Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction This essay discusses a hypothesis of a lighter than air vehicle (balloon) with a capacity to lift up to an altitude of 20km above sea-level (stratosphere). The vehicle is solar powered equipped with a propeller for stabilization and an observation platform to capture video images in case of natural disaster such as floods, bushfires and other natural disasters.
The essay has three objectives; to define and discuss different solar power technologies, in order to derive the most practicable, efficient and effective solar technology, for the assigned task. To discuss on the most appropriate optical camera that can capture earth video images from stratosphere and electric propeller; used to stabilize the vehicle in stratosphere and analyze their power consumption and power storage facilities.
Discussion Solar energy is radiant light and heat that comes from the sun. The sun radiates an estimated 174 petawatts of solar radiation to earth. Although thirty percent of this radiation is reflected back to mars, the earth’s land, ocean and atmosphere absorbs an estimated 3,850,000 exajoules annually in biomass.
This amount of energy is so immense that one year of this energy (3,850,000 exajoules) is estimated to be double what will ever be harnessed from all of the Earth’s non-renewable resources combined i.e. Oil, natural gas, and coal and all other natural sources of energy.Moreover, one hour of this energy can sustain the entire earth for a year (National Aeronautics and Space Administration: the facts 2009).
Human beings have been utilizing solar energy for thousands of years all over the world. Harnessing the solar energy via different evolving technologies, traditional humans were able to use solar energy for heating, cooking, and drying. Today due to technological breakthrough, the modern man has the capacity to utilize more of the solar energy.
The main breakthrough by modern man was being able to convert solar energy into electricity. Solar energy is commonly used where other power supplies are not available, such as in remote places and in space. It is one of the cheapest sources of electric energy compared to some of the non renewable sources such as coal or oil (Schobert 2002 p. 218).
Solar technologies can be classified into; passive or active, this is determined by how they absorb, convert and supply sunlight. Passive solar technique is more applicable to building designs. Passive solar architecture is mostly applied in building green houses, it includes; creating windows, walls, and floors with solar panel feature or characteristics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, they may be able to harness solar energy and convert it to heat to heat, to supply a building with heat during winter. These systems do not require any external support from other devices for example, electrical devices or mechanical devices. As opposed to passive solar techniques that do not require external support from other devices, active technique requires use of other mechanical and electrical devices for example; use of a converter to convert the electric current.
In Passive solar techniques, materials thermal properties, situated environment in reference to natural circulation of air, and position of the Sun are considered crucial. Passive solar techniques have a higher energy output than passive techniques. In this essay we apply passive solar techniques since they are more effective and applicable to our hypothesis (Schobert 2002 p. 300).
Solar panels are used to capture, generate and supply electricity to demand. Each panels output has a specific rated output of power, which range between (100 to 320 watts). The efficiency of a solar cell is determined by for example, when a 320w, 5% efficient solar panel is compared to a 10% efficient 320watt panel, the 5% efficient solar panel should cover twice the area of the 10% efficient solar panel. This is because there is a restriction on the amount of energy that one solar panel can produce (Schobert 2002 p. 286).
A solar panel is made up of interconnected solar cells, packaged and assembled. Each solar cell converts sunlight to electricity via photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell that contains electrical characteristics i.e. voltage output varies depending on the sunlight exposed upon it. When these cells are exposed to sunlight, they can generate and support an electric current without the need for any external voltage source.
At present, solar cell panels can only convert15% of sunlight hitting them into electricity, at best. The generation of voltage in a material upon exposure to light is what is called photovoltaic effect. For this reason, solar cells are also known as photovoltaic cells (Hantula 2009, p.20).
There are different types of solar cells made out of different materials to satisfy different specifications influenced by efficiency, weight, affectivity and price. All solar cells operate on three main attributes; absorption of light to create either electron-hole pairs or excitons, separation of various types of charge carriers and the separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.
The solar cell works in three steps: Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon. Negatively charged electrons are knocked loose from their atoms, causing an electric potential difference. Current starts flowing through the material to cancel the potential and this electricity is captured.
We will write a custom Essay on Lighter Than Air Observational Platform specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the special composition of solar cells, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity. Typically, solar panels require a converter to convert the Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC) (Jha 2009, p.25).
Most solar cells are made of bulk materials, this includes; thin-films layers, organic dyes, and organic polymers deposited on supporting substrates. They are cut into rectangle shapes of about 240 micrometers thickness in size before they are processed. Others are made from nanocrystals and used as electron-confined nano particles. Silicon is the researched in both bulk and thin-film forms.
The essay will analyze three main types of solar cells typically used, they include; Gallium arsenide-based solar cells, silicon based solar cells and multi-junction cells. There are 4 types of silicon based solar cells; Monocrystalline silicon, Polycrystalline silicon, ribbon silicon and mono like multi silicon. Monoccrystalline silicon cells are made via a crystal growth method called Czochralski process.
This method is used to obtain single crystals of semi conductors. Unlike Monoccrystalline silicon cells, Polycrystalline silicon cells are cheaper since they are made out of cast square ingots. However, they are less efficient. Ribbon silicon is formed by excreting flat thin films from molten silicon. They have lower efficiency than polycrystalline silicon cells.
Mono-like-multi silicon uses existing polycrystalline casting chambers with mono material. The inner sections contain mono-like cells considered to be of high-efficiency while the outer edges are made of conventional poly. The conventional ploy (outer edges) is deducted which results in cheap mono-like cells (Castellano 2010, p.34).
Gallium arsenide-based is a compound of garlium and arsenic compounds. The cell is created via direct reactions from the elements. Solar cells based on this compound can achieve efficiencies of over 32%. When compared to silicon, Silicon is cheaper to process especially because it widely available. Si crystal, makes silicon based cells, it is mechanically resilient in structure with the ability to be grown to very large diameter boules. It is also a decent thermal conductor.
However, in sunlight absorption, Silicon has a much lower capacity for absorption as opposed to Gallium arsenide. While 100 micrometers of silicon is needed to absorb sunlight, the absorption rate of Gallium arsenide is so high that only a fraction of the micrometers thick layer is needed.
Multi-junction solar cells are solar cells designed and produced with p-n junctions. The purpose of the junctions is to reduce one of the largest sources of loss in solar cells, and hence each junction is tuned to a different wavelength of light to improve efficiency.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Lighter Than Air Observational Platform by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These cells are also called tandem cells. Their production is very hard due to the size of the materials used especially when extracting the current between the thin layers. There are two methods of producing a multi-junction cell; the first method is where two separate thin film solar cells are wired to each other separately outside the cell, this is the simplest method (Castellano 2010, p.36).
The more second method is where the cells of multiple layers are internally mechanically and electrically connected. This method is harder than the first because during the cells production, the layer have to be carefully matched according to their electrical characters. Among materials used to produce a tandem cell, Gallium arsenide and silicon can both be used. They are most preferred to be used in space due to their high power- weight ratio (Castellano 2010, p.38).
Test outcomes of multi-junction cells and silicon solar cells point to an 18% difference. The performance of multi-junction cells was 43% efficiency while silicon cells achieved25% efficiency under concentrated artificial light. Commercially tandem cells are available at around 40% efficiency under concentrated sunlight. It is important to note that; in real life conditions, outputs of the solar panel are less than theoretical or tested expectations.
This is due to the position of the panel, season, weather changes e.g. cloudy days and other reasons that may affect the amount of sunlight hitting the panel. The maximum power output that can be achieved by a solar panel is measured in Watt-Peak (WP). Even though day to day power out puts vary due to the stated variables, on average Watt-Peaks range between 175W to 235W for average solar panels (Castellano 2010, p.72).
Earlier, we discussed and gave an example; when a 320watt, 5% efficient solar panel is compared to a 10% efficient 320 watt panel, the 5% efficient 320watt panel should cover twice the area of the 10% efficient 320 watt panel. Regardless of size, each solar cells produces 0.5 volts, higher voltage can only be achieved by joining multiple cells to the appropriate.
All these factors considered, the more efficient panel requires covers less space for high voltage while the less efficient solar cell will cover more space for more voltage. This factor will be crucial when considering the appropriate solar cell for our lighter than air vehicle.
The Stratosphere is the second major layer of atmosphere above the earth; it is situated between 10 km and 50 km altitude above the sea level just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. Inside the stratosphere, the temperatures are in opposite with the earth’s, warm temperatures are up and cooler temperatures are down.
As opposed to the troposphere which is below it and hence nearer to the earth’s surface, its temperatures are its cooler layers are up and the warm layers are down. The border between the two is marked by where the temperature inversion happens.This border area is called the tropopause. Stratosphere has a temperature of about −3°C / 29.6°F, slightly below water’s freezing point Mohanakumar2008, p.45).
The stratosphere is layered in temperature because the ozone there absorbs high energy UVB and UVC energy waves from the Sun and is broken down into atomic oxygen and diatomic oxygen (O2). Atomic oxygen is found prevalent in the upper stratosphere due to the bombardment of UV light and the destruction of both ozone and diatomic oxygen.
Natural ozone is able to be mostly produced in the mid stratosphere due to minimum UV light passing through it, hence allowing Oxygen and O2 to combine. The mixture of these two elements is the result of high temperature layer found in the stratosphere higher area.
Atomic oxygen is not found in the cooler layer of the lower stratosphere as this area receives very low levels of ultra violet light. Furthermore, no ozone is formed. The reaction of the two elements creates an upper warm layer and a lower cool air.
This set up of the layers eradicates turbulence in this part of the atmosphere hence making it actively stable. Commercial flights cruise at latitude of 9-12km to maintain cabin comfort due to low turbulence in the lower stratosphere, optimized combustion due to the low temperature near the tropopause (equilibrium point) and low density air that reduces drag. This factors are crucial when deciding on the type of propeller and video camera that will be attached to the lighter than air vehicle (Ahrens 2007, p.78).
Despite the lighter than air vehicle depending on hydrogen or helium for lift to stratosphere, the vehicle requires a propeller to maintain stationary when in the stratosphere. Due to the light weight of the vehicle winds and other turbulence effects (especially in upper stratosphere) may push the vehicle off course or even into a spin. The propeller will ensure the vehicle remains stationery and also reduce sway effect as much as possible to allow proper video capture.
The propeller proposed on our vehicle is a; Yuneec Power Drive 200 20 kW (27 hp) electric motor equipped with two lithium-polymer battery packs (13 kg). The propeller is used to run a 115kg kite plane including an average 80kg pilot. The battery packs provide 40 minutes endurance. Considering our lighter than air vehicle will weigh much less than 100kg, an endurance of at least 1hour 20 minutes can be expected (when considering 50% less weight).
The batteries were charged by a 320watt solar panel, for 1.5hrs the panel charged the batteries with enough power to run the motor for 3-5 minutes. This considered, we can conclude that it takes the panel around 12hours to charge the batteries full. Each of the two batteries in the pack is 12volts. Each requires a 13.8volts across the batteries terminal to charge the battery (Abraham et al 2001). A 320watt panel has a capacity of 54.7volts (Raymer 2006, pg.112).
Another propeller proposed to be used in our study is one of the four motors used to power a solar impulse plane. The plane is powered by four 10-horsepower (7 kW) electric motors. The aircraft uses over 11,000 solar cells placed on its wings; power harnessed from the solar cells is stored in two lithium polymer battery packs and used to drive the propellers. The motors can run the plane for one and a half hours on battery power alone.
