I need to learn more and more frequently on the changing trends of technology to be up to date.

As a reflector, I have noticed the need for research as it is a key to success. Apart from researching, my development plan points out specifically what I need to do with the research without wasting time (Smiths, 2008). To be above or ahead of the pack, regular research programs must be initiated. Since this is a personal development plan for the whole year, it is of absolute importance to focus on my strengths and my weaknesses.

To begin with, I want to highlight my strengths that will help me in achieving my goals. Among my strengths I do have excellent communication skills. Nothing can be done without communication and therefore I do capitalize on this strength.

I do listen to what others have to say and work on bettering it. I also have a positive thinking towards life, and in particular about what I want to achieve. My passion in knowing new things is what keeps me in achieving the “unachievable”.

My weaknesses are that I fear venturing into uncertainties. I also lack the patience when no results seem to come in my way. However, I receive feedback from time to time from people and so I have decided to be calm when results trickle in slowly. Moreover, I have the zeal to venture in to the uncertain fields after giving it more thought.

Nothing is achievable without goals (Metzner, 2000). Hence I have set up goals in two categories. This includes:

Short term (in the next three months)

Develop my communication skills to perfection

Work on two researches every month

Develop a test product for the market

Long-term ( in one years time)

Have a customer base of 100 people per day

Achieve my higher diploma in printing technology

Establish a printing firm in my home town.

Subsequently I must have a system of monitoring these goals to come into reality (Clancy, 2005). This can be called my checks and balances unit. The plan clearly expects me to do thorough study, get a place where I can access capital for the business, go back to college, and make sure everything is according to plan.

We will write a custom Assessment on Strategies of Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since we live in the world of uncertainties, it is important that in my plan I put measures that will counter any arising problem. In case of an unexpected occurrence, my plans must proceed or switch to plan B. This not withstanding, risks involved must be outlined. In this case, my plan should show clearly the next source of funding, the move I must take to counter my competitors and so forth.

My plan clearly outlines changes also found in current plan or rather deviation from current planning. Specific measures are in place to explain what exactly will lead to a change of plan from original plans (Haggers, 2006). On the other hand, it also outlines clearly things expected in the future. I need to explain my vision and make sure that all those who help me in achieving my vision are much aware of what is expected.

Again I need to lay out strategies in place for achieving this plan. To add on this, my plan has put in place management measures for implementation. Everyone involved is aware of what is required of them. There are tools in place to monitor the smooth running so as to hit my target.

Again, there is regular communication of what is happening. This helps in letting people know the status of where you are and how far from the goals you are (Johnsons, 2001).

In a synopsis, it is important to have a plan that clearly outlines and guides you towards achieving what you want. No prosperity in life comes from nothing that is not written down (Wisker, 2010). This is so because the writings will be as a reminder in your day to day life knowing that you need to achieve the set target.

References Brown, G. 2002. Time Management Skills. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Cameron, G. 2009. The business students study: skills for study and employment. London: Prentice Hall.

Clancy, M. 2005. Managerial achievements. London: Pitman Publishing Limited.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategies of Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elerts, G. 2006. Communication skills. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Garner, P. 2001. Motivating People at the work place. London: McGraw Hill.

Haggers, M. 2005. Managerial Planning. New York: Dover Publication.

Johnsons, B. 2001. Setting managerial goals. Sydney: Krieger Publishing.

Lee. C. 2004. Chain of Command. Chicago, McGraw Hill Publishing

Masons, K. 2001. Technological changes. London: Pitman Publishers.

Mathews, W. 2000. Prioritizing management. London. McGraw Hill.

Metzner, H. 2000. Achieving the unachievable. Berlin. Dortmund university press.

McVilly, D. 2009. Time Management. London: Longman Publishers.

Smiths, A. 2008. Research in management. London. Pitman Publishers.

Stoner, H. 2010. Allocating Priority. New York: Oxford University press.

Wisker, G. 2010. Achieving prosperity. Palgrave: Macmillan Publishers.


Current Economic Climate Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction Strategic change is an important concept for all business organizations that want to survive in the constantly changing global economy. Strategic change is defined as the change that takes place in a company’s strategy. It is the organization’s attempt to align its strategies with those of the external environment.

It involves changing the organizations vision, mission and objectives as well as the strategies that are used to achieve these objectives. Changes in the external environment such as economic changes, political changes and environmental factors require organizations to adapt in-order to survive.

Adapting to the external environment will require companies to change their business strategies so as to remain relevant in today’s economy. There are a number of approaches that can be used in carrying out the strategic change process.

These approaches have to take into account the employees of the organization, the cultural setting and value system that are in use within the organization and the business environment that the organization operates in. The next section covers the various strategic models that can be used by managers in the strategic process (Hughes 2006).

Strategic Change Tools and Models Strategic change models and approaches are used to reflect the intentional and strategic changes that take place within organizations. Clear goals and measurement scales are used in these approaches to gain some feedback on how the change process will affect the business operations of the company. The type of strategic change model that is used should be in line with the process of change implementation for the organization.

The change process involves preparing the organization for the change process. This will involve communicating the changes that will take place to the important stakeholders of the company such as the employees, investors and shareholders to ensure they that they are all prepared for the change (Gunn 2009).

Once the necessary changes have been communicated to all important stakeholders, the next phase of the process will involve implementing the change management plan. The changes will be implemented in accordance with the agreed business goals, objectives and strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next stage after implementation will involve providing ongoing support to the implementation process as well as undertaking improvements to the change management plan.

The purpose of this stage is to ensure that there is a continual support of the changes that are taking place within the organization. The last stage of the change process is important as it ensures that the changes have been implemented successfully within the transformed organization (Gunn 2009). There are a range of strategic change models that can be used in initiating change within organizations.

These models include Lewin’s three step model, Kotter’s eight steps for organizational change, Bullock and Batten’s planned change approach, the processual model, Beckhard and Harris’ approach to organizational change, the Naslar and Tushman model of organizational change, Carnall’s change management model, Stacey and Shaw’s responsive processes, Senge’s systematic model and William Bridges model of managing transition in an organization (Cameron and Green 2004).

The models that will be focused are Lewin’s three step model, Bullock and Batten’s planned change approach, the processual model, Naslar and Tushman model of organizational change, William Bridges model and Kotter’s eight step model.

Lewin’s Three Step Model The first model which is the Lewin three step model was developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951 for use in the organizational context. His model for organizational change is the most recognised and used by many company managers today. Lewin introduced the three step model for organizational change as a result of a study he conducted to determine the phenomenon of group change amongst an organization’s employees.

He noted that organizational change amongst employees lasted for a short time as employees returned to their original behaviour after the change was implemented. Lewin concluded that for change to be more permanent, the old habits of performing work had to be completely eliminated. His solution to permanent change saw him develop the three step model of change (Robbins 2009).

For organizations to achieve effective organizational change, they had to employ the three step model which is made up of unfreezing, change and freezing. The unfreezing step involves ensuring that the organizations employees have a need or desire for change. This need is usually achieved by conducting a confrontation with the employees or employee education that will ensure their perception of organizational change is different.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Current Economic Climate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This stage ensures that the organizational members understand the need for change as well as create a desire for change amongst these members. The unfreezing stage also ensures that employees are made aware that the old way of performing business is unacceptable and they should therefore embrace the new system of change (Robbins 2009).

The next step was where the actual change occurred. This stage ensured that the organization moved to the desired state of change that had new policies, procedures, structures and goals. The refreezing stage involved reinforcing the changes into the organizational system by ensuring that these changes were consistent with the employee’s behaviour.

To demonstrate the three step model an example will be used of a call centre that has been receiving poor customer evaluations. The company’s managers have realized good customer service is important in achieving success and therefore want the company to be more customer-focused (Mills et al 2009).

The use of the three step model will see the company unfreezing the current status of customer service in the call centre. This will be done by conducting staff meetings and reviewing customer surveys to determine how to improve customer service. The change step will involve providing the customer service representatives with the necessary training that will initiate a change in how they interact with customers.

The refreezing stage will involve rewarding the representatives on an hourly basis as well as rewarding them with bonuses for any positive customer feedback and surveys (Mills et al 2009).

Lewin’s model for organizational change basically requires a significant commitment on the part of the organization before, during and after the change. This model is suitable as it considers the organizations, internal and external environment (Kritsonis 2005).

Bullock and Batten’s Planned Change Model The change model was developed around project management activities which included exploration, planning, action and integration. The exploration stage involves identifying the need for change and acquiring the specific resources that will be used to initiate the change. The planning step involves including decision makers in the development of the change management plan that will be used in the change process.

The plan is then implemented which results in the action stage. The integration phase is initiated once the change plan has been fully implemented and aligned with changes that have occurred within the other areas of the organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Current Economic Climate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This approach of organizational change views the change process as a technical problem that can be solved with a technical solution. This method is suitable for less complex organizational problems and in dealing with isolated cases (Cameron and Green 2004).

Processual Model of Organizational Change This approach to organizational change ensures that the complex nature of change is managed in an ongoing and dynamic way. The task of managers who use this model of change is to navigate through the complexities of change by examining the available options and resources.

Instead of directing change, the manager’s role becomes that of ensuring the organization’s members respond to the change by embracing the necessary skills and knowledge to effect the change. The processual model is based on the premise that organizations facing change go through a variety of dynamic states that interlock and overlap forcing the change process to be analysed on emergent character context (Ramanathan 2008).

Understanding organizational change under this approach therefore involves studying the events that lead to the change and how the change affects the overall processes of the organization (Ramanathan 2008).

An example of this approach in an organization that is undergoing a major change in all of its business processes will be to conduct staff meetings, staff education, training and communication networks that will ensure that the complex components of the change process have been broken down into manageable and simple components.

Kotter’s Eight Step Model This method of organizational change was derived from Kotter’s study of 100 different organizations that were undergoing change. The results of the study highlighted eight key lessons that were later modelled into the eight steps of organizational change. These eight steps were used to address some of the power issues that arose during the organizational change process.

The first step of the model involved the creation of a sense of urgency which involved studying the market trends and changes after which the requirement for change within the organization would be analysed, the second stage involved the formation of a powerful guiding coalition that would be used to steer the change process, the creation of a vision was the third step in the eight step model.

This stage involved developing a vision that would be used to bring about change within the organization (Sabri et al 2007).

After coming up with the vision, the next step involved passing on the set goals and vision to the important stakeholders of the company after which they would be authorized to proceed on the set goals. This involved getting rid of the obstacles to change within the organization. The next step of the model involved planning and creating short term wins.

This would involve looking for short term visible improvements that would be used in the change process. After this was done, the improvements would be consolidated into the change process so that they can continue producing more change within the organization. Once the changes were consolidated, they would then be institutionalised into the culture of the organization (Singh 2010).

An example of how this approach can be used in effecting organizational change in a consultancy company that is facing a decrease of business is to create a sense of urgency that will assess the competitive nature of the consultancy’s environment after which a team will be formed to deal with effecting the necessary changes to the firm’s business operations.

A vision will then be developed to empower the team members and the rest of the employees within the organization to act on the vision which will see the actions being consolidated and institutionalized into the company.

Nadler and Tushman’s Model for Organizational Change This approach to organizational change emphasizes the importance of the transformation process and how organizations are made up of different components and parts that interact together. These components exist in a state of relative balance that ensures they fit together.

The four important elements that make up this model include tasks which encompass the work to be done, the skills and knowledge of individuals, the formal organization which is the explicitly defined process of the organization and the informal organization which encompasses the less explicitly defined understanding of the organization’s processes (Bezboruah 2008).

According to this model, the successful handling of change inside an organization means ensuring that all four components of the model have been identified and controlled. If a change takes place in one component, changes have to be effected on all the other three components to reduce the chances of organizational homeostasis from occurring.

Homeostasis refers to the organization returning to the old way of doing things which leads to a lack of congruence. This model is therefore important in dealing with the power and control issues that arise due to the homeostasis condition within the organization. An example of the application of this method is when a production company has a market demand to produce a new product.

The demand will require a specific task to be performed in order to produce the required output. This will involve incorporating the other components of the model which will be the individual’s skills and knowledge, the formal and the informal processes of the organization (Anderson 2010).

William Bridges Managing Transition This model of organizational change focuses on the transition process that takes place during change. William Bridges’ focus on transition creates an extensive understanding of what happens in an organization during the change process. He views transition to be a process that involves eliminating the old way of doing business and adopting new methods/techniques.

This model engages three stages which are the new beginning, the neutral zone and ending. The ending stage involves completing the old system of company operations before the new changes are initiated.

The neutral zone involves dealing with employee reactions once the changes have been implemented while the new beginning involves defining the purpose of the change and what the outcomes of the changes will be (Bridges 2009).

Conclusion The above models and approaches to organizational change demonstrate that change can be implemented in a just and fair way within an organization that is undergoing change. The methods can be used depending on the type of change the organization is going through.

The basis of these methods is to ensure that the change process is not cumbersome and complex to the people who have been charged with the responsibility of initiating change within organization. The strategic change models ensure that the change process has been broken down into more manageable processes and components.

References Anderson, D.L., (2010) Organization development: the process of leading organizational change, California. US: Sage Publications

Bezboruah, K.C., (2008) Applying the congruence model of organizational change in explaining the change in the Indian economic policies. Journal of Organizational Transformation and Social Change, Vol.5, No.2, pp 129-140

Bridges, W., (2009) Managing transitions: making the most of change. Massachusetts: Da Capo Press

Cameron, E., and Green, M., (2004) Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London: Kogan Page Publishers

Gunn, S.B., (2009) The essential management toolbox: tools, models and notes for managers and consultants. New York: John Wiley and Sons

Hughes, M., (2006) Change management: a critical perspective. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

Kritsonis, A., (2005) Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, Vol. 8, No.1, pp 2-7

Mills, J.H., Dye, K., and Mills, A.J., (2009) Understanding organizational change. Oxford, UK: Routledge Publishers

Ramanathan, T.R., (2008) The role of organizational change management in offshore outsourcing of information technology services. Florida, US: Universal Publishers

Robbins, S.P., (2009) Organizational behaviour: global and Southern African perspectives, Capetown. South Africa: Pearson Education

Sabri, E.H., Gupta, A.P., and Beitler, M.A., (2007) Purchase order management best practices: process, technology and change management. Florida: J. Ross Publishing

Singh, K., (2010) Organizational behaviour: text and cases. India: Pearson Education South East Asia


Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Dickens is regarded as the master of style because he has the ability to describe scenes in colorful detail thus making the scenes being described to come alive. The two pieces of work that will be the main area of concern in this analysis are ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’.

Analysis Charles Dickens’ writing reflects his extraordinary gift of observance. Not many novelists can accomplish what this author has managed to achieve in his books. He has the capacity to lay out images of things and people in a manner that the ordinary human being would not envisage.

Dickens’ writings integrate what he observes with what he remembers and imagines. Seldom does one miss even the most trivial of details in his work. It is these trivialities that bring out his most critical strength in literature (Gissing 63). In ‘Oliver Twist’, the following passage exemplifies this feature:

“his gaze encountered the terrified face of Oliver Twist, who, despite all the admonitory looks and pinches of Bumble, was regarding the repulsive countenance of his future master with a mingled expression of horror and fear too palpable to be mistaken even by a half-blind magistrate” (Dickens Oliver 18).

The capacity to describe vividly probably stemmed from Dickens’ attention to detail even in his real life. In letters that he wrote to his colleagues, Charles often noticed the most peculiar things about people. One particular letter was written to Wilkie on the 17th of January 1858. He describes an incident in which he had gone to visit a mental asylum and found a man who was dumb and deaf.

It was only during the late stages of his illness that others began to notice his insanity. Dickens asked about his occupation and found that he had worked as a telegraph operator.

He speculated about the nature of messages that he sent to different parts of the world in his mental state. Charles did not think about the obvious things; he looked as the mentally-ill patient’s perspective from a totally unexpected angle. It was this talent that he transmitted to his novels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Something else that comes to mind when reading this author’s classic tales is his propensity to find romance in unpleasant or routine scenarios. Dickens can find something valuable out of even the most wretched of places. He takes a seemingly insignificant and disagreeable occurrence and then relates it with the story in a manner that enriches it.

For instance in ‘A Tale of Two Cities’, he describes a battle scene in Bastille as a “vast dusky mass of scarecrows to and fro, with frequent gleams of light above the billowy heads, where steel blades and bayonets shone in the sun” (Dickens A Tale 244). Through this description, he brings out the tense and belligerent atmosphere so effectively, and thus enriches the story.