The aircraft has the capacity to fly for 19hours purely on solar power, charging its batteries in flight. Our vehicle would only require only one of 11ft propellers among the four (7kw) electric motors. On the solar impulse plane, considering its specifications, we can conclude that each electrical motor allocated 2750 solar cells and two lithium polymer batteries (13kg) on the vehicle (Grupp 2012, pg. 57).
To capture video images from stratosphere, a camera; Canon D20 Digital camera is considered. This system is as a result of two technologies synergized in the camera: a high-sensitivity imaging sensor, which has the ability to capture more light and an Image Processor, which actively allows high-speed image processing.
The 12.1 Megapixel sensors synergize with the advanced light reception technology to maximize sensitivity this enables low-light shooting, delivering clear, blur-free images. This expands the usable ISO range to an amazing high of 3200. The camera has a 5* zoom and 28mm wide angle lens. The zoom is operable during video shooting while the wide lens allows the camera to capture a wider area from stratosphere.
Other advantages of the camera are; it is water proof up to 33feet, temperature resistant (freeze proof) from 14°F to 104°F, shockproof up to 5.0 feet, a GPS tracker facility, image quality is ensured with the 12.1 Megapixel. Moreover, the camera is equipped with an Image Stabilization technology. This technology sieves shaky conditions by analyzing camera movement and applies the appropriate rectification methods by automatically applying the appropriate mode settings that facilitate the steadiest possible image.
In stratosphere this technology will ensure video quality shoot even if turbulence is experienced despite using a propeller to stabilize the vehicle. Other technologies will mitigate other possible risks e.g. vehicle may collapse and we may use the GPS tracker to track it on earth, collision, dropping into the ocean and other many risks are mitigated by the camera technology to protect the video output. The camera uses a lithium battery that with a 3hours endurance while shooting video in full power saving mode (Kelby 2012, pg. 114).
Conclusion After a comparative study of three types of solar cells; Gallium arsenide-based solar cells, silicon based solar cells and multi-junction cells, the study concludes that the multi-junction solar cell are the most suitable for the lighter than air vehicle.
While the Gallium arsenide-based solar cells have 33% efficiency and the silicon based solar cells 25% efficiency, the multi-junction solar cell can achieve an efficiency of over 40%. Due to higher efficiency the multi-junction solar cell will consume 100% less space than silicon based solar cells and around 40% less space than Gallium arsenide-based solar cells.
Moreover, this will also reduce weight significantly considering weight power ratio. Multi-junction solar cells give the best weight power ratio. A 320Watt silicon based solar panel weighs around 18.6 Kg, 25*155*128 (mm) give an output of Nominal power 320watts. A multi-junction solar cell half the size and weight will give the same output (Ewing 2008, pg. 35).
In comparison to a solar impulse plane powered by four 10-horsepower (7 kW) electric motors powered by similar two lithium polymer battery packs is able to maintain flight for 1.5hours running on batteries only. A Yuneec Power Drive 200 20 kW (27 hp) electric motor equipped with two lithium-polymer battery packs (13 kg).
The propeller is used to run a 115kg kite plane including an average 80kg pilot. The battery packs provide 40 minutes endurance. Thus we can conclude among each of the four motors used in the solar impulse plane, individually none is more energy efficient than Yuneec Power Drive 200 20 kW (27 hp) electric motor.
Since considering the 4 motors can only manage 1.5hours of flight in this battery packs, a proper estimate would show that each propeller would only manage a 30 minute flight. This considered, the Yuneec Power Drive 200 20 kW (27 hp) electric motor is better for our lighter than air vehicle.
Considering a 320watt panel 1.5 hours charge can only power a Yuneec Power Drive 200 20 kW (27 hp) electric motor for a maximum of five minutes, to achieve maximum flight (40 minutes) the panel would have to charge the batteries for 12hours.
Hence for this reason, we have to add two more back up batteries, each similar to the two pack lithium polymer battery pack. We will also have to add five more 320 watt solar cells to the lighter than air vehicle. This is because the six 320watt solar panels will have the (328.2 volts) capacity to charge each of the two pack lithium polymer battery in less than an hour to increase flight time.
This would mean initially from earth at full charge, the vehicle would have exactly 2hours of battery life. Since the motor and the video camera which will also use the same back up power (after 3hours), would consume each battery pack in less than 40 minutes. The fastest charger has the capacity to charge a battery in 15minutes, also equipped with functionalities to avoid over charging the batteries. The six 320watt solar panels combined, have (328.2volts) which is enough capacity to charge the batteries in less than half an hour considering the higher capacity of solar energy on earth’s higher atmosphere.
The lighter than air vehicle will maintain an estimated flight time of maximum 14hours, considering 12hours daytime when the solar cells will work. At night time, the vehicle will run on batteries only (2hours capacity) without recharge from the panels. An electrical power grid storage system may be applied to maximize efficiency and increase flight time.
This system will feed the propeller and camera energy when the batteries are full, if the energy is not sufficient the devices can outsource more from the batteries. However, this will reduce battery drain significantly.
Moreover, after the charger blocks the solar panel’s power from overcharging the batteries, the excess power will still be used hence maximizing efficiency. This system may also allow us to increase more solar panels to the vehicle without the burden of having to increase batteries (and their weight).
Reference List Abraham, Doyle, Takeuchi, K. 2001, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: Proceedings of the International Symposium, The Electrochemical Society, Newyork.
Ahrens, C 2007, Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment, Cengage Learning, Melbourne.
Castellano, R 2010, Solar Panel Processing, Archives contemporaines , Michigan.
Ewing, A 2012, Crafting Log Homes Solar Style: An Inspiring Guide to Self-Sufficiency, PixyJack Press, Colorado.
Grupp, M 2012, Time to Shine: Applications of Solar Energy Technology, John Wiley
Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The origins of CSR and business ethics
Beneficiary role of companies and its limitations
Specific applications of business ethics and CSR
Introduction Scholars and business administrators agree that the activities of companies should be based on some moral judgment. Mere pursuit of profits is no longer acceptable for organizations that claim to be good corporate citizens. It is believed that business ethics and corporate social ethics should ensure that companies are managed in ways that benefit the whole of society.
This essay is aimed at examining this claim. In particular, it is possible to argue that this requirement should be specified and limited. Businesses can benefit the entire community by offering excellent services or good. Moreover, they should eliminate or minimize possible risks to the wellbeing of the community.
However, managers cannot possibly predict the effects of business activities on the whole of society since such effects may be difficult to trace. The main task of CSR and business ethics is to eliminate various malpractices that can harm the interests of various stakeholders such as clients, employees, or community.
Certainly, for-profit organizations can bring some improvements into the live of the community, by creating jobs or participating in charity; however, the capabilities of companies are limited and managers should also think about the profitability and the interests of the shareholders.
On the whole, one can say that business ethics and CSR should act as safeguards against various dangers, but people should not think that businesses should responsible for the wellbeing of the entire community.
In this paper I would like to illustrate how corporate social responsibility and business ethics can be applied by modern businesses. The first section will examine the reasons why many companies chose to follow to the principles of CSR and business ethics. I will also speak about the stakeholder theory that explains how enterprises interact with the community.
The second section will discuss the role of business as beneficiaries. In particular, it is necessary to show that companies cannot always benefit the whole of society, because they should also think about their organizational performance and profitability. Finally, I will discuss more specific applications of business ethics and CSR.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The origins of CSR and business ethics First, it should be noted that such concepts as corporate social responsibility and business ethics emerged as a response to the criticism to which businesses have often been subjected by journalists, political activists or lawyers. They were supposed to reconcile the needs of businesses and the communities in which they operated.
Their goal was to make companies more accountable to the community. More importantly, business ethics and CSR had to eradicate various malpractices of for-profit organizations. In particular, one can mention such issues as failure to ensure the safety of workers or low wages (Morgan 2006, p. 306).
Moreover, businesses are often blamed for the failure to support the needs of workers, for instance, one can mention female workers who must care about their children (Pocock 2005, p. 32). Furthermore, modern companies are obliged to think about the work-life balance of workers (Pocock 2005b, p. 198). Thus, business ethics and CSR enable businesses and employees to reach some kind of a compromise.
Apart from that, companies have to respond to the pressure of governmental institutions. They are forced to respond to such issues as corporate fraud, environmental pollution, or dishonest financial reporting. Many societies have raised the performance standards for modern enterprises. Some malpractice like wage discrimination or environmental pollution are no longer acceptable either for the government or the community.
Therefore, the principles of CSR and business ethics are supposed to eliminate such malpractices that can harm the interest of various stakeholders. They have to shield businesses from public criticism, law suits or governmental action. This is one of the reasons why many business leaders are favorable of CSR. Yet, it would be an exaggeration to say that they are concerned about the benefit of the whole community.
Even the most ardent critics of corporations do not say that they have to bring improvements to the entire society. The problem is that the society is a very comprehensive term that includes every person living within a certain geographical area as well as institutions that have been created by the members of the community. Thus, one can ask how exactly companies are obliged to benefit the whole of society.
The thing is that there is no ethical imperative requiring business to think about the wellbeing of every person. Such a task is hardly possible for individuals or organizations. Certainly, one can say that companies can benefit these people mostly by providing good products or services or minimizing hypothetical dangers of their activities. Moreover, they can donate to various construction projects and even give money to the construction of roads or bridges (Banerjee 2009, p. 1555).
We will write a custom Essay on Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yet, it is difficult to argue that business administrators have to think only about the benefit of the community. They should also be concerned with the profitability of the enterprise and the interests of stockholders. Provided that they do not cope with this task, the very sustainability of many companies can be at risk. This is another argument that should not be overlooked.
It should be noted that such notions as corporate social responsibility and business ethics take their origins in the stakeholder theory. According to this approach companies should not be seen only as isolated agents that merely deliver goods or services to clients. More likely, they should be regarded as entities that can impact a variety of stakeholders, for instance, buyers, workers, or community.
It is possible to refer to such an author as Joel Bakan (2005) who believes that corporations are probably the most important institutions in the world since they shape practically every area of human life (p. 5). Furthermore, business administrators should also take into account that these stakeholders can significantly affect the performance of any organization.
For instance, clients, who believe that a company neglects their safety needs, may simply use the products or services a different company. This is why corporate executives should understand that unethical practices can eventually result in the loss of profits.
Corporate social responsibility and business ethics are importance because they show how companies should interact with various stakeholders. However, CSR or business ethics do not eliminate the idea that companies have to make profits.
More importantly, the promotion of public welfare must not harm the financial aspects of performance. This is why people should not assume that companies will act as social beneficiaries. This is the main issues that should be taken into account.
Admittedly, managers should not regard themselves as “morally neutral characters” (Roberts 1984, p. 288). They cannot exclude ethical consideration from the decision-making process (Watson 2003, p. 169). The thing is that they can gain the trust of other employees by showing that they adhere to certain ethical principles such as integrity.
Similarly, companies can gain the trust of customers by demonstrating that they genuinely care about their needs. Nonetheless, one cannot oblige them to think only about the welfare of the welfare of the community. Such a requirement will not be feasible. Thus, people should not put rely on those corporate executives who argue that they are concerned only with the benefit of the public since such claims are not always substantiated.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Beneficiary role of companies and its limitations At this point, it is important to discuss some limitations of CSR and business ethics. Special attention should be paid to the ability of businesses to bring improvements to the community. However, firms have responsibilities to their stockholders who want organizations to be run effectively. The general premise is companies are obliged to create certain benefits for the community.