In ‘Oliver Twist’ several descriptions of drudgery and filth fill the chapters. In one scenario, he describes the tenements as “fast closed and molding away… houses had become insecure from age and decay and were prevented from falling into the street by huge beams of wood reared against the walls” (Dickens Oliver 5).

It is clear from this description that the state of poverty in that tenement was excessive. The author emphasizes this state of affairs by adding the description of the beams. Such creativity makes one feel like one is in those establishments, and thus enhances the narrative.

It is easy to find unforgettable scenes in Dickens’ work. The reason behind their impressiveness is his ability to paint them rather than merely narrate them. For instance in “A Tale of Two Cities”, the author refers to France for the first time in chapter five. At this moment, he talks about a broken wine cask. He then backs up the picture of wine casks with some descriptions of the surrounding noise.

In another instance, the author paints a picture of the grindstone scene. He talks about the men who sharpen their swords and knives elaborately. Such scenes make the work appear as though it is an actual painting rather than mere prose. The author thus manages to affect the audience’s responses through these spatial representations (Stange 384).

Like any other great writer, Dickens drew inspiration from a number of historical occurrences or figures. However, he was not interested in recapturing these crucial moments of history in every detail possible. Charles simply wanted to draw lessons from them.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, he often told his biographer how he had read the book “French Revolution” by Thomas Carlyle hundreds of times; most structural elements of “A Tale of Two Cities” come from this book. Instead of reconstructing the past, Dickens chooses to tell the story of his characters through these historical patterns.

When describing ancient practices, such as the whipping post, Charles reminds the reader that he is talking about an extinct practice. As such, one does not feel lost in a bygone era. Everything that takes place in the lives of his characters resonates with the social order of the time (Hutter 448).

Therefore, the suffering and death that took place gains a lot of relevance in the mind of reader. This serves to keep all scenes highly relevant and thus captivating. It is these sorts of tactics that make Dickens’ work exceptional.

On must realize that it is not just the great description of these scenes that makes Charles Dickens novels so remarkable. He also has an instinctive skill of integrating disorderly events into one remarkable and united tale. The story of ‘Oliver Twist’ exemplifies this strategy; throughout the narration, there is a mystery that must be solved by the protagonist.

He needs to find his true identity, and when he achieves this, then he will find his true position in society. All of the adventures in the book are tied to this goal, even though the ambition does not seem to be so obvious in the beginning.

It is these overarching themes that make the words and descriptions in the book so meaningful. Charles Dickens does not just write ‘Oliver Twist’ for the sake of writing; each description is filled with meaning. The scenes have a huge impact on the outcome of the story. For instance

“Mr. Brownlow went on from day to day, filling the mind of his adopted child with stores of knowledge, and becoming attached to him, more and more,. And his nature developed itself and showed the thriving seeds of all he wished him to become” (Dickens Oliver 53).

This passage captures the very essence of the book. Oliver always wanted to be independent; having grown up in the streets, he had to adopt a certain degree of self determination. On the other hand, Oliver still wanted someone else to make choices for him since the latter option would cause him to be accepted by the middle class or other respectable members of society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Brownlow fills him with knowledge, he is allowing the boy to reconcile these two needs. It takes a stroke of genius to capture such conflicting goals in small passages such as the one quoted above. Charles Dickens was able to combine verbal prowess with meaning-making perfectly in this excerpt (Miller 83).

Charles Dickens’ style also elicits emotions from its audiences owing to its directness. ‘Oliver Twist’ is quite a poignant tale, but only the author’s descriptions create these effects. For instance when Dickens talks about Oliver’s imprisonment, one fully identifies the plight of this young boy. He is in an underground prison, which could fall at any time owing to its weak foundations and decaying structures (Dickens Oliver 3).

Furthermore, the room is absolutely dark so that Oliver cannot see his surroundings. If one cannot see the walls, then it is almost as if one is covered by nothingness. A picture of gloom and hopelessness may take over one’s life. It is no wonder Oliver went to the corner so that he could at least touch something real.

Dickens then contrasts the coldness of the walls with the gloom in the room, and asserted that the protagonist preferred the cold. The loneliness and isolation that this boy feels is unmistakable; Charles cleverly uses two highly undesirable elements to bring out the magnitude of Oliver’s troubles.

If the boy was in such as state as to prefer a cold, hard surface over the nothingness, then it must have been completely unbearable for him. The witty choice of words draws out audiences’ emotions.

It is only when an author is able to wear the characters’ shoes that he can think about his reactions to them. If Dickens had not imagined himself to be Oliver in that dark room, he would not have thought about the temporary comfort that the walls accorded the protagonist. Such vividness and capacity to draw out people’s emotions is what causes many readers to admire Dickens’ work.

Any novelist should aim at pleasing his audience. ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’ are some of the most pleasant novels in English literature (Baysal 14). Therefore, in this realm, Dickens has succeeded as an artist. However, it should be noted that not everyone admired this style of writing during Dickens’ lifetime.

Some critics such as James Stephen thought that appealing to audiences’ emotions rather than their sense of reason was crude and corny. These critics classified ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ as historical fiction, so they presumed that it should be philosophical in nature. Other critics of his time such as Aldous Haxley claimed that it was vulgar to fake emotions as Dickens had done because sincerity was a talent in literature.

While these criticisms may be valid to a certain extent, they do not address the root-cause of Dickens’ stylistic preferences. Dickens wanted to write ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ in a manner that would educate the masses about an important historical event.

He was not writing for the historians or the scholars, so it should come as no surprise that these audiences found his work unsatisfactory. The dates and events were accurately stated in his book and that is what mattered. Fictional writers must prioritize the needs of their readers as it is not possible to satisfy everyone.

Many readers were drawn to Dickens’ work because he used characters that they were already familiar with. For those who did not about such characters, Dickens always made a point of introducing them ever so carefully.

It was this element that constantly won them over. In doing so, Dickens would use habits that are common to all in order to achieve this aim. By drawing on common humanity, Charles was able to make his scenes come alive (Forster 125).

“Now that he was enveloped in the old calico robes… he was badged and ticketed, and fell into his place at once – a parish child-the orphan of a half-starved drudge.. to be despised by all and pitied by none” (Dickens Oliver 8).

Dickens was aware that all human beings have experienced indifference or disdain. Using phrases that captured these sentiments ensured that even the middle class could understand Oliver’s status.

Conclusion Dickens was a master of style because he had a talent of observance, which manifested itself in the form of intricate details. Furthermore, he would find romance in the most unexpected places. As if these were not enough, Dickens often painted images of his scenes rather than just describing them.

Perhaps the most important aspect of his work was his emotional appeal. He achieved this by putting himself in the shoes of his characters. He also introduced unfamiliar audiences to the world of his books using common humanity. It was these stylistic strategies that made him a literary genius.

Works Cited Baysal, Alev. Caryle’s Influence upon A Tale of Two Cities. 8 Jun. 2007. Web.

Dickens, Charles. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1867. Googlebooks. Web.

Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. NY: Bentham, 1859. Googlebooks. Web.

Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, 1872. Googlebooks. Web.

Gissing, George. Charles Dickens: A critical study. 2001. Web.

Hutter, Albert. Nation and Generation in A Tale of Two Cities. PMLA 93.3(1978): 448-462. Web.

Miller, Joseph. Charles Dickens: the world of his novels. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1958. Googlebooks. Web.

Stange, Robert. Dickens and Fiery past: A Tale of Tow Cities Reconsidered. English Journal 2009: 381-390. Web.


Allure Cruise Line Essay essay help

Who will be Allure’s main competitors in this market? Cruise lines are one of the fast growing companies in the USA and each year the number of the competitors is going to increase. Working in one and the same industry, the companies are going to create as many specific offers as possible in order to win. The main competitors of the Allure Cruise Line in the industry are the similar companies which provide the clients with the similar services.

There are a lot of different companies in the USA which offer similar services, however, most of them cannot be considered as the company competitors as they are big international company and do not have the contradicting interests with Allure Cruise Line.

Costa Cruises, Windjammer Barefoot Cruises and The Maine Windjammer Association (Cruise Lines? 2009) are the main competitors of the Allure Cruise Line as the spheres of their interests coincide. Working in Florida and having the similar tours these companies compete severely.