Thus, the question arises how they should do it. First of all, they are supposed to provide goods and services that can create some value for people. This is probably the most important requirement and the sustainability of every company depends on its ability to create this value. Nevertheless, this requirement is a necessity, rather than a moral obligation. Businesses do not CSR or business ethics in order to remember about it.
Secondly, it is possible the creation of jobs. This is one of the most important benefits that firms can bring to the society. In this way, they can improve the welfare of the population by increasing their purchasing power. However, there is a significant limitation of this requirement. The thing is that the development of technologies enables businesses to reduce the number of workers and eventually improve their cost-efficiency.
In many cases, they no longer need to hire more workers. The performance of a company is assessed according to its cost-efficiency, and many organizations try to reduce their labor force and employ only those people who can best contribute to organizational success. Thus, business administrators are not morally obliged to think about the creation of jobs, since they should also think about the productivity.
Therefore, there is some conflict between the needs of for-profit organizations and the needs of the society. In some cases, the most efficient business practices can harm some members of the community. This is the critical issue that people should take into account. If managers take business ethics and CSR to their extreme, they may endanger the interests of shareholders.
Additionally, it is assumed that businesses are obliged to promote diversity and empower those people who were previously discriminated, for instance, on the basis of race, gender or disability (Strachan, French,
The Use of Social Networking by Organizations Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Modern working generation aged 20-30 was born and brought up while the development of the innovative technologies. Being called generation Y, these people are considered to be born with a mouse in hands. The development of the innovative technologies has impacted these people greatly. Living in the world of computers, modern generation uses those for many purposes, and business has also been affected.
Using social networking in business, companies move in the correct direction as there are a lot of advantages in computer technologies and different social platforms. Having conducted a literature review, it was concluded that social networking positively affects business, increases satisfaction from the working process, and improves working productivity that leads to the increase of the income of the company.
Social networking is defined as “a popular term referring to all kinds of social software tools” (Shah, 2010, p. 348). Many business companies are using the advantages of the Internet and social networking successfully assists them. The involvement of the employees, customers and partners online is a good opportunity to remain always in touch.
However, applying to the social networking, the company should be ready to change the corporate culture. Searching for the examples of the social networking sites, the following ones may be enumerated, Facebook, StumbleUpon, LinkedIn, Zoominfo, Hi5, Delicious, Bliztime, Digg, Spoke, Plaxo, YouTube, Xanga, MySpace, Bebo, Friendster, Twitter, Xing, Yelp, and Flickr. These are the most famous English-speaking social network sites used in the USA and the world, however, there are much more social networking sites if to refer to the national and local ones.
There are a lot of opportunities these sites offer for business. Companies can always keep in contact with the present clients and search for other clients in the database. Sharing news and being the voice in the industry are more advantages for the company. The company leaders can manage their reputation, communicate with the employees and build a client list.
All these actions may be completed on one of the social networking sites offered above depending on the opportunities of the site and company needs (Shah, 2010). The behavior of many employees may be changed as well. It is essential to consider the advantages and disadvantages of using social networking in business before applying to the issue.
Applying to the social networking, the companies should use the advantages of the issue and pay attention to the challenges which this service creates. Dwelling upon the opportunities created by the social networking in the business sphere, the following aspects are to be considered. Applying to social networking, the corporation may change the means of communication delivering information faster among the employees with the minimum attempt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The vision of the company may be changed as having too much data online, employees may become confused, that is why they are going to rely more of the corporate culture and the principles delivered there. The company organization may change due to the social networking and the opportunities it presents.
Various innovations can enter the company and its staff as various training programs may be completed without leaving the working place. Therefore, social networking promotes professional development of the employees.
The increase of the employee mobility is one more advantages for the company. Additionally, the motivation career development systems can be improved along with the mutation of the IT applications (The business impacts of social networking, 2008).
The discussed above aspects may be applied in the company and they are going to increase the business development. However, there are several aspects which may be considered as challenging or even negative for the business development. First of all, it will be difficult to perform the traditional return on investment method, therefore, new ways for ROI concept should be considered.
Second, the security of the data is the main problem people face while social networking. The right for the intellectual property is the third challenge on the way for successful utilization of the social networking. This issue is closely connected with the security challenge. The necessity of the company to adopt the plan for using social networking for the business benefit is important.
The company should have the technical opportunities for storing the necessary data considered from the social networking. Interoperability and speed are other issues the companies are to face. Applying to the use of the social networking in the corporation, the employer should give the employees an opportunity to manage their working time personally.
Moreover, the increased mobility of the employees may lead to the loss of the important staff (The business impacts of social networking, 2008). Therefore, having many advantages, there are a number of disadvantages social networking creates for business and the corporations are o be ready to face those and solve them successfully.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Use of Social Networking by Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trying to summarize positive and negative aspects of the social networking, the following basic issues may be considered. Social networking is a free way of communication, it presents the employees with the new interests, enlarges their scope of knowledge and helps share the information; social networking offers many opportunities for business purposes (e.g. advertising) and it is really easy to use.
However, there are a number of negative effects from social networking, such as addiction, danger, absence of privacy, the possibility to receive wrong information and use it incorrectly; moreover., social networking is not profitable in a big way. However, looking at the advantages of the social networking, the disadvantages seem not that great.
Thus, applying to the social networking services, the company may create a blog and share the necessary information about itself with the useful contact. This is much easier, faster, and cheaper than refer to the creation of a traditional web site (Ishak, 2010).
It is difficult to imagine the company without IT professionals. Being computerized, company business is led through the Internet and by means of the computer devices. Most of the financial operations are held through the Internet. Big corporations have personal social platforms for such purposes and information sharing, fast notification and control of the employees’ etc.
The social networking is really important for IT professionals as this is a source of information for them, the opportunity to communicate on the professional themes and get the pieces of advice, if necessary (Burton, Wu,
The concept of emotional intelligence: A critical analysis Essay custom essay help
Introduction Organisational behaviour is an important concept that entails understanding the character and behaviour patterns of people in an organization. Organisational behaviour entails the understanding of behaviour patterns of employees. Employees are the most important assets in organisations. Understanding people is critical to the management of organisations and shapes the behaviour of people.
Organisational behaviour and the behaviour of individuals can be understood through the adoption and practice of emotional intelligence in organisations (Krishnakumar, 2008). Emotional intelligence has become an essential concept in managing the behaviour of employees in organisations. Emotional intelligence is a way of understanding and controlling employee behaviour to enhance performance.
This paper critically discusses the concept of emotional intelligence in organisations. The paper explores the concept and its relevance to management. The paper also discusses the benefits or essence of withholding this managerial practice within organisations. In addition, the paper looks at the arguments that are against this concept and their justifications.
Overview of the concept of emotional intelligence in management Krishnakumar (2008) noted that emotional intelligence is a new concept to be directly applied in business management. This concept has been applied in behavioural sciences such as psychology during the study of human emotions. Emotional intelligence began gaining prominence among organisations since the early years of the 20th century, where organisational development was critical in transforming economies.
Organisations have discovered that emotional inclinations of their employees, which are generated at the workplace and out of the workplace, have a significant influence on the input of employees. In return, this affects the output of organisations.
Therefore, organisational behaviour has coded this concept and included it in management. This is because there are many generative factors of emotions that prevail in external and internal environment of organisations.
Emotional intelligence aims at understanding employees from two critical perspectives. These include the organisational perspective, which is also the internal perspective, and the external perspective that includes the home environment and the general society in which the employees reside (Ghuman, 2011). This is supported by the argument that behaviours are highly influenced by the environment of an individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This understanding gives organisational leaders a chance to predict behaviours and actions of employees. Thus, organisations have an easy time to control the behaviour of employees by launching programs that help in attending to the emotional needs of employees.
Emotional intelligence has to resonate from the management of organisation and entail the training of the organisational managers on how to manage emotions within the organisation. Organisational leaders then set and provide emotional intelligence programs to help employees in the organisation (Krishnakumar, 2008).
The relevance of emotional intelligence in organisational management Goleman (1998) observed that emotional intelligence has huge implications for organisational leadership and management. Researches on the effectiveness of organisational management have come up with findings establishing that organisational managers have a huge impact on entire organisational processes (Jordan and Troth, 2011).
Management skills are essential because managers carry organisational visions and missions as portrayed in organisational strategies. Emotional intelligence is among the notable abilities that are needed by organisational managers. This is because they are required to propel organisations through different situations. The concept of emotional intelligence in organisational behaviours resonates from this point.
Emotional intelligence has been an on-going practice in organisational management. It begins with organisational leadership and trickles down to organisational staff. It is something that cannot be ignored at all in organisations because organisational leadership is moulded by emotional intelligence (Carmeli, 2003).
Krishnakumar (2008) observed that emotional intelligence brings about cohesiveness in creating the strategies of organisations by organisational leaders. Acceptance of varied opinions in organisations denotes emotional intelligence (Carmeli, 2003). Emotional intelligence is seen as a tool that encourages the development of positive behaviours and attitudes on organisational tasks that promote growth and development in organisations.
Emotional intelligence directly or indirectly affects the abilities and personal traits of organisational leaders and their subordinates. When looked at from the outset, emotional intelligence is a competency that guides the development of positive attitudes amongst organisational members. In addition, good behaviours that prevail in the organisation are largely shaped by this competency (George, 2000).
We will write a custom Essay on The concept of emotional intelligence: A critical analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence and organisational performance When fully applied in organisations, emotional intelligence raises the productivity of employees in different ways. It boosts interpersonal relations in organisations by helping employees to understand how to control their emotions, as well as the emotions of other employees within the organisation.
This works well for employees who work on dependent tasks in different organisations and organisational sectors where the behaviour of a single employee has an elusive impact on the entire industry (Thi and Kirby, 2002). The implementation of emotional intelligence in organisations equips employees with skills that help them in distinguishing their feelings and feelings of others.
Therefore, positive work relations are quickly developed in organisations because of the continued use and enforcement of emotional intelligence (Sahdat, Sajjad, Farooq and Ur Rehman, 2011). With emotional intelligence, employees become quite diversified in the sense they develop quick adaptability to diverse organisational environments.
This is helpful because of the dynamic nature of organisations due to organisational change and other external and internal pressures (Rahim, and Malik, 2010).
The pressures that are generated from these forces bring about stress amongst the stakeholders of an organization. When stakeholders become increasingly stressed, they lose track in the performance of their respective tasks within organisations, thus lowering productivity. Emotional intelligence has increased the rate and the ability of organisational members to adapt to stressful conditions common in organisations (Goleman, 1998).
O’Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver and Story (2011) observed that emotional intelligence is a comprehensive management exercise that has to be implemented on a continuous or sustainable basis. Thus, organisational sustainability requires the implementation of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence entails the ability of managers to control their emotions.
It also entails the detection and control of the emotions of employees. In addition, it assists in implementing appropriate strategies. Emotional intelligence is dependent on many other actions in the organisations, which determine its worthiness. This process includes the desire of an organisation to embrace change, self-reflection of managers, and the willingness to understand the feelings of other people.