Each of the companies wants to become the leading one and that is why more and more practical and innovative decisions are made. Moreover, the competition becomes stronger as the sphere is interesting and attracts more and more participants.

How will Allure distinguish itself from its competitors in these markets? One of the main spheres of impact the Allure Cruise Line is best into and is going to compete in is the number of tours offered for the clients. The comfort and the services the clients of the company are offered cannot be compared with any other one. The company distinguishes itself from other similar companies by the quality of the services, the comfort of their ships and the possibility to choose the place of destination and departure.

The customers are offered a range of services which are going to be satisfied within the shortest period of time. The location of the Allure Cruise Line offices is one more distinguishing features as the company has the representations in many countries.

Additionally, the company is planning to expand into Mediterranean and make sure that it occupies more and more territories. Therefore, one of the main distinguishing features of the Allure Cruise Line is its desire to expand not only nationally, but also internationally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How will they position themselves differently? The positioning of the services is one of the most complicated affairs in the changing environment. The service positioning relies on the company customers who are to express their desires and demands in the relation to the company services. When the demands and desires are expressed, the company managers are to access the costs on the realization of those desires and the service positioning strategy.

“The service positioning strategy is a choice of which client segments the organization wants to serve, how it intends to attract and retain those clients, and what methods/know-how it uses to deliver the intended benefit” (The Berkeley Consulting Group, n.d., n.p.).

The opportunities and threats are to be considered before applying to the service positioning strategy. To be successful, Allure Cruise Line should apply to al its resources and refer to the capabilities it has. Financial resources, staff skills, facilities and assets, and knowledge are to be applied to while implementing the service positioning. The mission and the vision of the organization are to be met.

Reference List Cruise Lines. (2009). List of Official Cruise Web Sites. Retrieved from http://www.raynorshyn.com/cruises/#Lines

The Berkeley Consulting Group. (n.d.). Berkeley Methodology. Web.


Magical Realism: Garcia Marquez Explicatory Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Magical realism is explained as the desire of the author to show the ordinary life of people with the instances of unreal, fantastic events. In most cases the desire to present the magical realism in short stories is explained by the desire to create a fairy tale, however, the reasons are deeper.

Garcia Marquez used magical realism to write fascinating short stories such as “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” and “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” that captivated his readers and kept them interested up to the end of the stories showing human attitude to those who seem strange or not look like others.

The stories under consideration are absolutely different, however, they show human attitude to absolutely strange people. The “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” tries to show people how they usually consider others knowing about them nothing. A man is found dead and strange people express a desire to bury the body in accordance with the rules.

Reading the story it becomes obvious that strange people are ready for much when they do not know a person, but they like him/her. The main idea of the story is to show how people who absolutely do not know the body make everything for him just because they feel sympathy to him, just because they like the appearance of the man.

The villages know nothing about him, but his appearance helps them create the whole story of his life, they imagine that he had a wife and many other aspects which make sure that he was a good person. The imaginary realism plays the role of human consciousness and the desire to think about people only positive and good things.

The next story has almost the same meaning, but in this case the judgment of people is shown. In “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” Garcia Marquez discusses human opinion about a person they do not know. The magical realism is aimed at presenting more vivid picture, to express human thoughts more powerful and with specific images.

People always have personal opinion about others, and the author tries to make this opinion better. Reading the story, a strange man appears in different images. Some people believed that he was an angel as he had the wings. Others believed him to be a poor one as he was dirty, etc.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it may be seen that different people created their opinion about this person on the basis of the particular images. The transformation of the hero depended on one particular thing either in the cloths or on the face expression of the man.

Therefore, it may be concluded that referring to the magical realism Garcia Marquez tried to show the inner world of human beings their relation to strange people and the aspects which create the opinion of different people. The social public opinion is created on the basis of the points of view people express.

The more similar ideas, like in “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World” the more guarantee that the society will accept the person on the basis of this opinion. However, the general social opinion may be absent as there is no common opinion about a person, like in the short story “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” Garcia Marquez by.


Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Females and Poverty


Employment and Economic Dependence

Political Leadership



Introduction Although our society has made positive steps towards reducing discriminations and inequalities, a considerable proportion of people around the world are still living under discrimination and inequalities. Usually, such inequalities are often based along gender, racial, ethnicity, religious and among other discriminatory lines.

The United Nations and civil right groups, among other positive parties have been active in fighting for the reduction of global inequalities. Many programs that have been precisely designed to mitigate global inequalities have thus been started in many countries.

Among the forms of discrimination that have been of concern to human rights groups is gender discrimination. We are now becoming aware that some forms of global inequalities are gender based. As such, understanding the link between gender and global inequalities is fruitful in mitigating global inequalities.

Females and Poverty Has global poverty been taking a global dimension? Although there is no sufficient data to support this particular assertion, we can still observe that compared to men, more women have been sinking into poverty (Dhongde 2007). According to a 2005 United Nations report on gender inequalities, about 50% of women in developing countries have become poorer in the last thirty years (Deaton 2011).

On the other hand, about 30% of men in developing countries became poorer in the last thirty years (Deaton 2011). Here, the trend has especially been bad in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. A total of about 140 million women became poorer in Africa (during the period mentioned), while about 500 million became poorer in Asia (Dhongde 2007).

Thus, we can see a worrying trend where poverty is increasingly taking a gender dimension in the developing world. Due to the presence of multiple programs in the developed world that have helped to empower women there, the number of poor women has not been increasing there as fast as in the developing world.

However, the overall proportion of women that live in poverty is still high. Since global inequalities are measured on the threshold of poverty and on empowerment capacities, we can observe that global inequalities are (at least to some extent) based on a gender.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the factors that have helped to drive gender inequalities is the existing family model. Often, when compared to men, women have a more economical and social burden in raising families (Chen 1994). For example, although the number of single parents has been increasing, it is often the women who usually continue to feed, educate, and raise their children.

Without help from their former male couples, women are thus taking an economical burden here; hence, increasing the number of poor women around the globe (Kapan 2009). On the other hand, on separating with their wives, many men do not bother to finance the needs of the children that they leave behind.

Although many developed countries have designed laws that have been tailored to protect children and their mothers from such situations by compelling fathers to financially contribute towards the needs of their children, the challenge has not been completely overcome yet.

Moreover, due to limited financial resources, many women (even in the developed world) are finding it difficult to seek legal redress in such matters of parenting. Since women are increasingly and unfairly given the burden of meeting the financial costs of the society, many of them have thus been sinking into poverty (Deaton 2011).

Education Another factor that has been exacerbating poverty levels among females is gender stereotypes on education. Unlike the western culture, multiple cultures across the globe have been against the education of females. Even in developed countries, the prevailing environment had been against the education of females.

Such an environment has an origin from previous cultures, which had regarded the education of females as unnecessary since women were expected to stay in their homes and do domestic work. Many developed countries had to develop affirmative action, among other programs that were tailored to help the girl child excel in academics (Kapan 2009).

Gender disparities in education are especially prominent in developing countries. Most countries in the developing world are still associating with cultural beliefs that regard a female as a person that should solely prepare for marriage, stay in her home and help in domestic work (Chen 1994).

We will write a custom Essay on Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even in exceptional situations (in developing countries) where some level of liberalization has been observed, and the female has thus been allowed to pursue education, multiple factors have still hindered the academic excellence of the girl child (Kapan 2009). For example, when not in school, many girls here are still expected to do domestic chores at their home; thus, limiting the number of hours that they can spend on their studies.

Moreover, there is also a gender stereotype that girls cannot excel in academics as their female counterparts; hence, deteriorating the confidence of girls and thus limiting their capacity to excel in academics. The usefulness of education in economically empowering a populace is known.

For example, people that have university level education earn an average of about 30,000$ more (per annum) when compared with those that do not have university education (Deaton 2011).

The same case is true in the developing world where people with university and college certificates are more economically empowered than the uneducated. With a disadvantage in education empowerment (when compared to males), females are thus disadvantaged in economic empowerment; hence, a global inequality that is gendered.

Employment and Economic Dependence Compared to males, many women undergo discrimination when seeking for employment. Again, such a direction is especially prominent in the developing world. Often, crooked employers will seek to sexually exploit females that seek employment opportunities at their firms; hence, limiting the capacity of women to seek for employment on an equal basis as their male counterparts.