Other steps in the process are the development of emotional control and the urge to learn in order to understand emotions. Thus, emotional intelligence is not an easy practice to achieve in management. It bases on the wish and the entire process can be derailed by emotions (Goleman, 1998).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of emotional intelligence: A critical analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The concept of emotional intelligence has received several criticisms. In some scenarios, emotional intelligence fails to auger well with organisational management. This often happens in small and immature organisations. In such organisations, the application of emotional intelligence results in serious drifts that threaten the existence of organisations.
Emotional intelligence is misconceived in such organisations, thus barring its workability (Goleman, 1998). In addition, emotions cannot be easily quantified and can be manipulated in different ways by individuals in organisations. In this case, organisational leaders have trouble while implementing emotional intelligence within organisations (Jordan and Troth, 2011).
Emotional intelligence is dependent on the level of personal character development in organizations. This level of development in organizations is dependent on individuals meaning that it is hard to fully achieve the goals of using emotional intelligence in organization. This is one of the most debated criticisms of emotional intelligence as a concept.
Also, organizations seem to centre much on emotional intelligence at the expense of developing technical skills. Technical skills are very important in organizational outcomes and emotional intelligence is only a facilitative factor of technical skills application (Sahdat, Sajjad, Farooq and Ur Rehman, 2011).
Emotional intelligence and employee retention As earlier noted, the employees are the most vital assets in organisations. They are the propellers and controllers of organisational activities. Performance in organisations squarely lies with organisational employees. Therefore, there is a need to understand employees should be a priority for organisational managers.
Understanding employees entail the understanding of their behaviours and the motivators of such behaviours, thus the relevance of emotional intelligence (Côté and Miners, 2006). Research shows that organisations that have embraced emotional intelligence in their management often record positive outcomes. Such organisations are also argued to reduce the rate of employee turnover in organisations.
They are able to attract and retain talents and skills hence enhancing the performance of organisations (Jordan and Troth, 2011). Employees feel good when they know that the managers are listening to them and specifically when they feel that their emotional needs are being addressed (Griffeth, Hom and Gaertner, 2000).
Emotional intelligence and sustenance of relationships in-group tasks Relationships in organisations are becoming vital because of increased integration of organisational functions. However, building and sustaining work relationships is not an easy exercise because of human behaviours. Organisational inventions and innovations are used in increasing the competitiveness of organisations in economies.
Therefore, organisational leaders are forced to establish and ensure that they have established working teams in organisations (O’Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver and Story, 2011). Groups work best depending on the physical and emotional orientation of group members. Managing these groups involves managing the emotions of members that form these groups so that cohesiveness is attained for enhanced group outcomes (Jordan, Ashkanasy, Ha¨rtel and Hooper, 2002).
According to Rapisarda (2002), group relationships in organisational projects are sustained by virtue of applying emotional intelligence within the group and project management in organisations. Emotional intelligence promotes the existence and survival of teams or groups in organisations by encouraging what is known as pro-social tendencies in groups.
Emotional intelligence enables group members to cope with the personal characters and behaviour of individual members in groups enabling group members to work together (Rapisarda, 2002). Emotional intelligence also encourages interpersonal sensitivity in-group tasks. Organisational members become responsive and receptive to differing opinions and behaviours.
All these aspects of emotional intelligence have been found to favour organisational effectiveness, thus leading to positive organisational outcomes. Apart from individual projects, teams, groups, or organisational members perform many organisational tasks. The aspect of integration in organisations can hardly be attained without leaning through emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence is thus a big factor in team performance within organisations. Therefore, organisational leaders have to factor this aspect in organisational leadership. This is meant to form positive outcomes in group tasks within organisations (Lopes, Salovey, Coˆte’ and Beers, 2005).
Gender as a barrier to emotional intelligence in shaping organisational behaviour Hsu, Chen, Wang, and Lin (2010) observed that organisations are becoming engendered. Many organisations are working on modalities of balancing gender rations in organisations because of laws governing gender. As of today, the number of women in organisations is increasing steadily. This is regarded to be a positive sign to gender inclined management that is encouraged by many organisations.
However, these bars the practice of emotional intelligence in organisations (Hsu, Chen, Wang, and Lin, 2010).
From psychology, it is observed that the needs of men and women vary and shape the behaviours of both genders. It is easy to achieve a common ground on issues resonating from a problem of a given gender in organisations. With the variations of needs in organisations resulting from the different behaviours and needs of different genders in the organisation, the applicability of emotional intelligence becomes a misnomer.
However, this is debatable as experts in organisational behaviour have devised numerous models of applying emotional intelligence in such setups (Lewis, 2000).
Evaluation of literature backing and literature negating emotional intelligence Arguments that back the concept of emotional intelligence observe it from the outset and are backed by the benefits of the concept as it is applied to organisational performance. Many people support the application of emotional intelligence by arguing that it shapes the behaviour of people in organisations, thereby enhancing positive behaviours and performance. On the other hand, the literature that negates the concept base on the difficulties in applicability and workability of the concept.
Critics of emotional intelligence in organisational behaviour base on psychology to explain the difficulties of controlling emotions amidst many challenges like gender parity at the workplace. However, opponents of the concept do not gain substantive arguments to dismiss the concept. This is because it has gained wide acceptance and usage in organisational management.
Conclusion Emotional intelligence remains to be an important concept and component of organisational leadership and management as has been found in the paper. Emotional intelligence helps in the positive shaping of behaviours of both organisational leaders and subordinates.
This enhances positive relations, thus a healthy organisation leading to positive performance. Issues of applicability in different organisational setups mainly affect emotional intelligence.
References Carmeli, Abraham. “The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behaviour and outcomes: An examination among senior managers.” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, no. 8 (2003): 788-813.
Côté, Stéphane and Christopher T. H. Miners. “Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Intelligence, and Job Performance.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 51 no. 1(2006): 1-28.
George, Jennifer M. “Emotions and leadership: the role of emotional intelligence.” Human Relations, 53, no. 8 (2000): 1027-55.
Ghuman, Umar. “Building a model of group emotional intelligence.” Team Performance Management, 17 no. 7 (2011): 418 – 439.
Goleman, Daniel. Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury, 1998.
Griffeth, Rodger W, Peter W. Hom and Stefan Gaertner. “A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: update, moderator test, and research implications for the next millennium.” Journal of Management, 26 no. 3 (2000): 463-88.
Hsu, Bi-Fen, Wan-Yu Chen, Mei-Ling Wang, Yen-Yu Lin. “Explaining supervisory support to work-family conflict: The perspectives of guanxi, LMX, and emotional intelligence.” Journal of Technology Management in China, 5 no. 1 (2010): 40 – 54.
Jordan, Peter J and Ashlea Troth. “Emotional intelligence and leader member exchange: The relationship with employee turnover intentions and job satisfaction.” Leadership
Bipolar Illness and Creativity Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
In his article, Albert Rothenberg (2001) focuses on the relationship between such variables as creativity and bipolar illness. Overall, I find this work very informing and thought-provoking. The author argues that bipolar disorder does not increase creative abilities of an individual (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 144). He demonstrates that there is little or no dependence between these variables.
This article can be very useful to therapists and patients. People should remember that bipolar disorder can be a very dangerous illness that is more likely to harm the creative capacity of an individual, rather than promote it. In my opinion, Albert Rothenberg provides very convincing and interesting examples in order to illustrate his viewpoint.
On the whole, this article raises many questions that researchers and therapists should consider. First of all, the author believes that the connection between bipolar disorder and creativity may be very difficult to determine (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 131). Therefore, researchers should understand how the connection between these two phenomena can be best examined or measured.
They have to choose the methods that ensure the validity of results; otherwise their studies may be of very little use. Secondly, Albert Rothenberg says that people, who are engaged in creative activities can be more vulnerable to mood disorders (2001, p. 132). Therefore, therapists should think of how they can best help such patients. Probably, there is an approach that works most effectively for such people.
Finally, the author mentions various famous artists or writers like Van Gogh or Virginia Woolf (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 132). In many cases, their psychological problems were diagnosed on the basis of their diaries or other autobiographical records. The question arises whether such records can used for the purposes of psychiatric diagnosis. One should determine the extent to which they are reliable.
This article can have significant implications mostly for the field of psychology. Overall, this work can raise higher standards for psychologists who study the relationship between mood disorders and creativity or intelligence. As it has been said before, they have to develop more complex methods that can either prove or disprove the relation between bipolar illness and creative talents.
The development of such methods can be a very challenging task. Secondly, people, who are not professional psychologists or psychiatrists, will have to be more aware of about the dangers of mood disorders. The author eloquently illustrates the point that psychological disorders can and should be treated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no reason to associate creativity or improved performance with mood disorders. Such an approach is hardly permissible from ethical and scientific standpoints. Patients should reject the stereotype according to which bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are conducive to intelligence or creativity.
On the whole, patients should be encouraged to seek treatment even if they do not want to. First of all, therapists should explain patient’s creative skills have nothing to with bipolar disorder or illness. Secondly, without treatment their emotional state can only deteriorate. In their long term, their career and relations with other people can be threatened (Rybakowski, Klonowska,
Important Management Practices in Service Competition Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Today, more than ever before, the global economy is transitioning from a products-oriented economy to one of value creation, employment generation, and economic prosperity dependent on services. As demonstrated by Bardhan et al., globalization, technology advancements, and shifts in the global economic environment has generated a triple convergence of new organizations, operating in a new economic environment, and developing new procedures and processes for horizontal collaboration (17).
This has resulted in a potentially impulsive opportunity for organizations all over the world to participate and compete in global value chains, where the provision of services as opposed to manufacturing of products is becoming increasingly essential.
This new approach of conducting business in the global economy has necessitated researchers and other theorists to give special attention to the managerial practices, techniques, and knowledge that can effectively be used to create an enabling environment for the enterprises to configure service competition and relationships that ingeniously generate extraordinary new value for their own existence and profit motives (Brody 28).
Aim/Purpose of Research Paper The present paper aims to critically discuss the most important management practices in service competition. The rationale behind this broad objective is derived from the fact that it is important for interested parties to comprehensively understand all facets of managing service organizations and service competition since economies across the world are not only becoming more service-oriented, but technology convergence, globalization, and shifting customer needs are increasing the prospects to come up with fundamentally new services that have ultimately transformed the traditional way of conducting business (Prahalad
Brisbane Savings and Investment Bank Report college admissions essay help
Introduction Brisbane Savings and Investment Bank (BSIB) have developed to be a major player in banking industry in Australia. Although relatively new having been established ten years ago, the bank has experienced a fast growth rate. Due to good business environment, the bank was able to expand its domestic operation by increasing the number of branches.
The bank currently has branches in all major towns and cities in Australia. BSIB still maintains its Head Office in Brisbane major operations are based. Among the major operations at the Head Office include Retail Banking, Internet Banking and Business Banking. Retail Banking focuses on management of branches, customer accounts, loan and mortgage and cards.
On the other hand, internet banking sector deals with managing online customers and online banking products. Business banking focuses on managing business based accounts, loans and mortgages and overdrafts. Apart from the Head Office, BSIB has another major office in Adelaide.
The major operations based at Adelaide office include Institution Banking, Superannuation Products and Insurance Products. Operations in foreign exchange, hedge funds, share trading and bonds are managed from this office under Institution Banking. The office is responsible for management of insurance products such as life insurance, land protection, home and contents insurance.
BSIB has experience rapid growth over the last ten years. When it started ten years ago, the bank had 1000 employees. The number of employees has increased with increased operations and it currently stands at about 17000.
Computers and computer based information systems are integral part of every organization in modern days. Information system in an important resource in any organization and has significant contribution to an organization’s productivity. In order to integrate the use computers and computer based systems effectively, an organization must exercise control over these important resources (Hall
New Service Development and Customer Involvement Dissertation a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Categories of customer involvement
Service design and customer involvement
Innovation and customer involvement
Examples of companies
In the 21st century organizations are mainly concerned with how to improve their market position. The main objective is to cope with the competitiveness characterizing the business environment.
As a result, firm’s management teams are under increased pressure to develop new services in order to satisfy customer needs. Intervention of customers in the process of developing new services is important. This arises from the fact that it result into development of effective services. For example, the customers may contribute ideas which may aid in the development of the service.
Categories of customer involvement There are two types of customer involvement in the process of developing a service (Edvardsson
Learning Styles Inventories (LSI) in Nursing Study Term Paper best essay help
Within the recent decades, the principles of learning styles theories have been implemented in a number of academic disciplines, and nursing is among them. With the shift to the student-centered nursing education, the curriculum is adapted to the results of the learning styles inventories (LSI) for the purpose of creating the appropriate clinical and classroom settings and enhancing the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process.
Knowledge of various learning styles and one’s own strengths and weaknesses is helpful for optimization of the learning process and becoming a confident professional nurse. The fact is that abilities as well as learning preferences vary, and any assignment cannot be equally effective for developing the practical skills of the students of the group. Flexibility of the curriculum and individual approach is required for meeting the learners’ demands.
On the one hand, choosing a method of instruction that is the most appropriate for the student’s preferred learning style, an educator maximizes the student learning. On the other hand, learners should develop their skills that are necessary for using the styles besides their preferred one.
Billings and Halstead (2009) noted that “students who habitually use only their preferred learning style are disadvantaged when the situation demands that they use a different style” (p. 32). In other words, the results of LSI can be beneficial not only for adapting the curriculum to the learners’ personal needs, but for improving their skills that are required for using various learning styles.
Researching the learning style provides significant insights as to the effectiveness of particular strategies and approaches for students, giving preference to certain styles. Various contextual characteristics, such as cultural heritage, learning experience and the student’s age category have impact on defining the learning style and need to be taken into consideration while developing the programs and curricula.
However, constant lack of time and peculiarities of one’s own learning style might become hindrances preventing preceptors from implementing the results of the surveys in clinical and classroom settings. The first difficulty consists in realities of clinical practice depriving instructors of opportunities to devote much time to thinking their strategies over and choosing individual assignments for each learner.
Due to the necessity to act quickly, they often choose the approaches which they know best and which were effective previously. Another problem is that most instructors are inclined to use their own preferred leaning styles choosing approaches for training their students. Doing it almost unconsciously, instructors incorporate their own preferences into the learning programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even coming to realization of benefits of implementing the result of LSIs, preceptors have to meet the challenges of finding time for implementing them into practice and overcoming the temptation to use their own preferred learning styles for meeting the objective of enhancing the effectiveness of the learning process.
Young and Paterson (2009) noted that “the concept of learning style provides an opportunity for nurse educators to reflect on how open they have been to alternative styles in their teaching and in their own learning” (p. 92). Considering the principles of leaning styles theories is beneficial for both increasing confidence of students and professional growth of preceptors.
Learning style research tools are helpful for creating the awareness of one’s preferences, strengths and weaknesses and increasing the effectiveness of one’s learning efforts. Critical analysis of the LSI results is required for appropriate practical application of this useful information.
The problem is that going to extreme, each strong point might have devastating effects on the development of other skills. Myrick and Yonge (2004) noted that “it is important that you be aware of the effect that the unit has on the preceptees’ abilities to function and think” (p. 79) For example, according to the LSI results, I have got the highest score in intrapersonal strength. This means that I would feel comfortable working on case studies and problem-based assignments.
It would be beneficial for diagnosing patients and developing the health care plans considering every detail of the case. However, the score of interpersonal and verbal strengths are much lower and might cause problems with establishing the personal rapport with the patients and collaborating with one’s colleagues.
Being aimed at balancing various learning styles and enhancing my competence, I should put more emphasis on group projects, requiring cooperation with peer, improvement of communicative skills and effective communicative exchange. The high score of kinesthetic strength means that I writing the information with my fingers and touching the visual aids would be the most effective way for acquiring information.
At the same time, the score of the visual strength is much lower. Using the approaches aimed at taking advantages of my kinesthetic preferences, it is important to pay attention to development of visual memory. Logical and naturalist strengths are required for becoming a competent nurse and I managed to consider peculiarities of my learning style choosing the profession. The results of LSI provided me with food for thought and influenced my learning behavior and preferences.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Learning Styles Inventories (LSI) in Nursing Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implementation of the learning style theories is beneficial for enhancing the effectiveness of the student-centered nursing education and improving skills required for becoming a competent preceptor and successful preceptee.
Reference List Billings, D.
Trade imbalance between USA and China Essay custom essay help
Introduction Barry Eichengreen, commenting in his article titled, ‘Will global imbalances return?’ notes that, “future history books, depending on where they are written, will take one of two approaches to assigning blame for the world’s current financial and economic crisis” (Eichengreen 2009). According to the author, one of the two approaches will put a lot of blame on sloppy regulation, compliant monetary policy and derisory savings in the United States.
The second approach which is being pushed by former and current USA officials will boldly heap much blame on the enormous pool of liquidity generated by high-savings nations specifically in East Asia and also the Middle East (Eichengreen 2009).
To this second group, their argument will rest on the fact that the massive liquidity would have been channeled somewhere and that the place for such liquidity would have been in the country with the deepest financial markets and that is USA, which unfortunately accelerated its asset prices to unsound heights (Eichengreen 2009).
Peter Morici observes that there is a serious dissatisfaction on the part of governments starting from Berlin to Bangkok and the reason for dissatisfaction is that, the dollar is falling since there is no assurance or reliance on American consumers who have been vital in powering the economies of many countries (Morici 2009).
According to the author, “deregulation and new technologies powered USA growth, and Americans flush with success bought whatever the world had to sell; however, when the imports substantially exceed exports, Americans must consume more than they earn producing good and services, or demand for what they make is inadequate, inventories pile up and layoffs and recession follow” (Morici, 2009).
The observation made is that the global savings imbalance which has witnessed low savings in the USA and high savings in China and in other growing markets has greatly contributed to the crisis where it resulted in Americans spending more by living beyond their means, while at the same time encouraging desperate financiers to earn return on massive funds by putting them largely on speculative use.
Nevertheless, other discussions especially emanating from Washington have framed China as villain whereby, through its policy of holding its exchange rate unnaturally low, China has been seen as stealing jobs and in the process forcing USA to run a huge trade deficit. Indeed, it is from such observations that Washington operatives are convinced that China should be forced to revalue its currency, the Yuan (Ktetaichinh, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the current debate over the exchange rate between the Yuan and the dollar is framed in terms of global imbalances where it is seen that USA is consuming beyond its savings on one hand, and on the other hand China is producing excessively and at the same time saving beyond its own spending (Alford, 2010).
Moreover, numerous corrective suggestions have been put forward such as, USA should export and save more while China import and spend more. To this extent, the debate is more concerned on the issue of how to achieve this rebalancing.
Analysis of factors behind the US trade deficit with China Enormous literature shows that trade between United States and China has been waxing and weakening (Morrison 2010, p.5) and in this trading relationship, it is only between 1949 and 1972 when there wasn’t any trade relation between USA and China as a result of frost relationship between Washington and Mao’s Communist policies (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). But after economic reforms that were initiated in late 1970s, China increased its global trade share to almost ten times.
Basically, trade deficit between USA and China started to be experienced since the late 1980s whereby annual deficits went up during the 1990s (Morrison, 2010, p.5) and skyrocketed during the first half of the 21st century (The USA-China Business Council, N.d, p.1). Today, USA and China form each other’s second biggest trading partners while at the same time China has toppled Canada as the main exporter to USA by becoming America’s third largest export market (The USA-China Business Council, 2008, p.1).
In the year 2007, USA exported commodities worth $65.2 billion to China market and imported commodities worth $321.5 billion from China, leading to USA realizing a trade deficit of $256.3 billion and which constituted USA’s largest trade deficit ever to any single country (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). This particular circumstance has irritated USA lawmakers who have threatened to strike tariffs and import duties on Chinese goods if China remains reluctant and adamant in reducing its massive trade surplus with USA.
One question that should be asked and investigated is what accounts for the current massive USA-China trade imbalance. Many critics and other policy makers have given varying reasons as the key causes of these imbalances.
For instance, China has been viewed to put more restrictions in accessing its market while ironically at the same time engaging in aggressive activities and programmes to support and enhance exports by its domestic firms (Asian American Studies Center, N.d; Dow, 2009); secondly, China is seen to enjoy low-wage/low-cost advantage (Economic 2008); and thirdly, China is viewed to artificially undervalue its currency (Asian American Studies Center N.d).
We will write a custom Essay on Trade imbalance between USA and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other factors that also account to the imbalance of trade between USA and China has been cited as:
Americans as nation is seen to be involved in consumption with no saving, where America imports much more than it exports for many years now (Gang, 2010). What is evident is the fact that USA has been on a long-running spending fling that has resulted into increased imports and this scenario has been catalyzed by USA long housing boom whereby Americans borrowed heavily against the rising property values and in the process their consumption exceeded their saving (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). Today, consumer spending accounts for almost 65 per cent of the USA economy.
Relocation of exports from other Asian countries to China, whereby China has become the final point of assembly for numerous products that are manufactured in other Asian countries like Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong (Dow 2009) and this particular reason has seen China-USA trade deficit increase from 27 per cent in the year 1997 to 28 per cent in the year 2006 while that of other Asian countries went down from 43 per cent to 17 per cent in the same period of time (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). These statistics clearly indicate that USA, in a way, is importing more from China and less from other Asian countries.
Over-counting China exports as a result of China relaxing most of its foreign investment policies, many of China’s exports are believed to be produced by foreign firms that have invested in China which also constitute firms owned by Americans who in turn export their products back to USA market. Statistics indicate that 60 per cent of China’s exports are products that have been produced by foreign investors but in sense have been regarded and counted as China’s exports.
Undercounting USA sales; many USA sales of goods to China by US foreign investors who operate in China are not counted as USA exports to China (Wellen 2004). In 2005, it was estimated that the sale by these USA investors in China totaled $86.5 billion and was 70 per cent larger than USA exports in the same year and if such sales were counted as USA exports probably the trade deficit between the two countries would not be enormous as it is today.
China’s stand and the concerns of the USA The existence of trade imbalance between China and USA is a fact that most people of the two countries continue to accept but many concerns have continued to bewilder USA on most trade issues with China (Bivens and Scott, 2006).
For example, despite the two countries working to enhance and better their commercial relations, tensions continue to rise on key issues: America’s concern over China emanates from the issue of China’s continued resistance to adopt a market-based currency. China, unlike other advanced economies, does not maintain a market-based floating exchange rate (Kimberly, 2010) and between the years 1994 and 2005, China largely pegged its Yuan to the USA dollar at about 8.28 Yuan to the dollar (Morrison, 2010, p.18).
In July 2005, China appreciated the Yuan to the dollar by 2.1 per cent and, “moved to managed float based on a basket of major foreign currencies including the USA dollar” (Morrison, 2010, p.19; Kimberly, 2010).