Exacerbating the problem even further is a common stereotype that females cannot especially perform well in certain kinds of jobs; hence, limiting the capacity of females to acquire certain types of employment (Chen, 1994).

Moreover since many women in the developing world depend on their husbands (and, or males with an income) to meet their economic needs, many women have found it hard to venture into economic generating activities. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa have also been limited in economic empowerment due to the HIV/AIDS disaster (Pritchett 2006).

Here, the number of women that have been infected by the HIV virus is twice the number of men that have been infected (Pritchett 2006). Due to their deteriorating health, women that have been infected with the HIV virus have thus become less able to participate in income generating activities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Inequalities: Are they Gendered? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With a decreased capacity for women to obtain employment and other income generating capacities, the capacity of women to economically empower themselves is thus limited; hence, a global inequality that is gendered.

Political Leadership The political leadership of most (if not all) countries is male dominated. Due to multiple factors (including those that we have seen above), it has been difficult for females to rival their male counterparts in acquiring political leadership. With a poor representation at the government levels (where important decisions on policies are made), it is not very difficult for the wellbeing of women to be compromised.

Knowingly or unknowingly, it is possible for a male dominated leadership to align with policies that silently discriminate on the empowerment of women (Pritchett 2006). Thus, with poor representation in leadership at government levels, the capacity of women for self determination has been limited; hence, creating a loophole that can be used for gender discrimination (Dhongde 2007).

Conclusion The issue of global inequalities is one that is becoming a concern for any person that believes in equality and human rights. With progressive steps having been made towards mitigating global inequalities, several challenges remain. As it has been seen, the challenge of tackling global inequalities has persistently been differentiated into the developed world and the developing world.

Thus, gender discrimination is common within countries that are still developing. Still, developed countries have a number of steps to climb before they can completely eliminate the challenge of gender discrimination within their countries.

Generally, females are disadvantaged in multiple areas that relate to their economic empowerment. Hence, when compared to their male counterparts, higher poverty levels can usually be observed among females. Therefore, to the extent of dis-empowering women in the areas that I have discussed, global inequality is gendered.

References Chen, S., 1994, “Is poverty increasing in the developing world?” Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 359–76.

Deaton, A., 2011, “Counting the world’s poor: Problems and possible solutions,” World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 125–147.

Dhongde, S., 2007, “Measuring the impact of growth and income distribution on poverty the developing world,” Journal of Income Distribution, Vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 25–48

Kapan, T., 2009, Patriarchal households are unitary: New evidence, Columbia University Press

Pritchett, L., 2006, “Who is not poor? Dreaming of a world truly free of poverty,” World Bank Research Observer, Vol. 21 no.1, pp. 1–23.


How customers behave when they are in a Hotel Reception Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction New customers are often disoriented when they are in a new hotel and therefore need assistance to find their ways around the hotel or have their needs met. They usually do not know whom ask for a help or advise or where to begin from.

Taking an example of foreign tourists who often visit different countries all over the world, and have to deal with people with different cultural backgrounds and speaking different languages, they normally tend to shy talking to natives or ask them something due to the feeling of indifference.

The visitors, when they arrive to the hotel for the first time, may meekly look for ways to sort them out but to the contrary, some customers may act thoughtlessly in a manner that is impolite and end up disrupting the other ongoing activities. An understanding between the customer and the receptionist is therefore vital for each party to meet the desired goals.

Behaviors demonstrated by foreign tourists in a hotel reception Foreign tourists tend to be curious or have the desire to acquire new knowledge about the hotel they are in. This is demonstrated in the way they look around for posters or pictures which would add to better know the place place. They gaze on everything seeking for new clues to make sense of their new surrounding.

They go forward to seek information about the new things by asking questions to the receptionists about the hotel offers, charges, norms and services. They prefer hanging out with big groups, often consulting each other about this or that thing or service and they often take flash photographs even of other customers. They also push their wais into queues and it takes them a long time to get consultations from hotel staff.

By seeking information, they reduce uncertainties about the hotel, which clarifies expectations and therefore gains them social acceptance. Feedback is also observed in the process of information seeking. This is seen in the customers’ efforts to gauge how to behave themselves in the new hotel.

They may in turn ask the receceptonists on what behavior is expected from them, what to bring or not to bring into the hotel, or rather how to behave in the hotel surrounding.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another form of observable behavior is seen when the customers select among the different forms of alternatives on what they want to consume. The customers order various products for comparison before making the final decision. They may first consult by asking the receptionists or other visitors to be reassured that they get the best of what they want (Hallowell, 1996).

Considering a group of foreign tourists who get into a hotel seeking accommodation services within a defined time frame, they would first ask for a list of options on what kind of accommodations are available in terms of their space, charges and quality.

Some tourists like Italians are quite used to sophisticated services and would usually abide to hotel expensive tastes. Some would totally be annoying by disregarding and openly criticizing the services being offered (Dick


Price Strategy as a Major Element of Marketing Mix Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Price is one of the major elements of marketing mix. It is a fundamental strategic issue, which is also link to product positioning. Moreover, pricing affects other elements of marketing, such as channel decision, promotion and product features. At the same time, there is no clear cut formula to that is used to determine pricing; some general steps might be followed to arrive at pricing a new product.

Pricing must factor in the legal and competitive environment that a company operates upon. From a competitive ground, the firm must take into consideration the implications of pricing on competitors.

For instance, setting a product at a very low price may generate a price war, which isn’t going to be of benefit to either side. On the other hand, from a legal ground a firm is not exempted to price their product at any desired level. For instance, there is a possibility of price control which prohibits product from being over charged

It is imperative to identify pricing objective in order to decide on the optimal pricing. Current profit maximization is a common objective; it aims at minimizing current profit and brings about revenue and costs.

Maximizing current revenue is another objective that seeks to maximize the present revenue without regarding profit margin. Consequently, maximizing quantity should be considered as well since it minimizes the quantity of customers served and the quantity of units sold, so as to minimize long-term costs as experience curve would have it predicted.

There are various ways or strategies to price a product. Some of the policies include; premium pricing, economic pricing, promotional, geographical and value pricing. However it is entirely depend with the satiation on the ground when it comes to implementation.

Johnson and Johnson is an already established company or brand for that matter. Hence, some of the strategies may not be fit for them. Value pricing could be the most appropriate strategy. The approach is applicable when external factors like increased competition or recession compels companies to offer value on products, in order, retain customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It simply means getting value for your money, for instance, the amount spent makes it a worthwhile experience. In some ways, it is same as economic pricing. However one must never mistake value added, in regards to product and services. Price reduction does not normally increase value.

Promotional pricing is another strategy that could be used especially as a marketing tool. It is a very common approach. There are quite a number of instances of promotional pricing, for example, free offers, discounts and vouchers. A promotional pricing item tends to create controversy. A number of countries all over the world have stipulated laws that administers the period which a product can be put up for sale.

Geographical pricing is a must to be considered form of pricing, bearing in mind that Johnson and Johnson is an international brand. It observes pricing variations in different spheres of the world, for instance, rarity value, in other words, where the cost of shipping increases price.

In some places more tax is demanded on a particular type of product, hence, it makes them either more, or a little less expensive. Laws that limit the number of products to be imported again increase the revenue. Jonson and Johnson implementing both or either of these strategies can greatly increase market in the Baby care line.

References Kotler, P.


Sony Corporation Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Industry analysis

Macro economic factors


Introduction Sony is the global leader in electronics industry with operation in over 140 countries. The firm is involved in designing, improving, manufacturing and sales of electronic equipment and instruments, marketing of softwares and game consoles to final markets. In addition, it is involved in distribution of recorded music both at business format and musical genre.

The company is also engaged in financial service provision in Japan where it provides non life and life insurance, internet banking services, rental and credit financing. Finally, through its subsidiaries the company provides network and advertising business services.

Industry analysis In U.S.A., electronics industry is one of the leading and the fastest growing sectors with electrical and electronics subsector contributing an estimated 10 percent of all produced goods. In 2008, the total sales were valued at an estimated US $ 244 billion, annual growth of (3.2) percent and employment size of 389,257.

Telecoms was the most active sector recording an annual increment of 18 percent while computer line slipped 5 percent due to global drop in computer prices and weak demand from Asian continent (Raymond


The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important countries not only in the Middle East, but also in the globe. This is because this country is known for the quantity of oil that it produces in the world. Furthermore, this nation is recognized for two important mosques and key in the lives of the Muslims across the globe.