And in an attempt to maintain a target rate of exchange with the dollar, Beijing government has fostered restrictions and controls over capital transactions while at the same time making large-scale purchase of USA dollars.
Many USA policy makers and business groups have been irritated by China despite its minor reforms where they note that Beijing government continue to manipulate its currency with an aim of keeping the value of its currency artificially low against the dollar (Morrison, 2010, p.19) and to them, this particular policy by China is composed of subsidy for Chinese exports to USA markets and acts as tariff on Chinese imported USA products.
The complaint is that this particular policy has continued to hurt USA manufacturing sectors (Rushing, 2010) that in turn is forced to compete against low-cost Chinese products, thus leading to loss of many USA jobs.
Many concerns and claims have soared about this China’s exchange and even there has been increasing pressure to name China as currency manipulator and hence institute trade sanctions on part of China (Sanhati, 2010). When evaluated and analyzed, this exchange policy by China has benefited the country greatly since it saw China weather the storms of recession and recorded growth rate of 9 per cent in 2010; however, IMF has projected that China’s economy in 2011 will grow by 10 per cent (Sanhati 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Trade imbalance between USA and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time in 2009, China had reserve accumulation of about $400 billion whereby the reserve accumulation holding went up by $2.4 trillion in January 2010. These figures indicate that China’s reserve holding has gone up from 1 per cent in year 2000 to almost 12 per cent of GDP by the start of 2010.
In addition, as China grew and benefited from its exchange policy, America experienced unemployment rate of 10 per cent and as a result, many USA policymakers heaped the blame on Chinese exchange rate claiming it was the source of problems America was experiencing and as a result, USA Congress has been at forefront demanding the government to institute a strong stand on China’s exchange rate (Sanhati, 2010).
In response, China has continued to insist that its current policy is not intended to favor exports over imports, instead, is meant to enhance domestic economic stability (Morrison, 2010, p.19). China further claims that doing away with the current currency policy would jeopardize and weaken its export industries and hence cause wide-scale layoffs.
Chinese officials’ content that, economic stability is essentially important in ensuring there is political stability. Further, China has reacted by claiming that “exports are an important part of the Chinese economy, and any global market fluctuation or external shock will certainly have an impact on overall growth;” and like any other economies of the world, China’s economy largely depends on consumption and investment (Gang 2010).
Moreover, Yuan exchange rate is actually secondary contributory factor in China’s external trade. In other words, China’s current global trade imbalance can be rectified by addressing other related factors that dwell on Yuan exchange rate.
Why the gap exists between the views of China and the US on trade imbalance China has viewed its export to Europe and USA as “part of global structural change” which in turn has given China “leverage comparative advantage” (Freytag 2008). Studies have indicated that China’s comparative advantage is rooted in China’s exploit of low-tech and medium-tech products and as a result, China has obtained trade surplus with most Europe countries and USA (Freytag 2008).
Due to this, China has continued to refute claims by USA that it manipulates its currency for own advantage by noting that comparative advantage viewed in the context of the soaring deficit and currency undervaluation is that China is able to export to Europe countries and USA in key sectors; thus it is able to derive comparative advantages and therefore difficult to claim that its increase in export is largely determined and dependent on currency undervaluation (Freytag, 2008).
Another disagreement in views originates from the fact that liberalization of international markets has enabled countries to create vital mutual benefits for domestic industries and also its trading partners (The Free Library, N.d) and as a result, countries are encouraged to put much focus on the activities they are able to derive comparative advantage.
In addition, the existence of international trade bodies enables China to exploit its trade agreements by citing clauses such as, ‘free international exchange of goods and services’ and therefore institute ‘domestic favorable policy’ with aim to leverage advantage over its trading partners.
Due to China’s demographic advantage and its subsequent low spending, it becomes difficulty to solely claim that China’s policy is aimed at external market.
More often than not, China has expressed that its policy was intended for domestic market and trade, and that USA problem emanates from large fiscal deficits compounded by low household savings and this is due to excessive financial leverage. Lastly, China has made it clear that it is willing to spearhead currency reforms in its own way and pace without any outside interference (Somerville, 2010).
Policy alternatives to resolve the conflicts between USA and China As overriding issue concerning USA-China trade deficit remain a plain fact it is imperative to explore the possible policy alternatives that can be employed in order to resolve the conflict.
First, Marcus Noland together with Peterson Institute suggests that USA should first acknowledge that China is not the sole source to its economic problems although much needs to done on China’s economic policy and that China is not a vital source of job displacement in United States of America. The authors pose that, “If US is worried about the trade deficit; it should first reduce its own government budget deficit to close the saving-investment gap” (Noland and Peterson Institute, n.d, p.1).
Proposing a grand bargain for the two countries, Eswar Prasad provides key policy framework that can be adopted by two nations to enhance their trade relations.
According to the author, the proposed grand bargain should have the following elements:
The two trade partners should commit to using fiscal and monetary policy that has capacity to encourage domestic demand in their individual economies in the short run;
China should allow its currency to be more flexible and possess ability to be more responsive to market forces while at the same time USA should formulate a plan to reduce its budget deficit as economy starts to pick up;
USA should assume and offer supportive role to China’s multilateral financial institutions;
There should be continued high-level engagement and cooperation between USA and China on economic affairs; and lastly
There is need for sustained shared interests between policymakers in China and United States of America in order to realize enduring reforms that support and enhance sustained balanced growth between China and USA (Prasad, 2010, p.1).
Conclusion The obvious and undisputed fact is that there exists trade imbalance between USA and China, but this should not be the main issue to mourn about. What is evident is the fact that USA-China trade relations has been beneficial in a greater way whereby China has become one of the USA fastest growing export markets and at the same time, USA consumers continue to reap benefits from the ability to purchase low-cost imports from China.
In addressing the existing trade deficit, two countries should not forget the mutual benefits they derive from each other and that the most important thing for the two trade partners is to initiate sustainable policy framework that address their trade issues in a diplomatic way.
The two countries should embrace cooperation and mutual engagement on key economic issues affecting their trade relation and also there should be sustained shared interests among the key policymakers of the two countries to realize enduring key reforms as far as trade relations between the two countries continue to increase.
Reference List Alford, R., 2010. Structural Remedies Necessary to Tame Global Imbalances. Web.
Asian American Studies Center. U.S.-China Trade Imbalance. Web.
Bivens, L. J. and Scott, R. E., 2006. China Manipulates its Currency-A response is needed. Economic Policy Institute. Web.
Dow, M., 2009. Chinese Handcuffs? No, Chinese trade deficit. Council on Foreign Relations. Web.
Economics. 2008. USA Trade Deficit with China. Web.
Eichengreen, B., 2009. Will Global Imbalances Return? Web.
Freytag, A., 2008. Should Europe really worry about its trade deficit with China? Web.
Gang, F., 2010. Behind China’s trade deficit. Directory of Investment in China. Web.
Kimberly, A., 2010. U.S. Deficit with China. Web.
Ktetaichinh. 2009. Economics: If China sharply revalued Yuan as American politicians are demanding it could actually hurt United States and help China. Web.
Morici, P., 2009. The Great Debate: China’s Yuan, not the dollar, is too cheap. Web.
Morrison, W. M., 2010. China-U.S. Trade Issues. CRS Report for Congress. Web.
Noland, M. and Peterson Institute. US-China Economic Relations. Peterson Institute for International Economics. Web.
Prasad, E., 2010. The Effect of the Crisis on the U.S.-China Economic Relationship. Web.
Rushing, J. T., 2010. Trade deficit adds to pressure on China. The Hillsdale News Alert. Web.
Sanhati, R. V., 2010. The US-China Trade and Currency dispute: A red herring? Web.
Somerville, G., 2010. China and U.S. each claim gains on Yuan in talk. Reuters News. Web.
The Free Library. The U.S. Trade deficits: made in China? Web.
The US-China Business Council. 2008. USCBC Reports: US Exports to China by State, 2000-07. Web.
Wellen, P., 2004. The Trade deficit with China: a case study in corporate America’s successful global marketing. Web.
Conflict in Organisations Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What is organisational conflict?
Causes of conflict in organisations
Functions of conflict in an organisation
Dysfunctional conflicts in organisations
Introduction The opposition or occurrence of differences between individuals or a group of persons is what is known as conflict. Conflict is a term that has been in the past perceived to be bringing about negative effects between or among a group of individuals. In the recent past, research has shown that despite its negativity conflict is also very important especially in organisations.
However, this depends on how you view it once it has occurred. Conflict is thus inevitable in any society whether between individuals or organisations (Jensen, 2009, p.1). Conflict may also occur between nations thus it can occur everywhere. This paper is a summary of conflicts that are in organisations and how they should be managed. If not well handled, conflict may bring about permanent differences which may not be desirable.
What is organisational conflict? An organisation is made up of a group of people working together so as to achieve the set goals and objectives of the organisation. Each person in a group of people usually has their own way of thinking and behaviour hence the need to pool all the differences to be union. Organisational conflict arises when the members of the organisation fail to agree on certain issues and decisions.
The differences may be on matters concerning financial resources, interests and values of the organisations (DiGirolamo, 2006, p.2). It is said that not all conflict is bad though some may bring bad results, others are essential for the progress of the organisation. In an organisation the managers are therefore responsible for making sure that all its members are working as a team despite their differences so as to ensure smooth running of the organisation.
Causes of conflict in organisations As mentioned above conflict is inevitable in organisations and thus is bound to occur because of the following reasons.
A major cause of conflict is the different ways of thinking among individuals and the way they perceive issues. The fact that people have different morals, values and ethics they handle issues differently.
The different motivation among people also causes conflict. People have different levels of satisfaction and motivation. Therefore, in a group of people each individual will be aiming to achieve a certain objective or goal which may not be similar hence causing conflict in the group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another cause of conflict is the difference in myths and philosophy. Each individual believe that their way of solving issues is the best and are usually not ready to face opposition and accept any corrections thereby bringing about conflict in the organisation.
Individual stress is another common cause of conflict whereby due to an individual’s internal pressure one is forced to take actions and decisions that are not worth making this in the end leads to opposition from the other members hence causing conflict.
Inadequate resources available to meet the objectives of the organization also may bring about conflict in the organisation. This occurs especially when the top management dispatches less resources be it raw materials, time, wages or any other resource to be involved in production and yet expects the output to be of the desired quality. This cannot happen as the employees may have some shortfalls and fail to achieve the set objectives hence not satisfying the management and at last causing conflict in the organisation.
Lastly the struggle of power in the organisation may also be a cause of conflict in the organisation. Individuals who are competing for a certain post within the organisation may always be at logger heads since each wants to fit in a certain position. This struggle creates enmity among the competing individuals and hence conflicting in everything.
Functions of conflict in an organisation Conflict is not necessarily a bad thing if it occurs in an organisation, in fact it should be well received and instead be used as a stepping stone to the betterment of the organisation. Functional conflict is one that leads to improvement of the organisation. The conflict that occurs in such a manner is always welcomed by the organisation.
Functional conflicts lead to uncovering of matters that could be detrimental to the organisation if left hidden for longer time. Once there is a conflict in an organisation the affected members tend to disclose all that they have been hiding and hence the management is in a position to unravel the information from them. This is a very strategic tool that helps the top management of an organisation to be able to know what is happening behind their backs and take preventive measures or full control of the situation (Jensen, 2009, p.1).
Secondly, conflicts in an organisation helps the individuals to gain the knowledge and experience of solving problems as they arise. The lessons learnt from managing and coping with conflicts within the organisation gives them the power and strength in handling other problems that may arise in the organisation.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Conflict in Organisations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflicts also assist an individual to learn to be concerned with matters outside his or her personal scope as well. The individual learns the virtues to have so to comfortably live and work with the other people.
Dysfunctional conflicts in organisations These are the disadvantages or negative outcomes that arise as a result of occurrence of a conflict.
The major problem that comes about upon occurrence of a conflict within the organisation is the renunciation of the people to work together as a team or group. In other words people now prefer working as an individual rather than working in groups where it is prone to occurrence of conflicts.
Others who fear conflict also opt to work on their own instead of having to disagree with the other members of a group. In such a case the organisation loses excellence performance which in most cases is brought about by pooling together of ideas and efforts.
Mediation is usually a difficult thing once conflict has occurred. Despite efforts by the seniors or top management to reunite members who have conflicted the affected members if stubborn on their stand and opinion then this becomes difficult and hence a problem in the organisation.
Sometimes members who have conflicted usually fail to tell the initial cause of the problem and how it can be solved if possible. Due to this the problem is not solved and the organisational operations and processes continue to be affected
Another major dysfunction of conflict is that of putting to a stop to all the processes and efforts been put so as to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organisation. Once a conflict occurs and the top management discover that it obstructs their means of achieving their goals they then halt everything to solve conflict at hand first. This in turn causes delay and at other times failure of goal achievement (DiGirolamo, 2006, p.5).
Managing conflict When either of the aforementioned conflicts occurs in organisation the management should be in a position to deal with them simultaneously so that the functional conflict may not end up being dysfunctional conflict hence being a problem. There is however no defined formula to follow when dealing with either of the conflicts, it only depends on the mangers own intuition and way of thinking.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Conflict in Organisations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In some instances the decision to take no action or do nothing becomes the best option. At other times the decision to involve the affected parties becomes the best decision. This gives a clear indication that the whole issue of managing conflict will only depend on matters at hand.
Communication should be effective if at all conflict is to be properly dealt with. It is through communication that important details of any conflict is gathered and used to solve the problem. Inadequacy of information in an organisation is very detrimental as it leads to hiding of vital information which may only erupt with the fall of the organisation.
Therefore a very unique method of dealing with conflicts is mingling the conflicting individuals in one group. As a result the people will communicate with each other while in the group and hence end the conflict on their own without involving the management (Jensen, 2009, p.1). This is very simple and effective way of solving conflicts because it is less cumbersome and less involving while at the same time creating good relationship in the long-run.
Conclusion The above discussion clearly indicates that conflict is present in every corner of the society thus inevitable. As to whether conflict is good or bad depends on how one perceives the whole issue. Therefore organisations are required to maintain a comfortable and desirable environment for both of them and the employees.
This reduces the possibility of occurrence of conflicts within the organisation. Each and every organisation should have an idea of the root causes of conflicts in the organisation which may include either one or a combination of the following: insufficient communication within and without the organisation, competition for resources and posts in the organisation, policies that are not well defined just to mention but a few.
Apart from the functional and dysfunctional conflict we have another conflict that is the ugly conflict. This type of conflict arises when the top management and at other times the employees try to stamp down conflicts without solving them. They in other words try to hide or eliminate the conflict.
Ugly conflicts can be indicated by the having conflicts that take a very long period of time before they lapse. Also when as manager you are not getting any incidences of conflicts in your organisation it gives an indication of ugly conflicts.
The fact that conflicts are healthy and common it will be abnormal for any organisation to function without conflicts. An organisation that lacks conflicts is questionable and is therefore an indication of ugly conflict. Occurrence of ugly conflicts in most cases depicts failure of the top management and are thus said to be responsible for it.
Reference List DiGirolamo, J. (2006). Conflicts in Organisations. Retrieved from http://turbochargedleadership.com/docs/Conflict_in_Organizations.pdf
Jensen, M. (2009). Functional Vs, Dysfunctional Conflict. Web.
Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) and its ability to create change Research Paper essay help
TMC’s ability to create change is evident in the established principles that guide management as well as, production. Their key principles are based on respect for others and the need to improve incessantly. It is noteworthy that TMC has improved significantly over the years through the establishment of a long-term goals and continuous innovation.
This is possible due to TMC’s ability to deal with challenges, further increasing its ability to initiate and maintain change. The entity has also developed a culture of exploring the causal concepts of problems that arise rather than merely eliminating them. This eventually aids in countering the obstacles to change. Respect for authority and change is crucial since it enables people to work as a coherent team. It entails the ability to understand each other thus fostering trust (TOYOTA, N.D).
The culture of TMC Evidently, TMC has implemented change productively by carefully following its inherent principles. These principles are divisible into four categories. First, an organization should establish a long-term goal even if this could affect the short-term fiscal targets. A long-term target provides stimulus towards accomplishing what initially seemed difficult to attain (Liker, 2004).
Secondly, following the correct procedure leads to the acquisition of the desired outcomes. This entails the creation of a process that is continuous thus getting to the core of problems that arise. It is crucial to follow the correct processes in order to reduce overproduction. It also creates a leveled out workload for employees and machines.
Application of correct procedures has enabled TMC to build a culture of recognizing problems as they arise and solving the problem in order to attain the right quality during the initial stages thus avoiding redundancy. Every employee at TMC has the mandate to interrupt production whenever a problem arises. TMC only uses the finest know-how available to serve its people as well as, production (Morgan
Organizational Diagnostic Models: Congruence Model Report online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Congruence Model
McKinsey 7S Framework
Burke Litwin Model
Organizational Intelligence Model
Force Field Analysis
Issues affecting Palm Company
Congruence Model The congruence model developed by Nadler and Tushman is an organizational diagnostic model that is seen to be similar to the open systems theory which stipulates that organizations are social systems that depend on the environment for their inputs. Nadler and Tushman (1980) described congruence as “the degree to which the goals, objectives, needs and demands of one organizational component are consistent with the goals, needs and demands of another component” (p.16).
Inputs within the congruence model include factors such as the organizational resources, the internal and external environment, history of past organizational behavior and organizational strategies. Nadler and Tushman (1980) describe the resources of an organization to be capital, technology and employees.
Organizational strategies are the inputs that will be used in the model while the organizational environment is made up of the individuals, groups and institutions outside the organization that will be analyzed. History of past behavior involves looking at previous performance and whether it will affect the organizations present activity while inputs are viewed to be the most important strategies an organization incorporates.
The system components in the Congruence model that will be used in the transformation model include factors such as formal and informal arrangements, individual components, tasks which will be performed by the organization and the informal organization.
The outputs include individual behavior and how this behavior affects the organizational tasks, group and inter-group behavior and system functioning. The weakness of this model is that the congruence or fit between the internal variables at times presented a challenge to the organization.
McKinsey 7S Framework The McKinsey framework was developed by Pascale, Athos, Peters and Waterman in the 1980’s. They worked as consultants for the McKinsey Consulting Company. The 7s model was developed around seven factors that created an awareness on the basis that when the seven factors are used together they are able to assist in the formation of a better organization. The seven factors or components of the 7s model are structure, systems, strategy, shared values, skills, style and staff.
Strategy involves determining the proper course of action that will be used to achieve a desired goal or objective. Structure highlights the relationship between an organizations process and human resources that are used to fulfill objectives and goals. Systems are the infrastructures that are used by the organization such as machinery, or technology while staff is the human resources of a company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Skills are the unique characteristics that each staff member possess while shared values are concepts that an organization uses to achieve a common purpose through common goals and objectives.
The weakness of this model is that most companies focused mostly on the strategy, structure and system components of an organization neglecting staff, staff skills, shared values and style. Also most organizations saw changing one variable would change all the other variables which was a false misconception (Falleta, 2008).
Burke Litwin Model This causal model was developed by Litwin, Stringer and Tagiuri in 1968 for the purpose of organizational change and performance and was later refined by Burke in 1980.
The model is made up of twelve organizational variables, distinctions between culture and climate of an organization as well as transformational and transactional dynamics, and specifications on the nature and direction of the organizational variables. The twelve variables include mission, external environment, strategy, culture, work climate, leadership, organizational structure, systems, individual skills, motivation, needs and values, individual and organizational performance (Falletta, 2008).
The external environment is considered to be the input of the model while individual and organizational performance is considered to be the outputs in this organizational diagnosis model. The remaining variables represent throughputs in the open systems theory.
The strengths of this model are that it represents the reality of organizations in a more accurate way; the relationships between the variables represent an accurate picture of what goes on in the organization. The weakness of the model is that the relationships between the variables keep changing with time and the model has to be refined to adapt to the changing organization.
Organizational Intelligence Model This model is a more recent diagnostic tool developed by Falletta in 2004. The intelligence model includes several elements that are similar to the Burke Litwin model as well as additional elements that define employee performance.
We will write a custom Report on Organizational Diagnostic Models: Congruence Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model is made up of eleven variables which are environmental inputs, leadership, strategy, culture, organizational structure and adaptability, information technology and systems of the organization, the direct manager or supervisors effectiveness, measures and rewards, employee engagement, growth and development and performance outcomes.
The environmental inputs affect the organization from the outside while the strategic factors such as strategy, culture and leadership, structure and adaptability, direct manager effectiveness, rewards, growth and development affect the inside.
While this model is viewed to be similar to the Burke Litwin model, there are several notable differences which are that the intelligence model emphasizes the concept of employee engagement, and it depicts and emphasizes on growth and development as a key feature of recruiting and retaining employees (Falletta, 2008).
Force Field Analysis This model was developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951 as an analytical model for managing organizational problems. The model is simplistic in that it represents few factors within the organization which are the driving and restraining factors. The driving forces are the environmental factors that push for change in the organization while the restraining factors which act as barriers to change are found within the organization.
The model relies on organizational change with the main goal being to shift the organization to a more desirable state by adding driving forces and eliminating restraining forces. These changes are thought to occur simultaneously within the organization. The major strength of this model is that it offers a simplistic view of diagnosing an organizational situation. A major weakness is that a case of disequilibrium might occur during the transformational process (Falletta, 2008).
Leavitt’s Model Fourteen years after Lewin developed the force field analysis model, Leavitt designed another simple model in 1965 with similar concepts. The model specified particular forces or factors within an organization which were task variables, human variables, technological variables and structural variables.
The major weakness of this model was that even though Lewin described the four variables to be interdependent and dynamic, the model was too simplistic to make any causal statements regarding the variables. The model suggested that making changes to one variable would result in a retaliatory change in the other three variables. This was seen to oppose the driving and restraining forces in Lewin’s model. The Leavitt model did not address the role of the external environment in bringing about change.
Issues affecting Palm Company Palm has been facing various issues mostly related with its finances and products; it was facing financial difficulties which saw it being bought by Hewlett Packard for $1.2 billion dollars (Patel, 2010). Some of its products such as the Palm Pre and handheld devices have features that are similar to Nokia’s smart phone products and Microsoft’s pocket PC’s. Nokia and Microsoft are viewed to be the major competitors of Palm because of the similarity of products. This has created a challenge for Palm to differentiate itself from its rivals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Diagnostic Models: Congruence Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another issue affecting Palm Company is the ever changing technology industry which sees new innovations coming out everyday. Companies such as Nokia have introduced the PDA feature into some of their phones which has given them a competitive advantage over Palm. Customers will most likely go for the Nokia phone that has PDA function rather than opt to buy separate Palm devices that have smart phone and PDA devices (Palm Inc. 2010).