Due to this, this republic is working towards ensuring that it bears a sufficiency in all fields. Especially in this time and age, this country is working towards ensuring that the defense and security sectors are catered for. In order to achieve this, this nation has entered into agreements with the British aerospace in order to supply the kingdom with the most modern technology in the defense.

During my cooperative training I had the opportunity to work with the British Aerospace. During this period I was able to get more information about the tornado Aircraft. This aircraft is the nucleus of Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF).

This report consists of a summary of my experience during this training period. It provides details about the Tornado engine, its maintenance, and some of the problems that were encountered and suggestions to set them right.

Organizational history The British Aerospace Company is a company which is located in Europe. It is a company which is regarded as Europe’s largest and it is the third largest aerospace company in the world. This company has a turnover of 10 million pounds and booked orders which are worth more than 11 billion pounds. The number of staff who is working in this company total to 88,300 qualified personnel.

The main operations of this company dwell in the commercial and defense aircrafts. Alongside this, the company is also involved in aircraft maintenance, flight training, advanced navigation and communication systems, rockets, arms and ammunition, civil engineering, optical systems, satellites, ground defense systems, and the ship services.

The company has or is divided in three divisions. These divisions are the helicopter systems, naval systems and the Al- Yamamah project. Tornado Aircraft

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aircraft is a two seat supersonic combat aircraft which is capable of great flexibility of purpose and design to fulfill a wide range of operational requirements. It has variable geometry wings, multi – spool, reheated turbofan engines, giving it a speed in excess of Mach 2 at high altitude. The variable geometry wings together with high lift devices, ensures that it can land and take off at slow speeds at dispersed sites.

During the time I was in this company, I realized that there are two kinds of Tornado Aircrafts. That is the Tornado Air Defense Variant (ADV), and the Tornado Interdictor Strike (IDS). The difference that exists between these two aircrafts is that the ADV and IDS, is based in the reheat section.

Furthermore, the IDS is 1.39 m longer than the ADV which is the main external difference in front fuselage section to accommodate the AL radar, Sky flash missiles, avionics and extra fuel tank. It also has wing nips which sweep at 68 degrees rather than 60 degrees as on the IDS aircraft.

The Tornado is not a pure British design, but Italy and Germany also joined in designing and producing this aircraft. The Tornado weapon system represents the closet approach yet to an ideal multi –m role combat aircraft, sought by military aircraft design engineers. Its success is attributable to the skilled application of a number of high technology features incorporated into a basic airborne vehicle. The major roles of Tornado

The Tornado is designed to fulfill a number of roles. These roles include close air support, interdictor strike, air strike superiority, interception, land based maritime strike and reconnaissance.

Characteristics of the Tornado The Tornado has got specific characteristics which make it stand out from the other aircrafts. This is based on the fact that it is designed in order to fulfill the above stated functions.

The main characteristics of this aircraft include the short takeoff or landing and the ability to accelerate rapidly to a high subsonic speed to permit operation from dispersed or damaged airfields in forward areas and immediate reaction to quickly changing battlefield conditions. High speeds at low level so that the enemy defense receives little warning during the time of attack.

We will write a custom Report on The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The smoothness of the low gust with the wings swept at low levels ensures that the crew maintain their fighting efficiency. High specific excess power or rate of climb and good acceleration ensure efficient interception or, in the reconnaissance role, evasion. All weather capability enables the Tornado to maintain round the clock pressure on enemy targets and to intercept enemy aircraft by day or night, or in bad weather.

Good load carrying ability and flexible weapon or fuel load interchange ensures that most effective interdictor or close air supervision use over a wide range of target distance combinations. This plane has a good sustained maneuverability which ensures excellent self defense and attack capability against enemy aircraft.

Lastly the multi – spool engines ensure that the aircraft has got a good specific fuel consumption which produces a long range in the strike reconnaissance roles and a prolonged loiter capability in the air superiority role. The table below gives a summary of the IDS and the ADV aircrafts in terms of their specifics. (See Table 1 and Diagram 1)

Tornado Aircraft dimensions: The aircraft construction During the study, I discovered that the aircraft has got an elaborate structure which demands the construction process to be elaborate. In essence, the aircraft structure can be divided into a number of major components. These parts include the Fuselage, wings and the tail unit. The fuselage is further divided into the front, center and rear fuselage sections.

The method which is used in the construction of this aircraft known as the, “Semi – Monocoque.” This method utilizes frames, sub-frames, lonegrons, diaphragms, webs, beams and skins in the construction of the fuselage, with spars and ribs used in the construction of the wings, fin, ailerons and flaps.

The frames, longerons, spars, ribs and skins are designed to withstand the bending, twisting, compression and torsion loads that an aircraft feels during flight. It is worth noting that the materials which are used in utilizing this aircraft should be able to withstand the loads which the aircraft feels and at the same time be light.

Front Fuselage The fuselage consists of frames, diaphragms, webs and skins, manufactured to form an assembly consisting of pressurized structure, forwards equipment compartment, the left hand gun avionics compartments, left hand gun compartment, liquid oxygen compartment, rear equipment compartment, right hand avionics compartments, right hand gun compartments, nose landing gear compartment and the spent cases compartments.

The center fuselage This extends from the forward transport joint at the frame 9 to the rear transport joint at frame 16, and it is constructed of closely spaced frames and skin assemblies. The frames vary depending on their functions. The wing box contains the wing pivot bearings which are mounted in the top structure. This wing box is usually manufactured from high strength machined titanium alloy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The British Aerospace Company: Tornado Aircraft by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The internal frames are located between the forward and the rear face walls to provide additional strength to the structure. The wing slots seals exist to maintain the fuselage shape. They are also used in order to reduce drag. These pockets are closed by inflatable seals. The wing pocket has got two seals, that is, the upper and lower seals on each side of the Tornado.

There are usually interconnected to allow for pressure variations due to the various altitudes which are attained during flight. The main landing gear is usually placed in two compartments. These compartments are located on the underside structure of the center fuselage.

The main landing gear retracts forward and inward, the struts being rotated to allow the wheels to be housed flat within the shadow compartments. Fuel is usually stored in the fuselage which is located in the center of the tornado. There are a total of 16 fuel cells in two groups, six in the front fuel group and 10 in the rear fuel group.

Rear fuselage This fuselage extends from the transport joint which is located at frame 16 and extends to the frame 19. This is done so that two engines can be mounted in the compartments which are on each side.

In addition to the makeup of the engine, the rear fuselage also provides fittings for the fin, air brakes the engine doors and the arrester hook. The rear fuselage consists of frames which are divided by beams. The hydraulic system components are located in these regions.

The engine bay is a part of the Tornado which is enclosed by two doors. These doors are locked in position using a mechanism which is known as the release shoot-bolt. Air breaks are also mounted in the recesses of the fuselage. They are made up of aluminum alloy. The air breaks are located in a closed position sustained by a hydraulically operated lock units.

Wings Wings are crucial components of the Tornado Aircraft. Their ability to sweep wing and rotate a pivot axis by means of an actuator is one of the aspects of this aircraft that makes it outstanding. The wings are designed in such a manner that they can carry two wing pylons for the carriage of external stores.

The wings are attached to the trailing edge flaps which are installed on the lower side of the trailing edge. These flaps are equipped with carriage rib and a roller system which has two screw jacks.

Damage evaluation and inspections There are two main categories of this section. These include the reference system and the inspection of damages. The reference system is a method which is used in defining surfaces, positions and contours. It is a system which operates using a basic system which is supplemented by an auxiliary system. This system is used to locate places on the plane which might be having repair issues.

On the other hand the inspection of damage is an action which takes place when a person seeks to establish if there are aspects of the aircraft which are not in good working condition. There are several aspects which are taken when carrying out this inspection. These include the access for inspection. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the structural damage of the aircraft is assessed.

The preliminary visual inspection is the process which involves the visual inspection of the exterior surfaces of the aircraft. Detailed visual inspection involves the deliberate process of establishing the actual problems which may be noticed on the airplane.

Tornado systems The Tornado has got several systems. These systems include the fuel system, the environmental system, the electric system, and the wheel or tires system. The fuel system; the aircraft fuel load is usually located in the front fuselage, the center fuselage, the fin and in the wings. The main fuel tank is usually located in the center fuselage.