Recommendations To deal with the issues faced by Palm, the management executives should use the organizational intelligence model for the organizational diagnosis of Palm. This is because this model portrays an accurate representation of the modern day organization which is one of its major strengths.
The close similarity of the variables found in this model with the Burke-Litwin model gives it a stronger basis to be used in solving Palm’s problems. This model considers variables such as the structure and adaptability of the organization, information and technology, growth and development as part of its components which are not evident in the other organizational diagnostic models. Such variables are important to deal with Palm’s current problems.
The technology issue experienced by Palm especially with its products being similar to those of Microsoft and Nokia will be solved by carrying out diagnostics on the throughputs of information and technology and also the structure of the organization to enable it to adapt to the changing technological climate.
The intelligence model will allow for diagnostic operations to be done on the IT infrastructure of the Company as well as the business systems that are in place. The structure and adaptability variables will allow for the diagnosticians to see whether the current organizational structure is working for Palm or not.
After the acquisition, the organizational structure should change to reflect new levels and responsibilities that will see the development of new and unique product lines. Growth and development will see employee skills in technology being developed and improved to meet the changing market.
References Falletta, S.V. (2008). Organizational diagnostic models: a review and synthesis. HR Intelligence Report. Web.
Nadler, D. A.
Mercury International Limited Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Mercury International Limited is a global company that engages in the design and marketing of sports and fitness products with its history dating back to 1974. The products include apparel, footwear and accessories. Mercury is the established brand name for the company which serves the product lines of Boost, Sweatless Apparel and Trailstep.
Mercury also engages in the licensing of its trademark and its intellectual property to third parties for use on apparel, sporting goods, equipment, accessories, health clubs and other fitness products and services for the reinforcement and capitalization of the brand’s reputation. The company has major competitors although it has established a substantive market share.
The issues of concern for the company include mainly its products and services due to the need for innovation, the value discipline based on the recommendable organizational structure, concern for the drop in the quarterly earnings, financial risks, competition in the industry, the expected trends in the industry and the process of realignment.
Analysis of key issues in footwear and apparel industries The identification of the key issues facing Mercury Limited involves the macro environmental and micro environmental issues, the state and changes in the economy as well as their influence on spending, lifestyles, manufacturing and income levels.
Description of the Key Issues facing Mercury International Limited Products and Services
Mercury Ltd holds the fourth position in market share in the worldwide apparel and footwear industries. The design and performance of the products form part of the competition base. The products and services also represent the brand strength. The analysis shows that following the rising of the quotas and tariffs, the prices are likely to rise and the apparel inventory reduce at the retail store.
This calls for increased new product development and brand strengthening through maintaining and improving the value and quality of the already existing products and services. The new product development will require substantial increase in research and development through assessment of the market, customer needs and use of updated technologies to improve production and marketing.
Further, as reports show, the industry is faced with the issues of quotas and thus there is need for product cycle reduction to reduce the durations of product delivery to the market. This is to meet the needs of the customers within stipulated time and maintain their loyalty (Schramm, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The redevelopment of proprietary exchangeable sole technology in 2009 needs reconsideration due to the fact that the insoles and apparel businesses have fallen short of the expectations of management. Further, the redevelopment of Boost in the current year is recommendable. As analysis shows, the manufacturers in low end cost countries such as China are likely to benefit from economies of scale and being able to increase product and service distribution (Shane, 2008).
The Value Discipline
Mercury Company has manufacturing plants in other countries and manufactures products for the market in the specific country thus saving on shipping costs. The organizational structure is the standard one whereby leadership and management are based on geographical location, product line and market.
Accordingly, the structure of the organization needs to be based on the strategy used (Wiersema
Strategy Formulation and Implementation Essay online essay help
Strategy Many definitions of strategy have been given by different scholars over the past few decades. According to Johnson and Scholes, “strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations” (Johnson
Program Evaluation Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that programs or projects hardly survive in the absence of an evaluation. A program evaluation, among other things, provides formative feedback that inarguably assists to guide the program during the implementation phase.
Among the deliverables, an evaluation provides summative information that evidently demonstrates the effectiveness of the program towards achieving its stated goals and objectives (Royse et al., 2010). More importantly, this information can be used to optimize the program’s results, efficiency, and quality (Fink, 1995). Below, this paper addresses some questions relating to an evaluation of Teacher Education Training (TEP).
Evaluation Questions According to Fink (1995), evaluation questions are mainly posed primarily to judge the program’s merits, that is, if goals were met, benefits achieved, and standards of achievement, among others. As such, the following are the evaluation questions:
To what extent did the TEP achieve its goals and objectives in terms of enhancing your teaching methods?
Has the TEP impacted you in any way in terms of imparting knowledge to the students you teach?
Have there been any changes in the way you comprehend the subject you teach after undergoing the TEP?
In your opinion, do you think the TEP is worth been replicated in other curriculums of other universities?
Do you still employ the TEP techniques you learned?
How has the TEP changed your general perspective in teaching your subject?
According to Fink (1997), “setting the standards means deciding on the information needed to provide convincing evidence of a program…” The standards that are decided upon must be appropriate, measurable, and credible. In the case example, the following are the standards:
Testimonials from teachers who have undergone or are in the process of undergoing the TEP about trends of improvement
Observations by the evaluators on teaching methods between those in the proposed curriculum (TEP program) and past graduates
Comparison of student achievement records, i.e., those taught by TEP trainees and those taught by past graduates
Observation for possible differences in performance for teachers on TEP in terms of age, interest, and experience
The evaluation design is the structure or backbone of any project evaluation process since it does not only document outcomes that can conclusively be linked to the intervention, but it also gives direction on how the subjects will be compared to record possible differences.
The design selected by the evaluators has far-reaching ramifications on the project final outcomes (Fink, 1995; Creswell, 2003). In the case study, the design employed is to compare teachers who have undergone TEP with previous graduates in terms of changes in teaching methods, knowledge of subject taught, and student performance. The measures employed include:
Testing and surveying all subjects in the proposed two year TEP and internship program
Observing subjects on an yearly basis from entry into TEP until two years after graduation
Data Collection Measures
A data collection measure is basically a tool or instrument that has been designed, tested, and validated for purposes of collecting data from the field (Sekaran, 2006). In the case example, the following data collection measures are used:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Achievement Tests
To successfully complete the evaluation, you need to know how to analyze the data received from the participants. Here, the methods of analysis are dependent on aspects of the evaluation items, how the variables are determined, and issues of reliability and validity, among others. In the case study, all the variables – categorical, ordinal, and numerical – have to be used. Finally you also need to know how to objectively report the results that must include:
Purpose of evaluation
How evaluation was done (methods)
The evaluation reports can either be orally read or in written form. In the case study, a written report will be ready in six months
Reference List Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc
Fink, A. (1995). Evaluation for Education and Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc
Royse, D., Thyer, B.A.,
360-degree feedback Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
360-degree Feedback Concept
360-degree feedback model
360 degree feedback: Pros and Cons
Introduction 360-degree feedback is an assessment evaluation tool that is focused on employee job performance from a multisource perspective. It is also referred as a multisource assessment or a multi-rater feedback since it relies on information from various actors. Ideally a 360 degree feedback assessment is done by evaluating an employee job performance through a comprehensive investigation of their working relationship, from both an internal and external perspective.
The idea is to generate an accurate assessment of an employee job skills, quality of work output and team work abilities that can be relied for employee assessment and job evaluation (Hazucha, Hezlett and Schneider, 1993). In this paper we are going to analyze the 360-degree feedback by discussing it process, pros and cons as well as investigate the effect of culture and ethnicity on it outcome.
360-degree Feedback Concept The 360-degree framework of evaluation revolves around the employee on whom the assessment is being conducted plus four other key actors that complete the evaluation cycle; peers, customers, superiors and subordinates (Linman, 2006).
In some other instances, the 360-degree feedback evaluation is more comprehensive and incorporates a variety of other external factors besides the customer as is the case in the model shown below. A well implemented 360-degree feedback is very valuable both to the organization and to the employee since it is a valuable tool of determining an employee potential value which needs to be tapped.
While at the same time informs the employee on the areas that they need to improve on in order to advance their career (Linman, 2006).
Perhaps, the most important actor in the process of 360-degree evaluation is the feedback information obtained from peers who can accurately rate the employee work quality and habits since they are at the same work level (Vinson, 2010).
Superiors and subordinates are also important actors of 360-degree feedback evaluation since they determine the effectiveness of an employee from two other opposite perspectives. Finally, external actor’s such as customers are valuable as source of information only when they are reliable (Vinson, 2010). Indicated below is a theoretical and simplified 360 degree evaluation model.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 360-degree feedback model The importance of 360 degree feedback in organizations is one of valuable importance; the main objective is to generate reliable information that would enable employee to achieve self-development that would advance their career and in the process benefit the organization as well (Sullivan, 1998). As such 360 degree feedback tool is primarily used as a personal development tool rather than as an organizational evaluation tool.
360 degree feedback: Pros and Cons The effectiveness of 360 degree feedback in any type of organization largely depends on the nature of working environment. While 360 degree feedback can be an accurate and reliable tool, it can also be abused to advance personal interest in work environments where office politics are very much polarized (Hazucha et al, 1993).
Hence, it is crucial for the management to assess and determine the suitability of using 360-degree feedback evaluation based on the unique circumstances of the organization by ensuring that it application cannot be sabotaged for personal gains.
More often and almost always the case, use of 360 degree feedback is seen to be ideal in organizations where employee support each other career growth within a productive work environment (Linman, 2006).
In such organizations employees do not take criticism negatively or personally, in addition the organization trains their personnel on proper method of giving feedback, enforces confidentiality code and customizes the 360 degree feedback approach to fit the particular organization goals (Linman, 2006). More importantly, the organization should not entirely rely or indeed peg this type of evaluation approach to employee promotion or as a basis of determining pay rise.
On the other hand 360-degree feedback evaluation process has been determined to be least effective in organizations that rely on it as a tool for employee promotions and pay rise (Linman, 2006). This is because under such conditions of employee evaluation the stakes are high enough to motivate malice that is intended to sabotage fellow employee career rise since the element of competition has now been created. In addition, lack of confidentiality on given feedback only serves to fuel the distrust and even heighten the office politics.
If the whole process is not customized to evaluate on the goals and objectives of the particular organization, and where no other evaluation approach is used to substantiate the 360-degree assessment, you can be sure that the whole process would be a big failure (Linman, 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on 360-degree feedback specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effect of ethnicity and culture on 360 degree feedback evaluation can either have negative impact or no influence at all, again depending on organizational work environment (Heathfield, 2001). Most often, ethnicity breeds distrust in people when racial profiling is directed against particular communities, it is therefore obvious that peer review evaluation under such circumstances cannot be objective.
Conclusion As such, it is important that a 360 degree feedback evaluation process be undertaken only in organizations where mutual trust exists among employee work relationships, and where work environment is generally respectful without the elements of competition. The aim of organizational leaders would therefore be to determine if the application of 360-degree feedback evaluation process would be suitable to their organization setup, and whether it would enable them to achieve an objective evaluation of their employees.
References Hazucha, F., Hezlett, A.