The main fuselage consists of numerous fuel cells which are interconnected in a way that form two separate groups which are designated in the front fuselage. The environmental system; the main task associated with this system is to convert the liquid oxygen into a form that can enable the pilot to breathe in flight.

The oxygen system is made up of two parts. These parts are the main oxygen system and the oxygen emergency system. During the emergency cases when the pilot needs to come of the plane, this system ensures that the pilots get 100% oxygen.

Tornado Engine The study process made me realize that the Tornado has got a very unique engine. This engine matches the unique characteristics which are used by the engine. The Engine KB 199 was developed by Turbo Union in order to ensure that the Multi – Role Combat Aircraft is realized.

The required characteristics demanded the engine to have a bypass engine. This should have a capability of reheat for both the hot and cold gas streams. The thrust reverser is basically fitted with the intention of short landings.

In addition, for the sake of maintenance, the engine is divided into several basic modules. These modules enable one to be able to note what they are working on at any given point.

It is worth to mention that when removing a module, its identification plate must be kept with its own module, and when refitting a module, that plate must be refitted to the carrier. This eases the process of maintenance. See (Table 2: Table of engine modules, Diagram of the engine and the attached diagram)

Types of engine modules During my experience I learnt that the Tornado has got sixteen modules. Some of these modules include the Low pressure compressor module. This is a three stage axial flow unit which comprises two main assemblies, that is, the engine and the rotor. See (Diagram 2 Compressor module (M01).

The intermediate pressure compressor module is a compressor which comprises alternative rows or rotor and stator blades. These consist of an integral disc assembly to which the blades are secured by dove tail roots and retained in the discs by the segmented plates.

The high pressure compressor module consists of an outer casing and an inner casing. The outer casing is a part of the intermediate casing module. The inner casing consists of a number of rings bolted together in each pairs. See (Diagram 3 Intermediate pressure compressor module (M02)).

The intermediate casing module is a module which forms the foundation unit of the engine which is known as the Master base Module. Their thrusts are attached to the outer case of the module. Engine performance parameters

There are several parameters which are used in establishing the functionality of an engine. In this case the parameters include the engine thrust and the specific fuel consumption. The thrust is a gas jet exhausting at a high velocity from a nozzle in the opposite direction of the jet. I later realized that the aim of the designers of these natures of engines is to aim at having engines which have higher thrusts.

The specific fuel consumption may be considered to be what is next to thrust. This is because it is one of the most important aspects regarding the performance of the engine. This aspect is used to determine the amount of fuel which is used to achieve pone unit of thrust over a finite period of time.

Engine maintenance procedure The maintenance of the Tornado engine is carried out at the engine shop. When the engine arrives at the engine shop it is subjected to various diagnostic tests to check on its functionality. In this case they include the baroscopic, hardness test and the MCD check.

Conclusion Just like any other machine or aircraft, the Tornado engine has got its share of the problems which have solutions. When I was under training in this company I realized that some of the problems which are associated with this engine include the interference with the foreign objects which damage the engine (FOD). The high hours can also lead to bearing debris circulating in the engine oil system.

This leads to massive wear and tear of the engine. Other problems are associated with thermal fatigue and operating in an environmentally hostile environment.

Despite the challenges and problems, one of the sure ways of maintenance of these engines is through subjecting them to thorough inspection and system evaluation. Consistent servicing of these aircraft reduces the risk of the problems which are associated with them thus they are able to function properly for a much longer period of time.

Works Cited Rouhollah, K. Ramazani and Joseph A. Kechichian. The Gulf Cooperation Council: Record and Analysis, Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 1988. Print.


Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs Report cheap essay help

Introduction Preliminarily, the market plan outlined below is for a Skagen Designs, a renowned international design company that is based at Reno, Nevada in the U.S. and specializes in the making of quality and affordable watches, jewelry, sunglasses, clocks and other related products.

Having been humbly founded in 1989 by Henrik and Charlotte Jorst, the company has been able to grow from a small wrist watch shop to a revered multinational company with an international reach and huge profits being realized by the founders.1

Even more importantly, Reno, Nevada has been able to provide a good avenue for Skagen design’s products in terms of its rich history, vibrant trade and economic industry, unique geographical set-up, shifty—but amiable—weather patterns and above all; a well established system of governance that ensures a positive economic progress.

It is these reasons—amongst many others that will be expressively stated later—that the Skagen designs was established in this locale. However, in spite of their unmatched success in the watch-business; there has been an increasingly growing need for expansion based on the fact that they have outgrown their current market jurisdiction as well as the need to set up more branches and become a global outfit.

The fundamental purpose of this marketing plan is, therefore, to help getting investor funds that can be used in spreading the market tentacles of Skagen designs while intermittently laying down a simple, yet exhaustive, plan that can be used in these expansion efforts. For the purposes of this paper, this marketing plan is intended for branching out to South Africa.

Executive Summary Before making a marketing plan for an organization; it is extremely important that we begin by assessing the current nature of operations, their nature of profitability and the challenges being faced. It is only by having knowledge of such that we will be able to construct a circumspect plan able to deal with past, present and future prospects of the organization.2

Therefore, in the bid to make a fitting plan, there are several marketing dynamics at Skagen designs that need to be assessed. Such factors include productivity, profits, growth, turnover, stability and cohesion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These measures of effectiveness may vary depending on the company, its mission, environmental context, nature of work, type of product or service and customer demands. It is based on the above viewpoints, among many other issues that this Marketing plan for Skagen designs is proposed.

Company Description (Overview of the Company) 23 years ago when Charlotte and Henrik Jorst made the bold decision of venturing into the unchartered waters of the watch-selling-business, no one would have guessed that the company, which was started in an apartment in New York, would grow to the highly esteemed international design company it is today.

However, after starting the business on a rocky foundation of selling relatively expensive watches, Charlotte and Henrik made a milestone move in 1990 when they found a manufacturer who could design their custom-made watches at a lower price than their previous manufacturer.

By 1992, Charlotte and Henrik had already designed over 30 different models of watches named Skagen Denmark and towards the end of that year; these two entrepreneurs (through a couple of marketers and advertisements) had sold everything they had made and realized a turnover of $800, 000 just from the comfort of the apartment in New York.

Based on the almost-zero tax rate of businesses in Nevada, the couple, Charlotte and Henrik Jorst, decided to move there and continue with their watch business in1993 which was, at this time, gaining more and more reputation.

After another milestone break in 1995 when the couple took their designs for trials and sold everything, all that followed was the periodic change of offices from big to bigger apartments with their sales also growing steadily. This, probably is the reason in 1998 and 1999, the company was named by the Inc. Magazine as one of the 250 fastest growing private companies in America.3

As of 2000, the company began to Branch out in countries like Netherlands and Germany and by 2003, it had expanded greatly, having its outlets in Ukraine, Kuwait, Italy, France, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Belgium and the UAE, just to mention a few.

We will write a custom Report on Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, the company deservedly enjoys huge success while operating as a subsidiary of Fossil, Inc. which completed making an acquisition of Skagen designs on 12th April 2012 at $231, 7 million.4 In spite of witnessing immense progress, the company still faces stiff competition from many other companies. In addition, the company needs to continue branching out since it has already exhausted the potentials of its current branches.

This, therefore, calls for progress and establishment of a marketing plan that will be able to see them through their plans. It is with this in mind that the plan below, which is targeted for South Africa, is formulated.

In doing so, principal focus is going to be on analyzing goals, aims, objectives of the marketing plan, strategic actions of the plan, situational analysis, risk analysis, feasibility study of the plan, budgetary estimate, stakeholder analysis and potential benefits among many other macroeconomic facets.

It is only by viably assessing these salient facets that the marketing plan will be able to lay down a concrete foundation on which future implementations can be made by Skagen designs.

Strategic Focus and Plan Vision

Skagen designs has the vision of being an influential force in the world of watches, jewelry and other related products—especially with regards to reaching its uniquely designed and high quality products to its highly esteemed clients.5

In doing this; the company prospects to transform open up new branches that will enable it to serve thousands of people in different regions all at the same time with ease. Additionally, the company needs to cooperate with other like-minded companies and individuals so as to tap into the richly flowing market potentiality offered by this multicultural society.


Essentially, Skagen designs’ main mission is to achieve a multifaceted success in various regions by designing impressive and unique, yet affordable products, while ensuring that the customers are given outstanding customer service.6 Essentially, this calls for delivery of quality products and service to its highly esteemed customers.

Moreover, the management is also charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the staffs are, deservedly, treated. Of course this policy, just like respect, is a two-way traffic. Consequently, the staffs in the company are compelled to ensure that the management, as well as each customer, is individually treated with utmost professionalism and respect.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for Skagen Designs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By observing these salient statutes, the company’s mission not only ensures that the primary role of financial success is achieved; but it also makes certain that everyone associated to the company has a sense of purpose towards the well-being of the company and to one another.7

Goals, Aims and Objectives

To propose a plan which will be able to help the company expand its business tentacles to South Africa in an easy way

To establish the importance or value of marketing the company in a better way

To assess the risks that may be faced while marketing the company

To source additional resources that can be used to further the marketing plans while also creating a budget for the same

To delineate problems being faced in the organization (with regards to its marketing endeavors and grope for ways of forging ahead while intermittently outsmarting these problems/challenges.

Strategies and Action Plan to Achieve the Objectives and Avoid Risks

In order to ensure more financial profits, we plan to introduce more quality products together with other relevant services which will, eventually, total into better profits. As for the aspect of getting more clients and accommodating them; the plan of going into South Africa, and many other countries that will duly follow, will take care of this challenge.

Finally, to siphon the strength of our competitors, we plan to market Skagen designs in a more robust way. This will, undoubtedly, give Skagen designs substantial leverage—on top of the fact that the good performance of the company will give us dominance and a more respected name in the international market.

Marketing Analysis Financial Analysis

Despite enjoying good financial success over the recent past; Skagen designs still requires some hefty amount of investment to be injected so as to make it possible for the effectuation of its marketing plans.

In order to satiate this need, the company’s management recently got into a business partnership with Fossil, Inc thus creating better prospects for the company in terms of better goods and services thus more profits (Citybizlist, 2012).8

This will greatly help in raising more funds for the extra costs needed for more branch out to South Africa and the marketing funds that will be needed thereof.

On top of that, the good relationship between the management and other financially empowered people promises good tidings in terms of financial prospects for the company. However, Skagen is not entirely banking on this as its ultimate source of funding. It is for this reason that other viable money-getting schemes are being sourced.

Human Resource (HR) analysis

As was glimpsed earlier, the company’s management got into a partnership with Fossils, Inc. This, therefore, necessitates for changes and plans to be made be made on areas such as the human resource department and how the company will function bureaucratically in its leadership endeavors.

According to Citybizlist, (2012), Charlotte and Henrik Jorst still enjoy the mandate of overseeing the productions in the company while Fossils, Inc mostly handles the financial aspects of the organization.9

In the branch prospected in South Africa, this chain of command balanced between the management at Skagen designs and Fossils, Inc. will be maintained. However, a branch manager will be appointed in South Africa to oversee the operations of the new branch, just like it has been the company’s tradition in other branches.

Moreover, the operations of the human resource department in the new branch will, essentially, be in the same format like that of the current parent branch—with a few positions and provisions being created for joint meetings with the management, stakeholders and other concerned parties.

The similarity in the operations of the HR department simply means continuity to the already existing HR precepts thus increasing efficiency.1011 The only slight variation will be that, overall decisions will be made by the CEOs, Charlotte and Henrik Jorst in conjunction with the relevant personnel at Fossils, Inc.

Target Market

A keen assessment by market analysts indicates that Skagen already has a substantial amount of clients just like its umbrella company, Fossils, Inc.

The partnership between these two companies will therefore be a welcomed idea by most clients who already know the nature of products and services offered by these two revered companies. However, a few managerial changes might have to be made, as has been detailed in the HR management section.

Consequently, the clients may have to get used to the blended leadership between Fossils, Inc and Skagen designs. In the new branch at South Africa, this managerial change will not have a huge impact based on the fact that it will be the first outlet to be established there. In fact, starting the South African branch will be a good opportunity for the management to see a fresh and first-hand impact of their merger with Fossils, Inc.

Yet still, studies on the South African market—specifically in Johannesburg where the new branch will be based—show that the country has a rich blend of middle and high class people. Based on the fact that Skagen’s products usually target middle and highly economically-empowered clients, South Africa thus offers high chances of success and viable economic markets.

Additionally, Johannesburg has always been a great attraction site for both local and international tourists. In their touring endeavors, there are usually high chances of people shopping for products such as watches. The opening of this branch thus offers huge positive marketing prospects for Skagen designs.12

Even more importantly, most African countries look up to South Africa as a trend-setter in the continent based on its highly industrialized nature. Opening a branch in Johannesburg can therefore lead to increased demands for Skagen’s products thus leading to the opening of many other branches in Africa, and beyond.

Moreover, the dynamics and highly sophisticated nature of designer shops in the modern world calls for and the raising of market standards to meet the needs and wants of our clients.13

In relations to this, the prospected branch in South Africa will incorporate state-of-art furnishings, a wide range of watch brands, clocks, sunglasses together with hippy and well-designed jewelry. These products and services will be present in both simple and sophisticated forms so as to accommodate the current diversity of modern shoppers.14

More importantly, the designers will ensure that the buildings and other related designs included in the South African branch are modeled in a classy and trendy way that will, appeal to the aesthetic-loving modern day shoppers.

This is also based on the fact that the South African branch targets classy—yet averagely financially empowered clients. It is for the same reason that there will be price-friendly services at this branch; just in the same way it has always been in the most Skagen outlets.

Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholders play a very important role in any organization—and in Skagen designs, it is no different. As a matter of fact, expansive consultations have been constantly made with the stakeholders so as to know their take on this marketing plan. So far, they have been in full support. Nonetheless, more consultations are yet to be made since this marketing plan is still at its baby stages thus does not require a lot of input from them.

Sustainable Competitive Advantage Assessment (SWOT analysis)

An assessment of the sustainable competitive advantage of the plan based on the business principle of SWOT analysis is done below.


The strengths of our prospected plan include the following. Firstly, Skagen designs Ltd. has been in the watch business long enough to know the red and green lights of its operations. Our firsthand experience gives us much advantage over our competitors.

Secondly, we have a professional strategists and planners who have successfully planned and successfully done other projects. This project is, therefore, bound to be a success story just like the other projects they have planned. Thirdly and lastly, our brand name and that of Fossils, inc. are highly respected in US and the world at large thus laying a firm foundation for the success of this plan.


Some of the weaknesses, or rather the challenges, of our plan include the following. To begin with, in spite of the market research projections prospecting a good reception for our plan, we are not entirely sure whether they will respond in the same positive way as we hope.

The presence of many watch businesses in South Africa may also provide a tougher competition than we anticipate. Finally, despite raising immense funds for the plan; we are still not utterly sure about getting the remaining funds.


The opportunities here include: the expansion of our customer bases. The expansion may also bring more profits which would then be used for opening even more branches thus actualizing the vision of us having branches all over the world. Finally, the new marketing endeavors will offer employment opportunities to several people.

Threats/ Risks

The most basic threat of this plan is the incapability to raise funds which might thwart everything that many people have tirelessly toiled for. On top of that, the current rigid and bureaucratic regulations regarding marketing and advertisements in South Africa may drag the implementation of our plans.

Also, the rather dynamic and unpredictable nature of our targeted clients may additionally inhibit the company from achieving its full potentiality.

As a rejoinder for the various points that come up in the SWOT analysis, it is noteworthy to state that the management of Skagen designs Ltd, and Fossils Inc. by extension, have several contingencies in place to mitigate the abovementioned weaknesses and threats while augment the strengths and opportunities. We can, therefore, boldly say that the plan is bound to offer sustainable competitive advantage.

Marketing Plan Budget Much of what is entailed in the budget to be used in achieving the objectives of this project are yet to be representatively disclosed by the finance experts to the relevant parties. Nonetheless a rough estimate of $4 Million (for the entire year’s expenditure)—as is given in the table below.

Remarkably, the budget is highly confidential for obvious reasons such like the need to protect our investment ideas.

This high confidentiality is, essentially, the reason it will only be sent to the relevant leadership in the company—as well as to those people who have affirmed their interest in participating in soliciting funds for this project. A highly detailed and informative budget will be sent or hand-delivered by our financial personnel to such people.

Activity Previous year’s Expenditure Proposed Expenditure Sales Expense